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Sample records for dimercaptosuccinic acid dmsa

  1. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    2017-02-01

    Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer (dimercaptosuccinic acid; DMSA) chelation therapy on blood lead concentrations. We integrated a two-compartment kinetic succimer model into an existing PBPK lead model and produced a Chelation Lead Therapy (CLT) model. The accuracy of the model's predictions was assessed by simulating clinical observations in patients poisoned by lead and treated with succimer. The CLT model calculates blood lead concentrations as the sum of the background exposure and the acute or chronic lead poisoning. The latter was due either to ingestion of traditional remedies or occupational exposure to lead-polluted ambient air. The exposure duration was known. The blood lead concentrations predicted by the CLT model were compared to the measured blood lead concentrations. Pre-chelation blood lead concentrations ranged between 99 and 150 μg/dL. The model was able to simulate accurately the blood lead concentrations during and after succimer treatment. The pattern of urine lead excretion was successfully predicted in some patients, while poorly predicted in others. Our model is able to predict blood lead concentrations after succimer therapy, at least, in situations where the duration of lead exposure is known.

  2. A cluster of pediatric metallic mercury exposure cases treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forman, J; Moline, J; Cernichiari, E; Sayegh, S; Torres, J C; Landrigan, M M; Hudson, J; Adel, H N; Landrigan, P J

    2000-06-01

    Nine children and their mother were exposed to vapors of metallic mercury. The source of the exposure appears to have been a 6-oz vial of mercury taken from a neighbor's home. The neighbor reportedly operated a business preparing mercury-filled amulets for practitioners of the Afro-Caribbean religion Santeria. At diagnosis, urinary mercury levels in the children ranged from 61 to 1,213 microg/g creatinine, with a geometric mean of 214.3 microg/m creatinine. All of the children were asymptomatic. To prevent development of neurotoxicity, we treated the children with oral meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). During chelation, the geometric mean urine level rose initially by 268% to 573.2 microg mercury/g creatinine (p<0.0005). At the 6-week follow-up examination after treatment, the geometric mean urine mercury level had fallen to 102.1 microg/g creatinine, which was 17.8% of the geometric mean level observed during treatment (p<0.0005) and 47.6% of the original baseline level (p<0.001). Thus, oral chelation with DMSA produced a significant mercury diuresis in these children. We observed no adverse side effects of treatment. DMSA appears to be an effective and safe chelating agent for treatment of pediatric overexposure to metallic mercury.

  3. Role of Tc99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in diagnosis of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in Sudanese children patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu baker, S. E. E.

    2003-01-01

    Pediatric nuclear medicine, in order to survive, must be innovative in finding ways of competing with other pediatric imaging studies for better health care. In this study a group of thirty-one patients with urinary tract infection confirmed by clinical investigation, (fever, pain, ....ect), laboratory investigation (RBC and pus cell)and urine culture, were evaluate by nuclear medicine study. The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic value of cortical scintigraphy using Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc 99m -DMSA), with two other routine investigations; the intravenous urographic (IVU), and ultrasonography (US), for diagnosis of renal parenchymal abnormality in children. The Tc 99m -DMSA renal scan was utilized as the gold standard test for renal involvement. All patients had Tc 99m -DMSA renal scan, and US, and only 22 patients had contrast IVU. The Tc 99m -DMSA renal scan showed abnormality renal scanning in about 94% of patients, US abnormalities were detected in about 81% of patient, while the IVU detected defects in about 87%. Because the prevalence of upper UTI in children is high, Tc 99m -DMSA renal scan is undoubtedly the available tool for pediatriacicians as a guide in giving appropriate antibiotic therapy and to prevent further renal damage. The study concludes that, the renal cortical scintigraphy with Tc 99m -DMSA has been reported to be a useful children diagnostic study of acute parenchymal renal infections, moreover, is presently the method of choice to detect acute parenchymal infection. (Author)

  4. Pharmacokinetics, biodistribution and dosimetry of sup 99 Tc sup m (V)DMSA in humans with squamous cell carcinoma. [Dimercaptosuccinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watkinson, J.C.; Allen, S.; Lazarus, C.R.; Sinclair, J.; Blake, G.M.; Clarke, S.E.M. (Guy' s Hospital, London (UK))

    1990-05-01

    Technetium-99m ({sup 99}Tc{sup m})(V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is a new tumour imaging agent which has been used to evaluate squamous carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck. This study evaluated the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of {sup 99}Tc{sup m}(V)DMSA in patients with SCC and calculated the bone mass of a New Zealand White (NZW) rabbit. This data was then used to calculate the effective dose equivalent in man. A total of 16 patients were studied (5 with no tumour, 11 with tumour). {sup 99}Tc{sup m}(V)DMSA had a fast bi-exponential blood clearance in patients with no tumour (30 and 401 min) and patients with tumour (30 and 387 min) with no significant difference (p > 0.05) between the two groups. {sup 99}Tc{sup m}(V)DMSA had a fast cumulative urine excretion with mean half-times in non-tumour and tumour patients of 183 min and 244 min respectively. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) between these two latter groups. The effective dose equivalent of {sup 99}Tc{sup m}(V)DMSA in man is 5.1 {mu}Sv/MBq. (author).

  5. Role of garlic extract and silymarin compared to dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in treatment of lead induced nephropathy in adult male albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman A. El-Khishin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead poisoning has been known as an important disorder that affects individuals through acute, sub-acute and chronic exposure in environmental and occupational settings. This study was conducted to compare the curative role of garlic combined with silymarin versus dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in decreasing lead induced nephrotoxicity in adult male albino rats. The period of lead intoxication extended for 3 months followed by either 1 month treatment with garlic and silymarin or 5 days treatment with DMSA. Lead poisoning caused non-significant difference in kidney function tests (BUN and serum creatinine while, it caused significant elevation in kidney lead level, significant decrease in renal antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase and significant elevation in kidney malondialdehyde. Histologically, lead induced disorganization and shrinkage of glomeruli with sloughing and vaculation of epithelium, widening of Bowman's space and inflammatory infiltration in renal medulla. Treatment by garlic extract combined with silymarin as well as treatment with DMSA resulted in significant improvement in the affected parameters. Also, both methods of treatment resulted in improvement of the histopathological changes. It can be concluded that garlic extract combined to silymarin is comparable to DMSA in amelioration of lead induced nephrotoxicity.

  6. Influence of splenectomy on the biodistribution of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acucena, Maria Kadja Meneses Torres; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes; Villarim Neto, Arthur; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Araujo Filho, Irami; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate if the splenectomy alters the biodistribution of 99mTc-DMSA and renal function in Wistar rats. The animals were separated in the groups: splenectomy (n = 6) and control (n = 6). After splenectomy (15 days), the administration of 0.1 ml of 99mTc-DMSA IV (0.48 MBq) was carried out. Thirty minutes later, kidney, heart, lung, thyroid, stomach, bladder and femur and samples of blood were isolated. The organs were weighed, counted and the percentage of radioactivity /g (%ATI/g) determined. Serum urea and creatinine, hematocrit, leukocytes and platelets were measured. Statistics by t test (p<0.05) was done. There was a significant reduction in %ATI/g in kidney and blood (p<0.05) of splenectomized animals, a significant increase (p<0.05) of urea (88.8 ± 18.6 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.56 ± 0.08 mg/dL), compared to the controls (51.5±1.6, 0.37±0.02 mg/dL, respectively), as well as increase in platelets and leucocytes, and hematocrit reduction. The analysis of the results indicates that in rats, splenectomy seems to alter the renal function and the uptake of 99mTc-DMSA. (author)

  7. Influence of splenectomy on the biodistribution of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acucena, Maria Kadja Meneses Torres; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes; Villarim Neto, Arthur; Rego, Amalia Cinthia Meneses [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Azevedo, Italo Medeiros; Araujo Filho, Irami; Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia]. E-mail: aldo@ufrnet.br

    2008-12-15

    This study aimed to evaluate if the splenectomy alters the biodistribution of 99mTc-DMSA and renal function in Wistar rats. The animals were separated in the groups: splenectomy (n = 6) and control (n = 6). After splenectomy (15 days), the administration of 0.1 ml of 99mTc-DMSA IV (0.48 MBq) was carried out. Thirty minutes later, kidney, heart, lung, thyroid, stomach, bladder and femur and samples of blood were isolated. The organs were weighed, counted and the percentage of radioactivity /g (%ATI/g) determined. Serum urea and creatinine, hematocrit, leukocytes and platelets were measured. Statistics by t test (p<0.05) was done. There was a significant reduction in %ATI/g in kidney and blood (p<0.05) of splenectomized animals, a significant increase (p<0.05) of urea (88.8 {+-} 18.6 mg/dL) and creatinine (0.56 {+-} 0.08 mg/dL), compared to the controls (51.5{+-}1.6, 0.37{+-}0.02 mg/dL, respectively), as well as increase in platelets and leucocytes, and hematocrit reduction. The analysis of the results indicates that in rats, splenectomy seems to alter the renal function and the uptake of 99mTc-DMSA. (author)

  8. Dimercaptosuccinic acid-Tc99m: Preparation and biodistribution in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smal, F.; Englebienne, P.

    1976-01-01

    Owing to the juxtaposition of 4 ligands (2 SH groups + 2 COOH groups), dimercaptosuccinic acid has a strong chelating capacity which suits it for technetium 99 m labelling. The study is carried out in 2 stages: preparation and stability of the dimercaptosuccinic acid - stannous chloride complex (DMSA-Sn); biodistribution of DMSA-Sn-Tc99m complex in rats as a function of the following parameters: pH, relative stannous chloride and dimercaptosuccinic acid concentrations, TcO 4 volume added, injection time after labelling. The strong activity uptake obtained in rat kidneys represents a considerable step forward in the radioisotopic kidney examination and offers the prospect of clinical use [fr

  9. Comparison of differential renal function using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) and technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renography in a paediatric population

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritchie, Gillian; Wilkinson, Alistair G. [Royal Hospital for Sick Children, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Prescott, Robin J. [University of Edinburgh Medical School, Medical Statistics Unit, Public Health Sciences, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)

    2008-08-15

    In children who have undergone both {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 studies for the assessment of differential renal function (DRF) and drainage, respectively, we have noticed good agreement between the calculated DRF values, and hypothesized that there is no significant difference in DRF values calculated from these tests. Therefore, both tests may not always be necessary. To determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between DRF values calculated using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and those calculated using {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. We retrospectively identified children imaged with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3. We recorded DRF values, age, indication, and renal pelvis diameter. For the {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA studies we recorded the imaging time after injection. For the {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 studies we recorded the delay between injection and data acquisition, diuretic use and evidence of delayed drainage or reflux. We identified 100 episodes in 92 children where both {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 scans had been performed within a few days. The commonest indication was urinary tract infection or pelviureteric junction obstruction. The mean age of the children was 6.96 years. A significant but clinically acceptable trend was seen between abnormal DRF and difference between tests. A significant link was found with the difference between tests and the time of imaging after DMSA injection, and also with scarring. No significant effect was caused by renal pelvis dilatation, delayed drainage, frusemide administration, or delayed {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 imaging. If a {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 study has been performed then a {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA study is unnecessary provided DRF is normal on the {sup 99m}Tc-MAG3 study and there is no scarring. A change in practice would lead to considerable savings in time, cost and radiation burden. (orig.)

  10. Renal 99M-technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdinovic, B.; Jaukovic, L.; Jankovic, Z.; Krstic, Z.

    2004-01-01

    99m-Technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) whose ligand was used as a radioprotective agent and as a chelating compound for metal poisoning was reported to be an excellent renal imaging agent. As 99mTc-DMSA concentrates actively in the proximal convoluted tubule, it gives an image functional renal mass. Its integrity is dependent upon several factors, predominently intrarenal blood flow and intact enzyme function.Considering low radiation dose delivered by 99mTc DMSA and wide pediatric use of this radiopharmaceutical we calculate abnormal findings incidence (%).Results of 592 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy (348 children), which were classified as: 1. normal, 2. probably normal, 3. equivocal, 4. probably abnormal, 5. abnormal, are presented.Normal results were found in 269 patients (45,4%), 25% of whom was normal and 75% probably normal. Equivocal findings were found in 47 patients (7,9%). Abnormal results were presented in 276 patients (82% abnormal, 18% probably abnormal).The highest abnormal findings incidence was found in patients with congenital anomaly (88%), calculosis (87%) and policystic renal disease (79,3%). The lowest abnormal findings percentage was present in patients with urinary tract infection (12,9%) and arterial hypertension (17,3%)The role 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in pathology is clear in pyelonephrifis, hydronephrotic kidneys, and pediatric disease (urinary tract infections, congenital anomalies) and is confirmed by our results. (authors)

  11. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamper, A.L.; Thomsen, H.S.; Nielsen, S.L.; Strandgaard, S.; Herlev Hospital

    1990-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51 Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P 99m Tc-DMSA increased by 10% (P<0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken up by the tubular cells from the peritubular capillaries since the uptake was unaffected by the acute decrease in GFR. (orig.)

  12. Renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid and glomerular filtration rate in chronic nephropathy at angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    function. Scintigrams of the kidneys showed an unaltered distribution of DMSA during treatment. GFR estimated by 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance fell by 14% (P less than 0.01), but renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA increased by 10% (P less than 0.01). It is concluded that DMSA in chronic renal failure is mainly taken......Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal uptake of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were measured in 31 patients with progressive chronic nephropathy before and immediately after the start of treatment with angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor in order to control adverse effects on kidney...

  13. Tumor affinity of technetium-99m labeled radiopharmaceuticals. II. Sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-EHDP), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dimercaptosuccinic acid (sup(99m)Tc-DMSA), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diethyl stilbestrol diphosphate (sup(99m)Tc-DSDP)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itoh, K; Kobayashi, S; Hisada, K; Tonami, N [Kanazawa Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Ando, A

    1976-10-01

    The authors have examined the tumor affinity of various sup(99m)Tc-labelled radiopharmaceuticals to Ehrlich's tumor for the purpose of delineating human malignant neoplasm positively. The biologic distributions of sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diphosphonate (sup(99m)Tc-EHDP), sup(99m)Tc-Sn-dimercaptosuccinic acid (sup(99m)Tc-DMSA) and sup(99m)Tc-Sn-diethyl stilbestrol diphosphate (sup(99m)Tc-DSDP, sup(99m)Tc-Honvan) are included as the second report on the tumor affinity of Ehrlich-bearing mice. Tumor concentration of sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was lowest and the positive delineation of implanted tumor with sup(99m)Tc-EHDP was poorest in sequential images, though active accumulation in some soft tissues malignant neoplasms, breast cancer, and thyroid cancer, has been reported. Tumor concentration and the tumor-to-blood ratio of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA were not so high, contrary to our expectation that /sup 197/Hg-DMSA might show high tumor concentration and high tumor-to-blood ratio the same as /sup 197/Hg chlormerodrin of the renal scanning radiopharmaceuticals. Tumor concentration of sup(99m)Tc-DSDP was highest. The tumor-to-blood concentration ratio was lower than that of the above mentioned radiopharmaceuticals but the tumor-to-liver ratio and/or tumor-to-lung ratio was over 1.0 at the earlier time. Biologic distribution of sup(99m)Tc-DSDP was similar to that of /sup 32/P labeled DSDP. It is presumed that sup(99m)Tc is labeled at the phosphate ester of DSDP which is dephospholytated immediately by phospholylase in vivo following intravenous injection. Although it is not known precisely it may be assumed that the mechanism of accumulating sup(99m)Tc-DSDP in Ehrlich's tumor is related to the phospholylase activity in neoplasms.

  14. Comparative efficiency of racemic- and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid to mobilize mercury in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prester, Lj.; Restek Samarzija, N.; Blanusa, M.; Piasek, M.; Kostial, K.; Jones, M.M.; Singh, P.K.

    1996-01-01

    Two stereoisomeric forms of chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), meso- and racemic (rac-) DMSA, were compared for mercury mobilization in rats (Experiment 1). Acute oral toxicity of both chelators (LD 50 ) was also tested (Experiment 2). Experiments were carried out on 6-7 weeks old albino Wistar female rats. In Experiment 1 three groups of 9-10 animals were given intraperitoneally 0.5 mg HgCl 2 /kg b.w. and 2.5 mCi (92.5 kBq) of radioactive mercury in the form of 203 Hg(NO 3 ) 2 .Five days after mercury, therapy with 1.0 mmol/kg/day of either meso- or rac-DMSA was started and continued for four days. Whole body radioactivity was measured during the four-day therapy, i.e. 24 hours after each chelator application. In Experiment 2, chelators were given by gastric tube. They were dissolved in 8% NaHCOP 3 with addition of NaOH in equivalent quantities to obtain soluble sodium salts. Meso-DMSA was given at doses of 6, 8 or 12 mmol/kg and rac-DMSA at doses of 12 or 18.7 mmol/kg (3 rats at each dose level). Rat mortality was recorded during 8 days. Results of Experiment 1 showed that the efficiency of rac-DMSA in reducing body retention of mercury-203 was significantly higher than of meso-DMSA. At the end of experiment, reduction of mercury -203 whole body retention was 62% of control in meso-DMSA compared to 29% of control in rac D MSA group. In Experiment 2, the approximate oral LD 50 value were estimated to be >18.7 mmol/kg for meso-DMSA and between 8 and 12 mmol/kg for rac-DMSA. In conclusion, rac-DMSA reduces more efficiently mercury body load than its meso-form. However, more studies are needed to evaluate advantage of rac-DMSA application in spite of its higher toxicity compared to meso-DMSA. (author)

  15. 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid-modified iron oxide clusters for magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fei; Yan, Caiyun; Tian, Jilai; Geng, Kunkun; Zhu, Ziyi; Song, Lina; Zhang, Yu; Mulvale, Matthew; Gu, Ning

    2014-12-01

    Over the last decade, various magnetic nanomaterials have been developed as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents; the greatest challenges encountered for clinical application have been insufficient stability. In this paper, a lyophilization method for 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid-modified iron oxide (γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA) nanoparticles was developed to simultaneously overcome two disadvantages; these include insufficient stability and low-magnetic response. After lyophilization, the clusters of γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA with the size of 156.7 ± 15.3 nm were formed, and the stability of the lyophilized powder (γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP) increased up to over 3 years. It was also found that rehydrated γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP could be ingested by RAW264.7 cells in very large quantities. Results of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution studies in vivo indicated that γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP is a promising liver-targeted material. Furthermore, it also exhibited higher MRI efficiency and longer imaging time in the liver than the well-known product Feridex(®) . Moreover, results of vascular irritation and long-term toxicity experiments demonstrated γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP could be a nontoxic, biocompatible contrast agent in vivo. Therefore, the proposed γ-Fe2 O3 @DMSA-LP can be used as a potential MRI contrast agent in clinic for hepatic diseases. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  16. Effects of calcium disodium EDTA and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on tissue concentrations of lead for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meldrum, James B; Ko, Kam W

    2003-06-01

    To compare the efficacy of calcium disodium EDTA (CaNa2EDTA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in reducing concentrations of lead in selected tissues for use in treatment of calves with experimentally induced lead toxicosis. 19 sexually intact male Holstein calves that weighed 35 to 60 kg. Calves were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 treatment groups: group 1, control calves; group 2, lead only; group 3, lead and EDTA; group 4, lead and DMSA; and group 5, lead, EDTA, and DMSA. Calves in groups 2 to 5 were dosed daily with lead (5 mg/kg, PO) for 10 days. Doses of EDTA (100 mg/kg) and DMSA (25 mg/kg) were administered IV once daily for 4 consecutive days beginning on day 11. Effects of the chelators on lead concentrations in the liver, kidneys, testes, muscles, bones, and brain were compared among the various groups. Compared with the effects of EDTA, DMSA greatly reduced lead concentrations in renal and hepatic tissues. We did not detect significant differences for the effects of EDTA or DMSA on lead concentrations in the testes; there was an adverse interaction of EDTA with DMSA that caused an increase in lead concentrations in the testes. DMSA is much more effective than EDTA in removing lead from renal and hepatic tissues in calves. Use of DMSA in calves with lead intoxication appears to be a viable treatment option. Combining DMSA and EDTA as a treatment modality in calves did not offer any advantages.

  17. The adsorption of 99Tcsup(m) dimercaptosuccinic acid onto injection vials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, A.M.

    1984-01-01

    It is common practice to dispense radiopharmaceuticals into empty sterile vials for despatch to the departments where they are to be administered. It has been noted that on withdrawal of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid injections ( 99 Tcsup(m)-DMSA) which have been dispensed into such vials, the activities obtained are lower than expected. To explain this phenomenon, the adsorption of 99 Tcsup(m)-DMSA onto commercially available, empty, sterile vials has been investigated. The 99 Tcsup(m)-DMSA solutions were prepared using kits from two manufacturers and were tested in vials from two manufacturers and the original kit vials. Adsorption of 99 Tcsup(m) in one DMSA/vial combination after storage for 4 h was 49.6% (+- 4.5% S.E.M.), but typically, adsorption was approximately 12% after 4 h. Although rate of adsorption was found to vary with storage conditions, no conditions satisfactorily overcame the effect. In vials from one manufacturer, the 99 Tcsup(m) adsorption was predominantly on the glass, while in vials from the other, it was predominantly on the rubber stopper. It is concluded that the compatability between vials and radiopharmaceuticals must be investigated in the hospital radiopharmacy. (author)

  18. Studies on the preparation and isomeric composition of [sup 186]Re- and [sup 188]Re-pentavalent rhenium dimercaptosuccinic acid complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, J. (Canterbury Univ. (United Kingdom). Biological Lab.); Reghebi, K.; Lazarus, C.R.; Clarke, S.E.M. (Guy' s Hospital, London (United Kingdom)); Callahan, A.P.; Knapp, F.F. Jr. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Blower, P.J. (Kent and Canterbury Hospital (United Kingdom))

    1993-03-01

    The preparative conditions for [sup 186]Re(V)DMSA and [sup 188]Re(V)DMSA (DMSA = meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid), [beta]-emitting radiopharmaceuticals that have been shown to localize in medullary thyroid carcinoma, require modification depending on the amount of carrier rhenium and the chemical form and medium in which the rhenium is supplied. Preparative conditions are described for use with carrier-free [sup 188]ReO[sub 4][sup -] in saline, and for use with [sup 186]ReO[sub 4][sup -] in saline, sodium hydroxide or nitric acid. Preparation of [sup 186]Re(V)DMSA (carrier present up to 2 mg per 2.5 ml reaction volume) requires a DMSA:SnCl[sub 2]:Re ratio of 10:5:1 at 100[sup o]C for 30 min. Addition of excess nitric acid or hydrochloric acid up to a concentration of 155 mM does not reduce the yield from 100%. A commercial DMSA kit vial (e.g. Amerscan DMSA) can be used for preparation of [sup 188]Re(V)DMSA (carrier free) provided the required is in a volume of less than 1 ml per vial. A convenient method of concentrating the [sup 188]Re generator eluate to the required volume is described. (Author).

  19. Comparison Of Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphic And Voiding Cystourethrographic Findings In Patient With Acute Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahimi P

    2003-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Pyelonephritis (APN is one of the most common bacterial infections seen in children that may lead to renal scarring. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR is an important risk factor of renal damage but not the only one. Materials and Methods: In order to determine the association between dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scintigraphic and voiding cystourethrographic findings, a retrospective study was performed on 50 children (100 renal units with APN that had been admitted to Bahrami Hospital from 1995 through 1998. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG and DMSA scan were performed in all patients within 1 to 2 weeks after termination of treatment and a second scan was performed 6 months later in patients whose kidneys showed cortical defects in the first one. The grade of reflux was based on international reflux classification (I-V. The DMSA scans were considered abnormal if one or more areas of decreased cortical uptake were noted (cortical defect. The scar was defined as persistence of these defects in the second scan. DMSA cortical defect and VUR were demonstrated in 42 (42% and 26 (26% of renal units respectively."nResults: Fourteen out of 26 renal units (54% with reflux had cortical defects and 28 out of 74 renal units (38% without reflux had cortical defects (P=0.15. Permanent renal scarring was noted in 25/ 42 of renal units (62 % in second scan. Conclusion: It seems that VCUG alone is insufficient as a screening modality to identity those kidneys at risk of damage and DMSA scan may provide additional information about this."n 

  20. Influence of 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid on gastrointestinal lead absorption and whole-body lead retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, S.C.; Wielopolski, L.; Graziano, J.H.; LoIacono, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is a new orally active heavy metal chelator for the treatment of childhood Pb intoxication on an outpatient basis. The influence of DMSA, as well as other chelating agents, on gastrointestinal 203Pb absorption and whole-body 203 Pb retention was examined. Groups of Sprague-Dawley rats (230-260 g) were gavaged with a solution containing approximately 25 mg/kg Pb [as Pb(NO 3 )2] plus 15 microCi 203 Pb. Some groups were then immediately given 0.11 mmol/kg of either DMSA, CaNa2EDTA, D-penicillamine, or BAL by oral gavage, while other groups received the same drugs by ip injection. Control groups received solutions of the drug vehicles po or ip. Whole-body Pb retention and gastrointestinal Pb absorption (whole body retention + urinary Pb excretion) were significantly decreased in rats that received DMSA po. This finding implies that the use of DMSA to treat childhood lead intoxication on an outpatient basis is not associated with a risk for increased Pb absorption

  1. Multidrug Resistance Proteins and the Renal Elimination of Inorganic Mercury Mediated by 2,3-Dimercaptopropane-1-Sulfonic Acid and Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2008-01-01

    Current therapies for inorganic mercury (Hg2+) intoxication include administration of a metal chelator, either 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonic acid (DMPS) or meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). After exposure to either chelator, Hg2+ is rapidly eliminated from the kidneys and excreted in the urine, presumably as an S-conjugate of DMPS or DMSA. The multidrug resistance protein 2 (Mrp2) has been implicated in this process. We hypothesize that Mrp2 mediates the secretion of DMPS- or DMSA-S-conjugates of Hg2+ from proximal tubular cells. To test this hypothesis, the disposition of Hg2+ was examined in control and Mrp2-deficient TR− rats. Rats were injected i.v. with 0.5 μmol/kg HgCl2 containing 203Hg2+. Twenty-four and 28 h later, rats were injected with saline, DMPS, or DMSA. Tissues were harvested 48 h after HgCl2 exposure. The renal and hepatic burden of Hg2+ in the saline-injected TR− rats was greater than that of controls. In contrast, the amount of Hg2+ excreted in urine and feces of TR− rats was less than that of controls. DMPS, but not DMSA, significantly reduced the renal and hepatic content of Hg2+ in both groups of rats, with the greatest reduction in controls. A significant increase in urinary and fecal excretion of Hg2+, which was greater in the controls, was also observed following DMPS treatment. Experiments utilizing inside-out membrane vesicles expressing MRP2 support these observations by demonstrating that DMPS- and DMSA-S-conjugates of Hg2+ are transportable substrates of MRP2. Collectively, these data support a role for Mrp2 in the DMPS- and DMSA-mediated elimination of Hg2+ from the kidney. PMID:17940195

  2. Can We Differentiate Pyelonephritis and Cystitis without 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scan in Children?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buket Kilicaslan

    2015-09-01

    Conclusion: Using a combination of procalcitonin and C-Reactive Protein is preferred to predict pyelonephritis in children, instead of the 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid scan. Because of its disadvantages, the 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid scan should be avoided in children. [Cukurova Med J 2015; 40(3.000: 495-503

  3. Newly designed Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid: An agent of high accuracy for the diagnosis of head and neck and soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endo, K.; Ohta, H.; Sakahara, H.; Nakashima, T.; Masuda, H.; Horiuchi, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Torizuka, K.

    1984-01-01

    Being aware of the ideal nuclear properties of Tc-99m, interest has been focused on the design of (+5) oxidation state Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) as a tumor seeking agent. This Tc(V)-99m DMSA holding a TcO/sup 3-//sub 4/ core, alike PO/sup 3-//sub 4/, with competent characteristics for tumor uptake, had a different distribution behavior from the well-known renal scanning agent; Tc(III)-99m DMSA. Basic studies, carried out in vitro and in vivo with Ehrlich tumor cells or bearing mice, clearly substantiated its great potentiality for clinical use. Therefore, 193 untreated patients with histologically proven diagnosis (132 malignant and 61 benign tumors) were evaluated. In 53 primary head and neck tumor (mainly squamous cell carcinomas and plemorphic adenomas or abscess), its sensitivity and specificity was 78% and 87%, as opposed to Ga-67 citrate of 85% and 51% respectively. In 18 malignant soft tissue tumors, all but one (94%) showed significant uptake of Tc(V)-99m DMSA, while Ga-67 was positive in only 60% of these cases. The specificity of both agents was 74% and 86%, respectively. However in lung and abdominal tumors, lymphomas, melanomas and inflammatory lesions, the sensitivity was poor of less than 40%. Also negative were scans in most thyroid cancers, however, 5 patients with medullary thyroid cancers, were all positive with Tc(V)-99m DMSA and was useful follow patients after surgery. Thus, a different uptake mechanism for this agent could be visualized. The authors conclude that Tc(V)-99m DMSA provided a good basis for its clinical application as a tumor imaging agent, mainly in head and neck squamous cell carcinomas, medullary thyroid cancers and soft tissue tumors

  4. Positioning irrigation of contrast cystography for diagnosis of occult vesicoureteric reflux: association with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Christoph; Becker, Tanja; Koen, Mark; Zeino, Mazen; Fitz, Friedrich; Beheshti, Mohsen; Wolf-Kohlmeier, Iris; Haim, Silke; Riccabona, Marcus

    2013-12-01

    Positioning irrigation of contrast (PIC) cystography identifies occult or PIC vesicoureteral reflux (PIC-VUR) in children with recurrent febrile urinary tract infections (UTI) but no vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) on standard voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). We sought to identify the relationship between PIC-VUR and renal scarring in technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans. We retrospectively analysed PIC cystograms and DMSA scans for 154 kidneys in 81 children (65 girls; 16 boys; median age, 4.7 years; range, 0.9-15.2). Renal scarring was graded on a scale of 0-3. DMSA scans were pathologic in 66 patients (81%). Children had experienced mean 3.8 febrile UTI (range 1-25). Forty-seven (58%) children had a history of reflux, including 15 (19%) with previous anti-reflux operations. Indications for PIC cystography were recurrence of febrile UTI after either bilateral negative VCUG (66 children) or unilateral VUR (15 children) with contralateral/bilateral scarring or reflux that had changed sides in subsequent VCUGs. PIC-VUR was bilateral in 63, unilateral in 12, and absent in 6 children. Statistically significant associations between PIC-VUR grade and severity of renal scarring were identified in inter-individual (n = 77, p = 0.017) and intra-individual (refluxing vs. nonrefluxing kidney; n = 12, p = 0.008) analyses. After excluding patients with history of VUR, statistical significance was maintained in inter-individual analysis (n = 49; p = 0.018). The data suggest an association between PIC-VUR and severity of renal scarring, and legitimise the use of PIC cystography in children with renal scarring due to recurrent febrile UTI but negative findings on VCUG. Copyright © 2012 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Evaluation of the use of technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid and technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid for scintigraphic imaging of the kidneys in green iguanas (Iguana iguana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greer, Leah L; Daniel, Gregory B; Shearn-Bochsler, Valerie I; Ramsay, Edward C

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the use of scintigraphy involving technetium Tc 99m diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) or technetium Tc 99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ((99m)Tc-DMSA) for the determination of kidney morphology and function in green iguanas (Iguana iguana). 10 healthy iguanas weighing >1.6 kg. Renal scintigraphy was performed by use of (99m)Tc-DTPA in 6 of the iguanas and by use of (99m)Tc-DMSA in all 10 iguanas. After the injection of (99m)Tc-DMSA, scans were performed for each iguana at intervals during a 20-hour period. Renal biopsies were performed in all 10 iguanas after the final scintigraphic evaluation. In iguanas, the use of (99m)Tc-DTPA for renal scintigraphy was nondiagnostic because of serum protein binding and poor renal uptake of the isotope; mean +/- SD (99m)Tc-DTPA bound to serum proteins was 48.9 +/- 9.9%. Renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA produced distinct visualization of both kidneys. Renal uptake and soft tissue clearance of (99m)Tc-DMSA increased over the 20-hour imaging period; mean +/- SD renal uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was 11.31 +/- 3.06% at 20 hours. In each of the 10 iguanas, ultrasonographic and histologic examinations of biopsy specimens from both kidneys revealed no abnormalities. Results indicate that the kidneys of iguanas can be evaluated scintigraphically by use of (99m)Tc-DMSA; this technique may be potentially useful for the diagnosis of renal failure in iguanas.

  6. Diagnostic Value of Technetium-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy in Prediction of Vesicoureteral Reflux in Children with First-time Febrile Urinary Tract Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Ataei

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Imaging modalities such as voiding cystourethrography (VCUG, direct radionuclide cystography (DRNC, and renal cortical scintigraphy (RCS with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-99mDMSA, are helpful in detecting possible abnormalities of urinary tract such as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. However, there are confounding data regarding the preference of these modalities. In the present study, we aimed to assess the role of Tc-99mDMSA scan in prediction of possible VUR and the subsequent need for VCUG or DRNC. Materials and Methods: Three hundred fifty seven children under 14 years old with first-time febrile urinary tract infection (UTI who were admitted between April 2004 and February 2017 were enrolled. Data regarding to VCUG or DRNC in order to evaluate the presence of possible VUR were recorded. Finally, accuracy of Tc-99mDMSA scans in prediction of VUR were assessed. Results: Analyses showed a sensitivity and specificity of 95.65% and 14.72%, respectively for Tc-99mDMSA scan in detection of VUR. Patients with mild renal involvement in Tc-99mDMSA scans had a 3.5-fold greater risk of having VUR than those with a normal scans (odds ratio=3.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.4-8.58; p=0.007. In addition, the risk of VUR is up to 7.0-fold greater in children with moderate renal involvement (odds ratio=7.0; 95% CI: 2.6-13.2; p

  7. Impact of arterial occlusion during partial nephrectomy on residual renal function. An evaluation with {sup 99m}technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Tsunenori; Nakazawa, Hayakazu; Ito, Fumio; Onitsuka, Shiro; Ryoji, Osamu; Yago, Rie; Hashimoto, Yasunobu; Toma, Hiroshi [Tokyo Women' s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    2002-08-01

    Partial nephrectomy (PNx) has been performed with temporary renal arterial occlusion and in situ renal hypothermia (conventional PNx). However, the impact of temporary renal arterial occlusion on residual renal function has not been well assessed. To address this question, we performed renal scintigraphy with {sup 99m}technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) for the quantitative measurement of postoperative residual renal function after conventional PNx and partial nephrectomy without arterial occlusion (non-clamping PNx). Thirty-four patients underwent postoperative DMSA scintigraphy after PNx for renal cell carcinoma. No obvious difference in preoperative renal function between the diseased kidney and the contralateral kidney was found in any of the patients. Of these patients, 24 underwent conventional PNx, and 10 underwent non-clamping PNx. Residual renal function was evaluated using the relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney. The relative DMSA uptake of the operated kidney was 39.9{+-}7.3% (25.1-58.8) after conventional PNx compared to 34.8{+-}8.9% (13.5-45.5) after non-clamping PNx. This difference was not statistically significant (P=0.15). Total ischemic time during conventional PNx had no adverse influence on the residual renal function. In the analysis of the other determinant factors influencing residual renal function, tumor size was the only significant factor that inversely correlated with the relative DMSA uptake. Our results showed that arterial clamping during PNx has no negative impact on the functional residual capacity as long as in situ renal hypothermia is adequately performed. (author)

  8. Physicochemical and biological study of a renal scintigraphy agent: the DMSA - 99mTc complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laroche, Dominique

    1979-01-01

    This research thesis deals with the study of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) marked with 99m Tc, a recently developed scintigraphy agent used for the kidney isotopic exploration. The author notably studied the relationships between the physicochemical properties of solutions of dimercaptosuccinic acid marked with 99m Tc and the biological distribution of 99m Tc in order to reach a better understanding of the biological mechanism which results in technetium fixation to the kidney

  9. Usefulness of 99mTc(V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy in the assessment of response to external radiation therapy in soft tissue sarcoma in Giant Schnauzer dog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhari, P. R.; Mathe, D.; Balogh, L.; Andocs, G.; Janoki, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    A nine-year-old male black Giant Schnauzer dog was referred for the scintigraphic evaluation with a history of malignant fibrosarcoma with a rapidly growing non painful mass on the left shoulder region quite near to the site of an operation performed four months ago. We carried out oncological scintigraphy using pentavalent 99mT echnetium labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid [ 99mT c(V)-DMSA], a tumour localising radiopharmaceutical agent. The study was performed to assess the margins, vascularity of the tumour and response to the cancer therapy. Uniform intense radiopharmaceutical uptake was observed in the lesion indicating its margins, vascularity and malignant nature. The dog was subjected to external radiation therapy to control the growth of the cancer and to bring the tumour mass to an operable size. The dog was followed up with 99mT c(V)-DMSA scintigraphy pre-irradiation and post-irradiation. Immediately after the post-irradiation scintigraphy, the dog was operated on. During the surgery, resection of the tumour margins was performed carefully using a hand held gamma probe to assure that no tumour tissue was left inside. In conclusion, the authors would like to state that 99mT c(V)-DMSA oncoscintigraphy is valuable in the assessment and evaluation of therapy in canine soft tissue cancer. (author)

  10. Direct monophasic replacement of fatty acid by DMSA on SPION surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, M. [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India); Deb, P., E-mail: pdeb@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India); Interface Chemistry and Surface Engineering, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Vasan, G.; Keil, P.; Kostka, A.; Erbe, A. [Interface Chemistry and Surface Engineering, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monophasic replacement of fatty acid coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrastable dispersion of hydrophilic SPION in a wide pH range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unaltered microstructure and property on surface modification. - Abstract: Tailoring the surface and understanding the surface characteristics is necessary for biomedical applications of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In this paper, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were prepared by thermal decomposition of iron nitrate in presence of stearic acid as surfactant. Due to the multilayer organization of surfactant molecules over the nanoparticle surface, the surface potential can be tuned by pH changes and hence the nanoparticles can be made dispersible in nonpolar as well as in polar solvents. We have presented a simple, facile procedure for controlled replacement of stearic acid from maghemite surface and subsequent derivatization by biocompatible dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to obtain ultrastable hydrophilic nanoparticles with unaltered morphology, phase and properties. The surface chemistry of the functionalized SPIONs was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealing the presence of bound and unbound thiol groups and disulfides, leading to its prolonged stability in aqueous medium. The consequence of spatially selective functionalization on the stability and solubility of surface hydrophilic SPION has also been realized.

  11. Research on the uptake of technetium-labelled dimercaptosuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.; Dumery, J.P.; Meignan, M.; Wirquin, E.; Escaig, F.; Galle, P.

    1976-01-01

    Owing to the relatively strong urinary excretion of DMSA (20 to 25% of the injected dose in 24 hours) its renal uptake values are only truly significant in the absence of a urine retention syndrome which is detected by a previous study with sup(99m)Tc DTPA. In other cases the uptake measurement can be used to judge the functional value of each kidney separately and to estimate loss of functional capacity and compensative hypertrophies. For all the diseases explored the results obtained agree well with those of other functional explorations (creatinine clearance, separate urinary urea concentration). Moreover DMSA gives results similar to those obtained with mercury chloride. Neither its intrarenal metabolism nor its exact intracellular uptake site are yet known. A fuller knowledge of these points should improve the interpretation of the results [fr

  12. Studies on the evaluation of renal function in hydronephrosis with 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masayuki; Katayama, Yasushi; Takahashi, Hitoshi; Sato, Shotaro

    1988-01-01

    99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal uptake (DMSA uptake) was measured in patients with hydronephrosis and we obtained the following conclusions. 1. Grades of hydronephrosis on IVP according to Oka's classification were compared with DMSA uptake. In 73 adult patients, the grade of hydronephrosis paralleled DMSA uptake well, but in 20 children it did not. 2. The changes of DMSA uptake pre- and post-nephrostomy were measured in 21 kidneys in 19 cases with congenital hydronephrosis. DMSA uptake of 7 infantile kidneys significantly increased post-nephrostomy, but in the cases over 1 year old significantly decreased after nephrostomy. DMSA uptake of the contralateral kidney significantly increased after nephrostomy in infants, but it did not change in the group over 1 year old. 3. In 15 kidneys of 13 cases with nephrostomy, DMSA uptake during closure and after opening of the nephrostomy catheter and DMSA uptake due to the radioisotope (RI) accumulated in the renal collecting system were measured. In the group over 1 year old, DMSA uptake decreased after opening nephrostomy nearly all and the extent of the decrease almost agreed with DMSA uptake due to RI accumulated in the renal collecting system. But in infants, DMSA uptake increased after opening nephrostomy in most cases and the extent of the change in DMSA uptake did not agree with DMSA uptake due to RI accumulated in the renal collecting system. (author)

  13. Measurement of renal function by calculation of fractional uptake of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beatovic, S.Lj.; Jaksic, E. D.; Hari, R. S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to set up normal values of the fractional uptake (FU) of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid in adults and in the pediatric population, as well as to evaluate the validity of this parameter at different levels of renal function. A total of 86 subjects was divided into seven groups. In group A there were 23 potential kidney donors and in group B, 18 children in remission after a first urinary tract infection. Another three groups consisted of patients with diabetes i.e. group C, seven patients with normal values of albuminuria, group D, 16 patients with microalbuminuria and group E, five patients with macroalbuminuria. In group F, there were ten patients with a well-functioning transplanted kidney and in group G, seven patients with suspected acute rejection. The procedure began with the quantification of the doses of 99m Tc-DMSA to be injected and the measurement of the empty syringe lying on the gamma camera collimator. Thereafter, four planar views of the kidneys were acquired three hours after the injection. The counts from the posterior and anterior views were subtracted for background and corrected for radioactive decay time and patient thickness. The FU was calculated by the geometric mean of counts per second from the posterior and anterior view. It was expressed as a fraction of the injected dose. The mean values of FU in healthy adults were 0.227 ± 0.077 for one kidney and 0.454 ± 0.146 for both kidneys. The mean values of FU for the left and right kidney were 0.225± 0.071 and 0.229 ± 0.079, respectively. In children, the mean values were 0.220 ± 0.092 for one kidney and 0.432 ± 0.094 for both kidneys. The highest values of FU of 0.322 ± 0.078 (0.644 ± 0.138 for both kidneys) were measured in group C. In group D, FU was 0.185 ± 0.065 (0.361 ± 0.125 for both kidneys) and in group E 0.082 ± 0.040 (0.163 ± 0.080 total). In patients with a transplanted kidney, fractional uptake was 0.162 ± 0.039 in group F and 0

  14. Insight into the structures and stabilities of Tc and Re DMSA complexes: A computational study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco González, Alejandro; Hernández Valdés, Daniel; García Fleitas, Ariel; Rodríguez Riera, Zalua; Jáuregui Haza, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    Meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used in nuclear medicine as ligand for preparation of radiopharmaceuticals for diagnostic and therapy. DMSA has been the subject of numerous investigations during the past three decades and new and significant information of the chemistry and pharmacology of DMSA complexes have emerged. In comparison to other ligands, the structure of some DMSA complexes is unclear up today. The structures and applications of DMSA complexes are strictly dependent on the chemical conditions of their preparation, especially pH and the ratio of components. A computational study of M-DMSA (M = Tc, Re) complexes has been performed using density functional theory. Different isomers for M(V) and M(III) complexes were study. The pH influence over ligand structures was taken into account and the solvent effect was evaluated using an implicit solvation model. The fully optimized complex syn-endo Re(V)-DMSA shows a geometry similar to the X-ray data and was used to validate the methodology. Moreover, new alternative structures for the renal agent 99mTc(III)-DMSA were proposed and computationally studied. For two complex structures, a larger stability respect to that proposed in the literature was obtained. Furthermore, Tc(V)-DMSA complexes are more stable than the Tc(III)-DMSA proposed structures. In general, Re complexes are more stables than the corresponding Tc ones. (author)

  15. Tc-99m DMSA renal uptake: influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, C.A.; Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    Thirty-eight female Sprague-Dawley rats were studied to determine the effects of (a) tubular blockade and (b) commonly encountered changes in hydration and acid-base balance, on the urinary excretion and renal localization of Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Ten additional rats were studied to quantitate the in vivo protein binding of Tc-99m DMSA, and a final group of 12 animals was used to quantitate DMSA distribution in animals with diminished functional renal mass. Both osmotic diuresis and dehydration by water deprivation for 24 hr resulted in a plasma clearance of DMSA slower than in control animals. Acid-base imbalances significantly affected the renal accumulation of DMSA, and acidosis was associated with markedly increased background due to increased liver accumulation. The protein-bound portion of Tc-99m DMSA in the plasma was high, reaching 89% within the first 5 min, and rising very slightly (n.s.) with time. The unbound portion of DMSA had a plasma clearance slightly higher than the GFR. Ablation of large amounts of renal tissue, resulting in significant decreases in GFR, did not significantly affect the renal localization of DMSA in the intact portions of the kidneys. These data demonstrate that commonly encountered changes in acid-base balance and hydration will significantly alter the biologic distribution of Tc-99m DMSA. These factors should be controlled when carrying out clinical studies

  16. Modeling the effect of succimer (DMSA; dimercaptosuccinic acid) chelation therapy in patients poisoned by lead

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijkeren, Jan C H; Olie, J. Daniël N; Bradberry, Sally M; Vale, J Allister; de Vries, Irma; Clewell, Harvey J.; Meulenbelt, Jan; Hunault, Claudine C

    CONTEXT: Kinetic models could assist clinicians potentially in managing cases of lead poisoning. Several models exist that can simulate lead kinetics but none of them can predict the effect of chelation in lead poisoning. Our aim was to devise a model to predict the effect of succimer

  17. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA: Evidence for glomerular filtration and peritubular uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    de Lange, M.J.; Piers, D.A.; Kosterink, J.G.; van Luijk, W.H.; Meijer, S.; de Zeeuw, D.; van der Hem, G.K.

    1989-01-01

    The finding of an enhanced excretion of [ 99m Tc]dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in patients with tubular reabsorption disorders prompted us to investigate the role of filtration in the renal handling of [ 99m Tc]DMSA. Our studies in human serum indicated that binding to serum proteins was approximately 90%. Chromatography of human urine and studies in rats showed that the complex was excreted unaltered into the urine. Renal extraction of [ 99m Tc]DMSA in a human volunteer was 5.8%. Continuous infusion of [ 99m Tc]DMSA in 13 individuals with normal renal function gave the following results (mean +/- s.d.): plasma clearance of [ 99m Tc]DMSA 34 +/- 4 ml/min, urinary clearance of [ 99m Tc]DMSA 12 +/- 3 ml/min. The calculated filtered load of [ 99m Tc]DMSA closely resembled the urinary clearance, whereas the plasma clearance was about three times faster. This indicates that peritubular uptake accounts for approximately 65% and filtration for approximately 35% of the renal handling of [ 99m Tc]DMSA

  18. Influence of antiseptic on the impurities in the preparation of dimercaptosuccinic labelled with {sup 99m}Tc; Influence des antiseptiques sur la presence d'impuretes dans la preparation de l'acide dimercaptosuccinique marque au 99mTc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metaye, T.; Rosenberg, T.; Perdrisot, R. [CHU de Poitiers, Service de medecine nucleaire et biophysique, 86 (France)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: antiseptic solutions are used to disinfect the rubber stoppers on the bottles of radiopharmaceutical. Small amounts of these solutions can pass into the bottle when the cap is pricked to inject the {sup 99m}Tc. After finding in a patient a suboptimal labelling using biseptin, we studied the effect of various antiseptics on the presence of impurities in the preparation of the dimercaptosuccinic acid labelled with {sup 99m}Tc ({sup 99m}Tc-D.M.S.A.). Conclusions: We recommend using 70% isopropanol or modified alcohol Cooper instead of biseptin to disinfect the D.M.S.A. bottles caps. (N.C.)

  19. Mechanism of Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Coated Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles with Human Serum Albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lining; Song, Wei; Wang, Jing; Yan, Yunxing; Chen, Jiangwei; Liu, Rutao

    2015-12-01

    To research the mechanism of dimercaptosuccinic acid coated-superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPION) with human serum albumin (HSA), the methods of spectroscopy, molecular modeling calculation, and calorimetry were used in this paper. The inner filter effect of the fluorescence intensity was corrected to obtain the accurate results. Ultraviolet-visible absorption and circular dichroism spectra reflect that SPION changed the secondary structure with a loss of α-helix and loosened the protein skeleton of HSA; the activity of the protein was also affected by the increasing exposure of SPION. Fluorescence lifetime measurement indicates that the quenching mechanism type of this system was static quenching. The isothermal titration calorimetry measurement and molecular docking calculations prove that the predominant force of this system was the combination of Van der Waals' force and hydrogen bonds. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Oxygen bubbling can improve the labelling of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Suzuki, K.H.; Sakahara, Harumi; Yao Zhengsheng; Yokoyama, Akira; Konishi, Junji

    1995-01-01

    We performed studies in animals (mice) and humans to investigate the effect of such oxygen bubbling on the labelling efficiency of and on the renal uptake of 99m Tc. The method of labelling of 99m Tc (V) DMSA was that of Hirano. It was found that oxygen bubbling oxidized the contaminated 99m Tc (III) DMSA into 99m Tc (V) DMSA in vitro and decreased the uptake of radioactivity in the kidney in both amimals and humans. (orig.)

  1. Design of a formulation for the preparation of 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa and 186 Re-(V)-Dmsa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquez L, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    Among the radiopharmaceuticals used for neoplasia, we can find the dimercaptosuccinic acid (Dmsa) labelled with 99m Tc and 186/188 Re. Initially, the 99m Tc-(III)-Dmsa was employed as a renal image agent. Nevertheless, when it is prepared into a basic solution, the 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa complex is produced in high yield being cumulated by cells with a great metabolic activity. This property makes it a useful radiopharmaceutical for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), soft-tissue tumors and other head and neck tumors. On the other hand, the renewed interest in β - emitting radionuclides, suggests that the 186 Re-(V)-Dmsa complex could be used as antineoplastic agent in therapy. However, the techniques reported for the preparation of these compounds lack of stability studies and they are still in process of investigation, compromising to continue on the development of the radiopharmaceuticals by introducing new possibilities for better products already known, obtaining in this way, the approximation to the ideal radiopharmaceutical. The objective of this work is to design a freeze dried kit formulation for the instant preparation of 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa and 186 Re-(V)-Dmsa complexes useful in the diagnostic and therapy of soft-tissue tumors and other head and neck tumors. We obtained a freeze dried stable formulation for the preparation of 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa kit with a radiochemical purity higher than 90 %, which fulfills with the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. Furthermore, we developed analytical techniques for the determination of the different chemical compounds into the lyophilized kit. On the other hand, we obtained the optimum conditions for preparation of 186 Re-(V)-Dmsa complex in high radiochemical yields (>90%). (Author)

  2. 99mTc-DMSA complex preparation. The effect of pH and tin(II) chloride amount on reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkovsky, I.; Stanik, R.

    2010-01-01

    Labelling of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with technetium-99m was reinvestigated. Dependence of the 99m Tc-DMSA complex formation on the molar ratio of DMSA:reducing agent (SnCl 2 · 2H 2 O) and pH was studied. Five different types of 99m Tc-DMSA complexes were determined. Especially three different complexes were established in the clinically used and prepared DMSA kit labelled with 99m Tc under alkaline condition. This radiopharmaceutical is used as imaging agent of the primary medullary carcinoma in the thyroid gland and different metastasis types. The existence of all complexes was observed by paper chromatography, paper electrophoresis and high performance liquid chromatography. (author)

  3. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosokawa, S; Daijo, K; Okabe, T; Kawamura, J; Hara, A [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Hospital

    1979-08-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1.

  4. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in renal failure due to various renal diseases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosokawa, Shin-ichi; Daijo, Kazuyuki; Okabe, Tatsushiro; Kawamura, Juichi; Hara, Akira

    1979-01-01

    Renal contours in renal failure were studied by means of sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renoscintigraphy. Renal cortical images were obtained even in renal failure cases. Causes of renal failure were chronic glomerulonephritis in 7, bilateral renal tuberculosis in 2, chronic pyelonephritis in 3, bilateral renal calculi in 3, diabetic nephropathy in 2, polycystic kidney disease in 2 and stomach cancer in 1. (author)

  5. Tumor imaging using Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid, a newly developed radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, Hitoya; Endo, Keigo; Koizumi, Mitsuru

    1985-01-01

    Being aware of the ideal nuclear properties of Tc-99m, we have developed a new tumor seeking agent, Tc-99m (V) dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMS). In order to evaluate its clinical usefulness of Tc(V)-DMS, 400 untreated patients with histologically proven diagnoses were studied, and, in some selected cases, the results were compared with those of Ga-67 citrate. The Tc(V)-DMS scintigraphy was found especially useful in patients with head and neck tumors, medullary thyroid carcinomas, soft tissue tumors and bone tumors. But in patients with lung tumors, liver tumors, malignant melanoma or malignant lymphomas, it revealed no obvious advantage over Ga-67 scintigraphy, the results seemed to the different uptake mechanism of Tc(V)-DMS from that of Ga-67 citrate. Nevertheless the superiority of physical properties of Tc-99m, pharmacological advantage that may enable satisfactory imaging, and lower supply cost, Tc(V)-DMS would certainly offer good clinical applicability in some regions. (author)

  6. Labeling mesenchymal cells with DMSA-coated gold and iron oxide nanoparticles: assessment of biocompatibility and potential applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Luisa H A; da Silva, Jaqueline R; Ferreira, Guilherme A; Silva, Renata C; Lima, Emilia C D; Azevedo, Ricardo B; Oliveira, Daniela M

    2016-07-18

    Nanoparticles' unique features have been highly explored in cellular therapies. However, nanoparticles can be cytotoxic. The cytotoxicity can be overcome by coating the nanoparticles with an appropriated surface modification. Nanoparticle coating influences biocompatibility between nanoparticles and cells and may affect some cell properties. Here, we evaluated the biocompatibility of gold and maghemite nanoparticles functionalized with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), Au-DMSA and γ-Fe2O3-DMSA respectively, with human mesenchymal stem cells. Also, we tested these nanoparticles as tracers for mesenchymal stem cells in vivo tracking by computed tomography and as agents for mesenchymal stem cells magnetic targeting. Significant cell death was not observed in MTT, Trypan Blue and light microscopy analyses. However, ultra-structural alterations as swollen and degenerated mitochondria, high amounts of myelin figures and structures similar to apoptotic bodies were detected in some mesenchymal stem cells. Au-DMSA and γ-Fe2O3-DMSA labeling did not affect mesenchymal stem cells adipogenesis and osteogenesis differentiation, proliferation rates or lymphocyte suppression capability. The uptake measurements indicated that both inorganic nanoparticles were well uptaken by mesenchymal stem cells. However, Au-DMSA could not be detected in microtomograph after being incorporated by mesenchymal stem cells. γ-Fe2O3-DMSA labeled cells were magnetically responsive in vitro and after infused in vivo in an experimental model of lung silicosis. In terms of biocompatibility, the use of γ-Fe2O3-DMSA and Au-DMSA as tracers for mesenchymal stem cells was assured. However, Au-DMSA shown to be not suitable for visualization and tracking of these cells in vivo by standard computed microtomography. Otherwise, γ-Fe2O3-DMSA shows to be a promising agent for mesenchymal stem cells magnetic targeting.

  7. Technetium-99m DMSA preparation: Trivial issues causing severe problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, V.

    1997-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) in children involving renal parenchyma, upper collecting system or bladder is one of the major causes for consideration in the diagnosis and management of paediatric nuclear medicine. Acute pyelonephritis is one of the prime causes of morbidity associated with urinary tract infection in children which can lead to progressive renal damage. Technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is used extensively for the assessment of UTI in paediatrics. The radiopharmaceutical preparation could be influenced by several factors, most of them are trivial, but invariably have severe impact on the quality of the scintiphotographs. This communication is mainly to highlight some of the issues related to 99 mTc-DMSA preparation and the possible precautionary measures that need to be taken to obviate unwarranted problems. (author)

  8. The Effect of Antiseptic on 99mTc-DMSA Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firuzyar, Tahereh; Ghaedian, Tahereh

    2017-03-01

    Approximately 30 years ago, it has been suggested that chlorhexidine, which is used as antiseptic, can produce Tc colloid complex during Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) preparation. However, in all cases of liver and spleen uptake in Tc-DMSA scan, it should still be kept in mind because of the introduction of new antiseptic brands with different formulation under various names. Our case is just a sample of this effect, which resulted from application of a new brand of antiseptic by technologists in our center that unintentionally led to low-quality Tc-DMSA scans for a period, and after restrict control of all other confounding factors in the preparation of kit, it was just resolved by changing antiseptic to ethanol.

  9. Development of 99mTc-DMSA for kidney imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafii Khamis; Nurshuhadah Mohd Yusof

    2006-01-01

    In nuclear medicine studies, 99m Tc-Dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99m Tc-DMSA) has been shown to be an excellent radiopharmaceutical agent for detecting focal abnormalities of the renal cortex in patients. The agent, however, oxidizes readily and must be used within 30 minutes of preparation. The instability of the radiopharmaceutical renders the kit less economical to use. Several factors affecting the labeling yield such as the kit formulation, stannous and stabilizer content were investigated. The radiochemical determination of the radiolabelled product was analyzed using I TLC-SG system developed in methyl ethyl ketone and the radiolabelled 99m Tc-DMSA biological distributions were carried out in female rats. Stability study of the radiolabelled 99m Tc-DMSA was carried out using ascorbic acid as stabilizer. Comparative study was also carried out on both the prepared kit and those obtained commercially. The DMSA kit was successfully developed and the result obtained was found to be comparable to that of the commercially available kit. (Author)

  10. Preparation of 186Re complexes of dimercaptosuccinic acid hydroxy ethylidine diphosphonate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kothari, K.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Unni, P.R.; Mathakar, A.R.; Shimpi, H.H.; Noronha, O.P.D.; Samuel, A.M.

    1998-01-01

    99m Tc(V)-DMSA and 99m Tc-HEDP are widely used for imaging medullary carcinoma and bone, respectively. 186 Re-HEDP is now well established as a therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for palliation of pain due to bone metastases. It is expected that 186/188 Re(V)-DMSA could find application for treating medullary carcinoma. In the present paper we report the work carried out for the preparation of 186 Re complexes of DMSA and HEDP and their bio-distribution studies in Wistar rats. 186 Re was prepared by irradiation of natural Re metal at a flux of 3x10 13 neutrons/cm 2 /s for seven days and processed after a cooling period of four days. The specific activity of 186 Re formed was ∼35 mCi/mg. Complexes with RC purity >98% could be prepared in both the cases by carefully optimizing the reaction conditions. Bio-distribution studies carried out in rats revealed that pharmacological behaviour of 186 Re(V)-DMSA was similar to that of 99m Tc(V)-DMSA. 186 Re-HEDP showed a bone uptake of ∼ 30% at 3 h post injection which remained almost constant for 48 h. (author)

  11. Accuracy of early DMSA scan for VUR in young children with febrile UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin; Xu, Hong; Zhou, Lijun; Cao, Qi; Shen, Qian; Sun, Li; Fang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Wei; Zhai, Yihui; Rao, Jia; Pa, Mier; Zhao, Ruifang; Bi, Yunli

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of an acute (99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in predicting dilating vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) among young children with a febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). The medical records of children (≤ 2 years of age), presenting with febrile UTI between January 2000 and December 2011, were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 523 children were included in this study, of whom 397 children (75.9%) had abnormal DMSA results and 178 children (34.0%) were identified as VUR on micturating cystourethrography (MCU). Among all the patients, the number of children with dilating VUR was 151 (28.9%). The rate of abnormal results on DMSA for the dilating VUR group was significantly higher than the rates for the non-VUR and low-grade VUR groups (P UTI, an acute DMSA scan is valuable in the exclusion of dilating VUR. The likelihood of the presence of dilating VUR on MCU is rather low when the result of DMSA is negative. DMSA should be conducted to assess the need for an MCU.

  12. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice: Effects of penicillamine, dimercaptosuccinic acid and related compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, O.; Nielsen, J.B.

    1988-01-01

    The antidotal efficacies of chelators during acute cadmium intoxication has previously been examined in experiments where both a soluble cadmium salt and the chelator were administered parenterally. In the present study, PA, DMSA and related compounds were studied as oral antidotes during oral CdCl 2 intoxication. According to the antagonistic effects noted on mortality, peristaltic toxicity and intestinal cadmium uptake, the relative efficacies of the compounds tested were: DMSA>PAD>DMPS>MSA>PA>NAPA. None of the chelators induced major changes in the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium, in particular no increased cerebral deposition of cadmium. This study indicates that, in oral cadmium intoxication in humans, orally administered DMSA would be likely to offer protection against the local toxicity of cadmium in the gastrointestinal tract as well as to reduce the risk of systemic toxicity of absorbed cadmium. (author)

  13. Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masafumi

    1991-01-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99m Tc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity. Gentamicin (40 mg/kg/day) was given subcutaneously to male Wistar rats for periods of 3, 6, 9 and 12 days. On the next day, the renoscintigraphy was performed 2 hours following intravenous injection of 99m Tc-DMSA and Ccr was measured. On the 7th day, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower in the treated rats than that in control (32.27±0.92 vs 39.84±2.24%; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was measured and the histological examination was done. On the 4th day, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was significantly lower than that on the 1st day (32.32±3.00 vs 38.91±1.95%; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake reduces earlier than Ccr in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity and 99m Tc-DMSA uptake is a reliable indicator in the evaluation of a renal function in drug-induced nephrotoxicity. (author)

  14. Assessment of 99mTc-DMSA renoscintigraphy and uptake compared with creatinine clearance in rats with drug-induced nephrotoxicity, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Masafumi

    1991-01-01

    For evaluation of technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99m Tc-DMSA) renal uptake as an absolute renal function, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was compared with endogenous creatinine clearance (Ccr) in cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. At first, male Wistar rats were given intraperitoneally 1.8 mg/kg/day of cisplatin for periods of 3, 5, 7 and 9 days. On the next day, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake and Ccr were measured. Ccr of 5-day treated group was significantly lower than that of control (0.13±0.10 vs 0.34±0.05 ml/min/100 g; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake did not change. 99m Tc-DMSA uptake of 7-day treated group was significantly lower than that of control (28.57±7.23 vs 39.84±2.23%; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was lower than that of control on the 8th, 11th and 15th day (32.40±3.86, 32.56±1.19, 35.21±2.97 vs 39.84±2.23%, respectively; p 99m Tc-DMSA uptake and Ccr was observed in the cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was suggested to be a reliable indicator of a renal function in a different way from Ccr. (author)

  15. The role of DMSA renal scintigraphy in the first episode of urinary tract infection in childhood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supavekin, S.; Pravisithikul, N.; Kutanavanishapong, S.; Chiewvit, S.; Surapaitoolkorn, W.

    2013-01-01

    The role of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy in the first episode of urinary tract infection (UTI) has been the subject of debate for many years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of voiding cystourethrography (VCUG), renal ultrasonography and DMSA renal scintigraphy and to detect renal parenchymal changes by performing DMSA renal scintigraphy at 6 months after the first episode of UTI. A prospective study was conducted in 67 hospitalized children (46 boys, 21 girls). Mean age of the patients was 0.97±1.57 years (0.02-7.26 years). All children received VCUG, renal ultrasonography and DMSA renal scintigraphy. DMSA renal scintigraphy was performed at 1 and 6 months after UTI. Of 67 children, 17 (25.4%), 23 (34.3%) and 20 (29.9%) had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), abnormal renal ultrasonography and abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy, respectively. Unilateral hydronephrosis had a significant correlation with VUR at p value 0.024. In renal units, abnormal renal ultrasonography and hydronephrosis had significant correlations with VUR at p values 0.039 and 0.021, respectively. In patients and renal units, hydronephrosis had no significant correlation with abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy at 1 month after UTI. However, abnormal renal ultrasonography and VUR had significant correlations with abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy at p values 0.022 and <0.001 in patients and at p values 0.024 and <0.001 in renal units, respectively. Both in patients and renal units, VUR (Grade I-III) had no significant correlation with abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy. However, severe VUR (Grade IV-V) had significant correlations with abnormal DMSA renal scintigraphy at p values <0.001 and <0.001, respectively. Seventeen patients underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy at 6 months after UTI. In addition, 15 (88.2%) developed persistent renal scarring. Abnormal renal ultrasonography and severe VUR identify renal parenchymal changes. DMSA renal scintigraphy in the first

  16. Design of a formulation for the preparation of {sup 99m} Tc-(V)-Dmsa and {sup 186} Re-(V)-Dmsa; Diseno de una formulacion para la obtencion de {sup 99m} Tc-(V)-DMSA y {sup 186} Re-(V)-DMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquez L, M B [Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico. Facultad de Quimica. Toluca (Mexico)

    1998-06-01

    Among the radiopharmaceuticals used for neoplasia, we can find the dimercaptosuccinic acid (Dmsa) labelled with {sup 99m} Tc and {sup 186/188} Re. Initially, the {sup 99m} Tc-(III)-Dmsa was employed as a renal image agent. Nevertheless, when it is prepared into a basic solution, the {sup 99m} Tc-(V)-Dmsa complex is produced in high yield being cumulated by cells with a great metabolic activity. This property makes it a useful radiopharmaceutical for the detection of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), soft-tissue tumors and other head and neck tumors. On the other hand, the renewed interest in {beta} - emitting radionuclides, suggests that the {sup 186} Re-(V)-Dmsa complex could be used as antineoplastic agent in therapy. However, the techniques reported for the preparation of these compounds lack of stability studies and they are still in process of investigation, compromising to continue on the development of the radiopharmaceuticals by introducing new possibilities for better products already known, obtaining in this way, the approximation to the ideal radiopharmaceutical. The objective of this work is to design a freeze dried kit formulation for the instant preparation of {sup 99m} Tc-(V)-Dmsa and {sup 186} Re-(V)-Dmsa complexes useful in the diagnostic and therapy of soft-tissue tumors and other head and neck tumors. We obtained a freeze dried stable formulation for the preparation of {sup 99m} Tc-(V)-Dmsa kit with a radiochemical purity higher than 90 %, which fulfills with the quality control of radiopharmaceuticals. Furthermore, we developed analytical techniques for the determination of the different chemical compounds into the lyophilized kit. On the other hand, we obtained the optimum conditions for preparation of {sup 186} Re-(V)-Dmsa complex in high radiochemical yields (>90%). (Author).

  17. Description of 3,180 courses of chelation with dimercaptosuccinic acid in children ≤ 5 y with severe lead poisoning in Zamfara, Northern Nigeria: a retrospective analysis of programme data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Thurtle

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In 2010, Médecins Sans Frontières (MSF discovered extensive lead poisoning impacting several thousand children in rural northern Nigeria. An estimated 400 fatalities had occurred over 3 mo. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC confirmed widespread contamination from lead-rich ore being processed for gold, and environmental management was begun. MSF commenced a medical management programme that included treatment with the oral chelating agent 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, succimer. Here we describe and evaluate the changes in venous blood lead level (VBLL associated with DMSA treatment in the largest cohort of children ≤ 5 y of age with severe paediatric lead intoxication reported to date to our knowledge. METHODS AND FINDINGS: In a retrospective analysis of programme data, we describe change in VBLL after DMSA treatment courses in a cohort of 1,156 children ≤ 5 y of age who underwent between one and 15 courses of chelation treatment. Courses of DMSA of 19 or 28 d duration administered to children with VBLL ≥ 45 µg/dl were included. Impact of DMSA was calculated as end-course VBLL as a percentage of pre-course VBLL (ECP. Mixed model regression with nested random effects was used to evaluate the relative associations of covariates with ECP. Of 3,180 treatment courses administered, 36% and 6% of courses commenced with VBLL ≥ 80 µg/dl and ≥ 120 µg/dl, respectively. Overall mean ECP was 74.5% (95% CI 69.7%-79.7%; among 159 inpatient courses, ECP was 47.7% (95% CI 39.7%-57.3%. ECP after 19-d courses (n = 2,262 was lower in older children, first-ever courses, courses with a longer interval since a previous course, courses with more directly observed doses, and courses with higher pre-course VBLLs. Low haemoglobin was associated with higher ECP. Twenty children aged ≤ 5 y who commenced chelation died during the period studied, with lead poisoning a primary factor in six deaths. Monitoring of alanine

  18. Renal function study by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in non-obstructive upper urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Juichi; Itoh, Hitoshi; Wang, Pan-Chin; Hosokawa, Shinichi; Yoshida, Osamu

    1979-01-01

    Kidney function study was carried out in 90 patients with non-obstructive upper urinary tract infection using sup(99m)Tc-DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) renal scintigraphy. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigram demonstrated well pyelonephritic cortical lesions which were not easily visualized on IVP. A variety of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake paralleled the grading of pyelonephritic changes in IVP, however, there was a discrepancy between some of grade II pyelonephritic changes in reflux kidneys and DMSA renal uptake. This may be partly attributed to hydrodynamic effects of VUR in addition to inflammatory changes. The severity of reflux and changes in pelviocaliceal system on VCG also paralleled DMSA renal uptake in reflux kidneys. A ratio of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake in the healthy side to that in pathological side was observed in 23 cases with VUR before and after the anti-VUR operation was performed. In patients with more than 3.5 of preoperative DMSA uptake ratio, there were few increments postoperatively in kidney functions of the pathological side, while the contralateral healthy kidney showed a compensatory increase in kidney function. This DMSA renal uptake ratio between healthy and pathological side seems to be one of predictable determinants for postoperative recovery of the pathological side. Thus, by comparing the DMSA uptake between right and left kidney in the chronic course or pre- and postoperative periods, an effect of renal function in the pathological side on that in the healthy side was investigated from the point of renal counterbalance. (author)

  19. Renal handling of technetium-99m DMSA in rats with proximal tubular dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Provoost, A.P.; Van Aken, M.

    1985-01-01

    The renal handling of technetium-/sup 99m/ dimercaptosuccinic acid ([/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA) was studied in rats before and after treatment with Na-maleate (2 mmol/kg i.v.). In the control period, when measured 2 hr after the intravenous injection of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA, 39.9% of the injected dose was in the kidneys and 14.6% was in the bladder. After Na-maleate treatment, only 6.4% of the injected dose of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA was retained in the kidneys while 37.9% was found in the bladder. Subsequent studies revealed that Na-maleate produced a fall in the glomerular filtration rate, the effective renal plasma flow, and a generalized proximal tubular dysfunction. The latter was characterized by polyuria and an increased excretion of glucose, protein, albumin, calcium, and inorganic phosphate. It was concluded that proximal tubular dysfunction markedly alters the renal handling of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA. Whether this augmented urinary excretion is due to an inhibition of reabsorption or an enhanced cellular efflux of [/sup 99m/Tc]DMSA remains to be answered

  20. Is Ureter Visualization Possible on Tc-99m DMSA Scintigraphy with Vesicoureteral Reflux Patients?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Atilgan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Ureter or pelvicalyceal system is not be vizualized with 99mTechnetium- dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA which is accumulated by renal cortex normally. In this study the cases whose ureters are visible were reviewed with 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. Material and Method: 18 patients (5 females, 13 males with median age 3.5 years (min 2 months-max 18 years were included in this study. Twenty ureters and/or pelvis of 18 patients were visible in 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. In two patients%u2019s both ureters were visible. Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR grade, 99mTc-DMSA uptake, renal size, status of pelvicalyceal system, urea, creatinine levels were evaluated in all patients. Results: Three of the visible ureters were actually due to pelvicaliectasis. These pelvicaliectasic patients were excluded from the study. In the evaluation of the remaining 17 ureters of patients, congenital megaureter was present in three patients. Grade 3 VUR was detected in three patients, grade 4 was in three patients. VUR is seen as grade five in eight kidneys of seven patients because one of these patients has bilateral vizualized ureter. Discussion: In patients with congenital megaureter and VUR, ureters can be visible with 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy and further imaging modalities are recommended for these patients.

  1. The DMSA scan in paediatric urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ditchfield, M.R.; Nadel, H.R.

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present paper was to review the use of the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan in urinary tract infection at British Columbia's Children's Hospital to determine the frequency of cortical defects and the association between vesico-ureteric reflux and the presence of cortical defects in children with urinary tract infection. A total of 129 consecutive children with a urinary tract infection referred for a DMSA scan in a 2-year period (January 1992-January 1994) were retrospectively studied. The results were analysed in terms of kidneys, and the incidence of cortical defects was determined. Eighty-eight patients (68%) had a radiographic micturating cysto-urethrogram within 6 months of the DMSA scan, and in this group the relationship of defects with vesico-ureteric reflux was determined. Overall, 81/258 (31%) of kidneys had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. Of those who had a micturating cysto-urethrogram, 53/176 (30%) kidneys had vesico-ureteric reflux, and of those that had reflux, 21/53 (40%) had a cortical defect on a DMSA scan. In the group of children without reflux, 38/123 (31%) had a cortical defect. Renal cortical scan defects are common findings in paediatric urinary infection, and frequently occur in the absence of vesico-ureteric reflux. These defects represent either established scars or acute pyelonephritis that can proceed to scarring. The micturating cysto-urethro-gram alone is insufficient as a screening modality to identify those kidneys at risk of renal scarring. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  2. Selection of micronutrients used along with DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Yingjun [China Medical University, Department of Physiology, School of Basic Medicine, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Yu, Fei; Zhi, Xuping; An, Li; Yang, Jun [China Medical University, Department of Nutrition and Food Hygiene, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Jin, Yaping; Lu, Chunwei; Li, Gexin [China Medical University, Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, School of Public Health, Shenyang, Liaoning (China)

    2008-01-15

    The objective of this study was to explore the optimum combination of micronutrients used with 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) in the treatment of moderately lead-intoxicated mice. Experiment was carried out based on the orthogonal design L{sub 8}(2{sup 7}) setting six factors with two different levels of each, and eight groups of mice were needed. Mice were exposed to lead by drinking water contaminated with 0.1% lead acetate for four consecutive weeks, and then supplemented by gavage with different combinations of micronutrients with and without DMSA as designed in the orthogonal table. Lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, brain and bone and activities of blood {delta}-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) were analyzed after cessation of supplementation. The results suggested that DMSA was the only factor which could decrease significantly lead levels in blood, liver, kidney and bone; calcium and ascorbic acid were the notable factors decreasing lead levels in blood, liver, kidney, bone and brain; zinc and calcium were the notable factors reversing the lead-inhibited activities of blood ALAD; taurine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in kidney and brain; and thiamine was the notable factor decreasing lead levels in brain. The lowest lead level in blood, liver, kidney and bone was shown in the mice supplemented with combination of calcium and ascorbic acid along with DMSA. In conclusion, the optimum combination of micronutrients used with DMSA suggested in present study was calcium and ascorbic acid, which seemed to potentiate the chelating efficacy of DMSA in the treatment of moderately lead intoxicated mice. (orig.)

  3. Recurrent urinary tract infections in young children: role of DMSA scintigraphy in detecting vesicoureteric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Nadeem, Naila; Zaman, Maseeh Uz

    2015-01-01

    Performing micturiting cystourethrography (MCUG) in young children with recurrent urinary tract infections is controversial with discrepancy among the major guidelines. Previous studies have shown that a normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy may avoid the need of performing MCUG for detecting vesicoureteric reflux in children with first febrile urinary tract infection. However, the role of DMSA for ruling out vesicoureteric reflux in children with recurrent urinary tract infections has not been studied. Approval from institutional ethical review committee was sought and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 50 children under the age of 10 years with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent MCUG scan within 3 months of DMSA scan from January 2011 to September 2012 at our institution. Diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections and grading of vesicoureteric reflux was according to previously established standards. Abnormalities on DMSA scan - scarring, hydronephrosis and reduced differential renal function - were compared with presence of vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG. High-grade vesicoureteric reflux was noted on MCUG in 22 (44%) cases. The findings on DMSA included hydronephrosis and scarring in 25 (50%) and 25 (50%) cases, respectively. Abnormalities on DMSA scan for detecting the presence of high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG examination had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 35.71%, 53.85% and 90.91%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.48 and 0.13 respectively. DMSA scan had high overall sensitivity and negative predictive value with a low negative likelihood ratio for ruling out high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG, which may obviate the need of invasive MCUG along with its associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  4. Recurrent urinary tract infections in young children: role of DMSA scintigraphy in detecting vesicoureteric reflux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Awais, Muhammad; Rehman, Abdul; Nadeem, Naila [Aga Khan University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan); Zaman, Maseeh Uz [Aga Khan University Hospital, Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2014-07-04

    Performing micturiting cystourethrography (MCUG) in young children with recurrent urinary tract infections is controversial with discrepancy among the major guidelines. Previous studies have shown that a normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy may avoid the need of performing MCUG for detecting vesicoureteric reflux in children with first febrile urinary tract infection. However, the role of DMSA for ruling out vesicoureteric reflux in children with recurrent urinary tract infections has not been studied. Approval from institutional ethical review committee was sought and the requirement of informed consent was waived. A total of 50 children under the age of 10 years with recurrent urinary tract infections underwent MCUG scan within 3 months of DMSA scan from January 2011 to September 2012 at our institution. Diagnosis of recurrent urinary tract infections and grading of vesicoureteric reflux was according to previously established standards. Abnormalities on DMSA scan - scarring, hydronephrosis and reduced differential renal function - were compared with presence of vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG. High-grade vesicoureteric reflux was noted on MCUG in 22 (44%) cases. The findings on DMSA included hydronephrosis and scarring in 25 (50%) and 25 (50%) cases, respectively. Abnormalities on DMSA scan for detecting the presence of high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG examination had sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of 95.45%, 35.71%, 53.85% and 90.91%, respectively. The positive and negative likelihood ratios were 1.48 and 0.13 respectively. DMSA scan had high overall sensitivity and negative predictive value with a low negative likelihood ratio for ruling out high-grade vesicoureteric reflux on MCUG, which may obviate the need of invasive MCUG along with its associated drawbacks. (orig.)

  5. Comparative study between intravenous urography and renal scintigraphy with DMSA for the diagnosis of renal scars in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarissa B. Araújo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the value of intravenous urography (IVU in detecting and grading the renal scar, comparing its results with those of scintigraphy with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 43 children investigated by DMSA and IVU, who had vesicoureteral reflux diagnosed and classified through voiding cystourethrography. RESULTS: Among the kidneys with reflux, there was agreement between the results of DMSA and IVU concerning the presence and the absence of scars in 82.4% of the cases. Based on the results obtained, IVU would have a sensitivity of 66.6%, specificity of 94.4%; accuracy of 82.5%; positive predictive value (PPV of 90% and negative predictive value (NPV of 79%, when compared with DMSA results. Our data also confirm the close relation between the reflux grade and the presence of renal scar, since 75% of the kidneys with grade IV and V reflux presented scars. In relation to the grading of nephropathy, in 78% of patients the classification of the scar by both methods was identical. The highest disagreement was verified in the group with segmental scar on DMSA, where 41.6% of the kidneys were classified as normal on IVU. CONCLUSION: The data obtained confirm that the scintigraphy with DMSA is essential in the investigation of patients with renal scar, and cannot be replaced by IVU, due to its low sensitivity and lower ability of satisfactory grading.

  6. Clinical application of calculated split renal volume using computed tomography-based renal volumetry after partial nephrectomy: Correlation with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Ho; Park, Young Joo; Ku, Ja Yoon; Ha, Hong Koo

    2017-06-01

    To evaluate the clinical application of computed tomography-based measurement of renal cortical volume and split renal volume as a single tool to assess the anatomy and renal function in patients with renal tumors before and after partial nephrectomy, and to compare the findings with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. The data of 51 patients with a unilateral renal tumor managed by partial nephrectomy were retrospectively analyzed. The renal cortical volume of tumor-bearing and contralateral kidneys was measured using ImageJ software. Split estimated glomerular filtration rate and split renal volume calculated using this renal cortical volume were compared with the split renal function measured with technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. A strong correlation between split renal function and split renal volume of the tumor-bearing kidney was observed before and after surgery (r = 0.89, P volumetry had a strong correlation with the split renal function measured using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scan. Computed tomography-based split renal volume measurement before and after partial nephrectomy can be used as a single modality for anatomical and functional assessment of the tumor-bearing kidney. © 2017 The Japanese Urological Association.

  7. Paediatric renal length measurements from ultrasound and DMSA scans: does clinical practice reflect theoretical normal values?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.; Hassan, I.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Renal length measurement is a routine part of ultrasound examination in children and those results are plotted on a normogram style graph, so that each child's results are compared to a normal range (mean ± 2 S.D.). Renal length measurements from the posterior oblique views of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans in our department have not always correlated well with the ultrasound measurements on the same patients. Renal lengths from the DMSA scans of 120 patients with apparently normal kidneys were recorded and used to generate a normogram of renal length at different ages (0.5-7 years). This DMSA normogram was compared to the ultrasound (US) normogram used in the Paediatric Radiology Department, and it showed slight differences in renal lengths (3-8 mm), but that the US normogram had smaller coefficients of variation (US = 6.6%, NM 8.3%), implying a 'tighter' normal range. 39 of these patients had DMSA and ultrasound measurements of renal length within 3 months, and these were studied first by calculating the mean and CV values for different age groups, and then by plotting individual renal lengths on the appropriate normograms. The measured data produced much greater variability in the ultrasound measurements than the DTPA measurements, and the individual points produced 4/78 (5.1%) abnormal results for DMSA, but 21/78 (26.9%) abnormal results for ultrasound. Thus, in routine clinical use, using patients with apparently normal kidneys, ultrasound was unable to match the 'normal range' set by their current normogram, but the nuclear medicine showed 5.1% of values outside the normal (DMSA) range, which was completely appropriate for a range of ± 2 standard deviations

  8. Scintigraphic evaluation of soft tissue tumors with technetium(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid, a new tumor seeking radiopharmaceutical

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohta, H.; Yoshizumi, M.; Endo, K.; Torizuka, K.; Yokoyama, A.; Yamamoto, K.

    1984-01-01

    Recently, a very promising tumor seeking agent, a Tc(V)-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc(V)-DMS), which was labelled under optimal pH 8 and very low SnCl/sub 2/ concentrations, has been developed. An equilibrium between a stable form and a dissociated form of anion TcO/sub 4//sup 3-/, structural similarity to PO/sub 4//sup 3-/, postulated for tumor uptake. And the authors have previously reported that Tc(V)-DMS scintigram would be useful in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma. In an attempt to widen its applicability, the scintigraphic examinations of soft tissue tumors with Tc(V)-DMS and comparative study with Ga-67 citrate were performed in 58 patients. Scintigrams were made 60-120 min after i.v. administration of 10 mCi Tc(V)-DMS using a conventional gamma camera. Tc(V)-DMS was found to have superior sensitivity of 90% for malignant tumors (including aggressive fibromatosis) to that with Ga-67 citrate of 56%, but inferior specificity of 71% to that with Ga-67 citrate of 80%. And the accuracy of the scan in soft tissue tumors with Tc(V)-DMS and Ga-67 citrate was 78% and 71%, respectively. Although the accumulation of Tc(V)-DMS has been detected in some benign soft tissue tumors and the exact mechanism of Tc(V)-DMS accumulation remains to be elucidated, these data indicated that Tc(V)-DMS scintigraphy would be of great use in the detection of extension or location of malignant soft tissue tumors

  9. Biodistribution of Ru-97-labeled DTPA, DMSA and transferrin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Oster, Z.H.; Fairchild, R.G.; Atkins, H.L.; Brill, A.B.; Gil, M.C.; Srivastava, S.C.; Meinken, G.E.; Goldman, A.G.; Richards, P.

    1980-01-01

    Ruthenium-97 is being produced at the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BLIP). The favorable physical properties of Ru-97 and chemical reactivity of ruthenium offer a potential for using this isotope to label compounds useful for delayed scanning. Diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), 2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and Transferrin (TF) were labeled with Ru-97-chloride. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA, injected intravenously, showed similar organ distribution, kinetics, and more than 80% excretion by 0.5 h. Ru-97-DTPA and In-111-DTPA injected into the cisterna magna of dogs showed similar kinetics in brain, blood, and urinary bladder. The energy deposited by 1 mCi In-111-DTPA is twice that from 1 mCi Ru-97-DTPA. High quality camera images of the CSF space in the dog were obtained with both isotopes. Ru-97-DMSA was prepared with and without the addition of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O. Tin-free DMSA was rapidly excreted via the kidneys, whereas for maximum cortical deposition, the tin-containing preparation was superior. This compound is suitable for delayed imaging of both normal and impaired kidneys. Tissue distribution studies were performed in abscess-bearing rats with Ru-97-transferrin. Although blood levels were higher than with Ga-67-citrate, the abscess had twice as much Ru-97-TF as Ga-67-citrate and the Ru-97 muscle activity was one-third that of Ga-67. Imaging of abscess-bearing rabbits with Ru-97-TF visualized the abscesses as early as 1/2 hr after injection. Since the initial images visualize the abscess so clearly and since the TF portion of the compound binds to the abscess, Tc-99m-TF is being studied for the same purpose. Ru-97-labeled compounds are a promising replacement for In-111 and possibly also for Ga-67 compounds with the advantages of lower radiation dose and high quality image

  10. Tc-DMSA (V) imaging for subacute back pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldey, A.; Salehi, N.; Thomas, C.; Schlict, S.; Lichtenstein, M.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Background: Low back pain is a common disabling illness in the Western world creating $25 billion medical costs in the USA alone. The overall outcome of back pain has not been shown to be influenced by the currently available treatments. Diagnostic techniques are also imprecise. Some back pain may be due to minor currently undetectable ligamentous tears which generate a scarring fibrotic reaction. Aim: To detect minor ligamentous tears and ultimately assess steroid injection treatment using scintigraphic techniques. Methods: Technetium [valency (5)] dimercaptosuccinic acid [ 99m Tc (V) DMSA] is a radiopharmaceutical which has been demonstrated to accumulate in fibrotic tissues 2- Technetium-99m (V) DMSA single photon emission computed tomographic (SPECT) scans were performed in ten patients with subacute (2-12 months duration) back pain. These scans were compared to SPECT bone scans also performed in these patients. Results: One patient was excluded post imaging due to likely infection or tumour. Of the nine patients remaining, five showed lesions presumed to be due to healing scars. Hence new abnormalities are detectable by this technique. Conclusion: Accrual is continuing but definitive results will not be available until the clinical results of scan directed steroid injections are evaluated

  11. Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, R.S.; Moreno, S.R.F.; Lima-Filho, G.L.; Fonseca, A.S.; Bernardo-Filho, M.

    2007-01-01

    We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99m Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) from Wistar rats (control and treated) were separated. P and BC were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate (AS) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) isolated. The percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. The treatment influenced the %ATI in IF-P and in IF-BC isolated by TCA precipitation

  12. Effect of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of 99mTc-DMSA on blood constituents: An in vivo study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freitas, R.S. [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030 (Brazil); Moreno, S.R.F. [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030 (Brazil); Lima-Filho, G.L. [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030 (Brazil); Fonseca, A.S. [Departamento de Farmacologia e Psicobiologia, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 5 Andar, Rio de Janeiro, 20551-030 (Brazil)]. E-mail: adenilso@uerj.br; Bernardo-Filho, M. [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Avenida 28 de Setembro, 87 Fundos, 4 Andar, Rio de Janeiro 20551-030 (Brazil); Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Coordenadoria de Pesquisa, Praca Cruz Vermelha 23, Rio de Janeiro, 20230-130 (Brazil)

    2007-05-15

    We studied the influence of a commercial extract of Paullinia cupana (guarana) on the binding of technetium-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid ({sup 99m}Tc-DMSA) on blood constituents. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) from Wistar rats (control and treated) were separated. P and BC were precipitated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA) or ammonium sulphate (AS) and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) isolated. The percentage of incorporated radioactivity (%ATI) in each fraction was determined. The treatment influenced the %ATI in IF-P and in IF-BC isolated by TCA precipitation.

  13. Indications for pediatric 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic-scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Becker, W.; Zappel, H.

    2000-01-01

    This paper gives an overview about the diagnostic use of 99m Tc-Dimercaptosuccinic ( 99m Tc-DMSA)-scintigraphy in siblings and children and presents our own results with this tracer in pediatric nephro-urology. 99m Tc-DMSA offers a high renal accumulation and therefore is suited for the diagnosis of renal malformations. Furthermore, a calculation of the tubular renal split function and imaging of the renal cortex is possible due its high tubular retention. The tracer may be used with success in the non invasive diagnostic work up of both renoparenchymal and renovascular hypertension in childhood and especially in the diagnosis of segmental renal artery stenosis. Scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA is a simple and highly effective method in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis and renal scarring. It offers important informations about the further prognosis of a child with urinary tract infection. In upper urinary tract infection 99m Tc-DMSA-scintigraphy may be more specific than available clinical tests. In the diagnosis of pyelonephritis and renal scarring scintigraphic imaging has been proven to be more sensitive than pyelography and ultrasound and its diagnostic power is at least equal compared with computed tomography. Therefore, imaging with 99m Tc-DMSA can be considered as the reference method in these questions. Regarding that reflux is seen in less than 40% of children with a pathologic DMSA-scan and that the prognosis of children with an urinary tract infection without a pathologic DMSA-scan is usually good, one could question the use of micturating cystourethrography in the diagnostic work up of children with symptomatic urinary tract infection and a normal DMSA-scan. (orig.) [de

  14. Differentiation of pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar tumors by {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamura, Koji [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). Medical Center; Suzuki, Shinichi; Yamamoto, Isao [Yokohama City Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine

    2003-04-01

    Pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid [{sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA] scintigraphy was evaluated for the differentiation of pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, from other sellar and parasellar lesions. Diffuse {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA accumulation within the tumor was found in seven of seven non-functioning, three of four growth hormone-secreting, and seven of eight prolactin-secreting adenomas, but only partial accumulation in only two of 16 non-pituitary adenomas and normal pituitary glands. There were no significant relationship between tumor-to-background ratios and tumor size or serum hormone level. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA scintigraphy showed overall sensitivity of 81% (17/21 cases) for detecting pituitary adenomas, in particular 100% for non-functioning adenomas. {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA may be useful for detecting pituitary adenomas, especially non-functioning adenomas, and for the differentiation of non-functioning pituitary adenomas from other sellar and parasellar lesions. (author)

  15. Identifying Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque in Rabbits Using DMSA-USPIO Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Investigate the Effect of Atorvastatin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunmei Qi

    Full Text Available Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the primary cause of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular syndromes. Early and non-invasive detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VP would be significant in preventing some aspects of these syndromes. As a new contrast agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA modified ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO was synthesized and used to identify VP and rupture plaque by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Atherosclerosis was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by feeding a high cholesterol diet (n = 30. Group A with atherosclerosis plaque (n = 10 were controls. VP was established in groups B (n = 10 and C (n = 10 using balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. Adenovirus-carrying p53 genes were injected into the aortic segments rich in plaques after 8 weeks. Group C was treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. Sixteen weeks later, all rabbits underwent pharmacological triggering, and imaging were taken daily for 5 d after DMSA-USPIO infusion. At the first day and before being killed, serum MMP-9, sCD40L, and other lipid indicators were measured.DMSA-USPIO particles accumulated in VP and rupture plaques. Rupture plaques appeared as areas of hyper-intensity on DMSA-USPIO enhanced MRI, especially T2*-weighted sequences, with a signal strength peaking at 96 h. The group given atorvastatin showed few DMSA-USPIO particles and had lower levels of serum indicators. MMP-9 and sCD40L levels in group B were significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P <0.05.After successfully establishing a VP model in rabbits, DMSA-USPIO was used to enhance MRI for clear identification of plaque inflammation and rupture. Rupture plaques were detectable in this way probably due to an activating inflammatory process. Atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response and stabilizing VP possibly by decreasing MMP-9 and sCD40L levels.

  16. Uncomplicated duplex kidney and DMSA scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokland, Eira [The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Goeteborg (Sweden); The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Department of Paediatric Radiology, Goeteborg (Sweden); Jodal, Ulf; Swerkersson, Svante; Hansson, Sverker [The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Department of Paediatrics, Goeteborg (Sweden); Sixt, Rune [The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Department of Paediatric Clinical Physiology, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2007-08-15

    Renal duplication is the most common malformation of the urinary tract and is frequently seen among children with urinary tract infection (UTI). To evaluate problems in the interpretation of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and to establish the range of relative function in uncomplicated unilateral duplication. Retrospective analysis of 303 children less than 2 years of age with first time non-obstructive urinary tract infection investigated by both urography and DMSA scintigraphy. At DMSA scintigraphy, renal lesions and/or relative function below 45% was considered abnormal. Urography was used as reference for the diagnosis of duplication. Duplex kidneys were found in 22 of 303 patients (7%). Of the 16 children with unilateral duplication, 10 had bilaterally undamaged kidneys with a range of relative function varying between 51% and 57% in the duplex kidney. In two of the children with unilateral duplication the imaging results were discordant. There was risk of underdiagnosis as well as overdiagnosis of renal damage at scintigraphy. Although it is important to be aware of this risk, the rate of misinterpretation was low. A range of 51% to 57% can be used as the limit for normality of the relative function of a unilateral duplex kidney. (orig.)

  17. Uncomplicated duplex kidney and DMSA scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokland, Eira; Jodal, Ulf; Swerkersson, Svante; Hansson, Sverker; Sixt, Rune

    2007-01-01

    Renal duplication is the most common malformation of the urinary tract and is frequently seen among children with urinary tract infection (UTI). To evaluate problems in the interpretation of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and to establish the range of relative function in uncomplicated unilateral duplication. Retrospective analysis of 303 children less than 2 years of age with first time non-obstructive urinary tract infection investigated by both urography and DMSA scintigraphy. At DMSA scintigraphy, renal lesions and/or relative function below 45% was considered abnormal. Urography was used as reference for the diagnosis of duplication. Duplex kidneys were found in 22 of 303 patients (7%). Of the 16 children with unilateral duplication, 10 had bilaterally undamaged kidneys with a range of relative function varying between 51% and 57% in the duplex kidney. In two of the children with unilateral duplication the imaging results were discordant. There was risk of underdiagnosis as well as overdiagnosis of renal damage at scintigraphy. Although it is important to be aware of this risk, the rate of misinterpretation was low. A range of 51% to 57% can be used as the limit for normality of the relative function of a unilateral duplex kidney. (orig.)

  18. Biokinetics and dosimetric studies about 99mTc(V)DMSA distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, M.B.L.; Magnata, S.S.L.P.; Silva, I.M.S.; Lima, F.F.; Catanho, M.T.J.A.

    2008-01-01

    Research for radiodiagnostic agents should considerate biological critical parameters as half-life effective, target/not target uptake ratio and metabolites that together will determinate the biokinetic. Each parameter give own contribution in the absorbed dose. The dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) labeled with 99m Tc(VN) is a radiopharmaceutical which has well established role in medullar thyroid carcinoma and has been proposed in complementary evaluation of bone metastasis. The aim of this work was study the biokinetics and dosimetry of 99m Tc(V)-DMSA by animal model. The 99m Tc(V)-DMSA was prepared by (III)DMSA kit alkalized. The methodology used mice, 70 days old, both males and females. The animals (n=5) received 99m Tc(V)DMSA administered IV (tail vein). After determinate times (30 min, 1h, 5h and 12h) the animals were sacrificed, the organs (blood, lungs, kidneys, muscle and bone) were excised and the activities were measured by a gamma counter. The results were evaluated based on %activity/g and the absorbed dose was estimated by extrapolation of data from animal to human, using the residence time to each organ in the MIRDOSE 3.0 program. The results show that the majority of organs reaches the top uptake at 30 min, the kidney has the greatest uptake in this time, (4.81 ± 1.38) % activity per gram, while the bone presents its highest uptake at 1h (5.49 ± 0.47)% activity per gram, after 1h all the organs had activity exponential decrease. About the absorbed dose estimated to human scale, the preliminary results showed higher value to bone, being the soft tissue dose relatively low. These dose values, however, are submitted to biological implications which are under studying yet. The biokinetic profile of 99m Tc(V)-DMSA, prepared from a DMSA kit by IPEN, was well established, allowing quantifying of residence time, while the dosimetric model presented preliminary data which directs to new analyzes

  19. Studies on the evaluation of renal function in urological renal disorders with 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Masayuki

    1987-01-01

    The change of normal value of 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal uptake with age was investigated, and the correlation between total renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA and 24-hour endogenous creatinine clearance was studied in each age group separately. (1) 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake was measured in 107 normal controls without renal or urinary tract diseases between 0 and 67 years old and normal values were analyzed in each age group. The normal value was highest in the age group of 0 ∼ 9 years old and was gradually decreased with age. Over 20 years old, the normal value hardly changed. (2) The lower limit of normal values of 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake in each kidney was 19.62, 13.89, 13.18, 11.58, 12.00, 10.24 % in the age groups of 0 ∼ 9, 10 ∼ 19, 20 ∼ 29, 30 ∼ 39, 40 ∼ 49, 50 ∼ 59 years old, respectively. (3) Correlations between total renal uptake and 24-hour endogenous creatinine clearance were investigated in each age group in 248 patients between 0 and 79 years old. Positive linear correlations were found in the age groups of 0 ∼ 9, 10 ∼ 19, 20 ∼ 29, 30 ∼ 39, 40 ∼ 49, 50 ∼ 59, 60 ∼ 69, 70 ∼ 79 years old, and especially above 50 years old closer correlations were found. It is concluded that although 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake is a useful method for renal function test through life, the change with age must be considered in the evaluation of its value. (author)

  20. Identifying Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque in Rabbits Using DMSA-USPIO Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Investigate the Effect of Atorvastatin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongye; Wu, Weiheng; Gong, Lei; Li, Yong; Zhang, Qingdui; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Yu

    2015-01-01

    Background Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the primary cause of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular syndromes. Early and non-invasive detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VP) would be significant in preventing some aspects of these syndromes. As a new contrast agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) modified ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO) was synthesized and used to identify VP and rupture plaque by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Methods Atherosclerosis was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by feeding a high cholesterol diet (n = 30). Group A with atherosclerosis plaque (n = 10) were controls. VP was established in groups B (n = 10) and C (n = 10) using balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. Adenovirus-carrying p53 genes were injected into the aortic segments rich in plaques after 8 weeks. Group C was treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. Sixteen weeks later, all rabbits underwent pharmacological triggering, and imaging were taken daily for 5 d after DMSA-USPIO infusion. At the first day and before being killed, serum MMP-9, sCD40L, and other lipid indicators were measured. Results DMSA-USPIO particles accumulated in VP and rupture plaques. Rupture plaques appeared as areas of hyper-intensity on DMSA-USPIO enhanced MRI, especially T2*-weighted sequences, with a signal strength peaking at 96 h. The group given atorvastatin showed few DMSA-USPIO particles and had lower levels of serum indicators. MMP-9 and sCD40L levels in group B were significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P MRI for clear identification of plaque inflammation and rupture. Rupture plaques were detectable in this way probably due to an activating inflammatory process. Atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response and stabilizing VP possibly by decreasing MMP-9 and sCD40L levels. PMID:25973795

  1. Ibuprofen induces reduction of the proliferation-seeking radiotracer 99mTc-(V)DMSA uptake in severe epithelial breast hyperplasia without atypia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Vassilios; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Valsamaki, Pipitsa; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Sotiropoulou, Evangelia; Karianos, Theodore; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Fothiadaki, Athina; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Archontaki, Aikaterini; Syrgiannis, Konstantinos; Dimitrakakis, Konstantinos; Antsaklis, Aris

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if ibuprofen intake can influence mammary uptake of the proliferation-seeking radiotracer technetium 99m-pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-(V)DMSA) in women with severe epithelial and atypical epithelial breast hyperplasia. Eight patients with histologically confirmed severe epithelial breast hyperplasia with (n  =  4) and without atypia (n  =  4) were submitted prospectively to 99mTc-(V)DMSA scintimammography before and after a 4-week course of 400 mg ibuprofen daily oral intake. Lesion to background ratios 60 minutes postinjection were calculated and compared (t-test) before and after ibuprofen administration. Prior to ibuprofen, the patients with severe epithelial hyperplasia displayed a significantly higher 99mTc-(V)DMSA uptake ratio compared to those with atypical epithelial hyperplasia (2.40 ± 0.32 vs 1.67 ± 0.09, respectively; p  =  .003). They also exhibited a more substantial percent decline in tracer uptake postibuprofen compared to women with atypical epithelial hyperplasia (62.0 ± 7.1 vs 15.0 ± 0.2, respectively; p  =  .001). Ibuprofen induces significant uptake reduction of the proliferation-seeking radiotracer 99mTc-(V)DMSA in severe epithelial breast hyperplasia without atypia. This agent could therefore constitute a potential imaging tool for monitoring chemoprophylaxis effectiveness in women at the early stages of malignant transformation.

  2. EFFECT OF DMPS AND DMSA ON THE PLACENTAL AND FETAL DISPOSITION OF METHYLMERCURY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bridges, Christy C.; Joshee, Lucy; Zalups, Rudolfs K.

    2009-01-01

    Methylmercury (CH3Hg+) is a serious environmental toxicant. Exposure to this metal during pregnancy can cause serious neurological and developmental defects in a developing fetus. Surprisingly, little is known about the mechanisms by which mercuric ions are transported across the placenta. Although it has been shown that 2,3-dimercaptopropane-1-sulfonate (DMPS) and 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) are capable of extracting mercuric ions from various organs and cells, there is no evidence that they are able to extract mercury from placental or fetal tissues following maternal exposure to CH3Hg+. Therefore, the purpose of the current study was to evaluate the ability of DMPS and DMSA to extract mercuric ions from placental and fetal tissues following maternal exposure to CH3Hg+. Pregnant Wistar rats were exposed to CH3HgCl, containing [203Hg], on day 11 or day 17 of pregnancy and treated 24 h later with saline, DMPS or DMSA. Maternal organs, fetuses, and placentas were harvested 48 h after exposure to CH3HgCl. The disposition of mercuric ions in maternal organs and tissues was similar to that reported previously by our laboratory. The disposition of mercuric ions in placentas and fetuses appeared to be dependent upon the gestational age of the fetus. The fetal and placental burden of mercury increased as fetal age increased and was reduced by DMPS and DMSA, with DMPS being more effective. The disposition of mercury was examined in liver, total renal mass, and brain of fetuses harvested on gestational day 19. On a per gram tissue basis, the greatest amount of mercury was detected in the total renal mass of the fetus, followed by brain and liver. DMPS and DMSA reduced the burden of mercury in liver and brain while only DMPS was effective in the total renal mass. The results of the current study are the first to show that DMPS and DMSA are capable of extracting mercuric ions, not only from maternal tissues, but also from placental and fetal tissues following maternal

  3. Importance of methodology on (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphic image quality: imaging pilot study for RIVUR (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux) multicenter investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziessman, Harvey A; Majd, Massoud

    2009-07-01

    We reviewed our experience with (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy obtained during an imaging pilot study for a multicenter investigation (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux) of the effectiveness of daily antimicrobial prophylaxis for preventing recurrent urinary tract infection and renal scarring. We analyzed imaging methodology and its relation to diagnostic image quality. (99m)Technetium dimercapto-succinic acid imaging guidelines were provided to participating sites. High-resolution planar imaging with parallel hole or pinhole collimation was required. Two core reviewers evaluated all submitted images. Analysis included appropriate views, presence or lack of patient motion, adequate magnification, sufficient counts and diagnostic image quality. Inter-reader agreement was evaluated. We evaluated 70, (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid studies from 14 institutions. Variability was noted in methodology and image quality. Correlation (r value) between dose administered and patient age was 0.780. For parallel hole collimator imaging good correlation was noted between activity administered and counts (r = 0.800). For pinhole imaging the correlation was poor (r = 0.110). A total of 10 studies (17%) were rejected for quality issues of motion, kidney overlap, inadequate magnification, inadequate counts and poor quality images. The submitting institution was informed and provided with recommendations for improving quality, and resubmission of another study was required. Only 4 studies (6%) were judged differently by the 2 reviewers, and the differences were minor. Methodology and image quality for (99m)technetium dimercapto-succinic acid scintigraphy varied more than expected between institutions. The most common reason for poor image quality was inadequate count acquisition with insufficient attention to the tradeoff between administered dose, length of image acquisition, start time of imaging and resulting image

  4. In vivo and in vitro study of the 99mTc-DMSA radiopharmaceutical connection to blood elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freitas, Rosimeire de S.; Gomes, Maria L.; Mattos, Deise M.M.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Dire, Glaucio F.; Lima, Elaine A.; Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Aleixo, Luiz Claudio; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro

    2002-01-01

    Radiopharmaceuticals are widely used in nuclear medicine. The comprehension of their uptake mechanism in target organs, as well as their clearance may depend on the elucidation of their biochemical characteristics, for instance, their binding to blood elements. The reported precipitating studies of blood with radiopharmaceuticals have shown that the results can not be easily compared. Then, we decide evaluate of the binding proteins on the blood elements using trichloroacetic acid (TCA) to determine the radioactivity of the dimercaptosuccinic acid with technetium-99m (99mTc-DMSA) present in precipitating plasma (P) and blood cells (BC). Depending on the TCA concentration we have determined different values in the insoluble fractions of the plasma when the in vivo and in vitro evaluations were carried out. (author)

  5. An audit of RCP guidelines on DMSA scanning after urinary tract infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, P V; Jones, K V

    2001-04-01

    To assess the outcome of imaging investigations carried out in children with urinary tract infection (UTI), to compare the investigations with national guidelines, and to assess the impact on management. Retrospective review of inpatients and outpatients, aged 0-12 years, referred to the University Hospital of Wales Healthcare Trust between February 1997 and January 1998 with UTI. All children without bacterial evidence of UTI and children previously investigated for antenatal urological anomalies, major congenital anomalies, or UTI were excluded. A total of 164 children (51 boys, 113 girls) were included. Thirteen of 56 infants (23%) and 82/108 older children (76%) were diagnosed at home over one year. The prevalence of dilatation on ultrasound was 8%, renal scarring on dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan was 11%, and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) was 34% when investigations were carried out following guidelines published by the Royal College of Physicians. In children aged 1-6 years, the prevalence of scarring was 1/54 (2%) in those treated at home and 6/18 (33%) in inpatients. The low yield of positive results and lack of evidence of impact on management indicate that DMSA scanning, with all the implications of isotope exposure, intravenous injection, staff time, psychological trauma, and expense, could be omitted in children over 1 year with first simple UTI not sufficiently ill to be admitted to hospital. The low rate of detection of UTI in primary care in infants may represent under diagnosis.

  6. The clinical application of 99Tcm-DMSA renal cortical scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ruifang; Zeng Jihua; Xu Hong; Ji Zhiying; Yuan Hong

    2002-01-01

    Objective: To study the value of 99 Tc m -dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal cortical scintigraphy in distinguishing between upper urinary tract infection (UUTI) and lower UTI (LUTI), determining renal scarring, and following-up curative effect for UTI in children. Methods: The authors reviewed 252 results of 99 Tc m -DMSA renal cortical scintigraphy in children with UTIs during a period of the past five years. The age of the patients was from 1 month to 14 years. The ratio of males: females was 94:158. A standard 99 Tc m -DMSA renal cortical scintigraphic protocol was used. The studies were scored as normal (indicating LUTI) and abnormal (indicating acute pyelonephritis or renal scarring). And differential function of renal was calculated. Results: Of 252 children with UTI, 110 cases had normal images diagnosed as with LUTI. 142 cases had abnormal images, 116 cases were diagnosed as with acute pyelonephritis, 26 cases were diagnosed as with renal cortical scars. The differential function range of LUTI was 46%-54%. Of UUTIs, the differential function of single renal involved was less than 45%. Of 142 UUTIs, 17 cases repeatedly underwent renal cortical scan after therapy. 12 of 13 cases with acute pyelonephritis completely recovered normal or obviously ameliorated after 6 months, 1 cases did not show any change after 4 months. Four cases were found with renal scarring, and showed little change on repeated images for the following 6 months. conclusions: 99 Tc m -DMSA renal cortical scintigraphy is of valuable significance in distinguishing between upper and lower UTI, and in estimating renal scarring. The sequelae of renal infection can be monitored by renal cortical scan. A follow-up of 6 months may be recommended after therapy

  7. THE IMPORTANCE OF 99m-Tc DMSA RENAL SCINTIGRAPHY IN EVALUATION OF RENAL LESIONS IN CHILDREN WITH ACUTE PYELONEPHRITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Ataei

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available "nUrinary tract infection (UTI may lead to irreversible changes in renal parenchyma. Early diagnosis using scintigraphy with technetium-99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and early treatment may decrease or prevent development of renal parenchymal lesions. The aim of this study was to assess the occurrence of renal parenchymal lesion in children admitted with a first-time symptomatic UTI and to evaluate the relation between renal parenchymal damage and severity of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR. A total of 102 children with first time acute pyelonephritis (APN were enrolled in the study. All children studied with DMSA scan and ultrasonography (US. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG was performed in 98 children when urine culture became negative. Changes on the DMSA scan and US were found in 178 (88% and 5 (2.4% out of 203 renal units during the acute phase, respectively. All abnormal renal units on US showed severe parenchymal involvement on DMSA. We also found significant correlation between severity of VUR and abnormal US results on kidneys. Of 40 kidneys with reflux, 38 (95% were found to have abnormal renal scan. Among 155 kidneys with non-refluxing ureters 132 (85.2% revealed parenchymal changes on renal cortical scintigraphy. Kidneys with moderate to severe reflux were more likely to have severe renal involvement. We found a high incidence of renal parenchymal changes in children with APN. Additionally, renal involvement was significantly higher in children with moderate to severe reflux. When there are high-grade VUR and female gender, the risk of renal parenchymal involvement is higher.

  8. In vivo estimation of renal volume using a rotating gamma camera for sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid renal imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, J; Itoh, H; Yoshida, O; Fujita, T; Torizuka, K

    1984-03-01

    The in vivo renal volume was determined using SPECT for sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal imaging. The total renal volume was derived by summing the DMSA distribution volumes of the transaxial slices in the whole kidney. In 20 healthy subjects the renal volume in the right kidney was 220 ml for men and 195.2 ml for women, while that in the left kidney was 213 ml for men and 193.7 ml for women. Differences in those values were not statistically significant. A good correlation was found between renal volumes in both kidneys and body surface area. In 106 kidneys including solitary and pathological kidneys, individual renal volume correlated well with individual DMSA renal uptake rate which demonstrates cortical functioning mass, depending on the cortical blood flow. Thus, SPECT enables an accurate noninvasive means of estimating in vivo functioning renal volume.

  9. Is furosemide administration effective in improving the accuracy of determination of differential renal function by means of technetium-99m DMSA in patients with hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabasakal, Levent; Turkmen, Cuneyt; Ozmen, Ozlem; Alan, Nalan; Onsel, Cetin; Uslu, Ilhami

    2002-01-01

    It has been suggested that determination of differential renal function (DRF)using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) may lead to overestimation of the function of an obstructed kidney in patients with excretion abnormalities owing to pelvic retention of DMSA. Recently published guidelines have recommended use of furosemide injection when calculating DRF in these particular patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diuretic administration on the determination of DRF using DMSA scintigraphy. For this purpose, 19 patients, aged from 1 month to 69 years (19.4±24.8 years, 15 males, 4 females), in whom pelvic retention had been documented by diuresis scintigraphy were included in the study. DMSA scintigraphy was performed in all patients 2-4 h after injection and six planar images were obtained. Immediately after the standard study, furosemide was injected in all patients, and 30 min later the same number of images was obtained. DRF was calculated for each patient and from each DMSA study by using the arithmetic mean method. The difference between two studies (DMSA scintigraphy with or without furosemide administration and diuresis scintigraphy) was expressed as a percentage of the mean value of the two studies (the DRF value of the affected kidney was thus taken into account). The mean of the differences represented the systemic bias and the SD of the mean of the differences represented the precision of the technique. In seven patients, diuresis renography revealed an obstructive curve pattern. We did not observe any significant difference between the DRF values obtained before and after diuretic administration (P>0.5). When we compared DRF values obtained from standard and from diuretic DMSA studies, the mean of the differences was only 0.3% and the SD was only 1.2%. There was also no significant difference in DRF between patients with the obstructive curve pattern and those with a dilated renogram curve pattern (with washout of

  10. Is furosemide administration effective in improving the accuracy of determination of differential renal function by means of technetium-99m DMSA in patients with hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kabasakal, Levent; Turkmen, Cuneyt; Ozmen, Ozlem; Alan, Nalan; Onsel, Cetin; Uslu, Ilhami [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Aksaray Istanbul, 34303 (Turkey)

    2002-11-01

    It has been suggested that determination of differential renal function (DRF)using technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) may lead to overestimation of the function of an obstructed kidney in patients with excretion abnormalities owing to pelvic retention of DMSA. Recently published guidelines have recommended use of furosemide injection when calculating DRF in these particular patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of diuretic administration on the determination of DRF using DMSA scintigraphy. For this purpose, 19 patients, aged from 1 month to 69 years (19.4{+-}24.8 years, 15 males, 4 females), in whom pelvic retention had been documented by diuresis scintigraphy were included in the study. DMSA scintigraphy was performed in all patients 2-4 h after injection and six planar images were obtained. Immediately after the standard study, furosemide was injected in all patients, and 30 min later the same number of images was obtained. DRF was calculated for each patient and from each DMSA study by using the arithmetic mean method. The difference between two studies (DMSA scintigraphy with or without furosemide administration and diuresis scintigraphy) was expressed as a percentage of the mean value of the two studies (the DRF value of the affected kidney was thus taken into account). The mean of the differences represented the systemic bias and the SD of the mean of the differences represented the precision of the technique. In seven patients, diuresis renography revealed an obstructive curve pattern. We did not observe any significant difference between the DRF values obtained before and after diuretic administration (P>0.5). When we compared DRF values obtained from standard and from diuretic DMSA studies, the mean of the differences was only 0.3% and the SD was only 1.2%. There was also no significant difference in DRF between patients with the obstructive curve pattern and those with a dilated renogram curve pattern (with washout of

  11. Role of Tc-99M(V) DMSA for imaging of ocular melanoma developing in graves' patients treated with radioiodine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bandopadhyaya, G.P.; Barai, S.; Bal, C.S.

    2004-01-01

    The melanoma originates from the melanocytes, which are embryologically derived from neural crest. The melanoma of choroids in adults is a very common type primary ocular malignancy, where the tyrosine, an immediate precursor common for both melanin and thyroid hormone synthesis is involved. The neurogenic origins of melanoma and medullary thyroid carcinoma have also been shown to have certain common metabolites, receptors and the receptor binding proteins. Several radiolabelled derivatives either in the form of melanin metabolites or melanin binding agents including receptors/ receptor-binding proteins like somatostatin, calcitonin and other monoclonal antibodies, protein receptors (S-100, myelin basic protein, Leu-7, glial fibrillary acidic protein, HMB-45) etc. have been tried to evaluate/diagnose melanoma, staging or post therapeutic effects. However their cost of production, tedious synthetic and radiolabelling processes and the availability of certain cyclotron produced isotopes were not favorable or patient friendly. Moreover post-therapeutic assessments in melanoma patients were not encouraging. Because of the chelating properties of Tc-99m (V) Dimercaptosuccinic acid with Calcium ion, uptake by neurogenic tumors including ocular retinoblastoma, medullary thyroid carcinoma, pituitary adenoma etc has been demonstrated. Since MTC and Melanoma have the common neural crest origin and producing some common metabolites, receptors/receptor proteins and at the same time Tc-99m (V) DMSA was used in pre and post therapeutic assessment of Medullary thyroid carcinoma extensively. We therefore decided to use Tc-99m (v) DMSA for the assessment of melanoma developed in thyrotoxicosis patients who underwent radioiodine therapy more than 15 years back. The DMSA kits were prepared locally and labeled with Tecnetium-99m at pentavalent state. After the quality control each patients were injected a dose of 10mCi of Tc-99m labeled DMSA.The whole body images were taken after two

  12. Increased breast density correlates with the proliferation-seeking radiotracer (99m)Tc(V)-DMSA uptake in florid epithelial hyperplasia and in mixed ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive ductal carcinoma but not in pure invasive ductal carcinoma or in mild epithelial hyperplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papantoniou, Vassilios; Valsamaki, Pipitsa; Sotiropoulou, Evangelia; Tsaroucha, Angeliki; Tsiouris, Spyridon; Sotiropoulou, Maria; Marinopoulos, Spyridon; Kounadi, Evangelia; Karianos, Theodore; Fothiadaki, Athina; Archontaki, Aikaterini; Syrgiannis, Konstantinos; Ptohis, Nikolaos; Makris, Nikolaos; Limouris, Georgios; Antsaklis, Aris

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship of mammographic breast density (BD) and cell proliferation/focal adhesion kinase activation-seeking radiotracer technetium 99m pentavalent dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc(V)-DMSA) uptake in women with different breast histologies, that is, mild epithelial hyperplasia (MEH), florid epithelial hyperplasia (FEH), mixed ductal carcinoma in situ with invasive ductal carcinoma (DCIS + IDC), and pure IDC. Fifty-five women with histologically confirmed mammary pathologies were submitted preoperatively to mammography and 99mTc(V)-DMSA scintimammography. The percentage and intensity of 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake and the percentage of BD were calculated by computer-assisted methods and compared (t-test) between the breast pathologies. In breasts with increased BD, FEH and DCIS + IDC were found. On the contrary, pure IDC and MEH were identified in breasts with significantly lower BD values. In breasts with increased 99mTc(V)-DMSA area and intensity of uptake, FEH was the main lesion found compared to all other histologies. Linear regression analysis between BD and 99mTc(V)-DMSA uptake area and intensity revealed significant coefficients of correlation (r  =  .689, p < .001 and r  =  .582, p < .001, respectively). Increased BD correlates with the presence of FEH and mixed DCIS + IDC but not with pure IDC or MEH. Its close relationship to 99mTc(V)-DMSA, which also showed an affinity to FEH, indicates that stromal microenvironment may constitute a specific substrate leading to progression to different subtypes of cancerous lesions originating from different pathways.

  13. A study on 99Tcm-citrate and 99Tcm (V)-DMSA imaging in the diagnosis of acute purulent osteoarthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhaozhong; Lin Wei; Wu Hengfu; Wu Changwei; Yuan Gewen; Fan Ziwen; Wu Boyi

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical diagnostic value of 99 Tc m -citrate and 99 Tc m (1/2ae)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) imaging in the acute purulent osteoarthritis. Methods: Seventeen patients with confirmed acute purulent osteoarthritis and nineteen patients with non-purulent osteoarthritis were studied. In all patients, 99 Tc m -methylene diphosphonic acid (MDP), 99 Tc m -citrate and 99 Tc m (1/2ae)-DMSA imaging were sequentially performed and the images were analyzed semiquantitatively. Results: In the acute purulent osteoarthritis group, there were positive bonetactic accumulations at certain areas on the three kinds of imaging. In the non-purulent osteoarthritis group, 99 Tc m -MDP and 99 Tc m (1/2ae)-DMSA imaging showed clear bonetactic accumulation, but 99 Tc m -citrate imaging showed only light bonetactic accumulation in addition to the accumulations in soft tissue at certain areas. Lesion to nonlesion ratio (L/N=2.300±0.094) of acute purulent osteoarthritis was greater than that in non-purulent osteoarthritis group (1.298±0.054, P 99 Tc m -citrate imaging, and there was no significant difference between two groups on 99 Tc m (1/2ae)-DMSA imaging (L/N ratio of acute purulent osteoarthritis group was 3.495±0.180, and L/N ratio of non-purulent osteoarthritis group was 3.091±0.091, P>0.05). Conclusions: To diagnose the bone inflammation, 99 Tc m -citrate imaging coalesced with 99 Tc m -MDP or 99 Tc m (1/2ae)-DMSA imaging can help to evaluate the pathologic and physiologic progresses in bone inflammatory areas, at the same time , the information by 99 Tc m -citrate imaging is telling the actual inflammation areas, and that by 99 Tc m (1/2ae)-DMSA and 99 Tc m -MDP imaging is about the response to the increase of bone metabolism

  14. Tc-99m Ethylenedicysteine and Tc-99m Dimercaptosuccinic Acid Scintigraphy-Comparison of the Two for Detection of Scarring and Differential Cortical Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmalingam, Anitha; Pawar, Shwetal U; Parelkar, Sandesh V; Shetye, Suruchi S; Ghorpade, Mangala K; Tilve, Gundu H

    2017-01-01

    The differential cortical function obtained by Tc-99m EC is comparable to that of Tc-99m DMSA. However, identification of scars on Tc-99m EC images needs to be studied. The aim of the study is to evaluate role of Tc-99m EC for detection of scarring and differential cortical function by comparing with Tc-99m DMSA. Prospective observational study of recurrent UTI; minimum 6 weeks after acute episode; when urine examination is negative for pus cells. Forty-seven children with normal positioned kidneys underwent Tc-99m EC and DMSA scintigraphy. The DRF and cortical phase images of both studies in the same image matrix size were evaluated by two independent observers for scarring; Tc-99m DMSA was considered as the gold standard. MS Excel 2007 and GraphPad Instat V3.1 and ROC analysis. There was no significant difference in the detection of scarring using two studies with Cohen's kappa coefficient (κ) 0.932. The sensitivity and specificity of Tc-99m EC for detection of scarring was 98.75% and 99.15%, respectively. There was good agreement between the differential cortical function calculated using two studies. The summed Tc-99m EC images with an acceptable high image contrast allow detection of cortical scarring in patients with normal kidney positions. It is an excellent single-modality comprehensive investigational agent for renal parenchymal defects, function, and excretion evaluation with the added advantages of lower cost, convenience, and low radiation exposure to the child.

  15. {sup 99m}Tc-(V)DMSA scintimammography in the assessment of breast lesions: comparative study with {sup 99m}Tc-MIBI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papantoniou, V.; Papadaki, E.; Valotassiou, V.; Stipsanelli, A.; Zerva, C. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Alexandra University Hospital, Athens (Greece); Christodoulidou, J.; Pampouras, G. [Dept. of Radiology, Alexandra University Hospital, Athens (Greece); Louvrou, A.; Lazaris, D.; Keramopoulos, A.; Michalas, S. [Dept. of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, Alexandra University Hospital, Athens (Greece); Sotiropoulou, M. [Dept. of Pathology, Alexandra University Hospital, Athens (Greece)

    2001-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the diagnostic accuracy of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid [{sup 99m}Tc-(V)DMSA] and {sup 99m}Tc-methoxyisobutylisonitrile (MIBI) in the detection of primary breast cancer and metastatic lymph node involvement, and in the clarification of cases with indeterminate mammograms. Forty-one women (mean age{+-}SD 55{+-}7 years) referred for a suspicious breast lesion on physical examination and/or an abnormal mammogram underwent MIBI and (V)DMSA scintimammography (SMM) at separate sessions (48-h interval). Lateral prone and anterior supine images were obtained at 10 and 60 min after administration of 740-925 MBq of each tracer, in the arm contralateral to the breast lesion. The ipsilateral axillary region was also included in the field of view. The results of SMM and mammography were compared with histological findings. Breast cancer was histologically confirmed in 26 patients (mean diameter{+-}SD 2.87{+-}1.5 cm). Benign lesions were found in 15 patients (mean diameter{+-}SD 2.04{+-}2.7 cm). Mammography was definitely positive in 23/26 patients with breast cancer and indeterminate in 3/26 (sensitivity 88.4%). In benign lesions, mammography was true negative in 5/15 cases and indeterminate in 10/15 (specificity 33.3%). Both MIBI and (V)DMSA SMM detected 23/26 breast cancers (sensitivity 88.4%) and were true negative in 14/15 (specificity 93.3%). T/B ratios for breast cancer in MIBI and (V)DMSA scans were similar, and significantly higher than for benign lesions. MIBI correctly diagnosed 12/13 and (V)DMSA 11/13 cases in which the findings of mammography were indeterminate. In addition, (V)DMSA detected seven of eight cases of in situ ductal carcinoma (DCIS) associated with infiltrating carcinomas, while MIBI detected only two of these eight cases. (V)DSMA was also diffusely concentrated in benign lesions complicated by epithelial hyperplasia. Metastatic lymph node involvement was successfully imaged in

  16. Model-based comparison of maternal and foetal organ doses from 99mTc pertechnetate, DMSA, DTPA, HDP, MAA and MAG3 diagnostic intakes during pregnancy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saunders, Margaret; Palmer, Maria; Preece, Alan; Millard, Roger

    2002-01-01

    Organ residence times were calculated for diagnostic intakes of 99m Tc pertechnetate, 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA), hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP), macroaggregated albumin (MAA) and mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG 3 ) during the 1st and 3rd stages of pregnancy and used with the MIRDOSE3 pregnant female phantoms for generation of dose estimates. At stage 3 individual foetal organ doses were estimated via a surrogate phantom based on that for the new-born but with mean dose/cumulated activity (S) values scaled for compatibility with foetal whole body S. Stage 1 or 3 whole foetus doses ranged from 5.2 to 0.77 μGy MBq -1 respectively, analogous to current ICRP estimates for these agents using similar in vivo biodistribution model databases. Most stage 3 maternal and foetal organ doses were similar within a factor of 3, being higher in the foetus than the mother with pertechnetate, DTPA and MAG 3 , and lower with DMSA, HDP and MAA. Doses were more uniformly distributed among foetal organs than in the mother. Placental transfer was greatest with pertechnetate, where dose to the stage 3 foetal thyroid was 60-140 μGy MBq -1 . With each agent there was more placental transfer in stage 3 than in stage 1, but doses to stage 1 whole foetus were always higher, with the contribution from the mother dominant. For DMSA, HDP and MAG 3 the maternal contribution to total foetal body dose exceeded 93% for both stages. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of DMSA scintigraphy and urography in assessing both acute and permanent renal damage in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stokland, E.; Jacobsson, B. [Dept. of Pediatric Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden).; Hellstroem, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Jodal, U. [Dept. of Pediatrics, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden); Sixt, R. [Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital, Goeteborg Univ. (Sweden)

    1998-07-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and urography in the detection of renal involvement in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) in order to identify patients with a high risk of developing renal damage. Material and Methods: A total of 157 children (median age 0.4 years, range 5 days to 5.8 years) with first-time symptomatic UTI were examined scintigraphy (with an assessment of renal area involvement) and urography at the time of UTI and 1 year later. All evaluations were made blindly. Results: Of the total 314 kidneys, 80 (25%) were abnormal at initial scintigraphy. Of these 80 kidneys, 44 (55%) had normalized at follow-up. Of the 234 initially normal kidneys, 29 (12%) were abnormal at follow-up. One year after UTI, abnormalities were seen in 59 children at scintigraphy and in 18 children at urography. Renal area involvement was larger and split function abnormalities more common in kidneys that were abnormal at both scintigraphy and urography than in kidneys with only scintigraphic abnormalities. Conclusion: Quantitation of renal area involvement and split renal function at early scintigraphy would seem to be useful in identifying patients at risk of developing renal damage. Urography at 1 year after infection identified mainly those with the most severe scintigraphic abnormalities. The clinical importance of scintigraphic abnormalities that are not confirmed by urography is not known. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of DMSA scintigraphy and urography in assessing both acute and permanent renal damage in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stokland, E.; Jacobsson, B.; Jodal, U.; Sixt, R.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and urography in the detection of renal involvement in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) in order to identify patients with a high risk of developing renal damage. Material and Methods: A total of 157 children (median age 0.4 years, range 5 days to 5.8 years) with first-time symptomatic UTI were examined scintigraphy (with an assessment of renal area involvement) and urography at the time of UTI and 1 year later. All evaluations were made blindly. Results: Of the total 314 kidneys, 80 (25%) were abnormal at initial scintigraphy. Of these 80 kidneys, 44 (55%) had normalized at follow-up. Of the 234 initially normal kidneys, 29 (12%) were abnormal at follow-up. One year after UTI, abnormalities were seen in 59 children at scintigraphy and in 18 children at urography. Renal area involvement was larger and split function abnormalities more common in kidneys that were abnormal at both scintigraphy and urography than in kidneys with only scintigraphic abnormalities. Conclusion: Quantitation of renal area involvement and split renal function at early scintigraphy would seem to be useful in identifying patients at risk of developing renal damage. Urography at 1 year after infection identified mainly those with the most severe scintigraphic abnormalities. The clinical importance of scintigraphic abnormalities that are not confirmed by urography is not known. (orig.)

  19. [Calculation of the partial function of the kidney with DMSA in pediatrics: is the evaluation of the geometric mean necessary?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Rossmüller, B; Alalp, S; Fischer, S; Dresel, S; Hahn, K

    2001-08-01

    For assessment of differential renal function (PF) by means of static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) the calculation of the geometric mean of counts from the anterior and posterior view is recommended. Of this retrospective study was to find out, if the anterior view is necessary to receive an accurate differential renal function by calculating the geometric mean compared to calculating PF using the counts of the posterior view only. 164 DMSA-scans of 151 children (86 f, 65 m) aged 16 d to 16 a (4.7 +/- 3.9 a) were reviewed. The scans were performed using a dual head gamma camera (Picker Prism 2000 XP, low energy ultra high resolution collimator, matrix 256 x 256, 300 kcts/view, Zoom: 1.6-2.0). Background corrected values from both kidneys anterior and posterior were obtained. Using region of interest technique PF was calculated using the counts of the dorsal view and compared with the calculated geometric mean [SQR(Ctsdors x Ctsventr)]. The differential function of the right kidney was significantly less when compared to the calculation of the geometric mean (p or = 5% (5.0-9.5%) was obtained in only 6/164 scans (3.7%). Three of 6 patients presented with an underestimated PFdors due to dystopic kidneys on the left side in 2 patients and on the right side in one patient. The other 3 patients with a difference > 5% did not show any renal abnormality. The calculation of the PF from the posterior view only will give an underestimated value of the right kidney compared to the calculation of the geometric mean. This effect is not relevant for the calculation of the differential renal function in orthotopic kidneys, so that in these cases the anterior view is not necessary. However, geometric mean calculation to obtain reliable values for differential renal function should be applied in cases with an obvious anatomical abnormality.

  20. Development and utilization of extracorporeal regional complexing hemodialysis as a means of mobilizing and enhancing the excretion of methylmercury in the dog. [N-acetylcysteine; N-acetylpenicillamine; 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostyniak, P.J.

    1975-01-01

    The present investigation was directed at developing and testing a new procedure for increasing methylmercury excretion in the dog. The procedure utilizes hemodialysis in conjunction with the extracorporeal reversal of protein binding of methylmercury in blood by the presence of low molecular weight sulfhydryl containing complexing agents (cysteine, N-acetylcysteine, penicillamine, N-acetylpenicillamine, 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) having a high chemical affinity for methylmercury. Using such a procedure, the complexed methylmercury and the free complexing agent were found to be readily removed from blood by the dialyzer. Unlike chelation therapy, this procedure does not rely on the attainment of high systemic concentrations of complexing agent in order to attain enhanced excretion by normal routes. It rather introduces into the circulatory system a shunt designed specifically for methylmercury extraction from blood. In vitro testing of this procedure revealed that methylmercury removal from blood was dependent upon the concentration of complexing agent in blood and the dialyzer blood flow rate. In vivo testing of the procedure in the dog utilized a standard hemodialyzer with infusion of complexing agent into the arterial dialyzer blood line. The rate of methylmercury removal from the dog during the treatment procedures were as high as 400 times the excretion rate of mercury in untreated dogs.

  1. A risk index for pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic imaging with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid that accounts for body habitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O’Reilly, Shannon E; Plyku, Donika; Sgouros, George; Frey, Eric C; Fahey, Frederic H; Ted Treves, S; Bolch, Wesley E

    2016-01-01

    Published guidelines for administered activity to pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging are currently obtained through expert consensus of the minimum values as a function of body weight as required to yield diagnostic quality images. We have previously shown that consideration of body habitus is also important in obtaining diagnostic quality images at the lowest administered activity. The objective of this study was to create a series of computational phantoms that realistically portray the anatomy of the pediatric patient population which can be used to develop and validate techniques to minimize radiation dose while maintaining adequate image quality. To achieve this objective, we have defined an imaging risk index that may be used in future studies to develop pediatric patient dosing guidelines. A population of 48 hybrid phantoms consisting of non-uniform B-spline surfaces and polygon meshes was generated. The representative ages included the newborn, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year and 15 year male and female. For each age, the phantoms were modeled at their 10th, 50th, and 90th height percentile each at a constant 50th weight percentile. To test the impact of kidney size, the newborn phantoms were modeled with the following three kidney volumes:  −15%, average, and  +15%. To illustrate the impact of different morphologies on dose optimization, we calculated the effective dose for each phantom using weight-based 99m Tc-DMSA activity administration. For a given patient weight, body habitus had a considerable effect on effective dose. Substantial variations were observed in the risk index between the 10th and 90th percentile height phantoms from the 50th percentile phantoms for a given age, with the greatest difference being 18%. There was a dependence found between kidney size and risk of radiation induced kidney cancer, with the highest risk indices observed in newborns with the smallest kidneys. Overall, the phantoms and

  2. A risk index for pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic imaging with 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid that accounts for body habitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Shannon E.; Plyku, Donika; Sgouros, George; Fahey, Frederic H.; Treves, S. Ted; Frey, Eric C.; Bolch, Wesley E.

    2016-03-01

    Published guidelines for administered activity to pediatric patients undergoing diagnostic nuclear medicine imaging are currently obtained through expert consensus of the minimum values as a function of body weight as required to yield diagnostic quality images. We have previously shown that consideration of body habitus is also important in obtaining diagnostic quality images at the lowest administered activity. The objective of this study was to create a series of computational phantoms that realistically portray the anatomy of the pediatric patient population which can be used to develop and validate techniques to minimize radiation dose while maintaining adequate image quality. To achieve this objective, we have defined an imaging risk index that may be used in future studies to develop pediatric patient dosing guidelines. A population of 48 hybrid phantoms consisting of non-uniform B-spline surfaces and polygon meshes was generated. The representative ages included the newborn, 1 year, 5 year, 10 year and 15 year male and female. For each age, the phantoms were modeled at their 10th, 50th, and 90th height percentile each at a constant 50th weight percentile. To test the impact of kidney size, the newborn phantoms were modeled with the following three kidney volumes:  -15%, average, and  +15%. To illustrate the impact of different morphologies on dose optimization, we calculated the effective dose for each phantom using weight-based 99mTc-DMSA activity administration. For a given patient weight, body habitus had a considerable effect on effective dose. Substantial variations were observed in the risk index between the 10th and 90th percentile height phantoms from the 50th percentile phantoms for a given age, with the greatest difference being 18%. There was a dependence found between kidney size and risk of radiation induced kidney cancer, with the highest risk indices observed in newborns with the smallest kidneys. Overall, the phantoms and techniques

  3. Model-based comparison of maternal and foetal organ doses from {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, DMSA, DTPA, HDP, MAA and MAG{sub 3} diagnostic intakes during pregnancy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saunders, Margaret; Palmer, Maria; Preece, Alan; Millard, Roger [Centre for Physics and Engineering Research in Medicine, University of Bristol, Bristol Oncology Centre, Horfield Road, Bristol BS2 8ED (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-01

    Organ residence times were calculated for diagnostic intakes of {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate, 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), diethylene triamine penta-acetic acid (DTPA), hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP), macroaggregated albumin (MAA) and mercapto-acetyltriglycine (MAG{sub 3}) during the 1st and 3rd stages of pregnancy and used with the MIRDOSE3 pregnant female phantoms for generation of dose estimates. At stage 3 individual foetal organ doses were estimated via a surrogate phantom based on that for the new-born but with mean dose/cumulated activity (S) values scaled for compatibility with foetal whole body S. Stage 1 or 3 whole foetus doses ranged from 5.2 to 0.77 {mu}Gy MBq{sup -1} respectively, analogous to current ICRP estimates for these agents using similar in vivo biodistribution model databases. Most stage 3 maternal and foetal organ doses were similar within a factor of 3, being higher in the foetus than the mother with pertechnetate, DTPA and MAG{sub 3}, and lower with DMSA, HDP and MAA. Doses were more uniformly distributed among foetal organs than in the mother. Placental transfer was greatest with pertechnetate, where dose to the stage 3 foetal thyroid was 60-140 {mu}Gy MBq{sup -1}. With each agent there was more placental transfer in stage 3 than in stage 1, but doses to stage 1 whole foetus were always higher, with the contribution from the mother dominant. For DMSA, HDP and MAG{sub 3} the maternal contribution to total foetal body dose exceeded 93% for both stages. (orig.)

  4. A comparative study of 99Tcm-MDP, 99Tcm(V)-DMSA and 99Tcm-Citrate in diagnosis of bone malignant tumors and bone/joint infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhaozhong; Wu Boyi; Lin Wei; Wei Xueli; Wu Hengfu; Fan Ziwen; Ouyang Zhi; Wu Changwei; Yuan Gewen

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of scans with 99 Tc m (V)-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to localize bone metastases and to evaluate the capability to diagnose bone/joint infections with scans using 99 Tc m -Citrate. Eighteen patients referred to bone metastases and eighteen patients referred to bone and joint infection were studied. In all patients, a bone scan of 99 Tc m -MDP was obtained initially. Subsequently, comparative scans with 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA and 99 Tc m -Citrate were conducted successively. Pathologic finding and/or microbiological finding, X-ray CT and/or MRI, and/or clinical follow-up (until symptoms disappeared) were considered to be proof of the presence of bone metastases and bone/joint infection. All of the eighteen patients with diagnosed bone metastases and of the eighteen patients with diagnosed bone and joint infection had positive 99 Tc m -MDP scintigraphy. The fifteen patients with diagnosed bone metastases and the fifteen patients with diagnosed bone/joint infection had increased 99 Tc m (V) -DMSA accumulation at certain areas matched with those shown in 99 Tc m -MDP scans, and only one patient with diagnosed bone metastases and the fifteen patients with diagnosed bone and joint infection had increased 99 Tc m -Citrate accumulation at certain areas matched with those shown in 99 Tc m -MDP scans. 99 Tc m -MDP scans show 64 bone lesions in the bone metastases while 49 lesions by the 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scans and only one lesion by the 99 Tc m -Citrate scans respectively. And 99 Tc m -MDP scans show 22 bone lesions in the bone and joint infection while 17 lesions by the 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging and 16 lesions by the 99 Tc m -Citrate imaging respectively. For bone metastases diagnosis, the sensitivity of 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging and 99 Tc m -Citrate imaging were 76.56% and 1.56%, respectively, and the specificity were only 22.73% and 27.27%, respectively. For bone and joint infection diagnosis, the sensitivity of two

  5. Usefulness of the dimercapto succinic pentavalent acid (99m Tc- Dmsa-V) in the diagnostic of the bone metastases illness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega L, N.

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the utility of 99m Tc-(V)- Dmsa whole body planar scan in the diagnostic of skeletal metastases. Nineteen patients were studied, having a recent 99m Tc-HDP bone scan reporting different pathologies (3 normal scans, 5 equivocal scans and 11 with disseminated bone metastases). 72 hours later, a whole body planar scan was obtained at 3 and 24 hours after the i.v. administration of 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa. Counts per pixel were determined in regions of interest drawn over metastases sites and in normal tissue, and were correlated with the bone scan. Statistical analysis was carried out by using the Kruskal-Wallis analysis of variance followed by Mann Whitney U test. Other comparisons were done with Momios, chi square and t Student tests. 273 lesions were studied in the whole body bone scan and 184 lesions in the 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa scintigraphy (t Student test n.s.). The tumor to normal tissue ratios were 3.3 (+/- 0.521) and the soft to normal tissue ratios were 1.01 (+/- 0.01), Mann Whitney p 99m Tc-(V)-Dmsa scintigraphy is an useful choice in the diagnostic of bone metastases when the whole body planar bone scan ( 99m Tc- HDP) is equivocal or abnormal. It also points out other lesions such as in bone and in soft tissue. (Author)

  6. Utility of the dimercapto succinic acid pentavalent (99m Tc- DMSA V) in the diagnostic of secondary bone leisure at metastasis of diverse primary tumours. Preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ortega L, N.; Pichardo R, P.A.; Marquez H, A.

    2005-01-01

    The more used method in the diagnosis of secondary bone lesions to become cancerous it is by means of having derived of phosphates like it is the 99m Tc- MDP. The reason of acquiring searching with the radiopharmaceutical 99m Tc- DMSA V is with the purpose to find other bone lesions that are not visualized with the gammagraphy with diphosphonate and therefore to increase the specificity of the study. (Author)

  7. Comparative study of unilateral renal tubule function using 131I-o-hippuran and sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid with regard to renal depth and excretion relations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moser, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    Good agreement was found between sonographic and nuclear renal depth data. In patients with undisturbed postrenal urodynamics, the data of unilateral renal clearance obtained by DMSA and OIH are in good agreement after depth correction. With OIH, the activity measured for unilateral congestion kidneys was higher than with DMSA. However, both methods may overestimate unilateral congestion kidneys. The OIH method should be favoured in nuclear renal diagnostics. In patients with mobile kidneys, the lower function calculated for the ptotic kidney can be evaluated only after depth correction. To reduce the radiation exposure, renal depth data required for depth correction should be determined by sonographic methods. The peak/scatter method of renal depth determination cannot be employed in practice in the 131 J hippurane test; in the sup(99m)Tc-DMSA test, sufficient agreement between peak/scatter quotient and renal depth is only obtained after background correction. The result does not warrant the tedious procedure. DMSA studies of the kidneys are appropriate in the following cases: 1. Emergency studies of unilateral renal function in cases of acute anuria due to postrenal stoppage. 2. Assessment of unilateral parenchymal function in patients with mobile kidneys if the ptotic kidney cannot be imaged by sonographic processes. 3. Search for extremely displaced renal tissue. 4. Unilateral renal function studies in patients with unilateral kidney diseases if the postrenal situation and the global renal function can be assessed by other methods. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Lipoic acid in combination with a chelator ameliorates lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaprasad, R.; Nagaraj, M.; Varalakshmi, P. [Department of Medical Biochemistry, University of Madras (Taramani), Chennai 600 113 (India)

    2002-08-01

    The deleterious effect of lead has been attributed to lead-induced oxidative stress with the consequence of lipid peroxidation. The present study was designed to investigate the combined effect of DL-{alpha}-lipoic acid (LA) and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on lead-induced peroxidative damages in rat kidney. The increase in peroxidated lipids in lead-poisoned rats was accompanied by alterations in antioxidant defence systems. Lead acetate (Pb, 0.2%) was administered in drinking water for 5 weeks to induce lead toxicity. LA (25 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) and DMSA (20 mg/kg body weight per day i.p) were administered individually and also in combination during the sixth week. Nephrotoxic damage was evident from decreases in the activities of {gamma}-glutamyl transferase and N-acetyl {beta}-D-glucosaminidase, which were reversed upon combined treatment with LA and DMSA. Rats subjected to lead intoxication showed a decline in the thiol capacity of the cell, accompanied by high malondialdehyde levels along with lowered activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione metabolizing enzymes (glutathione reductase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, glutathione-S-transferase). Supplementation with LA as a sole agent showed considerable changes over oxidative stress parameters. The study has highlighted the combined effect of both drugs as being more effective in reversing oxidative damage by bringing about an improvement in the reductive status of the cell. (orig.)

  9. The Hydrophobic Region of the DmsA Twin-Arginine Leader Peptide Determines Specificity with Chaperone DmsD

    OpenAIRE

    Winstone, Tara M. L.; Tran, Vy A.; Turner, Raymond J.

    2013-01-01

    The system specific chaperone DmsD plays a role in the maturation of the catalytic subunit of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) reductase, DmsA. Pre-DmsA contains a 45-amino acid twin-arginine leader peptide that is important for targeting and translocation of folded and cofactor-loaded DmsA by the twin-arginine translocase. DmsD has previously been shown to interact with the complete twin-arginine leader peptide of DmsA. In this study, isothermal titration calorimetry was used to investigate the the...

  10. Renal parenchymal damage on DMSA-scintigraphy in pelviureteric obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kullendorff, C.M.; Evander, E.

    1989-01-01

    During a 1.5 year period 21 children were investigated with 99-m-technetium dimercaptosuccini acid (DMSA) before operation for hydronephrosis due to pelviureteric obstruction. The age at investigation was 0.2-11.5 years. Fourty-two kidneys were examined. Hydronephrosis existed on the right side in 8 cases, left side in 9 and bilateral in 4 cases. Seventeen kidneys had no obstruction. The scintigraphy was interpreted as normal in 19 kidneys. Decreased isotope uptake was found in 23 kidneys and localized to the upper pole area in 19 kidneys. middle-lateral part in 7, lower pole area in 15 and the middle-medial part in 12 kidneys. There were no predominance for any part of the kidney to be affected by parenchymal damage. In 8 children investigated before the age of 1 year, 4 of 10 hydronephrotic kidneys revealed normal DMSA scintigram. DMSA scintigraphy delineates functioning renal parenchyma. It can be recommended as a routine method for evaluation of the renal parenchyma before surgery and for follow up studies in all ages of childhood

  11. Morphological analysis of mouse lungs after treatment with magnetite-based magnetic fluid stabilized with DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira Garcia, Monica; Miranda Parca, Renata; Braun Chaves, Sacha; Paulino Silva, Luciano; Djalma Santos, Antonio; Guerrero Marques Lacava, Zulmira; Cesar Morais, Paulo; Azevedo, Ricardo Bentes

    2005-01-01

    Mouse lungs injected with magnetic fluids based on magnetite nanoparticles stabilized by 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid were studied. We observed clusters of magnetic nanoparticles inside blood vessels, within the organ parenchyma and cells, as well as increased numbers of leukocytes in the organ. Both the particle concentration and organ inflammation diminished in a time-dependent manner

  12. Development of methods of labeling pentavalent DMSA with 99mTc and 188Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brambilla, Tania de Paula

    2009-01-01

    Technetium-99 m is the most useful radionuclide in diagnostic imaging procedures in Nuclear Medicine, more than 80 percent of radiopharmaceuticals are 99m Tc-labeled compounds. 99m Tc-DMSA(V) has been used for imaging of soft tissue, head and neck tumors. It shows a particularly high specificity for medullary thyroid carcinoma and bone metastases in a variety of cancers. Biodistribution studies of 188 Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of 99m Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. The aim of this work is the development of methods of labeling DMSA(V) with 99m Tc and 188 Re. 99m Tc-DMSA(V) can be prepared by two methods. One of them is the indirect one, through the use of a commercial kit of DMSA (III), by adjusting the pH from 2.5 to ∼ 8.5 with NaHCO 3 . This method was evaluated and optimized presenting high labeling yields. The other method is the direct one, through the preparation of a lyophilised kit ready for labeling with 99m Tc, being the method of interest of this work, due to the easy of its clinical use. The most adequate formulation of the kit was: 1.71 mg of DMSA, 0.53 mg of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O and 0.83 mg of ascorbic acid (pH 9). Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved labeling this kit with 1 to 2 m L of 99m Tc with activities up to 4736 MBq (128 mCi). The kit was stable up to 6 months and biodistribution studies confirmed the quality of the DMSA (V) labeled with 99m Tc using this kit. The reduction potential of Re is lower than the one for Tc, so the labeling conditions of 188 Re-DMSA(V) are different from the ones used for 99m Tc- DMSA(V). 188 Re-DMSA(V) is prepared in acid solution, that makes it possible to use the DMSA (III) commercial kit developed for labeling with 99m Tc, prepared in pH 2.5, for labeling with 188 Re. Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved with this methodology, with a rection time of 30 minutes at 100 deg C using no more

  13. Study of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA biodistribution in experimental animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Thais O.M. de; Silva, Natanael G. da; Colturato, Maria T.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Araújo, Elaine B. de, E-mail: thais.castrom@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2017-11-01

    {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, succimer ({sup 99m}Tc), is a radiopharmaceutical commonly used in nuclear medicine for renal function evaluation by imaging. In order to achieve adequate labeling of the product with good radiochemical yield and standardized biological distribution, the interval of 185 - 3700 MBq should be kept in a maximum volume of 3 mL for product labeling. Moreover, one should avoid exposing the reconstituted solution to oxygen and using the product after four hours post labeling. The aim of the study was to quantify and evaluate the influence of different DMSA complexes on biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in experimental animals, taking in account variations in the labeling parameters. Radiochemical purity was determined by paper and thin layer chromatography using both acetone/Whatman 3MM, 0.9% NaCl/TLC-SG and n-propanol/ H{sub 2}O/acetic acid (4:3:1 V/V/V)/TLC-SG systems respectively for quantification of {sup 99m}TcO{sub 4} - and {sup 99m}TcO{sub 2} plus some {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA complexes. The labeling activity did not significantly affect the extent of the main complex generation. The presence of oxygen and the concentration of {sup 99}Tc did not markedly change the percentage of the radiochemical impurities in the preparation. Radiochemical purity tests of the DMSA-{sup 99m}Tc based on IPEN-CNEN DMSA-TEC reagent and on another producer's reagent showed similar results. Although the routine method used by IPEN-CNEN to determine the radiochemical yield of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA was not able to discriminate among {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA complexes, the renal uptake and the kidney to liver plus spleen uptake ratio in rats met the official compendia criteria for the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  14. Study of "9"9"mTc-DMSA biodistribution in experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro, Thais O.M. de; Silva, Natanael G. da; Colturato, Maria T.; Felgueiras, Carlos F.; Mengatti, Jair; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Araújo, Elaine B. de

    2017-01-01

    "9"9"mTc-DMSA, succimer ("9"9"mTc), is a radiopharmaceutical commonly used in nuclear medicine for renal function evaluation by imaging. In order to achieve adequate labeling of the product with good radiochemical yield and standardized biological distribution, the interval of 185 - 3700 MBq should be kept in a maximum volume of 3 mL for product labeling. Moreover, one should avoid exposing the reconstituted solution to oxygen and using the product after four hours post labeling. The aim of the study was to quantify and evaluate the influence of different DMSA complexes on biological distribution of the radiopharmaceutical in experimental animals, taking in account variations in the labeling parameters. Radiochemical purity was determined by paper and thin layer chromatography using both acetone/Whatman 3MM, 0.9% NaCl/TLC-SG and n-propanol/ H_2O/acetic acid (4:3:1 V/V/V)/TLC-SG systems respectively for quantification of "9"9"mTcO_4 - and "9"9"mTcO_2 plus some "9"9"mTc-DMSA complexes. The labeling activity did not significantly affect the extent of the main complex generation. The presence of oxygen and the concentration of "9"9Tc did not markedly change the percentage of the radiochemical impurities in the preparation. Radiochemical purity tests of the DMSA-"9"9"mTc based on IPEN-CNEN DMSA-TEC reagent and on another producer's reagent showed similar results. Although the routine method used by IPEN-CNEN to determine the radiochemical yield of "9"9"mTc-DMSA was not able to discriminate among "9"9"mTc-DMSA complexes, the renal uptake and the kidney to liver plus spleen uptake ratio in rats met the official compendia criteria for the radiopharmaceutical. (author)

  15. Utility of the dimercapto succinic acid pentavalent ({sup 99m} Tc- DMSA V) in the diagnostic of secondary bone leisure at metastasis of diverse primary tumours. Preliminary study; Utilidad del acido dimercapto succinico pentavalente ({sup 99m} Tc-DMSA V) en el diagnostico de lesiones oseas secundarias a metastasis de diversos tumores primarios. Estudio preliminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega L, N [Hospital de Especialidades ' Dr. Antonio Fraga Mouret' Centro Medico Nacional ' La Raza' , IMSS Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Pichardo R, P A [Medico Nuclear adscrito al servicio de Medicina Nuclear del Hospital de Oncologia, Centro Medico Nacional Siglo XXI, IMSS, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Marquez H, A [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, IMSS, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2005-07-01

    The more used method in the diagnosis of secondary bone lesions to become cancerous it is by means of having derived of phosphates like it is the {sup 99m}Tc- MDP. The reason of acquiring searching with the radiopharmaceutical {sup 99m}Tc- DMSA V is with the purpose to find other bone lesions that are not visualized with the gammagraphy with diphosphonate and therefore to increase the specificity of the study. (Author)

  16. Synthesis of {sup 188}Re-DMSA complex using carrier-free {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Kazuyuki; Izumo, Mishiroku [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Islam, M S

    1997-03-01

    The synthesis of rhenium-DMSA labelled compound using carrier-free {sup 188}Re from the {sup 188}W/{sup 188}Re generator has been carried out. Stannous chloride was used as the reducing agent for reduction of rhenium and ascorbic acid was used as an antioxidant in the reaction media. The dependence of the yield of Re-DMSA complex upon the concentration of reducing agent, pH, reaction time, anti-oxidant, carrier and temperature was investigated. Under optimum conditions, the yield of Re-DMSA complexes were more than 98% for the carrier-free as well as carrier-added {sup 188}Re. The stability of the Re-DMSA complexes at different pH and time were also investigated. It was found that the Re-DMSA complex was very stable and did not undergo any changes or decomposition with the changes of pH from its initial values even after 48 hours of pH change for carrier-free as well as carrier-added complexes. (author)

  17. DMSA-scintigraphy in paediatrics: is the evaluation of the geometric mean necessary for the calculation of the differential renal function?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porn, U.; Alalp, S.; Fischer, S.; Dresel, S.; Rossmueller, B.; Hahn, K.

    2001-01-01

    For assessment of differential renal function (PF) by means of static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) the calculation of the geometric mean of counts from the anterior and posterior view is recommended. Aim of this retrospective study was to find out, if the anterior view is necessary to receive an accurate differential renal function by calculating the geometric mean compared to calculating PF using the counts of the posterior view only. Methods: 164 DMSA-scans of 151 children (86 f, 65 m) aged 16 d to 16 a (4.7 ± 3.9 a) were reviewed. The scans were performed using a dual head gamma camera (Picker Prism 2000 XP, low energy ultra high resolution collimator, matrix 256 x 256, 300 kcts/view, Zoom: 1.6-2.0). Background corrected values from both kidneys anterior and posterior were obtained. Using region of interest technique PF was calculated using the counts of the dorsal view and compared with the calculated geometric mean [SQR(Cts dors x Cts ventr )]. Results: The differential function of the right kidney was significantly less when compared to the calculation of the geometric mean (p geom and the PF dors was 1.5 ± 1.4%. A difference ≥5% (5.0-9.5%) was obtained in only 6/164 scans (3.7%). Three of 6 patients presented with an underestimated PF dors due to dystopic kidneys on the left side in 2 patients and on the right side in one patient. The other 3 patients with a difference >5% did not show any renal abnormality. Conclusion: The calculation of the PF from the posterior view only will give an underestimated value of the right kidney compared to the calculation of the geometric mean. This effect is not relevant for the calculation of the differential renal function in orthotopic kidneys, so that in these cases the anterior view is not necessary. However, geometric mean calculation to obtain reliable values for differential renal function should be applied in cases with an obvious anatomical abnormality. (orig.) [de

  18. Estimation of normal chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid clearance in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, A.; Pintelon, H.; Ham, H.R.

    1994-01-01

    In order to estimate the normal range of chromium-51 ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance in children, we selected a series of 256 patients with past or present urinary tract infection who showed, at the time of the clearance determination, normal technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy and normal left to right DMSA relative uptake. The clearance was calculated by means of either the simplified second exponential method or the 120-min single blood sample; Chantler's correction was used in order to correct for having neglected the first exponential. There was a progressive increase in clearance from the first weeks of life (mean value around 1 month: 55 ml/min/1.73 m 2 ), with a plateau at around 18 months. Between 2 and 17 years of age, the clearance values remained constant, with a mean value of 114 ml/min/1.73 m 2 (SD: 24 ml/min); this is similar to the level described for inulin clearance. No significant differences were observed between boys and girls, or between clearance values calculated with one or with two blood samples. Taking into account the hour of intravenous injection of the tracer, we did not observe any influence of the lunchtime meal on the distribution of the 51 Cr-EDTA clearance values. (orig.)

  19. The preparation for an instant kit of 99mTc(V) DMSA as a tumor-seeking imaging agent and animal experimentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yunlong; Li Hongyu; Jing Hui; Guo Hongyuan; Liu Yingmei; Zhao Hui

    1997-10-01

    A method for preparing an instant kit of 99m Tc(V) DMSA was described. The effect of pH on labelling efficiency of the kit was investigated. 99m Tc(V) DMSA was characterized by TLC on silica-gel sheets, eluting with n-butanol: acetic acid: water = 3:2:3 (volume ratio). Radiochemical purity and stability of 99m Tc(V) DMSA in vitro were studied. The results clearly demonstrated that the yield of 99m Tc(V) DMSA was more than 95% at pH 8∼8.5 and the agent was stable in 3 h at room temperature. Effect of temperature, moisture and luminosity on the stability of the freeze-dried kit were considered. The biological distributions of 99m Tc(V) DMSA were measured in mice bearing tumor S180. The results indicated that during 1∼6 h after i.v. injection, 99m Tc(V) DMSA was highly up taken in tumor tissue, the ratios of tumor: muscle and tumor: bone were in the ranges of 1.4∼2.4 and 1.2∼1.8, respectively. This peculiarity indicated that 99m Tc(V) DMSA has tumor-seeking property and could be used as a tumor-seeking imaging agent. (9 refs., 11 tabs.)

  20. Development of methods of labeling pentavalent DMSA with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re; Desenvolvimento de metodos para marcacao de DMSA pentavalente com {sup 99m}Tc e {sup 188}Re

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brambilla, Tania de Paula, email: jtoniolo@ipen.br

    2009-07-01

    Technetium-99 m is the most useful radionuclide in diagnostic imaging procedures in Nuclear Medicine, more than 80 percent of radiopharmaceuticals are {sup 99m}Tc-labeled compounds. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) has been used for imaging of soft tissue, head and neck tumors. It shows a particularly high specificity for medullary thyroid carcinoma and bone metastases in a variety of cancers. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of these tumors. The aim of this work is the development of methods of labeling DMSA(V) with {sup 99m}Tc and {sup 188}Re. {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V) can be prepared by two methods. One of them is the indirect one, through the use of a commercial kit of DMSA (III), by adjusting the pH from 2.5 to {approx} 8.5 with NaHCO{sub 3}. This method was evaluated and optimized presenting high labeling yields. The other method is the direct one, through the preparation of a lyophilised kit ready for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, being the method of interest of this work, due to the easy of its clinical use. The most adequate formulation of the kit was: 1.71 mg of DMSA, 0.53 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 0.83 mg of ascorbic acid (pH 9). Labeling yields higher than 95% were achieved labeling this kit with 1 to 2 m L of {sup 99m}Tc with activities up to 4736 MBq (128 mCi). The kit was stable up to 6 months and biodistribution studies confirmed the quality of the DMSA (V) labeled with {sup 99m}Tc using this kit. The reduction potential of Re is lower than the one for Tc, so the labeling conditions of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) are different from the ones used for {sup 99m}Tc- DMSA(V). {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) is prepared in acid solution, that makes it possible to use the DMSA (III) commercial kit developed for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc, prepared in pH 2.5, for labeling with {sup 188}Re. Labeling yields higher than 95% were

  1. Cintilografia renal com ácido dimercaptossuccínico marcado com tecnécio no diagnóstico da pielonefrite na infância: estudo de 17 casos Renal scintigraphy using technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid in the diagnosis of pyelonephritis in children: study of 17 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliana B.M. Guidoni

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: a infecção do trato urinário é uma das doenças bacterianas mais freqüentes em pediatria. O envolvimento infeccioso renal (pielonefrite pode evoluir com formação de cicatriz renal irreversível com conseqüente perda funcional e dano renal progressivo. Estudos recentes sugerem que até 50-60% das cicatrizes renais poderiam ser evitadas ou atenuadas com o diagnóstico precoce da pielonefrite. O objetivo deste estudo é determinar se a presença de alterações na cintilografia renal com DMSA na fase aguda da infecção urinária pode ser indicadora de pielonefrite. MÉTODOS: empregamos a técnica de washout em 17 meninas portadoras de infecção urinária como padrão-ouro na localização do sítio da infecção. Todas as crianças realizaram cintilografia renal com DMSA na fase aguda da infecção. Os resultados foram analisados pelo teste do qui-quadrado ou de Fisher. RESULTADOS: a cintilografia renal com DMSA detectou alterações em todos os cinco casos de pielonefrite diagnosticados pelo washout sugerindo envolvimento renal. Observamos também que apenas uma das crianças com cistite (total = 12 casos apresentava alterações ao DMSA. Portanto, a sensibilidade e especificidade deste estudo com DMSA na fase aguda da infecção foi de 100% e 92% respectivamente no diagnóstico da pielonefrite. CONCLUSÕES: a cintilografia renal com DMSA mostrou-se método sensível no diagnóstico da pielonefrite aguda em crianças.OBJECTIVE: to determine whether the presence of abnormal results in DMSA renal scintigraphy indicates pyelonephritis. METHODS: we performed the washout test in 17 children with urinary tract infection, as a criterion standard, to locate the infection site. All the children underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy in the acute phase of the disease. The results were analyzed by the chi-square test or Fisher test. RESULTS: DMSA renal scintigraphy revealed changes in all five cases of pyelonephritis, suggesting acute kidney

  2. DMSA-scintigraphy in paediatrics: is the evaluation of the geometric mean necessary for the calculation of the differential renal function?; Partialfunktionsberechnung der Nieren mit DMSA in der Paediatrie: ist fuer die Bestimmung das geometrische Mittel notwendig?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Porn, U.; Alalp, S.; Fischer, S.; Dresel, S. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Rossmueller, B. [Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Hahn, K. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany); Inst. fuer Radiologische Diagnostik, Klinikum der Ludwig-Maximilians-Univ. Muenchen (Germany)

    2001-08-01

    For assessment of differential renal function (PF) by means of static renal scintigraphy with Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) the calculation of the geometric mean of counts from the anterior and posterior view is recommended. Aim of this retrospective study was to find out, if the anterior view is necessary to receive an accurate differential renal function by calculating the geometric mean compared to calculating PF using the counts of the posterior view only. Methods: 164 DMSA-scans of 151 children (86 f, 65 m) aged 16 d to 16 a (4.7 {+-} 3.9 a) were reviewed. The scans were performed using a dual head gamma camera (Picker Prism 2000 XP, low energy ultra high resolution collimator, matrix 256 x 256, 300 kcts/view, Zoom: 1.6-2.0). Background corrected values from both kidneys anterior and posterior were obtained. Using region of interest technique PF was calculated using the counts of the dorsal view and compared with the calculated geometric mean [SQR(Cts{sub dors} x Cts{sub ventr})]. Results: The differential function of the right kidney was significantly less when compared to the calculation of the geometric mean (p<0.01). The mean difference between the PF{sub geom} and the PF{sub dors} was 1.5 {+-} 1.4%. A difference {>=}5% (5.0-9.5%) was obtained in only 6/164 scans (3.7%). Three of 6 patients presented with an underestimated PF{sub dors} due to dystopic kidneys on the left side in 2 patients and on the right side in one patient. The other 3 patients with a difference >5% did not show any renal abnormality. Conclusion: The calculation of the PF from the posterior view only will give an underestimated value of the right kidney compared to the calculation of the geometric mean. This effect is not relevant for the calculation of the differential renal function in orthotopic kidneys, so that in these cases the anterior view is not necessary. However, geometric mean calculation to obtain reliable values for differential renal function should be applied in

  3. Formulation, radiopharmaceutical kinetics and dosimetry of the {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA complex; Formulacion, radiofarmacocinetica y dosimetria del complejo {sup 188}Re(V)-DMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia S, L; Ferro F, G [Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos. Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, C.P. 52045 Salazar, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M [Departamento de Medicina Nuclear, Instituto Nacional de la Nutricion, Salvador Zubiran, Mexico D.F. (Mexico); Azorin N, J [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    It was developed through experimental design (ANOVA), a formulation to prepare the {sup 188} Re(V)-Dmsa complex. Likewise, there were realized studies of radiopharmaceutical kinetics and internal dosimetry in animals, its normal and with induced tumors, considering an open bi compartmental model using the MIRD methodology. The {sup 188} Re(V)-Dmsa complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 95% incubating 30 min at 90 Centigrade under the following formulation: [SnCl{sub 2}] = 1.4 mg/ml, [ascorbic acid] = 0.5 mg/ml, p H = 2.0 - 3.0. The stability test of the formulation, shows that after 48 h of its preparation, does not produce radiolytic degradation neither chemical decomposition. The radiopharmaceutical kinetics data show an average residence time 7.2h, velocity constant {alpha} = 0.6508h{sup -1} and {beta} = 0.1046 h{sup -1} with an apparent distribution volume 6.9 l. The main elimination via was renal and it was observed osseous caption with an accumulated activity 522.049 {+-} 62 MBq h (residence time 14.1094 {+-} 1.69h). In according with the dosimetric calculations, by each 37 MBq injected, the equivalent dose at the tumor was 9.67{+-} 0.33 Sv/g, for an effective dose 0.292 {+-} 0.0017 mSv/MBq. The images obtained in the gamma camera of the mice with induced tumors, show that do not have significant accumulation in the metabolic organs. The caption in bone and in tumors induced of the {sup 188} Re(V)-Dmsa complex, show its potential for be used as a palliative agent for pain in patients with osseous metastasis and in the treatment of tumors of soft tissue. (Author)

  4. Evaluation of mitomycin-C effect on biodistribution of {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid in BALB/C mice; Avaliacao do efeito da mitomicina-c na biodistribuicao do radiofarmaco acido dimercaptosuccinico marcado com tecnecio-99m em camundongos BALB/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomes, Maria Luisa; Britto, Deise Mara de M.; Freitas, Rosimeire de S.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica; Braga, Ana Cristina de S.; Bezerra, Roberto Jose A.C. [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    1999-11-01

    The many desirable characteristics of technetium-99m have stimulated the development of labeling techniques for different molecular and cellular structures. It is accepted that a variety of factors such the drug chemotherapy can alter the biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals. The unknowledge of these factor may result in an unexpected behavior of the radiopharmaceuticals. Since patients on chemotherapeutic treatment can be submitted to a nuclear medicine procedure, we have studied in mice, the effect of mitomycin-C on the {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA used for kidney scintigraphy. Mitomycin-C is an antineoplastic agent obtained from Streptomyces caesptosus. The metabolism of this drug produces different toxic and inactive metabolites. Mitomycin-C 0.15 mg was administered in Balb/c female with an interval of 72 hours. After one hour of the last dose, 0.3 ml of 9{sup 9m}c-DMSA (7.4 MBq) were injected and after 0.5 h the animals were sacrificed. The organs were isolated and counted in a well counter. The percentage of radioactivity (%ATI) were calculated and statistical analysis were performed (Wilcoxon Test). The results have shown that the %ATI: has increased in stomach and uterus, has decreased in kidney and ovary; has not altered in pancreas, spleen, lung, heart, liver, thymus, thyroid, bone and brain. The increase of % ATI could be justified by the metabolic process or the therapeutical effect of mitomycin-C. As an effect of this drug is observed in the uptake of the {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA by the kidney, probably an alteration in the kidney scintigraphy is expected. However, the increase of %ATI of this radiopharmaceutical in other organs by the mitomycin-C could be evaluated carefully. (author) 12 ref., 2 tabs.

  5. Data of evolutionary structure change: 1DMSA-1TMOA [Confc[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 1DMSA-1TMOA 1DMS 1TMO A A LANGTVMSGSHWGVFTATVENGRATAFTPWEKDPHPTPMLEGVLDSIYSPTRIKYPMVRREFLEKGVNADRSTRGNGDFVRVSWDQALDLVAA...index> 1DMS A 1DMS...VID> 1 1DMS A 1DMSA 2.436803102493286 2 1DMS... A 1DMSA QLNGT-VLREG

  6. Accumulation of Tc99m-DMSA-3 in the spleen in a case of multiple myeloma with associated amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barai Sukanta

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case of a 58-year-old male with longstanding hypertension and Type 2 diabetes mellitus who developed sudden onset renal impairment. The first clue to the possible presence of amyloidosis in this case was provided by the radionuclide renal cortical scan performed with trivalent dimercapto succinic acid (Tc99m-DMSA-3, which revealed intense tracer uptake in the spleen suggesting amyloid deposit. Further workup to ascertain the cause of amyloidosis led to the diagnosis of multiple myeloma. We conclude that in cases of extra-renal or splenic accumulation of Tc99m-DMSA-3, a diagnosis of amyloidosis should be considered, in an appropriate clinical setting.

  7. Formulation, radiopharmaceutical kinetics and dosimetry of the 188Re(V)-DMSA complex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia S, L.; Ferro F, G.; Murphy, C.A. de; Pedraza L, M.; Azorin N, J.

    1999-01-01

    It was developed through experimental design (ANOVA), a formulation to prepare the 188 Re(V)-Dmsa complex. Likewise, there were realized studies of radiopharmaceutical kinetics and internal dosimetry in animals, its normal and with induced tumors, considering an open bi compartmental model using the MIRD methodology. The 188 Re(V)-Dmsa complex was obtained with a radiochemical purity greater than 95% incubating 30 min at 90 Centigrade under the following formulation: [SnCl 2 ] = 1.4 mg/ml, [ascorbic acid] = 0.5 mg/ml, p H = 2.0 - 3.0. The stability test of the formulation, shows that after 48 h of its preparation, does not produce radiolytic degradation neither chemical decomposition. The radiopharmaceutical kinetics data show an average residence time 7.2h, velocity constant α = 0.6508h -1 and β = 0.1046 h -1 with an apparent distribution volume 6.9 l. The main elimination via was renal and it was observed osseous caption with an accumulated activity 522.049 ± 62 MBq h (residence time 14.1094 ± 1.69h). In according with the dosimetric calculations, by each 37 MBq injected, the equivalent dose at the tumor was 9.67± 0.33 Sv/g, for an effective dose 0.292 ± 0.0017 mSv/MBq. The images obtained in the gamma camera of the mice with induced tumors, show that do not have significant accumulation in the metabolic organs. The caption in bone and in tumors induced of the 188 Re(V)-Dmsa complex, show its potential for be used as a palliative agent for pain in patients with osseous metastasis and in the treatment of tumors of soft tissue. (Author)

  8. DMSA study performed during febrile urinary tract infection: a predictor of patient outcome?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camacho, V.; Estorch, M.; Tembl, A.; Mena, E.; Flotats, A.; Hernandez, Ma.; Fraga, G.; Carrio, I.

    2002-01-01

    DMSA study is an established method for the assessment of renal sequelae after acute pyelonephritis related to febrile urinary tract infection (UTI). However, at the moment is not established if the DMSA study performed during the acute UTI has any prognostic value for outcome assessment. Objectives: to assess the usefulness of DMSA study performed during febrile UTI as predictor of patient outcome. Methods: One hundred-fifty-two children (74 boys) with mean age 20 months (range 1m-12 y) with first febrile UTI were studied by DMSA planar scintigraphy during the acute illness period (first 5 days). All patients had positive grown bacillus in urine (78% E. coli, 8% P. mirabilis), and all followed the same antibiotic treatment. After acute UTI all patients were explored by voiding cysto urethrography for diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Fifty-seven patients who had an abnormal DMSA study, VUR, or recurrent UTI underwent a DMSA control study (mean 8m after UTI). Results: DMSA study during febrile UTI was normal in 112 children (74%). In 95 of these children, follow-up DMSA studies were not performed due to a good clinical outcome (no VUR, no recurrent UTI). In the remaining 17 patients, follow-up DMSA studies were normal as well. Forty children (26%), who presented focal or diffuse cortical lesions during acute UTI, underwent a DMSA control study. Twenty-six of them presented a normal control DMSA, and 14 (9% of all patients) presented cortical lesions, 10 associated with a high-grade VUR. Fifty-seven children were followed by control DMSA, and no significant correlation between initial and follow-up study was found (κ= 0.250, p<0.007). Conclusion: These results indicate that DMSA study performed during febrile UTI may not be useful as predictor of patient outcome. Voiding cysto urethrography and control DMSA study seem to be more useful to select patients at risk of development of chronic cortical lesions

  9. Paediatric 99mTc-DMSA imaging: reducing distress and rate of sedation using a psychological approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Train, H.; Colville, G.; Allan, R.; Thurlbeck, S.

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of a psychological approach on distress and sedation rates in children undergoing dimer captosuccinic acid-labelled with technetium-99 (99mTc) DMSA imaging. Materials and methods: Baseline data, on a retrospective consecutive sample of children examined using DMSA over a 6-month period (n = 81), were collected via medical note search and postal questionnaire. A further consecutive sample of 40 children was recruited prospectively to the intervention, which consisted of distraction during medical procedures and environmental manipulation. In addition half of the intervention group were provided with a photo-booklet depicting a coping child model, together with a letter offering advice to parents on how to prepare their child for the procedure. Results: Sedation rates were lower (p = 0.003) and service satisfaction ratings higher (p = 0.002) in the Intervention group as compared with the Baseline group. Within the intervention condition, children who received the photo-booklet displayed less distress before the procedure (p = 0.01) than those who did not. Also families who received the photo-booklet were more likely to attend the appointment (p = 0.024). Conclusion: In this study, the use of a psychological approach was associated with lower rates of distress and sedation in children undergoing 99mTc-DMSA imaging, without compromising image quality

  10. Is the renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA decreased in microalbuminuric diabetic patient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Seong Jang; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Yong Ki

    1999-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the most common cause of end stage renal disease and the incidence is progressively increasing. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences of 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake among diabetic patients with normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria and overt proteinuria, and then to determine the clinical usefulness of 99m Tc-DMSA in predicting early diabetic nephropathy. 99m Tc-DMSA scan was performed and a total renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA was measured in 145 diabetic patients. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the amount of 24 hour urinary albumin excretion as Group I (normoalbuminuria, 74 cases ), Group II (microalbuminuria, 39 cases), and Group III (overt proteinuria, 32 cases). The differences of 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake among the 3 groups and the correlation between the renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA and other clinical parameters were analyzed. The total renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA of Group II (40.8±11.0%) was significantly lower than that of Group I (54.4±6.3%, p 99m Tc-DMSA total renal uptakes correlated negatively with serum creatinine level (r=0.629, p 99m Tc-DMSA total renal uptake of diabetic patients with microalbuminuria was significantly decreased compared with that of patients of normoalbuminuria. Therefore, 99m Tc-DMSA scan can be used as a diagnostic study for early detection of the diabetic nephropathy

  11. Technetium and rhenium tracers with metabolizable ester functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Syhre, R.; Seifert, S.; Schneider, F.; Pietzsch, H.J.; Spies, H.; Johannsen, B.

    1993-01-01

    Re-DMSA (dimercaptosuccinic acid) ester complexes were prepored by ligand exchange reactions. To determine whether the ester band in Re-DMSA ester complexes is susceptible to cleavage by esterases, incubation experiments with tissue homogenates and plasma were carried out. (BBR)

  12. Assessment of relative individual renal function based on DMSA uptake corrected for renal size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estorch, M.; Camacho, V.; Tembl, A.; Mena, I.; Hernandez, A.; Flotats, A.; Carrio, I.; Torres, G.; Prat, L.

    2002-01-01

    Decreased relative renal DMSA uptake can be a consequence of abnormal kidney size, associated with normal or impaired renal function. The quantification of relative renal function based on DMSA uptake in both kidneys is an established method for the assessment of individual renal function. Aim: To assess relative renal function by means of quantification of renal DMSA uptake corrected for kidney size. Results were compared with relative renal DMSA uptake without size correction, and were validated against the absolute renal DMSA uptake. Material and Methods: Four-hundred-forty-four consecutive patients (147 adults, mean age 14 years) underwent a DMSA study for several renal diseases. The relative renal function, based on the relative DMSA uptake uncorrected and corrected for renal size, and the absolute renal DMSA uptake were calculated. In order to relate the relative DMSA uptake uncorrected and corrected for renal size with the absolute DMSA uptake, subtraction of uncorrected (SU) and corrected (SC) relative uptake percentages of each pair of kidneys was obtained, and these values were correlated to the matched subtraction percentages of absolute uptake (SA). If the individual relative renal function is normal (45%-55%), the subtraction value is less or equal to 10%. Results: In 227 patients (51%) the relative renal DMSA uptake value was normal either uncorrected or corrected for renal size (A), and in 149 patients (34%) it was abnormal by both quantification methods (B). Seventy-seven patients (15%) had the relative renal DMSA uptake abnormal only by the uncorrected method (C). Subtraction value of absolute DMSA uptake percentages was not significantly different of subtraction value of relative DMSA uptake percentages corrected for renal size when relative uncorrected uptake was abnormal and corrected normal. where * p<0.0001, and p=NS. Conclusion: When uncorrected and corrected relative DMSA uptake are abnormal, the absolute uptake is also impaired, while when

  13. A comparative study of 99Tcm (V)-DMSA imaging with histopathological examination in ovarian neoplasms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xinming; Wang Jianfang; Xu Fang; Yin Jie; Wei Lanxiu; Sun Li

    1999-01-01

    Objective: To assess the clinical value of 99 Tc m (V)-Dmsa imaging in detecting the ovarian and the pelvic cavity neoplasms. Methods: 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging was performed on 24 patients with diagnosed ovarian neoplasms which were pathologically confirmed after operation. Results: 14 of the 15 patients with malignant ovarian tumors had positive 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scintigraphy. However, 7 of 9 cases with benign ovarian tumors had negative 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scintigraphy. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, false positive rate, false negative rate, and accuracy of 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging for detecting malignant ovarian tumors were 93.33%, 77.78%, 87.50%, 87.50%, 14.29%, 6.67% and 87.50%, respectively. Conclusions: 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA imaging is of important value in detecting malignant and benign ovarian and pelvic tumors

  14. Automatic classification of DMSA scans using an artificial neural network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, J. W.; Duguid, R.; Mckiddie, F.; Staff, R. T.

    2014-04-01

    DMSA imaging is carried out in nuclear medicine to assess the level of functional renal tissue in patients. This study investigated the use of an artificial neural network to perform diagnostic classification of these scans. Using the radiological report as the gold standard, the network was trained to classify DMSA scans as positive or negative for defects using a representative sample of 257 previously reported images. The trained network was then independently tested using a further 193 scans and achieved a binary classification accuracy of 95.9%. The performance of the network was compared with three qualified expert observers who were asked to grade each scan in the 193 image testing set on a six point defect scale, from ‘definitely normal’ to ‘definitely abnormal’. A receiver operating characteristic analysis comparison between a consensus operator, generated from the scores of the three expert observers, and the network revealed a statistically significant increase (α quality assurance assistant in clinical practice.

  15. Variability in the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy after urine infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, J.; Howman-Giles, R.; Uren, R.; Irwig, L.; Bernard, E.; Knight, J.; Sureshkumar, P.; Roy, L.P.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: This study investigated the extent of and potential reasons for interpretation disagreement of 99m Tc-DMSA scans after urine infection in children. Methods: 441 scans were selected from children with first urine infection (UTI) from 1993-1995. 294 scans were performed at a median time of seven days after UTI and 147 in children free from infection over one year follow-up. Two nuclear medicine physicians independently reported according to whether renal abnormality was present or absent and used the four level grading system described by Goldraich: grade 1-no more than two cortical defects; grade 2 -more than 2 defects; grade 3-diffuse reduction in uptake with or without defects; grade 4 -shrunken kidney <10% function. Indices for variability used were the percentage of agreement and kappa statistic, expressed as a percentage. For the grading scale used, both measures were weighted with integers representing the number of categories from perfect agreement. Disagreement was analysed for children, kidneys and kidney zones. Results: There was agreement in 86 per cent (kappa 69%) for the normal-abnormal DMSA scan dichotomy, the weighted agreement was 94 per cent (kappa 82%) for the grading scale. Disagreement of DMSA scan interpretation ≥ two grades was present in three cases (0.7%). The same level of agreement was present for the patient, kidney and kidney zones comparisons. Agreement was not influenced by age or the timing of scintigraphy after urine infection. Conclusion: Two experienced physicians showed good agreement in the interpretation DMSA scintigraphy in children after urine infection and using the grading system of Goldraich

  16. Radiopharmaceuticals of DTPA, DMSA and EDTA labeled with holmium-166

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, M.; Matsouka, H.; Takami, S.; Terunuma, K.

    2001-01-01

    DTPA, DMSA and EDTA were labelled with 166 Ho of low specific activity, 250-275mCi/mg of Ho, produced from holmium oxide by the 165 Ho(n, g) 166 Ho reaction at a neutron flux of about 10 14 n.cm -2 .s -1 . Three pH ranges were selected in the study, viz. 2-3, 3-3.5 and 5-6. The labelling reactions were studied as chloride and nitrate solutions in aqueous and saline media at 30 min and 20-24 h of reaction. DTPA was labelled over 99, DMSA at about 90 and EDTA at 100.0% with 166 Ho. The complexes were found stable at all times of investigation. A beta chromatogram scanner was used to study by TLC the labelling reactions of DTPA and DMSA with the nuclide and by PC those of EDTA. A biodistribution study in three rats injected intravenous with a saline solution of 166 HoCl 3 [DTPA] at pH5.1 showed an initial uptake in blood, kidney and lung after 30 minutes. After four hours the complex was found to have cleared from blood and lung, and localized 100% in kidney. It was stable in vivo in the kidney after 24 hours. The g spectrum analysis did not show the formation of any impurity except the four characteristic g energies of 166 Ho. (author)

  17. Alteration of 99mTc-DMSA biodistribution in glomerulonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajic, M.; Bogicevic, M.; Ilic, S.; Vlajkovic, M.; Antic, S.; Mitic, B.; Avramovic, M.; Mitic-Zlatovic, M.; Stefanovic, V.

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relation between 99T c-DMSA biodistribution and its reliability as a marker of renal function in patients with glomerular kidney diseases. Sixty-seven patients involved in this study were classified into two groups according to 99T c-DTPA clearance and serum creatinine values: the 1. group consisted of 42 patients without renal failure while the 2nd group included 25 patients with renal failure. 99T c-DMSA biodistribution was determined by measuring kidney, blood and urine activity at 2 h and 4 h. The results, compared with those of 23 healthy volunteers, indicated the quantitative alteration of 99T c-DMSA distribution in both glomerulonephritis patient groups. In reference to the control mean values of 2 h and 4 h, in patients without renal failure, kidney activity was found decreased to 52% and 57%, while the blood activity increase of 37% and 44% was recorded together with the urine activity increase of 38% and 23%. In patients with renal failure the alterations of renal and blood activity were more remarkable, but the urine loss was found to be unchanged. It is suggested that these biodistribution changes originate mainly from tubular impairment. However, in glomerulonephritis patients, altered glomerular filtration might considerably affect biodistribution of this radiopharmaceutical and limits its suitability for precise quantitative estimation of renal function. (author)

  18. 99mTc DMSA scintigraphic findings in renal tuberculosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Kim, Kun Il; Yoon, Chi Soon; Lee, Suck Hong; Kim, Byung Soo

    1993-01-01

    Evaluations of residual renal function and the therapeutic effectiveness in renal tuberculosis have largely been dependent on intravenous pyelogram or Contrast-CT scan, even though, exact renal functions are not evaluate with there methods. 99m Tc- DMSA is a radiopharmaceutical that is trapped in the functioning tubular cells of the kidney and therefore, quantitative renal function could be evaluated by insuring the counts of renal radioactivity and concomitant evaluation of renal morphology could be passable with the analog images of the radioactivity. The authors retrospectively analyzed 99mTc-DMSA scans of 75 kidneys of 67 patients with confirmed renal tuberculosis. We classified the morphologies of tuberculous kidneys as 6 types. We classified the morphologies of tuberculous kidneys as 6 types such as the type with small cortical defect, with parenchymal ulcerocavernous lesions, ulcerocavernous fistula to pelvis, mass-like defects, contracted kidney with ureter visualization, and the type with non visualization of kidney, corresponding to the characters of renal tuberculous pathogenesis with abscess formation, ulcerocavernous fistula, and fibrosis, and corresponding to the renal anatomy with parenchyma, and pelvocalyceal collecting system. Their mean residual renal functions measured with 99mTc-DMSA uptake rates were 19.0%,18.4%, 7.9%, 12%, 4.1%, 3.4% respectively

  19. 99m-Tc DMSA scintigraphy and color/power doppler sonography for children pyelonephritis diagnosis and follow-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hitzel, A.; Manrique, A.; Gardin, I.; Vera, P.; Hitzel, A.; Dacher, J.N.; Manrique, A.; Menard, J.F.; Gardin, I.; Vera, P.; Dacher, J.N.; Liard, A.; Menard, J.F.

    2004-01-01

    Early diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis is essential to avoid scarring development. This study was performed to evaluate capabilities of color/doppler sonography to detect pyelonephritis and to predict scarring when compared with 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Fifty-seven children were evaluated during pyelonephritis: biology (CRP, creatinine, blood formula), color/power doppler sonography and 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy (DMSA1). 7 ± 2 months later, follow-up consisted in biological tests and a 99m 'Tc-DMSA scintigraphy (DMSA2). During pyelonephritis, body temperature, CRP value and neutrophil counts were significantly higher in patients with an abnormal DMSA1 but not in patients with abnormal doppler sonography. When compared with DMSA1, doppler sonography sensitivity and specificity were 80% and 81% respectively. DMSA1 and doppler sonography were concordant in 86% of children with a pyelonephritis. At follow-up, all clinical et biological parameters were normalized. DMSA2 was abnormal in 51% of children. When compared with DMSA2, positive and negative predictive values for scarring of doppler sonography were 57% and 75% respectively. DMSA 1, positive and negative predictive values for scarring were 62% and 100%. In conclusion, color/power doppler sonography is a reliable tool for pyelonephritis diagnosis, but its predictive value for scarring is poor. Negative predictive value of DMSA scintigraphy is excellent. (author)

  20. Renal damage detected by DMSA, despite normal renal ultrasound, in children with febrile UTI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bush, N C; Keays, M; Adams, C; Mizener, K; Pritzker, K; Smith, W; Traylor, J; Villanueva, C; Snodgrass, W T

    2015-06-01

    2011 American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines recommended renal-bladder ultrasound (RBUS) as the only evaluation after febrile urinary tract infection (FUTI) in infants aged 2-24 months. We determined the sensitivity, specificity, and false negative rate of RBUS to identify DMSA-detected renal damage in this age group as well as in older children. Consecutive patients referred to pediatric urology with a history of FUTI underwent DMSA ≥ 3 months after FUTI. Abnormal RBUS was defined as: Society of Fetal Urology hydronephrosis grades I-IV; hydroureter ≥ 7 mm; renal scar defined as focal parenchymal thinning; and/or size discrepancy ≥ 1 cm between kidneys. Abnormal DMSA was presence of any focal uptake defects and/or split renal function 24 months. RBUS had poor sensitivity (34%) and low positive predictive value (47%) to identify patients with renal damage. 99/149 (66%) children with renal damage on DMSA had normal RBUS. After FUTI, 66% of children with reduced renal function and/or renal cortical defects found by DMSA scintigraphy had a normal RBUS. Since abnormal DMSA may correlate with increased risk for VUR, recurrent FUTI and renal damage, our data suggest RBUS alone will fail to detect a significant proportion of patients at risk. The data suggest that imaging after FUTI should include acute RBUS and delayed DMSA, reserving VCUG for patients with abnormal DMSA and/or recurrent FUTI. Copyright © 2015 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Acute pyelonephritis in pediatric age: comparative study between power Doppler ultrasound scan and DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muro, M. D.; Sanguesa, C.; Otero, M. C.; Piqueras, A. I.; Lloret, M. T.

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of power Doppler (PD) Ultrasound Scan in the study of acute pyelonephritis (APN). To compare ultrasound scan results with those obtained with renal gammagraphy (DMSA). To relate the findings to the clinical criteria and to determine the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in the serial micturition cystography (SMC). Prospective study of 92 patients (ages between 1 month and 10 years) with suspected clinical PNA. All children were initially subjected to PD ultrasound scan and DMSA. Those under 3 years old were also subjected to SMC for the study of VUR. PNA in the PD ultrasound scan was manifested by decrease in vascularisation and in the DMSA by decrease in caption in the affected zones. 87 renal units (RU) with PNA foci were detected. Conformity between the PD ultrasound scan and DMSA was 157 RU (92%): 52 positives, 22 negatives with PNA and 83 normal RU. The sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 65.5% and 69.0%. 51 SMC were performed, with VUR being detected in 18 (13 bilateral and 5 unilateral), in which the sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 65.5% and 69.0%. 51 SMC were performed, with VUR being detected in 18 (13 bilateral and 5 unilateral), in which the sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 80% and 85%, respectively. Mode B ultrasound scan and PD can replace DMSA in the initial study of PPNA. It is non-invasive, simple, economical and just as reliable as DMSA in expert hands. it can also postpone by up to 6 months the need to perform DMSA for detection of permanent renal damage. (Author) 22 refs

  2. Combined Administration of Taurine and Monoisoamyl Dmsa Protects Arsenic Induced Oxidative Injury in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swaran J. S. Flora

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Arsenic is a naturally occurring element that is ubiquitously present in the environment. High concentration of naturally occurring arsenic in drinking water is a major health problem in different parts of the world. Despite arsenic being a health hazard and a well documented carcinogen, no safe, effective and specific preventive or therapeutic measures are available. Among various recent strategies adopted, administration of an antioxidant has been reported to be the most effective. The present study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA, administered either individually or in combination with taurine post chronic arsenic exposure in rats. Arsenic exposed male rats (25 ppm, sodium arsenite in drinking water for 24 weeks were treated with taurine (100 mg/kg, i.p., once daily, monoisoamyl dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA (50 mg/kg, oral, once daily either individually or in combination for 5 consecutive days. Biochemical variables indicative of oxidative stress along-with arsenic concentration in blood, liver and kidney were measured. Arsenic exposure significantly reduced blood δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD activity, a key enzyme involved in the heme biosynthesis and enhanced zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP level. Clinical hematological variables like white blood cells (WBC, mean cell hemoglobin (MCH, and mean cell hemoglobin concentration (MCHC showed significant decrease with a significant elevation in platelet (PLT count. These changes were accompanied by significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD activity and increased catalase activity. Arsenic exposure caused a significant decrease in hepatic and renal glutathione (GSH level and an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG. These biochemical changes were correlated with an increased uptake of arsenic in blood, liver and kidney. Administration of taurine significantly reduced hepatic oxidative stress however co

  3. Renal function assessed by 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy before and after percutaneous nephrostolithotripsy (PNL)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Masaki; Hioki, Takuichi; Kitano, Tokio; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Kawamura, Juichi

    1988-01-01

    99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was carried out in 43 patients with unilateral renal stones before and after PNL. This study was repeated about one year after PNL in 12 patients. DMSA renal uptake was calculated two hours after injection of 99m Tc-DMSA. The study was performed using the dual type gamma camera. The renal function was assessed by the formula : 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake of the operated side/ 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake of the contralateral side. The change (ratio before/after PNL) x 100 was regarded as the percent change of renal function. Local abnormalities in the 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigram after PNL were observed in 15 patients. The renal function decreased significantly to 95.8 ± 8.7 % from the base line 4 - 8 weeks after PNL. The renal function improved significantly to 98.6 ± 14.7 % from 92.1 ± 11.9 % in 12 patients about one year after PNL. It is concluded that although the renal function slightly decreased 4 - 8 weeks after PNL, it is expected to improve within 1 year after PNL. 99M Tc-DMSA scintigraphy is a useful adjunct to evaluate the renal function before and after PNL. (author)

  4. Automatic classification of DMSA scans using an artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, J W; Duguid, R; Mckiddie, F; Staff, R T

    2014-01-01

    DMSA imaging is carried out in nuclear medicine to assess the level of functional renal tissue in patients. This study investigated the use of an artificial neural network to perform diagnostic classification of these scans. Using the radiological report as the gold standard, the network was trained to classify DMSA scans as positive or negative for defects using a representative sample of 257 previously reported images. The trained network was then independently tested using a further 193 scans and achieved a binary classification accuracy of 95.9%. The performance of the network was compared with three qualified expert observers who were asked to grade each scan in the 193 image testing set on a six point defect scale, from ‘definitely normal’ to ‘definitely abnormal’. A receiver operating characteristic analysis comparison between a consensus operator, generated from the scores of the three expert observers, and the network revealed a statistically significant increase (α < 0.05) in performance between the network and operators. A further result from this work was that when suitably optimized, a negative predictive value of 100% for renal defects was achieved by the network, while still managing to identify 93% of the negative cases in the dataset. These results are encouraging for application of such a network as a screening tool or quality assurance assistant in clinical practice. (paper)

  5. DMSA 99mTc an old molecule for a new future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moretti, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    This lecture is concerned with the use of DMSA 99m Tc in nephrology. It described human pharmaceutic and clinical applications of this radiopharmaceutical. As DMSA 99m Tc concentrates actively in the proximal convoluted tubule, it gives an image of functional renal mass. Its integrity is dependent upon several factors, predominantly intrarenal blood flow and intact enzyme function. Its role in pathology is clear in pyelonephritis, hydronephrotic kidney and pediatric diseases. The irradiation dosimetry of DMSA 99m Tc is well established, the critical organ is the renal cortex which receives between 15 and 250 mGy per MBq. Dosimetry remains favourable for the patients if compared with intravenous urography

  6. Guidelines on {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in children; Empfehlungen zur Durchfuehrung der DMSA-Szintigraphie bei Kindern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, A. [CHU St. Pierre, Bruessel (Belgium); Colarinha, P. [Instituto Portugues de Oncologia, Lissabon (Portugal); Gordon, I. [Great Ormend Street Hospital for Children, London (United Kingdom); Hahn, K. [Muenchen Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin; Olivier, P. [CHU Vandoeuvre, Nancy (France); Roca, I.; Velzen, J. van [Hospital Vall d' Hebron, Barcelona (Spain); Sixt, R. [The Queen Silvia Children' s Hospital, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    2000-11-01

    The guidelines are intended to help nuclear medical teams in their daily routine. The guidelines give information relating to indications, imaging parameters, data evaluation and interpretation. The guidelines are in line with the opinions of the Paediatric Committee of EANM and hence focus on approaches adopted in Europe, e.g. as regards selection of the radiopharmaceuticals or activity levels applied. The guidelines should be seen in the context of local quality standards and regulatory requirements. (orig./CB) [German] Zweck dieser Empfehlung ist es, dem Nuklearmedizinischen Team bei Tc-DMSA-Szintigraphie von Kindern Hilfestellung fuer die taegliche Routinepraxis zu geben. Die Empfehlung enthaelt Informationen ueber Indikationen, Aufnahmeparameter, Auswertung und Interpretation der DMSA-Szintigraphie bei Kindern. Die vorliegende Empfehlung fasst die Meinung des Paediatric Committee der EANM zusammen und ist daher mehr auf die Europaeische Vorgehensweise, z.B. bei der Wahl des Radiopharmazeutikums und den verwendeten Aktivitaetsmengen, ausgerichtet. Sie sollte immer in Zusammenhang mit lokalen Qualitaetsstandards und Vorschriften gesehen werden. (orig.)

  7. Importance of DMSA scintigraphy in children with the first urinary infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrovski, Z.P.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the role of Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy in children with onset of symptoms of urinary tract infection (UTI). Diagnosis of UTI was confirmed with clinical and biological data and urinary culture.We observed 36 children(29 female and 4 male) without known previous UTI, aged between 1-8 years with average age of 3,7 yrs. DMSA images were obtained within 10 days of diagnosis. Focal cortical defects suggestive of renal scarring with reduction of DMSA uptake were found in 11(30,5%)patients, unilateral in 9 and bilateral in 2 children. Changes of DMSA scan were classified in three groups (A and B-with focal changes of different intensity, C-global contraction of kidney or shrinken kidney). Among the 14 children with clinical symptoms for acute pyelonephritis (APN),8(57%) pts showed abnormal DMSA scintigraphy findings, while 3(13,6%) pts of the 22 children considered as UTI also revealed pathology in DMSA scintigraphy. After treatment 6 months later, 11 abnormal scintigrams were repeated, from which 45,4%(5/11) did completely normalized, 27,3%(3/11) showed partial recovery and 27,3% (3/11) revealed constantly renal lesions in DMSA scan. As a conclusion, the first UTI in childhood is a well recognised cause of chronic renal scarring and renal failure in a small percentage of children. Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy should be a routine examination in the first UTI with and without clinical findings of APN

  8. Optimizing renal DMSA-scintigraphy with 7-pinhole collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, H.; Pottmeyer, A.; Savaser, A.; Lochner, B.; Felix, R.

    1982-01-01

    Multiple pinhole emission tomographic imaging techniques are currently being applied to imaging of organs of a limited size. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of this technique in kidney imaging with Tcsup(99m)-DMSA. A 7-pinhole collimator having 4.5 mm. pinhole apertures was used in conjunction with a widefield camera. Left and right kidney were imaged separately. Twelve small renal cysts with a diameter of 1 to 3.5 cm. verified by US or CAT were investigated by 7-pinhole and planar scintigraphy. Eight of 12 renal cysts were identified by 7-pinhole scintigraphy whereas only one cyst was seen by planar scintigraphy. The borderline of cysts detection was 1.5 cm. in 7-pinhole tomography. Basing on these comparative studies and experiences on many patient investigations it seems reasonable to perform renal scintigraphy with 7-pinhole tomography in a routine manner. (orig.)

  9. Renal function study assessed by 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy before and after PNL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Masaki; Hioki, Takuichi; Okuno, Toshiyuki; Sugimura, Yoshiki; Yamakawa, Kensuke; Yanagawa, Makoto; Tajima, Kazuhiro; Tochigi, Hiromi; Kawamura, Juichi

    1990-01-01

    99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was carried out in 54 patients with unilateral renal stones before and after PNL. Four to 8 weeks after PNL the DMSA renal uptake significantly decreased to 17.2±6.0% from 18.2±6.7% before PNL. DMSA renal uptake did not change in the contralateral side. Since in some patients changes in the DMSA renal uptake of 5-7% were observed after PNL not only in the PNL side but also in the contralateral side, the renal function was assessed by the formula: DMSA renal uptake in the PNL side/DMSA renal uptake in the contralateral side, and the change of this ratio was evaluated in 44 patients, in whom the renal DMSA uptake in the PNL side was less than two times that in the contralateral side. The DMSA renal uptake ratio decreased to 95.6±8.7% from the base line 4-8 weeks after PNL. This change was statistically significant. Some functional risks such as massive bleeding with PNL, the fever after PNL and the number of nephrostomy tract did not affect the decrease in the renal function. In 29 patients in whom renal function was reevaluated one year after PNL, the DMSA renal uptake ratio significantly decreased to 94.2±9.6% from the base line 4-8 weeks after PNL. But the ratio significantly improved to 99.6±11.6% about one year after PNL. In two patients with a cold area on the renal image, the renal function of the operated side still remained at about 80% levels from the base line even one year after PNL. It is concluded that although renal function slightly decreased 4-8 weeks after PNL, it is expected to improve within one year after PNL. But in the case with a cold area on the renal image, the complete functional recovery would not be expected. 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful adjunct to evaluate the renal function before and after PNL. (author)

  10. Optimization of labelling procedure of 188rE-DMSA(v)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Brambilla, Tania P.; Reis, Nicoli F.; Osso Junior, Joao A.

    2011-01-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) is emerging as an important tool of nuclear medicine. Apart from the well established 131 I, several other promising radionuclides have been identified, among them 188 Re, 90 Y and 177 Lu. 188 Re has received a lot of attention in the past decade, due to its favourable nuclear characteristics [t 1/2 16.9 h, E b eta m ax 2.12 MeV and E g amma 155 keV (15%) suitable for imaging, including the fact that it is carrier-free and can be obtained cost-effectively through the generator 188 W- 188 Re. Biodistribution studies of 188 Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of 99m Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma, bone metastases, soft tissue and others tumors. The aim of this work is to evaluate two labeling procedures for the preparation of 188 Re-DMSA(V). The first method was prepared using a commercial kit of DMSA(III) for labeling with 99m Tc at high temperature (100 deg C). The second method was prepared in a vial containing 2.5 mg of DMSA, 1.00 mg of SnCl 2 .2H 2 O and 10 mg of sodium oxalate, 10 mg of cyclodextrin, in a total volume of 2.0 mL. The pH was adjusted to 3 with 37% HCl. After labeling the solution was stirred and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined using TLC-SG developed with two different solvent systems: Acetone and glycine. Preliminary results for both methods of labeling 188 Re-DMSA(V) showed that the labeling yield was >95%. Further experiments are also necessary to optimize the labeling methodology of 188 Re-DMSA(V).author)

  11. Pentavalent 99Tcm - DMSA SPECT in primary brain tumours of glial cell origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, D.K.; Evans, S.G.; Larcos, G.; Gruenewald, S.; Kumar, V.; Barton, M.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA [DMSA(V)] has shown promise in brain tumour imaging. This study aimed to assess the role of DMSA(V) brain SPET in glioma for: (1) predicting the histopathological grade of malignancy, (2) monitoring response to therapy and (3) discriminating recurrent tumour from post-radiotherapy necrosis. Twenty-three patients (pts) (14 men, 9 women) of mean age 57 years (range 20-79) were referred with a lesion on CT/MRI (14 new presentations, 5 known and 4 suspected tumour recurrence). Up to 555 MBq of 99 Tc m (V)DMSA were administered and SPET was acquired at 3 h. Tumour uptake ratio (UR) was calculated by the ratio of activity in the tumour to a region in the contralateral brain. All 19 pts with known tumour showed DMSA(V) uptake. The 14 pts with new tumours (10 grade IV, I grade III, 2 grade II and 1 necrotic tumour) had a pre-therapy mean UR of 7.7 (range 2.8-13.6). The 3 lower-grade tumours were scattered widely within this range. Four pts completed radiotherapy and returned for a post-therapy scan, where the UR was less than the pre-therapy UR in 2, unchanged in 1 and greater in 1. The 5 known recurrent tumours had a mean UR of 13.5 (range 7.3-24.9). In the 4 pts with suspected recurrence, the DMSA(V) scan result agreed with clinical course or PET in 3 but was falsely positive in 1. In summary, 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA: (1) showed uptake in all known glial cell tumours in this series, however the UR did not correlate with the histopathological grade; (2) may be useful for discriminating tumour recurrence from post-radiotherapy necrosis; and (3) may have a role in predicting post-therapy prognosis

  12. Evaluation of pentavalent Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy in small cell and nonsmall cell lung cancers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atasever, T.; Guendogdu, C.; Vural, G.; Kapucu, L.Oe.; Karalezli, A.; Uenlue, M. [Gazi Univ., Faculty of Medicine, Nuclear Medicine Department and Atatuerk Chest Diseases and Surgery Center, Ankara (Turkey)

    1997-10-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Tc-99m (V) DMSA in patients suspected of lung cancer and determine whether this agent may have value in differentiation between small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell (NSCLC) lung carcinoma. Methods: Thirty-six patients with clinical and radiological suspicion of primary lung carcinoma were injected 450-600 MBq of Tc-99m (V) DMSA intravenously. Whole body and planar anterior, posterior thorax images were obtained 4-5 h after injection of the radioactive complex. Results: Histopathological results confirmed 23 NSCLC, 10 SCLC and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma and 2 lung abscess. Nineteen of the 23 (82%) NSCLC and all of the 10 (100%) SCLC cases showed Tc-99m (V) DMSA uptake. Single metastatic lung cancer also accumulated radiotracer. Lung abscess did not show uptake. Lesion/Nonlesion (L/N) ratio of SCLC (1.59{+-}0.32) and NSCLC (1.43{+-}0.19) tumour types did not show statistical difference (p>0.05). Tc-99m (V) DMSA whole body imaging also showed bone metastases. Conclusion: Tc-99m (V) DMSA is a noninvasive and cheap imaging method to detect malignant lung cancers and their bone metastases but, differentiation of SCLC and NSCLC is not possible. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Pruefung der klinischen Brauchbarkeit von {sup 99m}Tc-(V) DMSA bei Patienten mit Verdacht auf Bronchialkarzinom im Hinblick auf die Moeglichkeit einer Differenzierung zwischen Kleinzeller (KLZ) und Nichtkleinzeller (NKLZ). Methoden: Bei 36 Patienten mit klinischem und radiologischem Hinweis auf Bronchialkarzinom wurden 450 bis 600 MBq {sup 99m}Tc-(V) DMSA i.v. appliziert. 4-5 h spaeter wurden Ganzkoerper- und planare Szintigramme des Thorax durchgefuehrt. Ergebnisse: Feingewebliche Untersuchungen bestaetigten in 23 Faellen NKLZ, zehnmal KLZ, einmal ein metastasierendes Bronchialkarzinom und zwei Lungenabszesse. 19 der 23 NKLZ- (82%) und 100% der KLZ-Faelle zeigten eine {sup 99m}Tc-(V) DMSA-Speicherung ebenso wie das metastasierende

  13. Variability in DMSA reporting following urinary tract infection in children: pinhole, planar, and pinhole with planar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rossleigh, M.A.; Christian, C.L.; Craig, J.C.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Grunewald, S.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: To determine whether the provision of DMSA images obtained by pinhole collimation reduces inter-observer variability of reporting compared with planar DMSA images alone. Methods: One hundred consecutive DMSA images were independently interpreted three times (pinhole alone, planar alone, pinhole and planar) by four participating nuclear medicine specialists from different departments and in random order. The presence or absence of renal parenchymal abnormality was classified using the modified four level grading system of Goldraich with mean values for the 6 comparisons reported. Results: The proportion of DMSA images interpreted as abnormal was 31% for planar, 34% for pinhole and 33% for planar with pinhole. Agreement was 89% for planar alone, 89% for pinhole alone and 90% for planar with pinhole, with kappa values 0.74, 0.75 and 0.80 respectively for the normal-abnormal scan classification of individual children. These results did not vary appreciably whether interpretation of patients, kidneys or kidney zones was compared. Reasons for disagreement in reporting included different interpretations of 'abnormalities' as normal anatomical variations (splenic impression, fetal lobulation, duplex collecting systems, column of Bertin) or true parenchymal abnormalities, different adjustments in thresholds for reporting abnormality when images were technically suboptimal, different weighting given to pinhole and planar images when both were provided, and error. Conclusion: Four experienced nuclear medicine physicians showed substantial agreement in the interpretation of planar alone, pinhole alone and planar with pinhole DMSA images, but the provision of both sets of images, planar and pinhole, did not reduce variability. (authors)

  14. Evaluation of pentavalent Tc-99m DMSA scintigraphy in small cell and nonsmall cell lung cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atasever, T.; Guendogdu, C.; Vural, G.; Kapucu, L.Oe.; Karalezli, A.; Uenlue, M.

    1997-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of Tc-99m (V) DMSA in patients suspected of lung cancer and determine whether this agent may have value in differentiation between small cell (SCLC) and non-small cell (NSCLC) lung carcinoma. Methods: Thirty-six patients with clinical and radiological suspicion of primary lung carcinoma were injected 450-600 MBq of Tc-99m (V) DMSA intravenously. Whole body and planar anterior, posterior thorax images were obtained 4-5 h after injection of the radioactive complex. Results: Histopathological results confirmed 23 NSCLC, 10 SCLC and 1 metastatic lung carcinoma and 2 lung abscess. Nineteen of the 23 (82%) NSCLC and all of the 10 (100%) SCLC cases showed Tc-99m (V) DMSA uptake. Single metastatic lung cancer also accumulated radiotracer. Lung abscess did not show uptake. Lesion/Nonlesion (L/N) ratio of SCLC (1.59±0.32) and NSCLC (1.43±0.19) tumour types did not show statistical difference (p>0.05). Tc-99m (V) DMSA whole body imaging also showed bone metastases. Conclusion: Tc-99m (V) DMSA is a noninvasive and cheap imaging method to detect malignant lung cancers and their bone metastases but, differentiation of SCLC and NSCLC is not possible. (orig.) [de

  15. Childhood acute pyelonephritis: comparison of power Doppler sonography and Tc-DMSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stogianni, Aggeliki; Oikonomou, Ippoliti; Dimitriadis, Athanasios [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Radiology, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Nikolopoulos, Panagiotis [424 Army Hospital, Department of Radiology, Thessaloniki (Greece); Gatzola, Magdalini [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 2nd Paediatric Clinic, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Balaris, Vassilios [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Department of Nuclear Medicine, AHEPA Hospital, Thessaloniki (Greece); Farmakiotis, Dimitrios [Infectious Diseases Hospital of Thessaloniki, Department of Medicine, Thessaloniki (Greece)

    2007-07-15

    Tc 99m DMSA scintigraphy is regarded as the gold standard for the detection and localization of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in children. Power Doppler sonography (PD US) is a radiation-free and cost-effective technique that could be useful in the diagnosis of APN in children. To compare the predictive value of PD US with DMSA scintigraphy in the diagnosis of APN in children. A total of 74 neonates and children with clinical findings consistent with possible upper urinary tract infection were evaluated with PD US and DMSA scintigraphy. Children with anatomic (grey-scale) abnormalities were excluded. A total of 147 kidneys were examined within the first 48 h after the onset of symptoms. Each kidney was divided into three zones (upper, middle, and lower third). APN was diagnosed by PD US in 46 kidneys. Sensitivity and specificity for detecting APN using DMSA scintigraphy as the reference standard were 73.8% and 85.7%, respectively. There was good agreement between PD US and DMSA scintigraphy in the localization of lesions. In clinically suspected APN, PD US has acceptable specificity and sensitivity, if performed within the first 48 h and could be helpful in neonates and children under 3 months of age in whom the use of scintigraphy is generally discouraged. (orig.)

  16. The value of filtered planar images in pediatric DMSA scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammed, A.M.; Naddaf, S.Y.; Elgazzar, A.H.; Al-Abdul Salam, A.A.; Omar, A.A.

    2006-01-01

    The study was designed to demonstrate the value of filtered planar images in paediatric DMSA scanning. One hundred and seventy three patients ranged in age from 15 days to 12 years (mean: 4.3 years) with urinary tract infection (UTI) and clinical and/or laboratory suspicion of acute pyelonephritis (APN) were retrospectively studied. Planar images were filtered using Butterworth filter. The scan findings were reported as positive, negative or equivocal for cortical defects. Each scan was read in a double-blind fashion by two nuclear medicine physicians to evaluate inter-observer variations. Each kidney was divided into three zones, upper, middle and lower, and each zone was graded as positive, negative or equivocal for the presence of renal defects. Renal cortical defects were found in 66 patients (91 kidneys and 186 zones) with filtered images, 58 patients (81 kidneys and 175 zones) with planar images, and 69 patients (87 kidneys and 180 zones) with SPECT images. McNemar's test revealed statistically significant difference between filtered and planar images (p=0.038 for patients, 0.021 for kidneys and 0.034 for number of zones). Inter-observer agreement was 0.877 for filtered images, 0.915 for planar images and 0.915 for SPECT images. It was concluded that filtered planar images of renal cortex are comparable to SPECT images and can be used effectively in place of SPECT, when required, to shorten imaging time and eliminate motion artifacts, especially in the paediatric population. (author)

  17. Acute pyelonephritis in pediatric age: comparative study between power Doppler ultrasound scan and DMSA; Pielonefritis aguda en la edad pediatrica: estudio comparative entre la ecografiapower-Doppler y el DMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muro, M. D.; Sanguesa, C.; Otero, M. C.; Piqueras, A. I.; Lloret, M. T. [Hospital Infantil Universitario La Fe. Valencia (Spain)

    2002-07-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of power Doppler (PD) Ultrasound Scan in the study of acute pyelonephritis (APN). To compare ultrasound scan results with those obtained with renal gammagraphy (DMSA). To relate the findings to the clinical criteria and to determine the presence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in the serial micturition cystography (SMC). Prospective study of 92 patients (ages between 1 month and 10 years) with suspected clinical PNA. All children were initially subjected to PD ultrasound scan and DMSA. Those under 3 years old were also subjected to SMC for the study of VUR. PNA in the PD ultrasound scan was manifested by decrease in vascularisation and in the DMSA by decrease in caption in the affected zones. 87 renal units (RU) with PNA foci were detected. Conformity between the PD ultrasound scan and DMSA was 157 RU (92%): 52 positives, 22 negatives with PNA and 83 normal RU. The sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 65.5% and 69.0%. 51 SMC were performed, with VUR being detected in 18 (13 bilateral and 5 unilateral), in which the sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 65.5% and 69.0%. 51 SMC were performed, with VUR being detected in 18 (13 bilateral and 5 unilateral), in which the sensitivities of PD and DMSA were 80% and 85%, respectively. Mode B ultrasound scan and PD can replace DMSA in the initial study of PPNA. It is non-invasive, simple, economical and just as reliable as DMSA in expert hands. it can also postpone by up to 6 months the need to perform DMSA for detection of permanent renal damage. (Author) 22 refs.

  18. Udredning af børn med urinvejsinfektion. Spiller intravenøs urografi stadig en rolle?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A; Wagner, A; Lavard, L D

    1996-01-01

    Ninety children referred to hospital with urinary tract infections (UTI) were investigated by intravenous urography (IVU), ultrasonography (US) and 99m-Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA). Fifty-eight children also had a micturition cystourethrography performed. In 36 (40%) of the children...... for treatment or prognosis. In conclusion, IVU is an important supplement to US and DMSA in investigation programs for children with UTI. IVU should be performed in cases of renal scarring or dilatation and in children with recurrent infections....

  19. Diagnostic imaging in children with urinary tract infection: the role of intravenous urography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A; Wagner, A A; Lavard, L D

    1995-01-01

    Ninety children referred to hospital with urinary tract infection (UTI) were investigated by iv urography (IVU), ultrasonography (US) and 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid scan (DMSA). Fifty-eight children also underwent micturating cystourethrography (MCUG). In 36 (40%) of the children, at least one...... important for treatment or prognosis. IVU is an important supplement to US and DMSA in investigation programs for children with UTI. IVU should be performed in cases of renal scars, dilatations or in children with recurrent infections....

  20. Evaluation of regenerative capacity after kidney ischemic/reperfustion injury using 99mTc-DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, W. J.; Kim, J. W.; Park, K. M.; Lee, S. W.; Ahn, B. C.; Lee, J. T.; Yoo, J. S.

    2007-01-01

    Acute renal failure can be caused by a reduced renal blood flow induced because of ischemic injury. The damaged kidney can be completely restored in structure and function. 99m Tc-DMSA binds to cortical tubules in kidney and its uptake has been suggested to indicate function of cortical mass. Herein, the generative capacity of kidney after bilateral or unilateral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury was evaluated non-invasively by scintigraphic imaging. Three different animal models were used. One or both kidneys of mice were subjected ischemic for 30 min for unilateral or bilateral I/R model, respectively. In third model, one kidney was excised and the other kidney was subjected ischemic for 30 min to give nephrectomy model. At 1 hr, 1 d, 3 d, 1 w, 2 w, 3 w after reperfusion, 99m Tc-DMSA (27.7 MBq) was injected via tail vein. After 3 hr, the mice were scanned for 30 min with pinhole equipped gamma camera. The ratio of ROI counts of kidney to total counts was calculated. In unilateral I/R mouse, the 99m Tc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney was decreased continuously up to 3 w (13.9 to 7.7%), while uptake in normal kidney is slowly increased. In case of nephrectomy model, 99m Tc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney was rapidly restored within 1 w after I/R operation (8.5 to 30%). Bilateral model showed reduced 99m Tc-DMSA uptake at 1 d, but total uptake in both I/R kidney was also increase up to 30% after 1 w and the uptake was maintained up to 3 w. In unilateral model, the 99m Tc-DMSA uptake of injured kidney kept decreasing up to 3 w while normal kidney showed increased 99m Tc-DMSA uptake. The restoration of I/R kidney was not observed within 3 w. However, in case of animal models which have only I/R kidneys such as bilateral and nephrectomy models, the 99m Tc-DMSA uptake was restored within 1 w and the excised kidney size was also normal in contrast to much smaller I/R kidney of unilateral model

  1. Computer analysis of the amount functioning renal parenchyma according scintigraphy with 99mTc - DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyikolov, M.O.; Suprunyuk, D.O.; Chizhevs'kij, V.B.; Kamyins'ka, A.L.; Makarenko, A.V.

    2014-01-01

    To assess the definition of information values of focal changes in the renal parenchyma as a fuzzy set according kidney scan with 99m Tc-DMSA. The results of kidney scan of 99m Tc-DMSA 15 patients. It is shown that it is advisable to determine the degree of damage to the renal parenchyma as a fuzzy set, it count lower, upper limits of defeat and 'average' rating. Segmentation algorithms developed scintigraphic imaging of the kidneys are informative, independent and requires their simultaneous use

  2. 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy in acute urinary tract infection in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verboven, M.; Ingels, M.; Delree, M.; Piepsz, A.; Vrije Univ., Brussels

    1990-01-01

    24 children with symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI) underwent systematically ultrasound studies (US) and 99m Tc-DMSA renal scans. Among the 15 patients considered as acute pyelonephritis (APN) on clinical grounds, the scan was abnormal in 12 cases, in contrast with only 1 abnormal scan in the clinical subgroup of the lower UTI. Among the 10 abnormal scans that were repeated later on, 6 did completely normalize. US showed only once a parenchymal appearance suggestive for APN. Our findings suggest that the DMSA scan has to be considered at present as the most sensitive imaging technique for the detection of APN. (orig.)

  3. Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of {sup 99m} Tc-DMSA in children; Padronizacao do metodo para calculo da captacao renal absoluta do {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA em criancas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, Carla Rachel; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Watanabe, Tomoco; Costa, Paulo Luiz Aguirre; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas. Servico de Medicina Nuclear]. E-mail: crachelo@usp.br; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; Machado, Marcia Melo Campos [Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Hospital Universitario; Liberato Junior, Waldyr de Paula

    2006-01-15

    Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)

  4. {sup 99M}Tc - DMSA renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wallin, L

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to define and evaluate a strategy for identification of children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions after acute pyelonephritis. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation standards were elaborated to improve the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy. The normal DMSA distribution pattern, the average background uptake, and scintigraphic kidney length according to age were assessed in 95 presumably healthy kidneys. Furthermore, typical DMSA distribution patterns in acute pyelonephritis were assessed on 65 kidneys in 38 children, and typical DMSA distribution patterns of 152 kidneys with VUR in 101 children with and without previous pyelonephritis. Measurement of scintigraphic kidney length, width and volume was validated in piglets and on a kidney phantom. The scintigraphic kidney length was found to be an accurate measure of renal size, whereas kidney width and volume were less reliable, at least on small kidneys. Criteria of kidney swelling in acute pyelonephritis were defined, and found to be beneficial for identifying reinfections in the absence of clinical symptoms. In 34 children with acute pyelonephritis quantitative and qualitative DMSA scintigraphic findings were correlated to clinical symptoms and laboratory data, in the acute stage and at follow up. We found that quantitative DMSA scintigraphy in the acute stage of pyelonephritis and again after one year will identify children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions. Qualitative assessment of DMSA distribution pattern is not reliable enough in this respect. 116 refs., 7 figs.

  5. 99MTc - DMSA renal scintigraphy in the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wallin, L.

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the present thesis was to define and evaluate a strategy for identification of children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions after acute pyelonephritis. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation standards were elaborated to improve the interpretation of DMSA scintigraphy. The normal DMSA distribution pattern, the average background uptake, and scintigraphic kidney length according to age were assessed in 95 presumably healthy kidneys. Furthermore, typical DMSA distribution patterns in acute pyelonephritis were assessed on 65 kidneys in 38 children, and typical DMSA distribution patterns of 152 kidneys with VUR in 101 children with and without previous pyelonephritis. Measurement of scintigraphic kidney length, width and volume was validated in piglets and on a kidney phantom. The scintigraphic kidney length was found to be an accurate measure of renal size, whereas kidney width and volume were less reliable, at least on small kidneys. Criteria of kidney swelling in acute pyelonephritis were defined, and found to be beneficial for identifying reinfections in the absence of clinical symptoms. In 34 children with acute pyelonephritis quantitative and qualitative DMSA scintigraphic findings were correlated to clinical symptoms and laboratory data, in the acute stage and at follow up. We found that quantitative DMSA scintigraphy in the acute stage of pyelonephritis and again after one year will identify children who are at risk of developing progressive renal lesions. Qualitative assessment of DMSA distribution pattern is not reliable enough in this respect. 116 refs., 7 figs

  6. Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Carla Rachel; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit; Watanabe, Tomoco; Costa, Paulo Luiz Aguirre; Okamoto, Miriam Roseli Yoshie; Garcez, Alexandre Teles; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Machado, Beatriz Marcondes; Machado, Marcia Melo Campos; Liberato Junior, Waldyr de Paula

    2006-01-01

    Objective:To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. Materials and methods: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years) without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99m Tc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance. Absolute renal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA (DMSA-Abs) was expressed as the fraction of the administered dose retained by each kidney six hours after administration of the radiopharmaceutical. Results: DMSA-Abs was 21.8 +- 3.2% for the right kidney and 23.1 +-3.3% for the left kidney. There was no correlation between renal uptake and the age groups studied, although there was a tendency to an increase in the creatinine clearance with age. Conclusion: Normal values of DMSA-Abs can be used as an additional parameter for the initial diagnostic evaluation and during follow-up of renal diseases, mainly when bilateral impairment of renal function is suspected or in a patient with a single functioning kidney (in which renal differential function is of limited value). (author)

  7. 99mTc-DMSA Uptake in a Sister Mary Joseph's Nodule From Ovarian Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naddaf, Sleiman; Azzumeea, Fahad; Fahad Alzayed, Mohammed

    2016-12-01

    A 50-year-old woman with ovarian cancer underwent Tc-DMSA scan to evaluate the functional status of the right hydronephrotic kidney. The images incidentally revealed a well-defined focus of mild radiotracer uptake at the midanterior abdominal wall, which correlated with a metastatic Sister Mary Joseph's nodule seen on CT performed a week earlier.

  8. DMSA SPECT imaging using oblique reconstruction in a paediatric population - benefits and technical considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parsons, G.; Ford, M.; Crisp, J.; Bernard, E.; Howman-Giles, R.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: DMSA renal scans are frequently requested for the diagnosis and follow-up of acute pyelonephritis and cortical scarring. This study was designed to:- 1. evaluate oblique reconstruction of DMSA SPECT over standard plane reconstruction and planar imaging; and 2. report on the technical aspects important in obtaining high quality DMSA SPECT, particularly in neonates. Over seven months, 210/231 (91 %) of DMSA scans were performed with SPECT on children from age nine days to 16 years, the median age being 2.5 years. 65 patients (31 %) were under one year and 39 (18%) were under six months. Planar and SPECT imaging with standard plane reconstruction and oblique reorientation was performed on the Siemens triple-headed gamma camera. High quality SPECT images were obtained on the smallest babies using a paediatric palette, and were of comparable quality to those of older children. At the time of reporting, the nuclear medicine physician assessed the diagnostic value of the three types of date presented: (1) planar images; (2) standard plane SPECT reconstruction; and (3) oblique SPECT reconstruction. Cortical defects were identified separately for upper, middle and lower poles. Three physicians concluded that high quality SPECT is superior to planar images when assessing the renal cortex. In addition, oblique reorientation is superior to standard reconstruction, particularly at the upper and lower poles. SPECT is now performed routinely on patients of all ages, and the oblique sagittal and coronal reorientation is now used in place of the standard reconstruction

  9. Optimization of labelling procedure of {sup 188}rE-DMSA(v)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dantas, Danielle M.; Brambilla, Tania P.; Reis, Nicoli F.; Osso Junior, Joao A., E-mail: jaosso@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Radionuclide therapy (RNT) is emerging as an important tool of nuclear medicine. Apart from the well established {sup 131}I, several other promising radionuclides have been identified, among them {sup 188}Re, {sup 90}Y and {sup 177}Lu. {sup 188}Re has received a lot of attention in the past decade, due to its favourable nuclear characteristics [t{sub 1/2} 16.9 h, E{sub b}eta{sub m}ax 2.12 MeV and E{sub g}amma 155 keV (15%) suitable for imaging, including the fact that it is carrier-free and can be obtained cost-effectively through the generator {sup 188}W-{sup 188}Re. Biodistribution studies of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) have shown that its general pharmacokinetic properties are similar to that of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA(V), so this agent could be used for targeted radiotherapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma, bone metastases, soft tissue and others tumors. The aim of this work is to evaluate two labeling procedures for the preparation of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V). The first method was prepared using a commercial kit of DMSA(III) for labeling with {sup 99m}Tc at high temperature (100 deg C). The second method was prepared in a vial containing 2.5 mg of DMSA, 1.00 mg of SnCl{sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O and 10 mg of sodium oxalate, 10 mg of cyclodextrin, in a total volume of 2.0 mL. The pH was adjusted to 3 with 37% HCl. After labeling the solution was stirred and incubated for 30 min at room temperature. The radiochemical purity was determined using TLC-SG developed with two different solvent systems: Acetone and glycine. Preliminary results for both methods of labeling {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V) showed that the labeling yield was >95%. Further experiments are also necessary to optimize the labeling methodology of {sup 188}Re-DMSA(V).author)

  10. Morphological classification of Renal Disease Using 99mTc-DMSA Scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Yong

    1991-01-01

    99m Tc-DMSA renal scan has been evaluated not only the renal functional cell mass but also some anatomical structures at a loss of the renal parenchymal function. The author classified a renal morphology of the posterior image of 99m Tc-DMSA renal scan as the groups of symmetic and asymmetric morphology, the groups of the large, normal and small sized kidneys, the groups of the central photon defects (PD) which could be noted in a dilated pelvocalyceal system due to obstructive uropathy and the cortical photon defects (CD) due to focal parenchymal lesions or scars after a loss of function and the last groups of the single and multiple CD for a suggestion of the clinical usefulness. Regarding to measurement of norrnal renal size, the longest size of the kidneys were evaluated with 5 cm of a lead scale on the posterior renal image, and those were decided to the limits beteen 104.1 and 119. 4 mm as comparison with the renal size of intravenous pyelogram (IVP) in 59 cases who were underwent 99m Tc-DMSA and IVP concommitantly. Among 85 cases of PD in 99m Tc-DMSA renal scan, the 61 (71.8%) were cases of a dilated pelvocalyceal system related with obstructive uropathy, meanwhile the 28 (27.0%) of 162 cases with CD were cases of obstructive and infectious uropathy. The probability of a presence of some uropathy in cases of CD were 99.3%, meanwhile that of the presence of CD in cases of some uropathy were 37.9%. Besides, there were some specific anatomical findings such as polycystic kidneys with symmetric enlarged kidneys with multiple CD and the kidneys of chronic renal failure and/or hypertension with syrnmetric small size in 99m Tc-DMSA renal scan.

  11. 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infections and vesicouretheric reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ajdinovic, B.A.; Baskot, B.B.; Spaic, R.S.; Markovic, S.M.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Comparison of results 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in children with urinary tract infections (UTI) and vesicouretheric reflux (VUR) to results in children with UTI without VUR. Material and Methods: 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was done in 170 children with UTI, in 88 of whom were presented VUR, proved by micturating cysto-urethrography (MCU). In 13 of them grade of VUR was I, in 30 grade II, in 23 grade was III, in 17 IV, and in 5 grade of was V. In 82 children with UTI, VUR could not be detected by MCU. Findings of 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy were classified as: 1. normal, 2. probably normal, 3. equivocal, 4. probably abnormal, 5. abnormal. Results:In patients with UTI and VUR incidence of abnormal findings was 49% (43/88), normal 43% (38/88), and equivocal findings were 8% (7/88). The highest abnormal finding incidence was found in 5 patients with VUR grade V (100%). In VUR grade IV incidence of abnormal findings was 71%. In patients with VUR grade I 77% findings were normal, in patients with VUR grade II 53% findings were normal, and in patients with VUR grade III 30% findings were normal. In patients with UTI without VUR incidence of abnormal findings was 10% (8/82), normal 83% (68/82), and equivocal findings were 7% (6/82). Conclusion: In patients with UTI and VUR incidence of abnormal 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy findings was significantly higher, particularly in children with higher grade of VUR, than in patients with UTI without VUR (p<0,001). Results of our study confirmed importance of 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in investigation of children with UTI

  12. Comparison of 99Tcm(V)-DMSA and 99Tcm-MIBI scintigraphy in medullary thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Bo; Xiao Huan; Chen Xiaofeng; Chen Huaming

    2004-01-01

    SPECT scintigraphy is used in 62 patients with medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC), which are divided into two groups: 32 patients by 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA and 30 patients by 99 Tc m -MIBI. The qualitative analysis and half quantitative analysis are performed to the early and delayed images. Comparing the results with two groups, there is no difference in the masculine rate of MTC primary focus, but the results of 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scintigraphy is obviously larger than 99 Tc m -MIBI by half quantitative analysis. The results show that the 99 Tc m (V)-DMSA scintigraphy is more predominant than the 99 Tc m -(V)-DMSA scintigraphy may be superior to 99 Tc m -MIBI in MTC primary focus and metastasis focus before surging for MTC patients. (authors)

  13. Initial effect of enalapril on kidney function in patients with moderate to severe chronic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamper, A L; Thomsen, H S; Nielsen, S L

    1990-01-01

    in their renal function. Thirty-one patients were studied, 26 on chronic antihypertensive treatment with drugs other than ACE inhibitors and 5 untreated normotensive. 51Cr-EDTA plasma clearance and renal technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc-DMSA) scintigraphy were made before and 24 h after start...

  14. Plain radiography, renography, and 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urolithiasis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munck, O.; Gerquari, I.; Moeller, J.T.; Jensen, L.I.; Thomsen, H.S.

    1992-01-01

    Eighteen patients were evaluated before and 5 weeks after the first treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using abdominal plain radiography, 131 I-hippuran probe renography, and 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. In 6 patients no urolithiasis was present on the post ESWL plain radiograph, in 7 the size had decreased, and in 5 the stone mass was unchanged. The renograms were within normal range in the 6 patients who were cured by ESWL, whereas this was the case for only 4 of the 12 who still had renal calculi. In 2 patients pelvic stones had descended into the ureter after ESWL, and the renograms indicated obstruction. Another 3 patients had ureteral stones, whereas in the remaining 7 patients only pelvic stones were found on the plain radiographs. In no patient did the scintigrams reveal scars. It is concluded that abdominal plain radiography of the urinary tract and probe renography are complementary and sufficient in the monitoring of patients with urolithiasis post ESWL. (orig.)

  15. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O' Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Dublin (Ireland); Awan, Atif [Children' s University Hospital, Department of Paediatrics, Dublin (Ireland)

    2005-03-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  16. The Clinical Role of 99mTc-(V)-DMSA Imaging in Patients with Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Sun Kun; Lee, Jae Tae; Park, June Sik

    1995-01-01

    99m Tc-(V)-DMSA is a tumor seeking agent that has been used to image medullary carcinoma of thyroid, soft tissue sarcoma and lung cancer. This study was designed to assess the clinical role of DMSA in the diagnosis of head and neck cancers. We has evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of planar and SPECT imaging using 99m Tc-(V)-DMSA. Sixty-eight patients with head and neck mass were included in this study. All subjects were diagnosed by biopsy or surgery. Planar and SPECT images were obtained at 2 or 3 hour after intravenous injection of 740 MBq(20 mCi) 99m Tc-(V)-DMSA. Seventeen patients also underwent SPECT imaging using dual head camera. The diagnostic sensitivity of 99m Tc-(V)-DMSA planar and SPECT imaging was 65% and 90%, and specificity was 80% and 66%, respectively. The sensitivity of planar imaging in squamous cell carcinoma was similar to overall sensitivity. Six metastatic lesion were first diagnosed by scintigraphy. But benign lesions such as Kikuchi syndrome, tuberculous lymphadenitis also revealed increased uptake. 99m Tc-(V)-DMSA imaging seems to be a promising method in the evaluation of patients with head and neck mass. We recommend SPECT imaging to delineate anatomic localization of the lesion.

  17. Can MRI replace DMSA in the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children with urinary tract infections?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavanagh, Eoin C.; Ryan, Stephanie; McCourbrey, Siobhan; O'Connor, Rachel; Donoghue, Veronica; Awan, Atif

    2005-01-01

    Renal parenchymal defects may be a consequence of urinary tract infections (UTI) in childhood. MRI is a non-radiation imaging modality compared with DMSA scanning. To compare DMSA with MRI for the detection of renal parenchymal defects in children presenting for radiological investigation after a first UTI. Both DMSA and MRI were performed at the same appointment in 37 children (aged 4 months-13 years; mean 4.5 years) with a history of UTI. Both planar and SPECT DMSA were performed. MRI of the kidneys employed axial and coronal T1-, T2- and fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) sequences. Some children had imaging after IV contrast medium. The coronal fat-saturated T1-W sequence was the best sequence and it detected all the findings on MRI. MRI had a sensitivity of 77% and a specificity of 87% for the detection of a scarred kidney using DMSA as the gold standard. MRI diagnosed pyelonephritis in two children that had been interpreted as scarring on DMSA. Renal MRI using a single, coronal, fat-saturated T1-W sequence is a rapid, accurate and minimally invasive technique for the detection of renal scarring that does not employ ionizing radiation. (orig.)

  18. Prognostic value of the acute DMSA scan in hospitalized children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hashemian H

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: Urinary Tract Infection (UTI is one of the major etiological factors of permanent kidney impairment, resulting in renal scarring and severe and pernicious side effects, such as arterial hypertension and renal failure. The purpose of this study was to clarify the impression of renal parenchyma involvement by first UTI (on the basis of acute DMSA scan and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR-on the basis of VCUG/ RNC on the renal scar formation (on the basis of late DMSA scan. "nMethods: Children diagnosed with their first UTI at the Children's Hospital Medical Center, Tehran, Iran, were evaluated. For each patient, we recorded age, sex, results of VCUG/RNCs and acute DMSA scan, as well as those of a late DMSA scan performed 4-6 months later. The results of acute and late DMSA scans were compared along with the results of VCUG/RNCs. "nResults: This study included a total of 103 children, of whom 16 (15.5% were boys and 87 (84.5% were girls. The mean age was 27.2±27.7 months. The frequency of renal scars in kidneys with mild (28.6%, 8.7% and moderate (33.3%, 18.2% pyelonephritis with or without VUR was not significantly different, while the frequency of renal scars in kidneys with severe pyelonephritis (84.6%, 23.1% in the presence of VUR was significantly higher than non-refluxing kidneys with severe pyelonephritis (p=0.005. Furthermore, the frequency of renal scars in refluxing kidneys increased significantly with the severity of pyelonephritis (normal 8.3%, mild 28.6%, moderate 33.3%, and severe 84.6%; p=0.001. This pattern was not significant in non-refluxing kidneys (0%, 10.3%, 18.2%, and 23.1%, respectively; p=0.062. "nConclusion: The present study indicates that the incidence of renal scarring increases with pyelonephritis severity in patients with VUR. Furthermore, we can estimate the risk of renal scar formation from the results of acute DMSA scan and VCUG/RNC.

  19. Triple Detector SPECT Imaging with 99mTc-DMSA in Adult Patients with Urinary Tract Infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jin Sook; Bea, Woon Gyu; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Lee, Myung Hae; Kim, Soon Bae; Park, Su Kil; Park, Jung Sik; Hong, Chang Gi; Cho, Kyung Sik

    1992-01-01

    Although early diagnosis of urinary tract infection is important, the radiologic evaluation is still controversial because of the low sensitivity and the lack of cost-effectiveness. This study was carried out to evaluate the clinical utility of high resolution triple head 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging in urinary tract infection. We prospectively performed 99m Tc-DMSA planar and SPECT imaging, ultrasound of kidney (US), intravenous pyelography (IVP) and voiding cystourethrography (VCU) in all 60 adult patients with UTI [26 with first episode of acute pyelonephritis (APN), 22 with recurrent APN, and 12 persistent asymptomatic pyuria] and 25 normal persons. To assess reversibility of the renal cortical defect (RCD), 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT was repeated 1 to 8 months later in those patients with abnormal initial findings. Overall detection rate of 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging was 83% (50/60), but planar, US, IVP and VCU showed abnormal findings in 68%, 28%, 32% and 13%, respectively. 25 out of 27 patients with normal or single RCD were all normal in other radiological studies. Only two patients showed vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on VCU (grade I) and mild hydronephrosis on IVP. But, high proportion of those with multiple RCD showed abnormal findings on US (17/33), IVP (18/33), and VCU (7/33): 67% in any of these 3 studies. Especially, 3 out 7 patients with VUR showed multiple RCD on 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT without any abnormality on IVP or US. 25 normal persons showed normal findings in all studies except one false positive finding on 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging. Follow-up 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT was done in 28 patients (13 with single RCD, 15 with multiple RCD). All 13 patients with single RCD showed improvement. Those with multiple RCD presented improvement in 4, no change in 10, and aggravation in 1 on follow-up studies. With these results, we conclude: 1) 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT imaging is superior to planar imaging, US, IVP or VCU in detection of renal lesion in urinary tract infection. 99m Tc-DMSA

  20. Critical aspects in the determination of the antifouling compound dichlofluanid and its metabolite DMSA (N,N-dimethyl-N′-phenylsulfamide) in seawater and marine sediments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, A.; Mol, H.; Hamwijk, C.; Ravensberg, J.C.; Schmidt, K.; Kugler, M.

    2005-01-01

    A straightforward method based on GC-MS was developed to determine the booster biocide dichlofluanid and its metabolite DMSA in sediment and water. Special attention was paid to conservation of samples, conversion of dichlofluanid to DMSA during analysis and the effect dichlofluanid-containing paint

  1. Diagnostic usefulness of technetium-99m (V) DMSA scintigraphy in cases of soft tissue tumors; In comparison with that of Ga-67 citrate scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Hisataka; Kotoura, Yoshihiko; Hanbara, Harumi; Hosono, Makoto; Yamamuro, Takao; Konishi, Junji (Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine)

    1994-05-01

    Technetium-99m (V) DMSA scintigraphy was performed in 76 patients with pathologically confirmed soft tissue diseases. In 56 patients, gallium-67 citrate scintigraphy was performed within two weeks after technetium-99m (V) DMSA scintigraphy. Significant uptake of technetium-99m (V) DMSA was found in all cases of sarcoma, metastatic carcinoma, progressive benignancy (extra-abdominal desmoid etc.) and granulomatous lesions, but was not found in cases of benign, solid tumors in the soft tissue (leiomyoma, neurinoma, lipoma etc.). In conclusion, it is not necessary to treat patients with soft tissue tumors in which technetium-99m (V) DMSA did not accumulate. Therefore, it can be stated that technetium-99m (V) DMSA scintigraphy is useful for the screening of malignant tumors. (author).

  2. Correlation between differential renal uptake of 99mTc-MAG3 and 99mTc-DMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obaldo, J.M.; Gruenwald, F.; Menzel, C.; Biersack, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed the quantitative indices obtained from sequential 99m Tc-MAG3 and 99m Tc-DMSA imaging studies performed in 134 patients with a variety of renal disorders in order to determine the correlation between the measured differential renal function using these two agents. Overall correlation was high with r=.86 and the derived regression equation was R.F. DMSA =8.2+0.84 (R.F. MAG3 ), where F.F. is the relative function. Highly divergent values for differential function were obtained however in some subjects. Patients with renal obstructive disorders had a correlation coefficient of.81 which was lower than those with nonobstructive pathologies (r=.95). Although relative kidney function measured using 99m Tc-MAG3 and 99m Tc-DMSA correlate significantly, certain patients such as those with renal obstruction may necessitate quantitation using different renal parameters. (orig.) [de

  3. Potential place of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in the management of children with urinary tract infection; Stellenwert der {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA-Szintigrafie bei der Behandlung von Kindern mit Harnwegsinfektionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, A. [Univ. Hospital St Pierre, Dept. Radioisotopes, Brussels (Belgium)

    2010-09-15

    Cortical {sup 99m}Tc DMSA scintigraphy is accepted as a highly sensitive technique for the detection of regional lesions. It reflects accurately the histological changes and the interobserver reproducibility in reporting is high. Potential technical pitfalls should be recognized, such as the normal variants and the difficulty to differentiate acute lesions from permanent ones, or acquired lesions from congenital ones. Although DMSA scintgraphy seems to play a minor role in the traditional approach of urinary tract infection, recent studies suggest that this examination might influence the treatment of the acute phase, the indication of chemoprophylaxis and of micturating cystography, as well as the duration of follow-up. (orig.)

  4. Renal SPECT with {sup 99m} Tc-Dmsa. Reorientation and processing; SPECT renal con {sup 99m} Tc-Dmsa. Reorientacion y procesamiento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, J.L.; Perera, A.; Fraxedas, R. [Centro de InvestigacionesClinicas 34 no.4501 e/45 y 47 Kohly, Playa C. Habana (Cuba)

    1998-12-31

    For the study of different renal affections with repercussion in the parenchyma is widely used the plane gammagraphy wit {sup 99m} Tc-Dmsa though not in the same way the SPECT technique. In general, the different inclination and orientation of the longitudinal axes of both kidneys in the patients entail aid to high variability in the detection of the different types of defects which leads to a possible mistaken diagnostic. With a view to this,it was developed in our centre a methodology for the automated reorientation of the different renal volumes obtained by SPECT and its posterior processing, obtaining as result a software with a high grade of independence from the operator. In this way, it is obtained a procedure standardization and so it let us with major rigor to realize evolutive studies of the patients. (Author)

  5. Potential place of 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy in the management of children with urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piepsz, A.

    2010-01-01

    Cortical 99m Tc DMSA scintigraphy is accepted as a highly sensitive technique for the detection of regional lesions. It reflects accurately the histological changes and the interobserver reproducibility in reporting is high. Potential technical pitfalls should be recognized, such as the normal variants and the difficulty to differentiate acute lesions from permanent ones, or acquired lesions from congenital ones. Although DMSA scintgraphy seems to play a minor role in the traditional approach of urinary tract infection, recent studies suggest that this examination might influence the treatment of the acute phase, the indication of chemoprophylaxis and of micturating cystography, as well as the duration of follow-up. (orig.)

  6. Studies on 99mTc-DMSA samples: some results concerning stability in time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metello, L.F.; Cunha, L.; Veiga, J.; Gomes, C.; Botelho, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: It has been decided to study the stability period of the 99mTc-DMSA after the advent of unclear situations, where this radiopharmaceutical was administered in a distant moment related to the preparation time, and also because of some rare imagiological findings, not exactly predictable and/or compatible when considering their relations with the specific clinical environment, even if it was happening clearly inside the stability time given as reference by the producer of the radiopharmaceutical. The first thing to be found was that the concerned information in current bibliography is quite uncertain, some authors defending kits stability in time from half hour till six hours and with most authors making reference to half hour, which clearly and obviously contradicts the literature furnished with the kits, that usually refers stability periods between four and six hours. Methods and Conclusions: As developed methodology, it was decided to establish and use a Quality Control Program, consisting on running in parallel the three specific methods indicated to study this radiopharmaceutical properties and purity, over the time, starting on the fifth minute after completion of the kits and going until a maximum of eight hours after this moment, having always previously studied the radiochemical purity of the 99mTc-eluate being used. In the development of this study, we used several lyophilised formulations, from distinct producers. We easily arrived to the conclusion that, if the free pertechnetate and the colloidal technetium remains more or less stable on his relative amount over the time, the relative amounts concerning the DMSA III (oxidation state III) and the DMSA V (oxidation state V) are quite distinct from the expected and described on the literature, putting once again in evidence the urgent need to implement Quality Control as a indispensable part of the each day routine on a Nuclear Medicine Department

  7. SPECT and 3D display quantitative evaluation in renal DMSA scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyra, M; Skouroliakou, K; Emmanouilides, I; Stratis, I [Univerisity of Athens, Department of Radiology and Department of Mathematics, Athens (Greece)

    1999-12-31

    The evaluation of cortical damage to the kidneys, especially in children, is currently performed by means of Tc99m-DMSA renal scan. The routine involves the acquisition of planar images and their qualitative and quantitative evaluation. Many studies have dealt with the possible advantage that SPECT could possess on qualitative criteria. This study attempts to quantitatively deal with the issue by the calculation of an index. The results exhibit a clear advantage of tomographic and 3D reconstructed images over the conventional planar ones. (authors) 14 refs., 3 figs., 1 tabs.

  8. Study of technetium behaviour in radiopharmaceuticals. Characterization of sup(99m)Tc-pyrophosphate, sup(99m)Tc-dimercaptosuccinate, sup(99m)Tc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetate complexes and sup(99m)Tc-colloidal rhenium sulphide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccavini, J.-C.

    1980-12-01

    The chemistry of technetium in extremely dilute solution was approached through the study of three complexing agents and a colloid. By the application of high-performance chromatographic techniques to the analysis of (Tc-pyro), (Tc-DTPA), (Tc-DMSA) complexes it was possible to isolate one or more chelates from a single complexing agent. Addition of pertechnetates to a solution of sodium pyrophosphates and stannous chloride at neutral pH leads to the formation of two complexes, both highly osteotropic. By the use of sup(117m)Sn it was shown that tin employed as reducing agent enters into the composition of one of the two complexes, either of which may be obtained preferentially by varying the (Sn)/(pyro) ratio. With technetium at acid pH (2.5) DMSA gives one or more chelates according to the concentration of the reagents present. DTPA with technetium at neutral pH gives a single complex for which a structure is proposed. The addition of calcium, indispensable for DTPA injection, leads to the appearance of a second bimetallic complex in very much smaller proportions than the first. The size distribution of some colloids was studied by ultrafiltration and permeation on gel. The preparation of colloidal rhenium sulphide and the technetium labelling conditions needed to obtain a very fine colloid were developed. The behaviour of technetium in the presence of colloidal rhenium sulphide and tin pyrophosphate was followed by sup(99m)Tc - sup(186)Re and sup(99m)Tc - sup(117m)Sn double-labelling tests. One reduced technetium fraction associates with the hydrolysed tin, the other follows the rhenium sulphide [fr

  9. Pre- and Post-operative cortical function of the kidney with staghorn calculi assessed by sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamura, Juichi

    1982-01-01

    sup(99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy consisting of the cortical image and DMSA renal uptake was used to assess the pre- and post-operative renal function in 39 patients with staghorn calculi or complicated calculi occupying more than 2 major calices. Extended pyelolithotomy was performed on 14 patients, nephrolithotomy on 14 patients, pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy on 7 patients, and partial nephrectomy on 4 patients. Nine out of 14 patients who underwent pyelolithotomy and 4 out of 14 patients who underwent nephrolithotomy showed an increase or no change in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney. However, there was no increase in the postoperative DMSA renal uptake in the patients who underwent pyelolithotomy combined with nephrotomy or partial nephrectomy. Eight percent of the preoperative DMSA renal uptake in the diseased kidney seems to be the absolute level for predicting a postoperative recovery of the kidney function. The contralateral kidney function can affect the postoperative recovery of the function in the operative side. It seems to be hard to expect an increment in the DMSA renal uptake postoperatively when the ratio of DMSA renal uptake in the operative side to the total DMSA renal uptake is less than 20%. At least 6 months of the follow-up period is necessary for the evaluation of the kidney function in the operative side. DMSA renal scintigraphy is a useful modality to assess pre- and post-operative kidney function in nephrolithiasis from the point of both morphological and functional changes in the renal cortex. (author)

  10. An analysis of motion correction for 99Tcm DMSA renal imaging in paediatrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meadows, A.; Hogg, P.

    2007-01-01

    Movement artefact during paediatric 99 Tc m DMSA renal imaging can reduce image quality and therefore render images non-diagnostic. This research assessed software used for the correction of movement artefact in children. The software comprised a count rate dependent dynamic acquisition with a 256 x 256 pixel frame-shift motion correction algorithm. A Williams' phantom was used to generate data during dynamic (experimental) and static (control) image acquisitions. During image acquisition, the Williams' phantom was moved to simulate seven typical paediatric patient movements; acquisitions also considered no movement (Gold Standard). Seven image data sets with motion artefact were corrected using the frame-shift software. The corrected, uncorrected, and static images were rated for quality by suitably qualified and experienced nuclear medicine professionals. The images were scored using an image quality assessment instrument, based on a Likert rating scale. Inferential statistics were applied to these data. The image quality ratings demonstrated a statistically significant (P 99 Tc m DMSA renal scans

  11. 99mTc-DMSA assessment of unilateral renal function: comparative study of two methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llamas, J.M.; Torres, M.; Mallol, J.; Latre, J.M.; Martinez Paredes, M.; Carreras, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    Results obtained with two different methods of assessing unilateral renal function by measuring the percentage of relative uptake following the administration of a tracing dose of Tc 99m -DMSA are compared in a sample of 40 patients with various conditions. As a reference test, I 131 -hippurate 1'-2' relative uptake, corrected by normalized background and attenuation, was employed. Tc 99m -DMSA relative uptake was determined at 24 hours using the following methods: 1) Percentage of accumulated counts over each renal area in relation to the total, for two minutes, corrected by normalized background and attenuation. 2) Percentage of accumulated counts over each renal area in relation to the total, obtained from the geometrical mean value of accumulated counts in AP and PA projections. A correlation analysis between the two methods, and between these and the reference test, were performed. Good correlations among them (r=0,98 between double-image DMS and Hippurate; p<0,001 in all cases) were found. (author)

  12. A method for estimating DMSA SPECT renal function for assessing the effect of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy on the treated pole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AGUIAR, Pablo; RUIBAL, Álvaro; CORTÉS, Julia; PÉREZ-FENTES, Daniel; GARCÍA, Camilo; GARRIDO, Miguel

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a method for estimating DMSA SPECT renal function on each renal pole in order to evaluate the effect of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy by focusing the measurements on the region through which the percutaneous approach is performed. Twenty patients undergoing percutaneous nephrolithotripsy between November 2010 and June 2012 were included in this study. Both Planar and SPECT-DMSA studies were carried out before and after nephrolithotripsy. The effect of percutaneous nephrolithotripsy was evaluated by estimating the total renal function and the regional renal function of each renal pole. Despite PCNL has been previously reported as a minimally invasive technique, our results showed regional renal function decreases in the treated pole in most patients, affecting the total renal function in a few of them. A quantification method was used for estimating the SPECT DMSA renal function of the upper, inter polar and lower renal poles. Our results confirmed that total renal function was preserved after nephrolithotripsy. Nevertheless, the proposed method showed that the regional renal function of the treated pole decreased in most patients (15 of 20 patients), allowing us to find differences in patients who had not shown changes in the total renal function obtained from conventional quantification methods. In conclusion, a method for estimating the SPECT DMSA renal function focused on the treated pole enabled us to show for the first time that nephrolithotripsy can lead to a renal parenchymal damage restricted to the treated pole.

  13. Qualitative and quantitative evaluation of renal parenchymal damage by 99mTc-DMSA planar and SPECT scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Yamashita, Tetsufumi; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Nonomura, Katsuya; Furudate, Masayori; Koyanagi, Tomohiko

    1995-01-01

    The initial 99m Tc-DMSA studies carried out over a four year period in 229 patients with various heterogenic causes of lower urinary tract abnormalities were reviewed. Anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma was graded by means of planar and SPECT studies into a six group classification proposed by Monsour et al.: grade 0 (normal), I (equivocal), II (single defect), III (more than 2 defects), IV (contracted or small) and V (no visualization). Parenchymal uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA was quantitated from planar images at 2 hours postinjection by a computer assisted gamma camera method. SPECT studies could enhance the pick-up rate for parenchymal uptake defects by a factor of 1.5 in comparison with planar imaging. The incidence of anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma increased with a high radiological grade for VUR, and renal uptake per injection dose of 99m Tc-DMSA by the individual kidney significantly decreased in grades III and IV of the anatomical classification. These data revealed that 99m Tc-DMSA planar is still useful for evaluating gross structural damage and for quantitative evaluation of the kidney with computer assistance. SPECT scintigraphy is more effective in disclosing anatomical damage to the renal parenchyma than planar, although it needs further discussion as to whether SPECT may increase sensitivity with minimal or no adverse affect on specificity. (author)

  14. Validity of 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake by planar posterior-view method in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsukamoto, Eriko; Katoh, Chietsugu; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Shiga, Toru; Morita, Koichi; Tamaki, Nagara; Itoh, Kazuo

    1999-01-01

    Renal uptake 99m Tc-DMSA has been quantified by various methods. The aim of this study is to obtain a normal value for 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake calculated by the posterior view method and age variation, and to assess its clinical validity. Scintigrams of 238 children (0-12 years) with 99m Tc-DMSA were reviewed. All the children had a clinical history of primary vesicoureteral reflux and/or neurogenic bladder, ureteral or urethral anomalies. Their kidneys were divided into two groups, ''normal'' and abnormal'' according to their scintigraphic findings and split renal functions. Percent renal uptake per injected dose (% RU) was quantitated from planar images at 2 hours after injection of an age-adjusted dose (26-95 MBq) of 99m Tc-DMSA. Calculated total % RU, individual % UR of the right and left kidneys (mean±sd) in patients with normal kidneys were 40.7±5.0%, 20.2±3.0%, 20.4±2.7%, respectively. There was no significant correlation between % RU and age (r=0.231). Longitudinal variation in the % RU in 9 patients ranged from 1.2% to 18%. Our conventional method for quantifying % RU is simple, practical and feasible in routine clinical practice, especially for children under follow up. (author)

  15. Chelation therapy in intoxications with mercury, lead and copper

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, yang; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Andersen, Ole

    2015-01-01

    In the present review we provide an update of the appropriate use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications with compounds of mercury, lead and copper. The relatively new chelators meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and 2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate (DMPS) can effectively...... mobilize deposits of mercury as well as of lead into the urine. These drugs can be administered orally and have relatively low toxicity compared to the classical antidote dimercaptopropanol (BAL). d-Penicillamine has been widely used in copper overload, although 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid...

  16. Top-down approach is possible strategy for predicting breakthrough fUTIs and renal scars in infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Shina; Kanai, Takahiro; Hyuga, Taiju; Nakamura, Shigeru; Aoyagi, Jun; Ito, Takane; Saito, Takashi; Odaka, Jun; Furukawa, Rieko; Aihara, Toshinori; Nakai, Hideo

    2017-07-01

    Acute-phase technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy is recommended for initial imaging in children with febrile urinary tract infection (fUTI). Recently, the importance of identifying patients at risk of recurrent fUTI (r-fUTI) has been emphasized. To clarify the effectiveness of DMSA scintigraphy for predicting r-fUTI in infants, we investigated the relationship between defects on DMSA scintigraphy and r-fUTI. Seventy-nine consecutive infants (male: female, 60:19) with fUTI were enrolled in this study. DMSA scintigraphy was performed in the acute phase, and patients with defect underwent voiding cystourethrography and chronic-phase (6 months later) DMSA scintigraphy. Patients were followed on continuous antibiotic prophylaxis (CAP). Defects on acute-phase DMSA scintigraphy were observed in 32 children (40.5%) of 79. The mean follow-up observation period was 17.0 ± 10.1 months. Four patients had r-fUTI (5%). Two of them had defects on DMSA scintigraphy in both the acute phase and chronic phase, and had bilateral vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade IV. Two others had r-fUTI without defects on DMSA and did not have VUR. Twelve patients had defect on chronic-phase DMSA scintigraphy and four of them had no VUR. The top-down approach is a possible method for predicting r-fUTI in infants and does not miss clinically significant VUR. Also, given that the prevalence of r-fUTI was 5% regardless of the presence of defects on acute-phase DMSA, then, in conjunction with genital hygiene and CAP, acute-phase DMSA might be unnecessary if chronic-phase DMSA is performed for all patients to detect renal scar. © 2017 Japan Pediatric Society.

  17. Reversible diminished renal sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake during converting-enzyme inhibition in a patient with renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kremer Hovinga, T K; Beukhof, J R; Donker, A J.M.; Luyk, W H.J. van; Piers, D A

    1984-03-01

    A patient is described who had accelerated hypertension and unilateral renal artery stenosis, and who developed further deterioration in renal function during treatment with captopril, an angiotension-I (AI) converting-enzyme inhibitor. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake was greatly diminished in the stenotic kidney, although renal blood flow and handling of /sup 131/I hippurate was preserved. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA in the affected kidney returned after substitution of captopril by the vasodilator minoxidil, while a comparable degree of blood pressure control was maintained. This, caution must be taken when interpreting results of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in patients with proven or suspected renal artery stenosis treated with an AI converting-enzyme inhibiting drug. Moreover, our finding points to the importance of glomerular filtration in the renal handling of /sup 99/Tc-DMSA.

  18. Reversible diminished renal sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake during converting-enzyme inhibition in a patient with renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kremer Hovinga, T.K.; Beukhof, J.R.; Donker, A.J.M.; Luyk, W.H.J. van; Piers, D.A.

    1984-01-01

    A patient is described who had accelerated hypertension and unilateral renal artery stenosis, and who developed further deterioration in renal function during treatment with captopril, an angiotension-I (AI) converting-enzyme inhibitor. sup(99m)Tc-DMSA uptake was greatly diminished in the stenotic kidney, although renal blood flow and handling of 131 I hippurate was preserved. Uptake of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA in the affected kidney returned after substitution of captopril by the vasodilator minoxidil, while a comparable degree of blood pressure control was maintained. This, caution must be taken when interpreting results of sup(99m)Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in patients with proven or suspected renal artery stenosis treated with an AI converting-enzyme inhibiting drug. Moreover, our finding points to the importance of glomerular filtration in the renal handling of 99 Tc-DMSA. (orig.)

  19. Plain radiography, renography, and [sup 99m]Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy before and after extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy for urolithiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munck, O.; Gerquari, I.; Moeller, J.T.; Jensen, L.I.; Thomsen, H.S. (Dept. of Clinical Physiology, Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Herlev Hospital, Copenhagen Univ. (Denmark))

    1992-11-01

    Eighteen patients were evaluated before and 5 weeks after the first treatment with extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL) using abdominal plain radiography, [sup 131]I-hippuran probe renography, and [sup 99m]Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy. In 6 patients no urolithiasis was present on the post ESWL plain radiograph, in 7 the size had decreased, and in 5 the stone mass was unchanged. The renograms were within normal range in the 6 patients who were cured by ESWL, whereas this was the case for only 4 of the 12 who still had renal calculi. In 2 patients pelvic stones had descended into the ureter after ESWL, and the renograms indicated obstruction. Another 3 patients had ureteral stones, whereas in the remaining 7 patients only pelvic stones were found on the plain radiographs. In no patient did the scintigrams reveal scars. It is concluded that abdominal plain radiography of the urinary tract and probe renography are complementary and sufficient in the monitoring of patients with urolithiasis post ESWL. (orig.).

  20. Optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using 99mTc -DMSA in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Varela Corona, C.; Paz Viera, J. E.

    2009-01-01

    The present research is focused on the optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using 9 9mTc-DMSA. The patients sample included 35 subjects, 23 of them were children and the other 12 were adults. Physical and metabolic characteristics of patients, total time of the study as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and gamma camera performance was considered in the experiments. Image quality of each study was evaluated using subjective criteria from two expert observers, without previous information about administered activity, and objective criteria based on signal/noise ratios and variance of the random noise in the images. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups of images with differentiated quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50%. (Author) 30 refs.

  1. Renal SPECT with 99m Tc-Dmsa. Reorientation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, J.L.; Perera, A.; Fraxedas, R.

    1998-01-01

    For the study of different renal affections with repercussion in the parenchyma is widely used the plane gammagraphy wit 99m Tc-Dmsa though not in the same way the SPECT technique. In general, the different inclination and orientation of the longitudinal axes of both kidneys in the patients entail aid to high variability in the detection of the different types of defects which leads to a possible mistaken diagnostic. With a view to this,it was developed in our centre a methodology for the automated reorientation of the different renal volumes obtained by SPECT and its posterior processing, obtaining as result a software with a high grade of independence from the operator. In this way, it is obtained a procedure standardization and so it let us with major rigor to realize evolutive studies of the patients. (Author)

  2. Value of comprehensive renal ultrasound in children with acute urinary tract infection for assessment of renal involvement: comparison with DMSA scintigraphy and final diagnosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brader, Peter; Riccabona, Michael [Medical University Graz, Division of Pediatric Radiology, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Schwarz, Thomas [Medical University Graz, Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graz (Austria); Seebacher, Ursula [Medical University Graz, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Graz (Austria); Ring, Ekkehard [Medical University Graz, Department of Pediatrics, Graz (Austria)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of comprehensive renal ultrasound (US), i.e., combining greyscale US and amplitude-coded color Doppler sonography (aCDS), for assessment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants and children, compared to (1) {sup 99m}Tc DMSA scintigraphy and (2) final diagnosis. Two hundred eighty-seven children with UTI underwent renal comprehensive US and DMSA scintigraphy. The results were compared with regard to their reliability to diagnose renal involvement, using (1) DMSA scintigraphy and (2) final diagnosis as the gold standard. Sixty-seven children clinically had renal involvement. Sensitivity increased from 84.1% using only aCDS to 92.1% for the combined US approach, using DMSA scintigraphy as the reference standard. When correlated with the final diagnosis, sensitivity for DMSA scintigraphy was 92.5%; sensitivity for comprehensive US was 94.0%. Our data demonstrate an increasing sensitivity using the combination of renal greyscale US supplemented by aCDS for differentiation of upper from lower UTI. Sensitivity for DMSA and comprehensive US was similar for both methods compared to the final diagnosis. Comprehensive US should gain a more important role in the imaging algorithm of children with acute UTI, thereby reducing the radiation burden. (orig.)

  3. Value of comprehensive renal ultrasound in children with acute urinary tract infection for assessment of renal involvement: comparison with DMSA scintigraphy and final diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brader, Peter; Riccabona, Michael; Schwarz, Thomas; Seebacher, Ursula; Ring, Ekkehard

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the value of comprehensive renal ultrasound (US), i.e., combining greyscale US and amplitude-coded color Doppler sonography (aCDS), for assessment of urinary tract infection (UTI) in infants and children, compared to (1) 99m Tc DMSA scintigraphy and (2) final diagnosis. Two hundred eighty-seven children with UTI underwent renal comprehensive US and DMSA scintigraphy. The results were compared with regard to their reliability to diagnose renal involvement, using (1) DMSA scintigraphy and (2) final diagnosis as the gold standard. Sixty-seven children clinically had renal involvement. Sensitivity increased from 84.1% using only aCDS to 92.1% for the combined US approach, using DMSA scintigraphy as the reference standard. When correlated with the final diagnosis, sensitivity for DMSA scintigraphy was 92.5%; sensitivity for comprehensive US was 94.0%. Our data demonstrate an increasing sensitivity using the combination of renal greyscale US supplemented by aCDS for differentiation of upper from lower UTI. Sensitivity for DMSA and comprehensive US was similar for both methods compared to the final diagnosis. Comprehensive US should gain a more important role in the imaging algorithm of children with acute UTI, thereby reducing the radiation burden. (orig.)

  4. A prospective study of children with first acute sumptomatic E.coli urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tappin, D.M; Murphy, A.V.; Mocan, H.; Shaw, R.; Beattie, T.J.; McAllister, T.A.; Mackenzie, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Between 1985 and 1987 102 children, age 0-14 years, presented with a first acute symptomatic E. coli urinary tract infection. Investigations included early 99m technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan, ultrasonography, micturating cysto-urethrography and indirect voiding radionuclide cystography using 99m Tc DTPA. Follow-up DMSA scan was carried out after 6 months. Twenty-one of 102 of initial DMSA studies showed diminished uptake of radionuclide and 12 showed cortical scarring. Twenty-nine patients had significant vesicoureteral relux. The finding of diminished uptake on the initial scan was significantly associated with fever, systemic upset, length of symptoms and a peripheral blood leucocytosis. In addition the finding was associated with fever and loin pain in the older child. Both diminished uptake and scarring were more common in refluxing kidney units. We propose that, in children with UTI, diminished uptake on early DMSA scan localises infection in the renal parenchyma

  5. Tc-99m-DMSA renal uptake rate and renal volume of elderly persons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko; Machida, Toyohei; Kido, Akira

    1987-01-01

    Renal function of erderly persons was evaluated by the radionuclide renal function test based on the renal uptake rate and the renal volume determined by Tc-99m-DMSA transectional tomographic images using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Forty-three erderly cases (13 healthy persons and 30 patients with various types of renal disorders) aged between 60 and 87 on an average of 70 were studied and compared with results obtained from 20 healthy adults (18 - 45 years old). Renal volume was calculated from the summation of voxels in the region districted by equi-count threshold level (percentage to maximum count) on each section of the SPECT image. Attenuation correction was made by GE-STAR protocol utilizing Sorrenson's precorrection method. The renal uptake rate was expressed as a percentage of the total radioactivity detected within the renal volume, against an amount of dose injected. In the 26 kidneys of 13 healthy elderly persons, Tc-99m-DMSA renal uptake was 23 ± 5 %, which was significantly lower (p < 0.01) than that of healthy adults being 27 ± 2 %. A correlation coefficient between renal volume and uptake of 79 kidneys of 43 elderly persons was 0.5081 (p < 0.01). Creatinine clearance (Ccr) was better correlated with the total renal uptake (r = 0.6471, p < 0.01) than with the total renal volume (r = 0.3592, p < 0.01). This method is considered to be useful for clinical purpose as a test of renal function for elderly persons since it requires neither blood nor urine samples. (author)

  6. Evaluation of kidney repair capacity using 99mTc-DMSA in ischemia/reperfusion injury models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Wonjung; Jang, Hee-Seong; Belay, Takele; Kim, Jinu; Ha, Yeong Su; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong-Cheol; Lee, Jaetae; Park, Kwon Moo; Yoo, Jeongsoo

    2011-03-04

    Quantitative (99m)Tc-DMSA renal uptake was studied in different renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) mice models for the assessment of renal repair capacity. Mice models of nephrectomy, uni- and bi-lateral I/R together with sham-operated mice were established. At 1h, 1d, 4d, 1, 2 and 3 wk after I/R, (99m)Tc-DMSA (27.7 ± 1.3 MBq) was injected via tail vein and after 3h post-injection, the mice were scanned for 30 min with pinhole equipped gamma camera. Higher uptake of (99m)Tc-DMSA was measured in normal kidneys of uni-lateral I/R model and nephrectomized kidney I/R model at 3 wk post-surgery. Comparing the restoration capacities of the affected kidneys of nephrectomy, uni- and bi-lateral I/R models, higher repair capacity was observed in the nephrectomized model followed by bi-lateral then uni-lateral models. The normal kidney may retard the restoration of damaged kidney in uni-lateral I/R model. Moreover, 3 wk after Uni-I/R, the size of injured kidney was significantly smaller than non-ischemic contralateral and sham operated kidneys, while nephrectomy I/R kidneys were significantly enlarged compared to all others at 3 wk post-surgery. Very strong correlation between (99m)Tc-DMSA uptake and weight of dissected kidneys in I/R models was observed. Consistent with (99m)Tc-DMSA uptake results, all histological results indicate that kidney recovery after injury is correlated with the amount of intact tubules and kidney sizes. In summary, our study showed good potentials of (99m)Tc-DMSA scan as a promising non-invasive method for evaluation of kidney restoration after I/R injuries. Interestingly, mice with Bi-I/R injury showed faster repair capacity than those with uni-I/R. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Investigation in uro-nephrology (2): renal cortical scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-Dmsa in children; Enquete en uro-nephrologie (2): la scintigraphie renale au 99mTc-DMSA chez l'enfant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archambaud, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de Bicetre, 94 - Le Kremlin-Bicetre (France); Olivier, P. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Nancy-Brabois, 54 - Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy (France); Guillet, J. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire, 47 - Agen (France); Wioland, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Armand Trousseau, 75 - Paris (France); Bonnin, F. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Beaujon, 92 - Clichy (France)

    2002-08-01

    We present the results of a national investigation about the daily practice of renal cortical scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in children by comparison with the recommendations of the international consensus from the experts designated by the Scientific Committee of 'Radionuclides in Nephrology'. Questions were related to radiopharmaceutical image acquisition, processing and visualisation, relative renal function determination and indications of renal scan in urinary tract infection. National daily practice are similar to the one suggested by the international consensus about many aspects. However, a controversy exists between the experts in acquiring pinhole or tomographic images. Similarly to the international consensus, {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scan is widely performed for detection of renal sequelae, while its indication in acute pyelonephritis remains to define. (authors)

  8. Comparative assessment of renal Tc-99m DMSA scan and renal sonography findings in complication of urinary tract infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alavi, M.; Rasekhi, A.

    2002-01-01

    Urinary tract infection is a common disease in childhood specially in female. In this study 50 patients with established diagnosis of urinary tract infection were evaluated by both renal scan with Tc-99m DMSA and renal sonography. The study revealed that most urinary tract infections are in children, female sex between 5-9 years of age. Therefore the most important complications (renal scarring) are also common in this age-sex distribution. Occurrence of renal scars increase with increasing the number of recurrent infections. Vesicoureteral reflux is one of the most important, common risk factors for renal scarring. Renal Tc-99m Dmsa scan is more sensitive than renal sonography in detecting the renal scars

  9. Results of a five-year study of 99mTc DMSA renal scintigraphy in children and adolescents following acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chroustova, D.; Palyzova, D.; Kolska, M.; Urbanova, I.

    2006-01-01

    Renal scintigraphy, generally using 99' mTc-DMSA, is the accepted reference standard for detection of renal cortical changes. The timing of the test, i.e., whether an acute 99m Tc-DMSA scan, a follow-up only or both scans should be performed, however, remains open to discussion. In our study, a six-month follow- up DMSA scan was performed in all the children diagnosed with a first attack of acute pyelonephritis (APN) in two large paediatric clinics of Charles University's 3 rd School of Medicine in Prague during a five-year period. All diagnoses were confirmed by a paediatric nephrologist. 382 children (267 girls, 115 boys) aged between 7 months and 19 years were included in the study. For analytical purposes, the patients were divided into 4 age groups: I - less than 1 year of age, II - 1-5 years, III - 5-10 years, and IV - 10-19 years. In all children younger than five years, a micturition cystourethrogram (MCUG) for detection of vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) was performed between one and three months after the APN episode. Static renal scintigraphy, using an HR collimator with parallel holes was performed using a planar Gamma camera MB 9200 (Gamma Budapest) in all children six months after APN, with a complement of pinhole images, SPECT or PSPECT of the kidneys. 1. In group I, all four children with positive VUR on MCUG had a pathological DMSA scan, while only two of the 32 patients with negative VUR had a pathological DMSA. 2. In group II, 17 children had VUR on MCUG, six of them with a pathological and 11 with a normal DMSA scan. Most of the 221 children without VUR had a normal DMSA scintigraphy; pathological findings were present in 17 children only. 3. In group III, all children with VUR, but only 5 out of 53 without VUR, had a pathological DMSA scan. 4. Five out of 50 children in group IV had a pathological DMSA. APN occurred most frequently in group II (62.3%, or 238 children) and ranged between 10-15% in the remaining groups. APN was found very frequently

  10. Contribution of the renal scintiscanning with the DMSA in the diagnosis of Pyelonephritides, acute and chronic, of the child

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellem, Ali

    2008-01-01

    In the case of urinary infection of children, a complete clinical and biological picture can be enough to retain the diagnosis of a high attack. However, this possibility is rare. In the contrary cases, a renal scintiscanning with the DMSA must be carried out with the acute phase, to confirm the diagnosis. For the children carrying acute pyelonephritis, a scintigraphic control is necessary to detect the cortical scars.

  11. Susceptibility investigation of the nanoparticle coating-layer effect on the particle interaction in biocompatible magnetic fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morais, P.C.; Santos, J.G.; Silveira, L.B.; Gansau, C.; Buske, N.; Nunes, W.C.; Sinnecker, J.P.

    2004-01-01

    AC susceptibility was used to investigate the effect of the surface-coating layer in two biocompatible, magnetite-based, magnetic fluid samples. Dextran and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) were the surface coating species. The temperature and frequency dependence of the peak susceptibility was discussed using the Vogel-Fulcher relation, from which the typical energy barrier (temperature correction) values of 1340±20 K (70±3 K) and 1230±30 K (86±5 K) were obtained for the dextran- and DMSA-coated nanoparticles, respectively

  12. The valuation of 99Tcm-DMSA renal cortical scintigraphy for prediction of renal scarring in children with acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Ruifang; Ji Zhiying; Lv Xiaomei; Wu Ha; Li Yiwei; Gu Fanlei; Zhao Xiaofei

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Acute pyelonephritis (APN) is a common infectious disease in childhood. APN may result in ineversible renal scarring. 99 Tc m -dimercaptsuccinic (DMSA) renal cortical scintigraphy was reported to be highly sensitive and specific for detection APN and renal scarring. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of renal scarring in a group of children with APN and to evaluate the relative factors at risk of scarring using 99 Tc m -DMSA renal cortical scintigraphy. Methods: One hundred and eighteen patients (44 males, 74 females, age range: 1 month to 14 years) with APN underwent DMSA renal cortical scan before treatment and six month after treatment to identify renal damage and renal scarring. The degree of renal damage was divided to grade I to IV. A directed radionuclide cystography (DRC) was performed in 72 cases to evaluate vesicoureteric reflux (VUR). Statistical analysis between all those relative factors was performed using Spearman grading relational analysis. The software was SPSS 11.5. Results: The follow-up renal cortical scan revealed that 79 normal kidneys on first scan remained normal; of 64 kidneys with grade I damage, 7.81% (5/64) developed renal scar; of 51 kidneys with grade II, 49.02% (25/51) developed renal scar; of 19 with grade III, 68.42% (13/19) developed renal scar; of 23 with grade IV, 100.00% (23/23) developed renal scar. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of renal scar on follow-up and the grade of renal damage on first scan (r=0.877, P<0.01). VUR was found in 54.17% (78/144) per renal unit. Only 4.55% (3/66) of those with non-refluxing ureters developed renal scars on follow-up. One of four patients with mild-refluxing ureters developed renal scars. 46.51% (20/43) of those with moderate-refluxing ureters developed renal scars. 87.10% (27/31) of those with severe-refluxing ureters developed renal scars. There was a significant relationship between the incidence of renal scarring in follow-up and

  13. Role of 188Re(V)DMSA in the diagnosis and therapy of medullary thyroid carcinoma: a pilot study in an animal model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Learoyd, D.L.; Roach, P.J.; Snowdon, G.M.; Dadachova, K.; Moreau, A.M.; Robinson, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: 99 Tc m (V)DMSA has been reported to be highly sensitive in the diagnosis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Rhenium-188, a beta emitter, has potential for therapy of MTC. However, initial studies with 188 Re indicate high renal uptake which may interfere with potential therapeutic applications of this radiopharmaceutical. A modified radiolabelling method has been shown to reduced the renal uptake of 188 Re(V)DMSA in control animals. The aims of this study were to determine whether there is uptake of modified 188 Re(V)DMSA in nude mice injected with an MTC cell line and whether there is potential for MTC therapy. Two groups of mice were injected in the left flank (SC) with TT cell line, and in mice showing tumour growth a low-dose (400 kBq) of 188 Re(V)DMSA was injected via a tail vein 8 weeks later. Biodistribution was performed on several mice and several others were given 'therapy' injections (8 MBq) to determine whether tumour shrinkage could be objectively observed. Tracer uptake was highest in bone and kidneys but tumour uptake was relatively low. However, no new tumour growth was seen in any of the mice subsequent to therapy injections and 1 mouse showed complete remission within 5 weeks of injection. Further animal and human studies will need to be performed to determine the potential role of this modified 118 Re(V)DMSA in patients with MTC

  14. Analysis of Ultrasonographic Findings in Children with Urinary Tract Infection : Comparison with Voiding Cystourethrography and 99mTc-DMSA Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Mi Yong; Suh, Chang Hae

    1996-01-01

    To evaluate whether the presence of hydronephrosis or cortical irregularity on ultrasonogram (US) in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) predicts the vesicoureteral reflux on voiding cystourethrography(VCUG) or or associated renal scar on DMSA scan, and to assess the clinical value of US. We analyzed 90 kidneys of 45 children with UTI, and US, VCUG and DMSA scan were performed in all cases. We evaluated the presence of hydroneprhosis and cortical irregularity on US, vesicoureteral reflux on VCUG and cortical defect on DMSA scan. We analyzed the sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values of US findings for detection of vesicoureteral reflux and cortical defect. Hydronephrosis on US showed 28% sensitivity for diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux on VCUG, and was not significantly related with the grade of reflux.Cortical irregularity on US showed 31% sensitivity and 89% positive predictive value for cortical defect on DMSA scan. Hydronephrosis and cortical irregularity on US showed low sensitivities for diagnosis of refluxon VCUG and cortical defect on DMSA scan, however, ultrasonographic features of renal parenchyma were considered to be useful for prediction of renal scar

  15. Urinary tract infection in childhood: lower or upper level? DMSA scintigraphic validation of a new clinical risk index

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayet-Papin, B.; Decomps-Hofmann, A.; Bovier-Lapierre, M.

    2001-01-01

    Urinary tract infection in children can be limited most of time at the lower level of the urinary tractus but an extension to the upper level of the tractus should not be neglected due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease. In our study, we suggest a new graph to predict the probability of acute pyelonephritis only if the bacteriological urinary analyse were obtained in good conditions and without any treatment. In the other cases, a DMSA scintigram should be proposed at the earlier phase of the diagnosis not to underestimate the risk of asymptomatic pyelonephritis. (authors)

  16. CLINICAL STUDIES OF RENAL MORPHOLOGICAL CHANGES WITH AGING - DEMONSTRATING BY USING 99mTc-DMSA SCINTIGRAPHY -

    OpenAIRE

    細川, 進一; 川村, 寿一; 友吉, 唯夫; 吉田, 修

    1980-01-01

    We studied the change of renal shape due to development and aging by using 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy. In pediatric age group, the angle between renal longitudinal axis and the lumbar vertebrae is small but becomes larger with aging. The renal size grows with aging in the adult age group, and becomes largest. In geriatric age group it decreases with aging. The stability of renal position is marked in the adult age group, but in the pediatric and geriatric age group it seemed unstable. Rena...

  17. Padronização do método para cálculo da captação renal absoluta do99mTc-DMSA em cria Standardization of a method to calculate absolute renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Rachel Ono

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O trabalho teve por objetivo padronizar o método e estabelecer valores normais da captação renal absoluta do99mTc-DMSA em crianças. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Vinte e duas crianças (idade de 7 meses a 10 anos; média de 4,5 anos sem doença renal prévia foram submetidas a cintilografia renal estática com 99mTc-DMSA. Dezoito apresentavam ultra-sonografia, uretrocistografia miccional, "clearance" de creatinina e padrão visual da cintilografia renal estática normais. Quatro crianças foram excluídas por não terem completado ou por apresentarem redução do "clearance" de creatinina. A captação absoluta de DMSA (DMSA-Abs foi calculada como a porcentagem da atividade administrada retida em cada rim após seis horas da administração do radiofármaco. RESULTADOS: Os valores de DMSA-Abs foram de 21,8% ± 3,2% para o rim direito e de 23,1% ± 3,3% para o rim esquerdo. Os valores da captação absoluta não mostraram correlação com a idade dos pacientes estudados, apesar da tendência de aumento do "clearance" de creatinina com a idade. CONCLUSÃO: A definição de valores normais da DMSA-Abs permite o emprego deste parâmetro na avaliação inicial e acompanhamento de doenças renais, principalmente em pacientes com acometimento bilateral ou com rim único (nos quais a função diferencial direita X esquerda tem valor limitado.OBJECTIVE: To standardize a method and determine normal values for absolute renal uptake of 99mTc-DMSA in children with normal creatinine clearance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-two children (between 7 months and 10 years of age; mean 4.5 years without clinical evidence of renal disease were studied using 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy. Eighteen had normal renal ultrasonography, micturating urethrocystography, creatinine clearance and visual interpretation of the scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA. Four children were excluded, one with incomplete creatinine clearance and three due to reduction in the creatinine clearance

  18. Study of the biokinetic behavior of 99mTc-DMSA in renal scintigraphy of pediatric patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Felipe Simas dos

    2013-01-01

    In Brazil, renal studies with 99m Tc D TPA and 99m Tc-DMSA constitute about 18% of pediatric diagnostic procedures. A retrospective non-randomized study was conducted in 2010, for absolute quantification of kidney activities. In 2010,51 patients underwent renal studies in the Hospital of the Rio de Janeiro State University - HUPE-UERJ/ RJ, Brazil. 19 of them with 9±4 years of age and body mass of 31.8±20.8 kg showed relative uptake of 99m Tc-DMSA between 45% and 55%. Still images (AP, PA and posterior oblique abdomen incidences) were acquired 4 h after intravenous administration of 115.69±42.31 MBq of 99m Tc-DMSA using gamma camera (Siemens E-Cam), LEHR collimator, matrix of 256x256 and 5min imaging. In 2012, 3 patients (9.3±2.1 years, 31.97±10.75 kg) in the previous study were followed in a prospective study. All urinary excretions samples were collected from administration of 99m Tc-DMSA to 6 h after, while simultaneously images were acquired AP and PA abdominal region with Philips model Picker Prism 2000XP. Aliquots of each urine sample were measured in gamma counter shaft GenesysTM Gamma 1 with Nal (TI) detector. For whole body, the biological half-life estimate was 11.0±2.0 h, and the residence time was found to be 5.6±0.4 h while the literature suggests 4.l±0.5 h for age range studied. Residence time for kidney was found to be 0.7±0.4 h, while the literature shows, 3.07 h and 1.4 h for patients with normal and renal pathologies, respectively. This difference may be attributed to the methodology because while the images were taken during the first 6 h, SMITH et aI. (1996) performed images of the kidneys and whole body 30 h after administration of 99mTc D MSA, incorporating the slow term of biological half-life. For liver, it was found the average residence time of 3.0±0.4 min, whereas the literature indicates 20.8 min and 25.1 min, respectively according to SMITH et. ai (1996) and ICRP (1998). The fact that the administered activity was higher than

  19. Critical appraisal of the top-down approach for vesicoureteral reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Abdelhalim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR has been linked to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs, renal scarring, hypertension, renal insufficiency and end-stage kidney disease. Different imaging strategies have been proposed to approach children presenting with UTI to sort out patients with significant VUR while minimizing patient morbidity, radiation exposure and financial burden. None of these imaging strategies is universally accepted. The “top-down approach” (TDA aims at restricting the number of voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs and its associated morbidity while identifying patients with clinically-significant reflux. In this approach, children presenting with febrile UTIs are acutely investigated with dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA renal scans to identify patients with renal parenchymal inflammation. Those with evidence of renal affection are offered VCUG and late DMSA scan to identify VUR and permanent renal scarring, respectively. Although TDA could identify clinically-significant VUR with high sensitivity, it is not without limitations. The approach segregates patients based on the presence of DMSA cortical lesions omitting the morbidity and the economic burden of UTI. Additionally, some of DMSA lesions are attributed to congenital dysplasia and unrelated to UTI. Ionizing radiation exposure, financial costs, limited availability of DMSA scans in the acute setting, variability in interpreting the results and low yield of actionable findings on DMSA scans are some other limitations. In this review, we tried to address the drawbacks of the TDA and reinforce the value of patient-centered approach for VUR.

  20. Effect of surface charge and agglomerate degree of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on KB cellular uptake in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Yuqing; Zhang, Yu; Xia, Jingguang; Ma, Ming; He, Shiying; Nie, Fang; Gu, Ning

    2009-10-15

    We synthesized three types of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MNPs), which were meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated MNPs (DMSA@MNPs, 17.3+/-4.8 nm, negative charge), chitosan (CS) coated MNPs (CS@MNPs, 16.5+/-6.1 nm, positive charge) and magnetic nanoparticles agglomerates, formed by electronic aggregation between DMSA@MNPs and CS (CS-DMSA@MNPs, 85.7+/-72.9 nm, positive charge) respectively. The interactions of these MNPs with Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cell KB were investigated. The results showed that cellular uptakes of MNPs were on the dependence of incubation time, nanoparticles concentration and nanoparticles properties such as surface charge, size, etc. The cellular uptake was enhanced with the increase of incubation time and nanoparticles concentration. Although all MNPs could enter to cells, we observed apparent differences in the magnitude of nanoparticles uptaken. The cellular uptake of CS-DMSA@MNPs by KB cells was the highest and that of DMSA@MNPs was the lowest among the three types of MNPs. The same conclusions were drawn via the reduction of water proton relaxation times T(2)(*), resulting from the different iron load of labeled cells using a 1.5T clinical MR imager. The finding of this study will have implications in the chemical design of nanomaterials for biomedical applications.

  1. Critical appraisal of the top-down approach for vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelhalim, Ahmed; Khoury, Antoine E

    2017-06-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) has been linked to recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs), renal scarring, hypertension, renal insufficiency and end-stage kidney disease. Different imaging strategies have been proposed to approach children presenting with UTI to sort out patients with significant VUR while minimizing patient morbidity, radiation exposure and financial burden. None of these imaging strategies is universally accepted. The"top-down approach" (TDA) aims at restricting the number of voiding cystourethrograms (VCUGs) and its associated morbidity while identifying patients with clinically-significant reflux. In this approach, children presenting with febrile UTIs are acutely investigated with dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA) renal scans to identify patients with renal parenchymal inflammation. Those with evidence of renal affection are offered VCUG and late DMSA scan to identify VUR and permanent renal scarring, respectively. Although TDA could identify clinically-significant VUR with high sensitivity, it is not without limitations. The approach segregates patients based on the presence of DMSA cortical lesions omitting the morbidity and the economic burden of UTI. Additionally, some of DMSA lesions are attributed to congenital dysplasia and unrelated to UTI. Ionizing radiation exposure, financial costs, limited availability of DMSA scans in the acute setting, variability in interpreting the results and low yield of actionable findings on DMSA scans are some other limitations. In this review, we tried to address the drawbacks of the TDA and reinforce the value of patient-centered approach for VUR.

  2. Metal chelators and neurotoxicity: lead, mercury, and arsenic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjørklund, Geir; Mutter, Joachim; Aaseth, Jan

    2017-12-01

    This article reviews the clinical use of the metal chelators sodium 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonate (DMPS), meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), and calcium disodium edetate (CaEDTA, calcium EDTA) in overexposure and poisonings with salts of lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), and arsenic (As). DMSA has considerably lower toxicity than the classic heavy metal antagonist BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) and is also less toxic than DMPS. Because of its adverse effects, CaEDTA should be replaced by DMSA as the antidote of choice in treating moderate Pb poisoning. Combination therapy with BAL and CaEDTA was previously recommended in cases of severe acute Pb poisoning with encephalopathy. We suggest that BAL in such cases acted as a shuttling Pb transporter from the intra- to the extracellular space. The present paper discusses if a combination of the extracellularly distributed DMSA with the ionophore, Monensin may provide a less toxic combination for Pb mobilization by increasing both the efflux of intracellularly deposited Pb and the urinary Pb excretion. Anyhow, oral therapy with DMSA should be continued with several intermittent courses. DMPS and DMSA are also promising antidotes in Hg poisoning, whereas DMPS seems to be a more efficient agent against As poisoning. However, new insight indicates that a combination of low-dosed BAL plus DMPS could be a preferred antidotal therapy to obtain mobilization of the intracerebral deposits into the circulation for subsequent rapid urinary excretion.

  3. Optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc -DMSA in Cuba; Optimizacion de actividad a administrar para estudios de gammagrafia renal con {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA en Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Perez Diaz, M.; Lopez Bejerano, G. M.; Varela Corona, C.; Paz Viera, J. E.

    2009-07-01

    The present research is focused on the optimization of administered radionuclide activity in renal studies using {sup 9}9mTc-DMSA. The patients sample included 35 subjects, 23 of them were children and the other 12 were adults. Physical and metabolic characteristics of patients, total time of the study as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and gamma camera performance was considered in the experiments. Image quality of each study was evaluated using subjective criteria from two expert observers, without previous information about administered activity, and objective criteria based on signal/noise ratios and variance of the random noise in the images. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups of images with differentiated quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50%. (Author) 30 refs.

  4. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S. [Centro de Diagnostico Fleury, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Secao de Medicina Nuclear; Sao Paulo Univ. (USP), SP (Brazil). Escola de Saude Publica. Dept. de Epidemiologia]. E-mail: paulo.duarte@fleury.com.br

    2006-07-15

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA or {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with {sup 99m}Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA is higher for the {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for {sup 99m}Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  5. Comparison of relative renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domingues, F.C.; Fujikawa, G.Y.; Decker, H.; Alonso, G.; Pereira, J.C.; Duarte, P.S.; Sao Paulo Univ.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to compare the renal function measured with either 99m Tc-DTPA or 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphies with that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. Methods: the values of relative renal function measured in 111 renal dynamic scintigraphies performed either with 99m Tc-DTPA (55 studies) or with 99m Tc-EC (56 studies) were compared with the relative function measured using 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy performed within a 1-month period. The comparisons were performed using Wilcoxon signed rank test. The number of 99m Tc-DTPA and 99m Tc-EC studies that presented relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA, using chi square test were also compared. Results: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC is not statistically different from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA (p = 0.97). The relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA was statistically different from that measured using 99m Tc-DMSA, but with a borderline statistical significance (p = 0.05). The number of studies with relative renal function different by more than 5% from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA is higher for the 99m Tc-DTPA scintigraphy (p 0.04) than for 99m Tc-EC. Conclusion: the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-EC dynamic scintigraphy is comparable with that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy, while the relative renal function measured with 99m Tc-DTPA dynamic scintigraphy presents a significant statistical difference from that measured with 99m Tc-DMSA static scintigraphy. (author)

  6. Cuban typical doses for 99mTc-DMSA renal gammagraphy studies: a methodology for the establishment of reference levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diaz Barreto, M.; Varela Corona, C.; Lopez Bejerano, G.M.; Perea Diaz, M.; Paz Viera, J.E.

    2008-01-01

    Since a handful of years ago, international rules on Radiological Protection include the principle of optimization of given dose to patients, if this procedure doesn't lessen diagnosis quality, and the establishment of reference levels of activity. For these reasons, the Radiological Protection staff of Cuban Institute of Nephrology's Nuclear Medicine Service, where morpho functional renal studies are carried out, 70% on infants and young children, started a research on that way. Thus, because their biggest incidence, 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies were chosen, using a General Electric 400 AT Planar Gamma Camera. Studied sample was randomly selected, including adults (12 peoples) and children (23); divided into 4 groups, lessen given dose step by step. Other items were kept in mind in the research, such age, weight, time delayed between administrations and image getting, getting time of each view and total time of the study, as well as radiopharmaceuticals quality and Gamma Camera performance. Image quality was evaluated for each case, using both, objective and subjective criteria. Objective evaluation was done by using contrast/noise ratios and variance of the random noise. They were used to develop clustering and discriminant analysis over the independent variables to detect groups with differentiated image quality from the physical and mathematical point of view. Subjective evaluation was performed using the criteria of two expert observers who had no information about the activity levels used. They evaluated image quality separately, giving a good, regular or bad evaluation for each image. As a conclusion, we found that it is possible to reduce the given activities in 50% and thus, indirectly, to reduce doses for workers and for the public. Additionally, we propose a methodology for the establishment of reference levels for 99m Tc -DMSA renal gammagraphy studies in Cuba, both, for adults and paediatric patients. (author)

  7. Potential utility of MRI in the evaluation of children at risk of renal scarring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan Yuleung; Chan Kamwing; Roebuck, D.J.; Chu, W.C.W.; Metreweli, C.; Yeung Chungkwong; Lee Kimhung

    1999-01-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI has recently been employed in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Its potential utility in the diagnosis of renal scars in children is unknown. Objective. To evaluate the potential utility of MRI using fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) and post-gadolinium, short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences in detecting renal scarring by comparison with technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99 m Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy in children at risk of renal scarring. Materials and methods. A group of 24 children with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder or anorectal anomaly was studied. No patient had a history of acute pyelonephritis. Documented urinary tract infection (UTI) was present in 10 children (42 %). The remaining 14 (58 %) children had a history of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None had clinical signs or symptoms of acute UTI at the time of the study. 99 m Tc-DMSA and MRI were performed to detect renal scarring. 99 m Tc-DMSA scans were supplemented with pinhole imaging. MRI of the kidneys employed a fat-saturated T1-W sequence and a post-gadolinium STIR sequence employing a short echo time. Results. Of the kidneys studied, 33 % (n = 16) had evidence of a renal parenchymal defect suggestive of scarring on 99 m Tc-DMSA. The concordance in the detection of a scarred kidney by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 94 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 82 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 100 %. Using 99 m Tc-DMSA as the gold standard, MRI had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 78 % in the diagnosis of a scarred kidney. The concordance in the detection of a scarred zone by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 68 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and DMSA is 44 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and 99 m Tc-DMSA is 84 %. MRI had a sensitivity of 84 % and a specificity of 86 % in the diagnosis of a

  8. Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA renal scan findings in patients with congenital megacalyces and megaureter without urinary tract obstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo

    2003-01-01

    A 10 days old male infant with congenital megacalyces and megaureter, diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonographic screening, underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scan for evaluation of urinary tract patency, Tc-99m DMSA scan for evaluation of renal cortical damage. He also underwent intravenous urography(IVU) and renal ultrasonography. Tc-99m DTPA renal scan demonstrates intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both renal pelvocalyses and ureters, which rapidly washout diuretics administration. Tc-99m DMSA renal cortical scan shows no remarkable photon defect in both renal cortices and visible tracer uptake in both megaureter areas. Ultasonographic and IVU studies show enlarged both renal calyses and bullously dilated ureters, but no dilatation in renal pelvis. Follow up Tc-99m DTPA renal scan, performed at one year later, also reveals intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both urinary tracts which rapidly washout without diuretics, and shows no significant change compare to the previous Tc-99m DTPA renal scan. Urinary tract obstruction and renal cortical damage can be easily evaluated with Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA scans in patients with megacalyces and megaureter

  9. An experimental study on recovery of renal function using {sup 99m}Tc DMSA scintigram after percutaneous nephrostomy in unilateral hydronephrosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Nam, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Byung Soo [College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    1992-07-15

    Obstruction on the urinary tract eventually results in damage to the kidneys and lose of function. The questions that concern the clinician are the degree of nephron loss in that kidney and potential for recovery following the relief of obstruction. {sup 99m}Tc DMSA accumulates in tubule cells and has been proposed as a marker of the tubular mass. The authors estimated the renal uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc DMSA for the degree of nephron loss corresponding to duration of hydronephrosis following left ureteral ligation in 5 New Zealand white rabbits and the potential for recovery following percutaneous nephrostomy of hydronephrosis in 24 rabbits. While the renal uptake ratio of {sup 99m}Tc DMSA of the kidney with unilateral hydronephrosis following ureteral ligation reduced dramatically within 24 hour, that of the opposite healthy kidney increased, and the total renal uptake ratio was same as normal functioning kidneys before ureteral ligation. Upon ureteral release, there was no evidence of definite recovery or impairment in the experimental kidneys for 5 days. The authors conclude that a combination of ureteral release and administration of some drugs such as renal vasodilator or diuretics is an appropriate treatment for the recovery of function in unilateral hydronephrosis.

  10. Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA renal scan findings in patients with congenital megacalyces and megaureter without urinary tract obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Bae, Jin Ho; Jeong, Sin Young; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo [Kyungpook National University Medical School, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-06-01

    A 10 days old male infant with congenital megacalyces and megaureter, diagnosed by prenatal ultrasonographic screening, underwent Tc-99m DTPA renal scan for evaluation of urinary tract patency, Tc-99m DMSA scan for evaluation of renal cortical damage. He also underwent intravenous urography(IVU) and renal ultrasonography. Tc-99m DTPA renal scan demonstrates intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both renal pelvocalyses and ureters, which rapidly washout diuretics administration. Tc-99m DMSA renal cortical scan shows no remarkable photon defect in both renal cortices and visible tracer uptake in both megaureter areas. Ultasonographic and IVU studies show enlarged both renal calyses and bullously dilated ureters, but no dilatation in renal pelvis. Follow up Tc-99m DTPA renal scan, performed at one year later, also reveals intense tracer accumulation in enlarged both urinary tracts which rapidly washout without diuretics, and shows no significant change compare to the previous Tc-99m DTPA renal scan. Urinary tract obstruction and renal cortical damage can be easily evaluated with Tc-99m DTPA and Tc-99m DMSA scans in patients with megacalyces and megaureter.

  11. Evaluation of the protective effect of agmatine against cisplatin nephrotoxicity with 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy and cystatin-C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihoglu, Yavuz Sami; Elri, Tarik; Gulle, Kanat; Can, Murat; Aras, Mustafa; Ozacmak, Hale Sayan; Cabuk, Mehmet

    2016-10-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate whether agmatine (AGM) has a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Thirty-two rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) Saline (control); (2) Cisplatin (CDDP; 7.5 mg/kg intraperitoneally); (3) Agmatine (AGM; 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally); (4) Cisplatin plus agmatine (CDDP + AGM). Agmatine was given before and two consecutive days after cisplatin injection. All the animals underwent renal scintigraphy with 99mTc-DMSA. The levels of serum creatinine, cystatin C, and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were measured in addition to examination of the tissue samples with light microscopy. Acute renal injury was assessed with biochemical analyses, scintigraphic imaging, and histopathological evaluation. In the cisplatin group, the levels of BUN, creatinine, and cystatin C were significantly higher than that of the controls. Histopathological examination showed remarkable damage of tubular and glomerular structures. Additionally, cisplatin caused markedly decreased renal 99mTc-DMSA uptake. AGM administration improved renal functions. Serum creatinine, BUN, and cystatin C levels had a tendency to normalize and, scintigraphic and histopathological findings showed significantly less evidence of renal toxicity than those observed in animals receiving cisplatin alone. Our data indicate that AGM has a protective effect against cisplatin-induced nephrotoxicity. Therefore, it may improve the therapeutic index of cisplatin. In addition, the early renal damage induced by cisplatin and protective effects of AGM against cisplatin nephrotoxicity was accurately demonstrated with 99mTc-DMSA renal scintigraphy.

  12. An experimental study on recovery of renal function using 99mTc DMSA scintigram after percutaneous nephrostomy in unilateral hydronephrosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Yong; Nam, Sang Hwa; Park, Jong Yeon; Kim, Byung Soo

    1992-01-01

    Obstruction on the urinary tract eventually results in damage to the kidneys and lose of function. The questions that concern the clinician are the degree of nephron loss in that kidney and potential for recovery following the relief of obstruction. 99m Tc DMSA accumulates in tubule cells and has been proposed as a marker of the tubular mass. The authors estimated the renal uptake ratio of 99m Tc DMSA for the degree of nephron loss corresponding to duration of hydronephrosis following left ureteral ligation in 5 New Zealand white rabbits and the potential for recovery following percutaneous nephrostomy of hydronephrosis in 24 rabbits. While the renal uptake ratio of 99m Tc DMSA of the kidney with unilateral hydronephrosis following ureteral ligation reduced dramatically within 24 hour, that of the opposite healthy kidney increased, and the total renal uptake ratio was same as normal functioning kidneys before ureteral ligation. Upon ureteral release, there was no evidence of definite recovery or impairment in the experimental kidneys for 5 days. The authors conclude that a combination of ureteral release and administration of some drugs such as renal vasodilator or diuretics is an appropriate treatment for the recovery of function in unilateral hydronephrosis

  13. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc99m (DTPA) / Tc99m (Mag3) and Tc99m (Dmsa)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P.; Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F.

    2015-10-01

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3) or Tc 99m (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq -1 / 0.00339 mGy.MBq -1 . Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc 99m (DTPA) / Tc 99m (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc 99m (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq -1 . Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc 99m (Dmsa). (Author)

  14. Influences of renal stone surgeries on renal function; Evaluation of renal function with sup 99m Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katayama, Yasushi (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1991-10-01

    From 1984 to 1990, {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was performed before and after nephrolithotomy (15 cases), pyelolithotomy (15 cases), percutaneous nephrolithotripsy (PNL: 15 cases) and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL: 16 cases, 17 kidneys) in order to evaluate of influences of renal stone surgeries on split renal function. DMSA renal uptake change ratio of treated kidneys of nephrolithotomy (-24.94{+-}5.60%) was significantly lower than that of PNL (-0.06{+-}3.92%), pyelolithotomy (-4.08{+-}4.79%) (p<0.01) and ESWL (-7.72{+-}3.87%) (p<0.05). The average change ratios of contralateral kidneys were as follows: PNL 4.80{+-}4.21% nephrolithotomy 4.67{+-}4.73%, pyelolithotomy -1.46{+-}5.39% and ESWL -2.02{+-}4.44%. One to 3 weeks after PNL, the cold area on the renal image was found in 10 (66.7%) of 15 cases. In cases of ESWL, DMSA renal uptake decreased even 4-10 weeks (mean 7 weeks) after treatment. In conclusion, possibility of deterioration of renal function after ESWL was suggested. (author).

  15. The cytotoxicity evaluation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles on human aortic endothelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Gaoyuan; Wu, Hengfang; Xiong, Fei; Zhang, Yu; Guo, Zhirui; Bian, Zhiping; Xu, Jindan; Gu, Chunrong; Gu, Ning; Chen, Xiangjian; Yang, Di

    2013-05-01

    One major obstacle for successful application of nanoparticles in medicine is its potential nanotoxicity on the environment and human health. In this study, we evaluated the cytotoxicity effect of dimercaptosuccinic acid-coated iron oxide (DMSA-Fe2O3) using cultured human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs). Our results showed that DMSA-Fe2O3 in the culture medium could be absorbed into HAECs, and dispersed in the cytoplasm. The cytotoxicity effect of DMSA-Fe2O3 on HAECs was dose-dependent, and the concentrations no more than 0.02 mg/ml had little toxic effect which were revealed by tetrazolium dye assay. Meanwhile, the cell injury biomarker, lactate dehydrogenase, was not significantly higher than that from control cells (without DMSA-Fe2O3). However, the endocrine function for endothelin-1 and prostacyclin I-2, as well as the urea transporter function, was altered even without obvious evidence of cell injury in this context. We also showed by real-time PCR analysis that DMSA-Fe2O3 exposure resulted in differential effects on the expressions of pro- and anti-apoptosis genes of HAECs. Meanwhile, it was noted that DMSA-Fe2O3 exposure could activate the expression of genes related to oxidative stress and adhesion molecules, which suggested that inflammatory response might be evoked. Moreover, we demonstrated by in vitro endothelial tube formation that even a small amount of DMSA-Fe2O3 (0.01 and 0.02 mg/ml) could inhibit angiogenesis by the HAECs. Altogether, these results indicate that DMSA-Fe2O3 have some cytotoxicity that may cause side effects on normal endothelial cells.

  16. Investigating febrile UTI in infants: is a cystogram necessary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soccorso, G; Wagstaff, J; Blakey, K; Moss, G D; Broadley, P; Roberts, J P; Godbole, P

    2010-04-01

    Current imaging recommendations for investigating any infantile febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) are ultrasound scan (US), micturating cystourethrogram (MCUG) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to determine the need and indications for MCUG in the investigation of a first febrile infantile UTI, as doubts have been raised over its benefit. Information on 427 infants who had undergone US, MCUG and DMSA following a first febrile UTI was prospectively recorded. The infants were divided into two groups: A (354) with normal renal US and B (73) with abnormal US. DMSA findings were correlated with findings on MCUG. Main outcome measures were incidence of recurrent UTIs, change in management or intervention as a result of MCUG, and outcome at discharge. Only 21/354 (6%) infants in Group A had both scarring on DMSA and vesicoureteric reflux (VUR), predominantly low-grade on MCUG. In Group B (abnormal US), 23/73 (32%) had scarring on DMSA and vesicoureteric reflux, predominantly high grade on MCUG. Of the infants with non-scarred kidneys, 73% had dilating reflux. Successful conservative treatment was performed in 423 infants, and 4 infants in Group B required surgery. We recommend US and DMSA in all infantile febrile UTI cases. Where US is normal, MCUG should be reserved for those cases with abnormal DMSA. Where US is abnormal, MCUG should be performed irrespective of findings on DMSA scan. A randomized prospective study is necessary to evaluate this further. Copyright © 2009 Journal of Pediatric Urology Company. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of coating molecules on the magnetic heating properties of Au-Fe3O4 heterodimer nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Y.; Ogasawara, J.; Himukai, H.; Itoh, T.

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we report the heating properties of gold-magnetite (Au-Fe3O4) heterodimer nanoparticles (NPs) subjected to an alternating magnetic field. The Au-Fe3O4 NPs coated with oleic acid and oleylamine (OA) were synthesized through a method that combines seed mediation and high-temperature decomposition. The coating was replaced with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) by the ligand-exchange method. The specific absorption rates (SARs) for the OA- and DMSA-coated Au-Fe3O4 NPs coated with OA and DMSA at room temperature were determined through the calorimetric and magnetometric methods. SAR depended on the square of the magnetic field H up to an H value of 4 kA/m. The absolute value of the SAR for DMSA-coated NPs is about fivefold higher than that of the OA-coated NPs. The AC magnetic hysteresis measurements showed the recovery of the magnetic volume and the decrease in the magnetic anisotropy of the DMSA-coated NPs relative to those of the OA-coated NPs. These results suggest that the protective agent influences the magnetic properties of magnetite NPs via gold NPs.

  18. Which are risk factors developing renal cortical defects on {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in children with acute urinary tract infections?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Seong Won; Lim, Gye Yeon; Jang, Hae Suk; Lee, Eun Ja; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Hahn, Sung Tae [The Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-04-01

    To determine (1) the relationship between the cortical defects seen on {sup 99}''mTc-DMSA renal scans and age, and (2) the presence and degree of vesicoureteral reflux, and then to depict the risk factors for cortical defects in children with acute urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, to assess the diagnostic value of VCUG in predicting a defect on {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scans. We studied 134 kidneys in 67 children aged 15 days-10 years (M:F =3D 39:28) in whom symptomatic UTI was present. In all these children, both DMSA renal scans and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) were performed. Scanning took place within 7 days of diagnosis and VCUG was performed after one month of diagnosis. Scintigraphic findings were graded according to the extent and number of cortical defects. We evaluated the relationships between the cortical defects seen on DMSA scans and age, and the grade of vesicoureteral reflux. The diagnostic value of VCUG in predicting cortical defects was analysed. The prevalence of cortical defects was greater in patients older than two years (38/54, 70%) than in those aged less than two (38/80, 48%). The frequency of cortical defects was related to vesicoureteral reflux (p less than 0.05) and grade of reflux (p less than 0.05). As this latter increased, the extent of cortical defects also increased (p less than 0.05), and DMSA scans revealed the presence of these in 76 of the 134 kidneys (57%) with acute UTI. In 30 of these 76 (39.5%), VCUG demonstrated the presence of vesicoureteral reflex. On the other hand, vesicoureteral reflex was found in 36 of the 134 kidneys (27%), and in 30 of these 36 (83%), cortical defects were noted. The sensitivity of VCUG in predicting cortical defect was 39.5%, while specificity was 89.7%. The positive predictive value for defects was 83.3%, and the negative predictive value was 53.1%. The relative risk of cortical defect in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux was 1.78. Renal cortical defects are

  19. Interest of 99mTc-DMSA in the exploration of non-functional kidneys in the intravenous urography; report of 20 cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghfir, I.; Ouboukdir, R.; Ben Rais, N.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction The renal scintigraphy using 99m Tc-DMSA constitutes a non-invasive and functional method that is of appreciable interest in the qualitative study of renal parenchyma and the evaluation of the separate renal function. Material and methods We report, through this work, the observation of 20 patients presenting a unilateral renal muteness to the intravenous urography (I.V.U.). A 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy was carried out among all our patients by means of a gamma-camera with large field equipped with a parallel collimator of weak energy and high-resolution. The evaluation of images obtained consisted of a qualitative study of parenchyma as well as an estimate of the functional value separated from the two kidneys obtained by the calculation of geometric mean. Results On the 20 studied cases, the sex-ratio was equal to 1.16; the average age was 29.72 years with extremes spanning from 18 months to 70 years. The renal muteness reported on intravenous urography was due among 12 patients (60% of cases) to a lithiasis origin, in six patients (30% of cases), to an ureteral-pelvic junction, in one patient (5% of cases), to a chronic pyelonephritis and in another patient (5% of cases) to a mega urethra. The separated renal function of the non functional kidneys to the I.V.U., obtained from the renal 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy varied from 11% to 31% with an average of 20.6%. Discussion Through our series, 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy allowed to alleviate the limits of I.V.U. in the evaluation of the precise functional value of pathologic kidneys. Indeed, in the 20 studied cases where the I.V.U. had reported a renal muteness, the 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy allowed a better appreciation of the renal function which varied from 11% to 31% thus calling into question the accuracy of I.V.U. in the exploration of renal function at an advanced stage of uropathy. (N.C.)

  20. Which are risk factors developing renal cortical defects on 99mTc-DMSA scintigraphy in children with acute urinary tract infections?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Seong Won; Lim, Gye Yeon; Jang, Hae Suk; Lee, Eun Ja; Sohn, Hyung Sun; Hahn, Sung Tae

    2000-01-01

    To determine (1) the relationship between the cortical defects seen on 99 ''mTc-DMSA renal scans and age, and (2) the presence and degree of vesicoureteral reflux, and then to depict the risk factors for cortical defects in children with acute urinary tract infection (UTI). Furthermore, to assess the diagnostic value of VCUG in predicting a defect on 99m Tc-DMSA renal scans. We studied 134 kidneys in 67 children aged 15 days-10 years (M:F =3D 39:28) in whom symptomatic UTI was present. In all these children, both DMSA renal scans and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) were performed. Scanning took place within 7 days of diagnosis and VCUG was performed after one month of diagnosis. Scintigraphic findings were graded according to the extent and number of cortical defects. We evaluated the relationships between the cortical defects seen on DMSA scans and age, and the grade of vesicoureteral reflux. The diagnostic value of VCUG in predicting cortical defects was analysed. The prevalence of cortical defects was greater in patients older than two years (38/54, 70%) than in those aged less than two (38/80, 48%). The frequency of cortical defects was related to vesicoureteral reflux (p less than 0.05) and grade of reflux (p less than 0.05). As this latter increased, the extent of cortical defects also increased (p less than 0.05), and DMSA scans revealed the presence of these in 76 of the 134 kidneys (57%) with acute UTI. In 30 of these 76 (39.5%), VCUG demonstrated the presence of vesicoureteral reflex. On the other hand, vesicoureteral reflex was found in 36 of the 134 kidneys (27%), and in 30 of these 36 (83%), cortical defects were noted. The sensitivity of VCUG in predicting cortical defect was 39.5%, while specificity was 89.7%. The positive predictive value for defects was 83.3%, and the negative predictive value was 53.1%. The relative risk of cortical defect in the presence of vesicoureteral reflux was 1.78. Renal cortical defects are significantly related to age

  1. Combined Efficacy of Gallic Acid and MiADMSA with Limited Beneficial Effects Over MiADMSA Against Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress in Mouse

    OpenAIRE

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Flora, SJS

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid is an organic acid known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The present study is focused on evaluating the role of gallic acid in providing better therapeutic outcomes against arsenic-induced toxicity. Animals pre-exposed to arsenic were treated with monoisoamyl meso -2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new chelating drug, alone and in combination with gallic acid, consecutively for 10 days. The study suggests that (1) gallic acid in presence of MiADMSA is only mo...

  2. DMSA scan nomograms for renal length and area: Related to patient age and to body weight, height or surface area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, I.M.; Que, L.; Rutland, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To create nomograms for renal size as measured from DMSA renal studies, and to test the nomograms for their ability to separate normal from abnormal kidneys. Method: Renal length was measured from posterior oblique views and renal area from posterior views. Results from 253 patients with bilateral normal kidneys were used to create nomograms for renal size relative to patient age, body height, weight or body surface area (BSA). The nomograms enclosed 95% of the normal kidneys, thus indicating the range for 95% confidence limits, and hence the specificity. Each nomogram was then tested against 46 hypertrophied kidneys and 46 damaged kidneys. Results: The results from nomograms of renal length and renal area, compared to age, body height, body weight and BSA are presented. For each nomogram, the range is presented as a fraction of the mean value, and the number of abnormal kidneys (hypertrophied or damaged) outside the normal range is presented as a percentage (indicating the sensitivity). Conclusion: Renal Area was no better than renal length for detecting abnormal kidneys. Patient age was the least useful method of normalisation. BSA normalisation produced the best results most frequently (narrower ranges and highest detection of abnormal kidneys)

  3. Evaluation of the absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) and Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa); Evaluacion de la dosis absorbida en los rinones debido al Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (MAG3) y Tc{sup 99m} (DMSA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasquez A, M.; Murillo C, F.; Castillo D, C.; Rocha J, J.; Sifuentes D, Y.; Sanchez S, P. [Universidad Nacional de Trujillo, Av. Juan Pablo II s/n, Trujillo (Peru); Idrogo C, J.; Marquez P, F., E-mail: marvva@hotmail.com [Instituto Nacional de Enfermedades Neoplasicas, Av. Angamos 2520, Lima (Peru)

    2015-10-15

    The absorbed dose in the kidneys of adult patients has been assessed using the biokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals containing Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3) or Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa).The absorbed dose was calculated using the formalism MIRD and the Cristy-Eckerman representation for the kidneys. The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3), are given by 0.00466 mGy.MBq{sup -1} / 0.00339 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Approximately 21.2% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder (content) and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (DTPA) / Tc{sup 99m} (Mag3). The absorbed dose to the kidneys due to Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa) is 0.17881 mGy.MBq{sup -1}. Here, 1.7% of the absorbed dose is due to the bladder, spleen, liver and the remaining tissue, included in biokinetics of Tc{sup 99m} (Dmsa). (Author)

  4. Equivalence of the blockage of ureter and the action of the urethane in {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA biodistribution in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martins, Patricia de A.; Fukumori, Neuza T.O.; Matsuda, Margareth M.N.; Vicente, Irene; Silva, Laercio da; Evedove, Sueli D.; Muramoto, Emiko [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)]. E-mails: patyosborne@yahoo.com; ntfukumo@ipen.br; lsilva@ipen.br; mmatsusa@ipen.br; sevedove@yahoo.com

    2007-07-01

    The indication of the United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) for biological control of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA is the experiment in rats with ureter occlusion. Urethane has a vessel constriction action in the urinary system and keeps the eliminatory mechanism functioning through glomerular filtration. The objective of this work is to show that the use of urethane in animals without blockage of ureteres has total credibility, even if the expressed value of the renal retention does not correspond to 40% injected dose (I.D.) related in the literature. The experiments were performed in 2 groups of 12 rats each, the first using urethane and the second, urethane and blockage of ureter. Four lots of DMSA were labeled with 10 mCi/3 mL of {sup 99m}Tc solution, and 300 {mu}Ci/0.1 mL was injected intravenously in each animal. After one hour, they were sacrificed and kidneys, bladder, liver, spleen and carcass were taken out for determination of the retained radiation in function of the injected dose. The USP establishes two parameters for the metabolism of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA: renal retention equal or higher than 40% and kidneys/liver plus spleen relation equal or higher than 6. In animals whose ureteres were obstructed, it was clearly observed that the urine was not transferred from kidneys to bladder 0.05 {+-} 0.35% I.D., while the first group presented 0.50 {+-} 6.50 % I.D. The kidneys/liver plus spleen relation were above 6 for both. Considering the deviation, all results were in the USP limit of acceptability, and for routine evaluation, urethane can be used without surgical intervention. (author)

  5. 99mTc-MAG3 vs 99mTc-DMSA early images: A practice options for the study of renal morphology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraxedas, R.; Reyes, L.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Perera, A.; Solano, M.E.; Sanchez del Campo, M.

    1997-01-01

    99m Tc- DMSA renal scans are considered a gold standard for the evaluations of cortical defects Nevertheless 99m Tc -MAG3 early images (1-2 min after administration) present clearly defined images of the renal parenchyma. In this work 37 patients with clinical suspicion of upper tract infection were studied with both tracers. Renal ages were evaluated for the presence of cortical defects in a blind fashion by a group of three experts and split function was calculated. Results were highly coincident. It is concluded that early 99mT c -MAG3 can be used to study renal morphology and patient irradiated can be reduced

  6. Scintigraphic detection of 'yo-yo' phenomenon in incomplete ureteric duplication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Winnie C.W.; Chan, Kam-wing; Metreweli, Constantine

    2003-01-01

    'Yo-yo' reflux in an incompletely duplicated renal system was demonstrated on 99m Tc-mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3) renal scintigraphy in a 7-year-old girl presenting with low-grade fever and pyelonephritis. Incomplete duplication and a bifid renal pelvis, which may be seen in up to 4% of the North American population, occasionally causes symptoms because of recurrent urinary tract infection or loin pain. 99m Tc-MAG3 renal scintigraphy can demonstrate 'yo-yo' reflux in patients with incomplete renal duplication and should be considered in cases with unexplained loin pain, even if 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy is normal. (orig.)

  7. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, J B; Mitchell, I J [Division of Basic Medical Sciences, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Baral, M; Bradstreet, J [Department of Pediatric Medicine, Southwest College of Naturopathic Medicine, Tempe, AZ 85282 (United States); Geis, E; Ingram, J; Hensley, A; Zappia, I; Gehn, E; Mitchell, K [Autism Research Institute, San Diego, CA 92116-2599 (United States); Newmark, S [Center for Integrative Pediatric Medicine, Tucson, AZ 85711 (United States); Rubin, R A [Department of Mathematics, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90601-4413 (United States); Bradstreet, J [International Child Development Resource Center, Phoenix, AZ (United States); El-Dahrn, J M [Department of Pediatrics, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112 (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  8. The Severity of Autism Is Associated with Toxic Metal Body Burden and Red Blood Cell Glutathione Levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, J.B.; Mitchell, I.J.; Baral, M.; Bradstreet, J.; Geis, E.; Ingram, J.; Hensley, A.; Zappia, I.; Gehn, E.; Mitchell, K.; Newmark, S.; Rubin, R.A.; Bradstreet, J.; El-Dahrn, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship of children's autism symptoms with their toxic metal body burden and red blood cell (RBC) glutathione levels. In children ages 38 years, the severity of autism was assessed using four tools: ADOS, PDD-BI, ATEC, and SAS. Toxic metal body burden was assessed by measuring urinary excretion of toxic metals, both before and after oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). Multiple positive correlations were found between the severity of autism and the urinary excretion of toxic metals. Variations in the severity of autism measurements could be explained, in part, by regression analyses of urinary excretion of toxic metals before and after DMSA and the level of RBC glutathione (adjusted R2 of 0.220.45, P<.005 in all cases). This study demonstrates a significant positive association between the severity of autism and the relative body burden of toxic metals.

  9. Urinary tract infection in childhood: lower or upper level? DMSA scintigraphic validation of a new clinical risk index; Infection urinaire de l'enfant: est-elle haute ou basse? proposition d'un score diagnostique valide par la scintigraphie renale au DMSA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayet-Papin, B.; Decomps-Hofmann, A.; Bovier-Lapierre, M. [Centre Hospitalier, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, 73 - Chambery (France)

    2001-04-01

    Urinary tract infection in children can be limited most of time at the lower level of the urinary tractus but an extension to the upper level of the tractus should not be neglected due to the asymptomatic nature of the disease. In our study, we suggest a new graph to predict the probability of acute pyelonephritis only if the bacteriological urinary analyse were obtained in good conditions and without any treatment. In the other cases, a DMSA scintigram should be proposed at the earlier phase of the diagnosis not to underestimate the risk of asymptomatic pyelonephritis. (authors)

  10. Practical approach to screen vesicoureteral reflux after a first urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alvarez Fuente

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR is a common pediatric urologic disorder. After the first urinary tract infection (UTI, imaging studies are recommended, starting with a renal ultrasound (RUS. Voiding cystourethrography (VCUG and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan are the other main radiologic studies used to detect VUR. We evaluated the use of RUS as a screening method for VUR in children below 2 years of age, in order to avoid unnecessary VCUG. Materials and Methods: Medical records and imaging studies of infants (<2 years who had their first UTI in a 6 year period were retrospectively reviewed. We evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive values of RUS and DMSA for diagnosing VUR. Results: Among 155 children (51% males with their first UTI, 148 RUS were performed, 128 VCUG and 29 DMSA. VUR was detected in 21% patients; 14.5% low grade and 6.5% high grade. One hundred and twenty-one patients underwent both RUS and VCUG, 101 RUS were normal and 20 abnormal. Of the normal RUS 98% had no or low grade VUR. Among those with an abnormality on RUS 30% had high grade VUR (P = 0.001. Conclusions: After the first UTI in infants (<2 years RUS is a good screening method for VUR. Among such shildren with a normal RUS, we do not recommend VCUG or DMSA. In our opinion, VCUG should be performed only in patients with abnormal findings in RUS or in recurrent UTI.

  11. Renal Power Doppler Ultrasonographic Evaluation of Children With Acute Pyelonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Pahlusi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are common in children. The available gold standard method for diagnosis, Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid scan is expensive and exposes patients to considerable amount of radiation. This study was performed to compare and assess the efficacy of Power Doppler Ultrasound versus Tc-99m DMSA scan for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. A quasi experimental study was conducted on 34 children with mean age of 2.82.7 years who were hospitalized with their first episode of febrile urinary tract infection. All children were evaluated in the first 3 days of admission by Doppler Ultrasound and Tc-99m DMSA scan. Patients with congenital structural anomalies were excluded. Each kidney was divided into three zones. The comparison between efficacy of Doppler Ultrasound and DMSA scan was carried out based on number of patients and on classified renal units. Based on the number of patients enrolled; the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and accuracy of Doppler Ultrasound were 89%, 53%, 70%, 80% and 74%, respectively but based on the renal units, it was 66%, 81%, 46%, 91% and 79% , respectively. Although Doppler Ultrasound has the potential for identifying acute pyelonephritis in children, but it is still soon to replace DMSA scan.

  12. The study of the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of bones of Catla catla due to lead intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaniappan, P L R M; Krishnakumar, N; Vadivelu, M; Vijayasundaram, V

    2010-02-01

    In the present study, an attempt has been made to analyze the changes in the biochemical and mineral contents of lead-intoxicated bones of Catla catla at subchronic (15.5 ppm) exposure, and also to determine whether the effects of Pb intoxication can be reversed with the chelating agent meso 2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) on the bones of freshwater fingerlings Catla catla by using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and atomic absorption spectrophotometer techniques. The FT-IR spectra of the lead-exposed bones show significant alteration in the biochemical constituents. The XRD analysis showed a decrease in crystallinity due to lead exposure. Further, the Ca, Mg, and P contents of the lead-exposed bones were less than those of the control group, and there was an increase in the mineral contents of the bones after DMSA treatment. In conclusion, the present study suggests that the subchronic lead exposure results in severe loss of bone minerals. The overall decrease in the FT-IR band intensity of Pb-exposed bones relative to the control indicates a decrease in the biochemical constituents like proteins and lipids. The increase in the band intensity after treatment with chelating agent DMSA indicates increased biochemical constituents, showing that the subchronic effects of lead can be reversed by DMSA. The amide I bands observed at 1654 cm(-1) in the present study suggest that the protein is dominated by alpha-helical structure.

  13. Evaluation of renal function in children with vesicoureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, Takuichi

    1993-01-01

    Renal uptake rate was calculated by 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in 100 kidneys from 58 patients with pediatric vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) to assess kidney function quantitatively for treatment selection and surgical timing. The conservatively treated group consisted of 42 patients (75 kidneys) who underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy twice at intervals of 2 years during their management. The surgically treated group consisted of 16 patients (25 kidneys) who underwent DMSA renal scintigraphy before and 2 years after surgery, Urine samples were collected at the time of initial DMSA renal scintigraphy for the simultaneous measurement of β 2 -microglobulin (β 2 -MG), α 1 -microglobulin and N-acetyl-β-glucosaminidase. Renal uptake ratio of DMSA did not differ in VUR grades during a 2-year follow-up period in the conservative group. In the age group of patients aged 2 or less, renal uptake ratio decreased 2 years later, with significant difference with that in the other age groups. According to VUR grade, there was no significant difference in DMSA renal kidney ratios between the conservative group and the surgical group. According to age, significant difference in renal uptake ratio was observed between the two groups; i.e., patients aged 2 or less had a significantly decreased renal uptake ratio in the conservative group than the surgical group. However, the renal uptake ratio did not differ in the other age groups. For patients aged 2 or less, surgery was considerd necessary to prevent reflux when urinary β 2 -MG indexes are increased. For those aged 3 years or more, on the other hand, conservative treatment was considered optimal regardless of VUR grades; surgery was considered recommended in the case of repeated urinary infection and decreased renal function. (N.K.)

  14. Topical efficacy of dimercapto-chelating agents against lewisite-induced skin lesions in SKH-1 hairless mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mouret, Stéphane, E-mail: stephane.mouret@irba.fr [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Wartelle, Julien; Emorine, Sandy; Bertoni, Marine; Nguon, Nina; Cléry-Barraud, Cécile [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Dorandeu, Frédéric [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France); Ecole du Val-de-Grâce, 1 place Alphonse Laveran, Paris (France); Boudry, Isabelle [Département de Toxicologie et Risques Chimiques, Institut de Recherche Biomédicale des Armées, Centre de Recherches du Service de Santé des Armées, 24 avenue Maquis du Grésivaudan, 38700 La Tronche (France)

    2013-10-15

    Lewisite is a potent chemical warfare arsenical vesicant that can cause severe skin lesions. Today, lewisite exposure remains possible during demilitarization of old ammunitions and as a result of deliberate use. Although its cutaneous toxicity is not fully elucidated, a specific antidote exists, the British anti-lewisite (BAL, dimercaprol) but it is not without untoward effects. Analogs of BAL, less toxic, have been developed such as meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and have been employed for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. However, efficacy of DMSA against lewisite-induced skin lesions remains to be determined in comparison with BAL. We have thus evaluated in this study the therapeutic efficacy of BAL and DMSA in two administration modes against skin lesions induced by lewisite vapor on SKH-1 hairless mice. Our data demonstrate a strong protective efficacy of topical application of dimercapto-chelating agents in contrast to a subcutaneous administration 1 h after lewisite exposure, with attenuation of wound size, necrosis and impairment of skin barrier function. The histological evaluation also confirms the efficacy of topical application by showing that treatments were effective in reversing lewisite-induced neutrophil infiltration. This protective effect was associated with an epidermal hyperplasia. However, for all the parameters studied, BAL was more effective than DMSA in reducing lewisite-induced skin injury. Together, these findings support the use of a topical form of dimercaprol-chelating agent against lewisite-induced skin lesion within the first hour after exposure to increase the therapeutic management and that BAL, despite its side-effects, should not be abandoned. - Highlights: • Topically applied dimercapto-chelating agents reduce lewisite-induced skin damage. • One topical application of BAL or DMSA is sufficient to reverse lewisite effects. • Topical BAL is more effective than DMSA to counteract lewisite-induced skin damage.

  15. Quality control studies and biological evaluation of three locally produced renal pharmaceutical preparations: 99mTc-DTPA, 99mTc-GH and 99mTcDMSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Azzawi, H. M. A.; Al-Nuzal, S. M.; Badi, J. M.

    2012-12-01

    Quality control (QC) studies of three locally produced renal preparation of 9 9mT c-DTPA, 9 9mT c-GH and 9 9mT c-DMSA, as a part of the production activity before the Gulf war. The radioanalytical studies were performed using Gel Chromatography column Scanning (GCS) technique, although there are other alternative techniques. These kits tested for radiochemical purity and the labeling yields were found to be excellent. The biological studies included the following parameters; organ distribution (in mice, rats and rabbits), blood clearance in rabbits and plasma protein binding in rats at different time intervals. The poor renal concentration of three agents in mice was significant at two time intervals . The tissue distribution of DTPA, GH and DMSA kits, which were stored at 37 O C for 30 days in mice after intravenous injection of the radioactivity at 5, 30 and 60 minutes. The blood retention of the renal agents was considerably low compared to those in rats and rabbits at the respective time intervals. The blood clearance of 9 9m 'Tc-DMSA was relatively slow and 9 9mT c-GH has rapid blood clearance identical with that of 9 9mt c-DTPA for the first 20 minutes but slower thereafter. The binding of DTPA, GH and DMSA with plasma protein was 5, and 95% at 1 hour respectively. Various amounts of tin (11) (as SnCl-2) were used in the kits with up to 10 times more of the usual dose for respective tin-complex and it was observed that there was no significant variation of the usual dose for respective tin-complex and its was observed that there was no significant variation of the organ distribution in mice. (Author)

  16. Iliac renal ectopia explored by {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. Report of one case; Ectopie renale iliaque exploree par scintigraphie au {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA et au {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA. A propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghfir, I.; Ben Rais, N. [Hopital Ibn Sina, CHU de Rabat, Service de Medecine Nucleaire de Rabat (Morocco)

    2008-11-15

    Introduction Renal ectopia is a malposition by anomaly of migration during the embryonic development. It can be high, low or crossed. Association with an obstructive malformation is rather frequent. The objective of this work is to highlight the interest of {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy in the exploration of this type of malformation through the observation of a patient presenting an iliac right renal ectopia associated with an ureteral-pelvic junction syndrome. Observation A 38-year-old patient with an ureteral-pelvic junction syndrome on a right iliac renal ectopia revealed by intravenous urography. The dynamic renal scintigraphy using {sup 99m}Tc-DTPA with furosemide test evidenced an organic obstruction in the right urinary tract with a right renal function estimated at 40% on the {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy. A right pyelo-plasty was carried out. The evolution was marked by the disappearance of pain and a remarkable improvement of the permeability of the right urinary tract on the follow-up scintigraphy. Discussion Renal ectopia is not an unfrequent urinary malformation. It is generally low, pelvic or iliac. Association with an ureteral-pelvic junction obstruction is rather frequent. In this purpose, renal scintigraphy intervenes as a means of functional exploration, with low ionizing radiation and non-invasive to assess the permeability of the urinary tracts of the ectopic kidney and to appreciate the relative renal function. This contributes to the orientation of diagnosis and the improvement of therapeutic strategy.

  17. 99mTc-DMSA renal uptake in urological diseases measured from renal tomographic images using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oishi, Yukihiko; Tashiro, Kazuya; Kishimoto, Koichi; Wada, Tetsuro; Torii, Shinichiro; Yoshigoe, Fukuo; Machida, Toyohei; Yamada, Hideo; Toyama, Hinako.

    1987-01-01

    To determine renal function, 99m Tc-DMSA renal uptake was measured from renal tomographic images obtained by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). A total of 77 tests was conducted on 73 patients with various diseases in the kidneys and urinary tract to determine renal uptake. The correlation coefficient(r) between total renal volume and total renal uptake was 0.3509 and that between renal volume and uptake of 143 kidneys was 0.5433. In 62 patients whose creatinine clearance could be measured, the correlation coefficient between creatinine clearance and total renal volume was 0.2352, and that between creatinine clearance and total renal uptake was 0.8854, that is, creatinine clearance correlated well with renal uptake. Renal volume and uptake determined in 10 normal male and 10 normal female adults were 220 ml and 26.8 % for the right kidney and 239 ml and 27.6 % for the left kidney for the males and 206 ml and 26.4 % (right) and 237 ml and 27.9 % (left) for the females. This method, which requires no blood or urine collection, is very useful as an individual kidney function test to evaluate individual kidney function and to understand kidney function before and after operation in patients with renal and urinary diseases. (author)

  18. The relationships between clinical variables and renal parenchymal disease in pediatric clinically suspected urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung Lim Byun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : To evaluate the significance of clinical signs and laboratory findings as predictors of renal parenchymal lesions and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in childhood urinary tract infection (UTI. Methods : From July 2005 to July 2008, 180 patients admitted with a first febrile UTI at the Pediatric Department of Konkuk University Hospital were included in this study. The following were the clinical variables: leukocytosis, elevated C-reactive protein (CRP, positive urine nitrite, positive urine culture, and fever duration both before and after treatment. We evaluated the relationships between clinical variables and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scan and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG results. Results : VCUG was performed in 148 patients; of them, 37 (25.0% had VUR: 18 (12.2% had low-grade (I-II VUR, and 19 (10.5% had high-grade (III-V VUR. Of the 95 patients who underwent DMSA scanning, 29 (30.5% had cortical defects, of which 21 (63.6% had VUR: 10 (30.3%, low-grade (I-II VUR; and 11 (33.3%, high-grade VUR. Of the 57 patients who were normal on DMSA scan, 8 (14.0% had low-grade VUR and 6 (10.5% had high-grade VUR. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of the DMSA scan in predicting high-grade VUR were 64.7%, 69.9%, 33.3%, and 89.5%, respectively. Leukocytosis, elevated CRP, and prolonged fever (?#243;6 hours after treatment were significantly correlated with the cortical defects on DMSA scans and high-grade VUR. Conclusion : Clinical signs, including prolonged fever after treatment, elevated CRP, and leukocytosis, are positive predictors of acute pyelonephritis and high-grade VUR.

  19. Ultra-small particles of iron oxide as peroxidase for immunohistochemical detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yihang; Song Mengjie; Zhang Xiaoqing; Zhang Yu; Wang Chunyu; Gu Ning; Xin Zhuang; Li Suyi

    2011-01-01

    Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) modified ultra-small particles of iron oxide (USPIO) were synthesized through a two-step process. The first step: oleic acid (OA) capped Fe 3 O 4 (OA-USPIO) were synthesized by a novel oxidation coprecipitation method in H 2 O/DMSO mixing system, where DMSO acts as an oxidant simultaneously. The second step: OA was replaced by DMSA to obtain water-soluble nanoparticles. The as-synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, FTIR, TGA, VSM, DLS, EDS and UV-vis. Hydrodynamic sizes and Peroxidase-like catalytic activity of the nanoparticles were investigated. The hydrodynamic sizes of the nanoparticles (around 24.4 nm) were well suited to developing stable nanoprobes for bio-detection. The kinetic studies were performed to quantitatively evaluate the catalytic ability of the peroxidase-like nanoparticles. The calculated kinetic parameters indicated that the DMSA-USPIO possesses high catalytic activity. Based on the high activity, immunohistochemical experiments were established: using low-cost nanoparticles as the enzyme instead of expensive HRP, Nimotuzumab was conjugated onto the surface of the nanoparticles to construct a kind of ultra-small nanoprobe which was employed to detect epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-expressed on the membrane of esophageal cancer cell. The proper sizes of the probes and the result of membranous immunohistochemical staining suggest that the probes can be served as a useful diagnostic reagent for bio-detection.

  20. Studies on the preparation of radioactive labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae-Rok; Park, Kyung-Bae; Awh, Ok-Doo

    1985-04-01

    To deveolp 99 mTc instant labelling kits of dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), glucoheptonic acid (GH), and tin colloid, molar ratios of the host compound to the stannous chloride, amount of the stannous chloride and pH were, respectively, controlled. The labelling yields and radiochemical purities were checked by means of a paper chromatography. Animal studies and clinical applications were also carried out. The results indicated that DMSA/SnCl 2 2H 2 O 3/1(mole/mole), SnCl 2 2H 2 O 410ug/ml/vial, pH 2.5, Ca GH/SnCl 2 2H 2 O 53/1(mole/mole), SnCl 2 2H 2 O 350 ug/ml/vial, pH 6.5, NaF 100ug/vial, SnCl 2 2H 2 O 150 ug/ml/vial, pH. 5.6 etc, were optimal conditions for the preparation of DMSA-, GH-, and tin colloid-kits, respectively. (Author)

  1. Potential utility of MRI in the evaluation of children at risk of renal scarring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan Yuleung; Chan Kamwing; Roebuck, D.J.; Chu, W.C.W.; Metreweli, C. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology and Organ Imaging, Chinese Univ. of Hong Kong, Shatin (China); Yeung Chungkwong; Lee Kimhung [Dept. of Surgery, Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong (China)

    1999-11-01

    Background. Gadolinium-enhanced MRI has recently been employed in the diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis. Its potential utility in the diagnosis of renal scars in children is unknown. Objective. To evaluate the potential utility of MRI using fat-saturated T1-weighted (T1-W) and post-gadolinium, short-tau inversion-recovery (STIR) sequences in detecting renal scarring by comparison with technetium dimercaptosuccinic acid ({sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy in children at risk of renal scarring. Materials and methods. A group of 24 children with spina bifida and neurogenic bladder or anorectal anomaly was studied. No patient had a history of acute pyelonephritis. Documented urinary tract infection (UTI) was present in 10 children (42 %). The remaining 14 (58 %) children had a history of asymptomatic bacteriuria. None had clinical signs or symptoms of acute UTI at the time of the study. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA and MRI were performed to detect renal scarring. {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA scans were supplemented with pinhole imaging. MRI of the kidneys employed a fat-saturated T1-W sequence and a post-gadolinium STIR sequence employing a short echo time. Results. Of the kidneys studied, 33 % (n = 16) had evidence of a renal parenchymal defect suggestive of scarring on {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA. The concordance in the detection of a scarred kidney by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 94 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 82 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 100 %. Using {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA as the gold standard, MRI had a sensitivity of 100 % and a specificity of 78 % in the diagnosis of a scarred kidney. The concordance in the detection of a scarred zone by post-gadolinium STIR sequence and {sup 99} {sup m}Tc-DMSA is 68 %; that by fat-saturated T1-W sequence and DMSA is 44 %; that by both sequences (positive result on either sequence) and {sup 99

  2. [Lead intoxication in a group of workers in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willi, R F; Felgenhauer, N; Eyer, F; Buters, J T; Zilker, T

    2009-12-01

    Seventeen East-European workers with a suspected lead-intoxication presented themselves to the Department of Toxicology. All of them had worked on the renovation of pylons of a high-tension line. The old paint, known to contain lead was removed with needle descalers. The patients had blood lead concentrations between 325 and 1124 microg/l, but no specific symptoms. The workers neglected the protective measures at their working-place. 12 of 17 workers had lead-concentrations above 400 microg/l (Reference lead-concentration above 700 microg/l were treated with the chelating agent meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) 3 x 200 mg/d for nine days. The patients with lead concentrations between 400 and 700 microg/l were treated which DMSA 3 x 100 mg/d. After the DMSA-treatment the lead-concentrations had dropped (p lead concentration in their blood due to occupational exposure. The high blood lead levels showed that the workers had not been protected adequately. This examplifies that occupational lead exposure still occurs, also in Germany. By patients with unspecific symptoms connected with lead exposure a biomonitoring for lead is necessary.

  3. Urinary tract infection in infants: a single-center clinical analysis in southern Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jen-Hsi; Chiou, Yee-Hsuan; Chang, Jenn-Tzong; Wang, Hsiao-Ping; Chen, Ying-Yao; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng

    2012-10-01

    This study summarized the epidemiology, etiology, and susceptibility of pathogens to antibiotics, and specific characteristics in infants aged less than 4 months diagnosed with urinary tract infection in the past decade in Taiwan. The medical charts of patients aged less than 4 months admitted for urinary tract infection to Kaohsiung Veterans General Hospital between January 2001 and December 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 132 patients, with male predominance (68.9%), were enrolled. The top three pathogens were similar to those identified in previous studies in Taiwan. The most common pathogen, Escherichia coli (85.3%), was resistant to ampicillin (75.9%), followed by sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim (31.7%), and cefazolin (28.5%). Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan revealed 34.5% positive findings, while the vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) rate was 37.8% by direct radionuclide voiding cystography and/or voiding cysto-urethrography. Positive DMSA findings significantly correlated with VUR (ppediatric population in Taiwan. VUR was the most common genitourinary tract anomaly in this age group. Positive DMSA was well correlated with VUR and higher C-reactive protein level. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Ex situ integration of iron oxide nanoparticles onto the exfoliated expanded graphite flakes in water suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jović Nataša

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid structures composed of exfoliated expanded graphite (EG and iron oxide nanocrystals have been produced by an ex situ process. The iron oxide nanoparticles coated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, or poly(acrylic acid (PAA were integrated onto the exfoliated EG flakes by mixing their aqueous suspensions at room temperature under support of 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropylcarbodiimide (EDC and N-hydroxysuccin-nimide (NHS. EG flakes have been used both, naked and functionalized with branched polyethylenimine (PEI. Complete integration of two constituents has been achieved and mainteined stable for more than 12 months. No preferential spatial distribution of anchoring sites for attachement of iron oxide nanoparticles has been observed, regardless EG flakes have been used naked or functionalized with PEI molecules. The structural and physico-chemical characteristics of the exfoliated expanded graphite and its hybrids nanostructures has been investigated by SEM, TEM, FTIR and Raman techniques. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 45015

  5. Structural and morphological investigation of magnetic nanoparticles based on iron oxides for biomedical applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddad, Paula S. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)], E-mail: pferreira@lnls.br; Martins, Tatiana M. [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Caixa Postal 6165, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); D' Souza-Li, Lilia [Laboratorio de Endocrinologia Pediatrica da Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas (FCM), UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6111, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Li, Li M. [Departamento de Neurologia da FCM, UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6111, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Metze, Konradin; Adam, Randall L. [Grupo interdisciplinar ' Patologia Analitica Celular' , Departamento de Anatomia Patologica da FCM, UNICAMP, Caixa Postal 6111, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Knobel, Marcelo [Instituto de Fisica Gleb Wataghin (IFGW), Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Caixa Postal 6165, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil); Zanchet, Daniela [Laboratorio Nacional de Luz Sincrotron (LNLS), Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas-SP (Brazil)

    2008-05-01

    The present work reports the synthesis, characterization and properties of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for biomedical applications, correlating the nanoscale tunabilities in terms of size, structure, and magnetism. Magnetic nanoparticles in different conditions were prepared through thermal decomposition of Fe(acac){sub 3} in the presence of 1,2 hexadecanodiol (reducing agent) and oleic acid and oleylamine (ligands) in a hot organic solvent. The 2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was exchanged onto the nanocrystal surface making the particles stable in water. Nanoparticles were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) measurements, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Preliminary tests of incorporation of these nanoparticles in cells and their magnetic resonance image (MRI) were also carried out. The magnetization characterizations were made by isothermal magnetic measurements.

  6. Description of 3,180 Courses of Chelation with Dimercaptosuccinic Acid in Children ≤5 y with Severe Lead Poisoning in Zamfara, Northern Nigeria: A Retrospective Analysis of Programme Data

    OpenAIRE

    Thurtle, Natalie; Greig, Jane; Cooney, Lauren; Amitai, Yona; Ariti, Cono; Brown, Mary Jean; Kosnett, Michael J.; Moussally, Krystel; Sani-Gwarzo, Nasir; Akpan, Henry; Shanks, Leslie; Dargan, Paul I.

    2014-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background Lead, a toxic metal that occurs naturally in the earth's crust, is now present throughout the environment because of human activities. For many years, lead was added to paint and gasoline and used in solder for water pipes. In addition, the mining, smelting, and refining of some metallic ores releases lead into the environment. Inhalation of contaminated air, consumption of contaminated food and water, and contact with dust that contains lead raises venous blood le...

  7. Short communication: timeline of radiation-induced kidney function loss after stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy of renal cell carcinoma as evaluated by serial 99mTc-DMSA SPECT/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Price; Foroudi, Farshad; Pham, Daniel; Hofman, Michael S; Hardcastle, Nicholas; Callahan, Jason; Kron, Tomas; Siva, Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Stereotactic ablative body radiotherapy (SABR) has been proposed as a definitive treatment for patients with inoperable primary renal cell carcinoma. However, there is little documentation detailing the radiobiological effects of hypofractionated radiation on healthy renal tissue. In this study we describe a methodology for assessment of regional change in renal function in response to single fraction SABR of 26 Gy. In a patient with a solitary kidney, detailed follow-up of kidney function post-treatment was determined through 3-dimensional SPECT/CT imaging and 51 Cr-EDTA measurements. Based on measurements of glomerular filtration rate, renal function declined rapidly by 34% at 3 months, plateaued at 43% loss at 12 months, with minimal further decrease to 49% of baseline by 18 months. The pattern of renal functional change in 99m Tc-DMSA uptake on SPECT/CT imaging correlates with dose delivered. This study demonstrates a dose effect relationship of SABR with loss of kidney function

  8. Dextranomer/hyaluronic acid endoscopic injection is effective in the treatment of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunziker, Manuela; Mohanan, Nochiparambil; Puri, Prem

    2013-05-01

    Endoscopic subureteral injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis or surgical treatment for vesicoureteral reflux. We evaluated the effectiveness of endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex collecting systems. A total of 123 children underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate or high grade vesicoureteral reflux using injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid into complete duplex systems between 2001 and 2010. Vesicoureteral reflux was diagnosed by voiding cystourethrogram, and dimercapto-succinic acid scan was performed to evaluate the presence of renal scarring. Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure and renal ultrasound thereafter every 2 years. Mean followup was 6.7 years. Complete duplex systems were unilateral in 110 patients and bilateral in 13. Reflux severity in the 136 refluxing units was grade II in 1 (0.7%), III in 52 (38.2%), IV in 61 (44.9%) and V in 22 (16.2%). Dimercapto-succinic acid scan revealed renal functional abnormalities in 63 children (51.2%). Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 93 ureters (68.4%), after a second injection in 35 (25.7%) and after a third injection in 8 (5.9%). Febrile urinary tract infection developed in 5 patients (4.1%) during followup. No patient required ureteral reimplantation or experienced significant complications. Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in eradicating intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex systems. We recommend this minimally invasive, 15-minute outpatient procedure as a viable option for treating intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux in patients with complete duplex collecting systems

  9. Value of renal cortical scintigraphy in children with acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, A.K.; Miah, M.S.R.; Rahman, H.A.; Hasan, M.H.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Acute pyelonephritis is a major cause of morbidity in children with urinary tract infection and can result in irreversible renal scarring leading to hypertension and end-stage renal disease. Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy is the imaging modality of choice for the detection of acute pyelonephhfis and renal scarfing. This study evaluated the importance of renal cortical scintigraphy to identify children at risk from renal damage due to acute pyelonephritis. Methods: Forty-nine children (ages 9 months to 11 years) with urinary tract infection having positive urine culture were studied. A DMSA scan was performed within 72 hours of receiving antibiotic during acute infection. Single or multiple areas of varying degrees of diminished cortical uptake or diffusely decreased uptake in an enlarged kidney was considered for the diagnosis of acute pyelonephrifis. Follow-up scintigraphy was done at 6 months of initial scan in children with acute pyelonephritis documented by DMSA scan. Renal scarring was considered if the affected kidney shows cortical thinning or focal cortical defect with loss of volume or become small kidney. Children with known renal tract abnormalities were excluded from the study. RESULTS: Twenty-seven children (55%) wine considered acute pyelonephritis by DMSA scintigraphy and the abnormality was bilateral in 17(63%) cases and unilateral in 10(37%) cases. Among these 44 abnormal kidneys, scintigraphy showed solitary defect in 29 kidneys, multiple defects in 6 kidneys and diffuse decreased uptake in 9 kidneys. Of them, twenty children were available for follow-up evaluation and scintigraphy demonstrated complete recovery in 21 of 34 (62%) kidneys and renal scarfing in 13 of 34 (38%) kidneys. Renal scarring was found in 5 of 7 kidneys (71%) with diffuse decreased uptake, 2 of 5 kidneys (40%) with multiple cortical defect and 6 of 22 (27%) with single focal detect. Conclusion: The scintigraphic pattern of acute pyelonephritis

  10. Ex vivo assessment of polyol coated-iron oxide nanoparticles for MRI diagnosis applications: toxicological and MRI contrast enhancement effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bomati-Miguel, Oscar; Miguel-Sancho, Nuria; Abasolo, Ibane; Candiota, Ana Paula; Roca, Alejandro G.; Acosta, Milena; Schwartz, Simó; Arus, Carles; Marquina, Clara; Martinez, Gema; Santamaria, Jesus

    2014-03-01

    Polyol synthesis is a promising method to obtain directly pharmaceutical grade colloidal dispersion of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs). Here, we study the biocompatibility and performance as T2-MRI contrast agents (CAs) of high quality magnetic colloidal dispersions (average hydrodynamic aggregate diameter of 16-27 nm) consisting of polyol-synthesized SPIONs (5 nm in mean particle size) coated with triethylene glycol (TEG) chains (TEG-SPIONs), which were subsequently functionalized to carboxyl-terminated meso-2-3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) coated-iron oxide nanoparticles (DMSA-SPIONs). Standard MTT assays on HeLa, U87MG, and HepG2 cells revealed that colloidal dispersions of TEG-coated iron oxide nanoparticles did not induce any loss of cell viability after 3 days incubation with dose concentrations below 50 μg Fe/ml. However, after these nanoparticles were functionalized with DMSA molecules, an increase on their cytotoxicity was observed, so that particles bearing free terminal carboxyl groups on their surface were not cytotoxic only at low concentrations (MRI studies in mice indicated that both types of coated-iron oxide nanoparticles produced higher negative T2-MRI contrast enhancement than that measured for a similar commercial T2-MRI CAs consisting in dextran-coated ultra-small iron oxide nanoparticles (Ferumoxtran-10). In conclusion, the above attributes make both types of as synthesized coated-iron oxide nanoparticles, but especially DMSA-SPIONs, promising candidates as T2-MRI CAs for nanoparticle-enhanced MRI diagnosis applications.

  11. The role of overweight and obesity in urinary tract infection in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahyar, Abolfazl; Ayazi, Parviz; Gholmohammadi, Parisa; Moshiri, Seyed Alireza; Oveisi, Sonia; Esmaeily, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI in children. A comparison was made, in terms of overweight and obesity, between 135 children with UTI (case group) and 135 healthy children (control group). UTI was diagnosed through urine culture. Dimercaptosuccinic acid renal scanning (DMSA) was also used to distinguish between lower UTI and acute pyelonephritis. Overweight and obesity were determined based on standard body mass index (BMI) curves. There were 12 (8.8%) overweight and 26 (19.2%) obese children in the case group. Four (3.0%) overweight and five (3.7%) obese children were found in the control group. There was a significant difference between the two groups regarding overweight and obesity frequencies. However, no such difference existed between children with cystitis and acute pyelonephritis. This study showed a significant relationship between overweight/obesity and UTI. Therefore, overweight and obesity may play a role in the pathogenesis of UTI in children.

  12. Interest of the SPECT-CT to D.M.S.A.-V images merging in the management of thyroid medullary carcinomas; Interets de la fusion d'image TEMP-TDM au DMSA-V dans la prise en charge des carcinomes medullaires de la thyroide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menemani, A.; Mebarki, M.; Slama, A.; Khellil, N.; Meghelli, S.; Lachachi, B.; Krim, M.; Merad, S.; Berber, N. [CHU Tlemcen, Service de medecine nucleaire (Algeria)

    2010-07-01

    Purpose: hybrid imaging associating SPECT and CT, integers functional and anatomical data. The aim of this communication is to present the contribution of the SPECT coupled to CT with D.M.S.A. V. in our daily practice of the medullary thyroid carcinomas management. Conclusions: the SPECT/CT got by a system of images merging allows a better anatomical location and improves the management of thyroid medullary carcinomas. (N.C.)

  13. Correction of differential renal function for asymmetric renal area ratio in unilateral hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Gul Ege; Sarıkaya, Ali

    2015-11-01

    Children with unilateral hydronephrosis are followed up with anteroposterior pelvic diameter (APD), hydronephrosis grade, mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG-3) drainage pattern and differential renal function (DRF). Indeterminate drainage preserved DRF in higher grades of hydronephrosis, in some situations, complicating the decision-making process. Due to an asymmetric renal area ratio, falsely negative DRF estimations can result in missed optimal surgery times. This study was designed to assess whether correcting the DRF estimation according to kidney area could reflect the clinical situation of a hydronephrotic kidney better than a classical DRF calculation, concurrently with the hydronephrosis grade, APD and MAG-3 drainage pattern. We reviewed the MAG-3, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans and ultrasonography (US) of 23 children (6 girls, 17 boys, mean age: 29 ± 50 months) with unilateral hydronephrosis. MAG-3 and DMSA scans were performed within 3 months (mean 25.4 ± 30.7 days). The closest US findings (mean 41.5 ± 28.2 days) were used. DMSA DRF estimations were obtained using the geometric mean method. Secondary calculations were performed to correct the counts (the total counts divided by the number of pixels in ROI) according to kidney area. The renogram patterns of patients were evaluated and separated into subgroups. The visual assessment of DMSA scans was noted and the hydronephrotic kidney was classified in comparison to the normal contralateral kidney's uptake. The correlations of the DRF values of classical and area-corrected methods with MAG-3 renogram patterns, the visual classification of DMSA scan, the hydronephrosis grade and the APD were assessed. DRF estimations of two methods were statistically different (p: 0.001). The categories of 12 hydronephrotic kidneys were changed. There were no correlations between classical DRF estimations and the hydronephrosis grade, APD, visual classification of the DMSA scan and uptake evaluation. The DRF

  14. Contribution to the study of pertechnetate (sup(99m)Tc) stannous citrate - citric acid complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmes, E.-P.

    1978-03-01

    Pertechnetate/citric acid/stannous citrate complexation carried out from a lyophilisate of stannous citrate in citric medium at pH5 leads to the formation of separable compounds. These compounds are tin-free technetium citrates. Similar results have been described in the case of complexation reactions with glycolic, thioglycolic and thiomalic acids and with other carboxylates such as dimercaptosuccinic acid. These processes include the reduction of Tcsup(VIII) by Snsup(II) in the presence of thiomalic acid under conditions similar to our own: stannous thiomalate in thiomalic medium to which is added the pertechnetate solution producing Tc-thiomalate complexes variable with the reaction pH. Also worth considering is the possible complexation between pertechnetate and the same acid in the absence of reducing ion, following a special procedure (heating). The complexes described here contain the oxotechnetium bond (terminal oxygen-technetium) and a strong probability exists in favour of dimerisation. Their stability, for a reaction in acid solution: pH 5.0/5.5, becomes satisfactory if: the solution is concentrated enough; bubbling by an inert gas is carried out; room temperature is not exceeded. The development takes place through a partial reoxidation characterised by colour change. An original interaction between reduced states of Tc and citric acid may be claimed with certainty under our experimental conditions. The difficulty then lies in the passage to the tracer stage when the isotope sup(99m)Tc is used [fr

  15. The clinical value of using anterior and posterior views in the calculation of geometric mean with a Tc-99m DMSA scan: is the evaluation of the geometric mean necessary in the paediatric patients?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, S. N.; Kim, S. Y.; Joh, C. W.; Lee, M. H

    2002-01-01

    The geometric mean can be determined by using both the anterior and the posterior views in a Tc-99m DMSA renal scan. The aim of this study is to evaluate if there are significant differences in the quantification of the renal function percentage using only the posterior view and the geometric mean. 200 DMAS-scans (81 f, 119 m) aged to 57 year old were reviewed. The difference between the relative renal function obtained using the posterior view and that obtained using the geometric mean was calculated. For the purpose of evaluating the value of performing the geometric mean calculation in patients of different ages, patients were divided into four age groups (group I, 15 years). If counts were obtained from the posterior view only, significant change (5% difference) in relative renal function would be obtained in 2.2% (2 out of 91) of group I, in 1.4% (one out of 70) of group II patients, in 5.5% (one out of 18) of group III patients and in 14.3% (3 out of 21) of group IV patients. These data suggest that only the posterior view data sufficiently may represent relative renal function in pediatric groups (group I, II, III) in comparison to adult group (group IV). For normally located kidneys, it appears appropriate to use only the posterior view data rather than to use the geometric mean method, especially in pediatric age group

  16. Prevalence of acute pyelonephritis and incidence of renal scarring in children under the age of two with urinary tract infection evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy: the experience of a university hospital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berdichevski, Eduardo Herz; Vilas, Eduardo Rosito de, E-mail: duduberdi@hotmail.com [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Hospital Sao Lucas. Service of Medicine; Mattos, Silvia Gelpi; Bezerra, Sofia; Baldisserotto, Matteo [Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul (PUCRS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina

    2013-01-15

    Objective: To calculate the frequencies of acute pyelonephritis and renal scarring in patients under the age of two, with first episode of urinary tract infection in a Brazilian university hospital, comparing with data reported in the international literature. Materials and Methods: Scintigraphic reports of children less than two years old submitted to {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in a university hospital in Rio Grande do Sul between 2006 and 2009 were reviewed to investigate acute pyelonephritis/renal scarring. Additionally, the presence of vesicoureteral reflux, early use of antibiotics, and comorbidities were investigated on electronic records. The sample size calculation was based on a systematic review study and obtained a minimum of 147 patients. Patients whose electronic records were not available were excluded. Results: One hundred and fifty-seven children met the inclusion criteria; among them 48 had acute pyelonephritis and 8 of these had renal scars. Neither age nor sex presented any significant association with acute pyelonephritis (p = 0.405 and p = 0.124, respectively). No statistical significance was observed in the association between vesicoureteral reflux and acute pyelonephritis (p = 1.0) and other comorbidities (p = 0.470), and in relation to early use of antibiotics with acute pyelonephritis (p = 0.130) and renal scarring (p = 0.720). Conclusion: The frequencies found in the present study for acute pyelonephritis/renal scarring are in agreement with the results reported by most studies in the literature. (author)

  17. Multidetector computed tomography with triple-bolus contrast medium administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of potential living renal donors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knox, Matthew K.; Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D.; Bardgett, Harry P.; Cowan, Nigel C.

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a triple-bolus contrast administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-five potential living renal donors underwent MDCT of which 27 proceeded to donor nephrectomy. A triple-bolus contrast administration protocol was used for simultaneous acquisition of arterial, nephrographic, and excretory phases. MDCT images were independently reviewed in random order by two radiologists blinded to surgical anatomy findings. Diagnostic accuracy for anatomical variants was quantified by sensitivity and specificity. Differential renal function (DRF) was derived from MDCT for 54 patients and compared with technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renography (Tc-99 m DMSA). All triple-bolus MDCT examinations were technically adequate. Accessory renal arteries and veins were identified at surgery in 33% (n = 9/27) and 22% (n = 6/27) of donor kidneys. The mean difference between MDCT-derived DRF and DMSA was 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.6) with 95% limits of agreement of -4.6% (95% CI -3.3 to -5.9) to 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.6). MDCT delivered a mean (SD, range) radiation dose of 9.5 (3.6, 3.6-17.3) mSv. MDCT with a triple-bolus contrast administration provides accurate anatomical and functional evaluation of living renal donors. (orig.)

  18. Multidetector computed tomography with triple-bolus contrast medium administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of potential living renal donors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knox, Matthew K. [University of Calgary, Faculty of Medicine, UME Office, Health Sciences Centre, Calgary, Alberta (Canada); Rivers-Bowerman, Michael D. [University of British Columbia, Faculty of Medicine, MD Undergraduate Program, Diamond Health Care Centre, Vancouver, British Columbia (Canada); Bardgett, Harry P. [Bradford Teaching Hospitals, Department of Radiology, Bradford (United Kingdom); Cowan, Nigel C. [The Churchill Hospital, Department of Radiology, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    To evaluate multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with a triple-bolus contrast administration protocol for preoperative anatomical and functional assessment of living renal donors. Fifty-five potential living renal donors underwent MDCT of which 27 proceeded to donor nephrectomy. A triple-bolus contrast administration protocol was used for simultaneous acquisition of arterial, nephrographic, and excretory phases. MDCT images were independently reviewed in random order by two radiologists blinded to surgical anatomy findings. Diagnostic accuracy for anatomical variants was quantified by sensitivity and specificity. Differential renal function (DRF) was derived from MDCT for 54 patients and compared with technetium-99 m dimercaptosuccinic acid renography (Tc-99 m DMSA). All triple-bolus MDCT examinations were technically adequate. Accessory renal arteries and veins were identified at surgery in 33% (n = 9/27) and 22% (n = 6/27) of donor kidneys. The mean difference between MDCT-derived DRF and DMSA was 0.8% (95% CI 0.1-1.6) with 95% limits of agreement of -4.6% (95% CI -3.3 to -5.9) to 6.3% (95% CI 5.0-7.6). MDCT delivered a mean (SD, range) radiation dose of 9.5 (3.6, 3.6-17.3) mSv. MDCT with a triple-bolus contrast administration provides accurate anatomical and functional evaluation of living renal donors. (orig.)

  19. Green Tea Increases the Concentration of Total Mercury in the Blood of Rats following an Oral Fish Tissue Bolus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa M. Janle

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fish has many health benefits but is also the most common source of methylmercury. The bioavailability of methylmercury in fish may be affected by other meal components. In this study, the effect of green tea on the bioavailability of methylmercury from an oral bolus of fish muscle tissue was studied in rats and compared to a water treated control group and a group treated with meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a compound used medically to chelate mercury. Rats were given a single oral dose of fish tissue via gavage and one of the treatments. Rats were given access to food for 3 h at 12 h intervals. They were dosed with each of the treatments with each meal. Blood samples were collected for 95 hours. Green tea significantly increased the concentration of total mercury in blood relative to the control, whereas DMSA significantly decreased it. In addition, feeding caused a slight increase in blood mercury for several meals following the initial dose.

  20. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E.

    1998-01-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The 99m Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted

  1. Renal cortical involvement in children with first UTI: does it differ in the presence of primary VUR?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aktaş, Gül Ege; Inanir, Sabahat; Turoğlu, Halil Turgut

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) on dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphic patterns in children with first symptomatic urinary tract infection (UTI). A total of 45 children with the diagnosis of first symptomatic UTI (28 girls, 17 boys, mean age 18 months, range 1 month-11 years) were reviewed. All DMSA scans were obtained within 2 months of bacteriologically proven UTI (median 21 days, mean 26 +/- 21, 14). After the exclusion of the patients with bilateral cortical lesions, 82 renal units were analyzed. The scintigraphic patterns included regional and global description of renal cortical abnormality (normal or decreased differential renal function, regional renal function (RRF), and the number and severity of cortical lesions). Vesicoureteral reflux was detected in 26 (32%) renal units (15 with grade 1-2, 11 with grade 3-4). Renal cortical abnormality was observed in 10 renal units without VUR (10/56, 17%) and 13 renal units with VUR (13/26: 50%). Of the 15 renal units, 5 with grade 1-2 VUR (5/15) and 8 of the 11 renal units with grade 3-4 VUR (8/11) had renal cortical involvement. The most common scintigraphic pattern in the patients without VUR was the preserved RRF (>or=45%) and two or fewer photon-deficient areas. On the other hand, a decreased RRF (children with first symptomatic UTI.

  2. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nataf, Robert [Laboratoire Philippe Auguste, Paris (France); Skorupka, Corinne [Association ARIANE, Clichy (France); Amet, Lorene [Association ARIANE, Clichy (France); Lam, Alain [Laboratoire Philippe Auguste, Paris (France); Springbett, Anthea [Department of Statistics, Roslin Institute, Roslin (United Kingdom); Lathe, Richard [Pieta Research, PO Box 27069, Edinburgh EH10 5YW (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-15

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder.

  3. Porphyrinuria in childhood autistic disorder: Implications for environmental toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nataf, Robert; Skorupka, Corinne; Amet, Lorene; Lam, Alain; Springbett, Anthea; Lathe, Richard

    2006-01-01

    To address a possible environmental contribution to autism, we carried out a retrospective study on urinary porphyrin levels, a biomarker of environmental toxicity, in 269 children with neurodevelopmental and related disorders referred to a Paris clinic (2002-2004), including 106 with autistic disorder. Urinary porphyrin levels determined by high-performance liquid chromatography were compared between diagnostic groups including internal and external control groups. Coproporphyrin levels were elevated in children with autistic disorder relative to control groups. Elevation was maintained on normalization for age or to a control heme pathway metabolite (uroporphyrin) in the same samples. The elevation was significant (P < 0.001). Porphyrin levels were unchanged in Asperger's disorder, distinguishing it from autistic disorder. The atypical molecule precoproporphyrin, a specific indicator of heavy metal toxicity, was also elevated in autistic disorder (P < 0.001) but not significantly in Asperger's. A subgroup with autistic disorder was treated with oral dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) with a view to heavy metal removal. Following DMSA there was a significant (P = 0.002) drop in urinary porphyrin excretion. These data implicate environmental toxicity in childhood autistic disorder

  4. Chelation in metal intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaseth, Jan; Skaug, Marit Aralt; Cao, yang

    2015-01-01

    The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due to the incon......The present review provides an update of the general principles for the investigation and use of chelating agents in the treatment of intoxications by metals. The clinical use of the old chelators EDTA (ethylenediamine tetraacetate) and BAL (2,3-dimercaptopropanol) is now limited due...... to the inconvenience of parenteral administration, their own toxicity and tendency to increase the neurotoxicity of several metals. The hydrophilic dithiol chelators DMSA (meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid) and DMPS (2,3-dimercapto-propanesulphonate) are less toxic and more efficient than BAL in the clinical treatment...... of heavy metal poisoning, and available as capsules for oral use. In copper overload, DMSA appears to be a potent antidote, although d-penicillamine is still widely used. In the chelation of iron, the thiols are inefficient, since iron has higher affinity for ligands with nitrogen and oxygen, but the new...

  5. The role of serum and urine interleukin-8 on acute pyelonephritis and subsequent renal scarring in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheu, Ji-Nan; Chen, Shan-Ming; Meng, Meng-Hsiao; Lue, Ko-Huang

    2009-10-01

    Interleukin (IL)-8 acts as a potent neutrophils chemoattractant responsible for the migration of neutrophils into the infected renal tissue to protect against invading pathogens. The aim of this study was to assess the role of IL-8 on acute-phase pyelonephritis and later renal scarring in children. A total of 124 children with a first-time febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) were studied. The diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis was confirmed by Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scan. Serum and urine samples were obtained from 124 children with UTI and 20 healthy children for IL-8 measurement. The 124 children were divided into acute pyelonephritis (n = 70) and lower UTI (n = 54) groups according to the results of DMSA scans. The initial serum and urine IL-8 values of children with acute pyelonephritis were significantly higher when compared with lower UTI and healthy controls (all P or =III all were independent predictors of renal scarring. Those children younger than 2 years of age with the highest IL-8 concentrations during the acute phase of pyelonephritis as well as children with reflux grades of III or greater are at a high-risk for developing renal scarring in the future.

  6. How good is technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine indirect cystography?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadeleer, C. de; Boe, V. de; Keuppens, F.; Desprechins, B.; Verboven, M.; Piepsz, A.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate the sensitivity of indirect radionuclide cystography (IRC) performed with technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG3), in comparison with the micturition cystourethrography (MCUG) and direct radionuclide cystography (DRC), for the diagnosis of vesicoureteric reflux. Two groups of patients were selected: group I comprised 40 children who underwent IRC during the acute phase of urinary tract infection and an MCUG 6 weeks later; group II comprised 42 (other) children with known reflux, who underwent IRC and DRC during follow-up. Taking as the reference the total number of refluxing kidneys detected by means of any cystographic technique, 99m Tc-MAG3 ICR missed two-thirds of the refluxing kidneys. Most of the small refluxes were missed, but so too were 50% of the major refluxes. Taking as the reference 99m Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy, MCUG detected 91% of the patients with DMSA abnormalities on at least one kidney, DRC detected 95%, and IRC detected 46% and 43% respectively, in groups I and II. The use of 99m Tc-MAG3 IRC as the sole technique for the detection of vesicoureteric reflux gives rise to an unacceptable number of false-negative results. (orig.)

  7. Case report: heavy metal burden presenting as Bartter syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crinnion, Walter J; Tran, Jessica Q

    2010-12-01

    Maternal transfer of heavy metals during fetal development or lactation possibly contributed to the clinical manifestations of Bartter syndrome and developmental delay in the offspring. An 11-month-old child diagnosed with Bartter syndrome and failure to thrive was treated concurrently for elevated metal burden while he was undergoing standard medical interventions. Treatment with body-weight doses of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) reduced the body burden of lead, beryllium, copper, mercury, and cadmium at the three- and sixth-month follow-up tests. During the course of the six-month treatment, the patient gained 2.4 kg (5.2 lb) and grew approximately 9.5 cm (3.75 in). His weight shifted from significantly below the 5th percentile in weight to within the 5th percentile, and from below the 5th to within the 10th percentile for length. The child's acquisition of lead, beryllium, and copper correspond to his mother's history of stained glass assembly and occurred during fetal development or lactation, since there were no other identifiable sources that could have contributed to the heavy metal burden. Tests for known genetic mutations leading to Bartter syndrome were all negative. This case report highlights the potential benefit of DMSA for treatment of heavy metal body burden in infants who present with Bartter syndrome.

  8. Combined Efficacy of Gallic Acid and MiADMSA with Limited Beneficial Effects Over MiADMSA Against Arsenic-induced Oxidative Stress in Mouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachauri, Vidhu; Flora, Sjs

    2015-01-01

    Gallic acid is an organic acid known for its antioxidant and anticancer properties. The present study is focused on evaluating the role of gallic acid in providing better therapeutic outcomes against arsenic-induced toxicity. Animals pre-exposed to arsenic were treated with monoisoamyl meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (MiADMSA), a new chelating drug, alone and in combination with gallic acid, consecutively for 10 days. The study suggests that (1) gallic acid in presence of MiADMSA is only moderately beneficial against arsenic, (2) monotherapy with gallic acid is more effective than in combination with MiADMSA after arsenic exposure in reducing oxidative injury, and (3) MiADMSA monotherapy as reported previously provides significant therapeutic efficacy against arsenic. Thus, based on the present results, we conclude that gallic acid is effective against arsenic-induced oxidative stress but provides limited additional beneficial effects when administered in combination with MiADMSA. We still recommend that lower doses of gallic acid be evaluated both individually and in combination with MiADMSA, as it might not exhibit the shortcomings we observed with higher doses in this study.

  9. Diagnostic role of initial renal cortical scintigraphy in children with the first episode of acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaksic, E.; Bogdanovic, R.; Artiko, V.

    2011-01-01

    Assessment of the first febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) in children has been the subject of debate for many years. Diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis (APN) is usually based on clinical and biological data. The clinical usefulness of early Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy remains controversial, although it may influence the type and duration of treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the role of initial cortical scintigraphy in the detection of early renal parenchymal damage in children highly suspected of having APN and to compare the scintigraphic findings with selected clinical/laboratory parameters and ultrasonography. A prospective study was conducted in 34 infants and young children (18 boys, 16 girls), aged 1.5-36 months (mean 9.8±8.7 months), hospitalized with a first episode of clinically suspected APN. Within the first 5 days after admission, Tc-99m DMSA renal scintigraphy, ultrasonography (US), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), white blood cell count (WBC) and urine analyses were performed. DMSA scintigraphy showed changes consistent with APN in 27/34 (79%) patients, with a mean age of 10.9 months, including 12 males (44%) and 15 (56%) females. Out of 9 febrile children with negative urine culture and supportive evidence of UTI, scintigraphy showed parenchymal involvement in 8 children (24% in the whole group, 30% in scintigraphically documented APN). There were no statistically significant correlations between the frequency or size of the initial scintigraphic abnormalities and age, sex, body temperature, CRP levels or ESR. A CRP level of >54 mg/L and a WBC of >13,300/mm 3 had sensitivities of 56 and 59% and specificities of 86 and 71%, respectively. US showed changes consistent with APN in 7/34 (21%) in the whole group and in 7/27 (26%) patients with positive cortical scan (p<0.05). Initial DMSA renal scintigraphy is a sensitive method for the early diagnosis of APN in young children and is

  10. The Effect of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticle Surface Charge on Antigen Cross-Presentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mou, Yongbin; Xing, Yun; Ren, Hongyan; Cui, Zhihua; Zhang, Yu; Yu, Guangjie; Urba, Walter J.; Hu, Qingang; Hu, Hongming

    2017-01-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (NPs) of superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) have been explored for different kinds of applications in biomedicine, mechanics, and information. Here, we explored the synthetic SPIO NPs as an adjuvant on antigen cross-presentation ability by enhancing the intracellular delivery of antigens into antigen presenting cells (APCs). Particles with different chemical modifications and surface charges were used to study the mechanism of action of antigen delivery. Specifically, two types of magnetic NPs, γFe2O3/APTS (3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane) NPs and γFe2O3/DMSA (meso-2, 3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid) NPs, with the same crystal structure, magnetic properties, and size distribution were prepared. Then, the promotion of T-cell activation via dendritic cells (DCs) was compared among different charged antigen coated NPs. Moreover, the activation of the autophagy, cytosolic delivery of the antigens, and antigen degradation mediated by the proteasome and lysosome were measured. Our results indicated that positive charged γFe2O3/APTS NPs, but not negative charged γFe2O3/DMSA NPs, enhanced the cross-presentation ability of DCs. Increased cross-presentation ability induced by γFe2O3/APTS NPs was associated with increased cytosolic antigen delivery. On the contrary, γFe2O3/DMSA NPs was associated with rapid autophagy. Overall, our results suggest that antigen delivered in cytoplasm induced by positive charged particles is beneficial for antigen cross-presentation and T-cell activation. NPs modified with different chemistries exhibit diverse biological properties and differ greatly in their adjuvant potentials. Thus, it should be carefully considered many different effects of NPs to design effective and safe adjuvants.

  11. Influence of Annona muricata (soursop) on biodistribution of radiopharmaceuticals in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holanda, Cecilia Maria de Carvalho Xavier [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Lab. de Radiobiologia Experimental e Ensaios Antiparasitarios; Barbosa, Delianne Azevedo; Demeda, Vanessa Favero; Bandeira, Flora Tamires Moura [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Escola de Medicina; Medeiros, Hilkea Carla Souza de; Pereira, Kercia Regina Santos Gomes [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Bioquimica; Barbosa, Vanessa Santos de Arruda [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (UFCG), PB (Brazil); Medeiros, Aldo Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFGN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Nucleo de Cirurgia Experimental

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: to evaluate the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of A. muricata on biodistribution of two radiopharmaceuticals: sodium phytate and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), both labeled with {sup 99m}technetium. Methods: twenty four Wistar rats were divided into two treated groups and two controls groups. The controls received water and the treated received 25mg/kg/day of A. muricata by gavage for ten days. One hour after the last dose, the first treated group received {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA and the second sodium {sup 99m}Tc-phytate (0.66MBq each group), both via orbital plexus. Controls followed the same protocol. Forty min later, all groups were sacrificed and the blood, kidney and bladder were isolated from the first treated group and the blood, spleen and liver isolated from the second treated group. The percentage of radioactivity per gram of tissue (%ATI/g) was calculated using a gamma counter. Results: the statistical analysis showed that there was a statistically significant decrease (p<0.05) in the uptake of %ATI/g in bladder (0.11±0.01and1.60±0.08), kidney (3.52±0.51and11.84±1.57) and blood (0.15±0.01and 0.54±0.05) between the treated group and control group, respectively. Conclusion: the A. muricata hydroalcoholic extract negatively influenced the uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA in bladder, kidney and blood of rats (author)

  12. Utility of screening ultrasound after first febrile UTI among patients with clinically significant vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massanyi, Eric Z; Preece, Janae; Gupta, Angela; Lin, Susan M; Wang, Ming-Hsien

    2013-10-01

    To assess the sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) of screening renal and bladder ultrasound (RBUS) after initial febrile urinary tract infection (UTI) among patients with clinically significant vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). A retrospective review was performed of all children UTI between 2004 and 2011. The sensitivity and NPV of initial RBUS was calculated among patients who were found to have high-grade (IV-V) VUR. Additionally, initial RBUS among patients with evidence of photopenia on dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan or who underwent surgical intervention were reviewed. One hundred forty-four patients with febrile UTI were identified; available RBUS, voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG), and DMSA results for each kidney were reviewed. One hundred fifty-eight kidneys had evidence of VUR on VCUG, and initial RBUS demonstrated abnormality in 25 (sensitivity 0.17). Forty-five kidneys had high-grade VUR and RBUS revealed abnormality in 16 (sensitivity 0.36). One hundred seventy-eight kidneys had no evidence of abnormality on initial RBUS, and 136 (76%) were found to have VUR (NPV 0.24), of which 31 had high-grade VUR (NPV 0.83). Seven kidneys had scarring on DMSA and initial RBUS was normal in 4 (57%). Twelve of 19 patients (63%) who eventually underwent surgical intervention had a normal initial RBUS. RBUS has poor sensitivity and NPV for detecting high-grade VUR in patients UTI. A significant number of patients who were diagnosed with high-grade VUR, renal scarring, or underwent surgical correction of VUR had a negative screening RBUS. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Revisiting normal {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid clearance values in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepsz, A.; Tondeur, M. [Department of Radioisotopes, CHU St Pierre, Brussels (Belgium); Ham, H. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, UZ Ghent, Ghent (Belgium)

    2006-12-15

    Normal {sup 51}Cr-ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) clearance values as a function of age were published a number of years ago. These values were based on data from children with a normal left to right ratio and a normal appearance on DMSA scintigraphy, despite the presence of an acute renal infection. At that time, the authors were unaware that hyperfiltration is a common phenomenon in patients with acute renal infection and that their normal values could have been significantly overestimated. The present work therefore aimed to re-appraise these normal values. In a first step, in order to verify the previous results, the same type of population was selected, namely patients with present or past urinary tract infection but normal images and a normal left to right ratio on DMSA scintigraphy. In a second step, the selection was based on patients who had had no recent urinary tract infection. In both series, a single blood sample method was used for the evaluation of {sup 51}Cr-EDTA clearance. In the first group of patients, the results obtained were almost identical to those previously published. In the second group of patients, the results were significantly lower: after 2 years of age, the mean GFR value was 104 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} (10th and 90th percentiles 81 and 135 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2}, respectively), compared with 117 ml/min/1.73 m{sup 2} in the first group. The data of the second group are probably more representative of the true normal GFR values and can be applied to the entire paediatric population. (orig.)

  14. Urine interleukin-6, interleukin-8 and transforming growth factor β1 in infants with urinary tract infection and asymptomatic bacteriuria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzemień, Grażyna; Turczyn, Agnieszka; Pańczyk-Tomaszewska, Małgorzata

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Urinary tract infection (UTI) occurs in 1.1% of girls and 1.4% of boys during the first year of life. Asymptomatic bacteriuria (ABU) is usually detected incidentally in 0.9% of girls and 2.5% of boys at this age. The aim of the study was to assess the usefulness of measurement of pro-inflammatory urine interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 concentrations and anti-inflammatory transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) level in infants with febrile UTI, non-febrile UTI and ABU. Material and methods A total of 35 children, mean age 6.14 ±3.47 months, were divided into three groups: group I – febrile UTI (n = 13), group II – non-febrile UTI (n = 13) and group III – ABU (n = 9). At the time of enrollment urine IL-6, IL-8, TGF-β1 and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), and white blood cell count (WBC) were measured. Renal ultrasound was performed in all children, 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (DMSA) and voiding cystourethrography in children with UTI. Results Urine concentrations of IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in febrile UTI compared to those with non-febrile UTI and ABU (p children with febrile UTI compared to those with ABU (p children with UTI. No significant difference in frequency of an abnormal DMSA scan compared to a normal scan was found in groups with febrile and non-febrile UTI. No relations between urine cytokines, systemic inflammatory markers and changes in DMSA scan were observed. The cutoff value for detection of inflammatory changes in the DMSA scan for IL-8 was 120 pg/mg creatinine (Cr) and 40 pg/mg Cr for TGF-β1. Based on this value, the sensitivity for IL-8 was 58.3%, specificity 100% and for TGF-β1 66.7% and 83.7%, respectively. Conclusions We found significant differences in children with febrile UTI and ABU regarding urine IL-6, IL-8 and TGF-β1 levels. Urine cytokines and systemic inflammatory markers do not differentiate between upper and lower UTI in infants. PMID:27833443

  15. Whole-cell bioreporters and risk assessment of environmental pollution: A proof-of-concept study using lead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Qin, Boqiang; Deng, Jianming; Wells, Mona

    2017-10-01

    As the world burden of environmental contamination increases, it is of the utmost importance to develop streamlined approaches to environmental risk assessment in order to prioritize mitigation measures. Whole-cell biosensors or bioreporters and speciation modeling have both become of increasing interest to determine the bioavailability of pollutants, as bioavailability is increasingly in use as an indicator of risk. Herein, we examine whether bioreporter results are able to reflect expectations based on chemical reactivity and speciation modeling, with the hope to extend the research into a wider framework of risk assessment. We study a specific test case concerning the bioavailability of lead (Pb) in aqueous environments containing Pb-complexing ligands. Ligands studied include ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), meso-2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), leucine, methionine, cysteine, glutathione, and humic acid (HA), and we also performed experiments using natural water samples from Lake Tai (Taihu), the third largest lake in China. We find that EDTA, DMSA, cysteine, glutathione, and HA amendment significantly reduced Pb bioavailability with increasing ligand concentration according to a log-sigmoid trend. Increasing dissolved organic carbon in Taihu water also had the same effect, whereas leucine and methionine had no notable effect on bioavailability at the concentrations tested. We find that bioreporter results are in accord with the reduction of aqueous Pb 2+ that we expect from the relative complexation affinities of the different ligands tested. For EDTA and HA, for which reasonably accurate ionization and complexation constants are known, speciation modeling is in agreement with bioreporter response to within the level of uncertainty recognised as reasonable by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for speciation-based risk assessment applications. These findings represent a first step toward using bioreporter technology to streamline

  16. A review of pitfalls and progress in chelation treatment of metal poisonings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ole; Aaseth, Jan

    2016-12-01

    Most acute and chronic human metal poisonings are due to oral or inhalation exposure. Almost 80% of published animal experiments on chelation in metal poisoning used single or repeated intraperitoneal, intramuscular or intravenous administration of metal and chelator, impeding extrapolation to clinical settings. Intramuscular administration of dimercaptopropanol (BAL) has until now been used in acute arsenic, lead, and mercury poisonings, but repeated BAL administration increased the brain uptake of As, Pb and Hg in experimental animals. Also, diethyl dithiocarbamate (DDC) has been used as antidote in acute experimental animal parenteral Cd poisoning, and both DDC and tetraethylthiuram disulfide (TTD, disulfiram, Antabuse) have been used in nickel allergic patients. However, even one dose of DDC given immediately after oral Cd or Ni increased their brain uptake considerably. The calcium salt of ethylenediamminetetraacetic acid (CaEDTA) but not dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) increased the brain uptake of Pb. In oral Cd or Hg poisoning, early oral administration of DMSA or dimercaptopropane sulfonate (DMPS) increased survival and reduced intestinal metal uptake. Oral administration of Prussian Blue or resins with fixed chelating groups that are not absorbed offer chelation approaches for decorporation after oral exposure to various metals. Diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) nebulizers for pulmonary chelation after inhalation exposure need further development. Also, combined chelation with more than one compound may offer extensive advances. Solid knowledge on the chemistry of metal chelates together with relevant animal experiments should guide development of chelation procedures to alleviate and not aggravate the clinical status of poisoned patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. Aspartic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... we eat. Aspartic acid is also called asparaginic acid. Aspartic acid helps every cell in the body work. It ... release Normal nervous system function Plant sources of aspartic acid include: avocado, asparagus, and molasses. Animal sources of ...

  18. Studies on renal function in the elderly by analysis of radioisotope renal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohishi, Yukihiko

    1990-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate the potential of radionuclide renal imagings for examining senile renal function in a total of 178 subjects. Single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (Tc-DMSA) was performed in the senile group (60-87 years) and in the adult group to determine renal uptake rate of Tc-DMSA and renal volume. Renography studies with I-131 hippuran (n=100) and Tc-99m diethylentriaminepentaacetic acid (Tc-DTPA) (n=20) were also performed for deconvolution analysis. Mean transit time (MTT) was mainly assessed as one of the retention function parameters. Blood residual rates (R15%) at fifteen minutes were also investigated. Renal volume and renal uptake rate for healthy persons were significantly lower in the senile group (n=17) than the adult group (n=24), 205±50 ml vs 225±27 ml; and 22±5% vs 26±2%. I-133 hippuran renography in healthy persons (n=35) showed a tendency toward higher MTT values with aging; however, there was no significant difference among age groups. R15%, obtained by I-133 hippuran renograms, tended to be higher with aging in age groups of persons younger than 70 years. A decreased number of effective nephrons was considered to result in higher R15% values even when aged persons had normal MTT values of I-131 hippuran. Split renal function values for healthy persons, calculated by the two radionuclide imagings, were lower in the senile group than the adult group, suggesting the usefulness of radionuclide imagings in renal function examination. (N.K.)

  19. [Should morphology of the upper pole in renal duplication with preserved function and associated ureterocele be taken into account during treatment planning?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Materny, Jacek; Chojnacka, Hanna; Urasińska, Elzbieta; Gawrych, Elzbieta

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess structural changes of the upper pole in renal duplication with coexisting ureterocele with regard to primary and/or secondary lesions. These changes might be of importance in treatment planning. The material of this study consisted of clinical documentation and results of histopathology of 23 upper poles removed due to renal duplication with coexisting ureterocele. The qualification criterion was preserved function of the upper pole seen with 99mTc-DTPA (99mTechnetium diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid)/99mTc-DMSA (99mTechnetium dimercaptosuccinic acid). Resection of the upper pole was indicated in patients with recurrent urinary tract infections and/or persistent vesicoureteral reflux to the lower pole following endoscopic surgery of the ureterocele and/or low function of the upper pole. Morphological lesions were classified as primary (dysplasia) or secondary lesions. The patients were operated at the Department of Pediatric and Oncologic Surgery, PMU, in 1990-2008. The study group consisted of 17 girls and 6 boys aged from 4 months to 9 years (mean 40 months). Recurrent urinary tract infections noted in 16 (70%) children were the most frequent indication for surgery. The preoperative mean function of the renal poles assessed with DTPA/DMSA represented 6% of the differential renal function. Dysplasia was identified in eight resected renal poles (34%) with coexisting secondary lesions in three of them. Secondary lesions only were seen in 15 poles (66%). There was no correlation between age and incidence of dysplasia during follow-up (Pearson's correlation coefficient r = 0.031). Secondary lesions are a quite frequent finding in resected upper poles. As 66% of the renal poles studied with histopathology revealed secondary lesions only, we believe that renal sparing treatment is justified in cases of urinary duplication with coexisting ureterocele.

  20. Tc-99m glucoheptonate (GHA) renal uptake: Influence of biochemical and physiologic factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, H.B.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Tc-99m-GHA is widely used for renal imaging but little is known about its handling by the kidney. Simultaneous single injection clearances of Tc-99m-GHA and I-125 Iothalamate were performed on 60 Sprague-Dawley female rats divided among six groups: I Control; II Dehydrated; III Mannitol infusion; IV Probenecid; V Alkaline urine (sodium bicarbonate); and VI Acid urine (ammonium chloride). Plasma concentration and urine excretion were followed during 80 minutes post injection. The livers and kidneys were removed and counted 120 minutes post injection. Total clearance of GHA was lower than Iothalamate in controls (0.90 +- 0.24 S.D. ml/min/100gr vs 1.47 +- 0.18, p < 0.005) but clearance of the protein free supernate was higher (1.67 +- 0.28 p=N.S.) raising a possibility of degree of tubular secretion. Unlike Tc-99m-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) acidification of the urine appeared to have no effect on the amount of GHA in the urine (66.1 +- 6.35% Inj. dose vs 67.19 +- 6.05 p=n.s.) and hepatic uptake was minimal in all groups averaging less than 1%. Kidney uptake of GHA was 11.16 +- 1.53 (% Inj. dose) in controls. This varied slightly among groups but was markedly reduced by Probenecid blockade (4.08 +- 1.75, p < 0.0005). It appears that liver uptake of GHA is minimal, the non-protein bound fraction is freely filtered and its clearance correlates significantly with the GFR. Importantly renal accumulation of GHA is blocked by probenecid suggesting that it is actively concentrated in the proximal tubule by the enzyme system involved in PAH and Hippuran transport. It thus appears that measurement of renal function with GHA represents a different aspect of function than DMSA

  1. Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bricker, Owen P.; Rice, Karen C.

    1995-01-01

    Although acid rain is fading as a political issue in the United States and funds for research in this area have largely disappeared, the acidity of rain in the Eastern United States has not changed significantly over the last decade, and it continues to be a serious environmental problem. Acid deposition (commonly called acid rain) is a term applied to all forms of atmospheric deposition of acidic substances - rain, snow, fog, acidic dry particulates, aerosols, and acid-forming gases. Water in the atmosphere reacts with certain atmospheric gases to become acidic. For example, water reacts with carbon dioxide in the atmosphere to produce a solution with a pH of about 5.6. Gases that produce acids in the presence of water in the atmosphere include carbon dioxide (which converts to carbonic acid), oxides of sulfur and nitrogen (which convert to sulfuric and nitric acids}, and hydrogen chloride (which converts to hydrochloric acid). These acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere through natural processes, such as volcanic emissions, lightning, forest fires, and decay of organic matter. Accordingly, precipitation is slightly acidic, with a pH of 5.0 to 5.7 even in undeveloped areas. In industrialized areas, most of the acid-producing gases are released to the atmosphere from burning fossil fuels. Major emitters of acid-producing gases include power plants, industrial operations, and motor vehicles. Acid-producing gases can be transported through the atmosphere for hundreds of miles before being converted to acids and deposited as acid rain. Because acids tend to build up in the atmosphere between storms, the most acidic rain falls at the beginning of a storm, and as the rain continues, the acids "wash out" of the atmosphere.

  2. Vesicoureteric reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jameela A Kari

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study aimed to identify the differences between primary and secondary vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and the effect of associated bladder abnormalities on kidney function. Patients and Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of children with VUR who were followed up at King Abdulaziz University Hospital from January 2005 to December 2010. The review included results of radiological investigations and kidney function tests. We used Chi-square test for statistical analysis and paired t-test to compare group means for initial and last creatinine levels. Results: Ninety-nine children were included in this study. Twenty (20.2% had primary VUR, 11 had high-grade VUR, while 9 had low-grade reflux. All children with low-grade VUR had normal dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA. Renal scars were present in 72% of the children with high-grade VUR. The mean creatinine levels (initial and last for both groups were normal. Seventy-nine (79.8% children had secondary VUR, which was due to posterior urethral valves (PUV (46.8%, neurogenic bladder caused by meningomyelocele (25.3%, non-neurogenic neurogenic bladder (NNB (21.5%, or neurogenic bladder associated with prune belly syndrome (6.3%. Children with NNB, meningomyelocele and PUV had high creatinine at presentation with no considerable worsening of their kidney functions during the last visit. Renal scars were present in 49.4% of the children with secondary VUR. Conclusion: Children with primary VUR and normal bladder had good-functioning kidneys, while those with secondary VUR associated with abnormal bladder caused by NNB, spina bifida or PUV had abnormal kidney functions. DMSA scans were useful in predicting higher grades of VUR in children with primary reflux.

  3. Role of scintigraphy in urinary tract infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conway, J.J.

    1988-01-01

    There is controversy regarding the role of radiological imaging for urinary tract infection (UTI). The gold standard has been the intravenous pyelogram (IVP). Yet, the IVP has a very limited value with only about 25% of children with pyelonephritis demonstrating abnormalities. Ultrasound (US) has recently been advocated as a replacement for the poorly sensitive and poorly specific IVP. However, comparative studies between US and IVP indicate only an equivalent sensitivity and specificity. Cortical scintigraphy with Technetium-99m glucoheptonate (99mTc GH) or 99mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (99mTc DMSA) has also been advocated as a means of differentiating parenchymal (pyelonephritis) from nonparenchymal (lower UTI) involvement in UTI. The clinical presentation may be misleading especially in the infant and child in whom an elevated temperature, flank pain, shaking chills, or an elevated sedimentation rate are often lacking. The clinician attempts to localize the site of infection for it has a direct bearing upon the therapy. A collecting system infection can often be eradicated with a single oral dose of an appropriate antibiotic, whereas renal parenchymal involvement requires IV therapy for an extended interval. Cortical scintigraphy can localize the site of infection with a high degree of accuracy. Recent studies report a sensitivity of 86% and specificity of 81% of pyelonephritis. This is in contrast to the IVP with a sensitivity of only 24% and US with a sensitivity of only 42%. The scintigraphic appearance of parenchymal infection of the kidney is a spectrum of minimal to gross defects reflecting the degree of histologic involvement that spans from a mild infection to frank abscess. Cortical scintigraphy can be used to monitor the evolution of scarring following infection. Cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc DMSA or 99mTc GH is the method of choice for the initial evaluation of UTI. 37 references

  4. Profile of urinary tract infections in paediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palak Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Puducherry, south India, with the aim of finding the profile of the paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI, bacterial pathogens involved, and also to observe vesicoureteric reflux (VUR and renal scarring in these patients. Methods: A total of 524 paediatric patients ≤13 yr, suspected to have UTI, were included in the study. Urine samples were collected, processed for uropathogen isolation and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI guidelines. Thirty two culture proven children with UTI underwent micturating cysto-urethrography (MCU and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA scanning was done for 69 children. Results: o0 f the 524 children, 186 (35.4% had culture proven UTI with 105 (56.4% being infants, 50 (27.4% between 1-5 yr, 30 (16.12% between 5-13 yr and 129 (69.35% males. Posterior urethral valve (PUV was noted in three, hydronephrosis in one, VUR in 18 and renal scarring in 33. VUR as well as renal scarring were more in males >1 yr of age. A significant association (P=0.0054 was noted with a combined sensitivity and specificity of these investigations being 83 and 90 per cent, respectively of the MCU and DMSA scans for detecting VUR. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen isolated, sensitive to nitrofurantoin, followed by cefoperazone-sulbactam, aminoglycosides and meropenem. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicate that UTI varies with age and gender and extensive evaluation is required in boys under one year of age with UTI. This study also highlights the better efficacy of aminoglycosides, cefoperazone-sulbactam and nitrofurantoin in vitro compared with meropenem in Gram-negative uropathogens.

  5. Assessment of infective urinary tract disorders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sixt, R.; Stokland, E. [Goteborg, Sahlgrenska Univ. Hospital/Ostra (Sweden). Dept. of Pediatric Clinical Physiology and Dept. of Pediatric Radiology

    1998-06-01

    Urinary tracts infection (UTI) is common in children, particularly in the youngest age groups. There is a risk for progressive deterioration of renal function in these children if aggravating factors such as gross reflux and/or outflow obstruction of the urinary tract are present. In this review the pros and cons of available scintigrafic and radiological imaging techniques for the work-up of these children are presented. Ultrasound can be used in the acute phase to exclude obstruction but can not reliably show transient or permanent parenchymal lesions. The presence of reflux can be established with X-ray or direct nuclide cystography. The X-ray technique gives good morphological information and has a grading system with prognostic relevance. Both techniques are invasive and great care must be taken to keep the radiation burden down with the X-ray technique. Indirect nuclide cystography following a renographic study is non-invasive but has a lower sensitivity than direct techniques. More experience is needed with the indirect technique to evaluate the consequences of its apparently low sensitivity. Urography has a limited place in the acute work-up of urinary tract infection but can be used to look for renal scarring 1-2 years after an acute pyelonephritis. The {sup 99m}Tc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan can be used during the acute UTI to show pyelonephritic lesions with good accuracy and/or during the follow-up after six months to show permanent lesions. The acute DMSA scan can be omitted.

  6. Urinary tract infection in small children: the evolution of renal damage over time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swerkersson, Svante; Jodal, Ulf; Sixt, Rune; Stokland, Eira; Hansson, Sverker

    2017-10-01

    Our objective was to analyze the evolution of kidney damage over time in small children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and factors associated with progression of renal damage. From a cohort of 1003 children UTI, a retrospective analysis of 103 children was done. Children were selected because of renal damage at index 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy at least 3 months after UTI, and a late DMSA scan was performed after at least 2 years. Damage was classified as progression when there was a decline in differential renal function (DRF) by ≥4%, as regression when there was complete or partial resolution of uptake defects. Of 103 children, 20 showed progression, 20 regression, and 63 remained unchanged. There were no differences between groups regarding gender or age. In the progression group, 16/20 (80%) children had vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade III-V and 13 (65%) had recurrent UTI. In multivariable regression analysis, both VUR grade III-V and recurrent UTI were associated with progression. In the regression group, 16/20 (80%) had no VUR or grade I-II, and two (10%) had recurrent UTI. Most small children with febrile UTI do not develop renal damage and if they do the majority remain unchanged or regress over time. However, up to one-fifth of children with renal damage diagnosed after UTI are at risk of renal deterioration. These children are characterized by the presence of VUR grades III-V and recurrent febrile UTI and may benefit from follow-up.

  7. Magnetic resonance voiding cystography in the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux: comparative study with voiding cystourethrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Kwon; Chang, Yongmin; Park, Noh Hyuck; Kim, Young Hwan; Woo, Seongku

    2005-04-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of magnetic resonance voiding cystography (MRVC) compared with voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) for detecting and grading vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). MRVC was performed upon 20 children referred for investigation of reflux. Either coronal T1-weighted spin-echo (SE) or gradient-echo (GE) (fast multiplanar spoiled gradient-echo (FMPSPGR) or turbo fast low-angle-shot (FLASH)) images were obtained before and after transurethral administration of gadolinium solution, and immediately after voiding. The findings of MRVC were compared with those of VCUG and technetium-99m ((99m)Tc) dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) performed within 6 months of MRVC. VUR was detected in 23 ureterorenal units (16 VURs by both methods, 5 VURs by VCUG, and 2 VURs by MRVC). With VCUG as the standard of reference, the sensitivity of MRVC was 76.2%; the specificity, 90.0%; the positive predictive value, 88.9%; and the negative predictive value, 78.3%. There was concordance between two methods regarding the grade of reflux in all 16 ureterorenal units with VUR detected by both methods. Of 40 kidneys, MRVC detected findings of renal damage or reflux nephropathy in 13 kidneys, and (99m)Tc DMSA renal SPECT detected findings of reflux nephropathy in 17 kidneys. Although MRVC is shown to have less sensitivity for VUR than VCUG, MRVC may represent a method of choice offering a safer nonradiation test that can additionally evaluate the kidneys for changes related to reflux nephropathy. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. A novel electrochemical technique for the production of clinical grade 99mTc using (n, γ)99Mo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakravarty, Rubel; Dash, Ashutosh; Venkatesh, Meera

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: In order to meet the growing demand for 99m Tc and to reduce the reliance on fission-produced 99 Mo, an electrochemical pathway for accessing 99m Tc through the (n, γ) 99 Mo was explored as a back-up measure and to supplement 99m Tc supply for radiopharmaceuticals application. Methods: 99m Tc from an equilibrium mixture of 99 Mo/ 99m Tc was selectively deposited on a platinum cathode in an electrochemical cell by applying optimal voltage and stripped back again into the 0.9% saline solution. The radiochemical and radionuclidic purity of the product were determined using standard techniques. 99m Tc thus obtained was used for labeling standard ligands such as dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and ethylene dicysteine (EC), to ascertain the usability. Results: Selective deposition of 99m Tc on the platinum electrode was achieved at a potential of 5 V over a period of 1 h in NaOH electrobath. The overall yield of 99m Tc was >90%, with >99.99% radionuclidic purity and >99% radiochemical purity. The performance of the generator remained consistent over a period of 10 days. The compatibility of the product in the preparation of 99m Tc-labeled formulations such as 99m Tc-DMSA and 99m Tc-EC was found to be satisfactory in terms of high labeling yields (>98%). Conclusion: A novel and attractive method has been developed to obtain highly concentrated 99m Tc, without using fission-produced 99 Mo.

  9. Amifostine protects rat kidneys during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [177Lu-DOTA0,Tyr3]octreotate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rolleman, Edgar J.; Forrer, Flavio; Bernard, Bert; Bijster, Magda; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de; Vermeij, Marcel

    2007-01-01

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, the kidneys are the major dose-limiting organs, because of tubular reabsorption and retention of radioactivity. Preventing renal uptake or toxicity will allow for higher tumour radiation doses. We tested the cytoprotective drug amifostine, which selectively protects healthy tissue during chemo- and radiotherapy, for its renoprotective capacities after PRRT with high-dose [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate. Male Lewis rats were injected with 278 or 555 MBq [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate to create renal damage and were followed up for 130 days. For renoprotection, rats received either amifostine or co-injection with lysine. Kidneys, blood and urine were collected for toxicity measurements. At 130 days after PRRT, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan was performed to quantify tubular uptake of 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a measure of tubular function. Treatment with 555 MBq [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate resulted in body weight loss, elevated creatinine and proteinuria. Amifostine and lysine treatment significantly prevented this rise in creatinine and the level of proteinuria, but did not improve the histological damage. In contrast, after 278 MBq [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate, creatinine values were slightly, but not significantly, elevated compared with the control rats. Proteinuria and histological damage were different from controls and were significantly improved by amifostine treatment. Quantification of 99m Tc-DMSA SPECT scintigrams at 130 days after [ 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate therapy correlated well with 1/creatinine (r 2 = 0.772, p 177 Lu-DOTA 0 ,Tyr 3 ]octreotate. Besides lysine, amifostine might be used in clinical PRRT as well as to maximise anti-tumour efficacy. (orig.)

  10. Analysis of the influence of synthetic paramaters on the structure and physico-chemical properties of non-spherical iron oxide nanocrystals and their biological stability and compatibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Alberto; Pujales, Rosa; Blanco, Mateo; Villar-Alvarez, Eva M; Barbosa, Silvia; Taboada, Pablo; Mosquera, Víctor

    2016-01-14

    In this work, we analyzed the effects of subtle changes in the synthetic conditions and synthetic parameters on the resulting size, shape, monodispersity, crystallinity and magnetic properties of iron oxide nanocrystals (IONCs) obtained through a modified one pot method for the production of mainly cubic-shaped nanoparticles (NPs). Cubic, octahedral and cuboctahedral shapes with different sizes and monodispersity could be obtained by slightly changing the stabilizer/precursor molar ratio, the precursor concentration, the reaction time and temperature and/or the heating rate. Their physical properties were evaluated using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) and a superconducting quantum interference (SQUID) device. It was found that monodisperse cubic nanocrystals from ca. 25 to 94 nm could be obtained either by changing the precursor concentration, the heating rate or the reaction time. These cubic nanocrystals were ferrimagnetic in the whole temperature rage analyzed, with saturation magnetization values even larger than those of bulk magnetite. In addition, slightly truncated octahedral NPs could be achieved at relatively large heating ramp rates, whereas cubooctahedral NPs were derived by simply increasing the stabilizer/precursor molar ratio. The saturation magnetization of both types of NPs was slightly lower than the cubic ones, but they were still ferrimagnetic in the whole temperature range analyzed. Moreover, transfer to aqueous solution was possible by a ligand exchange with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) providing, at the same time, chemical groups for additional functionalization if required. The DMSA-coated cubic IONCs were fairly stable in culture medium, allowing their internalization by different cell types. The NPs inside the cells were located in the cytoplasm and most of them showed a perinuclear distribution. Moreover, a great cytocompatibility in a

  11. Profile of urinary tract infections in paediatric patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Palak; Mandal, Jharna; Krishnamurthy, Sriram; Barathi, Deepak; Pandit, Nandini

    2015-01-01

    Background & objectives: This cross-sectional study was conducted at a tertiary care centre in Puducherry, south India, with the aim of finding the profile of the paediatric urinary tract infection (UTI), bacterial pathogens involved, and also to observe vesicoureteric reflux (VUR) and renal scarring in these patients. Methods: A total of 524 paediatric patients ≤13 yr, suspected to have UTI, were included in the study. Urine samples were collected, processed for uropathogen isolation and antibiotic susceptibility test was performed as per the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. Thirty two culture proven children with UTI underwent micturating cysto-urethrography (MCU) and dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scanning was done for 69 children. Results: of the 524 children, 186 (35.4%) had culture proven UTI with 105 (56.4%) being infants, 50 (27.4%) between 1-5 yr, 30 (16.12%) between 5-13 yr and 129 (69.35%) males. Posterior urethral valve (PUV) was noted in three, hydronephrosis in one, VUR in 18 and renal scarring in 33. VUR as well as renal scarring were more in males >1 yr of age. A significant association (P=0.0054) was noted with a combined sensitivity and specificity of these investigations being 83 and 90 per cent, respectively of the MCU and DMSA scans for detecting VUR. Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen isolated, sensitive to nitrofurantoin, followed by cefoperazone-sulbactam, aminoglycosides and meropenem. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results indicate that UTI varies with age and gender and extensive evaluation is required in boys under one year of age with UTI. This study also highlights the better efficacy of aminoglycosides, cefoperazone-sulbactam and nitrofurantoin in vitro compared with meropenem in Gram–negative uropathogens. PMID:26112850

  12. Effect of ureteral reimplantation on prevention of urinary tract infection and renal growth in infants with primary vesicoureteral reflux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Fumi; Tohda, Akira; Shimada, Kenji

    2004-01-01

    We retrospectively reviewed the results of ureteral reimplantation in infants with primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) to evaluate the effect on prevention of urinary tract infection (UTI) and renal growth. From July 1991 to December 2001, a total of 205 infants (180 boys and 25 girls) with primary VUR underwent ureteral reimplantation at the Department of Urology, Osaka Medical Center and Research Institute for Maternal and Child Health, Osaka, Japan. Indications for surgery were high-grade reflux (grade IV-V), breakthrough UTI and non-compliance of medical treatment. Age at surgery raged from 1 to 11 months (mean, 6.4 months). Ureteral reimplantation was performed according to Cohen's method. Only two of 336 refluxing ureters required ureteral tailoring. Follow-up ranged from 12 to 110 months (mean, 64 months). Surgical outcome, frequency of UTI and individual renal growth measured by 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy was evaluated. Postoperative ultrasound and voiding cystourethrography showed neither residual reflux nor ureterovesical obstruction. Contralateral low grade reflux occurred in six of 74 patients (8.1%) who had unilateral reflux preoperatively. After reimplantation, 10 patients documented 13 febrile UTI. Eleven of the 13 episodes occurred early in the postoperative period (<6 months). Frequency of febrile UTI reduced from 0.23538 before surgery to 0.00894 and 0.00081 per patient per month at 6 and 12 months after surgery, respectively. No development of renal scarring was seen in postoperative DMSA scan. Changes of differential renal function was <0.05 in all patients. The present results show ureteral reimplantation in infants is safe and very effective for the prevention of UTI. After surgical treatment in infancy, individual renal growth of children with primary VUR is stable. (authors)

  13. Single center experience with endoscopic subureteral dextranomer/hyaluronic acid injection as first line treatment in 1,551 children with intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puri, Prem; Kutasy, Balazs; Colhoun, Eric; Hunziker, Manuela

    2012-10-01

    In recent years the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid has become an established alternative to long-term antibiotic prophylaxis and the surgical management of vesicoureteral reflux. We determined the safety and effectiveness of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid as first line treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Between 2001 and 2010, 1,551 children (496 male, 1,055 female, median age 1.6 years) underwent endoscopic correction of intermediate and high grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid soon after the diagnosis of vesicoureteral reflux on initial voiding cystourethrogram. Vesicoureteral reflux was unilateral in 761 children and bilateral in 790. Renal scarring was detected in 369 (26.7%) of the 1,384 patients who underwent dimercapto-succinic acid imaging. Reflux grade in the 2,341 ureters was II in 98 (4.2%), III in 1,340 (57.3%), IV in 818 (34.9%) and V in 85 (3.6%). Followup ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months after the outpatient procedure, and renal ultrasound was performed annually thereafter. Patients were followed for 3 months to 10 years (median 5.6 years). Vesicoureteral reflux resolved after the first, second and third endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in 2,039 (87.1%), 264 (11.3%) and 38 (1.6%) ureters, respectively. Febrile urinary tract infections developed during followup in 69 (4.6%) patients. None of the patients in the series needed reimplantation of ureters or experienced any significant complications. Our results confirm the safety and efficacy of the endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid in the eradication of high grade vesicoureteral reflux. We recommend this 15-minute outpatient procedure as the first line of treatment for high grade vesicoureteral reflux. Copyright © 2012 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002222.htm Amino acids To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Amino acids are organic compounds that combine to form proteins . ...

  15. Valproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid is in a class of medications called anticonvulsants. It works by increasing the amount of a ... older (about 1 in 500 people) who took anticonvulsants such as valproic acid to treat various conditions ...

  16. Ascorbic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascorbic acid is used to prevent and treat scurvy, a disease caused by a lack of vitamin C in ... Ascorbic acid comes in extended-release (long-acting) capsules and tablets, lozenges, syrup, chewable tablets, and liquid drops to ...

  17. Aminocaproic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This type ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid is also used to control bleeding in the ...

  18. Ethacrynic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethacrynic acid, a 'water pill,' is used to treat swelling and fluid retention caused by various medical problems. It ... Ethacrynic acid comes as a tablet to take by mouth. It is usually taken once or twice a day ...

  19. Dual drug loaded superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles for targeted cancer therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dilnawaz, Fahima; Singh, Abhalaxmi; Mohanty, Chandana; Sahoo, Sanjeeb K

    2010-05-01

    The primary inadequacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is their relative non-specificity and potential side effects to the healthy tissues. To overcome this, drug loaded multifunctional magnetic nanoparticles are conceptualized. We report here an aqueous based formulation of glycerol monooleate coated magnetic nanoparticles (GMO-MNPs) devoid of any surfactant capable of carrying high payload hydrophobic anticancer drugs. The biocompatibility was confirmed by tumor necrosis factor alpha assay, confocal microscopy. High entrapment efficiency approximately 95% and sustained release of encapsulated drugs for more than two weeks under in vitro conditions was achieved for different anticancer drugs (paclitaxel, rapamycin, alone or combination). Drug loaded GMO-MNPs did not affect the magnetization properties of the iron oxide core as confirmed by magnetization study. Additionally the MNPs were functionalized with carboxylic groups by coating with DMSA (Dimercaptosuccinic acid) for the supplementary conjugation of amines. For targeted therapy, HER2 antibody was conjugated to GMO-MNPs and showed enhanced uptake in human breast carcinoma cell line (MCF-7). The IC(50) doses revealed potential antiproliferative effect in MCF-7. Therefore, antibody conjugated GMO-MNPs could be used as potential drug carrier for the active therapeutic aspects in cancer therapy. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Procalcitonin for the early prediction of renal parenchymal involvement in children with UTI: preliminary results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotoula, Aggeliki; Gardikis, Stefanos; Tsalkidis, Aggelos; Mantadakis, Elpis; Zissimopoulos, Athanassios; Kambouri, Katerina; Deftereos, Savvas; Tripsianis, Gregorios; Manolas, Konstantinos; Chatzimichael, Athanassios; Vaos, George

    2009-01-01

    In order to establish the most reliable marker for distinguishing urinary tract infections (UTI) with and without renal parenchymal involvement (RPI), we recorded the clinical features and admission leukocyte count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum procalcitonin (PCT) in 57 children (including 43 girls) aged 2-108 months admitted with a first episode of UTI. RPI was evaluated by Tc-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy within 7 days of admission. To establish cut-off points for ESR, CRP, and PCT, we used receiver operating characteristics curves and compared the area under the curve for ESR, CRP, and PCT. Twenty-seven children were diagnosed as having RPI based on positive renal scintigraphy. A body temperature of >38 degrees C, a history of diarrhea, and poor oral intake were more common in patients with RPI. ESR, CRP, and PCT, but not leukocyte count, were significantly higher in patients with RPI (P UTI than ESR and CRP. Using a cut-off value of 0.85 ng/ml, PCT had the best performance, with sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of 89%, 97%, 96%, and 91% respectively. Serum PCT is a better marker than ESR, CRP, and leukocyte count for the early prediction of RPI in children with a first episode of UTI.

  1. 131I-MIBG and neuroendocrine tumours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Gonzalez, Juan Perfecto; Gonzalez Gonzalez, Joaquin Jorge; Calderon Marin, Carlos Fabian

    2012-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumours are neoplasms that arise from various tissues closely linked to the neural crest by their common embryological origin. These tumours have the ability to synthesize neurotransmitter peptides and hormones, as well as to store catecholamines. Some of these tumours express somatostatin receptors at their membranes, what have allowed nuclear medicine to be involved in their diagnosis, treatment and monitoring. Since they arise from different and varied types of tissues, these tumours have a wide range of signs and symptoms different for every one of them. These signs and symptoms mainly depend on their biochemical characteristics, given by the substances they secrete, as well as by their location, and consequently, they also depend on the place where the tumour appears, its local infiltration, and potential long-distance metastasis resulting from the tumour). Neuroendocrine tumours are diagnosed by means of nuclear medicine images, which are obtained by using different techniques and radiopharmaceuticals such as 99 mTc dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA(V)), 99 mTc-methoxy-isobutyl-isonitrile (MIBI), metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) labelled with 131 I or 123 I ( 131 I-MIBG or 123 I -MIBG), 111 In-labelled octreotide, positron emission tomography, using 68 Ga-labelled somatostatin analogues and carcinoembryonic antigen monoclonal antibodies. Nuclear medicine uses mainly somatostatin analogues labelled with 90 Y or 177 Lu for the treatment of these tumours. This paper is aimed at showing our experience in the use of 131 I-MIBG for the diagnosis and treatment of neuroendocrine tumours.(author)

  2. The effect of core and lanthanide ion dopants in sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals on phagocytic activity of human blood leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej; Liskova, Aurelia; Kuricova, Miroslava; Banski, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan; Dusinska, Maria; Horvathova, Mira; Ilavska, Silvia; Szabova, Michaela; Rollerova, Eva; Podhorodecki, Artur; Tulinska, Jana

    2017-01-01

    Sodium fluoride-based β-NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped with lanthanide ions are promising materials for application as luminescent markers in bio-imaging. In this work, the effect of NPs doped with yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), europium (Eu), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb) and terbium (Tb) ions on phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes and the respiratory burst was examined. The surface functionalization of <10-nm NPs was performed according to our variation of patent pending ligand exchange method that resulted in meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) molecules on their surface. Y-core-based NCs were doped with Eu ions, which enabled them to be excited with UV light wavelengths. Cultures of human peripheral blood (n = 8) were in vitro treated with five different concentrations of eight NPs for 24 h. In summary, neither type of nanoparticles is found toxic with respect to conducted test; however, some cause toxic effects (they have statistically significant deviations compared to reference) in some selected doses tested. Both core types of NPs (Y-core and Gd-core) impaired the phagocytic activity of monocytes the strongest, having minimal or none whatsoever influence on granulocytes and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. The lowest toxicity was observed in Gd-core, Yb, Tm dopants and near-infrared nanoparticles. Clear dose-dependent effect of NPs on phagocytic activity of leukocytes and respiratory burst of cells was observed for limited number of samples.

  3. The effect of core and lanthanide ion dopants in sodium fluoride-based nanocrystals on phagocytic activity of human blood leukocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sojka, Bartlomiej [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Liskova, Aurelia; Kuricova, Miroslava [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia); Banski, Mateusz; Misiewicz, Jan [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Dusinska, Maria [Norwegian Institute for Air Research, Health Effects Laboratory, Department of Environmental Chemistry (Norway); Horvathova, Mira; Ilavska, Silvia; Szabova, Michaela [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia); Rollerova, Eva [Slovak Medical University, Faculty of Public Health, Department of Toxicology (Slovakia); Podhorodecki, Artur, E-mail: artur.p.podhorodecki@pwr.edu.pl [Wroclaw University of Science and Technology, Department of Experimental Physics (Poland); Tulinska, Jana, E-mail: jana.tulinska@szu.sk [Slovak Medical University, Medical Faculty, Department of Immunology and Immunotoxicology (Slovakia)

    2017-02-15

    Sodium fluoride-based β-NaLnF4 nanoparticles (NPs) doped with lanthanide ions are promising materials for application as luminescent markers in bio-imaging. In this work, the effect of NPs doped with yttrium (Y), gadolinium (Gd), europium (Eu), thulium (Tm), ytterbium (Yb) and terbium (Tb) ions on phagocytic activity of monocytes and granulocytes and the respiratory burst was examined. The surface functionalization of <10-nm NPs was performed according to our variation of patent pending ligand exchange method that resulted in meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) molecules on their surface. Y-core-based NCs were doped with Eu ions, which enabled them to be excited with UV light wavelengths. Cultures of human peripheral blood (n = 8) were in vitro treated with five different concentrations of eight NPs for 24 h. In summary, neither type of nanoparticles is found toxic with respect to conducted test; however, some cause toxic effects (they have statistically significant deviations compared to reference) in some selected doses tested. Both core types of NPs (Y-core and Gd-core) impaired the phagocytic activity of monocytes the strongest, having minimal or none whatsoever influence on granulocytes and respiratory burst of phagocytic cells. The lowest toxicity was observed in Gd-core, Yb, Tm dopants and near-infrared nanoparticles. Clear dose-dependent effect of NPs on phagocytic activity of leukocytes and respiratory burst of cells was observed for limited number of samples.

  4. Predictors of renal scar in children with urinary infection and vesicoureteral reflux.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soylu, Alper; Demir, Belde Kasap; Türkmen, Mehmet; Bekem, Ozlem; Saygi, Murat; Cakmakçi, Handan; Kavukçu, Salih

    2008-12-01

    We evaluated the predictors of renal scar in children with urinary tract infections (UTIs) having primary vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). Data of patients who were examined by dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy between 1995 and 2005 were evaluated retrospectively. Gender, age, reflux grade, presence/development of scarring, breakthrough UTIs, and resolution of reflux, were recorded. The relation of gender, age and VUR grade to preformed scarring and the relation of gender, age, VUR grade, presence of preformed scarring, number of breakthrough UTIs and reflux resolution to new scarring were assessed. There were 138 patients [male/female (M/F) 53/85]. Multivariate analysis showed that male gender [odds ratio (OR) 2.5], age > or = 27 months in girls (OR 4.2) and grades IV-V reflux (OR 12.4) were independent indicators of renal scarring. On the other hand, only the presence of previous renal scarring was found to be an independent indicator for the development of new renal scar (OR 13.4). In conclusion, while the most predictive variables for the presence of renal scarring among children presenting with a UTI were male gender, age > or = 27 months in girls, and grades IV-V reflux, the best predictor of new scar formation was presence of previous renal scarring.

  5. NICE guidelines for imaging studies in children with UTI adequate only in boys under the age of 6 months.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristola, Marko Tapani; Hurme, Timo

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) guidelines for imaging studies in children under the age of three with first urinary tract infection (UTI). In our cohort of 112 patients, we gathered data regarding the occurrence of indications for ultrasonography (US) and voiding cystourethrography (VCUG) according to the NICE guidelines, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy examinations, UTI recurrence, antimicrobial prophylaxis (AMP), anti-reflux procedures, and other urological procedures. If the NICE guidelines had been applied, 13 of the 25 patients (52 %) with vesicoureteral reflux (VUR), including 6 of the 12 patients (50 %) with dilating VUR and 3 of the 4 patients who underwent endoscopic anti-reflux treatment, would have been missed, and a negative VCUG would have been avoided in 25 of the 42 patients (60 %) with no VUR. None of the missed diagnoses occurred in the younger boys' group. Based on these preliminary analyses, we feel that the NICE guidelines for imaging studies in children under 3 years old with UTI may be applicable to clinical use only in boys under 6 months of age. For other patients the guidelines were unsuccessful.

  6. Paediatric Urinary Tract Infection: A Hospital Based Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Khursheed Ahmed; Bhat, Javaid Ahmed; Parry, Nazir Ahmed; Shaheen, Lubna; Bhat, Sartaj Ali

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Paediatric Urinary Tract Infection (UTI) is one of the commonly encountered entities by paediatricians. Studies have shown easy vulnerability of paediatric urinary tract in any acute febrile illness and a miss in diagnosis could have long term consequences like renal scaring with its adverse effects. Bearing these evidence based preludes in view we designed our study to know the prevalence of UTI in Kashmir province. Aim Aim of the present study was to know the prevalence of UTI in febrile children and to know the sensitivity of different imaging modalities like Renal and Urinary Bladder Ultrasonography (RUS), Voiding Cystourethrography (VCUG) and Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (DMSA) scan in diagnosing UTI. Materials and Methods A total of 304 patients, between 2 months to 10 years, with axillary temperature of ≥ 100.4oF (38oC), who did not have a definite source for their fever and who were not on antibiotics were included in the study. Detailed history and through clinical examination was done to rule out any potential or definite focus of infection as per the predesigned proforma. Routine urine examination with culture and sensitivity, followed by RUS and VCUG was done in all patients where routine urine examination was suggestive of UTI. DMSA was done in only culture proven cases after 6 months to document the renal scarring. Results Out of 304 children, 140 were males and 164 were females, UTI was present in 40 patients who had fever without any apparent cause giving a prevalence of 13.2%. Escherichia coli (E. coli) were the commonest isolated organism, followed by Klebsiella and Citrobacter species. Renal and Urinary Bladder Ultrasonography (RUS) detected Vesicoureteral Reflux (VUR) in 25% (10/40) while VCUG showed VUR in 55% (22/40) giving a RUS sensitivity of 45% for detecting VUR. DMSA done only after 6 months in UTI diagnosed patients showed a renal scarring in 25% (10/40) patients. Conclusion Missing a febrile paediatric UTI, can prove a future

  7. Renal damage in vesicoureteral reflux associated to duplex systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orellana, P.; Velasquez, C.; Baquedano, P.

    2002-01-01

    Duplex system (DS) is a common occurrence and it can be associated to a range of ureteral and renal anomalies draining the two poles of the duplex kidneys, as vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) in the lower moiety and ureterocele in the upper moiety. The VUR in a duplex system can be primary or secondary (associated to an ureterocele). The assessment of parenchymal uptake and function of the whole and separate parts of the kidneys is important for therapeutical decisions. Objective: To determine the presence of renal damage, by dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy in children with a refluxing DS and if there any difference between primary and secondary reflux. Patients and Methods: 36 children; 23 girls and 13 boys, with VUR into completely duplicated collecting systems was studied retrospectively (37 RU with DS, 35 unilateral and 1 bilateral), with a mean age of 2.43 y.o. (range: 1 month-11y.o.). All of the children underwent ultrasonography, voiding cystourethrogram and renal static scintigraphy. Among the 37 RU with VUR, 25 had primary VUR and 12 had VUR secondary to the presence of an ureterocele. Ten out of the 36 children (27.8%) were evaluated due to antenatal diagnosis and the remaining 26 (72.2%) after urinary tract infection (UTI). Results: Seventy percent of the 37 RU with VUR into completely duplicated collecting systems had renal damage demonstrated by renal static scintigraphy. Among the 25 RU with primary VUR, 19 (76%) had renal damage, 6 with a complete absence of function in the lower moiety. In this group, 80% of children was studied due to an UTI at a mean age of 3.3 y.o. In the group of children with secondary VUR, we observed a lower moiety with renal damage in 6/12 (50%), in 4 of them associated with an abnormal upper moiety. 7 out of 12 children (58.3%) had an abnormal upper moiety, 4 of them with a damage in lower moiety too. One children presented with renal exclusion. Half of these children were studied due to UTI, at a mean age of 1 y

  8. Well acidizing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Street, E H

    1980-01-23

    The apparatus relates in particular to a well-treating process in which an aqueous acid solution having a pH of < 2 is injected into a subterranean reservoir in a manner such that materials that contain ferric ions are present in the acid and, as the acid reacts within the reservoir and attains a pH exceeding 3, tend to be precipitated as ferric ion-containing solid materials that may plug the pores of the reservoir. Such a precipitation is prevented by dissolving in the acid solution an amount of 5-sulfosalicylic acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 0.5 to 3 but is less than enough to cause a significant salting-out of solid materials, and an amount of citric acid which is at least sufficient to sequester significant proportions of ferric ions when the pH of the acid is from 3 to 6 but is less than enough to precipitate a significant amount of calcium citrate. The amount of the 5-sulfosalicylic acid may be from 0.01 to 0.05 moles/l and the amount of citric acid is from 0.001 to 0.009 moles/l. 11 claims.

  9. Ibotenic acid and thioibotenic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermit, Mette B; Greenwood, Jeremy R; Nielsen, Birgitte

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we have determined and compared the pharmacological profiles of ibotenic acid and its isothiazole analogue thioibotenic acid at native rat ionotropic glutamate (iGlu) receptors and at recombinant rat metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors expressed in mammalian cell lines....... Thioibotenic acid has a distinct pharmacological profile at group III mGlu receptors compared with the closely structurally related ibotenic acid; the former is a potent (low microm) agonist, whereas the latter is inactive. By comparing the conformational energy profiles of ibotenic and thioibotenic acid...... with the conformations preferred by the ligands upon docking to mGlu1 and models of the other mGlu subtypes, we propose that unlike other subtypes, group III mGlu receptor binding sites require a ligand conformation at an energy level which is prohibitively expensive for ibotenic acid, but not for thioibotenic acid...

  10. Endoscopic Injection of Dextranomer/Hyaluronic Acid as First-Line Treatment in 851 Consecutive Children with High-Grade Vesicoureteral Reflux: Efficacy and Long-Term Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmacher, Florian; Colhoun, Eric; Puri, Prem

    2018-03-15

    Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic is widely acknowledged as first-line treatment of lower grade vesicoureteral reflux. Our objective was to demonstrate its long-term efficacy and safety in eradicating high-grade reflux. Eight-hundred-fifty-one children (518 girls, 333 boys), median age 2.3 years (2 months-13.7 years), underwent endoscopic correction of high-grade vesicoureteral reflux using dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Reflux was unilateral in 415 cases and bilateral in 436, comprising 1,287 refluxing units: grade IV in 1,153 (89.6%) and grade V in 134 (10.4%). 99m technetium-dimercaptosuccinic acid imaging identified renal scarring in 317 (37.3%) patients. Follow-up ultrasound and voiding cystourethrogram were performed 3 months post intervention and renal ultrasound annually thereafter. Median follow-up was 8.5 years (6 months-16 years). Overall resolution rate after the first endoscopic injection was 895/1,287 (69.5%): 70.4% in grade IV and 61.9% in grade V, respectively. Reflux resolved after a second injection in 259 (20.1%) and after a third in 133 (10.4%). Persistent reflux after initial treatment was significantly more common in infants reflux resolution, 43 (5.1%) children developed febrile urinary tract infections: 24 (55.8%) in the first, 15 (34.9%) in the second and 4 (9.3%) after ≥3 years. Of these, 6 had reflux recurrence and 8 demonstrated neocontralateral grade III reflux, which was successfully treated with single endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid. Endoscopic injection of dextranomer/hyaluronic acid is an efficient and safe long-term treatment for grade IV and V vesicoureteral reflux, which can be easily repeated in cases of failure with a high subsequent resolution rate. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, H; Laing, B

    1921-12-03

    The production of formic acid by the oxidation of methane with a metallic oxide or by the interaction of carbon monoxide and water vapor in the presence of a catalyst, preferably a metallic oxide, is described along with the destructive distillation of carbonaceous material in the preesnce of formic acid vapor for the purpose of increasing the yield of condensible hydrocarbons.

  12. Lipoic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan Tetikcok

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Lipoic acid, which is defined as a miralce antioxidan, is used by many departments. Eventhough clinical using data are very limited , it is used in treatment of diabetic neuropathy, physical therapy and rehabilitation clinic, dermatology clinic, geriatric clinics. It has usage area for cosmetic purposes. Although there are reports there are the direction of the effectiveness in these areas, the works done are not enough. Today lipoic acid , used in many areas ,is evaluated as universal antioxidant [J Contemp Med 2015; 5(3.000: 206-209

  13. Mefenamic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mefenamic acid comes as a capsule to take by mouth. It is usually taken with food every 6 hours as needed for up to 1 week. Follow ... pain vomit that is bloody or looks like coffee grounds black, tarry, or bloody stools slowed breathing ...

  14. Acid rain. Les pluies acides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Curren, T

    1979-11-28

    This report was produced for the use of Members of Parliament and House of Commons committees. The document describes the formation of acid rain, emissions of acidifying pollutants in North America, the growth of the problem and its environmental effects on aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, human health and man-made structures. Areas of Canada which are most susceptible are identified. Actions taken by Parliament are given, including the formation of a sub-committee on acid rain and the passing of Bill C-51 in 1980 to amend the Clean Air Act, bringing it closer to a similar law in the U.S. A chronology of government responses to acid rain at the international, national and provincial level, is given. The most recent government actions included the passing of the US Clean Air Act by the Senate, the amending of the act into law, and commencement of negotiations to develop a Canada-US Air Quality Accord. 10 refs.

  15. Whole-cell bioreporters and risk assessment of environmental pollution: A proof-of-concept study using lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xiaokai; Qin, Boqiang; Deng, Jianming; Wells, Mona

    2017-01-01

    As the world burden of environmental contamination increases, it is of the utmost importance to develop streamlined approaches to environmental risk assessment in order to prioritize mitigation measures. Whole-cell biosensors or bioreporters and speciation modeling have both become of increasing interest to determine the bioavailability of pollutants, as bioavailability is increasingly in use as an indicator of risk. Herein, we examine whether bioreporter results are able to reflect expectations based on chemical reactivity and speciation modeling, with the hope to extend the research into a wider framework of risk assessment. We study a specific test case concerning the bioavailability of lead (Pb) in aqueous environments containing Pb-complexing ligands. Ligands studied include ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA), meso-2,3 dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), leucine, methionine, cysteine, glutathione, and humic acid (HA), and we also performed experiments using natural water samples from Lake Tai (Taihu), the third largest lake in China. We find that EDTA, DMSA, cysteine, glutathione, and HA amendment significantly reduced Pb bioavailability with increasing ligand concentration according to a log-sigmoid trend. Increasing dissolved organic carbon in Taihu water also had the same effect, whereas leucine and methionine had no notable effect on bioavailability at the concentrations tested. We find that bioreporter results are in accord with the reduction of aqueous Pb 2+ that we expect from the relative complexation affinities of the different ligands tested. For EDTA and HA, for which reasonably accurate ionization and complexation constants are known, speciation modeling is in agreement with bioreporter response to within the level of uncertainty recognised as reasonable by the United States Environmental Protection Agency for speciation-based risk assessment applications. These findings represent a first step toward using bioreporter technology to streamline

  16. Levulinic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Hachuła

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compound (systematic name: 4-oxopentanoic acid, C5H8O3, is close to planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0762 Å. In the crystal, the molecules interact via O—H...O hydrogen bonds in which the hydroxy O atoms act as donors and the ketone O atoms in adjacent molecules as acceptors, forming C(7 chains along [20-1].

  17. First experiences from Copenhagen with paediatric single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Julie Bjerglund; Mortensen, Jann; Bech, Birthe Højlund

    2011-01-01

    bone scintigraphy combined with In-labelled leukocyte study (osteomyelitis), three I-meta-iodobenzylguanidine scintigraphies (neuroblastoma), three In-octreotide scintigraphies (two carcinoid tumours, one Langerhans cell histiocytosis) and one Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (suspected renal...

  18. Glomerular filtration rate measured by {sup 51}Cr-EDTA clearance: evaluation of captopril-induced changes in hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaves, Anna Alice Rolim; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Praxedes, Jose Nery; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit, E-mail: annaalice100@yahoo.com.b [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Neurologia

    2010-07-01

    Introduction: renal artery stenosis can lead to renovascular hypertension; however, the detection of stenosis alone does not guarantee the presence of renovascular hypertension. Renovascular hypertension depends on activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which can be detected by functional tests such as captopril renal scintigraphy. A method that allows direct measurement of the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using chromium-51 labeled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) could add valuable information to the investigation of hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis. The purposes of this study were to create a protocol to measure the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using {sup 51}Cr-EDTA, and to verify whether changes in the glomerular filtration rate permit differentiation between hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis. Methods: this prospective study included 41 consecutive patients with poorly controlled severe hypertension. All patients had undergone a radiological investigation of renal artery stenosis within the month prior to their inclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with (n=21) and without renal artery stenosis, (n=20). In vitro glomerular filtration rate analysis ({sup 51}Cr-EDTA) and {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA scintigraphy were performed before and after captopril administration in all patients. Results: the mean baseline glomerular filtration rate was 48.6+-21.8 ml/kg/1.73 m{sup 2} in the group with renal artery stenosis, which was significantly lower than the GFR of 65.1+-28.7 ml/kg/1.73m{sup 2} in the group without renal artery stenosis (p=0.04). Captopril induced a significant reduction of the glomerular filtration rate in the group with renal artery stenosis (to 32.6+-14.8 ml/kg/1.73m{sup 2}, p=0.001) and an insignificant change in the group without RAS (to 62.2+-23.6 ml/kg/1.73m{sup 2}, p=0.68). Scintigraphy with technetium-99m dimercapto-succinic

  19. Glomerular filtration rate measured by 51Cr-EDTA clearance: evaluation of captopril-induced changes in hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaves, Anna Alice Rolim; Buchpiguel, Carlos Alberto; Praxedes, Jose Nery; Bortolotto, Luiz Aparecido; Sapienza, Marcelo Tatit

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: renal artery stenosis can lead to renovascular hypertension; however, the detection of stenosis alone does not guarantee the presence of renovascular hypertension. Renovascular hypertension depends on activation of the renin-angiotensin system, which can be detected by functional tests such as captopril renal scintigraphy. A method that allows direct measurement of the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using chromium-51 labeled ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid ( 51 Cr-EDTA) could add valuable information to the investigation of hypertensive patients with renal artery stenosis. The purposes of this study were to create a protocol to measure the baseline and post-captopril glomerular filtration rate using 51 Cr-EDTA, and to verify whether changes in the glomerular filtration rate permit differentiation between hypertensive patients with and without renal artery stenosis. Methods: this prospective study included 41 consecutive patients with poorly controlled severe hypertension. All patients had undergone a radiological investigation of renal artery stenosis within the month prior to their inclusion. The patients were divided into two groups: patients with (n=21) and without renal artery stenosis, (n=20). In vitro glomerular filtration rate analysis ( 51 Cr-EDTA) and 99m Tc-DMSA scintigraphy were performed before and after captopril administration in all patients. Results: the mean baseline glomerular filtration rate was 48.6±21.8 ml/kg/1.73 m 2 in the group with renal artery stenosis, which was significantly lower than the GFR of 65.1±28.7 ml/kg/1.73m 2 in the group without renal artery stenosis (p=0.04). Captopril induced a significant reduction of the glomerular filtration rate in the group with renal artery stenosis (to 32.6±14.8 ml/kg/1.73m 2 , p=0.001) and an insignificant change in the group without RAS (to 62.2±23.6 ml/kg/1.73m 2 , p=0.68). Scintigraphy with technetium-99m dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA) did not show

  20. Understanding Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damonte, Kathleen

    2004-01-01

    The term acid rain describes rain, snow, or fog that is more acidic than normal precipitation. To understand what acid rain is, it is first necessary to know what an acid is. Acids can be defined as substances that produce hydrogen ions (H+), when dissolved in water. Scientists indicate how acidic a substance is by a set of numbers called the pH…

  1. The diagnostic value of dynamic magnetic resonance urography in children with urinary tract infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarabi V

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Urinary tract infection 0 in children causes renal scarring and permanent damage to the organ. In this study, we compared the diagnostic value of magnetic resonance urogram for urinary tract anomalies with other conventional imaging methods in children with UTI. "n"nMethods : In this case-control study, 190 children (mean age 3.23±3.59 yrs with UTI were recruited from the Pediatric Ward of Rasul-e-Akram Hospital during 2007-2009. The patients were divided into two groups based on the applied imaging technique: MRU (cases and conventional imaging groups (controls."n"nResults : Abnormal imaging detection rates for Ultrasonography were 32%, X-ray of kidneys, ureters and bladder (KUB 9%, Intravenous Pyelogram (IVP 26%, Voiding Cystoure therogram (VCUG 54%, Dimercaptosuccinic Acid scan (DMSA indicating non-obstructive (reflux uropathy in 76% (mean age 3.5 yrs and MRU 43% (mean age 1.6 yrs, respectively. A meaningful correlation was observed between MRU and DMSA scan with IVP results (Kappa=0.75. KUB and Ultrasonography had similar results in cases with abnormal MRU and DMSA scan (P=0.121. MRU had strong agreement with VCUG and IVP for the detection of obstructive uropathy and scar due to congenital malformation

  2. The acidic functional groups of humic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanxiang, Li; Shuhe, Sun; Zhai Zongxi, Wu Qihu

    1983-09-01

    The acidic functional groups content, pK value, DELTAH and DELTAS of humic acid (HA) and nitro-humic acid (NHA) were determined by potentiometry, conductometry and calorimetric titration. The thermodynamic parameters of carboxylic groups and phenolic hydroxyl groups of humic acid are similar to that of simple hydroxy-benzoic acid. The configuration sites of acidic functional groups in humic acid from different coals are different. The carbonyl groups on aromatic rings are probably ortho to phenolic -OH for HA and NHA extracted from Huangxian's brown coal and Japanese lignite, while those from Lingshi's weathered coal are not. The weak -COOH groups of the latter possess higher chemical activity. The -COOH content in HA increases, phenolic -OH group decreases and the chemical acidity of acidic functional groups increases when HA is oxidized by nitric acid. (14 refs.)

  3. Okadaic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, E Michael; Hansen, Gert H; Severinsen, Mai C K

    2014-01-01

    are the hallmark of phospholipidosis, a pathological condition characterized by lysosomal phospholipid accumulation. Phospholipidosis is observed in acquired lysosomal storage diseases and is induced by a large number of cationic amphiphilic drugs. Unlike the latter, however, OA does not act by accumulating...... in acidic organelles, implying a different toxic mechanism of action. We propose that rapid induction of LBs, an indicator of phospholipidosis, should be included in the future toxicity profile of OA....... hyper protein phosphorylation, but no detectable loss of cell polarity or cytoskeletal integrity of the enterocytes. Using a fluorescent membrane marker, FM dye, endocytosis from the brush border was affected by the toxin. Although constitutive uptake into subapical terminal web-localized early...

  4. Effect of nanoparticle and aggregate size on the relaxometric properties of MR contrast agents based on high quality magnetite nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roca, Alejandro G; Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino; Port, Marc; Robic, Caroline; Serna, Carlos J; Morales, Maria P

    2009-05-14

    Colloidal dispersions of monodispersed and high-crystalline magnetite nanoparticles have been used to establish a relationship between magnetic properties and magnetic resonance (MR) relaxometric parameters in vitro. Magnetite nanoparticles with diameters between 4 and 14 nm were synthesized by thermal decomposition of Fe(acac)3 in different organic solvents and transformed to hydrophilic by changing oleic acid for dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA). A final treatment in alkaline water was critical to make the suspension stable at pH 7 with xi-potential values of -45 mV and hydrodynamic sizes as low as 50 nm. Samples showed superparamagnetic behavior at room temperature, which is an important parameter for biomedical applications. Susceptibility increased with both particle and aggregate size, and for particles larger than 9 nm, the aggregate size was the key factor controlling the susceptibility. Relaxivity values followed the same trend as the suspension susceptibilities, indicating that the aggregate size is an important factor above a certain particle size governing the proton relaxation times. The highest relaxivity value, r2=317 s(-1) mM(-1), much higher than those for commercial contrast agents with similar hydrodynamic size, was obtained for a suspension consisting of 9 nm particles and 70 nm of hydrodynamic size, and it was assigned to the higher particle crystallinity in comparison to particles prepared by coprecipitation. Therefore, it can be concluded that in addition to the sample crystallinity, both particle size and aggregate size should be considered in order to explain the magnetic and relaxivity values of a suspension.

  5. Level of occupational exposure during daily work in a Nuclear Medicine Department

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarcke, Marcelo, E-mail: mschwarcke@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica e Matematica; Ferreira, Nadya [Instituto Militar de Engenharia (IME), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Nuclear; Cardoso, Domingos [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Workers of the Nuclear Medicine Department have a very complex geometric exposition. The source of irradiation is not collimated and irradiated for all direction, the interaction with many structural tissue is inside the body before could be detected outside. The professional who works in a Nuclear Medicine Department is exposed to this condition and different energies. This work proposes a good approach to estimate the mensal dose level according to the dose rate during their daily routine. To measure the dose rate, a Babyline 81 ionization chamber was used, and the most frequent exams using {sup 99m}Tc were chosen. A previous study was conducted to determine the most frequent exams made in the Nuclear Medicine Department at the Central Army Hospital in Rio de Janeiro, and previous environment monitoring determine the places with higher exposure that could interfere in the measurement of this paper. The Renal scintigraphy with diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (DTPA) had an average dose rate of (2.50{+-}0.25) {mu}Sv/h; for the Renal scintigraphy with dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), it was of (1.20{+-}0.25) {mu}Sv/h; for Bone scintigraphy using two different protocols, it was (2.63{+-}0.30) {mu}Sv/h and (3.09{+-}0.30) {mu}Sv/h. Exposition during elution, dose preparing and clinical procedure was considered a critical moment in the daily routine of the employee. The dose rate obtained in this study demonstrated that the professional cannot exceed the public dose limit in one day of his work routine. Therefore, for the Radioprotection Department, this is a good approach to make a radioprotection plan in the Nuclear Medicine Department. (author)

  6. Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced MR Imaging of Renal Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baik, Jun Hyun; Ahn, Myeong Im; Park, Young Ha; Chung, Soo Kyo [Catholic University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in a renal ischemia-reperfusion injury. Twenty-four rabbits were randomly divided into four groups, including a sham operated group (n=3). Renal ischemia was induced for 30 minutes (group 1), 60 minutes (group 2) and 120 minutes (group 3). MR imaging was performed before ischemia as well as one hour, 24 hours, and 72 hours after reperfusion. A 99mTc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy was performed before ischemia, as well as 24 hours and 72 hours after reperfusion. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) on the T2WI, time-relative signal intensity (%RSI) curve on dynamic enhanced images, and relative left renal uptake (%) on DMSA scan were obtained and compared to the histologic findings. The SNR of the cortex on the T2WI changed significantly over the course of the reperfusion time (p<0.001), but was not significantly different among the ischemia groups. The area under the time-%RSI curve gradually decreased from cortex to inner medulla before ischemia, which was reversed and gradually increased after reperfusion. The areas under the time-%RSI curve of outer and inner medulla were significantly different among the ischemia groups (p=0.04, p=0.008). The relative renal uptake (%) of left kidney decreased significantly over the reperfusion time (p=0.03), and was also significantly different among the ischemia groups (p=0.005). Tubular cell necrosis was observed in 16 rabbits (76.2%). The histologic grades of group 3 were higher than those of group 1 and group 2 (p=0.002). Even in rabbits without tubular cell necrosis, the areas under the time-%RSI curves of the cortex, outer, and inner medulla after a 72 hour reperfusion time were significantly lower than those before ischemia (p=0.007, p=0.005, p=0.004). The results of this study suggest that dynamic enhanced MR imaging could be a useful tool for the evaluation of renal ischemia and reperfusion injury.

  7. Amifostine protects rat kidneys during peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rolleman, Edgar J.; Forrer, Flavio; Bernard, Bert; Bijster, Magda; Valkema, Roelf; Krenning, Eric P.; Jong, Marion de [Erasmus MC, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Vermeij, Marcel [Erasmus MC, Department of Pathology, Rotterdam (Netherlands)

    2007-05-15

    In peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) using radiolabelled somatostatin analogues, the kidneys are the major dose-limiting organs, because of tubular reabsorption and retention of radioactivity. Preventing renal uptake or toxicity will allow for higher tumour radiation doses. We tested the cytoprotective drug amifostine, which selectively protects healthy tissue during chemo- and radiotherapy, for its renoprotective capacities after PRRT with high-dose [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate. Male Lewis rats were injected with 278 or 555 MBq [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate to create renal damage and were followed up for 130 days. For renoprotection, rats received either amifostine or co-injection with lysine. Kidneys, blood and urine were collected for toxicity measurements. At 130 days after PRRT, a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) scan was performed to quantify tubular uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), a measure of tubular function. Treatment with 555 MBq [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate resulted in body weight loss, elevated creatinine and proteinuria. Amifostine and lysine treatment significantly prevented this rise in creatinine and the level of proteinuria, but did not improve the histological damage. In contrast, after 278 MBq [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate, creatinine values were slightly, but not significantly, elevated compared with the control rats. Proteinuria and histological damage were different from controls and were significantly improved by amifostine treatment. Quantification of {sup 99m}Tc-DMSA SPECT scintigrams at 130 days after [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate therapy correlated well with 1/creatinine (r {sup 2} = 0.772, p < 0.001). Amifostine and lysine effectively decreased functional renal damage caused by high-dose [{sup 177}Lu-DOTA{sup 0},Tyr{sup 3}]octreotate. Besides lysine, amifostine might be used in clinical PRRT as well

  8. Role of whole-body PET with 2-[F-18] fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) in medullary carcinoma of thyroid (MCT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Basu, S.; Nair, N.; Joseph, J.K.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The objective of this study is to study the clinical role of FDG-PET imaging in patients with medullary carcinoma of thyroid and compare the findings with that of pentavalent technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), technetium-99m tetrofosmin, iodine-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG), indium-111 pentetreotide (SMS), computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the patient population, the patient group consisted of 14 cases of histologically proven cases of MCT (9 males and 5 females) aged 22-65 years. FDGPET imaging was performed in 12 patients post-total thyroidectomy and two patients prior to surgery. All patients underwent examination with at least one other imaging method. PET was included as an additional procedure to the usual work-up performed including neck ultrasound (USG), 99mTc(V) DMSA scintigraphy, oriented CT, USG or MRI when suspicion of local recurrence were present. Some patients had a history of negative imaging work-up. PET oriented imaging procedures or biopsies were undertaken, whenever required, as a part of metastatic survey. FDG was produced by an automated nucleophilic method based on the Hamacher procedure. Patients were fasting at least for 6 hours. Sixty minutes after injection of 370 MBq FDG, patients were imaged on the dedicated BGO based GE Advance PET scanner (General Electric Medical systems, Milwaukee, WI). Images were reconstructed using the attenuation weighted Ordered Subsets Expectation Maximization (OSEM) algorithm. Axial, coronal, sagittal and 3D images were visually interpreted and foci of increased tracer uptake were considered as disease involvement. The findings were compared lesion by lesion with other imaging procedures and histological examinations. Calcitonin levels were available in all but one case. A total of 144 lesions were identified by at least one modality. 13 whole body FDG-PET examinations were conducted in a total of 14 patients. The primary tumour examined in 1 patient

  9. Renal tract abnormalities missed in a historical cohort of young children with UTI if the NICE and AAP imaging guidelines were applied.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narchi, Hassib; Marah, Muhaned; Khan, Asad Aziz; Al-Amri, Abdulla; Al-Shibli, Amar

    2015-10-01

    In a historical cohort of children with a urinary tract infection (UTI) who had already undergone all the imaging procedures, the aim was to determine renal tract abnormalities which would have been missed had we implemented the new guidelines from the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence in the United Kingdom (NICE) or the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP). After a UTI episode, forty-three children (28 females, 65%) aged between 2 months and 2 years presenting at two general hospitals with a febrile UTI before 2008 underwent all the recommended imaging studies predating the new guidelines. Hydronephrosis was defined and graded according to the Society for Fetal Urology (SFU) classification. Hydronephrosis grade II (mild pelvicalyceal dilatation), grade III (moderate dilatation), and grade IV (gross dilatation with thinning of the renal cortex), duplication, vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) grade II and above, renal scarring and reduced renal uptake (<45%) on technetium-99m-labeled dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy were considered significant abnormalities. We calculated the proportion of abnormalities which would have been missed had the new guidelines been used instead. The median of age was 7.6 months (mean 8.7, range 2-24 months), with the majority (n = 37, 86%) being under 1 year of age. Ultrasound (US) showed hydronephrosis in 14 (32%), all grade II. A voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG) was performed in all and showed VUR ≥ grade II in 16 (37%), including eight children (19%) where it was bilateral. DMSA scan showed scarring in 25 children (58%) of whom 11 (26%) had bilateral scars. Reduced differential renal uptake was present in 10 children (23%). Of the 29 children with normal US, 18 (62%) had renal scarring and nine (31%) had VUR ≥ grade II. The NICE guidelines would have missed 63% of the children with VUR ≥ grade II, including a high proportion of grades IV and V VUR, 44% of the children with renal scarring, and 20% of the

  10. [Teichoic acids from lactic acid bacteria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livins'ka, O P; Harmasheva, I L; Kovalenko, N K

    2012-01-01

    The current view of the structural diversity of teichoic acids and their involvement in the biological activity of lactobacilli has been reviewed. The mechanisms of effects of probiotic lactic acid bacteria, in particular adhesive and immunostimulating functions have been described. The prospects of the use of structure data of teichoic acid in the assessment of intraspecific diversity of lactic acid bacteria have been also reflected.

  11. Plasma amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amino acids blood test ... types of methods used to determine the individual amino acid levels in the blood. ... test is done to measure the level of amino acids in the blood. An increased level of a ...

  12. Uric acid - urine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003616.htm Uric acid urine test To use the sharing features on ... are no risks with this test. Images Uric acid test Uric acid crystals References Burns CM, Wortmann RL. Clinical ...

  13. Uric acid test (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uric acid urine test is performed to check for the amount of uric acid in urine. Urine is collected over a 24 ... for testing. The most common reason for measuring uric acid levels is in the diagnosis or treatment of ...

  14. Methylmalonic acid blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003565.htm Methylmalonic acid blood test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The methylmalonic acid blood test measures the amount of methylmalonic acid in the ...

  15. Facts about Folic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information For… Media Policy Makers Facts About Folic Acid Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... of the baby’s brain and spine. About folic acid Folic acid is a B vitamin. Our bodies ...

  16. Longterm outcome of Macroplatique injection for treatment of vesicoureteral reflux in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrahmany A. Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study examined our experience with one year follow-up of 20 cases of vesicoureteric reflux in children after treatment with Macroplastique ® injection. Patient and Methods: A total of 20 children (31 ureters with primary grades II to V vesicoureteral reflux were treated with subureteral Macroplastique ® injection from 2010 to 2011 and followed for an average of 12 months (range 3 to 24. Vesicoureteral reflux was grade II in 3, III in 7, IV in 9 and V in 12 ureters. Each child underwent pre-operative voiding cystourethrography, abdominopelvic ultrasound, urine analysis/culture, S. creatinine and CBC. Dimercapto-succinic acid scan (DMSA scan and magnetic resonance urography (MRU were done in some patients. Voiding cystourethrography at 3 months was done to rule out persistent reflux. Results: Overall, reflux was corrected in 11 (35.5% ureters and 9 (45% children after a single injection. With repeat injection, reflux was corrected in 16 (51.6% ureters and 11 (55% children, reflux improved/downgrade in 4 (12.9% ureters and 2 (10% children. Correction by grade was 100%, 100%, 9.7%, 9.7% for grades II to V, respectively. There were no surgical complications. None of the cured patients had recurrent reflux during follow-up. There were 9 (45% children who required open ureteral re-implantation for failed injection. Conclusion: Sub-ureteral Macroplastique ® injection therapy could be a primary treatment for low grade VUR (grade III or less in children because it is simple, safe, effective, less invasive, decreased.

  17. Assessment of various parameters in the estimation of differential renal function using technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lythgoe, M.F.; Gordon, I.; Khader, Z.; Smith, T.; Anderson, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Differential renal function (DRF) is an important parameter that should be assessed from virtually every dynamic renogram. With the introduction of technetium-99m mercaptoacetyltriglycine ( 99m Tc-MAG3), a tracer with a high renal extraction, the estimation of DRF might hopefully become accurate and reproducible both between observers in the same institution and also between institutions. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of different parameters on the estimation of DRF. To this end we investigated two groups of children: group A, comprising 35 children with a single kidney (27 of whom had poor renal function), and group B, comprising 20 children with two kidneys and normal global function who also had an associated 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid scan ( 99m Tc-DMSA). The variables assessed for their effect on the estimation of DRF were: different operators, the choice of renal regions of interest (ROIs), the applied background subtraction, and six different techniques for analysis of the renogram. The six techniques were based on: linear regression of the slopes in the Rutland-Patlak plot, matrix deconvolution, differential method, integral method, linear regression of the slope of the renograms, and the area under the curve of the renogram. The estimation of DRF was less dependent upon both observer and method in patients with two normally functioning kidneys than in patients with a single kidney. The inter-observer comparison among children in either group was not dependent on either ROI or background subtraction. However, in patients with poor renal function the method of choice for the estimation of DRF was dependent on background subtraction, though not ROI. In children with two kidneys and normal renal function, the estimation of DRF from the 24 techniques gave similar results. Methods that produced DRF values closest to expected results, from either group of children, were the Rutland-Patlak plot and matrix deconvolution methods. (orig.)

  18. Predicting long-term renal damage in children with vesicoureteral reflux under conservative initial management: 205 cases in a tertiary referral center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarez, Natalia; Alvira, Reyes Delgado; Ruiz, Yurema Gonzalez; Atuan, Rafael Fernandez; Hinojosa, Alexander Siles; Heras, Miguel Angel Rihuete; Roldan, Marisa Justa; Romero, Jesus Gracia

    2018-01-01

    Vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) is one of the most common ailments in children. Evidence-based guidelines recommend conservative treatment in children with VUR, followed by endoscopic surgery in those with breakthrough febrile urinary tract infections (UTIs). Despite this fact, the management of VUR is still controversial. Our objective is to evaluate the conservative strategy in children with primary VUR in terms of renal function and scarring, and identify factors associated with poor prognosis in those children. A retrospective study was carried out in a tertiary center in children with primary VUR under conservative strategy treatment from 1989 to 2015. Data extracted included age of presentation, family and prenatal backgrounds, radiographic evaluation including ultrasound (US), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scans and voiding cystourethrogram (VCUG). The SPSS program was used for statistical analysis. Two-hundred and five patients were diagnosed and followed a conservative therapy scheme (49.8% males, 50.2% females) after febrile UTI (73.17%) or prenatal diagnosis (26.83%). VCUG showed 53.20% of low-moderate VUR grade, 46.80% high VUR grade. Renal damage was present at diagnosis in 40.89%. Mean follow-up reakthrough recurrent febrile UTIs and underwent surgery. Conservative therapy was followed in 189 patients. Renal scarring or decreased kidney function were shown in 15.12% respectively. Renal damage was identified as a risk factor for poor prognosis (p-value Conservative strategy is a feasible treatment for primary VUR in children. The majority of cases could be managed conservatively with good outcomes after long-term follow-up. Decreased renal function is more frequent in patients with high-grade VUR. Renal damage at diagnosis increases the risk for surgical treatment.

  19. Evolution of scintigraphic renal lesions in children after an episode of acute pyelonephritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donoso, Gilda; Lagos, Elizabeth; Rosati, Pia; Hevia, Pilar; Cuevas, Karen; Lobo, Gabriel; Perez, Andres; Gutierrez, Daniela

    2012-01-01

    Background: Abnormal Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) renal scintigraphy performed six months after an acute pyelonephritis (AP) is generally interpreted as scarring. Aim: To perform a follow up of childhood patients showing scintigraphic renal lesions during the acute phase of pyelonephritis (within 7 days from the beginning of fever). Material and Methods: A scintigraphic control was carried out at 5-7 months and, in case of persistent lesions, an additional late scintigraphy at 10-13 months. All patients were followed clinically for one year and those with a relapse of urinary tract infection were excluded from the study. Results: Eighty five patients with a median age of 8 months were included. Among these, the first scintigraphic control was normal in 59 (69%) and abnormal in 26 patients (31%). In five of these 26 patients (5/26:19%-5/85:6%), a considerable regression of the lesions was obvious on the early control, and normalized completely on the late control. When expressing the results in kidney units, 107 showed lesions during the acute phase of infection; 69% was normal at the early control. Thirty three showed lesions persisting at the early control (31%) and 7 out of these 33 (21%) became normal on the late control (7/107: 7%). In total, 25% of the children included in the study (24% of the kidney units) remained with renal sequelae one year after the initial episode of AP. Conclusions: The persistence of scintigraphic lesions six months after an episode of AP, does not necessarily correspond to permanent scars, since normalization can sometimes be observed on late controls

  20. Treatment Outcomes of Subureteric Injection and Ureteroneocystostomy in Children with Vesicoureteral Reflux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serkan Arslan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to evaluate patients treated with subureteric injection (STING and ureteroneo­cystostomy by the Lich-Gregoir technique (LGT due to vesicoureteral reflux (VUR in terms of radiologic, scintigraphic images, laboratory findings and bladder functions and determine the effectiveness of both treatment modalities. Methods: A total of 106 patients, who were treated with STING and ureteroneocystostomy between January 2002-2010 were investigated. Patients’ age, gender, complaints at presentation, bladder function impairment, laboratory outcome and radiologic and scintigraphic findings were retrospectively examined. The relationship among VUR grades and pel­vicalyceal ectasia, scars, treatment modalities and outcome were evaluated. Results: Left VUR was found in 68(64% and right VUR in 38(36% of the patients. The most common level of VUR was Grade III (42 patients, 40%. Additional urologic pathologies were found in 60 of the 106 of patients (57%. Pelvicalyceal ectasia was found in 44 (42% and scars were seen in dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA in 54 (51% of the patients. In total 86 (81% of 106 patients with VUR recovered completely and 20 (19% patients with VUR regressed. Conclusion: STING is a good alternative especially for patients with low grade VUR. However, it has some drawbacks, such as requiring a long follow-up period, having a lower rate of success compared to open surgery and being less ef­fective in patients with high grade VUR. Ureteroneocystostomy (LGT is a method with less morbidity and a high success rate, especially in the treatment of patients with higher grade VUR. J Clin Exp Invest 2016; 7 (2: 168-173

  1. Laparoscopic nephrectomy for a single-system ectopic ureter draining a small, dysplastic and poorly functioning kidney in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Byong-Chang; Lim, Dae-Jung; Lee, Sang-Chul; Choi, Hwang; Kim, Hyeon-Hoe

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the efficacy of laparoscopic nephrectomy for a single-system ectopic ureter draining a dysplastic kidney in children. Between February 1999 and September 2005, 16 girls with a mean age of 6.2 years (range: 2-15 years) presented with urinary incontinence accompanied by regular voiding since birth (15 patients) and vaginitis (one patient). Ultrasonography, intravenous urography and a technetium-99m dimercaptosuccinic acid ( 99m Tc-DMSA) renal scan showed the presence of only a single kidney in all cases. Computed tomography (CT) showed a dysplastic kidney definitely in nine patients, structures suspicious of dysplastic kidney in three cases, and no dysplastic kidney in four cases. Magnetic resonance imaging was carried out in the four cases with non-visualized dysplastic kidneys by CT, and showed a suspicious lesion in only one case, and no lesion in the other three patients. All patients underwent transperitoneal laparoscopic nephrectomy for a dysplastic kidney. Laparoscopy identifies all dysplastic kidneys easily, even in those cases in which dystrophic kidney could not be identified by preoperative imaging. Dysplastic kidneys and ectopic ureters were removed successfully in all 16 patients. Mean operative time was 109 min (range: 40-155 min) with little intraoperative bleeding. Mean postoperative hospital stay was 2.6 days (range: 2-4 days). No intraoperative complication was encountered, except in one single case, in which a small bowel injury occurred during open Hasson's procedure. All patients became dry soon after the operation. Laparoscopic nephrectomy for an ectopic ureter draining into a dysplastic kidney is a safe and effective method, and can be carried out successfully, despite a failure by preoperative imaging studies to localize the dysplastic kidney. (author)

  2. Acid distribution in phosphoric acid fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okae, I.; Seya, A.; Umemoto, M. [Fuji Electric Co., Ltd., Chiba (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Electrolyte acid distribution among each component of a cell is determined by capillary force when the cell is not in operation, but the distribution under the current load conditions had not been clear so far. Since the loss of electrolyte acid during operation is inevitable, it is necessary to store enough amount of acid in every cell. But it must be under the level of which the acid disturbs the diffusion of reactive gases. Accordingly to know the actual acid distribution during operation in a cell is very important. In this report, we carried out experiments to clarify the distribution using small single cells.

  3. Citric acid urine test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urine - citric acid test; Renal tubular acidosis - citric acid test; Kidney stones - citric acid test; Urolithiasis - citric acid test ... No special preparation is necessary for this test. But the results ... test is usually done while you are on a normal diet. Ask your ...

  4. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramadan, A.E.K.

    2004-01-01

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H 2 SO 4 ) and nitric acids (HNO 3 ), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  5. Acid Lipase Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ... of Neurological Disorders and Stroke conducts and supports research to understand lipid storage diseases such as acid lipase deficiency and ...

  6. Lactic acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003507.htm Lactic acid test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Lactic acid is mainly produced in muscle cells and red ...

  7. Amino Acid Metabolism Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this process. One group of these disorders is amino acid metabolism disorders. They include phenylketonuria (PKU) and maple syrup urine disease. Amino acids are "building blocks" that join together to form ...

  8. Folic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs Sports Expert Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Folic Acid and Pregnancy KidsHealth / For Parents / Folic Acid and Pregnancy Print ...

  9. Omega-6 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-6 fatty acids are types of fats. Some types are found in vegetable oils, including corn, evening primrose seed, safflower, and soybean oils. Other types of omega-6 fatty acids are found in black currant seed, borage seed, ...

  10. Hydrochloric acid poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hydrochloric acid is a clear, poisonous liquid. It is highly corrosive, which means it immediately causes severe damage, such ... poisoning due to swallowing or breathing in hydrochloric acid. This article is for information only. Do NOT ...

  11. Aminolevulinic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminolevulinic acid is used in combination with photodynamic therapy (PDT; special blue light) to treat actinic keratoses (small crusty ... skin cancer) of the face or scalp. Aminolevulinic acid is in a class of medications called photosensitizing ...

  12. Zoledronic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is used to prevent or treat osteoporosis (condition in which the bones become thin and weak ... of life,' end of regular menstrual periods). Zoledronic acid (Reclast) is also used to treat osteoporosis in ...

  13. Azelaic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azelaic acid gel and foam is used to clear the bumps, lesions, and swelling caused by rosacea (a skin ... redness, flushing, and pimples on the face). Azelaic acid cream is used to treat the pimples and ...

  14. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  15. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  16. Amino acids and proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Goudoever, Johannes B.; Vlaardingerbroek, Hester; van den Akker, Chris H.; de Groof, Femke; van der Schoor, Sophie R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Amino acids and protein are key factors for growth. The neonatal period requires the highest intake in life to meet the demands. Those demands include amino acids for growth, but proteins and amino acids also function as signalling molecules and function as neurotransmitters. Often the nutritional

  17. Acid Rain Study Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunger, Carolyn; And Others

    Acid rain is a complex, worldwide environmental problem. This study guide is intended to aid teachers of grades 4-12 to help their students understand what acid rain is, why it is a problem, and what possible solutions exist. The document contains specific sections on: (1) the various terms used in conjunction with acid rain (such as acid…

  18. Immunoglobulin and fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2009-01-01

    The present invention relates to a composition comprising 0.1-10 w/w % immunoglobulin (Ig), 4-14 w/w % saturated fatty acids, 4-14 w/w % mono-unsaturated fatty acids and 0-5 w/w % poly-unsaturated fatty acids, wherein the weight percentages are based on the content of dry matter in the composition...

  19. The Acid Rain Reader.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.; And Others

    A topic which is often not sufficiently dealt with in elementary school textbooks is acid rain. This student text is designed to supplement classroom materials on the topic. Discussed are: (1) "Rain"; (2) "Water Cycle"; (3) "Fossil Fuels"; (4) "Air Pollution"; (5) "Superstacks"; (6) "Acid/Neutral/Bases"; (7) "pH Scale"; (8) "Acid Rain"; (9)…

  20. Stomach acid test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastric acid secretion test ... of the cells in the stomach to release acid. The stomach contents are then removed and analyzed. ... 3.5). These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/ ...

  1. Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarasekara, Ananda S

    2016-05-25

    Ionic liquid with acidic properties is an important branch in the wide ionic liquid field and the aim of this article is to cover all aspects of these acidic ionic liquids, especially focusing on the developments in the last four years. The structural diversity and synthesis of acidic ionic liquids are discussed in the introduction sections of this review. In addition, an unambiguous classification system for various types of acidic ionic liquids is presented in the introduction. The physical properties including acidity, thermo-physical properties, ionic conductivity, spectroscopy, and computational studies on acidic ionic liquids are covered in the next sections. The final section provides a comprehensive review on applications of acidic ionic liquids in a wide array of fields including catalysis, CO2 fixation, ionogel, electrolyte, fuel-cell, membrane, biomass processing, biodiesel synthesis, desulfurization of gasoline/diesel, metal processing, and metal electrodeposition.

  2. Process for the preparation of lactic acid and glyceric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, James E [Haslett, MI; Miller, Dennis J [Okemos, MI; Marincean, Simona [Dewitt, MI

    2008-12-02

    Hexose and pentose monosaccharides are degraded to lactic acid and glyceric acid in an aqueous solution in the presence of an excess of a strongly anionic exchange resin, such as AMBERLITE IRN78 and AMBERLITE IRA400. The glyceric acid and lactic acid can be separated from the aqueous solution. Lactic acid and glyceric acid are staple articles of commerce.

  3. Amino acids in the sedimentary humic and fulvic acids

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sardessai, S.

    acids in the coastal Arabian Sea sediments: whereas amino acids content of fulvic acids was lower than that of humic acids in the coastal sediments of Bay of Bengal. Slope sedimentary humic acids were relatively enriched in amino acids as compared...

  4. 78 FR 20029 - Castor Oil, Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-03

    ..., Polymer With Adipic Acid, Linoleic Acid, Oleic Acid and Ricinoleic Acid; Tolerance Exemption AGENCY... from the requirement of a tolerance for residues of castor oil, polymer with adipic acid, linoleic acid... pesticide formulation. Advance Polymer Technology submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug...

  5. Bile acid sequestrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Morten; Sonne, David P; Knop, Filip K

    2014-01-01

    Bile acids are synthesized in the liver from cholesterol and have traditionally been recognized for their role in absorption of lipids and in cholesterol homeostasis. In recent years, however, bile acids have emerged as metabolic signaling molecules that are involved in the regulation of lipid...... and glucose metabolism, and possibly energy homeostasis, through activation of the bile acid receptors farnesoid X receptor (FXR) and TGR5. Bile acid sequestrants (BASs) constitute a class of drugs that bind bile acids in the intestine to form a nonabsorbable complex resulting in interruption...... of the enterohepatic circulation. This increases bile acid synthesis and consequently reduces serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Also, BASs improve glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes. Despite a growing understanding of the impact of BASs on glucose metabolism, the mechanisms behind their glucose...

  6. Citric Acid Alternative to Nitric Acid Passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Pattie L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Ground Systems Development and Operations GSDO) Program at NASA John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) has the primary objective of modernizing and transforming the launch and range complex at KSC to benefit current and future NASA programs along with other emerging users. Described as the launch support and infrastructure modernization program in the NASA Authorization Act of 2010, the GSDO Program will develop and implement shared infrastructure and process improvements to provide more flexible, affordable, and responsive capabilities to a multi-user community. In support of the GSDO Program, the purpose of this project is to demonstratevalidate citric acid as a passivation agent for stainless steel. Successful completion of this project will result in citric acid being qualified for use as an environmentally preferable alternative to nitric acid for passivation of stainless steel alloys in NASA and DoD applications.

  7. USGS Tracks Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, John D.; Nilles, Mark A.; Schroder, LeRoy J.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) has been actively studying acid rain for the past 15 years. When scientists learned that acid rain could harm fish, fear of damage to our natural environment from acid rain concerned the American public. Research by USGS scientists and other groups began to show that the processes resulting in acid rain are very complex. Scientists were puzzled by the fact that in some cases it was difficult to demonstrate that the pollution from automobiles and factories was causing streams or lakes to become more acidic. Further experiments showed how the natural ability of many soils to neutralize acids would reduce the effects of acid rain in some locations--at least as long as the neutralizing ability lasted (Young, 1991). The USGS has played a key role in establishing and maintaining the only nationwide network of acid rain monitoring stations. This program is called the National Atmospheric Deposition Program/National Trends Network (NADP/NTN). Each week, at approximately 220 NADP/NTN sites across the country, rain and snow samples are collected for analysis. NADP/NTN site in Montana. The USGS supports about 72 of these sites. The information gained from monitoring the chemistry of our nation's rain and snow is important for testing the results of pollution control laws on acid rain.

  8. Acidity of hydroxamic acids and amides

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Böhm, S.; Exner, Otto

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 7 (2003), s. 1176-1180 ISSN 1477-0520 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4072005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : hydroxamic acids * DFT calculations * isodesmic reactions Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry

  9. Fusidic acid in dermatology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schöfer, Helmut; Simonsen, Lene

    1995-01-01

    Studies on the clinical efficacy of fusidic acid in skin and soft-tissue infections (SSTIs), notably those due to Staphylococcus aureus, are reviewed. Oral fusidic acid (tablets dosed at 250 mg twice daily, or a suspension for paediatric use at 20 mg/kg/day given as two daily doses) has shown goo...

  10. Characterization of acid tars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, Sunday A.; Stegemann, Julia A.; Roy, Amitava

    2010-01-01

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  11. Characterization of acid tars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, Sunday A., E-mail: sunday.leonard@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Stegemann, Julia A. [Department of Civil Environmental and Geomatic Engineering, University College London, Chadwick Building, Gower Street, London, WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Roy, Amitava [J. Bennett Johnston, Sr., Centre for Advance Microstructures and Devices (CAMD), 6980 Jefferson Highway, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA, 70806 (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Acid tars from the processing of petroleum and petrochemicals using sulfuric acid were characterized by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), inductively coupled plasma/optical emission spectrometry (ICP/OES), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, and scanning electron microscopy/energy dispersive X-ray (SEM/EDX) micro-analysis. Leaching of contaminants from the acid tars in 48 h batch tests with distilled water at a liquid-to-solid ratio 10:1 was also studied. GC/MS results show that the samples contained aliphatic hydrocarbons, cyclic hydrocarbons, up to 12 of the 16 USEPA priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and numerous other organic groups, including organic acids (sulfonic acids, carboxylic acids and aromatic acids), phenyl, nitrile, amide, furans, thiophenes, pyrroles, and phthalates, many of which are toxic. Metals analysis shows that Pb was present in significant concentration. DSC results show different transition peaks in the studied samples, demonstrating their complexity and variability. FTIR analysis further confirmed the presence of the organic groups detected by GC/MS. The SEM/EDX micro-analysis results provided insight on the surface characteristics of the samples and show that contaminants distribution was heterogeneous. The results provide useful data on the composition, complexity, and variability of acid tars; information which hitherto have been scarce in public domain.

  12. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2003-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  13. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1998-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  14. Peptide Nucleic Acids (PNA)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  15. Peptide Nucleic Acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary DNA and RNA strands, and generally do so more strongly than the corresponding DNA or RNA strands while exhibiting increased sequence specificity and solubility. The peptide nucleic acids comprise ligands selected from...

  16. Folic acid in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... regularly removed from the body through urine, so excess amounts do not build up in the body. You should not get more than 1000 mcg per day of folic acid. Using higher levels of folic acid can mask vitamin B12 deficiency.

  17. Peptide Nucleic Acid Synthons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    A novel class of compounds, known as peptide nucleic acids, bind complementary ssDNA and RNA strands more strongly than a corresponding DNA. The peptide nucleic acids generally comprise ligands such as naturally occurring DNA bases attached to a peptide backbone through a suitable linker....

  18. Locked nucleic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jan Stenvang; Sørensen, Mads D; Wengel, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    Locked nucleic acid (LNA) is a class of nucleic acid analogs possessing very high affinity and excellent specificity toward complementary DNA and RNA, and LNA oligonucleotides have been applied as antisense molecules both in vitro and in vivo. In this review, we briefly describe the basic...

  19. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Wesén, Clas; Sundin, Peter

    1997-01-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids have been found to be major contributors to organohalogen compounds in fish, bivalves, jellyfish, and lobster, and they have been indicated to contribute considerably to organohalogens in marine mammals. Brominated fatty acids have been found in marine sponges. Also...

  20. Amino Acid Crossword Puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    Learning the 20 standard amino acids is an essential component of an introductory course in biochemistry. Later in the course, the students study metabolism and learn about various catabolic and anabolic pathways involving amino acids. Learning new material or concepts often is easier if one can connect the new material to what one already knows;…

  1. Phosphates and phosphoric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, P [Compagnie Francaise de l' Azote, Paris (France)

    1983-01-01

    In chapter 8.5 the following aspects of uranium recovery are treated: basis of extraction process, extraction principle, solvents, strength of the acid to be treated, technology, main processes in use, impact of uranium recovery on phosphoric acid plants, and economics of uranium recovery plants.

  2. Omega-3 Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are used together with lifestyle changes (diet, weight-loss, exercise) to reduce the amount of triglycerides (a fat- ... in people with very high triglycerides. Omega-3 fatty acids are in a class of medications called antilipemic ...

  3. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olthof, Margreet R.; Hollman, Peter C H; Katan, Martijn B.

    2001-01-01

    Chlorogenic acid, an ester of caffeic acid and quinic acid, is a major phenolic compound in coffee; daily intake in coffee drinkers is 0.5-1 g. Chlorogenic acid and caffeic acid are antioxidants in vitro and might therefore contribute to the prevention of cardiovascular disease. However, data on the

  4. Enzymatic formation of hexadecenoic acid from palmitic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, Masao; Fujino, Yasuhiko

    1975-01-01

    Desaturation of palmitic acid was investigated in an enzyme system prepared from rat liver. 2-trans-Hexadecenoic acid as well as 9-cis-gexadecenoic acid (palmitoleic acid) were found to be formed as monoenoic acid in this system. (author)

  5. Lewis Acidic Ionic Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lucy C; Hogg, James M; Swadźba-Kwaśny, Małgorzata

    2017-08-21

    Until very recently, the term Lewis acidic ionic liquids (ILs) was nearly synonymous with halometallate ILs, with a strong focus on chloroaluminate(III) systems. The first part of this review covers the historical context in which these were developed, speciation of a range of halometallate ionic liquids, attempts to quantify their Lewis acidity, and selected recent applications: in industrial alkylation processes, in supported systems (SILPs/SCILLs) and in inorganic synthesis. In the last decade, interesting alternatives to halometallate ILs have emerged, which can be divided into two sub-sections: (1) liquid coordination complexes (LCCs), still based on halometallate species, but less expensive and more diverse than halometallate ionic liquids, and (2) ILs with main-group Lewis acidic cations. The two following sections cover these new liquid Lewis acids, also highlighting speciation studies, Lewis acidity measurements, and applications.

  6. Acidity in rainfall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisue, G.T.; Kacoyannakis, J.

    1975-01-01

    The reported increasing acidity of rainfall raises many interesting ecological and chemical questions. In spite of extensive studies in Europe and North America there are, for example, great uncertainties in the relative contributions of strong and weak acids to the acid-base properties of rainwater. Unravelling this and similar problems may require even more rigorous sample collection and analytical procedures than previously employed. Careful analysis of titration curves permits inferences to be made regarding chemical composition, the possible response of rainwater to further inputs of acidic components to the atmosphere, and the behavior to be expected when rainwater interacts with the buffers present in biological materials and natural waters. Rainwater samples collected during several precipitation events at Argonne National Laboratory during October and November 1975 have been analyzed for pH, acid and base neutralizing properties, and the ions of ammonium, nitrate, chloride, sulfate, and calcium. The results are tabulated

  7. Conjugated Fatty Acid Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawat, Richa; Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sweet, Marie; Shanklin, John

    2012-01-01

    Conjugated linolenic acids (CLNs), 18:3 Δ9,11,13, lack the methylene groups found between the double bonds of linolenic acid (18:3 Δ9,12,15). CLNs are produced by conjugase enzymes that are homologs of the oleate desaturases FAD2. The goal of this study was to map the domain(s) within the Momordica charantia conjugase (FADX) responsible for CLN formation. To achieve this, a series of Momordica FADX-Arabidopsis FAD2 chimeras were expressed in the Arabidopsis fad3fae1 mutant, and the transformed seeds were analyzed for the accumulation of CLN. These experiments identified helix 2 and the first histidine box as a determinant of conjugase product partitioning into punicic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13cis) or α-eleostearic acid (18:3 Δ9cis,11trans,13trans). This was confirmed by analysis of a FADX mutant containing six substitutions in which the sequence of helix 2 and first histidine box was converted to that of FAD2. Each of the six FAD2 substitutions was individually converted back to the FADX equivalent identifying residues 111 and 115, adjacent to the first histidine box, as key determinants of conjugase product partitioning. Additionally, expression of FADX G111V and FADX G111V/D115E resulted in an approximate doubling of eleostearic acid accumulation to 20.4% and 21.2%, respectively, compared with 9.9% upon expression of the native Momordica FADX. Like the Momordica conjugase, FADX G111V and FADX D115E produced predominantly α-eleostearic acid and little punicic acid, but the FADX G111V/D115E double mutant produced approximately equal amounts of α-eleostearic acid and its isomer, punicic acid, implicating an interactive effect of residues 111 and 115 in punicic acid formation. PMID:22451660

  8. Glycosyltransferase glycosylating flavokermesic acid and/or kermesic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I) : conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II) : conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  9. GLYCOSYLTRANSFERASE GLYCOSYLATING FLAVOKERMESIC ACID AND/OR KERMESIC ACID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid.......An isolated glycosyltransferase (GT) polypeptide capable of: (I): conjugating glucose to flavokermesic acid (FK); and/or (II): conjugating glucose to kermesic acid (KA) and use of this GT to e.g. make Carminic acid....

  10. Waht is 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid'?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tytko, K.H.; Baethe, G.; Mehmke, K.

    1987-01-01

    According to a comparative study of the literature, supplemented by well-aimed experimental investigations and equilibrium calculations, the terms 'molybdic acid' or 'polymolybdic acid', used for many substances, species, or solutions in the literature, are applicable to a species, a solution, and two solids: a) The monomeric molybdic acid, most probably having the formula MoO 2 (OH) 2 (H 2 O) 2 (= H 2 MoO 4 , aq), exists in (aqueous) solution only and never exceeds a concentration of ∼ 10 -3 M since at higher concentrations it reacts with other monomeric molybdenum(VI) species to give anionic or cationic polymers. b) A concentrated (> 0.1 M Mo VI ) aqueous molybdate solution of degree of acidification P = 2 (realized, e.g., by a solution of one of the Mo VI oxides; by any molybdate solutions whose cations have been exchanged by H 2 O + on a cation exchanger; by suitable acidification of a molybdate solution) contains 8 H 3 O + and the well-known polyanion Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 8- exactly in the stoichiometric proportions. c) A glassy substance, obtained from an alkali metal salt-free solution prepared acording to (b), refers to the compound (H 3 O) 8 [Mo 36 O 112 (H 2 O) 16 ] · xH 2 O, x = 25 - 29. d) A solid having the ideal composition [(H 3 O)Mo 5 O 15 (OH)H 2 O · H 2 O] ∞ consists of a polymolybdate skeleton (the well-known 'decamolybdate' structure), in the tunnels of which H 3 O + and H 2 O are intercalated. The structure is very unstable if only H 3 O + cations are present, but it is enormously stabilized by a partial exchange of H 3 O + by certain alkali or alkaline earth metal cations. For the compounds MoO 3 , MoO 3 ·H 2 O, and MoO 3 · 2 H 2 O the term 'molybdic acid' is unjustified. The commercial product 'molybdic acid, ∼ 85% MoO 3 ' is the well-known polymolybdate (NH 4 ) 2 O · 4 MoO 3 with a layer structure of the polyanion. 84 refs. (author)

  11. Amino acid racemisation dating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murray-Wallace, C.V.

    1999-01-01

    The potential of the time-dependent amino acid racemisation reaction as a method of age assessment was first reported by Hare and Abelson (1968). They noted that in specimens of the bivalve mollusc Mercenaria sp., greater concentrations of amino acids in the D-configuration with increasing fossil age. Hare and Abelson (1968) also reported negligible racemisation in a modern specimen of Mecanaria sp. On this basis they suggested that the extent of amino acid racemisation (epimerisation in the case of isoleucine) may be used to assess the age of materials within and beyond the range of radiocarbon dating. For the past thirty years amino acid racemisation has been extensively applied in Quaternary research as a method of relative and numeric dating, and a particularly large literature has emerged on the subject

  12. Amino Acids and Chirality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Jamie E.

    2012-01-01

    Amino acids are among the most heavily studied organic compound class in carbonaceous chondrites. The abundance, distributions, enantiomeric compositions, and stable isotopic ratios of amino acids have been determined in carbonaceous chondrites fi'om a range of classes and petrographic types, with interesting correlations observed between these properties and the class and typc of the chondritcs. In particular, isomeric distributions appear to correlate with parent bodies (chondrite class). In addition, certain chiral amino acids are found in enantiomeric excess in some chondrites. The delivery of these enantiomeric excesses to the early Earth may have contributed to the origin of the homochirality that is central to life on Earth today. This talk will explore the amino acids in carbonaceous chondritcs and their relevance to the origin of life.

  13. Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fripp, Jon

    2000-01-01

    .... Acid mine drainage (AMD) can have severe impacts to aquatic resources, can stunt terrestrial plant growth and harm wetlands, contaminate groundwater, raise water treatment costs, and damage concrete and metal structures...

  14. Amoxicillin and Clavulanic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in a class of medications called penicillin-like antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Clavulanic acid ... It works by preventing bacteria from destroying amoxicillin. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections.

  15. Alpha Hydroxy Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or tenderness (8), chemical burns (6), and increased sunburn (3). The frequency of such reports for skin ... bear a statement that conveys the following information: Sunburn Alert: This product contains an alpha hydroxy acid ( ...

  16. Azetidinic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Bunch, Lennart; Chopin, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    A set of ten azetidinic amino acids, that can be envisioned as C-4 alkyl substituted analogues of trans-2-carboxyazetidine-3-acetic acid (t-CAA) and/or conformationally constrained analogues of (R)- or (S)-glutamic acid (Glu) have been synthesized in a diastereo- and enantiomerically pure form from...... of two diastereoisomers that were easily separated and converted in two steps into azetidinic amino acids. Azetidines 35-44 were characterized in binding studies on native ionotropic Glu receptors and in functional assays at cloned metabotropic receptors mGluR1, 2 and 4, representing group I, II and III...... beta-amino alcohols through a straightforward five step sequence. The key step of this synthesis is an original anionic 4-exo-tet ring closure that forms the azetidine ring upon an intramolecular Michael addition. This reaction was proven to be reversible and to lead to a thermodynamic distribution...

  17. Valproic Acid and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is possible. Studies have found that women with seizure disorders and women with bipolar disorder might have menstrual ... valproic acid to leave your body. Women with epilepsy or bipolar disorder who are planning a pregnancy ...

  18. [Acids in coffee. XI. The proportion of individual acids in the total titratable acid].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelhardt, U H; Maier, H G

    1985-07-01

    22 acids in ground roast coffees and instant coffees were determined by GLC of their silyl derivatives (after preseparation by gel electrophoresis) or isotachophoresis. The contribution to the total acidity (which was estimated by titration to pH 8 after cation exchange of the coffee solutions) was calculated for each individual acid. The mentioned acids contribute with 67% (roast coffee) and 72% (instant coffee) to the total acidity. In the first place citric acid (12.2% in roast coffee/10.7% in instant coffee), acetic acid (11.2%/8.8%) and the high molecular weight acids (8%/9%) contribute to the total acidity. Also to be mentioned are the shares of chlorogenic acids (9%/4.8%), formic acid (5.3%/4.6%), quinic acid (4.7%/5.9%), malic acid (3.9%/3%) and phosphoric acid (2.5%/5.2%). A notable difference in the contribution to total acidity between roast and instant coffee was found for phosphoric acid and pyrrolidonecarboxylic acid (0.7%/1.9%). It can be concluded that those two acids are formed or released from e.g. their esters in higher amounts than other acids during the production of instant coffee.

  19. Portable nucleic acid thermocyclers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almassian, David R; Cockrell, Lisa M; Nelson, William M

    2013-11-21

    A nucleic acid thermal cycler is considered to be portable if it is under ten pounds, easily carried by one individual, and battery powered. Nucleic acid amplification includes both polymerase chain reaction (e.g. PCR, RT-PCR) and isothermal amplification (e.g. RPA, HDA, LAMP, NASBA, RCA, ICAN, SMART, SDA). There are valuable applications for portable nucleic acid thermocyclers in fields that include clinical diagnostics, biothreat detection, and veterinary testing. A system that is portable allows for the distributed detection of targets at the point of care and a reduction of the time from sample to answer. The designer of a portable nucleic acid thermocycler must carefully consider both thermal control and the detection of amplification. In addition to thermal control and detection, the designer may consider the integration of a sample preparation subsystem with the nucleic acid thermocycler. There are a variety of technologies that can achieve accurate thermal control and the detection of nucleic acid amplification. Important evaluation criteria for each technology include maturity, power requirements, cost, sensitivity, speed, and manufacturability. Ultimately the needs of a particular market will lead to user requirements that drive the decision between available technologies.

  20. Fatty Acid Biosynthesis IX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carey, E. M.; Hansen, Heinz Johs. Max; Dils, R.

    1972-01-01

    # 1. I. [I-14C]Acetate was covalently bound to rabbit mammary gland fatty acid synthetase by enzymic transacylation from [I-14C]acetyl-CoA. Per mole of enzyme 2 moles of acetate were bound to thiol groups and up to I mole of acetate was bound to non-thiol groups. # 2. 2. The acetyl-fatty acid...... synthetase complex was isolated free from acetyl-CoA. It was rapidly hydrolysed at 30°C, but hydrolysis was greatly diminished at o°C and triacetic lactone synthesis occurred. In the presence of malonyl-CoA and NADPH, all the acetate bound to fatty acid synthetase was incorporated into long-chain fatty acids....... Hydrolysis of bound acetate and incorporation of bound acetate into fatty acids were inhibited to the same extent by guanidine hydrochloride. # 3. 3. Acetate was also covalently bound to fatty acid synthetase by chemical acetylation with [I-14C]acetic anhydride in the absence of CoASH. A total of 60 moles...

  1. Acidification and Acid Rain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norton, S. A.; Veselã½, J.

    2003-12-01

    Air pollution by acids has been known as a problem for centuries (Ducros, 1845; Smith, 1872; Camuffo, 1992; Brimblecombe, 1992). Only in the mid-1900s did it become clear that it was a problem for more than just industrially developed areas, and that precipitation quality can affect aquatic resources ( Gorham, 1955). The last three decades of the twentieth century saw tremendous progress in the documentation of the chemistry of the atmosphere, precipitation, and the systems impacted by acid atmospheric deposition. Chronic acidification of ecosystems results in chemical changes to soil and to surface waters and groundwater as a result of reduction of base cation supply or an increase in acid (H+) supply, or both. The most fundamental changes during chronic acidification are an increase in exchangeable H+ or Al3+ (aluminum) in soils, an increase in H+ activity (˜concentration) in water in contact with soil, and a decrease in alkalinity in waters draining watersheds. Water draining from the soil is acidified and has a lower pH (=-log [H+]). As systems acidify, their biotic community changes.Acidic surface waters occur in many parts of the world as a consequence of natural processes and also due to atmospheric deposition of strong acid (e.g., Canada, Jeffries et al. (1986); the United Kingdom, Evans and Monteith (2001); Sweden, Swedish Environmental Protection Board (1986); Finland, Forsius et al. (1990); Norway, Henriksen et al. (1988a); and the United States (USA), Brakke et al. (1988)). Concern over acidification in the temperate regions of the northern hemisphere has been driven by the potential for accelerating natural acidification by pollution of the atmosphere with acidic or acidifying compounds. Atmospheric pollution ( Figure 1) has resulted in an increased flux of acid to and through ecosystems. Depending on the ability of an ecosystem to neutralize the increased flux of acidity, acidification may increase only imperceptibly or be accelerated at a rate that

  2. Rhenium 188 labelling of peptide conjugates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melendez-Alafort, Laura

    2001-01-01

    Many human tumours express high levels, of somatostatin receptors. In order to make possible a radiotherapeutic treatment of this kind for tumour a series of somatostatin analogues that can tightly chelate beta emitting isotopes have been developed in recent years. The work carried out for this thesis has been aimed towards development of a new therapeutic radiopharmaceutical for treatment of somatostatin receptor positive tumours. The first chapters describe work with technetium-99m to establish the labelling and analytical conditions for a somatostatin analogue, [Tyr 3 ]-octreotide (TOC), as a precursor to undertaking labelling studies with the beta emitter rhenium-188. 6-Hydrazinopyridine-3-carboxylic acid (HYNIC) was conjugated to TOC and labelled with 99m using different coligands. Then the stability, receptor binding and biodistribution of each complex were assessed. 99m Tc-HYNIC-TOC using EDDA as coligand showed the best characteristics, and was superior for tumour imaging in humans than the commercially available 111 In-DTPA-octreotide. The conditions for labelling the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re were then optimised using tricine as a co-ligand. A labelling yield of ∼80% was achieved. After purification however, the stability of the complex was low. The use of other coligand systems which had proved useful for 99m Tc labelling was explored, but yields were very poor. Other chelators such as diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA), dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) and mercaptoacetyltriglycine (MAG 3 ) were studied as potential co-ligand agents to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate with 188 Re but, again low yields of the labelled peptide complexes were achieved. A novel 188 Re-HYNIC complex was prepared in high yields using N-N-disubstituted dithiocarbamates as coligands. However to date, the specific activities achieved with this system are relatively low. The use of the [ 99m Tc(CO) 3 (H 2 O) 3 ] complex to label the HYNIC-TOC conjugate was investigated

  3. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  4. Acid Rain, pH & Acidity: A Common Misinterpretation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, David B.; Thompson, Ronald E.

    1989-01-01

    Illustrates the basis for misleading statements about the relationship between pH and acid content in acid rain. Explains why pH cannot be used as a measure of acidity for rain or any other solution. Suggests that teachers present acidity and pH as two separate and distinct concepts. (RT)

  5. [Lipid synthesis by an acidic acid tolerant Rhodotorula glutinis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhangnan; Liu, Hongjuan; Zhang, Jian'an; Wang, Gehua

    2016-03-01

    Acetic acid, as a main by-product generated in the pretreatment process of lignocellulose hydrolysis, significantly affects cell growth and lipid synthesis of oleaginous microorganisms. Therefore, we studied the tolerance of Rhodotorula glutinis to acetic acid and its lipid synthesis from substrate containing acetic acid. In the mixed sugar medium containing 6 g/L glucose and 44 g/L xylose, and supplemented with acetic acid, the cell growth was not:inhibited when the acetic acid concentration was below 10 g/L. Compared with the control, the biomass, lipid concentration and lipid content of R. glutinis increased 21.5%, 171% and 122% respectively when acetic acid concentration was 10 g/L. Furthermore, R. glutinis could accumulate lipid with acetate as the sole carbon source. Lipid concentration and lipid yield reached 3.20 g/L and 13% respectively with the initial acetic acid concentration of 25 g/L. The lipid composition was analyzed by gas chromatograph. The main composition of lipid produced with acetic acid was palmitic acid, stearic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid, including 40.9% saturated fatty acids and 59.1% unsaturated fatty acids. The lipid composition was similar to that of plant oil, indicating that lipid from oleaginous yeast R. glutinis had potential as the feedstock of biodiesel production. These results demonstrated that a certain concentration of acetic acid need not to be removed in the detoxification process when using lignocelluloses hydrolysate to produce microbial lipid by R. glutinis.

  6. Synthesis and anticonvulsant activity of novel bicyclic acidic amino acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conti, Paola; De Amici, Marco; Joppolo Di Ventimiglia, Samuele

    2003-01-01

    Bicyclic acidic amino acids (+/-)-6 and (+/-)-7, which are conformationally constrained homologues of glutamic acid, were prepared via a strategy based on a 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition. The new amino acids were tested toward ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor subtypes; both of them...

  7. Chemistry and electrochemistry in trifluoroacetic acid. Comparison with acetic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petit, Gerard

    1972-01-01

    As the trifluoroacetic acid is, with the acetic acid, one of most often used carboxylic acids as solvent, notably in organic chemistry, this research thesis addresses some relatively simple complexing and redox reactions to highlight the peculiar feature of this acid, and to explain its very much different behaviour with respect to acetic acid. The author develops the notion of acidity level in solvents of low dielectric constant. The second part addresses a specific solvent: BF 3 (CH 3 COOH) 2 . The boron trifluoride strengthens the acidity of acetic acid and modifies its chemical and physical-chemical properties. In the third part, the author compares solvent properties of CF 3 COOH and CH 3 COOH. Noticed differences explain why the trifluoroacetic acid is a more interesting reaction environment than acetic acid for reactions such as electrophilic substitutions or protein solubilisation [fr

  8. Domoic Acid Epileptic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John S. Ramsdell

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Domoic acid epileptic disease is characterized by spontaneous recurrent seizures weeks to months after domoic acid exposure. The potential for this disease was first recognized in a human case study of temporal lobe epilepsy after the 1987 amnesic shellfish-poisoning event in Quebec, and was characterized as a chronic epileptic syndrome in California sea lions through investigation of a series of domoic acid poisoning cases between 1998 and 2006. The sea lion study provided a breadth of insight into clinical presentations, unusual behaviors, brain pathology, and epidemiology. A rat model that replicates key observations of the chronic epileptic syndrome in sea lions has been applied to identify the progression of the epileptic disease state, its relationship to behavioral manifestations, and to define the neural systems involved in these behavioral disorders. Here, we present the concept of domoic acid epileptic disease as a delayed manifestation of domoic acid poisoning and review the state of knowledge for this disease state in affected humans and sea lions. We discuss causative mechanisms and neural underpinnings of disease maturation revealed by the rat model to present the concept for olfactory origin of an epileptic disease; triggered in dendodendritic synapases of the olfactory bulb and maturing in the olfactory cortex. We conclude with updated information on populations at risk, medical diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis.

  9. Citric acid by fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Sayed, R M

    1978-11-30

    Citric acid is produced in 2 stages, in the first of which Escherichia coli KG93 F-is cultured on a substrate consisting of whey permeate to which phosphate and nitrate or urea is added. In the second stage, Hansenula wickerhamii CBS 4308 is cultured on the culture solution from the first stage and the citric acid isolated in the usual manner. Thus, a whey permeate comprising fat 0.20, protein 0.05, lactose 5.0, lactic acid 0.1, and salts 0.6% (Ca 0.06, P 0.06, K 0.16, N 0.03, and NaCl 0.3%) was amended with 1.2 g phosphate/L and 1.0 g NO/sub 3/sup -///L. After introducing the whey permeate into a continuous fermentor, it was inoculated with E. coli K693 F- and allowed to incubate at 37/sup 0/ and pH 7 (Maintained with NH/sub 3/ gas) for 12 h with aeration, thereby producing concentration pyruvic acid. After an additional 6 h cultivation without aeration, the broth was transferred to another fermentor and there inoculated with H. wickerhamii CBS 4308. The second cultivation step was carried out at 30/sup 0/ and a pH of 5 for 24 h with the pH stabilized by NH/sub 3/ gas. To the second stage culture, 0.3 g Fe(CN)/sup 4 -//L was added. The yield of pyruvic acid in the first stage was 32 g/L and the final yield of citric acid was 43 g/L.

  10. 2-arylureidobenzoic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valgeirsson, Jon; Nielsen, Elsebet Ø; Peters, Dan

    2003-01-01

    A series of 2-arylureidobenzoic acids (AUBAs) was prepared by a short and effective synthesis, and the pharmacological activity at glutamate receptors was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. The compounds showed noncompetitive antagonistic activity at the kainate receptor subtype GluR5. The most potent...... on the benzoic acid moiety (ring A), whereas ring B tolerated a variety of substituents, but with a preference for lipophilic substituents. The most potent compounds had a 4-chloro substituent on ring A and 3-chlorobenzene (6b), 2-naphthalene (8h), or 2-indole (8k) as ring B and had IC(50) values of 1.3, 1...

  11. Whither Acid Rain?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Brimblecombe

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Acid rain, the environmental cause célèbre of the 1980s seems to have vanished from popular conscience. By contrast, scientific research, despite funding difficulties, has continued to produce hundreds of research papers each year. Studies of acid rain taught much about precipitation chemistry, the behaviour of snow packs, long-range transport of pollutants and new issues in the biology of fish and forested ecosystems. There is now evidence of a shift away from research in precipitation and sulfur chemistry, but an impressive theoretical base remains as a legacy.

  12. The Acid-Base Titration of a Very Weak Acid: Boric Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celeste, M.; Azevedo, C.; Cavaleiro, Ana M. V.

    2012-01-01

    A laboratory experiment based on the titration of boric acid with strong base in the presence of d-mannitol is described. Boric acid is a very weak acid and direct titration with NaOH is not possible. An auxiliary reagent that contributes to the release of protons in a known stoichiometry facilitates the acid-base titration. Students obtain the…

  13. Catalytic acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid, en route to acrylic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerthuis, R.; Granollers, M.; Brown, D.R.; Salavagione, H.J.; Rothenberg, G.; Shiju, N.R.

    2015-01-01

    We present an alternative synthetic route to acrylic acid, starting from the platform chemical lactic acid and using heterogeneous catalysis. To improve selectivity, we designed an indirect dehydration reaction that proceeds via acetoxylation of lactic acid to 2-acetoxypropionic acid. This

  14. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  15. Usnic acid controls the acidity tolerance of lichens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauck, Markus; Juergens, Sascha-Rene

    2008-01-01

    The hypotheses were tested that, firstly, lichens producing the dibenzofuran usnic acid colonize substrates characterized by specific pH ranges, secondly, this preferred pH is in a range where soluble usnic acid and its corresponding anion occur in similar concentrations, and thirdly, usnic acid makes lichens vulnerable to acidity. Lichens with usnic acid prefer an ambient pH range between 3.5 and 5.5 with an optimum between 4.0 and 4.5. This optimum is close to the pK a1 value of usnic acid of 4.4. Below this optimum pH, dissolved SO 2 reduces the chlorophyll fluorescence yield more in lichens with than without their natural content of usnic acid. This suggests that usnic acid influences the acidity tolerance of lichens. The putative mechanism of the limited acidity tolerance of usnic acid-containing lichens is the acidification of the cytosol by molecules of protonated usnic acid shuttling protons through the plasma membrane at an apoplastic pH a1 . - Combined field and experimental data suggest that usnic acid makes lichens sensitive to acidity at pH <3.5

  16. Radiotherapy of abdomen with precise renal assessment with SPECT/CT imaging (RAPRASI): design and methodology of a prospective trial to improve the understanding of kidney radiation dose response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Gaitan, Juanita; O’Mara, Brenton; Chu, Julie; Faggian, Jessica; Williams, Luke; Hofman, Michael S; Spry, Nigel A; Ebert, Martin A; Robins, Peter; Boucek, Jan; Leong, Trevor; Willis, David; Bydder, Sean; Podias, Peter; Waters, Gemma

    2013-01-01

    The kidneys are a principal dose-limiting organ in radiotherapy for upper abdominal cancers. The current understanding of kidney radiation dose response is rudimentary. More precise dose-volume response models that allow direct correlation of delivered radiation dose with spatio-temporal changes in kidney function may improve radiotherapy treatment planning for upper-abdominal tumours. Our current understanding of kidney dose response and tolerance is limited and this is hindering efforts to introduce advanced radiotherapy techniques for upper-abdominal cancers, such as intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT). The aim of this study is to utilise radiotherapy and combined anatomical/functional imaging data to allow direct correlation of radiation dose with spatio-temporal changes in kidney function. The data can then be used to develop a more precise dose-volume response model which has the potential to optimise and individualise upper abdominal radiotherapy plans. The Radiotherapy of Abdomen with Precise Renal Assessment with SPECT/CT Imaging (RAPRASI) is an observational clinical research study with participating sites at Sir Charles Gairdner Hospital (SCGH) in Perth, Australia and the Peter MacCallum Cancer Centre (PMCC) in Melbourne, Australia. Eligible patients are those with upper gastrointestinal cancer, without metastatic disease, undergoing conformal radiotherapy that will involve incidental radiation to one or both kidneys. For each patient, total kidney function is being assessed before commencement of radiotherapy treatment and then at 4, 12, 26, 52 and 78 weeks after the first radiotherapy fraction, using two procedures: a Glomerular Filtration Rate (GFR) measurement using the 51 Cr-ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) clearance; and a regional kidney perfusion measurement assessing renal uptake of 99m Tc-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), imaged with a Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography / Computed Tomography (SPECT/CT) system. The CT component

  17. [Studies on interaction of acid-treated nanotube titanic acid and amino acids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huqin; Chen, Xuemei; Jin, Zhensheng; Liao, Guangxi; Wu, Xiaoming; Du, Jianqiang; Cao, Xiang

    2010-06-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) has distinct optical and electrical character, and has photocatalysis character. In accordance with these qualities, NTA was treated with acid so as to enhance its surface activity. Surface structures and surface groups of acid-treated NTA were characterized and analyzed by Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The interaction between acid-treated NTA and amino acids was investigated. Analysis results showed that the lengths of acid-treated NTA became obviously shorter. The diameters of nanotube bundles did not change obviously with acid-treating. Meanwhile, the surface of acid-treated NTA was cross-linked with carboxyl or esterfunction. In addition, acid-treated NTA can catch amino acid residues easily, and then form close combination.

  18. A Direct, Biomass-Based Synthesis of Benzoic Acid: Formic Acid-Mediated Deoxygenation of the Glucose-Derived Materials Quinic Acid and Shikimic Acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arceo, Elena; Ellman, Jonathan; Bergman, Robert

    2010-05-03

    An alternative biomass-based route to benzoic acid from the renewable starting materials quinic acid and shikimic acid is described. Benzoic acid is obtained selectively using a highly efficient, one-step formic acid-mediated deoxygenation method.

  19. Molecular interaction of pinic acid with sulfuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elm, Jonas; Kurtén, Theo; Bilde, Merete

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between the semivolatile α-pinene oxidation product pinic acid and sulfuric acid using computational methods. The stepwise Gibbs free energies of formation have been calculated utilizing the M06-2X functional, and the stability of the clusters is evaluated...... cluster. The involvement of more than one pinic acid molecule in a single cluster is observed to lead to the formation of favorable (pinic acid)2(H2SO4) and (pinic acid)2(H2SO4)2 clusters. The identified most favorable growth paths starting from a single pinic acid molecule lead to closed structures...

  20. Alkyl phosphonic acids and sulfonic acids in the Murchison meteorite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, George W.; Onwo, Wilfred M.; Cronin, John R.

    1992-01-01

    Homologous series of alkyl phosphonic acids and alkyl sulfonic acids, along with inorganic orthophosphate and sulfate, are identified in water extracts of the Murchison meteorite after conversion to their t-butyl dimethylsilyl derivatives. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl compounds are observed in both series. Five of the eight possible alkyl phosphonic acids and seven of the eight possible alkyl sulfonic acids through C4 are identified. Abundances decrease with increasing carbon number as observed of other homologous series indigenous to Murchison. Concentrations range downward from approximately 380 nmol/gram in the alkyl sulfonic acid series, and from 9 nmol/gram in the alkyl phosphonic acid series.

  1. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  2. Microbial Propionic Acid Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Axayacatl Gonzalez-Garcia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Propionic acid (propionate is a commercially valuable carboxylic acid produced through microbial fermentation. Propionic acid is mainly used in the food industry but has recently found applications in the cosmetic, plastics and pharmaceutical industries. Propionate can be produced via various metabolic pathways, which can be classified into three major groups: fermentative pathways, biosynthetic pathways, and amino acid catabolic pathways. The current review provides an in-depth description of the major metabolic routes for propionate production from an energy optimization perspective. Biological propionate production is limited by high downstream purification costs which can be addressed if the target yield, productivity and titre can be achieved. Genome shuffling combined with high throughput omics and metabolic engineering is providing new opportunities, and biological propionate production is likely to enter the market in the not so distant future. In order to realise the full potential of metabolic engineering and heterologous expression, however, a greater understanding of metabolic capabilities of the native producers, the fittest producers, is required.

  3. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  4. Acid Ceramidase in Melanoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Realini, Natalia; Palese, Francesca; Pizzirani, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Acid ceramidase (AC) is a lysosomal cysteine amidase that controls sphingolipid signaling by lowering the levels of ceramides and concomitantly increasing those of sphingosine and its bioactive metabolite, sphingosine 1-phosphate. In the present study, we evaluated the role of AC-regulated sphing...

  5. Nucleic acids in circulation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Elevated blood levels of extracellular nucleic acids have been reported in various disease conditions; such as ageing and age-related degenerative disorders, cancer; acute and chronic inflammatory conditions, severe trauma and autoimmune disorders. In addition to genomic DNA and nucleosomes, mitochondrial DNA is ...

  6. Salicylic Acid Topical

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the package label for more information.Apply a small amount of the salicylic acid product to one or two small areas you want to treat for 3 days ... know that children and teenagers who have chicken pox or the flu should not use topical salicylic ...

  7. Acid Rain: Science Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, Harriett S.

    1989-01-01

    Presented is a science activity designed to help students monitor the pH of rainfall. Materials, procedures and follow-up activities are listed. A list of domestic and foreign sources of information is provided. Topics which relate to acid precipitation are outlined. (CW)

  8. Hyaluronic Acid Assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Itenov, Theis S; Kirkby, Nikolai S; Bestle, Morten H

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUD: Hyaluronic acid (HA) is proposed as a marker of functional liver capacity. The aim of the present study was to compare a new turbidimetric assay for measuring HA with the current standard method. METHODS: HA was measured by a particle-enhanced turbidimetric immunoassay (PETIA) and enzyme...

  9. Multifunctional Cinnamic Acid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aikaterini Peperidou

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Our research to discover potential new multitarget agents led to the synthesis of 10 novel derivatives of cinnamic acids and propranolol, atenolol, 1-adamantanol, naphth-1-ol, and (benzylamino ethan-1-ol. The synthesized molecules were evaluated as trypsin, lipoxygenase and lipid peroxidation inhibitors and for their cytotoxicity. Compound 2b derived from phenoxyphenyl cinnamic acid and propranolol showed the highest lipoxygenase (LOX inhibition (IC50 = 6 μΜ and antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.425 μΜ. The conjugate 1a of simple cinnamic acid with propranolol showed the higher antiproteolytic activity (IC50 = 0.315 μΜ and good LOX inhibitory activity (IC50 = 66 μΜ. Compounds 3a and 3b, derived from methoxylated caffeic acid present a promising combination of in vitro inhibitory and antioxidative activities. The S isomer of 2b also presented an interesting multitarget biological profile in vitro. Molecular docking studies point to the fact that the theoretical results for LOX-inhibitor binding are identical to those from preliminary in vitro study.

  10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eighteen years (from 1988 till the beginning of 2006 are analyzed in this paper. It is very alarming data that, according to all the recorded accidents, over 1.6 million tons of sulfuric acid were exuded. Although water transport is the safest (only 16.38% of the total amount of accidents in that way 98.88% of the total amount of sulfuric acid was exuded into the environment. Human factor was the common factor in all the accidents, whether there was enough control of the production process, of reservoirs or transportation tanks or the transport was done by inadequate (old tanks, or the accidents arose from human factor (inadequate speed, lock of caution etc. The fact is that huge energy, sacrifice and courage were involved in the recovery from accidents where rescue teams and fire brigades showed great courage to prevent real environmental catastrophes and very often they lost their lives during the events. So, the phrase that sulfuric acid is a real "environmental bomb" has become clearer.

  11. Pantothenic acid and biotin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantothenic acid and biotin are types of B vitamins. They are water-soluble, which means that the body can't store them. If the body can't use all of the vitamin, the extra vitamins leave the body through the ...

  12. and amino acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    P RABINDRA REDDY* and A MOHAN REDDY. Department of ... The mixed ligand complexes of Cu(II), Ni(II) and Co(II) with uridine and amino acids ..... Sabat M, Satyashur K A and Sundaralingam M 1983 J. Am. Chem. Soc. ... Uemura T, Shimura T, Nakamishi H, Tomahiro T, Nagawa Y and Okuno (Yohmei) H 1991. Inorg.

  13. Lactic acid and lactates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreurs, V.V.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    This review aims to integrate the present state of knowledge on lactate metabolism in human and mammalian physiology as far as it could be subject to nutritional interventions. An integrated view on the nutritional, metabolic and physiological aspects of lactic acid and lactates might open a

  14. Origin of fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prieur, B.E.

    1995-01-01

    The appearance of fatty acids and membranes is one of the most important events of the prebiotic world because genesis of life required the compartmentalization of molecules. Membranes allowed cells to become enriched with molecules relevant for their evolution and gave rise to gradients convertible into energy. By virtue of their hydrophobic/hydrophilic interface, membranes developed certain enzymatic activities impossible in the aqueous phase. A prebiotic cell is an energy unit but it is also an information unit. It has a past, a present and a future. The biochemistry of fatty acids involves acetylCoA, malonylCoA and an enzyme, acyl synthetase, which joins both molecules. After substitution of the acetyl group in place of the carboxyl group of malonyl derivatives, the chain is reduced and dehydrated to crotonyl derivatives. These molecules can again react with malonylCoA to form unsaturated chain; they can also undergo a new reduction step to form butyryl derivatives which can react with malonylCoA to form a longer aliphatic chain. The formation of malonylCoA consumes ATP. The reduction step needs NADPH and proton. Dehydration requires structural information because the reduction product is chiral (D configuration). It is unlikely that these steps were possible in a prebiotic environment. Thus we have to understand how fatty acids could appear in the prebiotic era. This hypothesis about the origin of fatty acids is based on the chemistry of sulfonium ylides and sulfonium salts. The most well-known among these molecules are S-melthyl-methionine and S-adenosyl methionine. The simplest sulfonium cation is the trimethylsulfonium cation. Chemists have evidence that these products can produce olefin when they are heated or flashed with UV light in some conditions. I suggest that these volatile products can allow the formation of fatty acids chains in atmospheric phase with UV and temperature using methanol as starting material. Different synthetic pathways will be

  15. Fatty acid-producing hosts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfleger, Brian F; Lennen, Rebecca M

    2013-12-31

    Described are hosts for overproducing a fatty acid product such as a fatty acid. The hosts include an exogenous nucleic acid encoding a thioesterase and, optionally, an exogenous nucleic acid encoding an acetyl-CoA carboxylase, wherein an acyl-CoA synthetase in the hosts are functionally delected. The hosts prefereably include the nucleic acid encoding the thioesterase at an intermediate copy number. The hosts are preferably recominantly stable and growth-competent at 37.degree. C. Methods of producing a fatty acid product comprising culturing such hosts at 37.degree. C. are also described.

  16. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  17. College Chemistry Students' Mental Models of Acids and Acid Strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClary, LaKeisha; Talanquer, Vicente

    2011-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to characterize the mental models of acids and acid strength expressed by advanced college chemistry students when engaged in prediction, explanation, and justification tasks that asked them to rank chemical compounds based on their relative acid strength. For that purpose we completed a qualitative research…

  18. Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid and betulinic acid acetate isolated from Melaleuca cajuput on human myeloid leukemia (HL-60) cell line. ... The cytotoxic effect of betulinic acid (BA), isolated from Melaleuca cajuput a Malaysian plant and its four synthetic derivatives were tested for their cytotoxicity in various cell line or ...

  19. Industrial ecotoxicology "acid rain".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astolfi, E; Gotelli, C; Higa, J

    1986-01-01

    The acid rain phenomenon was studied in the province of Cordoba, Argentina. This study, based on a previously outlined framework, determined the anthropogenic origin of the low pH due to the presence of industrial hydrochloric acid wastage. This industrial ecotoxicological phenomenon seriously affected the forest wealth, causing a great defoliation of trees and shrubs, with a lower effect on crops. A survey on its effects on human beings has not been carried out, but considering the corrosion caused to different metals and its denouncing biocide effect on plants and animals, we should expect to find some kind of harm to the health of the workers involved or others engaged in farming, and even to those who are far away from the polluting agent.

  20. Radioimmunoassay for jasmonic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knoefel, H.D.; Brueckner, C.; Kramell, R.; Sembdner, G.; Schreiber, K. (Akademie der Wissenschaften der DDR, Halle/Saale. Inst. fuer Biochemie der Pflanzen)

    1984-01-01

    A radioimmunoassay (RIA) for the natural plant growth regulator jasmonic acid (JA) was developed. The antiserum was raised in rabbits against (+-)-JA linked to bovine serum albumin. As tracer tritium labelled (+-)-JA (spec. act. 7.4 x 10/sup 9/ Bq x mmol/sup -1/) was used. Cross-reactivity studies with compounds structurally related to JA demonstrated the antiserum to be specific for JA, abscisic acid normally present in the same extract does not interfer. The RIA has a detection limit of 2 ng (-)-JA methylester, a measuring range 2-200 ng, and no extensive purification is required prior to estimation. Therefore, in JA analysis the RIA described is superior to GC, HPLC, and bioassay. This new method has been employed for studies on the distribution of JA in different plant organs of the broad bean, Vicia faba L.

  1. Acid corrosion inhibitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, N G

    1964-04-28

    An acid corrosion inhibitor is prepared by a 2-stage vacuum evaporation of effluents obtained from the ammonia columns of the coking oven plant. The effluent, leaving a scrubber in which the phenols are removed at a temperature of 98$C, passes through a quartz filter and flows into a heated chamber in which it is used for preheating a solution circulating through a vacuum unit, maintaining the temperature of the solution at 55$ to 60$C. The effluent enters a large tank in which it is boiled at 55$ to 60$C under 635 to 640 mm Hg pressure. Double evaporation of this solution yields a very effective acid corrosion inhibitor. Its corrosion-preventing effect is 97.9% compared with 90.1% for thiourea and 88.5% for urotropin under identical conditions.

  2. N-(3-Methylphenylsuccinamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, C11H13NO3, the conformations of the N—H and C=O bonds in the amide segment are anti to each other, and that of the amide H atom is anti to the meta-methyl group in the benzene ring. Furthermore, the conformations of the amide oxygen and the carbonyl O atom of the acid segment are also anti to the adjacent –CH2 groups. The C=O and O—H bonds of the acid group are syn to each other. In the crystal, the molecules are packed into infinite chains through intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds.

  3. N-(3-Chlorophenylmaleamic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Thimme Gowda

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C10H8ClNO3, the molecular conformation is stabilized by two intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The first is a short O—H...O hydrogen bond within the maleamic acid unit and the second is a C—H...O hydrogen bond which connects the amide group with the phenyl ring. The maleamic acid unit is essentially planar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.044 Å, and makes a dihedral angle of 15.2 (1° with the phenyl ring. In the crystal, intermolecular N—H...O hydrogen bonds link the molecules into C(7 chains running [010].

  4. Mortar fights acid corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-05-14

    The burning of coal or oil to produce heat required to operate a power boiler also generates a severe corrosion problem within the interior of the duct and stacks used to emit the flue gas into the atmosphere. How can concrete and steel be protected from the effects of acid attack, when the acids are carried in a gas form, or come into direct contact with the steel or concrete from spillage or immersion conditions. Industry in North America has found that the solution to this problem is to build an outside concrete column, in this case of Portland cement, and inside that column, build a totally independent brick liner bonded with Sauereisen mortar.

  5. (Radioiodinated free fatty acids)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knapp, Jr., F. F.

    1987-12-11

    The traveler participated in the Second International Workshop on Radioiodinated Free Fatty Acids in Amsterdam, The Netherlands where he presented an invited paper describing the pioneering work at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) involving the design, development and testing of new radioiodinated methyl-branched fatty acids for evaluation of heart disease. He also chaired a technical session on the testing of new agents in various in vitro and in vivo systems. He also visited the Institute for Clinical and Experimental Nuclear Medicine in Bonn, West Germany, to review, discuss, plan and coordinate collaborative investigations with that institution. In addition, he visited the Cyclotron Research Center in Liege, Belgium, to discuss continuing collaborative studies with the Osmium-191/Iridium-191m radionuclide generator system, and to complete manuscripts and plan future studies.

  6. Acidity of Scandinavian precipitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrett, E; Bordin, G

    1955-01-01

    Data on the pH of the total monthly precipitation at stations of a Swedish network for sampling and chemical analysis of precipitation and atmospheric aerosols during the year July 1953 to June 1954 are presented and discussed, together with the pH data from the first two months of operation of a large pan-Scandinavian net. It is found that well-defined regions of acidity and alkalinity relative to the pH of water in equilibrium with atmospheric carbon dioxide exist, and that these regions persist to such an extent that the monthly deviations from the pattern of the annual mean pH at stations unaffected by local pollution show persistently high acidity, while inland northern stations show equally persistent alkalinity. Some possible reasons for the observed distributions are considered.

  7. Omega-3 fatty acids (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omega-3 fatty acids are a form of polyunsaturated fat that the body derives from food. Omega-3s (and omega-6s) are known as essential fatty acids (EFAs) because they are important for good health. ...

  8. Bile acids for viral hepatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Weikeng; Liu, J; Gluud, C

    2007-01-01

    Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness.......Trials have assessed bile acids for patients with viral hepatitis, but no consensus has been reached regarding their usefulness....

  9. Halogenated fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mu, Huiling; Sundin, Peter; Wesén, Clas

    1997-01-01

    Halogenated fatty acids are the major contributors to organohalogen compounds in lipids of marine mammals, fish, and bivalves. For the initial characterization of these recently noticed compounds, a determination of the halogen concentration has usually been combined with some lipid isolation......), atomic emission spectrometry, and mass spectrometry. For most environmental samples, chlorinated FAMEs must be enriched prior to GC. ELCD is a useful detection method for indicating halogenated FAMEs in the chromatograms, and tentative identification of the halogenated species can be obtained...

  10. Accidents with sulfuric acid

    OpenAIRE

    Rajković Miloš B.

    2006-01-01

    Sulfuric acid is an important industrial and strategic raw material, the production of which is developing on all continents, in many factories in the world and with an annual production of over 160 million tons. On the other hand, the production, transport and usage are very dangerous and demand measures of precaution because the consequences could be catastrophic, and not only at the local level where the accident would happen. Accidents that have been publicly recorded during the last eigh...

  11. Sources of atmospheric acidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clarke, A.G.

    1992-01-01

    The emissions of acid gases from anthropogenic sources and their impact on the environment are the main concern of this book. However, that impact can only be assessed if all the naturally occurring sources of these gases are also known and can be quantified. Given the widely dispersed nature of the natural sources and the problems of measurement of trace species at low concentrations, often in remote regions, the quantification is a very difficult task. Nevertheless, considerable progress has been made over the last decade. In this chapter both man-made and natural sources of atmospheric acidity will be reviewed, but the emphasis will be placed not so much on the global balances as on the scale of the natural sources in relation to the man-made sources. This requires that the very uneven geographical distribution of emissions and the lifetime of individual chemical species be taken into account. The emissions considered are sulphur compounds, nitrogen compounds, chlorine compounds and organic acids. The anthropogenic sources discussed are the combustion of fossil fuels and certain industrial processes. Emissions data for anthropogenic sources are given for the United Kingdom, Europe, USA and globally. A list of 95 references is given. (Author)

  12. Whence the acid raindrop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heaton, T.H.E.

    1987-01-01

    Absorption of NO 2 can cause damage in animals and plants and, if present trends for NO x emissions continue, their by-product nitric acid may soon overtake sulphuric acid as the main acidifying agent of 'acid' rain. In response to this problem the feasibility of reducing NO x emissions from power stations is being studied. Although there can be no doubt that these expensive controls are desirable, their benefits are difficult to predict for two reasons: NO x is not only emitted by fuel combustion and the degree to which an industrialised country benefits from the implementation of NO x emission controls depends on how much its pollutant 'fall out' is immediately returned from the atmosphere, and how much is exported to neighbouring countries. The above factors involve questions regarding the source and reaction mechanisms for nitrogen compounds in the atmosphere. Because stable isotope ratio analysis has proved to be of value in providing answers to such questions in other environments, an investigation of the 15 N/ 14 N ratios of atmospheric gases (NO x , NH 3 ) and their solution products in rain (NO 3 , NH + 4 ) seemed to be justified

  13. Hepatic Toxicity of Perfluorocarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-07-01

    1995). 3. N. V. Reo, C. M. Goecke, L. Narayanan, and B. M. Jarnot. "Effects of Perfluoro-n-octanoic Acid , Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid , and Clofibrate ...Artz, and B. M. Jarnot: "ILiver Phosphorous Metabolic Response to Perfluorocarboxylic Acids and Clofibrate in Rats and Guinea Pigs: A 31 P NMR Study...Peroxisome Induction by Perfluoro-n-decanoic Acid and Clofibrate in the Rat: Proliferation Versus Activity." International Society for the Study of

  14. Acids and bases solvent effects on acid-base strenght

    CERN Document Server

    Cox, Brian G

    2013-01-01

    Acids and bases are ubiquitous in chemistry. Our understanding of them, however, is dominated by their behaviour in water. Transfer to non-aqueous solvents leads to profound changes in acid-base strengths and to the rates and equilibria of many processes: for example, synthetic reactions involving acids, bases and nucleophiles; isolation of pharmaceutical actives through salt formation; formation of zwitter- ions in amino acids; and chromatographic separation of substrates. This book seeks to enhance our understanding of acids and bases by reviewing and analysing their behaviour in non-aqueous solvents. The behaviour is related where possible to that in water, but correlations and contrasts between solvents are also presented.

  15. Sequential injection redox or acid-base titration for determination of ascorbic acid or acetic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenghor, Narong; Jakmunee, Jaroon; Vilen, Michael; Sara, Rolf; Christian, Gary D; Grudpan, Kate

    2002-12-06

    Two sequential injection titration systems with spectrophotometric detection have been developed. The first system for determination of ascorbic acid was based on redox reaction between ascorbic acid and permanganate in an acidic medium and lead to a decrease in color intensity of permanganate, monitored at 525 nm. A linear dependence of peak area obtained with ascorbic acid concentration up to 1200 mg l(-1) was achieved. The relative standard deviation for 11 replicate determinations of 400 mg l(-1) ascorbic acid was 2.9%. The second system, for acetic acid determination, was based on acid-base titration of acetic acid with sodium hydroxide using phenolphthalein as an indicator. The decrease in color intensity of the indicator was proportional to the acid content. A linear calibration graph in the range of 2-8% w v(-1) of acetic acid with a relative standard deviation of 4.8% (5.0% w v(-1) acetic acid, n=11) was obtained. Sample throughputs of 60 h(-1) were achieved for both systems. The systems were successfully applied for the assays of ascorbic acid in vitamin C tablets and acetic acid content in vinegars, respectively.

  16. Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Molecular Structure of Nucleic Acids. A Structure for Deoxyribose Nucleic Acid. J. D. Watson and F. H. C. Crick. Medical Research Council Unit for the Study of the Molecular Structure of Biological. Systems, Cavendish Laboratory, Cambridge. April 2. We wish to suggest a structure for the salt of deoxyribose nucleic acid ...

  17. Fumaric acid production by fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Straathof, A.J.J.; Zijlmans, T.W.; Van Gulik, W.M.; Van der Wielen, L.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Abstract The potential of fumaric acid as a raw material in the polymer industry and the increment of cost of petroleum-based fumaric acid raises interest in fermentation processes for production of this compound from renewable resources. Although the chemical process yields 112% w/w fumaric acid

  18. Pantothenic acid biosynthesis in zymomonas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Luan; Tomb, Jean-Francois; Viitanen, Paul V.

    2014-07-01

    Zymomonas is unable to synthesize pantothenic acid and requires this essential vitamin in growth medium. Zymomonas strains transformed with an operon for expression of 2-dehydropantoate reductase and aspartate 1-decarboxylase were able to grow in medium lacking pantothenic acid. These strains may be used for ethanol production without pantothenic acid supplementation in seed culture and fermentation media.

  19. Serum levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 as diagnostic markers of acute pyelonephritis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abolfazl Mahyar

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available &lt;b&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Early diagnosis and treatment of acute pyelonephritis in children is of special importance in order to prevent serious complications. This study was conducted to determine the diagnostic value of serum interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/b&gt; Eighty seven patients between 1 month to 12 years old with urinary tract infection (UTI were divided into 2 groups based on the result of 99m-technetium dimercapto-succinic acid (DMSA renal scan: acute pyelonephritis (n=37 and lower UTI (n=50 groups. White blood cell (WBC count, neutrophil (Neutl count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR, C-reactive protein (CRP concentration, platelet count, and serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations of both groups were measured and compared . &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; There was a significant difference between two groups regarding WBC count, Neutl count, ESR, and CRP concentration (P&lt;0.05. In addition, the difference between the two groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 concentrations was not significant (IL-6, 60 and 35.4 pg/mL and IL-8, 404 and 617 pg/mL, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of serum IL-6 and IL-8 for diagnosis of acute pyelonephritis were 73%, 42% and 78%, 32%, respectively. Sensitivity, specificity, negative and positive predictive values of serum IL-6 and IL-8 were less than those of acute phase serum reactants such as CRP. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; This study showed that there was no significant difference between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI groups regarding serum IL-6 and IL-8 levels. Therefore, despite confirming results of previous studies, it seems that IL-6 and IL-8 are not suitable markers for differentiating between acute pyelonephritis and lower UTI.

  20. Incontinence due to an infrasphincteric ectopic ureter: why the delay in diagnosis and what the radiologist can do about it

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrico, C.; Lebowitz, R.L. [Children`s Hospital Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States). Dept. of Radiology

    1998-12-01

    Purpose. To determine (1) the reasons for the frequently long delay in the diagnosis of an infrasphincteric ectopic ureter in girls, and (2) what role the radiologist can play in decreasing the delay. Materials and methods. Twelve girls were referred to our hospital from June 1994 until April 1997 for evaluation of constant urinary dribbling and/or vaginal discharge. Available imaging studies, radiology reports, and clinic notes were reviewed. Results. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 6 years 7 months (range 2 years 10 months to 11 years 11 months). Mean delay until diagnosis after presentation was 2 years 5 months. Excluding the one girl whose ectopic ureter was diagnosed while she was still in diapers, mean age at the time of the first parental ``complaint`` was 4 years 9 months. The significance of the classic history of constant urinary dribbling was not recognized by physicians in 7 girls for 4 months to 7 years 10 months after presentation. Physical exam was not meticulously performed, as the ectopic orifice was visible in 8 of 12 girls. Imaging studies were ineffectively utilized: no imaging was done (for 2 years in 2 girls), inappropriate studies were done (ultrasound and voiding cystourethrography) and were misleading, studies were called normal when they were not (ultrasound and excretory urography), or perinatal imaging led to the incorrect assumption of a congenitally absent kidney in one girl and a multicystic dysplastic kidney in another. Excretory urography (EU) was diagnostic in all 10 girls with a duplex kidney, and computed tomography (CT) was supportive in 2 with a dysplastic kidney. CT was an adjunct in 3 girls; a Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan was needed in 2. Conclusion. The classic history of constant urinary dribbling in a successfully toilet-trained girl should immediately lead to an imaging search for the portion of kidney (or entire kidney) drained by an infrasphincteric ectopic ureter. EU should usually be the first

  1. Incontinence due to an infrasphincteric ectopic ureter: why the delay in diagnosis and what the radiologist can do about it

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrico, C.; Lebowitz, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose. To determine (1) the reasons for the frequently long delay in the diagnosis of an infrasphincteric ectopic ureter in girls, and (2) what role the radiologist can play in decreasing the delay. Materials and methods. Twelve girls were referred to our hospital from June 1994 until April 1997 for evaluation of constant urinary dribbling and/or vaginal discharge. Available imaging studies, radiology reports, and clinic notes were reviewed. Results. Mean age at the time of diagnosis was 6 years 7 months (range 2 years 10 months to 11 years 11 months). Mean delay until diagnosis after presentation was 2 years 5 months. Excluding the one girl whose ectopic ureter was diagnosed while she was still in diapers, mean age at the time of the first parental ''complaint'' was 4 years 9 months. The significance of the classic history of constant urinary dribbling was not recognized by physicians in 7 girls for 4 months to 7 years 10 months after presentation. Physical exam was not meticulously performed, as the ectopic orifice was visible in 8 of 12 girls. Imaging studies were ineffectively utilized: no imaging was done (for 2 years in 2 girls), inappropriate studies were done (ultrasound and voiding cystourethrography) and were misleading, studies were called normal when they were not (ultrasound and excretory urography), or perinatal imaging led to the incorrect assumption of a congenitally absent kidney in one girl and a multicystic dysplastic kidney in another. Excretory urography (EU) was diagnostic in all 10 girls with a duplex kidney, and computed tomography (CT) was supportive in 2 with a dysplastic kidney. CT was an adjunct in 3 girls; a Tc-99m-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan was needed in 2. Conclusion. The classic history of constant urinary dribbling in a successfully toilet-trained girl should immediately lead to an imaging search for the portion of kidney (or entire kidney) drained by an infrasphincteric ectopic ureter. EU should usually be the first

  2. Combination Therapy for the Cardiovascular Effects of Perinatal Lead Exposure in Young and Adult Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspar, Andréia Fresneda; Cordellini, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Combination therapy can play a significant role in the amelioration of several toxic effects of lead (Pb) and recovery from associated cardiovascular changes. To investigate the effects of combination therapy on the cardiovascular effects of perinatal lead exposure in young and adult rats Female Wistar rats received drinking water with or without 500 ppm of Pb during pregnancy and lactation. Twenty-two- and 70-day-old rat offspring who were or were not exposed to Pb in the perinatal period received meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), L-arginine, or enalapril and a combination of these compounds for 30 additional days. Noradrenaline response curves were plotted for intact and denuded aortas from 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old rats stratified by perinatal Pb exposure (exposed/unexposed) and treatment received (treated/untreated). Systolic blood pressure was evaluated and shown to be higher in the 23-, 52-, 70-, and 100-day age groups with Pb exposure than in the corresponding control age groups: 117.8 ± 3.9*, 135.2 ± 1.3*, 139.6 ± 1.6*, and 131.7 ± 2.8*, respectively and 107.1 ± 1.8, 118.8 ± 2.1, 126.1 ± 1.1, and 120.5 ± 2.2, respectively (p < 0.05). Increased reactivity to noradrenaline was observed in intact, but not denuded, aortas from 52-, 70-, and 100-day-old exposed rats, and the maximum responses (g of tension) in the respective Pb-exposed and control age groups were as follows: 3.43 ± 0.16*, 4.32 ± 0.18*, and 4.21 ± 0.23*, respectively and 2.38 ± 0.33, 3.37 ± 0.13, and 3.22 ± 0.21, respectively (p < 0.05). All treatments reversed the changes in vascular reactivity to noradrenaline in rats perinatally exposed to Pb. The combination therapy resulted in an earlier restoration of blood pressure in Pb-exposed rats compared with the monotherapies, except for enalapril therapy in young rats. These findings represent a new approach to the development of therapeutic protocols for the treatment of Pb-induced hypertension

  3. Danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.; Mirsaidov, U.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decomposition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan by hydrochloric acid. The interaction of boron containing ores of Ak-Arkhar Deposit of Tajikistan with mineral acids, including hydrochloric acid was studied. The optimal conditions of extraction of valuable components from danburite composition were determined. The chemical composition of danburite of Ak-Arkhar Deposit was determined as well. The kinetics of decomposition of calcined danburite by hydrochloric acid was studied. The apparent activation energy of the process of danburite decomposition by hydrochloric acid was calculated.

  4. Waste acid detoxification and reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouns, T.M.; Stewart, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    Economically feasible processes that reduce the volume, quantity, and toxicity of metal-bearing waste acids by reclaiming, reusing, and recycling spent acids and metal salts are being developed and demonstrated. The acids used in the demonstrations are generated during metal-finishing operations used in nuclear fuel fabrication; HF-HNO 3 , HNO 3 , and HNO 3 -H 2 SO 4 wastes result from Zr etching, Cu stripping, and chemical milling of U. At discharge, wastes contain high concentrations of acid and one major metal impurity. The waste minimization process used to reclaim acid from these three streams incorporates three processes for acid regeneration and reclamation. Normally, HNO 3 remains in the bottoms when an aqueous acid solution is distilled; however, in the presence of H 2 SO 4 , HNO 3 will distill to the overhead stream. In this process, nitrates and fluorides present as free acid and metal salts can be reclaimed as acid for recycle to the metal-finishing processes. Uranium present in the chemical milling solution can be economically recovered from distillation bottoms and refined. Using acid distillation, the volume of chemical milling solution discharged as waste can be reduced by as much as 60% depending on the H 2 SO 4 concentration. A payback period of 2.2 years has been estimated for this process. The development and demonstration of precipitation and distillation processes for detoxification and reclamation of waste acid is supported by the US Department of Energy's Hazardous Waste Remedial Actions Program (HAZWRAP)

  5. New Acid Combination for a Successful Sandstone Acidizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiq, M. U.; Mahmud, H. K. B.; Rezaee, R.

    2017-05-01

    With the development of new enhanced oil recovery techniques, sandstone acidizing has been introduced and played a pivotal role in the petroleum industry. Different acid combinations have been applied, which react with the formation, dissolve the soluble particles; thus increase the production of hydrocarbons. To solve the problems which occurred using current preflush sandstone acidizing technology (hydrochloric acid); a new acid combination has been developed. Core flooding experiments on sandstone core samples with dimensions 1.5 in. × 3 in. were conducted at a flow rate of 2 cm3/min. A series of hydrochloric-acetic acid mixtures with different ratios were tested under 150°F temperature. The core flooding experiments performed are aimed to dissolve carbonate, sodium, potassium and calcium particles from the core samples. These experiments are followed by few important tests which include, porosity-permeability, pH value, Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) analysis and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR measurements). All the results are compared with the results of conventional hydrochloric acid technology. NMR and porosity analysis concluded that the new acid combination is more effective in creating fresh pore spaces and thus increasing the reservoir permeability. It can be seen from the pore distribution before and after the acidizing. Prior applying acid; the large size of pores appears most frequently in the pore distribution while with the applied acid, it was found that the small pore size is most the predominant of the pore distribution. These results are validated using ICP analysis which shows the effective removal of calcium and other positive ions from the core sample. This study concludes that the combination of acetic-hydrochloric acid can be a potential candidate for the preflush stage of sandstone acidizing at high temperature reservoirs.

  6. Urban acid deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conlan, D.E.; Longhurst, J.W.S.; Gee, D.R.; Hare, S.E.

    1991-07-01

    In this document results from the Greater Manchester Acid Deposition Survey (GMADS), an urban precipitation chemistry network, for 1990 are presented. Full analytical methods are described along with the precision and accuracy of the methods used. The spatial variability of precipitation chemistry and deposition over this urban region was investigated using a network of twenty collectors. Concentrations of non marine sulphate, ammonium, calcium and hydrogen, and nitrogen dioxide gas concentrations all show significant spatial variability. The spatial variability of the deposition rates of non marine sulphate, nitrate, ammonium, hydrogen and calcium were significant. (Author).

  7. Synthesis of aminoaldonic acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christel Thea

    With the aim of synthesising aminoaldonic acids, two 2-acetamido-2-deoxyaldonolactones with D-galacto (6) and D-arabino (11) configuration were prepared from acetylated sugar formazans in analogy with a known procedure. Empolying the same procedure to acetylated sugar phenylhydrazones gave mixtures...... and 82, respectively. The aminolactone 84 was converted into the corresponding amino sugar 89.With the aim of synthesising substrates for the Pictet-Spengler reaction three 4-aldehydo acetamidodideoxytetronolactones 92, 97 and 103 were prepared by periodate cleavage of the corresponding hexonolactones...

  8. Folic Acid: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acid in diet (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish Topic Image MedlinePlus Email Updates Get Folic Acid updates ... acid - test Folic acid in diet Related Health Topics Vitamins National Institutes of Health The primary NIH ...

  9. Solid acid catalysis from fundamentals to applications

    CERN Document Server

    Hattori, Hideshi

    2014-01-01

    IntroductionTypes of solid acid catalystsAdvantages of solid acid catalysts Historical overviews of solid acid catalystsFuture outlookSolid Acids CatalysisDefinition of acid and base -Brnsted acid and Lewis acid-Acid sites on surfacesAcid strengthRole of acid sites in catalysisBifunctional catalysisPore size effect on catalysis -shape selectivity-Characterization of Solid Acid Catalysts Indicator methodTemperature programmed desorption (TPD) of ammoniaCalorimetry of adsorption of basic moleculesInfrare

  10. Uracil in formic acid hydrolysates of deoxyribonucleic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schein, Arnold H.

    1966-01-01

    1. When DNA is hydrolysed with formic acid for 30min. at 175° and the hydrolysate is chromatographed on paper with propan-2-ol–2n-hydrochloric acid, in addition to expected ultraviolet-absorbing spots corresponding to guanine, adenine, cytosine and thymine, an ultraviolet-absorbing region with RF similar to that of uracil can be detected. Uracil was separated from this region and identified by its spectra in acid and alkali, and by its RF in several solvent systems. 2. Cytosine, deoxyribocytidine and deoxyribocytidylic acid similarly treated with formic acid all yielded uracil, as did a mixture of deoxyribonucleotides. 3. Approx. 4% of deoxyribonucleotide cytosine was converted into uracil by the formic acid treatment. ImagesFig. 1. PMID:5949371

  11. Uric acid nephrolithiasis: An update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicerello, Elisa

    2018-04-01

    Uric acid nephrolithiasis appears to increase in prevalence. While a relationship between uric acid stones and low urinary pH has been for long known, additional association with various metabolic conditions and pathophysiological basis has recently been elucidated. Some conditions such as diabetes and metabolic syndrome disease, excessive dietary intake, and increased endogenous uric acid production and/or defect in ammoniagenesis are associated with low urinary pH. In addition, the phenomenon of global warming could result in an increase in areas with greater climate risk for uric acid stone formation. There are three therapeutic steps to be taken for management of uric acid stones: identification of urinary pH profiles, assessment of urinary volume status, and identification of disorders leading to excessive uric acid production. However, the most important factor for uric acid stone formation is acid urinary pH, which is a prerequisite for uric acid precipitation. This article reviews recent insights into the pathophysiology of uric acid stones and their management.

  12. Bile Acid Metabolism and Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, John Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    Bile acids are important physiological agents for intestinal nutrient absorption and biliary secretion of lipids, toxic metabolites, and xenobiotics. Bile acids also are signaling molecules and metabolic regulators that activate nuclear receptors and G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling to regulate hepatic lipid, glucose, and energy homeostasis and maintain metabolic homeostasis. Conversion of cholesterol to bile acids is critical for maintaining cholesterol homeostasis and preventing accumulation of cholesterol, triglycerides, and toxic metabolites, and injury in the liver and other organs. Enterohepatic circulation of bile acids from the liver to intestine and back to the liver plays a central role in nutrient absorption and distribution, and metabolic regulation and homeostasis. This physiological process is regulated by a complex membrane transport system in the liver and intestine regulated by nuclear receptors. Toxic bile acids may cause inflammation, apoptosis, and cell death. On the other hand, bile acid-activated nuclear and GPCR signaling protects against inflammation in liver, intestine, and macrophages. Disorders in bile acid metabolism cause cholestatic liver diseases, dyslipidemia, fatty liver diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and diabetes. Bile acids, bile acid derivatives, and bile acid sequestrants are therapeutic agents for treating chronic liver diseases, obesity, and diabetes in humans. PMID:23897684

  13. Electrolytic nature of aqueous sulfuric acid. 2. Acidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraenkel, Dan

    2012-09-27

    In part 1 of this study, I reported that the Debye-Hückel limiting law and the smaller-ion shell (SiS) model of strong electrolyte solutions fit nicely with the experimental mean ionic activity coefficient (γ(±)) of aqueous sulfuric acid as a function of concentration and of temperature when the acid is assumed to be a strong 1-3 electrolyte. Here, I report that the SiS-derived activity coefficient of H(+), γ(H(+)), of the 1-3 acid is comparable to that of aqueous HCl. This agrees with titration curves showing, as well-known, that sulfuric acid in water is parallel in strength to aqueous HCl. The calculated pH is in good accord with the Hammett acidity function, H(0), of aqueous sulfuric acid at low concentration, and differences between the two functions at high concentration are discussed and explained. This pH-H(0) relation is consistent with the literature showing that the H(0) of sulfuric acid (in the 1-9 M range) is similar to those of HCl and the other strong mineral monoprotic acids. The titration of aqueous sulfuric acid with NaOH does not agree with the known second dissociation constant of 0.010 23; rather, the constant is found to be ~0.32 and the acid behaves upon neutralization as a strong diprotic acid practically dissociating in one step. A plausible reaction pathway is offered to explain how the acid may transform, upon base neutralization, from a dissociated H(4)SO(5) (as 3H(+) and HSO(5)(3-)) to a dissociated H(2)SO(4) even though the equilibrium constant of the reaction H(+) + HSO(5)(3-) ↔ SO(4)(2-) + H(2)O, at 25 °C, is 10(-37) (part 1).

  14. Counter current extraction of phosphoric acid: Food grade acid production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shlewit, H.; AlIbrahim, M.

    2009-01-01

    Extraction, scrubbing and stripping of phosphoric acid from the Syrian wet-phosphoric acid was carried out using Micro-pilot plant of mixer settler type of 8 l/h capacity. Tributyl phosphate (TBP)/di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) in kerosene was used as extractant. Extraction and stripping equilibrium curves were evaluated. The number of extraction and stripping stages to achieve the convenient and feasible yield was determined. Detailed flow sheet was suggested for the proposed continuous process. Data obtained include useful information for the design of phosphoric acid extraction plant. The produced phosphoric acid was characterized using different analytical techniques. (author)

  15. Acidizing reservoirs while chelating iron with sulfosalicylic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, W A; Berkshire, D C

    1980-09-30

    A well treating process is described in which an aqueous solution of a strong acid capable of dissolving solids in a manner increasing the permeability of a subterranean earth formation is injected into a subterranean reservoir that contains an asphaltenic oil. At least the first injected portion of the aqueous acid and a solution or homogeneous dispersion of at least enough 5-sulfosalicylic acid to chelate with and prevent the formation of iron-asphaltene solids are included with substantially all of the ferric ions that become dissolved within the strong acid solution that enters the earth formation. 10 claims.

  16. Lead poisoning from souvenir earthenware.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström-Lindberg, Eva; Björklund, Andreas; Karlson-Stiber, Christine; Harper, Pauline; Seldén, Anders I

    2006-02-01

    A case of massive lead poisoning from juice contained in a Greek earthenware jug as well as six satellite cases of high lead exposure of similar origin is reported. The intoxicated patient was successfully treated with dimercaptosuccinic acid. Ceramic producers should adhere to the longstanding European legislation.

  17. Danburite decomposition by sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirsaidov, U.; Mamatov, E.D.; Ashurov, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Present article is devoted to decompositi