International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hofschen, S.; Wolff, I.
1996-01-01
Time-domain simulation results of two-dimensional (2-D) planar waveguide finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis are normally analyzed using Fourier transform. The introduced method of time series analysis to extract propagation and attenuation constants reduces the desired computation time drastically. Additionally, a nonequidistant discretization together with an adequate excitation technique is used to reduce the number of spatial grid points. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the number of spatial grid points. Therefore, it is possible to simulate normal- and superconducting planar waveguide structures with very thin conductors and small dimensions, as they are used in MMIC technology. The simulation results are compared with measurements and show good agreement
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hofschen, S.; Wolff, I. [Gerhard Mercator Univ. of Duisburg (Germany). Dept. of Electrical Engineering
1996-08-01
Time-domain simulation results of two-dimensional (2-D) planar waveguide finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) analysis are normally analyzed using Fourier transform. The introduced method of time series analysis to extract propagation and attenuation constants reduces the desired computation time drastically. Additionally, a nonequidistant discretization together with an adequate excitation technique is used to reduce the number of spatial grid points. Therefore, it is possible to reduce the number of spatial grid points. Therefore, it is possible to simulate normal- and superconducting planar waveguide structures with very thin conductors and small dimensions, as they are used in MMIC technology. The simulation results are compared with measurements and show good agreement.
Spectral dimensionality of random superconducting networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Day, A.R.; Xia, W.; Thorpe, M.F.
1988-01-01
We compute the spectral dimensionality d of random superconducting-normal networks by directly examining the low-frequency density of states at the percolation threshold. We find that d = 4.1 +- 0.2 and 5.8 +- 0.3 in two and three dimensions, respectively, which confirms the scaling relation d = 2d/(2-s/ν), where s is the superconducting exponent and ν the correlation-length exponent for percolation. We also consider the one-dimensional problem where scaling arguments predict, and our numerical simulations confirm, that d = 0. A simple argument provides an expression for the density of states of the localized high-frequency modes in this special case. We comment on the connection between our calculations and the ''termite'' problem of a random walker on a random superconducting-normal network and point out difficulties in inferring d from simulations of the termite problem
Planar Superconducting Millimeter-Wave/Terahertz Channelizing Filter
Ehsan, Negar; U-yen, Kongpop; Brown, Ari; Hsieh, Wen-Ting; Wollack, Edward; Moseley, Samuel
2013-01-01
This innovation is a compact, superconducting, channelizing bandpass filter on a single-crystal (0.45 m thick) silicon substrate, which operates from 300 to 600 GHz. This device consists of four channels with center frequencies of 310, 380, 460, and 550 GHz, with approximately 50-GHz bandwidth per channel. The filter concept is inspired by the mammalian cochlea, which is a channelizing filter that covers three decades of bandwidth and 3,000 channels in a very small physical space. By using a simplified physical cochlear model, and its electrical analog of a channelizing filter covering multiple octaves bandwidth, a large number of output channels with high inter-channel isolation and high-order upper stopband response can be designed. A channelizing filter is a critical component used in spectrometer instruments that measure the intensity of light at various frequencies. This embodiment was designed for MicroSpec in order to increase the resolution of the instrument (with four channels, the resolution will be increased by a factor of four). MicroSpec is a revolutionary wafer-scale spectrometer that is intended for the SPICA (Space Infrared Telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics) Mission. In addition to being a vital component of MicroSpec, the channelizing filter itself is a low-resolution spectrometer when integrated with only an antenna at its input, and a detector at each channel s output. During the design process for this filter, the available characteristic impedances, possible lumped element ranges, and fabrication tolerances were identified for design on a very thin silicon substrate. Iterations between full-wave and lumped-element circuit simulations were performed. Each channel s circuit was designed based on the availability of characteristic impedances and lumped element ranges. This design was based on a tabular type bandpass filter with no spurious harmonic response. Extensive electromagnetic modeling for each channel was performed. Four channels
Fate of superconductivity in three-dimensional disordered Luttinger semimetals
Mandal, Ipsita
2018-05-01
Superconducting instability can occur in three-dimensional quadratic band crossing semimetals only at a finite coupling strength due to the vanishing of density of states at the quadratic band touching point. Since realistic materials are always disordered to some extent, we study the effect of short-ranged-correlated disorder on this superconducting quantum critical point using a controlled loop-expansion applying dimensional regularization. The renormalization group (RG) scheme allows us to determine the RG flows of the various interaction strengths and shows that disorder destroys the superconducting quantum critical point. In fact, the system exhibits a runaway flow to strong disorder.
Gauge models of planar high-temperature superconductivity without parity violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mavromatos, N.E.; Grenoble-1 Univ., 74 - Annecy
1993-02-01
A status report is given of a parity-invariant model of two-dimensional superconductivity. The model consists of two-species of fermions coupled with opposite sign to an Abelian gauge field and is closely related to QED 3 . The dynamical generation of a parity-conserving fermion mass and the finite temperature symmetry restoration transition is studied, and it is shown, how the parity-invariant model arises as an effective long-wavelength theory of the dynamics of holes in a two-dimensional quantum antiferromagnetic system on a bi-partite lattice. The model exhibits type-II superconductivity without parity or time-reversal symmetry violation, a high value of 2 Δ /k B T c , flux quantization with quantum hc/2e and a two-dimensional Meissner effect. (author) 82 refs.; 15 figs.; 4 tabs
On wakefields with two-dimensional planar geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chao, A.W.; Bane, K.L.F.
1996-10-01
In order to reach higher acceleration gradients in linear accelerators, it is advantageous to use a higher accelerating RF frequency, which in turn requires smaller accelerating structures. As the structure size becomes smaller, rectangular structures become increasingly interesting because they are easier to construct than cylindrically symmetric ones. One drawback of small structures, however, is that the wakefields generated by the beam in such structures tend to be strong. Recently, it has been suggested that one way of ameliorating this problem is to use rectangular structures that are very flat and to use flat beams. In the limiting case of a very flat planar geometry, the problem resembles a purely two-dimensional (2-D) problem, the wakefields of which have been studied
Dimensionality Driven Enhancement of Ferromagnetic Superconductivity in URhGe
Braithwaite, Daniel; Aoki, Dai; Brison, Jean-Pascal; Flouquet, Jacques; Knebel, Georg; Nakamura, Ai; Pourret, Alexandre
2018-01-01
In most unconventional superconductors, like the high-Tc cuprates, iron pnictides, or heavy-fermion systems, superconductivity emerges in the proximity of an electronic instability. Identifying unambiguously the pairing mechanism remains nevertheless an enormous challenge. Among these systems, the orthorhombic uranium ferromagnetic superconductors have a unique position, notably because magnetic fields couple directly to ferromagnetic order, leading to the fascinating discovery of the reemergence of superconductivity in URhGe at a high field. Here we show that uniaxial stress is a remarkable tool allowing the fine-tuning of the pairing strength. With a relatively small stress, the superconducting phase diagram is spectacularly modified, with a merging of the low- and high-field superconducting states and a significant enhancement of the superconductivity. The superconducting critical temperature increases both at zero field and under a field, reaching 1 K, more than twice higher than at ambient pressure. This enhancement of superconductivity is shown to be directly related to a change of the magnetic dimensionality detected from an increase of the transverse magnetic susceptibility: In addition to the Ising-type longitudinal ferromagnetic fluctuations, transverse magnetic fluctuations also play an important role in the superconducting pairing.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yurchenko, V.V.; Qviller, A.J.; Mozhaev, P.B.
2010-01-01
Regular arrays of planar defects with a period of a few nanometers can be introduced in superconducting YBa2Cu3O7-delta (YBCO) thin films by depositing them on vicinal (also called miscut or tilted) substrates. This results in the anisotropy of critical currents flowing in the plane of the film. ...
Anomalous electron doping independent two-dimensional superconductivity
Zhou, Wei; Xing, Xiangzhuo; Zhao, Haijun; Feng, Jiajia; Pan, Yongqiang; Zhou, Nan; Zhang, Yufeng; Qian, Bin; Shi, Zhixiang
2017-07-01
Transition metal (Co and Ni) co-doping effects are investigated on an underdoped Ca0.94La0.06Fe2As2 compound. It is discovered that electron doping from substituting Fe with transition metal (TM = Co, Ni) can trigger high-{T}{{c}} superconductivity around 35 K, which emerges abruptly before the total suppression of the innate spin-density-wave/anti-ferromagnetism (SDW/AFM) state. Remarkably, the critical temperature for the high-{T}{{c}} superconductivity remains constant against a wide range of TM doping levels. And the net electron doping density dependence of the superconducting {T}{{c}} based on the rigid band model can be nicely scaled into a single curve for Co and Ni substitutions, in stark contrast to the case of Ba(Fe1-x TM x )2As2. This carrier density independent superconductivity and the unusual scaling behavior are presumably resulted from the interface superconductivity based on the similarity with the interface superconductivity in a La2-x Sr x CuO4-La2CuO4 bilayer. Evidence of the two-dimensional character of the superfluid by angle-resolved magneto-resistance measurements can further strengthen the interface nature of the high-{T}{{c}} superconductivity.
Two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin disordered thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beasley, M.R.
1992-01-01
The status of the understanding of two-dimensional superconductivity in ultrathin, disordered thin films is reviewed. The different consequences of microscopic versus macroscopic disorder are stressed. It is shown that microscopic disorder leads to a rapid suppression of the mean-field transition temperature. The consequences of macroscopic disorder are not well understood, but a universal behavior of the zero-bias resistance as a function of field and temperature has been observed. (orig.)
Problems of high temperature superconductivity in three-dimensional systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geilikman, B T
1973-01-01
A review is given of more recent papers on this subject. These papers have dealt mainly with two-dimensional systems. The present paper extends the treatment to three-dimensional systems, under the following headings: systems with collective electrons of one group and localized electrons of another group (compounds of metals with non-metals-dielectrics, organic substances, undoped semiconductors, molecular crystals); experimental investigations of superconducting compounds of metals with organic compounds, dielectrics, semiconductors, and semi-metals; and systems with two or more groups of collective electrons. Mechanics are considered and models are derived. 86 references.
Apparent destruction of superconductivity in the disordered one-dimensional limit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Graybeal, J.M.; Mankiewich, P.M.; Dynes, R.C.; Beasley, M.R.
1987-01-01
We present the results of a model-system study of the competition between superconductivity and disorder in narrow superconducting wires. As one moves from the two-dimensional regime toward the one-dimensional limit, large and systematic reductions in the superconducting transition temperature are obtained. The observed behavior extrapolates to the total destruction of superconductivity in the disordered one-dimensional limit. Our findings are in clear disagreement with a recent theoretical treatment. In addition, the superconducting fluctuations appear to be modified by disorder for the narrowest samples
Superconductivity in engineered two-dimensional electron gases
Chubukov, Andrey V.; Kivelson, Steven A.
2017-11-01
We consider Kohn-Luttinger mechanism for superconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas confined to a narrow well between two grounded metallic planes with two occupied subbands with Fermi momenta kF L>kF S . On the basis of a perturbative analysis, we conclude that non-s -wave superconductivity emerges even when the bands are parabolic. We analyze the conditions that maximize Tc as a function of the distance to the metallic planes, the ratio kF L/kF S , and rs, which measures the strength of Coulomb correlations. The largest attraction is in p -wave and d -wave channels, of which p wave is typically the strongest. For rs=O (1 ) we estimate that the dimensionless coupling λ ≈10-1 , but it likely continues increasing for larger rs (where we lose theoretical control).
Mixed-symmetry superconductivity in two-dimensional Fermi liquids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Musaelian, K.A.; Betouras, J.; Chubukov, A.V.; Joynt, R.
1996-01-01
We consider a two-dimensional (2D) isotropic Fermi liquid with attraction in both s and d channels and examine the possibility of a superconducting state with mixed s and d symmetry of the gap function. We show that both in the weak-coupling limit and at strong coupling, a mixed s+id symmetry state is realized in a certain range of interaction. Phase transitions between the mixed and the pure symmetry states are second order. We also show that there is no stable mixed s+d symmetry state at any coupling. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society
Coexistence of incommensurate magnetism and superconductivity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yamase, Hiroyuki [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); National Institute for Materials Science, Tsukuba (Japan); Eberlein, Andreas [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge (United States); Metzner, Walter [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany)
2016-07-01
We analyze the competition of magnetism and superconductivity in the two-dimensional Hubbard model with a moderate interaction strength, including the possibility of incommensurate spiral magnetic order. Using an unbiased renormalization group approach, we compute magnetic and superconducting order parameters in the ground state. In addition to previously established regions of Neel order coexisting with d-wave superconductivity, the calculations reveal further coexistence regions where superconductivity is accompanied by incommensurate magnetic order.
Quasi-One-Dimensional Intermittent Flux Behavior in Superconducting Films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. J. Qviller
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Intermittent filamentary dynamics of the vortex matter in superconductors is found in films of YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ} deposited on tilted substrates. Deposition of this material on such substrates creates parallel channels of easy flux penetration when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the film. As the applied field is gradually increased, magneto-optical imaging reveals that flux penetrates via numerous quasi-one-dimensional jumps. The distribution of flux avalanche sizes follows a power law, and data collapse is obtained by finite-size scaling, with the depth of the flux front used as crossover length. The intermittent behavior shows no threshold value in the applied field, in contrast to conventional flux jumping. The results strongly suggest that the quasi-one-dimensional flux jumps are of a different nature than the thermomagnetic dendritic (branching avalanches that are commonly found in superconducting films.
A Zero-Dimensional Model of a 2nd Generation Planar SOFC Using Calibrated Parameters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Petersen, Thomas Frank
2006-01-01
This paper presents a zero-dimensional mathematical model of a planar 2nd generation co-flow SOFC developed for simulation of power systems. The model accounts for the electrochemical oxidation of hydrogen as well as the methane reforming reaction and the water-gas shift reaction. An important part...... SOFC-based power systems....
Mode selection in two-dimensional Bragg resonators based on planar dielectric waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baryshev, V R; Ginzburg, N S; Zaslavskii, V Yu; Malkin, A M; Sergeev, A S; Thumm, M
2009-01-01
Two-dimensional Bragg resonators based on planar dielectric waveguides are analysed. It is shown that the doubly periodic corrugation deposited on the dielectric surface in the form of two gratings with translational vectors directed perpendicular to each other ensures effective selection of modes along two coordinates at large Fresnel parameters. This result is obtained both by the method of coupled waves (geometrical optics approximation) and by the direct numerical simulations. Two-dimensional Bragg resonators make it possible to fabricate two-dimensional distributed feedback lasers and to provide generation of spatially coherent radiation in large-volume active media. (waveguides)
Superconductivity of the two-dimensional Penson-Kolb model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czart, W.R.; Robaszkiewicz, S.
2001-01-01
Two-dimensional (d = 2) Penson-Kolb model, i.e. the tight-binding model with the pair-hopping (intersite charge exchange) interaction, is considered and the effects of phase fluctuations on the s-wave superconductivity of this system are discussed within Kosterlitz-Thouless scenario. The London penetration depth λ at T = 0, the Kosterlitz Thouless critical temperature T c , and the Hartree-Fock approximation critical temperature T p are determined as a function of particle concentration and interaction. The Uemura type plots (T c vs. λ -2 (0)) are derived. Beyond weak coupling and for low concentrations they show the existence of universal scaling: T c ∼ 1/λ 2 (0), as it previously found for the attractive Hubbard model and for the models intersite electron pairing. (author)
Kodama, Nao; Kose, Katsumi
2016-10-11
Echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences were developed for a 9.4 Tesla vertical standard bore (~54 mm) superconducting magnet using an unshielded gradient coil optimized for live mice imaging and a data correction technique with reference scans. Because EPI requires fast switching of intense magnetic field gradients, eddy currents were induced in the surrounding metallic materials, e.g., the room temperature bore, and this produced serious artifacts on the EPI images. We solved the problem using an unshielded gradient coil set of proper size (outer diameter = 39 mm, inner diameter = 32 mm) with time control of the current rise and reference scans. The obtained EPI images of a phantom and a plant sample were almost artifact-free and demonstrated the promise of our approach.
KODAMA, Nao; KOSE, Katsumi
2016-01-01
Echo-planar imaging (EPI) sequences were developed for a 9.4 Tesla vertical standard bore (∼54 mm) superconducting magnet using an unshielded gradient coil optimized for live mice imaging and a data correction technique with reference scans. Because EPI requires fast switching of intense magnetic field gradients, eddy currents were induced in the surrounding metallic materials, e.g., the room temperature bore, and this produced serious artifacts on the EPI images. We solved the problem using an unshielded gradient coil set of proper size (outer diameter = 39 mm, inner diameter = 32 mm) with time control of the current rise and reference scans. The obtained EPI images of a phantom and a plant sample were almost artifact-free and demonstrated the promise of our approach. PMID:27001398
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shvets', D.V.
2009-01-01
By the first approximation analyzing stability conditions of unperturbed solution of one-dimensional dynamic model with magnetic interaction between two superconducting rings obtained. The stability region in the frozen magnetic flux parameters space was constructed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taylor, A.W.B.; Noakes, G.R.
1981-01-01
This book is an elementray introduction into superconductivity. The topics are the superconducting state, the magnetic properties of superconductors, type I superconductors, type II superconductors and a chapter on the superconductivity theory. (WL)
Spherical and planar three-dimensional anti-de Sitter black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zanchin, Vilson T; Miranda, Alex S
2004-01-01
The technique of dimensional reduction was used in a recent paper (Zanchin V T, Kleber A and Lemos J P S 2002 Phys. Rev. D 66 064022) where a three-dimensional (3D) Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory was built from the usual four-dimensional (4D) Einstein-Maxwell-Hilbert action for general relativity. Starting from a class of 4D toroidal black holes in asymptotically anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetimes several 3D black holes were obtained and studied in such a context. In the present work we choose a particular case of the 3D action which presents Maxwell field, dilaton field and an extra scalar field, besides gravity field and a negative cosmological constant, and obtain new 3D static black hole solutions whose horizons may have spherical or planar topology. We show that there is a 3D static spherically symmetric solution analogous to the 4D Reissner-Nordstroem-AdS black hole, and obtain other new 3D black holes with planar topology. From the static spherical solutions, new rotating 3D black holes are also obtained and analysed in some detail
CEASEMT system: the COCO code. Automatic network of planar and three-dimensional structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Charras, Thierry; Hoffmann, Alain.
1977-01-01
COCO is a code written in Fortran IV for IBM 360; it is intended to meshing bi- or tri-dimensional structures: planar structures, shells and beams, pipes in space. The existence of a real language makes possible a simple flexible use of COCO. Due to its modular structure COCO can incorporate new feasibilities if needed. The elements can have 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 15, 20 vertices at will. COCO makes it possible to divide the network of the structure in independent sectors and gather them together through new numbering. Partial results can be verified at any time by listing or displaying them on a cathode screen [fr
McRae, C. R. H.; Béjanin, J. H.; Earnest, C. T.; McConkey, T. G.; Rinehart, J. R.; Deimert, C.; Thomas, J. P.; Wasilewski, Z. R.; Mariantoni, M.
2018-05-01
Scalable architectures characterized by quantum bits (qubits) with low error rates are essential to the development of a practical quantum computer. In the superconducting quantum computing implementation, understanding and minimizing material losses are crucial to the improvement of qubit performance. A new material that has recently received particular attention is indium, a low-temperature superconductor that can be used to bond pairs of chips containing standard aluminum-based qubit circuitry. In this work, we characterize microwave loss in indium and aluminum/indium thin films on silicon substrates by measuring superconducting coplanar waveguide resonators and estimating the main loss parameters at powers down to the sub-photon regime and at temperatures between 10 and 450 mK. We compare films deposited by thermal evaporation, sputtering, and molecular beam epitaxy. We study the effects of heating in a vacuum and ambient atmospheric pressure as well as the effects of pre-deposition wafer cleaning using hydrofluoric acid. The microwave measurements are supported by thin film metrology including secondary-ion mass spectrometry. For thermally evaporated and sputtered films, we find that two-level state are the dominant loss mechanism at low photon number and temperature, with a loss tangent due to native indium oxide of ˜ 5 × 10 - 5 . The molecular beam epitaxial films show evidence of the formation of a substantial indium-silicon eutectic layer, which leads to a drastic degradation in resonator performance.
Superconductivity in three-dimensional spin-orbit coupled semimetals
Savary, Lucile; Ruhman, Jonathan; Venderbos, Jörn W. F.; Fu, Liang; Lee, Patrick A.
2017-12-01
Motivated by the experimental detection of superconductivity in the low-carrier density half-Heusler compound YPtBi, we study the pairing instabilities of three-dimensional strongly spin-orbit coupled semimetals with a quadratic band touching point. In these semimetals the electronic structure at the Fermi energy is described by spin j =3/2 quasiparticles, which are fundamentally different from those in ordinary metals with spin j =1/2 . For both local and nonlocal pairing channels in j =3/2 materials we develop a general approach to analyzing pairing instabilities, thereby providing the computational tools needed to investigate the physics of these systems beyond phenomenological considerations. Furthermore, applying our method to a generic density-density interaction, we establish that: (i) The pairing strengths in the different symmetry channels uniquely encode the j =3/2 nature of the Fermi surface band structure—a manifestation of the fundamental difference with ordinary metals. (ii) The leading odd-parity pairing instabilities are different for electron doping and hole doping. Finally, we argue that polar phonons, i.e., Coulomb interactions mediated by the long-ranged electric polarization of the optical phonon modes, provide a coupling strength large enough to account for a Kelvin-range transition temperature in the s -wave channel, and are likely to play an important role in the overall attraction in non-s -wave channels. Moreover, the explicit calculation of the coupling strengths allows us to conclude that the two largest non-s -wave contributions occur in nonlocal channels, in contrast with what has been commonly assumed.
Poole, Charles P; Farach, Horacio A
1995-01-01
Superconductivity covers the nature of the phenomenon of superconductivity. The book discusses the fundamental principles of superconductivity; the essential features of the superconducting state-the phenomena of zero resistance and perfect diamagnetism; and the properties of the various classes of superconductors, including the organics, the buckministerfullerenes, and the precursors to the cuprates. The text also describes superconductivity from the viewpoint of thermodynamics and provides expressions for the free energy; the Ginzburg-Landau and BCS theories; and the structures of the high
Superconductivity and the existence of Nambu's three-dimensional phase space mechanics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Angulo, R.; Gonzalez-Bernardo, C.A.; Rodriguez-Gomez, J.; Kalnay, A.J.; Perez-M, F.; Tello-Llanos, R.A.
1984-01-01
Nambu proposed a generalization of hamiltonian mechanics such that three-dimensional phase space is allowed. Thanks to a recent paper by Holm and Kupershmidt we are able to show the existence of such three-dimensional phase space systems in superconductivity. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yurchenko, V.V.; Qviller, A.J.; Mozhaev, P.B.; Mozhaeva, J.E.; Hansen, J.B.; Jacobsen, C.S.; Kotelyanskii, I.M.; Pan, A.V.; Johansen, T.H.
2010-01-01
Regular arrays of planar defects with a period of a few nanometers can be introduced in superconducting YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ (YBCO) thin films by depositing them on vicinal (also called miscut or tilted) substrates. This results in the anisotropy of critical currents flowing in the plane of the film. We present results of real-time magneto-optical imaging (MOI) of magnetic flux distribution and dynamics in a series of YBCO thin films deposited on NdGaO 3 substrates with different miscut angles θ. MOI allows reconstructing the current flow profiles. From the angle formed between domains with different directions of the current flow we determine the anisotropy parameter of the in-plane current, as well as its field and temperature dependences. The artificially introduced defects also have a dramatic effect on the dynamics of the flux propagation: for 10 o o the magnetic flux propagates along the easy channels intermittently, i.e. in a form of flux jumps. This behavior is indicative of thermo-magnetic instability in superconductors, but we argue that this effect can be of a different nature.
Shabani, J.; Kjaergaard, M.; Suominen, H. J.; Kim, Younghyun; Nichele, F.; Pakrouski, K.; Stankevic, T.; Lutchyn, R. M.; Krogstrup, P.; Feidenhans'l, R.; Kraemer, S.; Nayak, C.; Troyer, M.; Marcus, C. M.; Palmstrøm, C. J.
2015-01-01
Progress in the emergent field of topological superconductivity relies on synthesis of new material combinations, combining superconductivity, low density, and spin-orbit coupling (SOC). For example, theory [1-4] indicates that the interface between a one-dimensional (1D) semiconductor (Sm) with strong SOC and a superconductor (S) hosts Majorana modes with nontrivial topological properties [5-8]. Recently, epitaxial growth of Al on InAs nanowires was shown to yield a high quality S-Sm system ...
Local switching of two-dimensional superconductivity using the ferroelectric field effect
Takahashi, K. S.; Gabay, M.; Jaccard, D.; Shibuya, K.; Ohnishi, T.; Lippmaa, M.; Triscone, J.-M.
2006-05-01
Correlated oxides display a variety of extraordinary physical properties including high-temperature superconductivity and colossal magnetoresistance. In these materials, strong electronic correlations often lead to competing ground states that are sensitive to many parameters-in particular the doping level-so that complex phase diagrams are observed. A flexible way to explore the role of doping is to tune the electron or hole concentration with electric fields, as is done in standard semiconductor field effect transistors. Here we demonstrate a model oxide system based on high-quality heterostructures in which the ferroelectric field effect approach can be studied. We use a single-crystal film of the perovskite superconductor Nb-doped SrTiO3 as the superconducting channel and ferroelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 as the gate oxide. Atomic force microscopy is used to locally reverse the ferroelectric polarization, thus inducing large resistivity and carrier modulations, resulting in a clear shift in the superconducting critical temperature. Field-induced switching from the normal state to the (zero resistance) superconducting state was achieved at a well-defined temperature. This unique system could lead to a field of research in which devices are realized by locally defining in the same material superconducting and normal regions with `perfect' interfaces, the interface being purely electronic. Using this approach, one could potentially design one-dimensional superconducting wires, superconducting rings and junctions, superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) or arrays of pinning centres.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Langone, J.
1989-01-01
This book explains the theoretical background of superconductivity. Includes discussion of electricity, material fabrication, maglev trains, the superconducting supercollider, and Japanese-US competition. The authors reports the latest discoveries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Onnes, H.K.
1988-01-01
The author traces the development of superconductivity from 1911 to 1986. Some of the areas he explores are the Meissner Effect, theoretical developments, experimental developments, engineering achievements, research in superconducting magnets, and research in superconducting electronics. The article also mentions applications shown to be technically feasible, but not yet commercialized. High-temperature superconductivity may provide enough leverage to bring these applications to the marketplace
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersen, N.H.; Mortensen, K.
1988-12-01
This report contains lecture notes of the basic lectures presented at the 1st Topsoee Summer School on Superconductivity held at Risoe National Laboratory, June 20-24, 1988. The following lecture notes are included: L.M. Falicov: 'Superconductivity: Phenomenology', A. Bohr and O. Ulfbeck: 'Quantal structure of superconductivity. Gauge angle', G. Aeppli: 'Muons, neutrons and superconductivity', N.F. Pedersen: 'The Josephson junction', C. Michel: 'Physicochemistry of high-T c superconductors', C. Laverick and J.K. Hulm: 'Manufacturing and application of superconducting wires', J. Clarke: 'SQUID concepts and systems'. (orig.) With 10 tabs., 128 figs., 219 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Palmieri, V.
1990-01-01
This paper reports on superconductivity the absence of electrical resistance has always fascinated the mind of researchers with a promise of applications unachievable by conventional technologies. Since its discovery superconductivity has been posing many questions and challenges to solid state physics, quantum mechanics, chemistry and material science. Simulations arrived to superconductivity from particle physics, astrophysic, electronics, electrical engineering and so on. In seventy-five years the original promises of superconductivity were going to become reality: a microscopical theory gave to superconductivity the cloth of the science and the level of technological advances was getting higher and higher. High field superconducting magnets became commercially available, superconducting electronic devices were invented, high field accelerating gradients were obtained in superconductive cavities and superconducting particle detectors were under study. Other improvements came in a quiet progression when a tornado brought a revolution in the field: new materials had been discovered and superconductivity, from being a phenomenon relegated to the liquid Helium temperatures, became achievable over the liquid Nitrogen temperature. All the physics and the technological implications under superconductivity have to be considered ab initio
Thomas, D B
1974-01-01
A short general review is presented of the progress made in applied superconductivity as a result of work performed in connection with the high-energy physics program in Europe. The phenomenon of superconductivity and properties of superconductors of Types I and II are outlined. The main body of the paper deals with the development of niobium-titanium superconducting magnets and of radio-frequency superconducting cavities and accelerating structures. Examples of applications in and for high-energy physics experiments are given, including the large superconducting magnet for the Big European Bubble Chamber, prototype synchrotron magnets for the Super Proton Synchrotron, superconducting d.c. beam line magnets, and superconducting RF cavities for use in various laboratories. (0 refs).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hu Dongsheng; Xiong Shijie
2002-01-01
We investigate the transport properties and Andreev reflection in one-dimensional (1D) systems with randomly doped superconducting grains. The superconducting grains are described by the Bogoliubov-de Gene Hamiltonian and the conductance is calculated by using the transfer matrix method and Landauer-Buettiker formula. It is found that although the quasiparticle states are localized due to the randomness and the low dimensionality, the conductance is still kept finite in the thermodynamical limit due to the Andreev reflection. We also investigate the effect of correlation of disorder in such systems and the results show the delocalization of quasiparticle states and suppression of Andreev reflection in a wide energy window
Three dimensional analysis of planar solid oxide fuel cell stack considering radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tanaka, T.; Inui, Y.; Urata, A.; Kanno, T. [Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Toyohashi University of Technology, Tempaku-cho, Toyohashi 441-8580 (Japan)
2007-05-15
The authors have been engaged in numerical simulations of the planar type solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) to make clear the dependence of the cell performance on its operating conditions. Up to now, the authors have already developed the simulation codes for the one channel region and the single cell plate in its cell stack. To calculate accurately the effect of radiation heat transfer from the cell stack surfaces, however, a code that can treat the whole cell stack is necessary. In the present study, therefore, the authors newly develop a three dimensional simulation code of the planar SOFC stack, and the detailed effect of the radiation heat transfer is investigated. It is made clear that the conventional codes are sufficiently accurate, and the newly developed whole cell stack code is not inevitable to predict the maximum cell temperature. This is because the thermal conductivity of the cell materials made of ceramics is very small, and the central part of the cell stack is almost free from the influence of radiation heat transfer. On the other hand, the stack simulation is needed to calculate accurately the cell voltage because the radiation heat transfer reduces it when the ambient temperature is low. The bad influence of low ambient temperature on the voltage is, however, small and relatively high voltage is obtained even when the ambient temperature is very low. (author)
Faraei, Zahra; Jafari, S. A.
2017-10-01
We find that a conventional s -wave superconductor in proximity to a three-dimensional Dirac material (3DDM), to all orders of perturbation in tunneling, induces a combination of s - and p -wave pairing only. We show that the Lorentz invariance of the superconducting pairing prevents the formation of Cooper pairs with higher orbital angular momenta in the 3DDM. This no-go theorem acquires stronger form when the probability of tunneling from the conventional superconductor to positive and negative energy states of 3DDM are equal. In this case, all the p -wave contribution except for the lowest order, identically vanish and hence we obtain an exact result for the induced p -wave superconductivity in 3DDM. Fierz decomposing the superconducting matrix we find that the temporal component of the vector superconducting order and the spatial components of the pseudovector order have odd-frequency pairing symmetry. We find that the latter is odd with respect to exchange of position and chirality of the electrons in the Cooper pair and is a spin-triplet, which is necessary for NMR detection of such an exotic pseudovector pairing. Moreover, we show that the tensorial order breaks into a polar vector and an axial vector and both of them have conventional pairing symmetry except for being a spin triplet. According to our study, for gapless 3DDM, the tensorial superconducting order will be the only order that is odd with respect to the chemical potential μ . Therefore we predict that a transverse p -n junction binds Majorana fermions. This effect can be used to control the neutral Majorana fermions with electric fields.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nonoyama, Yoshito; Maekawa, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Akito; Suzumura, Yoshikazu [Department of Physics, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan); Yamada, Jun-ichi [Department of Material Science, Graduate School of Material Science, University of Hyogo, Hyogo 678-1297 (Japan)], E-mail: nonoyama@slab.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp
2008-10-15
Mechanisms of superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors have been investigated using an extended Hubbard model by using the transfer energies between BDA-TTP molecules for {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}I{sub 3} based on the X-ray experiment data and the extended Hueckel calculation. We obtain several mean-field solutions with charge orderings which may represent short-range orderings or low-energy fluctuations in the low-dimensional electronic system. In the pressure-temperature phase diagram, a charge ordered metal state almost degenerates with a normal metal state between an insulating phase with charge ordering and the normal metal phase. Using the random phase approximation (RPA) and the linearized gap equation, the transition temperature of the superconducting state is estimated for the charge-ordered metal state and the normal metal state. It is found that transition temperature of the superconductivity induced by spin fluctuations in the charge-ordered metal state is much higher than that of the normal metal state and that the superconductivity in the charge-ordered metal state is the gapless d-wave. This suggests that the short range charge ordering may also contribute to an enhancement of spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. The difference in the superconducting states between {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}I{sub 3} and {beta}-(BDA-TTP){sub 2}SbF{sub 6} are briefly discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonoyama, Yoshito; Maekawa, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Akito; Suzumura, Yoshikazu; Yamada, Jun-ichi
2008-01-01
Mechanisms of superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic conductors have been investigated using an extended Hubbard model by using the transfer energies between BDA-TTP molecules for β-(BDA-TTP) 2 I 3 based on the X-ray experiment data and the extended Hueckel calculation. We obtain several mean-field solutions with charge orderings which may represent short-range orderings or low-energy fluctuations in the low-dimensional electronic system. In the pressure-temperature phase diagram, a charge ordered metal state almost degenerates with a normal metal state between an insulating phase with charge ordering and the normal metal phase. Using the random phase approximation (RPA) and the linearized gap equation, the transition temperature of the superconducting state is estimated for the charge-ordered metal state and the normal metal state. It is found that transition temperature of the superconductivity induced by spin fluctuations in the charge-ordered metal state is much higher than that of the normal metal state and that the superconductivity in the charge-ordered metal state is the gapless d-wave. This suggests that the short range charge ordering may also contribute to an enhancement of spin-fluctuation-mediated superconductivity. The difference in the superconducting states between β-(BDA-TTP) 2 I 3 and β-(BDA-TTP) 2 SbF 6 are briefly discussed.
Wang, Luyang; Vafek, Oskar
2014-02-01
We investigate the superconducting instability of a two-dimensional repulsive Fermi gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling αR. Using renormalization group approach, we find the superconducting transition temperature as a function of the dimensionless ratio Θ=1}/{2}mαR2/EF where EF = 0 when the smaller Fermi surface shrinks to a (Dirac) point. The general trend is that superconductivity is enhanced as Θ increases, but in an intermediate regime Θ ∼ 0.1, a dome-like behavior appears. At a very small value of Θ, the angular momentum channel jz in which superconductivity occurs is quite high. With increasing Θ, jz decreases with a step of 2 down to jz = 6, after which we find the sequence jz = 6, 4, 6, 2, the last value of which continues to Θ → ∞. In an extended range of Θ, the superconducting gap predominantly resides on the large Fermi surface, while Josephson coupling induces a much smaller gap on the small Fermi surface. Below the superconducting transition temperature, we apply mean field theory to derive the self-consistent equations and find the condensation energies. The state with the lowest condensation energy is an unconventional superconducting state which breaks time-reversal symmetry, and in which singlet and triplet pairings are mixed. In general, these states are topologically nontrivial, and the Chern number of the state with total angular momentum jz is C = 2jz.
Two-Dimensional Planar Lightwave Circuit Integrated Spatial Filter Array and Method of Use Thereof
Ai, Jun (Inventor); Dimov, Fedor (Inventor)
2015-01-01
A large coherent two-dimensional (2D) spatial filter array (SFA), 30 by 30 or larger, is produced by coupling a 2D planar lightwave circuit (PLC) array with a pair of lenslet arrays at the input and output side. The 2D PLC array is produced by stacking a plurality of chips, each chip with a plural number of straight PLC waveguides. A pupil array is coated onto the focal plane of the lenslet array. The PLC waveguides are produced by deposition of a plural number of silica layers on the silicon wafer, followed by photolithography and reactive ion etching (RIE) processes. A plural number of mode filters are included in the silica-on-silicon waveguide such that the PLC waveguide is transparent to the fundamental mode but higher order modes are attenuated by 40 dB or more.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kakani, S.L.; Kakani, Shubhra
2007-01-01
The monograph provides readable introduction to the basics of superconductivity for beginners and experimentalists. For theorists, the monograph provides nice and brief description of the broad spectrum of experimental properties, theoretical concepts with all details, which theorists should learn, and provides a sound basis for students interested in studying superconducting theory at the microscopic level. Special chapter on the theory of high-temperature superconductivity in cuprates is devoted
Size and dimensionality effects in superconducting Mo thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fabrega, L; Gil, O; Camon, A; Parra-BorderIas, M; Fernandez-MartInez, I; Costa-Kraemer, J L; Briones, F; Sese, J; Gonzalez-Arrabal, R
2011-01-01
Molybdenum is a low T c , type I superconductor whose fundamental properties are poorly known. Its importance as an essential constituent of new high performance radiation detectors, the so-called transition edge sensors (TESs) calls for better characterization of this superconductor, especially in thin film form. Here we report on a study of the basic superconducting features of Mo thin films as a function of their thickness. The resistivity is found to rise and the critical temperature decreases on decreasing film thickness, as expected. More relevant, the critical fields along and perpendicular to the film plane are markedly different, thickness dependent and much larger than the thermodynamic critical field of Mo bulk. These results are consistent with a picture of type II 2D superconducting films, and allow estimates of the fundamental superconducting lengths of Mo. The role of morphology in determining the 2D and type II character of the otherwise type I molybdenum is discussed. The possible consequences of this behaviour on the performance of radiation detectors are also addressed.
Lagomarsino, M.C.; Dogterom, M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein
2003-01-01
We present computer simulations of long, thin, hard spherocylinders in a narrow planar slit. We observe a transition from the isotropic to a nematic phase with quasi-long-range orientational order upon increasing the density. This phase transition is intrinsically two-dimensional and of
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, L.
1981-08-01
With coherent potential approximation method the effect of the substitutional disorder in the pseudo one-dimensional conductors on the Peierls transition temperature (Tsub(p)) and superconductive transition temperature (Tsub(c)) has been calculated. The favourable condition for searching for somewhat high Tsub(c) superconductors in these systems has been discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caruana, C.M.
1988-01-01
Despite reports of new, high-temperature superconductive materials almost every day, participants at the First Congress on Superconductivity do not anticipate commercial applications with these materials soon. What many do envision is the discovery of superconducting materials that can function at much warmer, perhaps even room temperatures. Others hope superconductivity will usher in a new age of technology as semiconductors and transistors did. This article reviews what the speakers had to say at the four-day congress held in Houston last February. Several speakers voiced concern that the Reagan administration's apparent lack of interest in funding superconductivity research while other countries, notably Japan, continue to pour money into research and development could hamper America's international competitiveness
Ketterson, John B
2008-01-01
Conceived as the definitive reference in a classic and important field of modern physics, this extensive and comprehensive handbook systematically reviews the basic physics, theory and recent advances in the field of superconductivity. Leading researchers, including Nobel laureates, describe the state-of-the-art in conventional and unconventional superconductors at a particularly opportune time, as new experimental techniques and field-theoretical methods have emerged. In addition to full-coverage of novel materials and underlying mechanisms, the handbook reflects continued intense research into electron-phone based superconductivity. Considerable attention is devoted to high-Tc superconductivity, novel superconductivity, including triplet pairing in the ruthenates, novel superconductors, such as heavy-Fermion metals and organic materials, and also granular superconductors. What’s more, several contributions address superconductors with impurities and nanostructured superconductors. Important new results on...
Two-dimensional simulation of gas concentration impedance for a planar solid oxide fuel cell
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fadaei, M.; Mohammadi, R.; Ghassemi, M.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The 2D simulation shows another feature in concentration impedance. • The channel gas transport causes a capacitive behavior. • Anode polarization variation has a significant influence on velocity distribution. • The influence of 2D simulation is important for channel height bigger than 2 mm. - Abstract: This paper presents a two-dimensional model for a planar solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) anode in order to simulate the steady-state performance characteristics as well as the electrochemical impedance spectra. The developed model couples the mass transport with the electrochemical kinetics. The transient conservation equations (momentum and species equations) are solved numerically and the linear kinetic is used for the anode electrochemistry. In order to solve the system of the nonlinear equations, an in-house code based on the finite volume method is developed and utilized. A parametric study is also carried out and the results are discussed. Results show a capacitive semicircle in the Nyquist plot which is identical to the gas concentration impedance. The simulation results are in good agreement with published data
Proximity Induced Superconducting Properties in One and Two Dimensional Semiconductors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kjærgaard, Morten
This report is concerned with the properties of one and two dimensional semiconducting materials when brought into contact with a superconductor. Experimentally we study the 2D electron gas in an InGaAs/InAs heterostructure with aluminum grown in situ on the surface, and theoretically we show tha...
One- and two-dimensional sublattices as preconditions for high-Tc superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Krueger, E.
1989-01-01
In an earlier paper it was proposed describing superconductivity in the framework of a nonadiabatic Heisenberg model in order to interprete the outstanding symmetry proper ties of the (spin-dependent) Wannier functions in the conduction bands of superconductors. This new group-theoretical model suggests that Cooper pair formation can only be mediated by boson excitations carrying crystal-spin-angular momentum. While in the three-dimensionally isotropic lattices of the standard superconductors phonons are able to transport crystal-spin-angular momentum, this is not true for phonons propagating through the one- or two-dimensional Cu-O sublattices of the high-T c compounds. Therefore, if such an anisotropic material is superconducting, it is necessarily higher-energetic excitations (of well-defined symmetry) which mediate pair formation. This fact is proposed being responsible for the high transition temperatures of these compounds. (author)
Resistive transition in two-dimensional array of proximity-coupled superconducting weak links
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gao Peng; Yu Zheng; Wei Wang; Yao Xi-xian
1988-01-01
The Kosterlitz Thouless transition in two-dimensional arrays of proximity-coupled superconducting weak links has been studied in this paper. The samples were prepared by application of the vacuum-evaporation/photoengraving/chemical-etching technique. The experimental results of measurements on some samples of array film showed the existence of the K-T transition in these samples and were consistent with the theory of Lobb, Abraham, and Tinkham
Quasi-one-dimensional intermittent flux behavior in superconducting films
Qviller, A. J.; Yurchenko, V. V.; Galperin, Y. M.; Vestgården, J. I.; Mozhaev, Peter; Hansen, Jørn Bindslev; Johansen, T. H.
2012-01-01
Intermittent filamentary dynamics of the vortex matter in superconductors is found in films of YBa_{2}Cu_{3}O_{7-δ} deposited on tilted substrates. Deposition of this material on such substrates creates parallel channels of easy flux penetration when a magnetic field is applied perpendicular to the film. As the applied field is gradually increased, magneto-optical imaging reveals that flux penetrates via numerous quasi-one-dimensional jumps. The distribution of flux avalanche sizes follows a ...
Poole, Charles P; Creswick, Richard J; Prozorov, Ruslan
2014-01-01
Superconductivity, Third Edition is an encyclopedic treatment of all aspects of the subject, from classic materials to fullerenes. Emphasis is on balanced coverage, with a comprehensive reference list and significant graphics from all areas of the published literature. Widely used theoretical approaches are explained in detail. Topics of special interest include high temperature superconductors, spectroscopy, critical states, transport properties, and tunneling. This book covers the whole field of superconductivity from both the theoretical and the experimental point of view. This third edition features extensive revisions throughout, and new chapters on second critical field and iron based superconductors.
Koshelev, Alexei E.; Song, Kok Wee
We investigate the superconducting instability in the magnetic field for a clean two-dimensional multiple-band superconductor in the vicinity of the Lifshitz transition when one of the bands is very shallow. Due to a small number of carriers in this band, the quasiclassical Werthamer-Helfand approximation breaks down and Landau quantization has to be taken into account. We found that the transition temperature Tc 2 (H) has giant oscillations and is resonantly enhanced at the magnetic fields corresponding to full occupancy of the Landau levels in the shallow band. This enhancement is especially pronounced for the lowest Landau level. As a consequence, the reentrant superconducting regions in the temperature-field phase diagram emerge at low temperatures near the magnetic fields at which the chemical potential matches the Landau levels. These regions may be disconnected from the main low-field superconducting region. The specific behavior depends on the relative strength of the intraband and interband coupling constants and the effect is most pronounced when the interband coupling dominates. The Zeeman spin splitting reduces sizes of the reentrant regions and changes their location in the parameter space. The predicted behavior may realize in the gate-tuned FeSe monolayer. This work was supported by the Center for Emergent Superconductivity, an Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the US DOE, Office of Science, under Award No. DEAC0298CH1088.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lowndes, D.H.; Norton, D.P.
1993-01-01
Epitaxial trilayer and superlattice structures grown by pulsed laser ablation have been used to study the superconducting-to-normal transition of ultrathin (one and two c-axis unit cells) YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x layers. The normalized flux-flow resistances for several epitaxial structures containing two-cell-thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x films collapse onto the ''universal'' curve of the Ginzburg-Landau Coulomb Gas (GLCG) model. Analysis of normalized resistance data for a series of superlattices containing one-cell-thick YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x layers also is consistent with the behavior expected for quasi-two-dimensional layers in a highly anisotropic, layered three-dimensional superconductor. Current-voltage measurements for one of the trilayer structures also are consistent with the normalized resistance data, and with the GLCG model. Scanning tunneling microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and electrical transport studies show that growth-related steps in ultrathin YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x layers affect electrical continuity over macroscopic distances, acting as weak links. However , the perturbation of the superconducting order parameter can be minimized by utilizing hole-doped buffer and cap layers, on both sides of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x layer, in trilayers and superlattices. These results demonstrate the usefulness of epitaxial trilayer and superlattice structures as tools for systematic, fundamental studies of high-temperature superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Narlikar, A.V.
1993-01-01
Amongst the numerous scientific discoveries that the 20th century has to its credit, superconductivity stands out as an exceptional example of having retained its original dynamism and excitement even for more than 80 years after its discovery. It has proved itself to be a rich field by continually offering frontal challenges in both research and applications. Indeed, one finds that a majority of internationally renowned condensed matter theorists, at some point of their career, have found excitement in working in this important area. Superconductivity presents a unique example of having fetched Nobel awards as many as four times to date, and yet, interestingly enough, the field still remains open for new insights and discoveries which could undeniably be of immense technological value. 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1988-01-01
This book profiles the research activity of 42 companies in the superconductivity field, worldwide. It forms a unique and comprehensive directory to this emerging technology. For each research site, it details the various projects in progress, analyzes the level of activity, pinpoints applications and R and D areas, reviews strategies and provides complete contact information. It lists key individuals, offers international comparisons of government funding, reviews market forecasts and development timetables and features a bibliography of selected articles on the subject
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Buller, L.; Carrillo, F.; Dietert, R.; Kotziapashis, A.
1989-01-01
Superconductors are materials which combine the property of zero electric resistance with the capability to exclude any adjacent magnetic field. This leads to many large scale applications such as the much publicized levitating train, generation of magnetic fields in MHD electric generators, and special medical diagnostic equipment. On a smaller-scale, superconductive materials could replace existing resistive connectors and decrease signal delays by reducing the RLC time constants. Thus, a computer could operate at much higher speeds, and consequently at lower power levels which would reduce the need for heat removal and allow closer spacing of circuitry. Although technical advances and proposed applications are constantly being published, it should be recognized that superconductivity is a slowly developing technology. It has taken scientists almost eighty years to learn what they now know about this material and its function. The present paper provides an overview of the historical development of superconductivity and describes some of the potential applications for this new technology as it pertains to the electronics industry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santoyo, B.M.
1989-01-01
The author studies in full detail a possible mechanism of superconductivity in slender electronic systems of finite cross section. This mechanism is based on the pairing interaction mediated by the multiple modes of acoustic plasmons in these structures. First, he shows that multiple non-Landau-damped acoustic plasmon modes exist for electrons in a quasi-one dimensional wire at finite temperatures. These plasmons are of two basic types. The first one is made up by the collective longitudinal oscillations of the electrons essentially of a given transverse energy level oscillating against the electrons in the neighboring transverse energy level. The modes are called Slender Acoustic Plasmons or SAP's. The other mode is the quasi-one dimensional acoustic plasmon mode in which all the electrons oscillate together in phase among themselves but out of phase against the positive ion background. He shows numerically and argues physically that even for a temperature comparable to the mode separation Δω the SAP's and the quasi-one dimensional plasmon persist. Then, based on a clear physical picture, he develops in terms of the dielectric function a theory of superconductivity capable of treating the simultaneous participation of multiple bosonic modes that mediate the pairing interaction. The effect of mode damping is then incorporated in a simple manner that is free of the encumbrance of the strong-coupling, Green's function formalism usually required for the retardation effect. Explicit formulae including such damping are derived for the critical temperature T c and the energy gap Δ 0 . With those modes and armed with such a formalism, he proceeds to investigate a possible superconducting mechanism for high T c in quasi-one dimensional single-wire and multi-wire systems
Chua, Victor; Vissers, Michael; Law, Stephanie A.; Vishveshwara, Smitha; Eckstein, James N.
2015-03-01
We simulate the consequences of the superconducting proximity effect on the DC current response of a semiconductor-superconductor proximity device within the quasiclassical formalism in the diffusively disordered limit. The device is modeled on in-situ fabricated NS junctions of superconducting Nb films on metallic doped InAs films, with electrical terminals placed in an N-S-N T-junction configuration. Due to the non-collinear configuration of this three terminal device, a theoretical model based on coupled two dimensional spectral and distributional Usadel equations was constructed and numerically solved using Finite-Elements methods. In the regime of high junction conductance, our numerical results demonstrate strong temperature and spatial dependencies of the proximity induced modifications to spectral and transport properties. Such characteristics deviate strongly from usual tunnel junction behavior and aspects of this have been observed in prior experiments[arXiv:1402.6055].
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2007-01-01
During 2007, a large amount of the work was centred on the ITER project and related tasks. The activities based on low-temperature superconducting (LTS) materials included the manufacture and qualification of ITER full-size conductors under relevant operating conditions, the design of conductors and magnets for the JT-60SA tokamak and the manufacture of the conductors for the European dipole facility. A preliminary study was also performed to develop a new test facility at ENEA in order to test long-length ITER or DEMO full-size conductors. Several studies on different superconducting materials were also started to create a more complete database of superconductor properties, and also for use in magnet design. In this context, an extensive measurement campaign on transport and magnetic properties was carried out on commercially available NbTi strands. Work was started on characterising MgB 2 wire and bulk samples to optimise their performance. In addition, an intense experimental study was started to clarify the effect of mechanical loads on the transport properties of multi-filamentary Nb 3 Sn strands with twisted or untwisted superconducting filaments. The experimental activity on high-temperature superconducting (HTS) materials was mainly focussed on the development and characterisation of YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-X (YBCO) based coated conductors. Several characteristics regarding YBCO deposition, current transport performance and tape manufacture were investigated. In the framework of chemical approaches for YBCO film growth, a new method, developed in collaboration with the Technical University of Cluj-Napoca (TUCN), Romania, was studied to obtain YBCO film via chemical solution deposition, which modifies the well-assessed metallic organic deposition trifluoroacetate (MOD-TFA) approach. The results are promising in terms of critical current and film thickness values. YBCO properties in films with artificially added pinning sites were characterised in collaboration with
Salehi, Morteza; Jafari, S A
2017-08-15
We suggest that spin-singlet pseudo-scalar s-wave superconducting pairing creates a two dimensional sea of Majorana fermions on the surface of three dimensional Dirac superconductors (3DDS). This pseudo-scalar superconducting order parameter Δ 5 , in competition with scalar Dirac mass m, leads to a topological phase transition due to band inversion. We find that a perfect Andreev-Klein reflection is guaranteed by presence of anomalous Andreev reflection along with the conventional one. This effect manifests itself in a resonant peak of the differential conductance. Furthermore, Josephson current of the Δ 5 |m|Δ 5 junction in the presence of anomalous Andreev reflection is fractional with 4π period. Our finding suggests another search area for condensed matter realization of Majorana fermions which are beyond the vortex-core of p-wave superconductors. The required Δ 5 pairing can be extrinsically induced by a conventional s-wave superconductor into a three dimensional Dirac material (3DDM).
Three-dimensional multi-terminal superconductive integrated circuit inductance extraction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fourie, Coenrad J; Wetzstein, Olaf; Kunert, Jürgen; Ortlepp, Thomas
2011-01-01
Accurate inductance calculations are critical for the design of both digital and analogue superconductive integrated circuits, and three-dimensional calculations are gaining importance with the advent of inductive biasing, inductive coupling and sky plane shielding for RSFQ cells. InductEx, an extraction programme based on the three-dimensional calculation software FastHenry, was proposed earlier. InductEx uses segmentation techniques designed to accurately model the geometries of superconductive integrated circuit structures. Inductance extraction for complex multi-terminal three-dimensional structures from current distributions calculated by FastHenry is discussed. Results for both a reflection plane modelling an infinite ground plane and a finite segmented ground plane that allows inductive elements to extend over holes in the ground plane are shown. Several SQUIDs were designed for and fabricated with IPHT's 1 kA cm −2 RSFQ1D niobium process. These SQUIDs implement a number of loop structures that span different layers, include vias, inductively coupled control lines and ground plane holes. We measured the loop inductance of these SQUIDs and show how the results are used to calibrate the layer parameters in InductEx and verify the extraction accuracy. We also show that, with proper modelling, FastHenry can be fast enough to be used for the extraction of typical RSFQ cell inductances.
McFall, Brian C; Fritz, Hermann M
2016-04-01
Tsunamis generated by landslides and volcanic island collapses account for some of the most catastrophic events recorded, yet critically important field data related to the landslide motion and tsunami evolution remain lacking. Landslide-generated tsunami source and propagation scenarios are physically modelled in a three-dimensional tsunami wave basin. A unique pneumatic landslide tsunami generator was deployed to simulate landslides with varying geometry and kinematics. The landslides were generated on a planar hill slope and divergent convex conical hill slope to study lateral hill slope effects on the wave characteristics. The leading wave crest amplitude generated on a planar hill slope is larger on average than the leading wave crest generated on a convex conical hill slope, whereas the leading wave trough and second wave crest amplitudes are smaller. Between 1% and 24% of the landslide kinetic energy is transferred into the wave train. Cobble landslides transfer on average 43% more kinetic energy into the wave train than corresponding gravel landslides. Predictive equations for the offshore propagating wave amplitudes, periods, celerities and lengths generated by landslides on planar and divergent convex conical hill slopes are derived, which allow an initial rapid tsunami hazard assessment.
Majorana zero modes in the hopping-modulated one-dimensional p-wave superconducting model.
Gao, Yi; Zhou, Tao; Huang, Huaixiang; Huang, Ran
2015-11-20
We investigate the one-dimensional p-wave superconducting model with periodically modulated hopping and show that under time-reversal symmetry, the number of the Majorana zero modes (MZMs) strongly depends on the modulation period. If the modulation period is odd, there can be at most one MZM. However if the period is even, the number of the MZMs can be zero, one and two. In addition, the MZMs will disappear as the chemical potential varies. We derive the condition for the existence of the MZMs and show that the topological properties in this model are dramatically different from the one with periodically modulated potential.
Observation of high Tc one dimensional superconductivity in 4 angstrom carbon nanotube arrays
Zhang, Bing; Liu, Yang; Chen, Qihong; Lai, Zhiping; Sheng, Ping
2017-01-01
The only known approach to fabricate large, uniform arrays of 4-Å single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is by using zeolite crystals as the template, in which the nanotubes are formed by chemical vapor deposition inside the linear channels of the AlPO-5 (AFI for short) zeolite. However, up to now the pore filling factor has been very low, as evidenced by the weight percentage of carbon in thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. In this work, we show that by using a new, micro-platelet AFI crystals as the template, combined with the use of a new CVD process, we can increase the TGA result to 22.5wt%, which translates to a pore filling factor of 91%. We have observed one dimensional (1D) superconductivity in such samples. The temperature dependence of resistance shows a smooth decreasing trend below 60 K, and the differential resistance displays a gap that disappears above the 1D superconducting initiation temperature. The observed behaviour is shown to agree very well with the theoretical predictions of 1D superconductivity.
Observation of high Tc one dimensional superconductivity in 4 angstrom carbon nanotube arrays
Zhang, Bing
2017-02-14
The only known approach to fabricate large, uniform arrays of 4-Å single wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) is by using zeolite crystals as the template, in which the nanotubes are formed by chemical vapor deposition inside the linear channels of the AlPO-5 (AFI for short) zeolite. However, up to now the pore filling factor has been very low, as evidenced by the weight percentage of carbon in thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) measurements. In this work, we show that by using a new, micro-platelet AFI crystals as the template, combined with the use of a new CVD process, we can increase the TGA result to 22.5wt%, which translates to a pore filling factor of 91%. We have observed one dimensional (1D) superconductivity in such samples. The temperature dependence of resistance shows a smooth decreasing trend below 60 K, and the differential resistance displays a gap that disappears above the 1D superconducting initiation temperature. The observed behaviour is shown to agree very well with the theoretical predictions of 1D superconductivity.
Mechanism of Superconductivity in Quasi-Two-Dimensional Organic Conductor β-(BDA-TTP) Salts
Nonoyama, Yoshito; Maekawa, Yukiko; Kobayashi, Akito; Suzumura, Yoshikazu; Ito, Hiroshi
2008-09-01
We investigate theoretically the superconductivity of two-dimensional organic conductors, β-(BDA-TTP)2SbF6 and β-(BDA-TTP)2AsF6, to understand the role of the spin and charge fluctuations. The transition temperature is estimated by applying random phase approximation to an extended Hubbard model wherein realistic transfer energies are estimated by extended Hückel calculation. We find a gapless superconducting state with a dxy-like symmetry, which is consistent with the experimental results obtained by specific heat and scanning tunneling microscope. In the present model with an effectively half-filled triangular lattice, spin fluctuation competes with charge fluctuation as a mechanism of pairing interaction since both fluctuations have the same characteristic momentum q=(π,0) for V being smaller than U. This is in contrast to a model with a quarter-filled square lattice, wherein both fluctuations contribute cooperatively to pairing interaction due to fluctuations having different characteristic momenta. The resultant difference in the superconductivity of these two materials is also discussed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hechler, S.; Nawrodt, R.; Nietzsche, S.; Vodel, W.; Seidel, P. [Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany). Inst. fuer Festkoerperphysik; Dittus, H. [ZARM, Univ. Bremen (Germany); Loeffler, F. [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt, Braunschweig (Germany)
2007-07-01
Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are used for high precise gravitational experiments. One of the most impressive experiments is the satellite test of the equivalence principle (STEP) of NASA/ESA. The STEP mission aims to prove a possible violation of Einstein's equivalence principle at an extreme level of accuracy of 1 part in 10{sup 18} in space. In this contribution we present an automatically working measurement equipment to characterize 3-dimensional superconducting thin film components like i.e. pick-up coils and test masses for STEP. The characterization is done by measurements of the transition temperature between the normal and the superconducting state using a special built anti-cryostat. Above all the setup was designed for use in normal LHe transport Dewars. The sample chamber has a volume of 150 cm{sup 3} and can be fully temperature controlled over a range from 4.2 K to 300 K with a resolution of better then 100 mK. (orig.)
Uenishi, Koji
2018-06-01
We consider stability of fracture on a three-dimensional planar interface subjected to a loading stress that is locally peaked spatially, the level of which increases quasi-statically in time. Similar to the earlier study on the two-dimensional case (Uenishi and Rice, 2003; Rice and Uenishi, 2010), as the loading stress increases, a crack, or a region of displacement discontinuity (opening gap in tension or slip for shear fracture), develops on the interface where the stress is presumed to decrease according to a displacement-weakening constitutive relation. Upon reaching the instability point at which no further quasi-static solution for the extension of the crack on the interface exists, dynamic fracture follows. For the investigation of this instability point, we employ a dimensional analysis as well as an energy approach that gives a Rayleigh-Ritz approximation for the dependence of crack size and maximum displacement discontinuity on the level and quadratic shape of the loading stress distribution. We show that, if the linear displacement-weakening law is applied and the crack may be assumed of an elliptical form, the critical crack size at instability is independent of the curvature of the loading stress distribution and it is of the same order for all two- and three-dimensional cases.
Towards room-temperature superconductivity in low-dimensional C60 nanoarrays: An ab initio study
Erbahar, Dogan; Liu, Dan; Berber, Savas; Tománek, David
2018-04-01
We propose to raise the critical temperature Tc for superconductivity in doped C60 molecular crystals by increasing the electronic density of states at the Fermi level N (EF) and thus the electron-phonon coupling constant in low-dimensional C60 nanoarrays. We consider both electron and hole dopings and present numerical results for N (EF) , which increases with the decreasing bandwidth of the partly filled hu- and t1 u-derived frontier bands with the decreasing coordination number of C60. Whereas a significant increase in N (EF) occurs in two-dimensional (2D) arrays of doped C60 intercalated in-between graphene layers, we propose that the highest-Tc values approaching room temperature may occur in bundles of nanotubes filled by one-dimensional (1D) arrays of externally doped C60 or La @C60 or in diluted three-dimensional (3D) crystals where quasi-1D arrangements of C60 form percolation paths.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Batistoni, Paola; De Marco, Francesco; Pieroni, Leonardo [ed.
2005-07-01
Research on superconductivity at ENEA is mainly devoted to projects related to the ITER magnet system. In this framework, ENEA has been strongly involved in the design, manufacturing and test campaigns of the ITER toroidal field model coil (TFMC), which reached a world record in operating current (up to 80 kA). Further to this result, the activities in 2004 were devoted to optimising the ITER conductor performance. ENEA participated in the tasks launched by EFDA to define and produce industrial-scale advanced Nb3Sn strand to be used in manufacturing the ITER high-field central solenoid (CS) and toroidal field (TF) magnets. As well as contributing to the design of the new strand and the final conductor layout, ENEA will also perform characterisation tests, addressing in particular the influence of mechanical stress on the Nb3Sn performance. As a member of the international ITER-magnet testing group, ENEA plays a central role in the measurement campaigns and data analyses for each ITER-related conductor and coil. The next phase in the R and D of the ITER magnets will be their mechanical characterisation in order to define the fabrication route of the coils and structures. During 2004 the cryogenic measurement campaign on the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) by-pass diode stacks was completed. As the diode-test activity was the only LHC contract to be finished on schedule, the 'Centre Europeenne pour la Recherche Nucleaire' (CERN) asked ENEA to participate in an international tender for the cold check of the current leads for the LHC magnets. The contract was obtained, and during 2004, the experimental setup was designed and realised and the data acquisition system was developed. The measurement campaign was successfully started at the end of 2004 and will be completed in 2006.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marco Giorgio Bevilacqua
2016-03-01
Full Text Available In the field of documentation and preservation of cultural heritage, there is keen interest in 3D metric viewing and rendering of architecture for both formal appearance and color. On the other hand, operative steps of restoration interventions still require full-scale, 2D metric surface representations. The transition from 3D to 2D representation, with the related geometric transformations, has not yet been fully formalized for planar development of frescoed vaults. Methodologies proposed so far on this subject provide transitioning from point cloud models to ideal mathematical surfaces and projecting textures using software tools. The methodology used for geometry and texture development in the present work does not require any dedicated software. The different processing steps can be individually checked for any error introduced, which can be then quantified. A direct accuracy check of the planar development of the frescoed surface has been carried out by qualified restorers, yielding a result of 3 mm. The proposed methodology, although requiring further studies to improve automation of the different processing steps, allowed extracting 2D drafts fully usable by operators restoring the vault frescoes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wong, C.H., E-mail: ch.kh.vong@urfu.ru [Institute of Physics and Technology, Ural Federal University, Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Russian Federation); Wu, R.P.H., E-mail: pak-hong-raymond.wu@connect.polyu.hk [Department of Applied Physics, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University (Hong Kong); Lortz, R., E-mail: lortz@ust.hk [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)
2017-03-15
The dimensional crossover from a 1D fluctuating state at high temperatures to a 3D phase coherent state in the low temperature regime in two coaxial weakly-coupled cylindrical surfaces formed by two-dimensional arrays of parallel nanowires is studied via an 8-state 3D-XY model. This system serves as a model for quasi-one-dimensional superconductors in the form of bundles of weakly-coupled superconducting nanowires. A periodic variation of the dimensional crossover temperature T{sub DC} is observed when the inner superconducting cylindrical surface is rotated in the angular plane. T{sub DC} reaches a maximum when the relative angle between the cylinders is 2.81°, which corresponds to the maximum separation of nanowires between the two cylindrical surfaces. We demonstrate that the relative strength of phase fluctuations in this system is controllable by the rotational angle between the two surfaces with a strong suppression of the fluctuation strength at 2.81°. The phase fluctuations are suppressed gradually upon cooling, before they abruptly vanish below T{sub DC}. Our model thus allows us to study how phase fluctuations can be suppressed in quasi-one-dimensional superconductors in order to achieve a global phase coherent state throughout the nanowire array with zero electric resistance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yurchenko, V.V., E-mail: vitaliy.yurchenko@fys.uio.n [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.B. 1048, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Qviller, A.J. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.B. 1048, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway); Mozhaev, P.B.; Mozhaeva, J.E. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Institute of Physics and Technology RAS, Moscow 117218 (Russian Federation); Hansen, J.B.; Jacobsen, C.S. [Department of Physics, Technical University of Denmark, Kgs. Lyngby DK-2800 (Denmark); Kotelyanskii, I.M. [Institute of Radio Engineering and Electronics RAS, Fryazino, 141190 Moscow District (Russian Federation); Pan, A.V. [Institute for Superconducting and Electronic Materials, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Wollongong 2522 (Australia); Johansen, T.H. [Department of Physics, University of Oslo, P.B. 1048, Blindern, 0316 Oslo (Norway)
2010-10-01
Regular arrays of planar defects with a period of a few nanometers can be introduced in superconducting YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}(YBCO) thin films by depositing them on vicinal (also called miscut or tilted) substrates. This results in the anisotropy of critical currents flowing in the plane of the film. We present results of real-time magneto-optical imaging (MOI) of magnetic flux distribution and dynamics in a series of YBCO thin films deposited on NdGaO{sub 3} substrates with different miscut angles {theta}. MOI allows reconstructing the current flow profiles. From the angle formed between domains with different directions of the current flow we determine the anisotropy parameter of the in-plane current, as well as its field and temperature dependences. The artificially introduced defects also have a dramatic effect on the dynamics of the flux propagation: for 10{sup o}<{theta}<14{sup o} the magnetic flux propagates along the easy channels intermittently, i.e. in a form of flux jumps. This behavior is indicative of thermo-magnetic instability in superconductors, but we argue that this effect can be of a different nature.
Magnetotransport and induced superconductivity in Bi based three-dimensional topological insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veldhorst, M.; Snelder, M.; Hoek, M.; Molenaar, C.G.; Leusink, D.P.; Golubov, A.A.; Hilgenkamp, H.; Brinkman, A.
2013-01-01
The surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator is conducting and the topologically nontrivial nature of the surface states is observed in experiments. It is the aim of this paper to review and analyze experimental observations with respect to the magnetotransport in Bi-based 3D topological insulators, as well as the superconducting transport properties of hybrid structures consisting of superconductors and these topological insulators. The helical spin-momentum coupling of the surface state electrons becomes visible in quantum corrections to the conductivity and magnetoresistance oscillations. An analysis will be provided of the reported magnetoresistance, also in the presence of bulk conductivity shunts. Special attention is given to the large and linear magnetoresistance. Superconductivity can be induced in topological superconductors by means of the proximity effect. The induced supercurrents, Josephson effects and current-phase relations will be reviewed. These materials hold great potential in the field of spintronics and the route towards Majorana devices. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Magnetotransport and induced superconductivity in Bi based three-dimensional topological insulators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veldhorst, M.; Snelder, M.; Hoek, M.; Molenaar, C.G.; Leusink, D.P.; Golubov, A.A.; Hilgenkamp, H.; Brinkman, A. [MESA + Institute for Nanotechnology, University of Twente, P.O. Box 217, 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)
2013-02-15
The surface of a three-dimensional (3D) topological insulator is conducting and the topologically nontrivial nature of the surface states is observed in experiments. It is the aim of this paper to review and analyze experimental observations with respect to the magnetotransport in Bi-based 3D topological insulators, as well as the superconducting transport properties of hybrid structures consisting of superconductors and these topological insulators. The helical spin-momentum coupling of the surface state electrons becomes visible in quantum corrections to the conductivity and magnetoresistance oscillations. An analysis will be provided of the reported magnetoresistance, also in the presence of bulk conductivity shunts. Special attention is given to the large and linear magnetoresistance. Superconductivity can be induced in topological superconductors by means of the proximity effect. The induced supercurrents, Josephson effects and current-phase relations will be reviewed. These materials hold great potential in the field of spintronics and the route towards Majorana devices. (copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
den Hartog, S.G.; Wees, B.J.van; Klapwijk, T.M; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.
1997-01-01
We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless
Realizing three-dimensional artificial spin ice by stacking planar nano-arrays
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chern, Gia-Wei; Reichhardt, Charles; Nisoli, Cristiano
2014-01-01
Artificial spin ice is a frustrated magnetic two-dimensional nano-material, recently employed to study variety of tailor-designed unusual collective behaviours. Recently proposed extensions to three dimensions are based on self-assembly techniques and allow little control over geometry and disorder. We present a viable design for the realization of a three-dimensional artificial spin ice with the same level of precision and control allowed by lithographic nano-fabrication of the popular two-dimensional case. Our geometry is based on layering already available two-dimensional artificial spin ice and leads to an arrangement of ice-rule-frustrated units, which is topologically equivalent to that of the tetrahedra in a pyrochlore lattice. Consequently, we show, it exhibits a genuine ice phase and its excitations are, as in natural spin ice materials, magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb law
Engineering a light-emitting planar defect within three-dimensional photonic crystals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Guiqiang Liu, Yan Chen and Zhiqing Ye
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Sandwich structures, constructed from a planar defect of rhodamine-B (RhB-doped titania (TiO2 and two photonic crystals, were synthesized via the self-assembly method combined with spin-coating. The modification of the spontaneous emission of RhB molecules in such structures was investigated experimentally. The spontaneous emission of RhB-doped TiO2 film with photonic crystals was reduced by a factor of 5.5 over a large bandwidth of 13% of the first-order Bragg diffraction frequency when compared with that of RhB-doped TiO2 film without photonic crystals. The angular dependence of the modification and the photoluminescence lifetime of RhB molecules demonstrate that the strong and wide suppression of the spontaneous emission of the RhB molecules is due to the presence of the photonic band gap.
Engineering a light-emitting planar defect within three-dimensional photonic crystals
Liu, Guiqiang; Chen, Yan; Ye, Zhiqing
2009-01-01
Sandwich structures, constructed from a planar defect of rhodamine-B (RhB)-doped titania (TiO2) and two photonic crystals, were synthesized via the self-assembly method combined with spin-coating. The modification of the spontaneous emission of RhB molecules in such structures was investigated experimentally. The spontaneous emission of RhB-doped TiO2 film with photonic crystals was reduced by a factor of 5.5 over a large bandwidth of 13% of the first-order Bragg diffraction frequency when compared with that of RhB-doped TiO2 film without photonic crystals. The angular dependence of the modification and the photoluminescence lifetime of RhB molecules demonstrate that the strong and wide suppression of the spontaneous emission of the RhB molecules is due to the presence of the photonic band gap. PMID:27877309
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rađenović Branislav M.
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper contains results of the three-dimensional simulations of the surface topography evolution of the niobium superconducting radio frequency cavities during isotropic and anisotropic etching modes. The initial rough surface is determined from the experimental power spectral density. The simulation results based on the level set method reveal that the time dependence of the root mean square roughness obeys Family-Viscek scaling law. The growth exponential factors b are determined for both etching modes. Exponential factor for the isotropic etching is 100 times lower than that for the anisotropic etching mode reviling that the isotropic etching is very useful mechanism of the smoothing. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. O171037 i br. III45006
He, Mingquan; Wong, Chi Ho; Shi, Dian; Tse, Pok Lam; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Eickerling, Georg; Scherer, Wolfgang; Sheng, Ping; Lortz, Rolf
2015-02-25
The transition metal carbide superconductor Sc(3)CoC(4) may represent a new benchmark system of quasi-one-dimensional (quasi-1D) superconducting behavior. We investigate the superconducting transition of a high-quality single crystalline sample by electrical transport experiments. Our data show that the superconductor goes through a complex dimensional crossover below the onset T(c) of 4.5 K. First, a quasi-1D fluctuating superconducting state with finite resistance forms in the [CoC(4)](∞) ribbons which are embedded in a Sc matrix in this material. At lower temperature, the transversal Josephson or proximity coupling of neighboring ribbons establishes a 3D bulk superconducting state. This dimensional crossover is very similar to Tl(2)Mo(6)Se(6), which for a long time has been regarded as the most appropriate model system of a quasi-1D superconductor. Sc(3)CoC(4) appears to be even more in the 1D limit than Tl(2)Mo(6)Se(6).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crisan, M.
1988-01-01
This book discusses the most important aspects of the theory. The phenomenological model is followed by the microscopic theory of superconductivity, in which modern formalism of the many-body theory is used to treat most important problems such as superconducting alloys, coexistence of superconductivity with the magnetic order, and superconductivity in quasi-one-dimensional systems. It concludes with a discussion on models for exotic and high temperature superconductivity. Its main aim is to review, as complete as possible, the theory of superconductivity from classical models and methods up to the 1987 results on high temperature superconductivity. Contents: Phenomenological Theory of Superconductivity; Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity; Theory of Superconducting Alloys; Superconductors in a Magnetic Field; Superconductivity and Magnetic Order; Superconductivity in Quasi-One-Dimensional Systems; and Non-Conventional Superconductivity
Holdsworth, Samantha J; Yeom, Kristen W; Moseley, Michael E; Skare, S
2015-05-01
Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) in neuroimaging can be challenging due to long scan times of three-dimensional (3D) gradient recalled echo (GRE), while faster techniques such as 3D interleaved echo-planar imaging (iEPI) are prone to motion artifacts. Here we outline and implement a 3D short-axis propeller echo-planar imaging (SAP-EPI) trajectory as a faster, motion-correctable approach for SWI. Experiments were conducted on a 3T MRI system. The 3D SAP-EPI, 3D iEPI, and 3D GRE SWI scans were acquired on two volunteers. Controlled motion experiments were conducted to test the motion-correction capability of 3D SAP-EPI. The 3D SAP-EPI SWI data were acquired on two pediatric patients as a potential alternative to 2D GRE used clinically. The 3D GRE images had a better target resolution (0.47 × 0.94 × 2 mm, scan time = 5 min), iEPI and SAP-EPI images (resolution = 0.94 × 0.94 × 2 mm) were acquired in a faster scan time (1:52 min) with twice the brain coverage. SAP-EPI showed motion-correction capability and some immunity to undersampling from rejected data. While 3D SAP-EPI suffers from some geometric distortion, its short scan time and motion-correction capability suggest that SAP-EPI may be a useful alternative to GRE and iEPI for use in SWI, particularly in uncooperative patients. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Basha, Tamer A; Akçakaya, Mehmet; Goddu, Beth; Berg, Sophie; Nezafat, Reza
2015-01-01
The aim of this study was to implement and evaluate an accelerated three-dimensional (3D) cine phase contrast MRI sequence by combining a randomly sampled 3D k-space acquisition sequence with an echo planar imaging (EPI) readout. An accelerated 3D cine phase contrast MRI sequence was implemented by combining EPI readout with randomly undersampled 3D k-space data suitable for compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction. The undersampled data were then reconstructed using low-dimensional structural self-learning and thresholding (LOST). 3D phase contrast MRI was acquired in 11 healthy adults using an overall acceleration of 7 (EPI factor of 3 and CS rate of 3). For comparison, a single two-dimensional (2D) cine phase contrast scan was also performed with sensitivity encoding (SENSE) rate 2 and approximately at the level of the pulmonary artery bifurcation. The stroke volume and mean velocity in both the ascending and descending aorta were measured and compared between two sequences using Bland-Altman plots. An average scan time of 3 min and 30 s, corresponding to an acceleration rate of 7, was achieved for 3D cine phase contrast scan with one direction flow encoding, voxel size of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) , foot-head coverage of 6 cm and temporal resolution of 30 ms. The mean velocity and stroke volume in both the ascending and descending aorta were statistically equivalent between the proposed 3D sequence and the standard 2D cine phase contrast sequence. The combination of EPI with a randomly undersampled 3D k-space sampling sequence using LOST reconstruction allows a seven-fold reduction in scan time of 3D cine phase contrast MRI without compromising blood flow quantification. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez, J.
2010-10-01
A standard numerical procedure for the solution of singular integral equations is applied to the one-dimensional transport equation for monoenergetic neutrons. As is usual in quadrature methods, the procedure yields an Eigen system whose solution provide, for the critical slab, both the eigenvalue which is proportional to the number of secondary neutrons per collision, and the density as a function of position. The results obtained with two versions of the procedure, differing only in the extent of the basic region to which they are applied, are compared with analytically derived results available for benchmarking. The procedures considered yield consistent results for the calculated neutron densities and eigenvalues. Since the one-dimensional transport kernel and its spatial moments are integrable and their integrals can be put in terms of exponential integral functions, the resulting approximations to the neutron density yield somewhat lengthy but closed, forms. These approximate expressions of the neutron density can be used to render, after they are operated on, closed-form formulas for build-up factors, extrapolation distances or angular densities or employed for other purposes that require an analytical expression of the neutron density. As an example of this latter capability, the results of the calculation of the angular density at the surface of the slab are provided. (Author)
Method to planarize three-dimensional structures to enable conformal electrodes
Nikolic, Rebecca J; Conway, Adam M; Graff, Robert T; Reinhardt, Catherine; Voss, Lars F; Shao, Qinghui
2012-11-20
Methods for fabricating three-dimensional PIN structures having conformal electrodes are provided, as well as the structures themselves. The structures include a first layer and an array of pillars with cavity regions between the pillars. A first end of each pillar is in contact with the first layer. A segment is formed on the second end of each pillar. The cavity regions are filled with a fill material, which may be a functional material such as a neutron sensitive material. The fill material covers each segment. A portion of the fill material is etched back to produce an exposed portion of the segment. A first electrode is deposited onto the fill material and each exposed segment, thereby forming a conductive layer that provides a common contact to each the exposed segment. A second electrode is deposited onto the first layer.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ye Zhang
2017-10-01
Full Text Available In this paper, a fast three-dimensional (3-D frequency scaling algorithm (FSA with large depth of focus is presented for near-field planar millimeter-wave (MMW holographic imaging. Considering the cross-range range coupling term which is neglected in the conventional range migration algorithm (RMA, we propose an algorithm performing the range cell migration correction for de-chirped signals without interpolation by using a 3-D frequency scaling operation. First, to deal with the cross-range range coupling term, a 3-D frequency scaling operator is derived to eliminate the space variation of range cell migration. Then, a range migration correction factor is performed to compensate for the residual range cell migration. Finally, the imaging results are obtained by matched filtering in the cross-range direction. Compared with the conventional RMA, the proposed algorithm is comparable in accuracy but more efficient by using only chirp multiplications and fast Fourier transforms (FFTs. The algorithm has been tested with satisfying results by both simulation and experiment.
All Fiber-Coupled OH Planar Laser-Induced-Fluorescence (OH-PLIF)-Based Two-Dimensional Thermometry.
Hsu, Paul S; Jiang, Naibo; Patnaik, Anil K; Katta, Vish; Roy, Sukesh; Gord, James R
2018-04-01
Two-color, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF)-based two-dimensional (2D) thermometry techniques for reacting flows, which are typically developed in the laboratory conditions, face a stiff challenge in their practical implementation in harsh environments such as combustion rigs. In addition to limited optical access, the critical experimental conditions (i.e., uncontrolled humidity, vibration, and large thermal gradients) often restrict sensitive laser system operation and cause difficulties maintaining beam-overlap. Thus, an all fiber-coupled, two-color OH-PLIF system has been developed, employing two long optical fibers allowing isolation of the laser and signal-collection systems. Two OH-excitation laser beams (∼283 nm and ∼286 nm) are delivered through a common 6 m long, 400 µm core, deep ultraviolet (UV)-enhanced multimode fiber. The fluorescence signal (∼310 nm) is collected by a 3 m long, UV-grade imaging fiber. Proof-of-principle temperature measurements are demonstrated in atmospheric pressure, near adiabatic, CH 4 /O 2 /N 2 jet flames. The effects of the excitation pulse interval on fiber transmission are investigated. The proof-of-principle measurements show significant promise for thermometry in harsh environments such as gas turbine engine tests.
Robinson, Matthew E; Nazemi, Ali; Lunn, David J; Hayward, Dominic W; Boott, Charlotte E; Hsiao, Ming-Siao; Harniman, Robert L; Davis, Sean A; Whittell, George R; Richardson, Robert M; De Cola, Luisa; Manners, Ian
2017-09-26
Square-planar platinum(II) complexes often stack cofacially to yield supramolecular fiber-like structures with interesting photophysical properties. However, control over fiber dimensions and the resulting colloidal stability is limited. We report the self-assembly of amphiphilic Pt(II) complexes with solubilizing ancillary ligands based on polyethylene glycol [PEG n , where n = 16, 12, 7]. The complex with the longest solubilizing PEG ligand, Pt-PEG 16 , self-assembled to form polydisperse one-dimensional (1D) nanofibers (diameters fibers of length up to ca. 400 nm. The fiber lengths were dependent on the Pt-PEG 16 complex to seed mass ratio in a manner analogous to a living covalent polymerization of molecular monomers. Moreover, the fiber lengths were unchanged in solution after 1 week and were therefore "static" with respect to interfiber exchange processes on this time scale. In contrast, similarly formed near-uniform fibers of Pt-PEG 12 exhibited dynamic behavior that led to broadening of the length distribution within 48 h. After aging for 4 weeks in solution, Pt-PEG 12 fibers partially evolved into 2D platelets. Furthermore, self-assembly of Pt-PEG 7 yielded only transient fibers which rapidly evolved into 2D platelets. On addition of further fiber-forming Pt complex (Pt-PEG 16 ), the platelets formed assemblies via the growth of fibers selectively from their short edges. Our studies demonstrate that when interfiber dynamic exchange is suppressed, dimensional control and hierarchical structure formation are possible for supramolecular polymers through the use of kinetically controlled seeded growth methods.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Qihua Zhang
Full Text Available Abstract To describe flow-induced fiber orientation, the Fokker-Planck equation is widely applied in the processing of composites and fiber suspensions. The analytical solution only exists when the Péclet number is infinite. So developing a numerical method covering a full range of Péclet number is of great significance. To accurately solve the Fokker-Planck equation, a numerical scheme based on the finite volume method is developed. Using spherical symmetry, the boundary is discretized and formulated into a cyclic tridiagonal matrix which is further solved by the CTDMA algorithm. To examine its validity, benchmark tests over a wide range of Péclet number are performed in a simple shear flow. For Pe=∞, the results agree well with the analytical solutions. For the other Pe numbers, the results are compared to results available in the literature. The tests show that this algorithm is accurate, stable, and globally conservative. Furthermore, this algorithm can be extended and used to predict the three-dimensional orientation distribution of complex suspension flows.
Quasi-two-dimensional superconductivity in wurtzite-structured InN films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ling, D.C.; Cheng, J.H.; Lo, Y.Y.; Du, C.H.; Chiu, A.P.; Chang, P.H.; Chang, C.A.
2007-01-01
C-axis oriented InN films with wurtzite structure were grown on sapphire(0001) substrate by MOCVD method. Superconductivity with transition onset temperature T c,onset around 3.5 K has been characterized by magnetotransport measurements in fields up to 9 Tesla for films with carrier concentration in the range of 1 x 10 19 cm -3 to 7 x 10 20 cm -3 . Among them, the film with a nitridation buffer layer has the highest zero-resistance temperature T c0 of 2 K. The normal-state magnetoresistance follows Kohler's rule ΔR/R∝(H/R) 2 , indicating that there is a single species of charge carrier with single scattering time at all points on the Fermi surface. The extrapolated value of zero-temperature upper critical field H c2 ab (0) and H c2 c (0) is estimated to be 5900 G and 2800 G, respectively, giving rise to the anisotropy parameter γ about 2.1. The angular dependence of the upper critical field is in good agreement with the behavior predicted by Lawrence-Doniach model in the two-dimensional (2D) limit strongly suggesting that the InN film is a quasi-2D superconductor. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Athe, Pratik; Srivastava, Sanjay; Thapa, Khem B.
2018-04-01
In the present work, we demonstrate the generation of optical Fano resonance and electromagnetically induced reflectance (EIR) in one-dimensional superconducting photonic crystal (1D SPC) by numerical simulation using transfer matrix method as analysis tool. We investigated the optical response of 1D SPC structure consisting of alternate layer of two different superconductors and observed that the optical spectra of this structure exhibit two narrow reflectance peaks with zero reflectivity of sidebands. Further, we added a dielectric cap layer to this 1D SPC structure and found that addition of dielectric cap layer transforms the line shape of sidebands around the narrow reflectance peaks which leads to the formation of Fano resonance and EIR line shape in reflectance spectra. We also studied the effects of the number of periods, refractive index and thickness of dielectric cap layer on the lineshape of EIR and Fano resonances. It was observed that the amplitude of peak reflectance of EIR achieves 100% reflectance by increasing the number of periods.
Fidelity study of the superconducting phase diagram in the two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model
Jia, C. J.; Moritz, B.; Chen, C.-C.; Shastry, B. Sriram; Devereaux, T. P.
2011-09-01
Extensive numerical studies have demonstrated that the two-dimensional single-band Hubbard model contains much of the key physics in cuprate high-temperature superconductors. However, there is no definitive proof that the Hubbard model truly possesses a superconducting ground state or, if it does, of how it depends on model parameters. To answer these longstanding questions, we study an extension of the Hubbard model including an infinite-range d-wave pair field term, which precipitates a superconducting state in the d-wave channel. Using exact diagonalization on 16-site square clusters, we study the evolution of the ground state as a function of the strength of the pairing term. This is achieved by monitoring the fidelity metric of the ground state, as well as determining the ratio between the two largest eigenvalues of the d-wave pair/spin/charge-density matrices. The calculations show a d-wave superconducting ground state in doped clusters bracketed by a strong antiferromagnetic state at half filling controlled by the Coulomb repulsion U and a weak short-range checkerboard charge ordered state at larger hole doping controlled by the next-nearest-neighbor hopping t'. We also demonstrate that negative t' plays an important role in facilitating d-wave superconductivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsuda, Kenji; Saeki, Tomoaki; Nishimura, Katsuhiko; Ikeno, Susumu; Mori, Katsunori; Yabumoto, Yukinobu
2006-01-01
Superconductive MgB 2 /Al composite material with low and high volume fractions of particles were fabricated by our special pre-packing technique and 3-dimensional penetration casting method. The composite material showed homogeneous distribution of MgB 2 particles in the Al-matrix with neither any aggregation of particles nor defects such as cracks or cavities. The critical temperature of superconducting transition (T C ) was determined by electrical resistivity and magnetization to be about 37-39 K. Specific heat measurements further supported these T C findings. The Meissner effect was also verified in the liquid He, in which a piece of the composite floated above a permanent magnet. The thermal conductivity of the MgB 2 /Al composite material was about 25 W/K·m at 30K, a value much higher than those found for NbTi or Nb 3 Sn superconducting wires normally used in practice, which are 0.5 and 0.2 W/K·m at 10 K, respectively. A billet of the superconducting material was successfully hot-extruded, forming a rod. The same as the billet sample, the rod showed an onset T C of electrical resistivity of 39 K. (author)
Peng, Lele; Peng, Xu; Liu, Borui; Wu, Changzheng; Xie, Yi; Yu, Guihua
2013-05-08
Planar supercapacitors have recently attracted much attention owing to their unique and advantageous design for 2D nanomaterials based energy storage devices. However, improving the electrochemical performance of planar supercapacitors still remains a great challenge. Here we report for the first time a novel, high-performance in-plane supercapacitor based on hybrid nanostructures of quasi-2D ultrathin MnO2/graphene nanosheets. Specifically, the planar structures based on the δ-MnO2 nanosheets integrated on graphene sheets not only introduce more electrochemically active surfaces for absorption/desorption of electrolyte ions, but also bring additional interfaces at the hybridized interlayer areas to facilitate charge transport during charging/discharging processes. The unique structural design for planar supercapacitors enables great performance enhancements compared to graphene-only devices, exhibiting high specific capacitances of 267 F/g at current density of 0.2 A/g and 208 F/g at 10 A/g and excellent rate capability and cycling stability with capacitance retention of 92% after 7000 charge/discharge cycles. Moreover, the high planar malleability of planar supercapacitors makes possible superior flexibility and robust cyclability, yielding capacitance retention over 90% after 1000 times of folding/unfolding. Ultrathin 2D nanomaterials represent a promising material platform to realize highly flexible planar energy storage devices as the power back-ups for stretchable/flexible electronic devices.
d-wave superconductivity in the frustrated two-dimensional periodic Anderson model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wei Wu
2015-02-01
Full Text Available Superconductivity in heavy-fermion materials can sometimes appear in the incoherent regime and in proximity to an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. Here, we study these phenomena using large-scale determinant quantum Monte Carlo simulations and the dynamical cluster approximation with various impurity solvers for the periodic Anderson model with frustrated hybridization. We obtain solid evidence for a d_{x^{2}−y^{2}} superconducting phase arising from an incoherent normal state in the vicinity of an antiferromagnetic quantum critical point. There is a coexistence region, and the width of the superconducting dome increases with frustration. Through a study of the pairing dynamics, we find that the retarded spin fluctuations give the main contribution to the pairing glue. These results are relevant for unconventional superconductivity in the Ce-115 family of heavy fermions.
Sekihara, Takayuki; Masutomi, Ryuichi; Okamoto, Tohru
2013-08-02
Two-dimensional (2D) superconductivity was studied by magnetotransport measurements on single-atomic-layer Pb films on a cleaved GaAs(110) surface. The superconducting transition temperature shows only a weak dependence on the parallel magnetic field up to 14T, which is higher than the Pauli paramagnetic limit. Furthermore, the perpendicular-magnetic-field dependence of the sheet resistance is almost independent of the presence of the parallel field component. These results are explained in terms of an inhomogeneous superconducting state predicted for 2D metals with a large Rashba spin splitting.
Gómez-Urrea, H. A.; Escorcia-García, J.; Duque, C. A.; Mora-Ramos, M. E.
2017-11-01
The transmittance spectrum of a one-dimensional hybrid photonic crystal built from the suitable arrangement of periodic and quasiregular Rudin-Shapiro heterolayers that include superconducting slabs is investigated. The four-layer Rudin-Shapiro structure is designed with three lossless dielectric layers and a low-temperature superconductor one. The dielectric function of the superconducting layer is modeled by the two-fluid Gorter-Casimir theory, and the transmittance is calculated with the use of the transfer matrix method. The obtained results reveal the presence of a cut-off frequency fc - a forbidden frequency band for propagation - that can be manipulated by changing the width of the superconducting layer, the temperature and the order of the Rudin-Shapiro sequence. In addition, the spatial distribution of the electric field amplitude for the propagating TM modes is also discussed. It is found that the maximum of localized electric field relative intensity - which reaches a value of several tens - corresponds to the frequency values above to the cut-off frequency, at which, the effective dielectric function of the hybrid unit cell becomes zero. The proposed structure could be another possible system for optical device design for temperature-dependent optical devices such as stop-band filters, or as bolometers.
Coupling of structure to magnetic and superconducting orders in quasi-one-dimensional K2Cr3As3
Taddei, K. M.; Zheng, Q.; Sefat, A. S.; de la Cruz, C.
2017-11-01
Quasi-one-dimensional A2Cr3As3 (with A =K , Cs, Rb) is an intriguing new family of superconductors which exhibit many similar features to the cuprate and iron-based unconventional superconductor families. Yet, in contrast to these systems, no charge or magnetic ordering has been observed which could provide the electronic correlations presumed necessary for an unconventional superconducting pairing mechanism—an absence which defies predictions of first-principles models. We report the results of neutron scattering experiments on polycrystalline K2Cr3As3 (Tc˜7 K ) which probed the low-temperature dynamics near Tc. Neutron diffraction data evidence a subtle response of the nuclear lattice to the onset of superconductivity while inelastic scattering reveals a highly dispersive column of intensity at the commensurate wave vector q =(00 1/2 ) which loses intensity beneath Tc—indicative of short-range magnetic fluctuations. Using linear spin-wave theory, we model the observed scattering and suggest a possible structure to the short-range magnetic order. These observations suggest that K2Cr3As3 is in close proximity to a magnetic instability and that the incipient magnetic order both couples strongly to the lattice and competes with superconductivity, in direct analogy with the iron-based superconductors.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, Otto Mølby; Lonsdale, Markus Georg; Jensen, T D
2009-01-01
. Bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive for the detection of fractures, but exact localization of scintigraphic lesions may be difficult and can negatively affect diagnostic accuracy. PURPOSE: To investigate the influence of image fusion of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs on image interpretation......BACKGROUND: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the gold standard in second-line imaging of patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative radiographs, bone scintigraphy can be used in patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other contraindications to MRI....... CONCLUSION: Image fusion of planar bone scintigrams and radiographs has a significant influence on image interpretation and increases both diagnostic confidence and interobserver agreement....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dinh Sy Hien; Nguyen Thi Luong; Thi Tran Anh Tuan; Dinh Viet Nga
2009-01-01
We provide a CNTFET model with planar geometry. Planar CNTFETs constitute the majority of devices fabricated to date, mostly due to their relative simplicity and moderate compatibility with existing manufacturing technologies. We explore the possibilities of using non-equilibrium Green function method to get I-V characteristics for CNTFETs. This simulator also includes a graphic user interface (GUI) of Matlab that enables parameter entry, calculation control, intuitive display of calculation results, and in-situ data analysis methods. In this paper, we review the capabilities of simulator, and give examples of typical CNTFET 3D simulations. The I-V characteristics of CNTFET are also presented.
Field theory methods applied for the study of superconductivity in one-dimensional systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martins, M.J.
1986-01-01
It is shown that the Froehlich's hamiltonian in one spatial dimension is identical to that of an exactly solvable field Theory. The spectrum of the theory is computed. A critical coupling is found above which the system becomes unstable, indicating a superconducting transition. It is also proposed and investigated a renormalizable relativistic field theory model in two space-time dimensions, with quartic self-interaction among N species of fermions, which undergoes dynamical generation of a superconducting gap and is asymptotically free. A finite temperature is introduced and, for N -> ∞ a critical value T c is found above which the gap vanishes. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jerome, D.
1980-01-01
We present the experimental evidences for the existence of a superconducting state in the Quasi One Dimensional organic conductor (TMTSF) 2 PF 6 . Superconductivity occuring at 1 K under 12 kbar is characterized by a zero resistance diamagnetic state. The anistropy of the upper critical field of this type II superconductor is consistent with the band structure anistropy. We present evidences for the existence of large superconducting precursor effects giving rise to a dominant paraconductive contribution below 40 K. We also discuss the anomalously large pressure dependence of T sb(s), which drops to 0.19 K under 24 kbar in terms of the current theories. (author)
Packaging and interconnection for superconductive circuitry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anacker, W.
1976-01-01
A three dimensional microelectronic module packaged for reduced signal propagation delay times including a plurality of circuit carrying means, which may comprise unbacked chips, with integrated superconductive circuitry thereon is described. The circuit carrying means are supported on their edges and have contact lands in the vicinity of, or at, the edges to provide for interconnecting circuitry. The circuit carrying means are supported by supporting means which include slots to provide a path for interconnection wiring to contact the lands of the circuit carrying means. Further interconnecting wiring may take the form of integrated circuit wiring on the reverse side of the supporting means. The low heat dissipation of the superconductive circuitry allows the circuit carrying means to be spaced approximately no less than 30 mils apart. The three dimensional arrangement provides lower random propagation delays than would a planar array of circuits
Coexistence of superconductivity and density waves in quasi-two-dimensional metals
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ismer, Jan-Peter
2011-06-03
This dissertation deals with the high-temperature superconductivity in the hole- and electron-doped copper superconductors. In the first part, superconducting phases are investigated on a background of different types of density waves. Singlet superconductivity is studied with s- and d-wave symmetry on a background of spin, charge or D-density waves with respect to stability as well as phase structure and impulse dependence of the gap function. In the second part, the dynamic spin susceptibility for different phases is calculated and compared with experimental data extracted from results of inelastic neutron scattering experiments. The observed phases are d-wave superconductivity, D-density wave, and coexistence of the two. For d-wave superconductivity, the influence of a magnetic field parallel to the copper oxide layer and the temperature development of the susceptibility when for T >> T{sub c} a spin density wave phase is present are investigated. [German] Diese Dissertation beschaeftigt sich mit der Hochtemperatursupraleitung in den loch- und elektron-dotierten Kuprat-Supraleitern. Im ersten Teil der Arbeit werden supraleitende Phasen auf einem Hintergrund verschiedener Typen von Dichtewellen untersucht. Es wird Singlett-Supraleitung mit s- und d-Wellen-Symmetrie auf einem Hintergrund von Spin-, Ladungs- oder D-Dichtewelle hinsichtlich Stabilitaet sowie Phasenstruktur und Impulsabhaengigkeit der Gapfunktion untersucht. Im zweiten Teil wird die dynamische Spinsuszeptibilitaet fuer verschiedene Phasen berechnet und mit experimentellen Daten verglichen, die aus Ergebnissen von Inelastischen Neutronenstreuungsexperimenten extrahiert wurden. Die betrachteten Phasen sind d-Wellen-Supraleitung, D-Dichtewelle und Koexistenz der beiden. Fuer d-Wellen-Supraleitung werden der Einfluss eines Magnetfelds parallel zur Kupferoxidschicht und die Temperaturentwicklung der Suszeptibilitaet, wenn fuer T >> T{sub c} eine Spin-Dichtewelle-Phase vorliegt, untersucht.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, O.M.; Lonsdale, M.N.; Jensen, T.D.
2008-01-01
. Bone scintigraphy is highly sensitive for the detection of fractures, but exact localization of scintigraphic lesions may be difficult and can negatively affect diagnostic accuracy. Purpose: To investigate the influence of image fusion of planar bone scintigraphy and radiographs on image interpretation......Background: Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is now considered the gold standard in second-line imaging of patients with suspected scaphoid fracture and negative radiographs, bone scintigraphy can be used in patients with pacemakers, metallic implants, or other contraindications to MRI....... Conclusion: Image fusion of planar bone scintigrams and radiographs has a significant influence on image interpretation and increases both diagnostic confidence and interobserver agreement Udgivelsesdato: 2008/12/3...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gariglio, S., E-mail: stefano.gariglio@unige.ch [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland); Gabay, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Solides, Bat 510, Université Paris-Sud 11, Centre d’Orsay, 91405 Orsay Cedex (France); Mannhart, J. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Triscone, J.-M. [DQMP, Université de Genève, 24 Quai E.-Ansermet, CH-1211 Genève (Switzerland)
2015-07-15
Highlights: • We discuss interfacial superconductivity, a field boosted by the discovery of the superconducting interface between LaAlO. • This system allows the electric field control and the on/off switching of the superconducting state. • We compare superconductivity at the interface and in bulk doped SrTiO. • We discuss the role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. • We briefly discuss superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments. • Recent observations of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3} are presented. - Abstract: Low dimensional superconducting systems have been the subject of numerous studies for many years. In this article, we focus our attention on interfacial superconductivity, a field that has been boosted by the discovery of superconductivity at the interface between the two band insulators LaAlO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}. We explore the properties of this amazing system that allows the electric field control and on/off switching of superconductivity. We discuss the similarities and differences between bulk doped SrTiO{sub 3} and the interface system and the possible role of the interfacially induced Rashba type spin–orbit. We also, more briefly, discuss interface superconductivity in cuprates, in electrical double layer transistor field effect experiments, and the recent observation of a high T{sub c} in a monolayer of FeSe deposited on SrTiO{sub 3}.
Process for producing clad superconductive materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cass, R.B.; Ott, K.C.; Peterson, D.E.
1992-01-01
This patent describes a process for fabricating superconducting composite wire. It comprises placing a superconductive precursor admixture capable of undergoing self propagating combustion in stoichiometric amounts sufficient to form a superconductive product within an oxygen-porous metal tube; sealing one end of the tube; igniting the superconductive precursor admixture whereby the superconductive precursor admixture endburns along the length of the admixture; and cross-section reducing the tube at a rate substantially equal to the rate of burning of the superconductive precursor admixture and at a point substantially planar with the burnfront of the superconductive precursor mixture, whereby a clad superconductive product is formed in situ
Superconducting spiral phase in the two-dimensional t-J model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sushkov, Oleg P.; Kotov, Valeri N.
2004-01-01
We analyze the t-t ' -t '' -J model, relevant to the superconducting cuprates. By using chiral perturbation theory we have determined the ground state to be a spiral for small doping δ1 near half filling. In this limit the solution does not contain any uncontrolled approximations. We evaluate the spin-wave Green's functions and address the issue of stability of the spiral state, leading to the phase diagram of the model. At t ' =t '' =0 the spiral state is unstable towards a local enhancement of the spiral pitch, and the nature of the true ground state remains unclear. However, for values of t ' and t '' corresponding to real cuprates the (1,0) spiral state is stabilized by quantum fluctuations ('order from disorder' effect). We show that at δ≅0.119 the spiral is commensurate with the lattice with a period of eight lattice spacings. It is also demonstrated that spin-wave mediated superconductivity develops in the spiral state and a lower limit for the superconducting gap is derived. Even though one cannot classify the gap symmetry according to the lattice representations (s,p,d, ellipsis (horizontal)) since the symmetry of the lattice is spontaneously broken by the spiral, the gap always has lines of nodes along the (1,±1) directions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hong, Z; Jiang, Y; Pei, R; Coombs, T A [Electronic, Power and Energy Conversion Group, Engineering Department, University of Cambridge, CB2 1PZ (United Kingdom); Ye, L [Department of Electrical Power Engineering, CAU, P. O. Box 210, Beijing 100083 (China); Campbell, A M [Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity, University of Cambridge, CB3 0HE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Zh223@cam.ac.uk
2008-02-15
In order to utilize HTS conductors in AC electrical devices, it is very important to be able to understand the characteristics of HTS materials in the AC electromagnetic conditions and give an accurate estimate of the AC loss. A numerical method is proposed in this paper to estimate the AC loss in superconducting conductors including MgB{sub 2} wires and YBCO coated conductors. This method is based on solving a set of partial differential equations in which the magnetic field is used as the state variable to get the current and electric field distributions in the cross sections of the conductors and hence the AC loss can be calculated. This method is used to model a single-element and a multi-element MgB{sub 2} wires. The results demonstrate that the multi-element MgB{sub 2} wire has a lower AC loss than a single-element one when carrying the same current. The model is also used to simulate YBCO coated conductors by simplifying the superconducting thin tape into a one-dimensional region where the thickness of the coated conductor can be ignored. The results show a good agreement with the measurement.
η-superconductivity in the one-dimensional Penson-Kolb model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouzerar, G.; Japaridze, G.I.
1997-01-01
Using exact Lanczos diagonalizations we have studied in detail the transition into the η-superconducting state in the Penson-Kolb model. We have shown that the transition occurs at any band filling and the critical value W c varies between W c≅-1.8t at half-filling to W c≅-2t for two particles on the lattice. The transition corresponds to abrupt and drastic change in the ground-state structure. After the transition the contribution of the one-electron band to the ground-state energy is almost suppressed. (orig.)
Goyal, Amit
2013-09-17
Novel articles and methods to fabricate same with self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods of a single or multicomponent material within another single or multicomponent material for use in electrical, electronic, magnetic, electromagnetic and electrooptical devices is disclosed. Self-assembled nanodots and/or nanorods are ordered arrays wherein ordering occurs due to strain minimization during growth of the materials. A simple method to accomplish this when depositing in-situ films is also disclosed. Device applications of resulting materials are in areas of superconductivity, photovoltaics, ferroelectrics, magnetoresistance, high density storage, solid state lighting, non-volatile memory, photoluminescence, thermoelectrics and in quantum dot lasers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fernandes, Julio C.L.; Vilhena, Marco T.; Bodmann, Bardo E.J., E-mail: julio.lombaldo@ufrgs.br, E-mail: mtmbvilhena@gmail.com, E-mail: bardo.bodmann@ufrgs.br [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS), Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Matematica Pura e Aplicada; Dulla, Sandra; Ravetto, Piero, E-mail: sandra.dulla@polito.it, E-mail: piero.ravetto@polito.it [Dipartimento di Energia, Politecnico di Torino, Piemonte (Italy)
2015-07-01
In this work we generalize the solution of the one-dimensional neutron transport equation to a multi- group approach in planar geometry. The basic idea of this work consists in consider the hierarchical construction of a solution for a generic number G of energy groups, starting from a mono-energetic solution. The hierarchical method follows the reasoning of the decomposition method. More specifically, the additional terms from adding energy groups is incorporated into the recursive scheme as source terms. This procedure leads to an analytical representation for the solution with G energy groups. The recursion depth is related to the accuracy of the solution, that may be evaluated after each recursion step. The authors present a heuristic analysis of stability for the results. Numerical simulations for a specific example with four energy groups and a localized pulsed source. (author)
Lohmann, U.; Jahns, J.; Limmer, S.; Fey, D.
2011-01-01
We consider the implementation of a dynamic crossbar interconnect using planar-integrated free-space optics (PIFSO) and a digital mirror-device™ (DMD). Because of the 3D nature of free-space optics, this approach is able to solve geometrical problems with crossings of the signal paths that occur in waveguide optical and electrical interconnection, especially for large number of connections. The DMD device allows one to route the signals dynamically. Due to the large number of individual mirror elements in the DMD, different optical path configurations are possible, thus offering the chance for optimizing the network configuration. The optimization is achieved by using an evolutionary algorithm for finding best values for a skewless parallel interconnection. Here, we present results and experimental examples for the use of the PIFSO/DMD-setup.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nonaka, S.; Sakamoto, T.; Veno, T.
1987-01-01
The eddy currents on the cryostat outer-vessel of an SCM(superconducting magnet) are investigated taking into account of the non-contact on-board power generator system. Numerical expressions are developed by combining a Fourier series method and an integral equation method. It becomes clear that the 5-th space harmonic field which is due to the ground levitation coils, is a dominant factor in the eddy currents of the outer-vessel, and that a concentration of the currents occurs in the corner on the inner side of the bottom of the cryostat outer-vessel. Designs such as the distance between the two arrays of the ground levitation coils, and the lateral location of the induction coils of the power generator are also discussed
Shinozaki, B.; Ezaki, S.; Odou, T.; Makise, K.; Asano, T.
2018-03-01
Transport properties have been investigated for the epitaxial superconducting NbN thin films. We analysed the excess conductance σ’ ≡ σ(T) - σN by the sum of the Aslamazov-Larkin (AL) and Maki-Thompson (MT) terms for thermal fluctuations above T c, where the σN ≡1/R sq N is the normal state sheet conductance. We have found that the theoretical expression σ’theo (T) = σ’AL (T) + σ’MT (T,δ) can be well fitted to σ’exp (T) with use of the suitable value of the pair breaking parameter δ in the MT term relating to the inelastic scattering rate 1/τin(T) as δ = πħ/8k B Tτin. The rate 1/τin(T) given by the sum of 1/τfluc(T), 1/τe-e(T) and 1/τe-ph (T) is determined from the analysis of the magneto-conductance Δσ = σ(H) – σ(0) by the sum of AL, MT and the localization terms, where the first, second and third terms correspond to the rate due to the superconducting fluctuation effect, electron-electron and electron-phonon interactions, respectively. The R sq N dependence of δ is expressed by δ = δ0 + αR sq N, where the first term δ0 due to 1/τe-ph (T) and the second term due to the sum of 1/τfluc(T) and 1/τe-e(T). Although we obtained a reasonable value of Debye temperature ΘD ≈630 K from the δ0, the magnitude of the α is about 5 times larger than the theoretical value.
Iqbal, Zohaib; Wilson, Neil E; Thomas, M Albert
2017-07-24
1 H Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopic imaging (SI) is a powerful tool capable of investigating metabolism in vivo from mul- tiple regions. However, SI techniques are time consuming, and are therefore difficult to implement clinically. By applying non-uniform sampling (NUS) and compressed sensing (CS) reconstruction, it is possible to accelerate these scans while re- taining key spectral information. One recently developed method that utilizes this type of acceleration is the five-dimensional echo planar J-resolved spectroscopic imaging (5D EP-JRESI) sequence, which is capable of obtaining two-dimensional (2D) spectra from three spatial dimensions. The prior-knowledge fitting (ProFit) algorithm is typically used to quantify 2D spectra in vivo, however the effects of NUS and CS reconstruction on the quantitation results are unknown. This study utilized a simulated brain phantom to investigate the errors introduced through the acceleration methods. Errors (normalized root mean square error >15%) were found between metabolite concentrations after twelve-fold acceleration for several low concentra- tion (OGM) human brain matter were quantified in vivo using the 5D EP-JRESI sequence with eight-fold acceleration.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieter, Chet
2010-01-01
Superconducting radio frequency (SRF) cavities are a popular choice among researchers designing new accelerators because of the reduced power losses due to surface resistance. However, SRF cavities still have unresolved problems, including the loss of power to stray electrons. Sources of these electrons are field emission from the walls and ionization of background gas, but the predominant source is secondary emission yield (SEY) from electron impact. When the electron motion is in resonance with the cavity fields the electrons strike the cavity surface repeatedly creating a resonant build up of electrons referred to as multipacting. Cavity shaping has successfully reduced multipacting for cavities used in very high energy accelerators. However, multipacting is still a concern for the cavity power couplers, where shaping is not possible, and for cavities used to accelerate particles at moderate velocities. This Phase II project built upon existing models in the VORPAL simulation framework to allow for simulations of multipacting behavior in SRF cavities and their associated structures. The technical work involved allowed existing models of secondary electron generation to work with the complex boundary conditions needed to model the cavity structures. The types of data produced by VORPAL were also expanded to include data common used by cavity designers to evaluate cavity performance. Post-processing tools were also modified to provide information directly related to the conditions that produce multipacting. These new methods were demonstrated by running simulations of a cavity design being developed by researchers at Jefferson National Laboratory to attempt to identify the multipacting that would be an issue for the cavity design being considered. These simulations demonstrate that VORPAL now has the capabilities to assist researchers working with SRF cavities to understand and identify possible multipacting issues with their cavity designs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yeninas, Steven Lee [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)
2013-01-01
This thesis emphasizes two frequency-domain techniques which uniquely employ radio frequency (RF) excitations to investigate the static and dynamic properties of novel magnetic and superconducting materials.
3-dimensional numerical modelling of rolling of superconducting Ag/BSCCO tape
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Eriksen, Morten; Bech, Jakob Ilsted; Seifi, Behrouz
2000-01-01
and Ø126 mm) have been investigated. It is found that it is possible to perform numerical simulation with 3D models of flat rolling of multifilament wire. Two 3D models have been used; 3D pressing with rolls and 3D rolling. 3D pressing with rolls have the advance that the simulation time is lower than...... in the 3D rolling. The 3D models have the advantage compared to 2D pressing that they can predict the 3 dimensional flow in the flat rolling, which has been showed to be very imported for the super conduction properties......Numerical simulation of the deformation process during flat rolling of multifilament HTS tapes has been investigated using a commercial FEM program, ELFEN. The numerical models were built up in 2D and 3D using a Drucker-Prager/Cap model for the powder. Three different roll diameters (Ø24 mm, Ø85 mm...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dias, Goncalo A. S.; Lemos, Jose P. S.
2009-01-01
The Hamiltonian thermodynamics formalism is applied to the general d-dimensional Reissner-Nordstroem-anti-de Sitter black hole with spherical, planar, and hyperbolic horizon topology. After writing its action and performing a Legendre transformation, surface terms are added in order to guarantee a well-defined variational principle with which to obtain sensible equations of motion, and also to allow later on the thermodynamical analysis. Then a Kuchar canonical transformation is done, which changes from the metric canonical coordinates to the physical parameters coordinates. Again, a well-defined variational principle is guaranteed through boundary terms. These terms influence the falloff conditions of the variables and at the same time the form of the new Lagrange multipliers. Reduction to the true degrees of freedom is performed, which are the conserved mass and charge of the black hole. Upon quantization a Lorentzian partition function Z is written for the grand canonical ensemble, where the temperature T and the electric potential φ are fixed at infinity. After imposing Euclidean boundary conditions on the partition function, the respective effective action I * , and thus the thermodynamical partition function, is determined for any dimension d and topology k. This is a quite general action. Several previous results can be then condensed in our single general formula for the effective action I * . Phase transitions are studied for the spherical case, and it is shown that all the other topologies have no phase transitions. A parallel with the Bose-Einstein condensation can be established. Finally, the expected values of energy, charge, and entropy are determined for the black hole solution.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arkhipkin, V. G.; Gunyakov, V. A.; Myslivets, S. A.; Gerasimov, V. P.; Zyryanov, V. Ya.; Vetrov, S. Ya.; Shabanov, V. F.
2008-01-01
Transmission spectra of a one-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) formed by two multilayer dielectric mirrors and a planar oriented layer of 5CB nematic liquid crystal (LC) that is sandwiched between these mirrors and serves as a structure defect are investigated experimentally. Specific features of the behavior of the spectrum of defect modes as a function of the angle of incidence of light on the crystal are studied for two polarizations: parallel and perpendicular to the director of the LC; the director either lies in the plane of incidence or is perpendicular to it. It is shown that, for the configurations considered, the maxima of the defect modes shift toward the short-wavelength region as the tilt angle of incidence radiation increases; this tendency is more manifest for the parallel-polarized component, when the director lies in the plane of incidence. In the latter case, the width of the photonic band gap (PBG) appreciably decreases. The temperature dependence of the polarization components of the transmission spectra of a PC is investigated in the case of normal incidence of light. The spectral shift of defect modes due to the variation of the refractive index of the LC at the nematic-isotropic liquid phase transition point is measured. It is shown that, in real PCs, the amplitude of defect modes decreases when approaching the center of the band gap, as well as when the number of layers in the dielectric mirrors increases. Theoretical transmission spectra of the PCs calculated by the method of recurrence relations with regard to the decay of defect modes are in good agreement with experimental data.
Planar metasurface retroreflector
Arbabi, Amir; Arbabi, Ehsan; Horie, Yu; Kamali, Seyedeh Mahsa; Faraon, Andrei
2017-07-01
Metasurfaces are two-dimensional arrangements of subwavelength scatterers that control the propagation of optical waves. Here, we show that cascaded metasurfaces, each performing a predefined mathematical transformation, provide a new optical design framework that enables new functionalities not yet demonstrated with single metasurfaces. Specifically, we demonstrate that retroreflection can be achieved with two vertically stacked planar metasurfaces, the first performing a spatial Fourier transform and its inverse, and the second imparting a spatially varying momentum to the Fourier transform of the incident light. Using this concept, we fabricate and test a planar monolithic near-infrared retroreflector composed of two layers of silicon nanoposts, which reflects light along its incident direction with a normal incidence efficiency of 78% and a large half-power field of view of 60°. The metasurface retroreflector demonstrates the potential of cascaded metasurfaces for implementing novel high-performance components, and enables low-power and low-weight passive optical transmitters.
Fischetti, Massimo V.; Polley, Arup
2018-04-01
In two-dimensional crystals that lack symmetry under reflections on the horizontal plane of the lattice (non-σh-symmetric), electrons can couple to flexural modes (ZA phonons) at first order. We show that in materials of this type that also exhibit a Dirac-like electron dispersion, the strong coupling can result in electron pairing mediated by these phonons, as long as the flexural modes are not damped or suppressed by additional interactions with a supporting substrate or gate insulator. We consider several models: The weak-coupling limit, which is applicable only in the case of gapped and parabolic materials, like stanene and HfSe2, thanks to the weak coupling; the full gap-equation, solved using the constant-gap approximation and considering statically screened interactions; its extensions to energy-dependent gap and to dynamic screening. We argue that in the case of silicene and germanene superconductivity mediated by this process can exhibit a critical temperature of a few degrees K, or even a few tens of degrees K when accounting for the effect of a high-dielectric-constant environment. We conclude that the electron/flexural-modes coupling should be included in studies of possible superconductivity in non-σh-symmetric two-dimensional crystals, even if alternative forms of coupling are considered.
Newhouse, Vernon L
1975-01-01
Applied Superconductivity, Volume II, is part of a two-volume series on applied superconductivity. The first volume dealt with electronic applications and radiation detection, and contains a chapter on liquid helium refrigeration. The present volume discusses magnets, electromechanical applications, accelerators, and microwave and rf devices. The book opens with a chapter on high-field superconducting magnets, covering applications and magnet design. Subsequent chapters discuss superconductive machinery such as superconductive bearings and motors; rf superconducting devices; and future prospec
Modeling the planar configuration of extraordinary magnetoresistance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El-Ahmar, S; Pozniak, A A
2015-01-01
Recently the planar version of the extraordinary magnetoresistance (EMR) magnetic field sensor has been constructed and verified in practice. Planar configuration of the EMR device gives many technological advantages, it is simpler than the classic and allows one to build the sensor using electric materials of the new type (such as graphene or topological insulators) much easier. In this work the planar configuration of the EMR sensor is investigated by performing computational simulations using the finite element method (FEM). The computational comparison of the planar and classic configurations of EMR is presented using three-dimensional models. Various variants of the geometry of EMR sensor components are pondered and compared in the planar and classic version. Size of the metal overlap is considered for sensor optimization as well as various semiconductor-metal contact resistance dependences of the EMR signal. Based on computational simulations, a method for optimal placement of electric terminals in a planar EMR device is proposed. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sprague, David R.; Fujita, Masahiro; Ryu, Yong Hoon; Liow, Jeih-San; Pike, Victor W.; Innis, Robert B.
2008-01-01
Introduction: [ 11 C](R)-Rolipram is a selective radioligand for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of phosphodiesterase 4, an enzyme that metabolizes 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. The aim of this study was to estimate the human radiation absorbed dose of the radioligand based on its biodistribution in both monkeys and humans. Methods: Whole-body PET images were acquired for 2 h after injecting [ 11 C](R)-rolipram in eight healthy humans and three monkeys. The simple method of using a single two-dimensional (2D) planar image was compared to more time-consuming methods that used two (bisected) or four (quadrisected) tomographic images in the anteroposterior direction. Results: Effective dose was 4.8 μGy/MBq based on 2D planar images. The effective dose was only slightly lower by 1% and 5% using the bisected and quadrisected images, respectively. Nevertheless, the two tomographic methods may have more accurately estimated the exposure of some organs (e.g., kidneys) that are asymmetrically located in the body or have radioactivity that appears to overlap on 2D planar images. Monkeys had a different biodistribution pattern compared to humans (e.g., greater urinary excretion) such that their data overestimated the effective dose in humans by 40%. Conclusions: The effective dose of [ 11 C](R)-rolipram was modest and comparable to that of other 11 C-labeled radioligands. The simple and far less time-consuming 2D planar method provided accurate and somewhat more conservative estimates of effective dose than the two tomographic methods. Although monkeys are commonly used to estimate human radiation exposures, their data gave a considerable overestimation for this radioligand
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Scheidt, E-W; Hauf, C; Reiner, F; Eickerling, G; Scherer, W, E-mail: Ernst-Wilhelm.Scheidt@physik.uni-augsburg.de [CPM, Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, 86159 Augsburg (Germany)
2011-01-01
The transition metal carbide Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} consists of a quasi-one-dimensional (1D) structure with [CoC{sub 4}]{sub {infinity}} polyanionic chains embedded in a scandium matrix. At ambient temperatures Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} displays metallic behavior. At lower temperatures, however, charge density wave formation has been observed around 143 K which is followed by a structural phase transition at 72 K. Below T{sub c}{sup onset} = 4.5 K the polycrystalline sample becomes superconductive. From H{sub c1}(0) and H{sub c2}(0) values we could estimate the London penetration depth ({lambda}{sub L} {approx_equal} 9750 A) and the Ginsburg-Landau (GL) coherence length ({xi}{sub GL} {approx_equal} 187 A). The resulting GL-parameter ({kappa} {approx_equal} 52) classifies Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} as a type II superconductor. Here we compare the puzzling superconducting features of Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4}, such as the unusual temperature dependence i) of the specific heat anomaly and ii) of the upper critical field H{sub c2}(T) at T{sub c}, and iii) the magnetic hysteresis curve, with various related low dimensional superconductors: e.g., the quasi-1D superconductor (SN){sub x} or the 2D transition-metal dichalcogenides. Our results identify Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} as a new candidate for a quasi-1D superconductor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sherman, A.; Schreiber, M.
1995-01-01
We use the Eliashberg formalism for calculating T c in a model of cuprate perovskites with pairing mediated by both magnons and apex-oxygen vibrations. The influence of strong correlations on the energy spectrum is taken into account in the spin-wave approximation. It is shown that the hole-magnon interaction alone cannot yield high T c . But together with a moderate hole-phonon interaction it does lead to d-wave superconductivity at temperatures and hole concentrations observed in cuprates. High T c are connected with a large density of states due to extended Van Hove singularities, a conformity of the two interactions for the d symmetry, and high phonon frequencies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bech Christensen, N
2005-01-01
Time-of-flight and polarized triple axis neutron scattering is used to probe the spin excitations of Cu(DCOO){sub 2}x4D{sub 2}O and La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4}. The first part of the thesis contains an investigation of the excitation spectrum of the square lattice S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(DCOO){sub 2}4D{sub 2}O. Along the antiferromagnetic zone boundary a pronounced intensity variation is found for the dominant single-magnon excitations. This variation tracks an already known zone boundary dispersion. Using polarization analysis to separate the components of the excitation spectrum, a continuum of longitudinally polarized multimagnon excitations is discovered at energies above the single-magnon branch. At low energies, the findings are well described by linear spin wave theory. At high energies, linear spin wave theory fails and instead the data are very well accounted for by state-of-the-art Quantum Monte Carlo computations. In the second part of the thesis, the spin excitation spectra of the high temperature superconductors La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4} and La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}Cu characterized. The main discovery is that the excitations are dispersive at both doping levels. The dispersion strongly resembles that seen in other high-T{sub c} superconductors. The presence of dispersive excitations does not require superconductivity to exist. For La{sub 1.84}Sr{sub 0.16}CuO{sub 4}, but not for La{sub 1.90}Sr{sub 0.10}CuO{sub 4}, the onset superconductivity gives rise to a spectral weight shift which displays qualitative and quantitative similarities to the resonance mode observed in other high-T{sub c} superconductors. (au)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bech Christensen, N.
2005-01-01
Time-of-flight and polarized triple axis neutron scattering is used to probe the spin excitations of Cu(DCOO) 2 x4D 2 O and La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 . The first part of the thesis contains an investigation of the excitation spectrum of the square lattice S = 1/2 Heisenberg antiferromagnet Cu(DCOO) 2 4D 2 O. Along the antiferromagnetic zone boundary a pronounced intensity variation is found for the dominant single-magnon excitations. This variation tracks an already known zone boundary dispersion. Using polarization analysis to separate the components of the excitation spectrum, a continuum of longitudinally polarized multimagnon excitations is discovered at energies above the single-magnon branch. At low energies, the findings are well described by linear spin wave theory. At high energies, linear spin wave theory fails and instead the data are very well accounted for by state-of-the-art Quantum Monte Carlo computations. In the second part of the thesis, the spin excitation spectra of the high temperature superconductors La 1.90 Sr 0.10 CuO 4 and La 1.84 Sr 0.16 Cu characterized. The main discovery is that the excitations are dispersive at both doping levels. The dispersion strongly resembles that seen in other high-T c superconductors. The presence of dispersive excitations does not require superconductivity to exist. For La 1.84 Sr 0.16 CuO 4 , but not for La 1.90 Sr 0.10 CuO 4 , the onset superconductivity gives rise to a spectral weight shift which displays qualitative and quantitative similarities to the resonance mode observed in other high-T c superconductors. (au)
Fault-tolerant architectures for superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiVincenzo, David P
2009-01-01
In this short review, I draw attention to new developments in the theory of fault tolerance in quantum computation that may give concrete direction to future work in the development of superconducting qubit systems. The basics of quantum error-correction codes, which I will briefly review, have not significantly changed since their introduction 15 years ago. But an interesting picture has emerged of an efficient use of these codes that may put fault-tolerant operation within reach. It is now understood that two-dimensional surface codes, close relatives of the original toric code of Kitaev, can be adapted as shown by Raussendorf and Harrington to effectively perform logical gate operations in a very simple planar architecture, with error thresholds for fault-tolerant operation simulated to be 0.75%. This architecture uses topological ideas in its functioning, but it is not 'topological quantum computation'-there are no non-abelian anyons in sight. I offer some speculations on the crucial pieces of superconducting hardware that could be demonstrated in the next couple of years that would be clear stepping stones towards this surface-code architecture.
Superconductivity - applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
The paper deals with the following subjects: 1) Electronics and high-frequency technology, 2) Superconductors for energy technology, 3) Superconducting magnets and their applications, 4) Electric machinery, 5) Superconducting cables. (WBU) [de
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elliott, J.H.
1983-01-01
This thesis reports on three separate investigations in solid state physics. The first is electron paramagnetic resonance in the spin glass Ag:Mn. EPR measurements were performed at two resonance frequencies, concentrating on temperatures above the glass transition temperature. The measured linewidth appears to diverge at T/sub g/ for low resonance frequencies. These results will be compared with recently proposed phenomenological and microscopic theories. The second topic reported in this thesis is the superconducting transition of thin aluminum films. These films were investigated as a function of grain size and thickness. The transition temperature was enhanced over the bulk value, in agreement with many previous investigations of granular aluminum. The third topic reported in this thesis is an extension of the variable rate hopping theory applied in one dimension to N-ME-Qn(TCNQ) 2 . This model is a classical one used to explain both the dc and ac electrical conductivity of organic conductors. The temperature dependence of the model does not agree with experiment at low temperatures. Tunneling has been added to the hopping. This increases the conductivity at low temperatures, and results in excellent agreement with the experimental conductivity over the measured temperature range. The model also predicts that the frequency dependence of the conductivity varies as ω/sup .5/ at low frequencies. This long time tail prediction agrees with the measured dielectric constant of N-Me-iso-Qn(TCNQ) 2
Chiral plaquette polaron theory of cuprate superconductivity
Tahir-Kheli, Jamil; Goddard, William A., III
2007-07-01
Ab initio density functional calculations on explicitly doped La2-xSrxCuO4 find that doping creates localized holes in out-of-plane orbitals. A model for cuprate superconductivity is developed based on the assumption that doping leads to the formation of holes on a four-site Cu plaquette composed of the out-of-plane A1 orbitals apical Opz , planar Cud3z2-r2 , and planar Opσ . This is in contrast to the assumption of hole doping into planar Cudx2-y2 and Opσ orbitals as in the t-J model. Allowing these holes to interact with the d9 spin background leads to chiral polarons with either a clockwise or anticlockwise charge current. When the polaron plaquettes percolate through the crystal at x≈0.05 for La2-xSrxCuO4 , a Cudx2-y2 and planar Opσ band is formed. The computed percolation doping of x≈0.05 equals the observed transition to the “metallic” and superconducting phase for La2-xSrxCuO4 . Spin exchange Coulomb repulsion with chiral polarons leads to d -wave superconducting pairing. The equivalent of the Debye energy in phonon superconductivity is the maximum energy separation between a chiral polaron and its time-reversed partner. This energy separation is on the order of the antiferromagnetic spin coupling energy, Jdd˜0.1eV , suggesting a higher critical temperature. An additive skew-scattering contribution to the Hall effect is induced by chiral polarons and leads to a temperature dependent Hall effect that fits the measured values for La2-xSrxCuO4 . The integrated imaginary susceptibility, observed by neutron spin scattering, satisfies ω/T scaling due to chirality and spin-flip scattering of polarons along with a uniform distribution of polaron energy splittings. The derived functional form is compatible with experiments. The static spin structure factor for chiral spin coupling of the polarons to the undoped antiferromagnetic Cud9 spins is computed for classical spins on large two-dimensional lattices and is found to be incommensurate with a
Superconductivity in doped two-leg ladder cuprates
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qin Jihong; Yuan Feng; Feng Shiping
2006-01-01
Within the t-J ladder model, superconductivity with a modified d-wave symmetry in doped two-leg ladder cuprates is investigated based on the kinetic energy driven superconducting mechanism. It is shown that the spin-liquid ground-state at the half-filling evolves into the superconducting ground-state upon doping. In analogy to the doping dependence of the superconducting transition temperature in the planar cuprate superconductors, the superconducting transition temperature in doped two-leg ladder cuprates increases with increasing doping in the underdoped regime, and reaches a maximum in the optimal doping, then decreases in the overdoped regime
On the control parameters of the quasi-one dimensional superconductivity in Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eickerling, Georg; Hauf, Christoph; Scheidt, Ernst-Wilhelm; Reichardt, Lena; Schneider, Christian; Scherer, Wolfgang [Institut fuer Physik, Universitaet Augsburg, Universitaetstrasse 1, 86179 Augsburg (Germany); Munoz, Alfonso [Departamento de Fisica Fundamental II, Instituto de Materiales y Nanotecnologia, Universidad de La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Lopez-Moreno, Sinhue [Escuela Superior Cd. Sahagun, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carretera Cd. Sahagun-Otumba s/n. 43990, Hidalgo (Mexico); Humberto Romero, Aldo [Physics Department, West Virginia University, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-6315 (United States); Max Planck Institut fuer Mikrostruktur Physik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany); Porcher, Florence; Andre, Gilles [Laboratoire Leon Brillouin, UMR12 CEA-CNRS, Bat 563 CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif sur Yvette Cedex (France); Poettgen, Rainer [Institut fuer Anorganische und Analytische Chemie, Universitaet Muenster, Corrensstrasse 30, 48149 Muenster (Germany)
2013-09-15
Within the series of ternary rare-earth transition metal carbides Sc{sub 3}TC{sub 4} (T = Fe, Co, Ni) only the Co congener displays a structural phase transition at 72 K and an onset of bulk superconductivity at 4.5 K. In this paper we present the results of a detailed analysis of the structural, electronic, and vibrational properties of the low-temperature phase of Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4} that represents one of the few well-documented examples of a quasi one-dimensional (1D) superconductor. Variable temperature neutron powder diffraction and low temperature X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in order to confirm the subtle structural distortions during the phase transition. The results of periodic electronic structure calculations indicate, that the structural transition can clearly be identified as a Peierls-type distortion and by a comparison with the isostructural carbide Sc{sub 3}FeC{sub 4} we are able to identify the chemical, electronic, and the vibrational control parameters of the transition. Topological analyses of the electron density distribution and of the valence shell charge concentrations at the cobalt atom finally allow us to directly correlate the changes in the electronic structure due to the Peierls transition in reciprocal space with the according subtle changes in the real space properties of Sc{sub 3}CoC{sub 4}. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shiota, Fuyuhiko; Morokuma, Tadashi
2006-01-01
An improved optical system for five-dimensional measurement has been developed for the correction of vertical displacement error due to the attitude change of a superconducting floating body that shows five degrees of freedom besides a vertical displacement of 10 mm. The available solid angle for the optical measurement is extremely limited because of the cryogenic laser interferometer sharing the optical window of a vacuum chamber in addition to the basic structure of the cryogenic vessel for liquid helium. The aim of the design was to develop a more practical as well as better optical system compared with the prototype system. Various artifices were built into this optical system and the result shows a satisfactory performance and easy operation overcoming the extremely severe spatial difficulty in the levitation system. Although the system described here is specifically designed for our magnetic levitation system, the concept and each artifice will be applicable to the optical measurement system for an object in a high-vacuum chamber and/or cryogenic vessel where the available solid angle for an optical path is extremely limited
1975-01-01
Theoretical and experimental work on solids with low-dimensional cooperative phenomena has been rather explosively expanded in the last few years, and it seems to be quite fashionable to con tribute to this field, especially to the problem of one-dimensional metals. On the whole, one could divide the huge amount of recent investigations into two parts although there is much overlap bet ween these regimes, namely investigations on magnetic exchange interactions constrained to mainly one or two dimensions and, secondly, work done on Id metallic solids or linear chain compounds with Id delocalized electrons. There is, of course, overlap from one extreme case to the other with these solids and in some rare cases both phenomena are studied on one and the same crystal. In fact, however, most of the scientific groups in this area could be associated roughly with one of these categories and,in addition, a separation between theoreticians and experimentalists in each of these groups leads to a further splitting of...
Superconducting Coset Topological Fluids in Josephson Junction Arrays
Diamantini, M C; Trugenberger, C A; Sodano, Pasquale; Trugenberger, Carlo A.
2006-01-01
We show that the superconducting ground state of planar Josephson junction arrays is a P- and T-invariant coset topological quantum fluid whose topological order is characterized by the degeneracy 2 on the torus. This new mechanism for planar superconductivity is the P- and T-invariant analogue of Laughlin's quantum Hall fluids. The T=0 insulator-superconductor quantum transition is a quantum critical point characterized by gauge fields and deconfined degrees of freedom. Experiments on toroidal Josephson junction arrays could provide the first direct evidence for topological order and superconducting quantum fluids.
Dougherty, Ralph
2013-01-01
While the macroscopic phenomenon of superconductivity is well known and in practical use worldwide in many industries, including MRIs in medical diagnostics, the current theoretical paradigm for superconductivity (BCS theory) suffers from a number of limitations, not the least of which is an adequate explanation of high temperature superconductivity. This book reviews the current theory and its limitations and suggests new ideas and approaches in addressing these issues. The central objective of the book is to develop a new, coherent, understandable theory of superconductivity directly based on molecular quantum mechanics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Glazman, L.I.; Fogel', N.Y.
1984-01-01
A study is reported of the effect of two-dimensional melting of a vortex lattice on the current-voltage characteristic of a transformer, in the form of the dependence of the secondary voltage V 2 on the primary-circuit transport current J 1 . The motion of vortices in the melted lattice is described in the diffusion approximation, and their interaction in the self-consistent field approximation. The melting of even one lattice largely eliminates the vortex drag: V 2 1 for any current J 1 . The square-root singularity of the characteristics which is typical of the ordinary transformer operation no longer occurs in the critical temperature range. In the linear part of the characteristic, the ratio V 2 /V 1 is inversely proportional to the magnetic field H over a wide range of the latter. The temperature dependence of V 2 and the asymptotic function V 2 (J 1 ) for large J 1 are different, according as one or both lattices melt. The transformer current-voltage characteristic thus conveys information about the state of the vortex lattice and allows its melting to be investigated. The function V 2 (V 1 ) and V 2 (H) found here agree well with experiment, and the experimental results can thus be explained by the melting of a vortex lattice
Aizawa, Hirohito; Kuroki, Kazuhiko
2018-03-01
We present a first-principles band calculation for the quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) organic superconductor (TMTSF) 2ClO4 . An effective tight-binding model with the TMTSF molecule to be regarded as the site is derived from a calculation based on maximally localized Wannier orbitals. We apply a two-particle self-consistent (TPSC) analysis by using a four-site Hubbard model, which is composed of the tight-binding model and an onsite (intramolecular) repulsive interaction, which serves as a variable parameter. We assume that the pairing mechanism is mediated by the spin fluctuation, and the sign of the superconducting gap changes between the inner and outer Fermi surfaces, which correspond to a d -wave gap function in a simplified Q1D model. With the parameters we adopt, the critical temperature for superconductivity estimated by the TPSC approach is approximately 1 K, which is consistent with experiment.
Superconductivity in domains with corners
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bonnaillie-Noel, Virginie; Fournais, Søren
2007-01-01
We study the two-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau functional in a domain with corners for exterior magnetic field strengths near the critical field where the transition from the superconducting to the normal state occurs. We discuss and clarify the definition of this field and obtain a complete...... asymptotic expansion for it in the large $\\kappa$ regime. Furthermore, we discuss nucleation of superconductivity at the boundary....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goyal, A.; Funkenbusch, P.D.; Chang, G.C.S.; Burns, S.J.
1988-01-01
Two distant classes of superconducting cermets can be distinguished, depending on whether or not a fully superconducting skeleton is established. Both types of cermets have been successfully fabricated using non-noble metals, with as high as 60wt% of the metal phase. The electrical, magnetic and mechanical behavior of these composites is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2010-01-01
Superconductivity has a long history of about 100 years. Over the past 50 years, progress in superconducting materials has been mainly in metallic superconductors, such as Nb, Nb-Ti and Nb 3 Sn, resulting in the creation of various application fields based on the superconducting technologies. High-T c superconductors, the first of which was discovered in 1986, have been changing the future vision of superconducting technology through the development of new application fields such as power cables. On basis of these trends, future prospects of superconductor technology up to 2040 are discussed. In this article from the viewpoints of material development and the applications of superconducting wires and electronic devices. (author)
Planarity certification of ATLAS Micromegas detector panels
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mueller, Ralph; Biebel, Otmar; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Flierl, Bernhard; Hertenberger, Ralf; Loesel, Philipp; Herrmann, Maximilian [LMU Muenchen (Germany); Zibell, Andre [JMU Wuerzburg (Germany)
2016-07-01
During the second long LHC shutdown, 2019/20, the precision tracking detectors of the ATLAS muon spectrometer in the inner end caps will be replaced using Micromegas, a planar gas-detector technology. Modules of 2 m{sup 2} area are built in quadruplets from five precisely planar sandwich panels that define the anodes and the cathodes of the four active detector planes. A panel is composed of three consecutive layers FR4 - aluminum honeycomb - FR4. Single plane spatial particle resolution below 100 μm is achievable when the deviations from planarity of the strip-anodes do not exceed 80 μm RMS over the whole active area and the parallelism of the readout strips is within 30 μm. In order to measure the dimensional accuracy of each panel, laser distance sensors combined with a coordinate measurement system have been investigated. The sensor requirements to measure the planarity of the panels are a resolution of 0.3 μm and a beam spot diameter of ∼20 μm, well below 100 μ m the size of the smallest structures. We report on achieved planarities of the panels and the performance of the laser sensor system. A panel with an RMS better than 30 μm was build and the evolution of its planarity due to humidity and temperature effects is shown.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miles, A.R.; Blue, B.; Edwards, M.J.; Greenough, J.A.; Hansen, J.F.; Robey, H.F.; Drake, R.P.; Kuranz, C.; Leibrandt, D.R.
2005-01-01
Perturbations on an interface driven by a strong blast wave grow in time due to a combination of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and decompression effects. In this paper, results from three-dimensional (3D) numerical simulations of such a system under drive conditions to be attainable on the National Ignition Facility [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] are presented. Using the multiphysics, adaptive mesh refinement, higher order Godunov Eulerian hydrocode, Raptor [L. H. Howell and J. A. Greenough, J. Comput. Phys. 184, 53 (2003)], the late nonlinear instability evolution, including transition to turbulence, is considered for various multimode perturbation spectra. The 3D post-transition state differs from the 2D result, but the process of transition proceeds similarly in both 2D and 3D. The turbulent mixing transition results in a reduction in the growth rate of the mixing layer relative to its pretransition value and, in the case of the bubble front, relative to the 2D result. The post-transition spike front velocity is approximately the same in 2D and 3D. Implications for hydrodynamic mixing in core-collapse supernovae are discussed
Superconducting Tunnel Junction Arrays for UV Photon Detection, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — An innovative method is described for the fabrication of superconducting tunnel junction (STJ) detector arrays offering true "three dimensional" imaging throughout...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollinger, L.M.; Shepard, K.W.; Wangler, T.P.
1978-01-01
This project has two goals: to design, build, and test a small superconducting linac to serve as an energy booster for heavy ions from an FN tandem electrostatic accelerator, and to investigate various aspects of superconducting rf technology. The main design features of the booster are described, a status report on various components (resonators, rf control system, linac control system, cryostats, buncher) is given, and plans for the near future are outlined. Investigations of superconducting-linac technology concern studies on materials and fabrication techniques, resonator diagnostic techniques, rf-phase control, beam dynamics computer programs, asymmetry in accelerating field, and surface-treatment techniques. The overall layout of the to-be-proposed ATLAS, the Argonne Tandem-Linac Accelerator System, is shown; the ATLAS would use superconducting technology to produce beams of 5 to 25 MeV/A. 6 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kormann, R.; Loiseau, R.; Marcilhac, B.
1989-01-01
The invention concerns superconducting ceramics containing essentially barium, calcium and copper fluorinated oxides with close offset and onset temperatures around 97 K and 100 K and containing neither Y nor rare earth [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirsch, J.E.; Marsiglio, F.
1989-01-01
The authors review recent work on a mechanism proposed to explain high T c superconductivity in oxides as well as superconductivity of conventional materials. It is based on pairing of hole carriers through their direct Coulomb interaction, and gives rise to superconductivity because of the momentum dependence of the repulsive interaction in the solid state environment. In the regime of parameters appropriate for high T c oxides this mechanism leads to characteristic signatures that should be experimentally verifiable. In the regime of conventional superconductors most of these signatures become unobservable, but the characteristic dependence of T c on band filling survives. New features discussed her include the demonstration that superconductivity can result from repulsive interactions even if the gap function does not change sign and the inclusion of a self-energy correction to the hole propagator that reduces the range of band filling where T c is not zero
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1988-09-15
Superconductivity - the dramatic drop in electrical resistance in certain materials at very low temperatures - has grown rapidly in importance over the past two or three decades to become a key technology for high energy particle accelerators. It was in this setting that a hundred students and 15 lecturers met in Hamburg in June for a week's course on superconductivity in particle accelerators, organized by the CERN Accelerator School and the nearby DESY Laboratory.
Superconductivity: Phenomenology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falicov, L.M.
1988-08-01
This document discusses first the following topics: (a) The superconducting transition temperature; (b) Zero resistivity; (c) The Meissner effect; (d) The isotope effect; (e) Microwave and optical properties; and (f) The superconducting energy gap. Part II of this document investigates the Ginzburg-Landau equations by discussing: (a) The coherence length; (b) The penetration depth; (c) Flux quantization; (d) Magnetic-field dependence of the energy gap; (e) Quantum interference phenomena; and (f) The Josephson effect
Superconductivity in Layered Organic Metals
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jochen Wosnitza
2012-04-01
Full Text Available In this short review, I will give an overview on the current understanding of the superconductivity in quasi-two-dimensional organic metals. Thereby, I will focus on charge-transfer salts based on bis(ethylenedithiotetrathiafulvalene (BEDT-TTF or ET for short. In these materials, strong electronic correlations are clearly evident, resulting in unique phase diagrams. The layered crystallographic structure leads to highly anisotropic electronic as well as superconducting properties. The corresponding very high orbital critical field for in-plane magnetic-field alignment allows for the occurrence of the Fulde–Ferrell– Larkin–Ovchinnikov state as evidenced by thermodynamic measurements. The experimental picture on the nature of the superconducting state is still controversial with evidence both for unconventional as well as for BCS-like superconductivity.
Avalanche effect in the planar array of superheated superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meagher, G.; Pond, J.; Kotlicki, A.; Turrell, B.G.; Eska, G.; Drukier, A.K.
1996-01-01
An avalanche effect has been observed in a cryogenic detector based on the planar array of superheated superconductors (PASS). The indium PASS, fabricated by photolithography on a mylar substrate, consisted of 40 well-separated lines each containing about 175 spheres of diameter 18 μm and separation 20 μm with those at the end being shielded by superconducting wire. The magnetic field was applied in the PASS plane parallel to the lines. Avalanche events in which several granules changed their state from superconducting to normal were triggered by the nucleation of the transition in a single grain by an alpha particle. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martins, M J
1987-12-31
It is shown that the Froehlich`s hamiltonian in one spatial dimension is identical to that of an exactly solvable field Theory. The spectrum of the theory is computed. A critical coupling is found above which the system becomes unstable, indicating a superconducting transition. It is also proposed and investigated a renormalizable relativistic field theory model in two space-time dimensions, with quartic self-interaction among N species of fermions, which undergoes dynamical generation of a superconducting gap and is asymptotically free. A finite temperature is introduced and, for N -> {infinity} a critical value T{sub c} is found above which the gap vanishes. (author).
Superconductivity in multilayer perovskite. Weak coupling analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koikegami, Shigeru; Yanagisawa, Takashi
2006-01-01
We investigate the superconductivity of a three-dimensional d-p model with a multilayer perovskite structure on the basis of the second-order perturbation theory within the weak coupling framework. Our model has been designed with multilayer high-T c superconducting cuprates in mind. In our model, multiple Fermi surfaces appear, and the component of a superconducting gap function develops on each band. We have found that the multilayer structure can stabilize the superconductivity in a wide doping range. (author)
Characterizing a four-qubit planar lattice for arbitrary error detection
Chow, Jerry M.; Srinivasan, Srikanth J.; Magesan, Easwar; Córcoles, A. D.; Abraham, David W.; Gambetta, Jay M.; Steffen, Matthias
2015-05-01
Quantum error correction will be a necessary component towards realizing scalable quantum computers with physical qubits. Theoretically, it is possible to perform arbitrarily long computations if the error rate is below a threshold value. The two-dimensional surface code permits relatively high fault-tolerant thresholds at the ~1% level, and only requires a latticed network of qubits with nearest-neighbor interactions. Superconducting qubits have continued to steadily improve in coherence, gate, and readout fidelities, to become a leading candidate for implementation into larger quantum networks. Here we describe characterization experiments and calibration of a system of four superconducting qubits arranged in a planar lattice, amenable to the surface code. Insights into the particular qubit design and comparison between simulated parameters and experimentally determined parameters are given. Single- and two-qubit gate tune-up procedures are described and results for simultaneously benchmarking pairs of two-qubit gates are given. All controls are eventually used for an arbitrary error detection protocol described in separate work [Corcoles et al., Nature Communications, 6, 2015].
Superconductivity in Chevrel phases
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, O.; Seeber, B.
1979-01-01
In the last years several ternary superconductors have been discovered, which possess unusual physical properties. Among them the molybdenum chalcogenides, which are often called Chevrel phases, have a special position. Some of these compounds have very high critical fields, which is of special interest for a technical application. In these substances the coexistence of magnetic ordering and superconductivity has been found for the first time, too. Recently it has become possible to prepare new compounds, which are interesting for superconductivity, by the appropriate coalescence of Mo 6 clusters. In the case of Tl 2 Mo 6 Se 6 (Tsub(c) = 3K) this development leads to a quasi-one-dimensional metallic system. (orig.)
Demonstration of superconducting micromachined cavities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brecht, T., E-mail: teresa.brecht@yale.edu; Reagor, M.; Chu, Y.; Pfaff, W.; Wang, C.; Frunzio, L.; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J. [Department of Applied Physics, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut 06511 (United States)
2015-11-09
Superconducting enclosures will be key components of scalable quantum computing devices based on circuit quantum electrodynamics. Within a densely integrated device, they can protect qubits from noise and serve as quantum memory units. Whether constructed by machining bulk pieces of metal or microfabricating wafers, 3D enclosures are typically assembled from two or more parts. The resulting seams potentially dissipate crossing currents and limit performance. In this letter, we present measured quality factors of superconducting cavity resonators of several materials, dimensions, and seam locations. We observe that superconducting indium can be a low-loss RF conductor and form low-loss seams. Leveraging this, we create a superconducting micromachined resonator with indium that has a quality factor of two million, despite a greatly reduced mode volume. Inter-layer coupling to this type of resonator is achieved by an aperture located under a planar transmission line. The described techniques demonstrate a proof-of-principle for multilayer microwave integrated quantum circuits for scalable quantum computing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blosser, H.G.; Johnson, D.A.; Burleigh, R.J.
1976-01-01
Superconducting cyclotrons are particularly appropriate for acceleration of heavy ions. A review is given of design features of a superconducting cyclotron with energy 440 (Q 2 /A) MeV. A strong magnetic field (4.6 tesla average) leads to small physical size (extraction radius 65 cm) and low construction costs. Operating costs are also low. The design is based on established technology (from present cyclotrons and from large bubble chambers). Two laboratories (in Chalk River, Canada and in East Lansing, Michigan) are proceeding with construction of full-scale prototype components for such cyclotrons
Hairy planar black holes in higher dimensions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Aceña, Andrés [Instituto de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo,Mendoza (Argentina); Anabalón, Andrés [Departamento de Ciencias, Facultad de Artes Liberales y Facultad de Ingeniería y Ciencias,Universidad Adolfo Ibáñez, Viña del Mar (Chile); Université de Lyon, Laboratoire de Physique,UMR 5672, CNRS, École Normale Supérieure de Lyon,46 allé d’Italie, F-69364 Lyon Cedex 07 (France); Astefanesei, Dumitru [Instituto de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Valparaíso,Casilla 4059, Valparaíso (Chile); Mann, Robert [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo,Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Perimeter Institute,31 Caroline Street North Waterloo, Ontario N2L 2Y5 (Canada)
2014-01-28
We construct exact hairy planar black holes in D-dimensional AdS gravity. These solutions are regular except at the singularity and have stress-energy that satisfies the null energy condition. We present a detailed analysis of their thermodynamical properties and show that the first law is satisfied. We also discuss these solutions in the context of AdS/CFT duality and construct the associated c-function.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruvalds, J.
1990-01-01
This report discusses the following topics: Fermi liquid nesting in high temperature superconductors; optical properties of high temperature superconductors; Hall effect in superconducting La 2-x Sr x CuO 4 ; source of high transition temperatures; and prospects for new superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Murphy, J.H.
1982-01-01
A superconducting transformer having a winding arrangement that provides for current limitation when subjected to a current transient as well as more efficient utilization of radial spacing and winding insulation. Structural innovations disclosed include compressed conical shaped winding layers and a resistive matrix to promote rapid switching of current between parallel windings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1994-08-01
This report discusses the following topics on superconducting magnets: D19B and -C: The next steps for a record-setting magnet; D20: The push beyond 10 T: Beyond D20: Speculations on the 16-T regime; other advanced magnets for accelerators; spinoff applications; APC materials development; cable and cabling-machine development; and high-T c superconductor at low temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willen, E.
1996-01-01
Superconducting dipole magnets for high energy colliders are discussed. As an example, the magnets recently built for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven are reviewed. Their technical performance and the cost for the industry-built production dipoles are given. The cost data is generalized in order to extrapolate the cost of magnets for a new machine
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pankratov, S.G.
1987-01-01
A model of bipolaron superconductivity suggested by Soviet scientist Alexandrov A.S. and French scientist Ranninger is presentes in a popular way. It is noted that the bipolaron theory gives a good explanation of certain properties of new superconductors, high critical temperature, in particular
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gray, K.E.
1978-01-01
A three film superconducting tunneling device, analogous to a semiconductor transistor, is presented, including a theoretical description and experimental results showing a current gain of four. Much larger current gains are shown to be feasible. Such a development is particularly interesting because of its novelty and the striking analogies with the semiconductor junction transistor
Angelini, P.; Da Lozzo, G.; Di Battista, G.; Frati, F.; Patrignani, M.; Rutter, I.; Hu, Y.; Nöllenburg, M.
2016-01-01
In this paper we settle the computational complexity of two open problems related to the extension of the notion of level planarity to surfaces different from the plane. Namely, we show that the problems of testing the existence of a level embedding of a level graph on the surface of the rolling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gornov, M.G.; Gurov, Yu.B.; Soldatov, A.M.; Osipenko, B.P.; Yurkowski, J.; Podkopaev, O.I.
1989-01-01
Parameters of planar detectors manufactured of HP Ge are presented. The possibilities to use multilayer spectrometers on the base of such semiconductor detectors for nuclear physics experiments are discussed. It is shown that the obtained detectors including high square ones have spectrometrical characteristics close to limiting possible values. 9 refs.; 3 figs.; 1 tab
Superconductivity in nanostructured lead
Lungu, Anca; Bleiweiss, Michael; Amirzadeh, Jafar; Saygi, Salih; Dimofte, Andreea; Yin, Ming; Iqbal, Zafar; Datta, Timir
2001-01-01
Three-dimensional nanoscale structures of lead were fabricated by electrodeposition of pure lead into artificial porous opal. The size of the metallic regions was comparable to the superconducting coherence length of bulk lead. Tc as high as 7.36 K was observed, also d Tc/d H was 2.7 times smaller than in bulk lead. Many of the characteristics of these differ from bulk lead, a type I superconductor. Irreversibility line and magnetic relaxation rates ( S) were also studied. S( T) displayed two maxima, with a peak value about 10 times smaller than that of typical high- Tc superconductors.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nasu, K.
1987-01-01
The phase diagram of a two-dimensional N-site N-electron system (N>>1) with site-diagonal electron-phonon (e-ph) coupling is studied in the context of polaron theory, so as to clarify the competition between the superconducting (SC) state and the charge-density wave (CDW) state. The Fermi surface of noninteracting electrons is assumed to be a complete circle with no nesting-type instability in the case of weak e-ph coupling, so as to focus on such a strong coupling that even the standard ''strong-coupling theory'' for superconductivity breaks down. Phonon clouds moving with electrons as well as a frozen phonon are taken into account by a variational method, combined with a mean-field theory. It covers the whole region of three basic parameters characterizing the system: the intersite transfer energy of electron T, the e-ph coupling energy S, and the phonon energy ω. The resultant phase diagram is given in a triangular coordinate space spanned by T, S, and ω. In the adiabatic region ω >(T,S) near the ω vertex of the triangle, on the other hand, each electron becomes a small polaron, and the SC state is always more stable than the CDW state, because the retardation effect is absent
Lighting up superconducting stripes
Ergeçen, Emre; Gedik, Nuh
2018-02-01
Cuprate superconductors display a plethora of complex phases as a function of temperature and carrier concentration, the understanding of which could provide clues into the mechanism of superconductivity. For example, when about one-eighth of the conduction electrons are removed from the copper oxygen planes in cuprates such as La2‑xBaxCuO4 (LBCO), the doped holes (missing electrons) organize into one-dimensional stripes (1). The bulk superconducting transition temperature (Tc) is greatly reduced, and just above Tc, electrical transport perpendicular to the planes (along the c axis) becomes resistive, but parallel to the copper oxygen planes, resistivity remains zero for a range of temperatures (2). It was proposed a decade ago (3) that this anisotropic behavior is caused by pair density waves (PDWs); superconducting Cooper pairs exist along the stripes within the planes but cannot tunnel to the adjacent layers. On page 575 of this issue, Rajasekaran et al. (4) now report detection of this state in LBCO using nonlinear reflection of high-intensity terahertz (THz) light.
Bläsius, T.; Radermacher, M.; Rutter, I.; Steffen, B.; Baier, C.; van den Brand, M.; Eder, J.; Hinchey, M.; Margaria, T.
2017-01-01
We study the problem of computing straight-line drawings of non-planar graphs with few crossings. We assume that a crossing-minimization algorithm is applied first, yielding a planarization, i.e., a planar graph with a dummy vertex for each crossing, that fixes the topology of the resulting drawing.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wilczek, F.
1997-01-01
The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wilczek, F. [Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ (United States)
1997-09-22
The asymptotic freedom of QCD suggests that at high density - where one forms a Fermi surface at very high momenta - weak coupling methods apply. These methods suggest that chiral symmetry is restored and that an instability toward color triplet condensation (color superconductivity) sets in. Here I attempt, using variational methods, to estimate these effects more precisely. Highlights include demonstration of a negative pressure in the uniform density chiral broken phase for any non-zero condensation, which we take as evidence for the philosophy of the MIT bag model; and demonstration that the color gap is substantial - several tens of MeV - even at modest densities. Since the superconductivity is in a pseudoscalar channel, parity is spontaneously broken.
1985-01-01
Extensive computer based engineering design effort resulted in optimization of a superconducting magnet design with an average bulk current density of approximately 12KA/cm(2). Twisted, stranded 0.0045 inch diameter NbTi superconductor in a copper matrix was selected. Winding the coil from this bundle facilitated uniform winding of the small diameter wire. Test coils were wound using a first lot of the wire. The actual packing density was measured from these. Interwinding voltage break down tests on the test coils indicated the need for adjustment of the wire insulation on the lot of wire subsequently ordered for construction of the delivered superconducting magnet. Using the actual packing densities from the test coils, a final magnet design, with the required enhancement and field profile, was generated. All mechanical and thermal design parameters were then also fixed. The superconducting magnet was then fabricated and tested. The first test was made with the magnet immersed in liquid helium at 4.2K. The second test was conducted at 2K in vacuum. In the latter test, the magnet was conduction cooled from the mounting flange end.
Melt formed superconducting joint between superconducting tapes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Benz, M.G.; Knudsen, B.A.; Rumaner, L.E.; Zaabala, R.J.
1992-01-01
This patent describes a superconducting joint between contiguous superconducting tapes having an inner laminate comprised of a parent-metal layer selected from the group niobium, tantalum, technetium, and vanadium, a superconductive intermetallic compound layer on the parent-metal layer, a reactive-metal layer that is capable of combining with the parent-metal and forming the superconductive intermetallic compound, the joint comprising: a continuous precipitate of the superconductive intermetallic compound fused to the tapes forming a continuous superconducting path between the tapes
Superconductivity in compensated and uncompensated semiconductors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Youichi Yanase and Naoyuki Yorozu
2008-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the localization and superconductivity in heavily doped semiconductors. The crossover from the superconductivity in the host band to that in the impurity band is described on the basis of the disordered three-dimensional attractive Hubbard model for binary alloys. The microscopic inhomogeneity and the thermal superconducting fluctuation are taken into account using the self-consistent 1-loop order theory. The superconductor-insulator transition accompanies the crossover from the host band to the impurity band. We point out an enhancement of the critical temperature Tc around the crossover. Further localization of electron wave functions leads to the localization of Cooper pairs and induces the pseudogap. We find that both the doping compensation by additional donors and the carrier increase by additional acceptors suppress the superconductivity. A theoretical interpretation is proposed for the superconductivity in the boron-doped diamond, SiC, and Si.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
David J. Aldous
2016-04-01
Full Text Available Modeling a road network as a planar graph seems very natural. However, in studying continuum limits of such networks it is useful to take {\\em routes} rather than {\\em edges} as primitives. This article is intended to introduce the relevant (discrete setting notion of {\\em routed network} to graph theorists. We give a naive classification of all 71 topologically different such networks on 4 leaves, and pose a variety of challenging research questions.
Investigating superconductivity by tunneling spectroscopy using oxide heterostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fillis-Tsirakis, Evangelos
2017-06-19
Electronic systems which are as highly-functional as the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface are rare, as the emergent high-mobility two-dimensional electron system (2DES) exhibits ferromagnetism, incipient ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, Rashba spin-orbit coupling, superconductivity and high electronic correlations; properties that may also coexist with one another. The possibility of tuning its electrical properties by external parameters such as a gate-field, temperature, pressure and magnetic-field makes the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}-2DES the scientific analogue of a multi-tool. LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} samples were grown by pulsed-laser-deposition. Using this system, planar tunnel junctions were constructed that allowed for tunneling spectroscopy measurements. The resemblance of the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} 2DES to the high-temperature superconductors undoubtedly adds value to the findings of this work. Further investigation of its nature has revealed that by depleting from the optimally doped region, the electron-phonon coupling strength increases and accounts for the persisting superconducting behavior within the macroscopically resistive regime at very low doping. Transport measurements at T = 50 mK were performed while tuning the carrier concentration and sweeping magnetic fields in the perpendicular-to-interface orientation, to investigate the superconductor-to-insulator transition by carrier depletion. The transition in LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3}, induced by tuning the carrier concentration, has thus been characterized as a superconductor-metal-insulator transition (SMIT). One aim of these measurements was to investigate the possible existence of the ''superinsulator'' phase, identified by several authors in thin metallic films. Such a phase has not been observed during transport measurements at the LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} 2DES. The nature of superconductivity in the entire phase diagram and particularly across the SMIT has
Investigating superconductivity by tunneling spectroscopy using oxide heterostructures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fillis-Tsirakis, Evangelos
2017-01-01
Electronic systems which are as highly-functional as the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 interface are rare, as the emergent high-mobility two-dimensional electron system (2DES) exhibits ferromagnetism, incipient ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, Rashba spin-orbit coupling, superconductivity and high electronic correlations; properties that may also coexist with one another. The possibility of tuning its electrical properties by external parameters such as a gate-field, temperature, pressure and magnetic-field makes the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 -2DES the scientific analogue of a multi-tool. LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 samples were grown by pulsed-laser-deposition. Using this system, planar tunnel junctions were constructed that allowed for tunneling spectroscopy measurements. The resemblance of the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 2DES to the high-temperature superconductors undoubtedly adds value to the findings of this work. Further investigation of its nature has revealed that by depleting from the optimally doped region, the electron-phonon coupling strength increases and accounts for the persisting superconducting behavior within the macroscopically resistive regime at very low doping. Transport measurements at T = 50 mK were performed while tuning the carrier concentration and sweeping magnetic fields in the perpendicular-to-interface orientation, to investigate the superconductor-to-insulator transition by carrier depletion. The transition in LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 , induced by tuning the carrier concentration, has thus been characterized as a superconductor-metal-insulator transition (SMIT). One aim of these measurements was to investigate the possible existence of the ''superinsulator'' phase, identified by several authors in thin metallic films. Such a phase has not been observed during transport measurements at the LaAlO 3 /SrTiO 3 2DES. The nature of superconductivity in the entire phase diagram and particularly across the SMIT has been investigated by magnetic-field-dependent tunneling
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ohnuma, Toshiro; Ohno, J.
1994-01-01
Superconducting (SC) plasmas are proposed and investigated. The SC plasmas are not yet familiar and have not yet been studied. However, the existence and the importance of SC plasmas are stressed in this report. The existence of SC plasmas are found as follows. There is a fundamental property of Meissner effect in superconductors, which shows a repulsive effect of magnetic fields. Even in that case, in a microscopic view, there is a region of magnetic penetration. The penetration length λ is well-known as London's penetration depth, which is expressed as δ = (m s /μ 0 n s q s 2 ) 1/2 where m s , n s , q s and μ o show the mass, the density, the charge of SC electron and the permeability in free space, respectively. Because this expression is very simple, no one had tried it into more simple and meaningful form. Recently, one of the authors (T.O.) has found that the length can be expressed into more simple and understandable fundamental form as λ = c/ω ps where c = (ε 0 μ 0 ) -1/2 and ω ps = (n s q s 2 /m s ε 0 ) 1/2 are the light velocity and the superconducting plasma frequency. From this simple expression, the penetration depth of the magnetic field to SC is found as a SC plasma skin depth, that is, the fundamental property of SC can be expressed by the SC plasmas. This discovery indicates an importance of the studies of superconducting plasmas. From these points, several properties (propagating modes et al) of SC plasmas, which consist of SC electrons, normal electrons and lattice ions, are investigated in this report. Observations of SC plasma frequency is also reported with a use of Terahertz electromagnet-optical waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leo, Stefano de; Rotelli, Pietro
2009-01-01
We present the results of the planar diffusion of a Dirac particle by step and barrier potentials, when the incoming wave impinges at an arbitrary angle with the potential. Except for right-angle incidence this process is characterized by the appearance of spin flip terms. For the step potential, spin flip occurs for both transmitted and reflected waves. However, we find no spin flip in the transmitted barrier result. This is surprising because the barrier result may be derived directly from a two-step calculation. We demonstrate that the spin flip cancellation indeed occurs for each ''particle'' (wave packet) contribution. (orig.)
Simplifying massive planar subdivisions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arge, Lars; Truelsen, Jakob; Yang, Jungwoo
2014-01-01
We present the first I/O- and practically-efficient algorithm for simplifying a planar subdivision, such that no point is moved more than a given distance εxy and such that neighbor relations between faces (homotopy) are preserved. Under some practically realistic assumptions, our algorithm uses ....... For example, for the contour map simplification problem it is significantly faster than the previous algorithm, while obtaining approximately the same simplification factor. Read More: http://epubs.siam.org/doi/abs/10.1137/1.9781611973198.3...
The state of superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clark, T.D.
1981-01-01
The present status of applications based on the phenomena of superconductivity are reviewed. Superconducting materials, large scale applications, the Josephson effect and its applications, and superconductivity in instrumentation, are considered. The influence that superconductivity has had on modern theories of elementary particles, such as gauge symmetry breaking, is discussed. (U.K.)
Critical energy of superconducting composites
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jayakumar, R.
1987-01-01
The stability of superconducting composites is studied in one-dimensional geometry and critical quench energies are calculated by solving for the steady state temperature profile which gives the minimum energy. The present calculations give lower values for the critical energy than previous estimates. The calculations are shown to be applicable to both direct cooled and impregnated conductors. Critical energies are also calculated including the effect of temperature dependence of conductor properties. (author)
A superconducting nanowire can be modeled by using SPICE
Berggren, Karl K.; Zhao, Qing-Yuan; Abebe, Nathnael; Chen, Minjie; Ravindran, Prasana; McCaughan, Adam; Bardin, Joseph C.
2018-05-01
Modeling of superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors typically requires custom simulations or finite-element analysis in one or two dimensions. Here, we demonstrate two simplified one-dimensional SPICE models of a superconducting nanowire that can quickly and efficiently describe the electrical characteristics of a superconducting nanowire. These models may be of particular use in understanding alternative architectures for nanowire detectors and readouts.
Dynamic Planar Range Maxima Queries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Tsakalidis, Konstantinos
2011-01-01
We consider the dynamic two-dimensional maxima query problem. Let P be a set of n points in the plane. A point is maximal if it is not dominated by any other point in P. We describe two data structures that support the reporting of the t maximal points that dominate a given query point, and allow...... for insertions and deletions of points in P. In the pointer machine model we present a linear space data structure with O(logn + t) worst case query time and O(logn) worst case update time. This is the first dynamic data structure for the planar maxima dominance query problem that achieves these bounds...... are integers in the range U = {0, …,2 w − 1 }. We present a linear space data structure that supports 3-sided range maxima queries in O(logn/loglogn+t) worst case time and updates in O(logn/loglogn) worst case time. These are the first sublogarithmic worst case bounds for all operations in the RAM model....
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølfting; Jacob, Rico
2002-01-01
In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the d......In this paper we determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage...... of the data structure is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects...... the convex hull, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....
Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R
2003-09-30
The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 {mu}m thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO{sub 2}, where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)
Spectroelectrochemical sensing: planar waveguides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, Susan E.; Shi Yining; Seliskar, Carl J.; Heineman, William R.
2003-01-01
The spectroelectrochemical sensor combines in a single device electrochemistry, spectroscopy, and selective partitioning into a film, giving improved selectivity for applications that involve complex samples. Sensing is based on the change in optical signal that accompanies electrochemical modulation of analyte that has partitioned into the film. Two classes of optical quality chemically-selective films based on two different host materials, namely, sol-gel processed silica and cross-linked poly(vinyl alcohol) have been developed. Films are typically 400-700 nm thick. Three types of sensor platforms are discussed: a multiple internal reflection (MIR) optic consisting of a bilayer of an indium tin oxide (ITO) optically transparent electrode deposited on a 1-mm thick glass substrate, a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide (5-9 μm thick) was over-coated with a thin film of ITO, and a planar waveguide in which a potassium ion-exchanged BK7 glass waveguide channel was formed and a pair of electrodes deposited along side the channel. These sensors were evaluated with ferrocyanide and a selective film of PDMDAAC-SiO 2 , where PDMDAAC=poly(dimethyl diallylammonium chloride)
Design of special planar linkages
Zhao, Jing-Shan; Ma, Ning; Chu, Fulei
2013-01-01
Planar linkages play a very important role in mechanical engineering. As the simplest closed chain mechanisms, planar four-bar linkages are widely used in mechanical engineering, civil engineering and aerospace engineering.Design of Special Planar Linkages proposes a uniform design theory for planar four-bar linkages. The merit of the method proposed in this book is that it allows engineers to directly obtain accurate results when there are such solutions for the specified n precise positions; otherwise, the best approximate solutions will be found. This book discusses the kinematics and reach
100 years of superconductivity
Rogalla, Horst
2011-01-01
Even a hundred years after its discovery, superconductivity continues to bring us new surprises, from superconducting magnets used in MRI to quantum detectors in electronics. 100 Years of Superconductivity presents a comprehensive collection of topics on nearly all the subdisciplines of superconductivity. Tracing the historical developments in superconductivity, the book includes contributions from many pioneers who are responsible for important steps forward in the field.The text first discusses interesting stories of the discovery and gradual progress of theory and experimentation. Emphasizi
High-temperature superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginzburg, V.L.
1987-07-01
After a short account of the history of experimental studies on superconductivity, the microscopic theory of superconductivity, the calculation of the control temperature and its possible maximum value are presented. An explanation of the mechanism of superconductivity in recently discovered superconducting metal oxide ceramics and the perspectives for the realization of new high-temperature superconducting materials are discussed. 56 refs, 2 figs, 3 tabs
Superconducting accelerator technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grunder, H.A.; Hartline, B.K.
1986-01-01
Modern and future accelerators for high energy and nuclear physics rely increasingly on superconducting components to achieve the required magnetic fields and accelerating fields. This paper presents a practical overview of the phenomenon of superconductivity, and describes the design issues and solutions associated with superconducting magnets and superconducting rf acceleration structures. Further development and application of superconducting components promises increased accelerator performance at reduced electric power cost
MgB2 thick films on three-dimensional structures fabricated by HPCVD
Guo, Zhengshan; Cai, Xingwei; Liao, Xuebin; Chen, Yiling; Yang, Can; Niu, Ruirui; Luo, Wenhao; Huang, Zigeng; Feng, Qingrong; Gan, Zizhao
2018-06-01
Magnetic shielding has been a key factor in the measurement of ultra-weak magnetic fields, especially for shielding from low frequency electromagnetic noise. With the recent development of superconducting quantum interference devices, superconducting magnetic shielding has become an important area of research. MgB2 has shown great potential in magnetic shielding for its remarkable superconducting properties, the feasibility of its use in this capacity having been demonstrated by MgB2 bulk samples. However, the potential for application of such bulk samples is limited. In this work, we have investigated the possibility of the fabrication of MgB2 films on three-dimensional (3D) structures using a hybrid physical‑chemical vapor deposition system. MgB2 films 10 μm thick have been fabricated on the outer surface of a polycrystalline Al2O3 cylinder. The deposited film showed a transition temperature (TC) of 39 K and J C of 5.1 × 105 A · cm‑2, which are comparable to those of planar MgB2 films. This work shows the feasibility of depositing MgB2 films onto a 3D structure, and sheds light on the potential use of MgB2 films in superconducting magnetic shielding.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranganathan, R.; Propp, A.; Campbell, B.; Dao, B.
1994-01-01
A three-dimensional computational heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to analyze a forced-flow, liquid-cooled, low energy booster (LEB), radio-frequency (RF) cavity, tuner concept. The results for a commercial dielectric heat transfer fluid indicated safe temperatures in the ferrite
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ranganathan, R.; Propp, A.; Campbell, B.; Dao, B.
1993-04-01
A three-dimensional computational heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to analyze a forced-flow, liquid-cooled, low energy booster (LEB) radio-frequency (RF) cavity tuner concept. The results for a commercial dielectric heat transfer fluid indicated safe temperatures in the ferrite.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ranganathan, R.; Propp, A.; Campbell, B.; Dao, B.
1993-04-01
A three-dimensional computational heat transfer and fluid flow model was developed to analyze a forced-flow, liquid-cooled, low energy booster (LEB) radio-frequency (RF) cavity tuner concept. The results for a commercial dielectric heat transfer fluid indicated safe temperatures in the ferrite
Superconductivity Series in Transition Metal Dichalcogenides by Ionic Gating
Shi, Wu; Ye, Jianting; Zhang, Yijin; Suzuki, Ryuji; Yoshida, Masaro; Miyazaki, Jun; Inoue, Naoko; Saito, Yu; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2015-01-01
Functionalities of two-dimensional (2D) crystals based on semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) have now stemmed from simple field effect transistors (FETs) to a variety of electronic and opto-valleytronic devices, and even to superconductivity. Among them, superconductivity is the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mineev, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
The planar elliptic extension of the Laplacian growth is, after a proper parametrization, given in a form of a solution to the equation for areapreserving diffeomorphisms. The infinite set of conservation laws associated with such elliptic growth is interpreted in terms of potential theory, and the relations between two major forms of the elliptic growth are analyzed. The constants of integration for closed form solutions are identified as the singularities of the Schwarz function, which are located both inside and outside the moving contour. Well-posedness of the recovery of the elliptic operator governing the process from the continuum of interfaces parametrized by time is addressed and two examples of exact solutions of elliptic growth are presented.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jacob, Riko
We determine the computational complexity of the dynamic convex hull problem in the planar case. We present a data structure that maintains a finite set of n points in the plane under insertion and deletion of points in amortized O(log n) time per operation. The space usage of the data structure...... is O(n). The data structure supports extreme point queries in a given direction, tangent queries through a given point, and queries for the neighboring points on the convex hull in O(log n) time. The extreme point queries can be used to decide whether or not a given line intersects the convex hull......, and the tangent queries to determine whether a given point is inside the convex hull. The space usage of the data structure is O(n). We give a lower bound on the amortized asymptotic time complexity that matches the performance of this data structure....
Static And Kinematic Formulation Of Planar Reciprocal Assemblies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2013-01-01
Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed by extending the work on pin-jointed assemblies by Pe...
A nitrate sensitive planar optode; performance and interferences
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Lasse; Dechesne, Arnaud; Smets, Barth F.
2015-01-01
We present a newly developed nitrate sensitive planar optode. It exhibits a linear response to nitrate from 1 to 50 mM at pH 8.0, a fast response time below 10 s and a good lifetime, allowing for fast two dimensional nitrate measurements over long periods of time. Interference from nitrite...
Improved Dynamic Planar Point Location
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Arge, Lars; Georgiadis, Loukas
2006-01-01
We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time.......We develop the first linear-space data structures for dynamic planar point location in general subdivisions that achieve logarithmic query time and poly-logarithmic update time....
Contracting a planar graph efficiently
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Holm, Jacob; Italiano, Giuseppe F.; Karczmarz, Adam
2017-01-01
the data structure, we can achieve optimal running times for decremental bridge detection, 2-edge connectivity, maximal 3-edge connected components, and the problem of finding a unique perfect matching for a static planar graph. Furthermore, we improve the running times of algorithms for several planar...
High field superconducting magnets
Hait, Thomas P. (Inventor); Shirron, Peter J. (Inventor)
2011-01-01
A superconducting magnet includes an insulating layer disposed about the surface of a mandrel; a superconducting wire wound in adjacent turns about the mandrel to form the superconducting magnet, wherein the superconducting wire is in thermal communication with the mandrel, and the superconducting magnet has a field-to-current ratio equal to or greater than 1.1 Tesla per Ampere; a thermally conductive potting material configured to fill interstices between the adjacent turns, wherein the thermally conductive potting material and the superconducting wire provide a path for dissipation of heat; and a voltage limiting device disposed across each end of the superconducting wire, wherein the voltage limiting device is configured to prevent a voltage excursion across the superconducting wire during quench of the superconducting magnet.
Understanding and application of superconducting materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moon, Byeong Mu; Lee, Chun Heung
1997-02-01
This book deals with superconducting materials, which contains from basic theory to application of superconducting materials. The contents of this book are mystery of superconducting materials, properties of superconducting materials, thermodynamics of superconducting materials, theoretical background of superconducting materials, tunnelling and quantum interference, classification and properties of superconducting materials, high temperature superconducting materials, production and analysis of superconducting materials and application of superconducting materials.
Superconducting phase transition in STM tips
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eltschka, Matthias; Jaeck, Berthold; Assig, Maximilian; Etzkorn, Markus; Ast, Christian R. [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland)
2015-07-01
The superconducting properties of systems with dimensions comparable to the London penetration depth considerably differ from macroscopic systems. We have studied the superconducting phase transition of vanadium STM tips in external magnetic fields. Employing Maki's theory we extract the superconducting parameters such as the gap or the Zeeman splitting from differential conductance spectra. While the Zeeman splitting follows the theoretical description of a system with s=1/2 and g=2, the superconducting gaps as well as the critical fields depend on the specific tip. For a better understanding of the experimental results, we solve a one dimensional Usadel equation modeling the superconducting tip as a cone with the opening angle α in an external magnetic field. We find that only a small region at the apex of the tip is superconducting in high magnetic fields and that the order of the phase transition is directly determined by α. Further, the spectral broadening increases with α indicating an intrinsic broadening mechanism due to the conical shape of the tip. Comparing these calculations to our experimental results reveals the order of the superconducting phase transition of the STM tips.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cruz, F. de la; Rodriguez, E.; Pastoriza, H.; Arribere, A.; Goffman, M.F.
1994-01-01
Strong experimental evidence of the important role of the reduced dimensionality of the vortices in the c direction in BSCCO (2212) crystals is provided. As a result of this, it is shown that the long-range order of the vortex in the c direction is destroyed by the disorder induced by thermal fluctuations as well as by the nonuniform distribution of the pancake vortices in low-temperature ZFC experiments. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cruz, F. de la (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche); Rodriguez, E. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche); Pastoriza, H. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche); Arribere, A. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche); Goffman, M.F. (Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina). Centro Atomico Bariloche)
1994-03-01
Strong experimental evidence of the important role of the reduced dimensionality of the vortices in the c direction in BSCCO (2212) crystals is provided. As a result of this, it is shown that the long-range order of the vortex in the c direction is destroyed by the disorder induced by thermal fluctuations as well as by the nonuniform distribution of the pancake vortices in low-temperature ZFC experiments. (orig.)
The superconducting busbar system of Wendelstein 7-X
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stache, Kerstin; Kerl, F.; Sapper, J.; Sombach, B.; Wegener, L.
2003-01-01
The superconducting magnet system of the stellarator Wendelstein 7-X (W7-X) consists of 50 non-planar and 20 planar coils grouped in five periodic modules. Ten coils of a given type of non-planar and planar coils will always be connected electrically in series with nominal currents ranging up to 18 kA. Because of the 5-fold symmetry five busbar systems are to be routed. Electrical connection of the busbar system will require 184 disconnectable joints with a resistance below 5 nΩ. The paper describes the design features of the busbar systems and their installation in the stellarator. Requirements for the design and qualification of the disconnectable joints will be pointed out
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meyerhoff, R.W.
1977-01-01
A noval ac superconducting cable is described. It consists of a composite structure having a superconducting surface along with a high thermally conductive material wherein the superconducting surface has the desired physical properties, geometrical shape and surface finish produced by the steps of depositing a superconducting layer upon a substrate having a predetermined surface finish and shape which conforms to that of the desired superconducting article, depositing a supporting layer of material on the superconducting layer and removing the substrate, the surface of the superconductor being a replica of the substrate surface
Investigation of superconducting properties of nanowires prepared by template synthesis
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michotte, S.; Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Piraux, L.
2003-01-01
of the nanowires is small enough to ensure a one-dimensional superconducting regime in a wide temperature range below T. The non-zero resistance in the superconducting state and its variation caused by fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter were measured versus temperature, magnetic field, and applied......We report on the transport properties of single superconducting lead nanowires grown by an electrodeposition technique, embedded in a nanoporous track-etched polymer membrane. The nanowires are granular, have a uniform diameter of ∼40 nm and a very large aspect ratio (∼500). The diameter...
Scanning tunneling spectroscopy of Co adsorbates on superconducting Pb nanostructures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Decker, Regis; Caminale, Michael; Oka, Hirofumi; Stepniak, Agnieszka; Leon Vanegas, Augusto A.; Sander, Dirk; Kirschner, Juergen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Mikrostrukturphysik, Weinberg 2, 06120 Halle (Germany)
2015-07-01
Superconductivity in low-dimensional structures has become an active research area. In order to understand the superconducting pairing, long-standing work has been devoted to the pair breaking effect, where magnetic impurities break Cooper pair singlets. We performed scanning tunneling spectroscopy at low temperature on Co adsorbates on superconducting Pb nanoislands. On the Co adsorbates, we observe spectral features in the superconductor's energy gap, which we attribute to magnetic impurity induced bound states, a hallmark of the pair breaking effect. We discuss the response of the superconducting islands to the presence of Co adsorbates.
Two solvable problems of planar geometrical optics.
Borghero, Francesco; Bozis, George
2006-12-01
In the framework of geometrical optics we consider a two-dimensional transparent inhomogeneous isotropic medium (dispersive or not). We show that (i) for any family belonging to a certain class of planar monoparametric families of monochromatic light rays given in the form f(x,y)=c of any definite color and satisfying a differential condition, all the refractive index profiles n=n(x,y) allowing for the creation of the given family can be found analytically (inverse problem) and that (ii) for any member of a class of two-dimensional refractive index profiles n=n(x,y) satisfying a differential condition, all the compatible families of light rays can be found analytically (direct problem). We present appropriate examples.
Three-dimensional superconductivity and vortex glass transition in La1.87Y0.13CuO4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Hyun-Sook; Kim, Heon-Jung; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Jung, Myung-Hwa; Jo, Younghun; Lee, Sung-Ik; Tsukada, Akio; Naito, Michio
2006-01-01
The angular dependence of the critical current density (J c (θ)) and the vortex glass transition temperature (T g (θ)) in La 1.87 Y 0.13 CuO 4 were measured at different fields and temperatures. Both J c (θ) and T g (θ) showed a strong angular variation, which is typical for anisotropic superconductors. The angular variation could be described by using the anisotropic three-dimensional Ginzburg-Landau theory. From our analysis, we were able to estimate the anisotropy ratio
Lima, L. S.
2017-02-01
We have used the Dirac's massless quasi-particles together with the Kubo's formula to study the spin transport by electrons in the graphene monolayer. We have calculated the electric conductivity and verified the behavior of the AC and DC currents of this system, that is a relativistic electron plasma. Our results show that the AC conductivity tends to infinity in the limit ω → 0 , similar to the behavior obtained for the spin transport in the two-dimensional frustrated antiferromagnet in the honeycomb lattice. We have made a diagrammatic expansion for the Green's function and we have not gotten significative change in the results.
Superconductivity in disordered thin films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ramakrishnan, T.V.
1989-01-01
The physics of low-dimensional systems has developed in a remarkable way over the last decade and has accelerated over the last few years, in particular because of the discovery of the new high temperature superconductors. The new developments started more than fifteen years ago with the discovery of the unexpected quasi-one-dimensional character of the TTF-TCNQ. Since then the field of conducting quasi-one-dimensional organic system have been rapidly growing. Parallel to the experimental work there has been an important theoretical development of great conceptual importance, such as charge density waves, soliton-like excitations, fractional charges, new symmetry properties etc. A new field of fundamental importance was the discovery of the Quantum Hall Effect in 1980. This field is still expanding with new experimental and theoretical discoveries. In 1986, then, came the totally unexpected discovery of high temperature superconductivity which started an explosive development. The three areas just mentioned formed the main themes of the Symposium. They do not in any way exhaust the progress in low-dimensional physics. We should mention the recent important development with both two-dimensional and one-dimensional and even zero-dimensional structures (quantum dots). The physics of mesoscopic systems is another important area where the low dimensionality is a key feature. Because of the small format of this Symposium we could unfortunately not cover these areas
WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1992-01-01
In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991
WORKSHOPS: Radiofrequency superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1992-01-15
In the continual push towards higher energy particle beams, superconducting radiofrequency techniques now play a vital role, highlighted in the fifth workshop on radiofrequency superconductivity, held at DESY from 19 - 24 August 1991.
Contact planarization of ensemble nanowires
Chia, A. C. E.; LaPierre, R. R.
2011-06-01
The viability of four organic polymers (S1808, SC200, SU8 and Cyclotene) as filling materials to achieve planarization of ensemble nanowire arrays is reported. Analysis of the porosity, surface roughness and thermal stability of each filling material was performed. Sonication was used as an effective method to remove the tops of the nanowires (NWs) to achieve complete planarization. Ensemble nanowire devices were fully fabricated and I-V measurements confirmed that Cyclotene effectively planarizes the NWs while still serving the role as an insulating layer between the top and bottom contacts. These processes and analysis can be easily implemented into future characterization and fabrication of ensemble NWs for optoelectronic device applications.
Tailoring Superconductivity with Quantum Dislocations.
Li, Mingda; Song, Qichen; Liu, Te-Huan; Meroueh, Laureen; Mahan, Gerald D; Dresselhaus, Mildred S; Chen, Gang
2017-08-09
Despite the established knowledge that crystal dislocations can affect a material's superconducting properties, the exact mechanism of the electron-dislocation interaction in a dislocated superconductor has long been missing. Being a type of defect, dislocations are expected to decrease a material's superconducting transition temperature (T c ) by breaking the coherence. Yet experimentally, even in isotropic type I superconductors, dislocations can either decrease, increase, or have little influence on T c . These experimental findings have yet to be understood. Although the anisotropic pairing in dirty superconductors has explained impurity-induced T c reduction, no quantitative agreement has been reached in the case a dislocation given its complexity. In this study, by generalizing the one-dimensional quantized dislocation field to three dimensions, we reveal that there are indeed two distinct types of electron-dislocation interactions. Besides the usual electron-dislocation potential scattering, there is another interaction driving an effective attraction between electrons that is caused by dislons, which are quantized modes of a dislocation. The role of dislocations to superconductivity is thus clarified as the competition between the classical and quantum effects, showing excellent agreement with existing experimental data. In particular, the existence of both classical and quantum effects provides a plausible explanation for the illusive origin of dislocation-induced superconductivity in semiconducting PbS/PbTe superlattice nanostructures. A quantitative criterion has been derived, in which a dislocated superconductor with low elastic moduli and small electron effective mass and in a confined environment is inclined to enhance T c . This provides a new pathway for engineering a material's superconducting properties by using dislocations as an additional degree of freedom.
Superconducting current in a bisoliton superconductivity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermakov, V.N.; Kruchinin, S.P.; Ponezha, E.A.
1991-01-01
It is shown that the transition into a superconducting state with the current which is described by a bisoliton superconductivity model is accompanied by the deformation of the spectrum of one-particle states of the current carriers. The deformation value is proportional to the conducting current force. The residuaby resistance in such state is absent
Critical field measurements in a superconducting networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pannetier, B.; Chaussy, J.; Rammal, R.
1984-01-01
We have measured the critical field of a periodic two-dimensional network of superconducting indium. At low fields, the critical line Hsub(c)(T) reflects the network topology and exhibits well-defined cusps due to flux quantization corresponding to both integer and rational number of flux quanta phi 0 = h/2e per unit loop of the network [fr
Are spin-Peierls tendencies helping superconductivity?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tosatti, E.; Yu Lu.
1988-03-01
Using mappings between one-dimensional models, we argue in this note that any additional spin-lattice to the Hubbard model and the ensuing tendency towards spin-Peierls state is damaging, rather than favourable to the RVB-type superconductivity. (author). 10 refs
Planar graphs theory and algorithms
Nishizeki, T
1988-01-01
Collected in this volume are most of the important theorems and algorithms currently known for planar graphs, together with constructive proofs for the theorems. Many of the algorithms are written in Pidgin PASCAL, and are the best-known ones; the complexities are linear or 0(nlogn). The first two chapters provide the foundations of graph theoretic notions and algorithmic techniques. The remaining chapters discuss the topics of planarity testing, embedding, drawing, vertex- or edge-coloring, maximum independence set, subgraph listing, planar separator theorem, Hamiltonian cycles, and single- or multicommodity flows. Suitable for a course on algorithms, graph theory, or planar graphs, the volume will also be useful for computer scientists and graph theorists at the research level. An extensive reference section is included.
Flat panel planar optic display
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Veligdan, J.T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States). Dept. of Advanced Technology
1994-11-01
A prototype 10 inch flat panel Planar Optic Display, (POD), screen has been constructed and tested. This display screen is comprised of hundreds of planar optic class sheets bonded together with a cladding layer between each sheet where each glass sheet represents a vertical line of resolution. The display is 9 inches wide by 5 inches high and approximately 1 inch thick. A 3 milliwatt HeNe laser is used as the illumination source and a vector scanning technique is employed.
Signatures of topological superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peng, Yang
2017-07-19
The prediction and experimental discovery of topological insulators brought the importance of topology in condensed matter physics into the limelight. Topology hence acts as a new dimension along which more and more new states of matter start to emerge. One of these topological states of matter, namely topological superconductors, comes into the focus because of their gapless excitations. These gapless excitations, especially in one dimensional topological superconductors, are Majorana zero modes localized at the ends of the superconductor and exhibit exotic nonabelian statistics, which can be potentially applied to fault-tolerant quantum computation. Given their highly interesting physical properties and potential applications to quantum computation, both theorists and experimentalists spend great efforts to realize topological supercondoctors and to detect Majoranas. In two projects within this thesis, we investigate the properties of Majorana zero modes in realistic materials which are absent in simple theoretical models. We find that the superconducting proximity effect, an essential ingredient in all existing platforms for topological superconductors, plays a significant role in determining the localization property of the Majoranas. Strong proximity coupling between the normal system and the superconducting substrate can lead to strongly localized Majoranas, which can explain the observation in a recent experiment. Motivated by experiments in Molenkamp's group, we also look at realistic quantum spin Hall Josephson junctions, in which charge puddles acting as magnetic impurities are coupled to the helical edge states. We find that with this setup, the junction generically realizes an exotic 8π periodic Josephson effect, which is absent in a pristine Josephson junction. In another two projects, we propose more pronounced signatures of Majoranas that are accessible with current experimental techniques. The first one is a transport measurement, which uses
Enhanced superconductivity of fullerenes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Washington, II, Aaron L.; Teprovich, Joseph A.; Zidan, Ragaiy
2017-06-20
Methods for enhancing characteristics of superconductive fullerenes and devices incorporating the fullerenes are disclosed. Enhancements can include increase in the critical transition temperature at a constant magnetic field; the existence of a superconducting hysteresis over a changing magnetic field; a decrease in the stabilizing magnetic field required for the onset of superconductivity; and/or an increase in the stability of superconductivity over a large magnetic field. The enhancements can be brought about by transmitting electromagnetic radiation to the superconductive fullerene such that the electromagnetic radiation impinges on the fullerene with an energy that is greater than the band gap of the fullerene.
Alonso, Jose R.; Antaya, Timothy A.
2012-01-01
Superconductivity is playing an increasingly important role in advanced medical technologies. Compact superconducting cyclotrons are emerging as powerful tools for external beam therapy with protons and carbon ions, and offer advantages of cost and size reduction in isotope production as well. Superconducting magnets in isocentric gantries reduce their size and weight to practical proportions. In diagnostic imaging, superconducting magnets have been crucial for the successful clinical implementation of magnetic resonance imaging. This article introduces each of those areas and describes the role which superconductivity is playing in them.
Superconductivity in transition metals.
Slocombe, Daniel R; Kuznetsov, Vladimir L; Grochala, Wojciech; Williams, Robert J P; Edwards, Peter P
2015-03-13
A qualitative account of the occurrence and magnitude of superconductivity in the transition metals is presented, with a primary emphasis on elements of the first row. Correlations of the important parameters of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer theory of superconductivity are highlighted with respect to the number of d-shell electrons per atom of the transition elements. The relation between the systematics of superconductivity in the transition metals and the periodic table high-lights the importance of short-range or chemical bonding on the remarkable natural phenomenon of superconductivity in the chemical elements. A relationship between superconductivity and lattice instability appears naturally as a balance and competition between localized covalent bonding and so-called broken covalency, which favours d-electron delocalization and superconductivity. In this manner, the systematics of superconductivity and various other physical properties of the transition elements are related and unified. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Newman, B.G.
1985-01-01
In this paper the luffing of an unstiffened, two-dimensional impervious membrane is examined. When a sail boat is close-hauled the sails are required to generate high 'lift' with minimum drag. They therefore operate, as do those on hang-wing gliders, at incidences below the stall. However, unlike solid wings they must also avoid negative incidences for then a sail begins to lose its concave shape, to become S shaped and finally, as the incidence is further reduced, to oscillate, a behaviour known as luffing
Optical magnetism in planar metamaterial heterostructures.
Papadakis, Georgia T; Fleischman, Dagny; Davoyan, Artur; Yeh, Pochi; Atwater, Harry A
2018-01-18
Harnessing artificial optical magnetism has previously required complex two- and three-dimensional structures, such as nanoparticle arrays and split-ring metamaterials. By contrast, planar structures, and in particular dielectric/metal multilayer metamaterials, have been generally considered non-magnetic. Although the hyperbolic and plasmonic properties of these systems have been extensively investigated, their assumed non-magnetic response limits their performance to transverse magnetic (TM) polarization. We propose and experimentally validate a mechanism for artificial magnetism in planar multilayer metamaterials. We also demonstrate that the magnetic properties of high-index dielectric/metal hyperbolic metamaterials can be anisotropic, leading to magnetic hyperbolic dispersion in certain frequency regimes. We show that such systems can support transverse electric polarized interface-bound waves, analogous to their TM counterparts, surface plasmon polaritons. Our results open a route for tailoring optical artificial magnetism in lithography-free layered systems and enable us to generalize the plasmonic and hyperbolic properties to encompass both linear polarizations.
Coherent arrays of planar dc-SQUIDS based on thin-film Josephson microbridges
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hansen, J.B.
1982-01-01
Phase-locking and voltage-locking in systems consisting of two planar dc-SQUIDs located close together in the same superconducting film have been investigated. The locking strength was found to be strongly dependent on the fluxoid state of both SQUIDs. A simple model for the inductive coupling between two such dc-SQUIDs is presented and the prediction of the model is compared with the experimental results. (Auth.)
Laser activated superconducting switch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolf, A.A.
1976-01-01
A superconducting switch or bistable device is described consisting of a superconductor in a cryogen maintaining a temperature just below the transition temperature, having a window of the proper optical frequency band for passing a laser beam which may impinge on the superconductor when desired. The frequency of the laser is equal to or greater than the optical absorption frequency of the superconducting material and is consistent with the ratio of the gap energy of the switch material to Planck's constant, to cause depairing of electrons, and thereby normalize the superconductor. Some embodiments comprise first and second superconducting metals. Other embodiments feature the two superconducting metals separated by a thin film insulator through which the superconducting electrons tunnel during superconductivity
Frontiers in Superconducting Materials
Narlikar, Anant V
2005-01-01
Frontiers in Superconducting Materials gives a state-of-the-art report of the most important topics of the current research in superconductive materials and related phenomena. It comprises 30 chapters written by renowned international experts in the field. It is of central interest to researchers and specialists in Physics and Materials Science, both in academic and industrial research, as well as advanced students. It also addresses electronic and electrical engineers. Even non-specialists interested in superconductivity might find some useful answers.
Superconductivity and their applications
Roque, António; Sousa, Duarte M.; Fernão Pires, Vítor; Margato, Elmano
2017-01-01
Trabalho apresentado em International Conference on Renewable Energies and Power Quality (ICREPQ’17), 4 a 6 de Abril de 2017, Málaga, Espanha The research in the field of superconductivity has led to the synthesis of superconducting materials with features that allow you to expand the applicability of this kind of materials. Among the superconducting materials characteristics, the critical temperature of the superconductor is framing the range and type of industrial applications that can b...
Superconducting machines. Chapter 4
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Appleton, A.D.
1977-01-01
A brief account is given of the principles of superconductivity and superconductors. The properties of Nb-Ti superconductors and the method of flux stabilization are described. The basic features of superconducting d.c. machines are illustrated by the use of these machines for ship propulsion, steel-mill drives, industrial drives, aluminium production, and other d.c. power supplies. Superconducting a.c. generators and their design parameters are discussed. (U.K.)
Superconductivity in the actinides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J.L.; Lawson, A.C.
1985-01-01
The trends in the occurrence of superconductivity in actinide materials are discussed. Most of them seem to show simple transition metal behavior. However, the superconductivity of americium proves that the f electrons are localized in that element and that ''actinides'' is the correct name for this row of elements. Recently the superconductivity of UBe 13 and UPt 3 has been shown to be extremely unusual, and these compounds fall in the new class of compounds now known as heavy fermion materials
WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Anon.
1984-10-15
The Second Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity was held at CERN from 23-27 July, four years after the first, organized at Karlsruhe. 35 invited talks were presented to the about 80 participants from Australia, Brazil, Europe, Japan and the United States. For the first time, ten Laboratories operating or planning superconducting accelerators for heavy ions participated and shared their experience with the community proposing the use of superconducting accelerating sections for electron accelerators.
WORKSHOP: Radiofrequency superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1984-01-01
The Second Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity was held at CERN from 23-27 July, four years after the first, organized at Karlsruhe. 35 invited talks were presented to the about 80 participants from Australia, Brazil, Europe, Japan and the United States. For the first time, ten Laboratories operating or planning superconducting accelerators for heavy ions participated and shared their experience with the community proposing the use of superconducting accelerating sections for electron accelerators
Hybrid quantum systems: Outsourcing superconducting qubits
Cleland, Andrew
Superconducting qubits offer excellent prospects for manipulating quantum information, with good qubit lifetimes, high fidelity single- and two-qubit gates, and straightforward scalability (admittedly with multi-dimensional interconnect challenges). One interesting route for experimental development is the exploration of hybrid systems, i.e. coupling superconducting qubits to other systems. I will report on our group's efforts to develop approaches that will allow interfacing superconducting qubits in a quantum-coherent fashion to spin defects in solids, to optomechanical devices, and to resonant nanomechanical structures. The longer term goals of these efforts include transferring quantum states between different qubit systems; generating and receiving ``flying'' acoustic phonon-based as well as optical photon-based qubits; and ultimately developing systems that can be used for quantum memory, quantum computation and quantum communication, the last in both the microwave and fiber telecommunications bands. Work is supported by Grants from AFOSR, ARO, DOE and NSF.
Optical sensor in planar configuration based on multimode interference
Blahut, Marek
2017-08-01
In the paper a numerical analysis of optical sensors based on multimode interference in planar one-dimensional step-index configuration is presented. The structure consists in single-mode input and output waveguides and multimode waveguide which guide only few modes. Material parameters discussed refer to a SU8 polymer waveguide on SiO2 substrate. The optical system described will be designed to the analysis of biological substances.
Static and kinematic formulation of planar reciprocal assemblies
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Parigi, Dario; Sassone, Mario; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
2014-01-01
Planar reciprocal frames are two dimensional structures formed by elements joined together according to the principle of structural reciprocity. In this paper a rigorous formulation of the static and kinematic problem is proposed and developed extending the theory of pin-jointed assemblies....... This formulation is used to evaluate the static and kinematic determinacy of reciprocal assemblies from the properties of their equilibrium and kinematic matrices...
Superconductivity in power engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1989-01-01
This proceedings volume presents 24 conference papers and 15 posters dealing with the following aspects: 1) Principles and elementary aspects of high-temperature superconductivity (3 plenary lectures); 2) Preparation, properties and materials requirements of metallic or oxide superconductors (critical current behaviour, soldered joints, structural studies); 3) Magnet technology (large magnets for thermonuclear fusion devices; magnets for particle accelerators and medical devices); 4) Magnetic levitation and superconductivity; 5) Cryogenics; 6) Energy storage systems using superconducting coils (SMES); 7) Superconducting power transmission cables, switches, transformers, and generator systems for power plant; 8) Supporting activities, industrial aspects, patents. There are thirty-eight records in the ENERGY database relating to individual conference papers. (MM) [de
Superconductivity and its application
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spadoni, M.
1988-01-01
This paper, after a short introduction to superconductivity and to multifilamentary superconducting composites is aiming to review the state of the art and the future perspective of some of the applications of the superconducting materials. The main interest is focussed to large scale applications like, for istance, magnets for accelerators or fusion reactors, superconducting system for NMR thomography, etc. A short paragraph is dedicated to applications for high sensitivity instrumentation. The paper is then concluded by some considerations about the potentialities of the newly discovered high critical temperature materials
Superconducting quantum electronics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kose, V.
1989-01-01
This book reviews recent accomplishments, presents new results and discusses possible future developments of superconducting quantum electronics and high T c superconductivity. The three main parts of the book deal with fundamentals, sensitive detectors, and precision metrology. New results reported include: correct equivalent circuits modelling superconducting electronic devices; exact solution of the Mattis-Bardeen equations describing various experiments for thin films; complete theoretical description and experimental results for a new broad band spectrum analyzer; a new Josephson junction potentiometer allowing tracing of unknown voltage ratios back to well-known frequency ratios; and fast superconducting SQUID shift registers enabling the production of calculable noise power spectra in the microwave region
Superconducting linear accelerator cryostat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ben-Zvi, I.; Elkonin, B.V.; Sokolowski, J.S.
1984-01-01
A large vertical cryostat for a superconducting linear accelerator using quarter wave resonators has been developed. The essential technical details, operational experience and performance are described. (author)
Basic Study of Superconductive Actuator
涌井, 和也; 荻原, 宏康
2000-01-01
There are two kinds of electromagnetic propulsion ships : a superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship and a superconductive electricity propulsion ship. A superconductive electromagnetic propulsion ship uses the electromagnetic force (Lorenz force) by the interaction between a magnetic field and a electric current. On the other hand, a superconductive electricity propulsion ship uses screws driven by a superconductive motor. A superconductive propulsion ship technique has the merits of ...
Superconductivity in bundles of double-wall carbon nanotubes.
Shi, Wu; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Qiucen; Zheng, Yuan; Ieong, Chao; He, Mingquan; Lortz, Rolf; Cai, Yuan; Wang, Ning; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Haijing; Tang, Zikang; Sheng, Ping; Muramatsu, Hiroyuki; Kim, Yoong Ahm; Endo, Morinobu; Araujo, Paulo T; Dresselhaus, Mildred S
2012-01-01
We present electrical and thermal specific heat measurements that show superconductivity in double-wall carbon nanotube (DWCNT) bundles. Clear evidence, comprising a resistance drop as a function of temperature, magnetoresistance and differential resistance signature of the supercurrent, suggest an intrinsic superconducting transition below 6.8 K for one particular sample. Additional electrical data not only confirm the existence of superconductivity, but also indicate the T(c) distribution that can arise from the diversity in the diameter and chirality of the DWCNTs. A broad superconducting anomaly is observed in the specific heat of a bulk DWCNT sample, which yields a T(c) distribution that correlates well with the range of the distribution obtained from the electrical data. As quasi one dimensionality of the DWCNTs dictates the existence of electronic density of state peaks, confirmation of superconductivity in this material system opens the exciting possibility of tuning the T(c) through the application of a gate voltage.
The planar cubic Cayley graphs
Georgakopoulos, Agelos
2018-01-01
The author obtains a complete description of the planar cubic Cayley graphs, providing an explicit presentation and embedding for each of them. This turns out to be a rich class, comprising several infinite families. He obtains counterexamples to conjectures of Mohar, Bonnington and Watkins. The author's analysis makes the involved graphs accessible to computation, corroborating a conjecture of Droms.
Development of a Planar Undulator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deyhim, Alex; Johnson, Eric; Kulesza, Joe; Lyndaker, Aaron; Waterman, Dave; Eisert, Dave; Green, Michael A.; Rogers, Greg; Blomqvist, K. Ingvar
2007-01-01
The design of a planar pure permanent magnet undulator is presented. The design requirements and mechanical difficulties for holding, positioning, and driving the magnetic arrays are explored. The structural, thermal, and electrical considerations that influenced the design are then analyzed. And finally detailed magnetic measurements are presented
Casimir stress inside planar materials
Griniasty, Itay; Leonhardt, Ulf
2017-09-01
The Casimir force between macroscopic bodies is well understood, but not the Casimir force inside bodies. Guided by a physically intuitive picture, we develop the macroscopic theory of the renormalized Casimir stress inside planar materials (where the electromagnetic properties vary in one direction). Our theory may be applied in predicting how inhomogeneous fluids respond to Casimir forces.
Approximation by planar elastic curves
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brander, David; Gravesen, Jens; Nørbjerg, Toke Bjerge
2016-01-01
We give an algorithm for approximating a given plane curve segment by a planar elastic curve. The method depends on an analytic representation of the space of elastic curve segments, together with a geometric method for obtaining a good initial guess for the approximating curve. A gradient......-driven optimization is then used to find the approximating elastic curve....
Poling of Planar Silica Waveguides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Arentoft, Jesper; Kristensen, Martin; Jensen, Jesper Bo
1999-01-01
UV-written planar silica waveguides are poled using two different poling techniques, thermal poling and UV-poling. Thermal poling induces an electro-optic coefficient of 0.067 pm/V. We also demonstrate simultaneous UV-writing and UV-poling. The induced electro-optic effect shows a linear dependence...
High transition temperature superconducting integrated circuit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
DiIorio, M.S.
1985-01-01
This thesis describes the design and fabrication of the first superconducting integrated circuit capable of operating at over 10K. The primary component of the circuit is a dc SQUID (Superconducting QUantum Interference Device) which is extremely sensitive to magnetic fields. The dc SQUID consists of two superconductor-normal metal-superconductor (SNS) Josephson microbridges that are fabricated using a novel step-edge process which permits the use of high transition temperature superconductors. By utilizing electron-beam lithography in conjunction with ion-beam etching, very small microbridges can be produced. Such microbridges lead to high performance dc SQUIDs with products of the critical current and normal resistance reaching 1 mV at 4.2 K. These SQUIDs have been extensively characterized, and exhibit excellent electrical characteristics over a wide temperature range. In order to couple electrical signals into the SQUID in a practical fashion, a planar input coil was integrated for efficient coupling. A process was developed to incorporate the technologically important high transition temperature superconducting materials, Nb-Sn and Nb-Ge, using integrated circuit techniques. The primary obstacles were presented by the metallurgical idiosyncrasies of the various materials, such as the need to deposit the superconductors at elevated temperatures, 800-900 0 C, in order to achieve a high transition temperature
Two-dimensional metamaterial optics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smolyaninov, I I
2010-01-01
While three-dimensional photonic metamaterials are difficult to fabricate, many new concepts and ideas in the metamaterial optics can be realized in two spatial dimensions using planar optics of surface plasmon polaritons. In this paper we review recent progress in this direction. Two-dimensional photonic crystals, hyperbolic metamaterials, and plasmonic focusing devices are demonstrated and used in novel microscopy and waveguiding schemes
Low-dimensional molecular metals
Toyota, Naoki; Muller, Jens
2007-01-01
Assimilating research in the field of low-dimensional metals, this monograph provides an overview of the status of research on quasi-one- and two-dimensional molecular metals, describing normal-state properties, magnetic field effects, superconductivity, and the phenomena of interacting p and d electrons.
Disappearance of superconductivity and critical resistance in thin indium films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Okuma, Satoshi; Nishida, Nobuhiko
1991-01-01
In thin granular films composed of two-dimensionally coupled indium particles, we have studied influences of average particle sizes anti d on the superconducting transition. For films with anti d=280A and 224A, superconducting transition temperature stays almost constant with increasing the sheet resistance R n in the normal state, while for a film with anti d=140A, it decreases linearly with R n . This means that the system changes to a dirty superconductor by reducing anti d. With further increasing R n , superconductivity disappears when R n exceeds the value R c of order h/4e 2 , which seems to correlate with anti d. (orig.)
Radiation effects on superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, B.S.
1975-01-01
The effect of radiation on the superconducting transition temperature (T/sub c/), upper critical field (H/sub c2/), and volume-pinning-force density (F/sub p/) were discussed for the three kinds of superconducting material (elements, alloys, and compounds). 11 figures, 3 tables, 86 references
Superconducting elliptical cavities
Sekutowicz, J K
2011-01-01
We give a brief overview of the history, state of the art, and future for elliptical superconducting cavities. Principles of the cell shape optimization, criteria for multi-cell structures design, HOM damping schemes and other features are discussed along with examples of superconducting structures for various applications.
Superconductivity in technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komarek, P.
1976-01-01
Physics, especially high energy physics and solid state physics was the first area in which superconducting magnets were used but in the long run, the most extensive application of superconductivity will probably be in energy technology. Superconducting power transmission cables, magnets for energy conversion in superconducting electrical machines, MHD-generators and fusion reactors and magnets for energy storage are being investigated. Magnets for fusion reactors will have particularly large physical dimensions, which means that much development effort is still needed, for there is no economic alternative. Superconducting surfaces in radio frequency cavities can give Q-values up to a factor of 10 6 higher than those of conventional resonators. Particle accelerators are the important application. And for telecommunication, simple coaxial superconducting radio frequency cables seem promising. The tunnel effect in superconducting junctions is now being developed commercially for sensitive magnetometers and may soon possibly feature in the memory cells of computer devices. Hence superconductivity can play an important role in the technological world, solving physical and technological problems and showing economic advantages as compared with possible conventional techniques, bearing also in mind the importance of reliability and safety. (author)
Academic training: Applied superconductivity
2007-01-01
LECTURE SERIES 17, 18, 19 January from 11.00 to 12.00 hrs Council Room, Bldg 503 Applied Superconductivity : Theory, superconducting Materials and applications E. PALMIERI/INFN, Padova, Italy When hearing about persistent currents recirculating for several years in a superconducting loop without any appreciable decay, one realizes that we are dealing with a phenomenon which in nature is the closest known to the perpetual motion. Zero resistivity and perfect diamagnetism in Mercury at 4.2Â K, the breakthrough during 75 years of several hundreds of superconducting materials, the revolution of the "liquid Nitrogen superconductivity"; the discovery of still a binary compound becoming superconducting at 40 K and the subsequent re-exploration of the alreadyÂ known superconducting materials: Nature discloses drop by drop its intimate secrets and nobody can exclude that the last final surprise must still come. After an overview ofÂ phenomenology and basic theory of superconductivity, the lectures for this a...
Superconducting rotating machines
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.
1975-01-01
The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed
Superconductivity in bad metals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.
1995-01-01
It is argued that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'' with such a poor conductivity that the usual mean-field theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. Some consequences for high temperature superconductors are described
Submicron superconducting structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golovashkin, A.I.; Lykov, A.N.
1986-01-01
An overview of works concerning superconducting structures of submicron dimensions and a system of such structures is given. It is noted that usage of the above structures in superconducting microelectronics permits, first, to increase the element packing density, to decrease the signal transmission time, capacity, power dissipated in high-frequency applications. Secondly, negligible coherence length in transition metals, their alloys and high-temperature compounds also restrict the dimensions of superconducting weak couplings when the 'classical' Josephson effect is displayed. The most effective methods for production of submicron superconducting structures are the following: lithography, double scribering. Recently the systems of superconducting submicron elements are extensively studied. It is shown that such systems can be phased by magnetic field
Superconducting wind turbine generators
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen
2010-01-01
, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...
Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yunying Pan
2016-08-01
Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.
Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang, Shengli; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo, E-mail: Huziyu@csrc.ac.cn, E-mail: zeng.haibo@njust.edu.cn [Institute of Optoelectronics and Nanomaterials, Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); Hu, Yonghong [Institute of Optoelectronics and Nanomaterials, Herbert Gleiter Institute of Nanoscience, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Nanjing 210094 (China); School of Nuclear Technology and Chemistry and Biology, Hubei University of Science and Technology, Xianning 437100 (China); Hu, Ziyu, E-mail: Huziyu@csrc.ac.cn, E-mail: zeng.haibo@njust.edu.cn [Beijing Computational Science Research Center, Beijing 100084 (China)
2015-07-13
Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices.
Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Shengli; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo; Hu, Yonghong; Hu, Ziyu
2015-01-01
Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices
Hydrogenated arsenenes as planar magnet and Dirac material
Zhang, Shengli; Hu, Yonghong; Hu, Ziyu; Cai, Bo; Zeng, Haibo
2015-07-01
Arsenene and antimonene are predicted to have 2.49 and 2.28 eV band gaps, which have aroused intense interest in the two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors for nanoelectronic and optoelectronic devices. Here, the hydrogenated arsenenes are reported to be planar magnet and 2D Dirac materials based on comprehensive first-principles calculations. The semi-hydrogenated (SH) arsenene is found to be a quasi-planar magnet, while the fully hydrogenated (FH) arsenene is a planar Dirac material. The buckling height of pristine arsenene is greatly decreased by the hydrogenation, resulting in a planar and relatively low-mass-density sheet. The electronic structures of arsenene are also evidently altered after hydrogenating from wide-band-gap semiconductor to metallic material for SH arsenene, and then to Dirac material for FH arsenene. The SH arsenene has an obvious magnetism, mainly contributed by the p orbital of the unsaturated As atom. Such magnetic and Dirac materials modified by hydrogenation of arsenene may have potential applications in future optoelectronic and spintronic devices.
A planar microfluidic mixer based on logarithmic spirals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scherr, Thomas; Nandakumar, Krishnaswamy; Quitadamo, Christian; Tesvich, Preston; Park, Daniel Sang-Won; Hayes, Daniel; Monroe, W Todd; Tiersch, Terrence; Choi, Jin-Woo
2012-01-01
A passive, planar micromixer design based on logarithmic spirals is presented. The device was fabricated using polydimethylsiloxane soft photolithography techniques, and mixing performance was characterized via numerical simulation and fluorescent microscopy. Mixing efficiency initially declined as the Reynolds number increased, and this trend continued until a Reynolds number of 15 where a minimum was reached at 53%. Mixing efficiency then began to increase reaching a maximum mixing efficiency of 86% at Re = 67. Three-dimensional (3D) simulations of fluid mixing in this design were compared to other planar geometries such as the Archimedes spiral and Meandering-S mixers. The implementation of logarithmic curvature offers several unique advantages that enhance mixing, namely a variable cross-sectional area and a logarithmically varying radius of curvature that creates 3D Dean vortices. These flow phenomena were observed in simulations with multilayered fluid folding and validated with confocal microscopy. This design provides improved mixing performance over a broader range of Reynolds numbers than other reported planar mixers, all while avoiding external force fields, more complicated fabrication processes and the introduction of flow obstructions or cavities that may unintentionally affect sensitive or particulate-containing samples. Due to the planar design requiring only single-step lithographic features, this compact geometry could be easily implemented into existing micro-total analysis systems requiring effective rapid mixing. (paper)
Superconductivity in few-layer stanene
Liao, Menghan; Zang, Yunyi; Guan, Zhaoyong; Li, Haiwei; Gong, Yan; Zhu, Kejing; Hu, Xiao-Peng; Zhang, Ding; Xu, Yong; Wang, Ya-Yu; He, Ke; Ma, Xu-Cun; Zhang, Shou-Cheng; Xue, Qi-Kun
2018-04-01
A single atomic slice of α-tin—stanene—has been predicted to host the quantum spin Hall effect at room temperature, offering an ideal platform to study low-dimensional and topological physics. Although recent research has focused on monolayer stanene, the quantum size effect in few-layer stanene could profoundly change material properties, but remains unexplored. By exploring the layer degree of freedom, we discover superconductivity in few-layer stanene down to a bilayer grown on PbTe, while bulk α-tin is not superconductive. Through substrate engineering, we further realize a transition from a single-band to a two-band superconductor with a doubling of the transition temperature. In situ angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) together with first-principles calculations elucidate the corresponding band structure. The theory also indicates the existence of a topologically non-trivial band. Our experimental findings open up novel strategies for constructing two-dimensional topological superconductors.
Ahmed, Sajid
2016-11-24
Various examples of methods and systems are provided for direct closed-form finite alphabet constant-envelope waveforms for planar array beampatterns. In one example, a method includes defining a waveform covariance matrix based at least in part upon a two-dimensional fast Fourier transform (2D-FFT) analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with a planar array of antennas. Symbols can be encoded based upon the waveform covariance matrix and the encoded symbols can be transmitted via the planar array of antennas. In another embodiment, a system comprises an N x M planar array of antennas and transmission circuitry configured to transmit symbols via a two-dimensional waveform beampattern defined based at least in part upon a 2D-FFT analysis of a frequency domain matrix Hf associated with the planar array of antennas.
BCS superconductivity for weakly coupled clusters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Friedel, J.
1992-01-01
BCS superconductivity is expected to have fairly high critical temperatures when clusters of moderate sizes are weakly coupled to form a crystal. This remark extends to quasi zerodimensional cases, a remark initially made by Labbe for quasi one-dimensional ones and by Hirsch, Bok and Labbe for quasi twodimensional ones. Possible applications are envisaged for twodimensional clusters (fullerene) or threedimensional ones (metal clusters, Chevrel phases). Conditions for optimal applicability of the scheme are somewhat restricted. (orig.)
Quench simulation in the thin superconducting solenoid
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tominaka, T.; Takasaki, M.; Wake, M.; Yamada, R.
1983-07-01
The propagation velocities of a normal zone were calculated for a 1 mdiameter x 1 m superconducting solenoid and for a 3 mdiameter x 5 m thin solenoid based on a simple model using the one-dimensional thermal equation. The quench back effect can be observed in certain conditions. The quench of the large thin solenoid was also simulated by using the computer program 'QUENCH'. (author)
Excessive current in wide superconducting films
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Volotskaya, V.G.; Sivakov, A.G.; Turutanov, O.G.
1986-01-01
The resistive state of a wide long film due to superconductivity destruction by current is studied. The voltage-independent excess current I 0 is observed on I-V curves at high transport currents. The two-dimensional image of the current-carrying sample obtained by laser scanning technique in this current range indicates that the whole film is in the resistive state. The current I 0 is measured as a function of magnetic field and SHF power
Manufacturing of planar ceramic interconnects
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Armstrong, B.L.; Coffey, G.W.; Meinhardt, K.D.; Armstrong, T.R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab., Richland, WA (United States)
1996-12-31
The fabrication of ceramic interconnects for solid oxide fuel cells (SOFC) and separator plates for electrochemical separation devices has been a perennial challenge facing developers. Electrochemical vapor deposition (EVD), plasma spraying, pressing, tape casting and tape calendering are processes that are typically utilized to fabricate separator plates or interconnects for the various SOFC designs and electrochemical separation devices. For sake of brevity and the selection of a planar fuel cell or gas separation device design, pressing will be the only fabrication technique discussed here. This paper reports on the effect of the characteristics of two doped lanthanum manganite powders used in the initial studies as a planar porous separator for a fuel cell cathode and as a dense interconnect for an oxygen generator.
Time evolution of a new superconducting state in long ferromagnetic superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dharmadurai, G.
1980-01-01
We examine the unique features associated with the onset of a time dependent superconducting state in long reentrant ferromagnetic superconductors due to the self-heating induced breakdown of the ferromagnetic normal state. After solving the relevant one-dimensional heat flow equations in an analytic approximation we estimate the duration of the resulting metastable superconducting state and discuss the qualitative aspects of the temporal behaviour of this new superconducting state. (orig.)
Planar-Processed Polymer Transistors.
Xu, Yong; Sun, Huabin; Shin, Eul-Yong; Lin, Yen-Fu; Li, Wenwu; Noh, Yong-Young
2016-10-01
Planar-processed polymer transistors are proposed where the effective charge injection and the split unipolar charge transport are all on the top surface of the polymer film, showing ideal device characteristics with unparalleled performance. This technique provides a great solution to the problem of fabrication limitations, the ambiguous operating principle, and the performance improvements in practical applications of conjugated-polymer transistors. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Superconductivity and electron microscopy
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hawkes, P.W.; Valdre, U.
1977-01-01
In this review article, two aspects of the role of superconductivity in electron microscopy are examined: (i) the development of superconducting devices (mainly lenses) and their incorporation in electron microscopes; (ii) the development of electron microscope techniques for studying fundamental and technological problems associated with superconductivity. The first part opens with a brief account of the relevant properties of conventional lenses, after which the various types of superconducting lenses are described and their properties compared. The relative merits and inconveniences of superconducting and conventional lenses are examined, particular attention being paid to the spherical and chromatic aberration coefficients at accelerating voltages above a megavolt. This part closes with a survey of the various microscope designs that have been built or proposed, incorporating superconducting components. In the second part, some methods that have been or might be used in the study of superconductivity in the electron microscope are described. A brief account of the types of application for which they are suitable is given. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chui, S.T.; Kasowski, R.V.; Hsu, W.Y.
1989-01-01
We argue that because of the anisotropic nature of YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 7-//sub x/, one-dimensional-type charge- and spin-density fluctuations produce an effective attraction that overcomes the electron-electron Coulomb repulsion, but only at large distances. This effective attraction is further enhanced by band-structure effects such that a substantial superconducting transition temperature can be obtained. Without making any assumption of the symmetry of the gap function, we solve the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superconducting gap equation for the six bands closest to the Fermi level. A highly anisotropic gap function with a maximum of about 0.11 eV is found. From the linearized gap equation, a transition temperature of about 0.035 eV is obtained. This is about one-quarter the maximum of the gap function, consistent with the experimental ratio of the transition temperature to the gap determined from tunneling, infrared, and nuclear quadrupole resonance measurements. The important participants to the superconducting pair come from electrons close to planar copper [Cu(2)] and chain oxygen [O(1) and O(4)] sites, consistent with recent quadrupole resonance measurements. Our calculation produces a coherence length of the order of 30 A in the xy direction, the same order of magnitude as the experimental result and considerably smaller than the conventional magnitude of ordinary BCS materials. Similar calculations for YBa 2 Cu 3 O/sub 6.5/ where periodic O vacancies are introduced along the one-dimensional Cu-O chains shows that the transition temperature is reduced by half
Tunnelling anomalous and planar Hall effects (Conference Presentation)
Matos-Abiague, Alex; Scharf, Benedikt; Han, Jong E.; Hankiewicz, Ewelina M.; Zutic, Igor
2016-10-01
We theoretically show how the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC) and magnetism can result in a finite tunneling Hall conductance, transverse to the applied bias. For two-dimensional tunnel junctions with a ferromagnetic lead and magnetization perpendicular to the current flow, the detected anomalous Hall voltage can be used to extract information not only about the spin polarization but also about the strength of the interfacial SOC. In contrast, a tunneling current across a ferromagnetic barrier on the surface of a three-dimensional topological insulator (TI) can induce a planar Hall response even when the magnetization is oriented along the current flow[1]. The tunneling nature of the states contributing to the planar Hall conductance can be switched from the ordinary to the Klein regimes by the electrostatic control of the barrier strength. This allows for an enhancement of the transverse response and a giant Hall angle, with the tunneling planar Hall conductance exceeding the longitudinal component. Despite the simplicity of a single ferromagnetic region, the TI/ferromagnet system exhibits a variety of functionalities. In addition to a spin-valve operation for magnetic sensing and storing information, positive, negative, and negative differential conductances can be tuned by properly adjusting the barrier potential and/or varying the magnetization direction. Such different resistive behaviors in the same system are attractive for potential applications in reconfigurable spintronic devices. [1] B. Scharf, A. Matos-Abiague, J. E. Han, E. M. Hankiewicz, and I. Zutic, arXiv:1601.01009 (2016).
Superconducting materials and magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1991-04-01
The Technical Committee Meeting on Superconducting Materials and Magnets was convened by the IAEA and held by invitation of the Japanese government on September 4-6, 1989 in Tokyo. The meeting was hosted by the National Research Institute for Metals. Topics of the conference related to superconducting magnets and technology with particular application to fusion and the superconducting supercollider. Technology using both high and low-temperature superconductors was discussed. This document is a compendium of the papers presented at the meeting. Refs, figs and tabs
'Speedy' superconducting circuits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holst, T.
1994-01-01
The most promising concept for realizing ultra-fast superconducting digital circuits is the Rapid Single Flux Quantum (RSFQ) logic. The basic physical principle behind RSFQ logic, which include the storage and transfer of individual magnetic flux quanta in Superconducting Quantum Interference Devices (SQUIDs), is explained. A Set-Reset flip-flop is used as an example of the implementation of an RSFQ based circuit. Finally, the outlook for high-temperature superconducting materials in connection with RSFQ circuits is discussed in some details. (au)
ESCAR superconducting magnet system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gilbert, W.S.; Meuser, R.B.; Pope, W.L.; Green, M.A.
1975-01-01
Twenty-four superconducting dipoles, each about 1 meter long, provide the guide field for the Experimental Superconducting Accelerator Ring proton accelerator--storage ring. Injection of 50 MeV protons corresponds to a 3 kG central dipole field, and a peak proton energy of 4.2 GeV corresponds to a 46 kG central field. Thirty-two quadrupoles provide focusing. The 56 superconducting magnets are contained in 40 cryostats that are cryogenically connected in a novel series ''weir'' arrangement. A single 1500 W refrigeration plant is required. Design and testing of the magnet and cryostat system are described. (U.S.)
Superconducting tin core fiber
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Homa, Daniel; Liang, Yongxuan; Hill, Cary; Kaur, Gurbinder; Pickrell, Gary
2015-01-01
In this study, we demonstrated superconductivity in a fiber with a tin core and fused silica cladding. The fibers were fabricated via a modified melt-draw technique and maintained core diameters ranging from 50-300 microns and overall diameters of 125-800 microns. Superconductivity of this fiber design was validated via the traditional four-probe test method in a bath of liquid helium at temperatures on the order of 3.8 K. The synthesis route and fiber design are perquisites to ongoing research dedicated all-fiber optoelectronics and the relationships between superconductivity and the material structures, as well as corresponding fabrication techniques. (orig.)
Superconductivity in doped insulators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, V.J.; Kivelson, S.A.
1995-01-01
It is shown that many synthetic metals, including high temperature superconductors are ''bad metals'', with such a poor conductivity that the usual meanfield theory of superconductivity breaks down because of anomalously large classical and quantum fluctuations of the phase of the superconducting order parameter. It is argued that the supression of a first order phase transition (phase separation) by the long-range Coulomb interaction leads to high temperature superconductivity accompanied by static or dynamical charge inhomogeneIty. Evidence in support of this picture for high temperature superconductors is described
Superconducting active impedance converter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginley, D.S.; Hietala, V.M.; Martens, J.S.
1993-01-01
A transimpedance amplifier for use with high temperature superconducting, other superconducting, and conventional semiconductors allows for appropriate signal amplification and impedance matching to processing electronics. The amplifier incorporates the superconducting flux flow transistor into a differential amplifier configuration which allows for operation over a wide temperature range, and is characterized by high gain, relatively low noise, and response times less than 200 picoseconds over at least a 10-80 K. temperature range. The invention is particularly useful when a signal derived from either far-IR focal plane detectors or from Josephson junctions is to be processed by higher signal/higher impedance electronics, such as conventional semiconductor technology. 12 figures
Introduction to superconductivity
Darriulat, Pierre
1998-01-01
The lecture series will address physicists, such as particle and nuclear physicists, familiar with non-relativistic quantum mechanics but not with solid state physics. The aim of this introduction to low temperature superconductivity is to give sufficient bases to the student for him/her to be able to access the scientific literature on this field. The five lectures will cover the following topics : 1. Normal metals, free electron gas, chambers equation. 2. Cooper pairs, the BCS ground state, quasi particle excitations. 3. DC superconductivity, Meissner state, dirty superconductors.4. Self consistent approach, Ginsburg Landau equations, Abrikosov fluxon lattice. 5. Josephson effects, high temperature superconductivity.
Anisotropic critical fields in superconducting superlattices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banerjee, I.; Yang, Q.S.; Falco, C.M.; Schuller, I.K.
1983-01-01
The temperature and angular dependence of critical fields (H/sub c/) have been studied as a function of layer thickness for superconducting Nb/Cu superlattices. For layer thicknesses between 100 and 300 A, dimensional crossover has been observed in the temperature dependence of H/sub c/. Associated with the crossover we find a change in the angular dependence of H/sub c/ to that given by the effective-mass theory. This is the first time that a relationship has been found between dimensional crossover observed in the temperature dependence and that in the angular dependence of critical fields
(Weakly) three-dimensional caseology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pomraning, G.C.
1996-01-01
The singular eigenfunction technique of Case for solving one-dimensional planar symmetry linear transport problems is extended to a restricted class of three-dimensional problems. This class involves planar geometry, but with forcing terms (either boundary conditions or internal sources) which are weakly dependent upon the transverse spatial variables. Our analysis involves a singular perturbation about the classic planar analysis, and leads to the usual Case discrete and continuum modes, but modulated by weakly dependent three-dimensional spatial functions. These functions satisfy parabolic differential equations, with a different diffusion coefficient for each mode. Representative one-speed time-independent transport problems are solved in terms of these generalised Case eigenfunctions. Our treatment is very heuristic, but may provide an impetus for more rigorous analysis. (author)
Stability of Planar Rarefaction Wave to 3D Full Compressible Navier-Stokes Equations
Li, Lin-an; Wang, Teng; Wang, Yi
2018-05-01
We prove time-asymptotic stability toward the planar rarefaction wave for the three-dimensional full, compressible Navier-Stokes equations with the heat-conductivities in an infinite long flat nozzle domain {R × T^2} . Compared with one-dimensional case, the proof here is based on our new observations on the cancellations on the flux terms and viscous terms due to the underlying wave structures, which are crucial for overcoming the difficulties due to the wave propagation in the transverse directions x 2 and x 3 and its interactions with the planar rarefaction wave in x 1 direction.
Cell percolation model for electrical conduction of granular superconducting composites. 2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Horvath, G.; Bankuti, J.
1990-01-01
The percolation of the electrical conductivity of the uniform cells is studied in an in-situ elongated granular superconducting composite on the basis of the uniform cell model improved previously. The critical temperatures are determined in the macroscopic superconducting state of the two- and the three-dimensional composites. (author)
Superconducting fluctuations in systems with Rashba-spin-orbit coupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Beyl, Stefan [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik und Astrophysik, Universitaet Wuerzburg (Germany); Orth, Peter P.; Scheurer, Mathias; Schmalian, Joerg [Institut fuer Theorie der Kondensierten Materie, Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (Germany)
2015-07-01
We investigate the BEC-BCS crossover in a two-dimensional system with Rashba-spin-orbit coupling. To include the effects of phase and amplitude fluctuations of the superconducting order parameter we perform a loop expansion of the effective field theory. We analyze in particular the probability of a low density superconducting quantum phase transition. The theory is relevant to LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interfaces and two-dimensional cold atom systems with synthetic gauge fields.
Magnetic and superconducting nanowires
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Piraux, L.; Encinas, A.; Vila, L.
2005-01-01
magnetic and superconducting nanowires. Using different approaches entailing measurements on both single wires and arrays, numerous interesting physical properties have been identified in relation to the nanoscopic dimensions of these materials. Finally, various novel applications of the nanowires are also...
Hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tixador, P.; Hiebel, P.; Brunet, Y.; Chaud, X.; Gautier-Picard, P.
1996-01-01
Superconductors, especially high T c ones, are the most attractive materials to design stable and fully passive magnetic suspensions which have to control five degrees of freedom. The hybrid superconducting magnetic suspensions present high performances and a simple cooling mode. They consist of a permanent magnet bearing, stabilized by a suitable magnet-superconductor structure. Several designs are given and compared in terms of forces and stiffnesses. The design of the magnet bearing plays an important part. The superconducting magnetic bearing participates less in levitation but must provide a high stabilizing stiffness. This is achieved by the magnet configuration, a good material in term of critical current density and field cooling. A hybrid superconducting suspension for a flywheel is presented. This system consists of a magnet thrust bearing stabilized by superconductors interacting with an alternating polarity magnet structure. First tests and results are reported. Superconducting materials are magnetically melt-textured YBaCuO
Superconducting Technology Assessment
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
2005-01-01
This Superconducting Technology Assessment (STA) has been conducted by the National Security Agency to address the fundamental question of a potential replacement for silicon complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS...
Superconductivity: materials and applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duchateau, J.L.; Kircher, F.; Leveque, J.; Tixador, P.
2008-01-01
This digest paper presents the different types of superconducting materials: 1 - the low-TC superconductors: the multi-filament composite as elementary constituent, the world production of NbTi, the superconducting cables of the LHC collider and of the ITER tokamak; 2 - the high-TC superconductors: BiSrCaCuO (PIT 1G) ribbons and wires, deposited coatings; 3 - application to particle physics: the the LHC collider of the CERN, the LHC detectors; 4 - applications to thermonuclear fusion: Tore Supra and ITER tokamaks; 5 - NMR imaging: properties of superconducting magnets; 6 - applications in electrotechnics: cables, motors and alternators, current limiters, transformers, superconducting energy storage systems (SMES). (J.S.)
Superconductivity and its devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Forbes, D.S.
1981-01-01
Among the more important developments that are discussed are cryotrons, superconducting motors and generators, and high-field magnets. Cryotrons will create faster and more economical computer systems. Superconducting motors and generators will cost much less to build than conventional electric generators and cut fuel consumption. Moreover, high-field magnets are being used to confine plasma in connection with nuclear fusion. Superconductors have a vital role to play in all of these developments. Most importantly, though, are the magnetic properties of superconductivity. Superconducting magnets are an integral part of nuclear fusion. In addition, high-field magnets are necessary in the use of accelerators, which are needed to study the interactions between elementary particles
Superconductivity: Heike's heritage
van der Marel, D.; Golden, M.
2011-01-01
A century ago, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes discovered superconductivity. And yet, despite the conventional superconductors being understood, the list of unconventional superconductors is growing — for which unconventional theories may be required.
RADIOFREQUENCY SUPERCONDUCTIVITY: Workshop
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lengeler, Herbert
1989-01-01
Superconducting radiofrequency is already playing an important role in the beam acceleration system for the TRISTAN electron-positron collider at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and new such systems are being prepared for other major machines. Thus the fourth Workshop on Radiofrequency Superconductivity, organized by KEK under the chairmanship of local specialist Yuzo Kojima and held just before the International Conference on High Energy Accelerators, had much progress to review and even more to look forward to
Stacked magnet superconducting bearing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rigney, T.K. II; Saville, M.P.
1993-01-01
A superconducting bearing is described, comprising: a plurality of permanent magnets magnetized end-to-end and stacked side-by-side in alternating polarity, such that flux lines flow between ends of adjacent magnets; isolating means, disposed between said adjacent magnets, for reducing flux leakage between opposing sides of said adjacent magnets; and a member made of superconducting material having at least one surface in communication with said flux lines
Superconductivity at high pressures
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brandt, N B; Ginzburg, N I
1969-07-01
Work published during the last 3 or 4 yrs concerning the effect of pressure on superconductivity is reviewed. Superconducting modifications of Si, Ge, Sb, Te, Se, P and Ce. Change of Fermi surface under pressure for nontransition metals. First experiments on the influence of pressure on the tunneling effect in superconductors provide new information on the nature of the change in phonon and electron energy spectra of metals under hydrostatic compression. 78 references.
Superconductivity: A critical analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sacchetti, Nicola
1997-01-01
It is some forty years now that superconductivity has entered into the field of applied Physics. Countless applications have been proposed some of which have been successfully tested in the form of prototypes and relatively few have become widely used products. This article offers an objective examination of what applied superconductivity represents in the area of modern technology highlighting its exclusive advantages and its inevitable limitations
Generalized Superconductivity. Generalized Levitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciobanu, B.; Agop, M.
2004-01-01
In the recent papers, the gravitational superconductivity is described. We introduce the concept of generalized superconductivity observing that any nongeodesic motion and, in particular, the motion in an electromagnetic field, can be transformed in a geodesic motion by a suitable choice of the connection. In the present paper, the gravitoelectromagnetic London equations have been obtained from the generalized Helmholtz vortex theorem using the generalized local equivalence principle. In this context, the gravitoelectromagnetic Meissner effect and, implicitly, the gravitoelectromagnetic levitation are given. (authors)
Superconducting magnets for accelerators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, Yu.N.
1979-01-01
Expediency of usage and possibilities arising in application of superconducting devices in magnetic systems of accelerators and experimental nuclear-physical devices are studied. Parameters of specific devices are given. It is emphasized that at the existing level of technological possibilities, construction and usage of superconducting magnetic systems in experimental nuclear physics should be thought of as possible, from the engineering, and expedient, from the economical viewpoints [ru
Higgsless superconductivity from topological defects in compact BF terms
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Cristina Diamantini
2015-02-01
Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalisable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D−1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact low-energy effective BF theories. In the average field approximation, the corresponding uniform emergent charge creates a gap for the (D−2-dimensional branes via the Magnus force, the dual of the Lorentz force. One particular combination of intrinsic and emergent charge fluctuations that leaves the total charge distribution invariant constitutes an isolated gapless mode leading to superfluidity. The remaining massive modes organise themselves into a D-dimensional charged, massive vector. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D this type of superconductivity is explicitly realised as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.
Eliás, P.; Strichovanec, P.; Kostic, I.; Novák, J.
2006-12-01
A draping technique was tested for the deposition of positive-tone AZ5214-E photo-resist layers on non-planar (1 0 0)-oriented III-V substrates, which had a variety of three-dimensional (3D) topographies micromachined in them that consisted, e.g., of mesa ridges confined to side facets with variable tilt, inverted pyramidal holes and stubs confined to perpendicular side facets. All objects were sharp-edged. In each draping experiment, an AZ5214-E sheet was (1) formed floating on the water surface, (2) lowered onto a non-planar substrate and (3) draped over it during drying to form either self-sustained, or conformal, or planarizing layers over the non-planar substrates. The draping process is based on the depression of the glass transition temperature Tg of AZ5214-E material induced by penetrant water molecules that interact with AZ5214-E. During the process, the molecules are initially trapped under an AZ5214-E sheet and then transported out through the sheet via permeation. The water-AZ5214-E interaction modifies the stiffness κ of the sheet. The magnitude of the effect depends on temperature T and on partial water vapour pressure difference p(T, P, κ): the net effect is that Tg = f(C(T, P), p(T, P, κ)) is lowered as the concentration C of water increases with T and p, where P is the permeability of the sheet. The interaction depressed the Tg of the sheets as low as or lower than 53 °C for 6 µm thick sheets. At room temperature T Tg, the sheet becomes rubbery and mouldable by adhesion and capillary forces. As a result, it can either contour or planarize the topography depending on its geometry and thickness of the sheet.
Emergent Higgsless Superconductivity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cristina Diamantini M.
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We present a new Higgsless model of superconductivity, inspired from anyon superconductivity but P- and T-invariant and generalizable to any dimension. While the original anyon superconductivity mechanism was based on incompressible quantum Hall fluids as average field states, our mechanism involves topological insulators as average field states. In D space dimensions it involves a (D-1-form fictitious pseudovector gauge field which originates from the condensation of topological defects in compact lowenergy effective BF theories. There is no massive Higgs scalar as there is no local order parameter. When electromagnetism is switched on, the photon acquires mass by the topological BF mechanism. Although the charge of the gapless mode (2 and the topological order (4 are the same as those of the standard Higgs model, the two models of superconductivity are clearly different since the origins of the gap, reflected in the high-energy sectors are totally different. In 2D thi! s type of superconductivity is explicitly realized as global superconductivity in Josephson junction arrays. In 3D this model predicts a possible phase transition from topological insulators to Higgsless superconductors.
Superconducting Fullerene Nanowhiskers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshihiko Takano
2012-04-01
Full Text Available We synthesized superconducting fullerene nanowhiskers (C_{60}NWs by potassium (K intercalation. They showed large superconducting volume fractions, as high as 80%. The superconducting transition temperature at 17 K was independent of the K content (x in the range between 1.6 and 6.0 in K-doped C_{60} nanowhiskers (K_{x}C_{60}NWs, while the superconducting volume fractions changed with x. The highest shielding fraction of a full shielding volume was observed in the material of K_{3.3}C_{60}NW by heating at 200 °C. On the other hand, that of a K-doped fullerene (K-C_{60} crystal was less than 1%. We report the superconducting behaviors of our newly synthesized K_{x}C_{60}NWs in comparison to those of K_{x}C_{60} crystals, which show superconductivity at 19 K in K_{3}C_{60}. The lattice structures are also discussed, based on the x-ray diffraction (XRD analyses.
Planar channeling in superlattices: Theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ellison, J.A.; Picraux, S.T.; Allen, W.R.; Chu, W.K.
1988-01-01
The well-known continuum model theory for planar channeled energetic particles in perfect crystals is extended to layered crystalline structures and applied to superlattices. In a strained-layer structure, the planar channels with normals which are not perpendicular to the growth direction change their direction at each interface, and this dramatically influences the channeling behavior. The governing equation of motion for a planar channeled ion in a strained-layer superlattice with equal layer thicknesses is a one degree of freedom nonlinear oscillator which is periodically forced with a sequence of δ functions. These δ functions, which are of equal spacing and amplitude with alternating sign, represent the tilts at each of the interfaces. Thus upon matching an effective channeled particle wavelength, corresponding to a natural period of the nonlinear oscillator, to the period of the strained-layer superlattice, corresponding to the periodic forcing, strong resonance effects are expected. The condition of one effective wavelength per period corresponds to a rapid dechanneling at a well-defined depth (catastrophic dechanneling), whereas two wavelengths per period corresponds to no enhanced dechanneling after the first one or two layers (resonance channeling). A phase plane analysis is used to characterize the channeled particle motion. Detailed calculations using the Moliere continuum potential are compared with our previously described modified harmonic model, and new results are presented for the phase plane evolution, as well as the dechanneling as a function of depth, incident angle, energy, and layer thickness. General scaling laws are developed and nearly universal curves are obtained for the dechanneling versus depth under catastrophic dechanneling
High-current applications of superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Komarek, P.
1995-01-01
The following topics were dealt with: superconducting materials, design principles of superconducting magnets, magnets for research and engineering, superconductivity for power engineering, superconductivity in nuclear fusion technology, economical considerations
Pair Fermi contour and high-temperature superconductivity
Belyavsky, V I
2002-01-01
The holes superconducting coupling with the pair high summarized pulse and the relative motion low pulses is considered with an account of the quasi-two-dimensional electron structure of the HTSC-cuprates with the clearly-pronounced nesting of the Fermi contour. The superconducting energy gap and the condensation energy are determined and their dependences on the doping level are qualitatively studied. It is shown that the energy gap takes place in some holes concentration area, limited on both sides. The superconducting state, whereby the condensation energy is positive, originates in the more narrower doping interval inside this area. The hole pair redistribution in the pulse space constitutes the cause of the superconducting state origination by the holes repulsive screened Coulomb interaction. The coupling mechanism discussed hereby, males it possible to explain qualitatively not only the phase diagram basic peculiarities but also the key experimental facts, related to the cuprate HTSC-materials
Non-planar ABJ theory and parity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caputa, Pawel; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zoubos, Konstantinos
2009-01-01
While the ABJ Chern-Simons-matter theory and its string theory dual manifestly lack parity invariance, no sign of parity violation has so far been observed on the weak coupling spin chain side. In particular, the planar two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory is parity invariant. In this Letter we derive the non-planar part of the two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory in its SU(2)xSU(2) sub-sector. Applying the dilatation generator to short operators, we explicitly demonstrate that, for operators carrying excitations on both spin chains, the non-planar part breaks parity invariance. For operators with only one type of excitation, however, parity remains conserved at the non-planar level. We furthermore observe that, as for ABJM theory, the degeneracy between planar parity pairs is lifted when non-planar corrections are taken into account.
Non-planar ABJ Theory and Parity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Caputa, Pawel; Kristjansen, Charlotte; Zoubos, Konstantinos
2009-01-01
we derive the non-planar part of the two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory in its SU(2)xSU(2) sub-sector. Applying the dilatation generator to short operators, we explicitly demonstrate that, for operators carrying excitations on both spin chains, the non-planar part breaks parity invariance......While the ABJ Chern-Simons-matter theory and its string theory dual manifestly lack parity invariance, no sign of parity violation has so far been observed on the weak coupling spin chain side. In particular, the planar two-loop dilatation generator of ABJ theory is parity invariant. In this letter....... For operators with only one type of excitation, however, parity remains conserved at the non-planar level. We furthermore observe that, as for ABJM theory, the degeneracy between planar parity pairs is lifted when non-planar corrections are taken into account....
Review of the acceptance tests of the W7-X superconducting magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehmler, H.; Baldzuhn, J.; Genini, L.; Heyn, K.; Sborchia, C.; Schild, T.
2007-01-01
The W7-X magnet system consists of 50 non-planar coils of five different types and 20 planar coils of two different types. Factory tests of the non-planar coils are carried out at the manufacturer site of Babcock-Noell, Germany, and for the planar coils at Tesla Engineering, UK. They consist of electrical insulation checks, mass flow measurements, leak tests and sensor checks. In the test facility of CEA Saclay, France, each coil is cooled down to ∼5 K and operated at nominal current. At least one coil of each type is quenched by increasing the inlet temperature. Results of the mass flow measurements and the quench tests are presented. The manufacturing and testing progress is reviewed and the impact of technical failures is discussed. In conclusion, the scope of the tests allows a very strict quality control. This experience is highly beneficial for the construction and testing of similar components for future superconducting fusion experiments
Double shell planar experiments on OMEGA
Dodd, E. S.; Merritt, E. C.; Palaniyappan, S.; Montgomery, D. S.; Daughton, W. S.; Schmidt, D. W.; Cardenas, T.; Wilson, D. C.; Loomis, E. N.; Batha, S. H.; Ping, Y.; Smalyuk, V. A.; Amendt, P. A.
2017-10-01
The double shell project is aimed at fielding neutron-producing capsules at the National Ignition Facility (NIF), in which an outer low-Z ablator collides with an inner high-Z shell to compress the fuel. However, understanding these targets experimentally can be challenging when compared with conventional single shell targets. Halfraum-driven planar targets at OMEGA are being used to study physics issues important to double shell implosions outside of a convergent geometry. Both VISAR and radiography through a tube have advantages over imaging through the hohlraum and double-shell capsule at NIF. A number physics issues are being studied with this platform that include 1-d and higher dimensional effects such as defect-driven hydrodynamic instabilities from engineering features. Additionally, the use of novel materials with controlled density gradients require study in easily diagnosed 1-d systems. This work ultimately feeds back into the NIF capsule platform through manufacturing tolerances set using data from OMEGA. Supported under the US DOE by the LANS, LLC under contract DE-AC52-06NA25396. LA-UR-17-25386.
Superconducting nanostructured materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Metlushko, V.
1998-01-01
Within the last year it has been realized that the remarkable properties of superconducting thin films containing a periodic array of defects (such as sub-micron sized holes) offer a new route for developing a novel superconducting materials based on precise control of microstructure by modern photolithography. A superconductor is a material which, when cooled below a certain temperature, loses all resistance to electricity. This means that superconducting materials can carry large electrical currents without any energy loss--but there are limits to how much current can flow before superconductivity is destroyed. The current at which superconductivity breaks down is called the critical current. The value of the critical current is determined by the balance of Lorentz forces and pinning forces acting on the flux lines in the superconductor. Lorentz forces proportional to the current flow tend to drive the flux lines into motion, which dissipates energy and destroys zero resistance. Pinning forces created by isolated defects in the microstructure oppose flux line motion and increase the critical current. Many kinds of artificial pinning centers have been proposed and developed to increase critical current performance, ranging from dispersal of small non-superconducting second phases to creation of defects by proton, neutron or heavy ion irradiation. In all of these methods, the pinning centers are randomly distributed over the superconducting material, causing them to operate well below their maximum efficiency. We are overcome this drawback by creating pinning centers in aperiodic lattice (see Fig 1) so that each pin site interacts strongly with only one or a few flux lines
Superconducting wind turbine generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B
2010-01-01
We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.
Superconducting Undulator with Variably Polarized Light
Hwang, Ching Shiang; Ching Fan, Tai; Li, W P; Lin, P H
2004-01-01
This study investigates planar in-vacuo superconducting undulators with periodic length of 5 cm (IVSU5) producing linearly and circularly polarized infrared rays or xrays source. The vertically wound racetrack coil is selected for the coil and pole fabrication of the IVSU5. When the up and down magnetic pole arrays with alternative directions rotated wires in the horizontal plane, a helical field radiates circularly polarized light in the electron storage ring, the free electron laser (FEL), and the energy recovery linac (ERL) facilities. Meanwhile, an un-rotated wire is constructed together with the rotated wire on the same undulator is used to switch the linear horizontal and vertical, the right- and left-circular polarization radiation. Given a periodic length of 5 cm and a gap of 23 mm, the maximum magnetic flux density in the helical undulator are Bz = 1.5 T and Bx = 0.5 T when the wires rotated by 20°. This article describes the main factors of the planar and helical undulator design for FEL and...
Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giuliano, Domenico; Sodano, Pasquale
2009-01-01
We show that, for pertinent values of the fabrication and control parameters, an attractive finite coupling fixed point emerges in the phase diagram of a Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains. The new fixed point arises only when the dimensionless flux f piercing the central loop of the network equals π and, thus, does not break time-reversal invariance; for f≠π, only the strongly coupled fixed point survives as a stable attractive fixed point. Phase slips (instantons) have a crucial role in establishing this transition: we show indeed that, at f=π, a new set of instantons-the W-instantons-comes into play to destabilize the strongly coupled fixed point. Finally, we provide a detailed account of the Josephson current-phase relationship along the arms of the network, near each one of the allowed fixed points. Our results evidence remarkable similarities between the phase diagram accessible to a Y-junction of superconducting Josephson chains and the one found in the analysis of quantum Brownian motion on frustrated planar lattices
Effect of disorder on the superconducting properties of materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brouers, F.; Derenne, M.
1982-01-01
The effect of the variation of the density states at the Fermi level on the critical superconductivity temperature TC of transition metal compounds is studied. This paper suggests using the technique of calculating the 5-fold degenerate d-band density of states from a continued fraction extension of a tight-binding Green function to study the relative importance of one dimensionality chain coupling, three dimensional interactions and the effect of disorder on the electronic and superconducting properties of complex phase and in particular A15 phases. The first results obtained for A15 phases density of states indicate that an extension of the suggested method can be of great interest to analyze the effect of disorder on superconductivity properties of complex phases
The effective compliance of spatially evolving planar wing-cracks
Ayyagari, R. S.; Daphalapurkar, N. P.; Ramesh, K. T.
2018-02-01
We present an analytic closed form solution for anisotropic change in compliance due to the spatial evolution of planar wing-cracks in a material subjected to largely compressive loading. A fully three-dimensional anisotropic compliance tensor is defined and evaluated considering the wing-crack mechanism, using a mixed-approach based on kinematic and energetic arguments to derive the coefficients in incremental compliance. Material, kinematic and kinetic parametric influences on the increments in compliance are studied in order to understand their physical implications on material failure. Model verification is carried out through comparisons to experimental uniaxial compression results to showcase the predictive capabilities of the current study.
Linearizability conditions for Lotka-Volterra planar complex cubic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gine, Jaume; Romanovski, Valery G
2009-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the linearizability problem for the two-dimensional planar complex system x-dot=x(1-a 10 x-a 01 y-a 20 x 2 -a 11 xy-a 02 y 2 ), y-dot=(1-b 10 x-b 01 y-b 20 x 2 -b 11 xy-b 02 y 2 ). The necessary and sufficient conditions for the linearizability of this system are found. From them the conditions for isochronicity of the corresponding real system can be derived
Instantaneous temperature field measurements using planar laser-induced fluorescence.
Seitzman, J M; Kychakoff, G; Hanson, R K
1985-09-01
A single-pulse, laser-induced-fluorescence diagnostic for the measurement of two-dimensional temperature fields in combustion flows is described. The method uses sheet illumination from a tunable laser to excite planar laserinduced fluorescence in a stable tracer molecule, seeded at constant mole fraction into the flow field. The temporal resolution of this technique is determined by the laser pulse length. Experimental results are presented for a rodstabilized, premixed methane-air flame, using the Q(1) (22) line of the nitric oxide A(2) Sigma(+) (v = 0) ? X(2)II((1/2))(v = 0) transition (lambda approximately 225.6 nm).
Superconductivity and macroscopic quantum phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogovin, D.; Scully, M.
1976-01-01
It is often asserted that superconducting systems are manifestations of quantum mechanics on a macroscopic scale. In this review article it is demonstrated that this quantum assertion is true within the framework of the microscopic theory of superconductivity. (Auth.)
Superconducting state mechanisms and properties
Kresin, Vladimir Z; Wolf, Stuart A
2014-01-01
'Superconducting State' provides a very detailed theoretical treatment of the key mechanisms of superconductivity, including the current state of the art (phonons, magnons, and plasmons). A very complete description is given of the electron-phonon mechanism responsible for superconductivity in the majority of superconducting systems, and the history of its development, as well as a detailed description of the key experimental techniques used to study the superconducting state and determine the mechanisms. In addition, there are chapters describing the discovery and properties of the key superconducting compounds that are of the most interest for science, and applications including a special chapter on the cuprate superconductors. It provides detailed treatments of some very novel aspects of superconductivity, including multiple bands (gaps), the "pseudogap" state, novel isotope effects beyond BCS, and induced superconductivity.
Fullerides - Superconductivity at the limit
Palstra, Thomas T. M.
The successful synthesis of highly crystalline Cs3C60, exhibiting superconductivity up to a record temperature for fullerides of 38 K, demonstrates a powerful synthetic route for investigating the origin of superconductivity in this class of materials.
Interface-Induced Zeeman-Protected Superconductivity in Ultrathin Crystalline Lead Films
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yi Liu
2018-04-01
Full Text Available Two-dimensional (2D superconducting systems are of great importance for exploring exotic quantum physics. The recent development of fabrication techniques has stimulated studies of high-quality single-crystalline 2D superconductors, where intrinsic properties give rise to unprecedented physical phenomena. Here, we report the observation of Zeeman-type spin-orbit interaction protected superconductivity (Zeeman-protected superconductivity in 4-monolayer (ML to 6-ML crystalline Pb films grown on striped incommensurate Pb layers on Si(111 substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. An anomalously large in-plane critical field far beyond the Pauli limit is detected, which can be attributed to the Zeeman-protected superconductivity due to the in-plane inversion symmetry breaking at the interface. Our work demonstrates that, in superconducting heterostructures, the interface can induce Zeeman-type spin-orbit interactions and modulate the superconductivity.
Interface-Induced Zeeman-Protected Superconductivity in Ultrathin Crystalline Lead Films
Liu, Yi; Wang, Ziqiao; Zhang, Xuefeng; Liu, Chaofei; Liu, Yongjie; Zhou, Zhimou; Wang, Junfeng; Wang, Qingyan; Liu, Yanzhao; Xi, Chuanying; Tian, Mingliang; Liu, Haiwen; Feng, Ji; Xie, X. C.; Wang, Jian
2018-04-01
Two-dimensional (2D) superconducting systems are of great importance for exploring exotic quantum physics. The recent development of fabrication techniques has stimulated studies of high-quality single-crystalline 2D superconductors, where intrinsic properties give rise to unprecedented physical phenomena. Here, we report the observation of Zeeman-type spin-orbit interaction protected superconductivity (Zeeman-protected superconductivity) in 4-monolayer (ML) to 6-ML crystalline Pb films grown on striped incommensurate Pb layers on Si(111) substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. An anomalously large in-plane critical field far beyond the Pauli limit is detected, which can be attributed to the Zeeman-protected superconductivity due to the in-plane inversion symmetry breaking at the interface. Our work demonstrates that, in superconducting heterostructures, the interface can induce Zeeman-type spin-orbit interactions and modulate the superconductivity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hartwig, W.H.; Passow, C.
1975-01-01
Topics discussed include (1) the theory of superconductors in high-frequency fields (London surface impedance, anomalous normal surface resistance, pippard nonlocal theory, quantum mechanical model, superconductor parameters, quantum mechanical calculation techniques for the surface, impedance, and experimental verification of surface impedance theories); (2) residual resistance (separation of losses, magnetic field effects, surface resistance of imperfect and impure conductors, residual loss due to acoustic coupling, losses from nonideal surfaces, high magnetic field losses, field emission, and nonlinear effects); (3) design and performance of superconducting devices (design considerations, materials and fabrication techniques, measurement of performance, and frequency stability); (4) devices for particle acceleration and deflection (advantages and problems of using superconductors, accelerators for fast particles, accelerators for particles with slow velocities, beam optical devices separators, and applications and projects under way); (5) applications of low-power superconducting resonators (superconducting filters and tuners, oscillators and detectors, mixers and amplifiers, antennas and output tanks, superconducting resonators for materials research, and radiation detection with loaded superconducting resonators); and (6) transmission and delay lines
Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond.
Zhang, Gufei; Samuely, Tomas; Xu, Zheng; Jochum, Johanna K; Volodin, Alexander; Zhou, Shengqiang; May, Paul W; Onufriienko, Oleksandr; Kačmarčík, Jozef; Steele, Julian A; Li, Jun; Vanacken, Johan; Vacík, Jiri; Szabó, Pavol; Yuan, Haifeng; Roeffaers, Maarten B J; Cerbu, Dorin; Samuely, Peter; Hofkens, Johan; Moshchalkov, Victor V
2017-06-27
Superconductivity and ferromagnetism are two mutually antagonistic states in condensed matter. Research on the interplay between these two competing orderings sheds light not only on the cause of various quantum phenomena in strongly correlated systems but also on the general mechanism of superconductivity. Here we report on the observation of the electronic entanglement between superconducting and ferromagnetic states in hydrogenated boron-doped nanodiamond films, which have a superconducting transition temperature T c ∼ 3 K and a Curie temperature T Curie > 400 K. In spite of the high T Curie , our nanodiamond films demonstrate a decrease in the temperature dependence of magnetization below 100 K, in correspondence to an increase in the temperature dependence of resistivity. These anomalous magnetic and electrical transport properties reveal the presence of an intriguing precursor phase, in which spin fluctuations intervene as a result of the interplay between the two antagonistic states. Furthermore, the observations of high-temperature ferromagnetism, giant positive magnetoresistance, and anomalous Hall effect bring attention to the potential applications of our superconducting ferromagnetic nanodiamond films in magnetoelectronics, spintronics, and magnetic field sensing.
Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers
Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.
2013-11-01
Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La2-xSrxCuO4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV ˜γI3, with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ /dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area ge -ph≈1 W/K cm2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity.
Superconducting cuprate heterostructures for hot electron bolometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wen, B.; Yakobov, R.; Vitkalov, S. A.; Sergeev, A.
2013-01-01
Transport properties of the resistive state of quasi-two dimensional superconducting heterostructures containing ultrathin La 2−x Sr x CuO 4 layers synthesized using molecular beam epitaxy are studied. The electron transport exhibits strong deviation from Ohm's law, δV∼γI 3 , with a coefficient γ(T) that correlates with the temperature variation of the resistivity dρ/dT. Close to the normal state, analysis of the nonlinear behavior in terms of electron heating yields an electron-phonon thermal conductance per unit area g e−ph ≈1 W/K cm 2 at T = 20 K, one-two orders of magnitude smaller than in typical superconductors. This makes superconducting LaSrCuO heterostructures to be attractive candidate for the next generation of hot electron bolometers with greatly improved sensitivity
Load estimation from planar PIV measurement in vortex dominated flows
McClure, Jeffrey; Yarusevych, Serhiy
2017-11-01
Control volume-based loading estimates are employed on experimental and synthetic numerical planar Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) data of a stationary cylinder and a cylinder undergoing one degree-of-freedom (1DOF) Vortex Induced Vibration (VIV). The results reveal the necessity of including out of plane terms, identified from a general formulation of the control volume momentum balance, when evaluating loads from planar measurements in three-dimensional flows. Reynolds stresses from out of plane fluctuations are shown to be significant for both instantaneous and mean force estimates when the control volume encompasses vortex dominated regions. For planar measurement, invoking a divergence-free assumption allows accurate estimation of half the identified terms. Towards evaluating the fidelity of PIV-based loading estimates for obtaining the forcing function unobtrusively in VIV experiments, the accuracy of the control volume-based loading methodology is evaluated using the numerical data with synthetically generated experimental PIV error, and a comparison is made between experimental PIV-based estimates and simultaneous force balance measurements.
Overview of the superconducting undulator development program at ANKA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Casalbuoni, S., E-mail: sara.casalbuoni@kit.edu; Cecilia, A.; Gerstl, S.; Glamann, N.; Grau, A.; Holubek, T.; Meuter, C.; Saez de Jauregui, D.; Voutta, R. [ANKA, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Boffo, C.; Gerhard, Th.; Turenne, M.; Walter, W. [Babcock Noell GmbH, Alfred Nobel Str. 20, 97080 Würzburg (Germany)
2016-07-27
Superconducting undulators (SCUs) have the potential to reach higher brilliance and flux with respect to the state of the art permanent magnet insertion devices. ANKA is collaborating with the industrial partner Babcock Noell GmbH (BNG) to realize NbTi conduction cooled planar devices for low emittance light sources, and is developing the instrumentation to characterize the magnetic field properties and to measure the beam heat load to a cold bore needed for the cryogenic design of SCUs. We present here: the most recent results obtained within the ANKA-BNG collaboration, the progress achieved in the development of the instrumentation, and the in house studies on the application of high temperature superconducting (HTS) tape to the SCU technology.
High coherence plane breaking packaging for superconducting qubits
Bronn, Nicholas T.; Adiga, Vivekananda P.; Olivadese, Salvatore B.; Wu, Xian; Chow, Jerry M.; Pappas, David P.
2018-04-01
We demonstrate a pogo pin package for a superconducting quantum processor specifically designed with a nontrivial layout topology (e.g., a center qubit that cannot be accessed from the sides of the chip). Two experiments on two nominally identical superconducting quantum processors in pogo packages, which use commercially available parts and require modest machining tolerances, are performed at low temperature (10 mK) in a dilution refrigerator and both found to behave comparably to processors in standard planar packages with wirebonds where control and readout signals come in from the edges. Single- and two-qubit gate errors are also characterized via randomized benchmarking, exhibiting similar error rates as in standard packages, opening the possibility of integrating pogo pin packaging with extensible qubit architectures.
Superconductive analogue of spin glasses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feigel'man, M.; Ioffe, L.; Vinokur, V.; Larkin, A.
1987-07-01
The properties of granular superconductors in magnetic fields, namely the existence of a new superconductive state analogue of the low-temperature superconductive state in spin glasses are discussed in the frame of the infinite-range model and the finite-range models. Experiments for elucidation of spin-glass superconductive state in real systems are suggested. 30 refs
Quenches in large superconducting magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eberhard, P.H.; Alston-Garnjost, M.; Green, M.A.; Lecomte, P.; Smits, R.G.; Taylor, J.D.; Vuillemin, V.
1977-08-01
The development of large high current density superconducting magnets requires an understanding of the quench process by which the magnet goes normal. A theory which describes the quench process in large superconducting magnets is presented and compared with experimental measurements. The use of a quench theory to improve the design of large high current density superconducting magnets is discussed
Lessons learned from the manufacture of the W7-X planar coils
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Viebke, H; Gustke, D; Rummel, T; Sborchia, C; Schroeder, R; Williams, D; Bates, S; Leigh, B; Winter, R
2006-01-01
WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) is a superconducting stellarator. The planar coils are in charge to modify the magnetic filed configuration of the W7-X. The major challenges during manufacturing were the fabrication of the cable-in-conduit conductor, the accuracy of the coil cases after welding and machining and the development of electrical joints with a resistance below 1 nΩ. Leaks were detected during repetitive in the case cooling system, which were caused by stress corrosion cracking. High voltage tests in a reduced vacuum environment (Paschen conditions) revealed that the insulation had to be reinforced and the quench detection wires had to be exchanged. This paper gives an overview about the main technical challenges of the planar coils and the lessons learned during production
Lessons learned from the manufacture of the W7-X planar coils
Viebke, H.; Gustke, D.; Rummel, T.; Sborchia, C.; Schroeder, R.; Williams, D.; Bates, S.; Leigh, B.; Winter, R.
2006-06-01
WENDELSTEIN 7-X (W7-X) is a superconducting stellarator. The planar coils are in charge to modify the magnetic filed configuration of the W7-X. The major challenges during manufacturing were the fabrication of the cable-in-conduit conductor, the accuracy of the coil cases after welding and machining and the development of electrical joints with a resistance below 1 nΩ. Leaks were detected during repetitive in the case cooling system, which were caused by stress corrosion cracking. High voltage tests in a reduced vacuum environment (Paschen conditions) revealed that the insulation had to be reinforced and the quench detection wires had to be exchanged. This paper gives an overview about the main technical challenges of the planar coils and the lessons learned during production.
Geodesic distance in planar graphs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouttier, J.; Di Francesco, P.; Guitter, E.
2003-01-01
We derive the exact generating function for planar maps (genus zero fatgraphs) with vertices of arbitrary even valence and with two marked points at a fixed geodesic distance. This is done in a purely combinatorial way based on a bijection with decorated trees, leading to a recursion relation on the geodesic distance. The latter is solved exactly in terms of discrete soliton-like expressions, suggesting an underlying integrable structure. We extract from this solution the fractal dimensions at the various (multi)-critical points, as well as the precise scaling forms of the continuum two-point functions and the probability distributions for the geodesic distance in (multi)-critical random surfaces. The two-point functions are shown to obey differential equations involving the residues of the KdV hierarchy
Linear GPR inversion for lossy soil and a planar air-soil interface
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Meincke, Peter
2001-01-01
A three-dimensional inversion scheme for fixed-offset ground penetrating radar (GPR) is derived that takes into account the loss in the soil and the planar air-soil interface. The forward model of this inversion scheme is based upon the first Born approximation and the dyadic Green function...
Planar measurements of velocity and concentration of turbulent mixing in a T-junction
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ingvorsen, Kristian Mark; Meyer, Knud Erik; Nielsen, N. F.
Turbulent mixing of two isothermal air streams in a T-junction of square ducts are investigated. Three dimensional velocity fields and turbulent kinetic energy are measured with stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV). The concentration field is obtained with a planar Mie scattering technique...
Bouchoucha, Taha
2015-01-01
them hard to use in practice especially for real time radar applications. In this paper, we provide a closed-form solution to design the covariance matrix for a given beampattern in the three dimensional space using planar arrays, which is then used
SERPENTINE COIL TOPOLOGY FOR BNL DIRECT WIND SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
PARKER, B.; ESCALLIER, J.
2005-01-01
Serpentine winding, a recent innovation developed at BNL for direct winding superconducting magnets, allows winding a coil layer of arbitrary multipolarity in one continuous winding process and greatly simplifies magnet design and production compared to the planar patterns used before. Serpentine windings were used for the BEPC-II Upgrade and JPARC magnets and are proposed to make compact final focus magnets for the EC. Serpentine patterns exhibit a direct connection between 2D body harmonics and harmonics derived from the integral fields. Straightforward 2D optimization yields good integral field quality with uniformly spaced (natural) coil ends. This and other surprising features of Serpentine windings are addressed in this paper
A second-generation superconducting undulator cryostat for the APS
Fuerst, J.; Hasse, Q.; Ivanyushenkov, Y.; Kasa, M.; Shiroyanagi, Y.
2017-12-01
A second-generation cryocooler-based cryostat has been designed and built to support a new helically wound superconducting undulator (SCU) magnet for the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The design represents an evolution of existing SCU cryostats currently in operation in the APS storage ring. Value engineering and lessons learned have resulted in a smaller, cheaper, and simpler cryostat design compatible with existing planar magnets as well as the new helically wound device. We describe heat load and quench response results, design and operational details, and the “build-to-spec” procurement strategy.
Planar Hall effect bridge magnetic field sensors
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Henriksen, A.D.; Dalslet, Bjarke Thomas; Skieller, D.H.
2010-01-01
Until now, the planar Hall effect has been studied in samples with cross-shaped Hall geometry. We demonstrate theoretically and experimentally that the planar Hall effect can be observed for an exchange-biased ferromagnetic material in a Wheatstone bridge topology and that the sensor signal can...... Hall effect bridge sensors....
Attractive planar panelization using dynamic relaxation principles
Gauss, Florian; Teuffel, Patrick
2015-01-01
In the presented paper a new method is proposed to approximate a given NURBS surface with a PQ (Planar Quad) mesh. The desired mesh layout will be generated in then attracted to the target surface. The process iteratively pulls the mesh vertices towards the target surface and then planarizes the
Orientifold Planar Equivalence: The Chiral Condensate
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Armoni, Adi; Lucini, Biagio; Patella, Agostino
2008-01-01
The recently introduced orientifold planar equivalence is a promising tool for solving non-perturbative problems in QCD. One of the predictions of orientifold planar equivalence is that the chiral condensates of a theory with $N_f$ flavours of Dirac fermions in the symmetric (or antisymmetric...
Planar Algebra of the Subgroup-Subfactor
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The crucial step in this identification is an exhibition of a model for the basic construction tower, and thereafter of the standard invariant of R ⋊ H ⊂ R ⋊ G in terms of operator matrices. We also obtain an identification between the planar algebra of the fixed algebra subfactor R G ⊂ R H and the -invariant planar subalgebra ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gravesen, Jens
2005-01-01
t is shown that a closed polygon with an odd number of vertices is the median of exactly one piecewise planar cylinder and one piecewise planar Möbius band, intersecting each other orthogonally. A closed polygon with an even number of vertices is in the generic case neither the median...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Y.-H.; Wilczek, F.; Witten, E.; Halperin, B.I.
1989-01-01
We investigate the statistical mechanics of a gas of fractional statistics particles in 2 + 1 dimensions. In the case of statistics very close to Fermi statistics (statistical parameter θ = π(1 - 1/n), for large n), the effect of the statistics is a weak attraction. Building upon earlier RPA calculation for the case n = 2, the authors argue that for large n perturbation theory is reliable and exhibits superfluidity (or superconductivity after coupling to electromagnetism). They describe the order parameter for this superconductng phase in terms of spontaneous breaking of commutativity of translations as opposed to the usual pairing order parameters. The vortices of the superconducting anyon gas are charged, and superconducting order parameters of the usual type vanish. They investigate the characteristic P and T violating phenomenology
Connectivity and superconductivity
Rubinstein, Jacob
2000-01-01
The motto of connectivity and superconductivity is that the solutions of the Ginzburg--Landau equations are qualitatively influenced by the topology of the boundaries, as in multiply-connected samples. Special attention is paid to the "zero set", the set of the positions (also known as "quantum vortices") where the order parameter vanishes. The effects considered here usually become important in the regime where the coherence length is of the order of the dimensions of the sample. It takes the intuition of physicists and the awareness of mathematicians to find these new effects. In connectivity and superconductivity, theoretical and experimental physicists are brought together with pure and applied mathematicians to review these surprising results. This volume is intended to serve as a reference book for graduate students and researchers in physics or mathematics interested in superconductivity, or in the Schrödinger equation as a limiting case of the Ginzburg--Landau equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Srinivasan, B.; Betigeri, M.G.; Pandey, M.K.; Pillay, R.G.; Kurup, M.B.
1997-01-01
The report on superconducting LINAC booster, which is a joint project of Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC) and Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), brings out the work accomplished so far towards the development of the technology of superconducting LINAC to boost the energy of ions from the 14UD Pelletron. The LINAC is modular in construction with each module comprising of a helium cryostat housing four lead-plated quarter wave resonators. The resonators are superconducting for temperatures below 7.19K. An energy boost of 2 MeV/q per module is expected to be achieved. The first module and the post-tandem superbuncher have been fabricated and tested on the LINAC beam line. This report gives a summary of the technological achievements and also brings out the difficulties encountered during the R and D phase. (author)
Superconducting accelerator magnet design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolff, S.
1994-01-01
Superconducting dipoles, quadrupoles and correction magnets are necessary to achieve the high magnetic fields required for big accelerators presently in construction or in the design phase. Different designs of superconducting accelerator magnets are described and the designs chosen at the big accelerator laboratories are presented. The most frequently used cosθ coil configuration is discussed in detail. Approaches for calculating the magnetic field quality including coil end fields are presented. Design details of the cables, coils, mechanical structures, yokes, helium vessels and cryostats including thermal radiation shields and support structures used in superconducting magnets are given. Necessary material properties are mentioned. Finally, the main results of magnetic field measurements and quench statistics are presented. (orig.)
Large Superconducting Magnet Systems
Védrine, P.
2014-07-17
The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb$_{3}$Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.
Superconducting super collider
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Limon, P.J.
1987-01-01
The Superconducting Super Collider is to be a 20 TeV per beam proton-proton accelerator and collider. Physically the SCC will be 52 miles in circumference and slightly oval in shape. The use of superconducting magnets instead of conventional cuts the circumference from 180 miles to the 52 miles. The operating cost of the SCC per year is estimated to be about $200-250 million. A detailed cost estimate of the project is roughly $3 billion in 1986 dollars. For the big collider ring, the technical cost are dominated by the magnet system. That is why one must focus on the cost and design of the magnets. Presently, the process of site selection is underway. The major R and D efforts concern superconducting dipoles. The magnets use niobium-titanium as a conductor stabilized in a copper matrix. 10 figures
Crystalline color superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alford, Mark; Bowers, Jeffrey A.; Rajagopal, Krishna
2001-01-01
In any context in which color superconductivity arises in nature, it is likely to involve pairing between species of quarks with differing chemical potentials. For suitable values of the differences between chemical potentials, Cooper pairs with nonzero total momentum are favored, as was first realized by Larkin, Ovchinnikov, Fulde, and Ferrell (LOFF). Condensates of this sort spontaneously break translational and rotational invariance, leading to gaps which vary periodically in a crystalline pattern. Unlike the original LOFF state, these crystalline quark matter condensates include both spin-zero and spin-one Cooper pairs. We explore the range of parameters for which crystalline color superconductivity arises in the QCD phase diagram. If in some shell within the quark matter core of a neutron star (or within a strange quark star) the quark number densities are such that crystalline color superconductivity arises, rotational vortices may be pinned in this shell, making it a locus for glitch phenomena
Large Superconducting Magnet Systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Védrine, P [Saclay (France)
2014-07-01
The increase of energy in accelerators over the past decades has led to the design of superconducting magnets for both accelerators and the associated detectors. The use of Nb−Ti superconducting materials allows an increase in the dipole field by up to 10 T compared with the maximum field of 2 T in a conventional magnet. The field bending of the particles in the detectors and generated by the magnets can also be increased. New materials, such as Nb3Sn and high temperature superconductor (HTS) conductors, can open the way to higher fields, in the range 13–20 T. The latest generations of fusion machines producing hot plasma also use large superconducting magnet systems.
Stationary states and dynamics of superconducting thin films
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ögren, Magnus; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Pedersen, Niels Falsig
can handle complex geometries also in a three-dimensional superconducting structure. To include external currents in our modelling we discuss the role of the boundary conditions for the external magnetic field [4]. Finally we show results for the pinning of vortices with controlled impurities....
Flux Flow, Pinning, and Resistive Behavior in Superconducting Networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stephen Teitel
2005-01-01
Numerical simulators are used to study the behavior of interacting quantized vortices and vortex lines in superconducting networks, films, and three dimensional bulk samples. An emphasis is on the explanation of the phenomenological behavior of the ''high-Tc'' copper-oxide superconductors and related model systems
Direct visualization of the Campbell regime in superconducting stripes
Kramer, R. B. G.; Ataklti, G. W.; Moshchalkov, V. V.; Silhanek, Alejandro
2010-01-01
A combination of scanning Hall microscopy and scanning ac-susceptibility measurements in superconducting stripes (ribbons) of width w < 10 mu m was used to observe the dimensional phase transitions of the vortex lattice and its stability under alternating fields. At low dc magnetic fields applied perpendicularly to the plane of the stripes, vortices form a one-dimensional chain at the center of the stripes. Above a certain field H*(w), the vortex chain splits in two parallel rows displaced la...
The Planar Sandwich and Other 1D Planar Heat Flow Test Problems in ExactPack
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singleton, Jr., Robert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-01-24
This report documents the implementation of several related 1D heat flow problems in the verification package ExactPack [1]. In particular, the planar sandwich class defined in Ref. [2], as well as the classes PlanarSandwichHot, PlanarSandwichHalf, and other generalizations of the planar sandwich problem, are defined and documented here. A rather general treatment of 1D heat flow is presented, whose main results have been implemented in the class Rod1D. All planar sandwich classes are derived from the parent class Rod1D.
Superconducting current generators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Genevey, P.
1970-01-01
After a brief summary of the principle of energy storage and liberation with superconducting coils,two current generators are described that create currents in the range 600 to 1400 A, used for two storage experiments of 25 kJ and 50 kJ respectively. The two current generators are: a) a flux pump and b) a superconducting transformer. Both could be developed into more powerful units. The study shows the advantage of the transformer over the flux pump in order to create large currents. The efficiencies of the two generators are 95 per cent and 40 to 60 per cent respectively. (author) [fr
Materials for superconducting cavities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bonin, B.
1996-01-01
The ideal material for superconducting cavities should exhibit a high critical temperature, a high critical field, and, above all, a low surface resistance. Unfortunately, these requirements can be conflicting and a compromise has to be found. To date, most superconducting cavities for accelerators are made of niobium. The reasons for this choice are discussed. Thin films of other materials such as NbN, Nb 3 Sn, or even YBCO compounds can also be envisaged and are presently investigated in various laboratories. It is shown that their success will depend critically on the crystalline perfection of these films. (author)
Today's markets for superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1988-01-01
The worldwide market for superconductive products may exceed $1 billion in 1987. These products are expanding the frontiers of science, revolutionizing the art of medical diagnosis, and developing the energy technology of the future. In general, today's customers for superconductive equipment want the highest possible performance, almost regardless of cost. The products operate within a few degrees of absolute zero, and virtually all are fabricated from niobium or niobium alloys-so far the high-temperature superconductors discovered in 1986 and 1987 have had no impact on these markets. The industry shows potential and profound societal impact, even without the new materials
Gambling with Superconducting Fluctuations
Foltyn, Marek; Zgirski, Maciej
2015-08-01
Josephson junctions and superconducting nanowires, when biased close to superconducting critical current, can switch to a nonzero voltage state by thermal or quantum fluctuations. The process is understood as an escape of a Brownian particle from a metastable state. Since this effect is fully stochastic, we propose to use it for generating random numbers. We present protocol for obtaining random numbers and test the experimentally harvested data for their fidelity. Our work is prerequisite for using the Josephson junction as a tool for stochastic (probabilistic) determination of physical parameters such as magnetic flux, temperature, and current.
Superconducting cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chudnovsky, E.M.; Field, G.B.; Spergel, D.N.; Vilenkin, A.
1986-01-01
Superconducting loops of string formed in the early Universe, if they are relatively light, can be an important source of relativistic particles in the Galaxy. They can be observed as sources of synchrotron radiation at centimeter wavelengths. We propose a string model for two recently discovered radio sources, the ''thread'' in the galactic center and the source G357.7-0.1, and predict that the filaments in these sources should move at relativistic speeds. We also consider superheavy superconducting strings, and the possibility that they be observed as extragalactic radio sources
Superconducting Electronic Film Structures
1991-02-14
Segmuller, A., Cooper, E.I., Chisholm, M.F., Gupta, A. Shinde, S., and Laibowitz, R.B. Lanthanum gallate substrates for epitaxial high-T superconducting thin...M. F. Chisholm, A. Gupta, S. Shinde, and R. B. Laibowitz, " Lanthanum Gallate Substrates for Epitaxial High-T c Superconducting Thin Films," Appl...G. Forrester and J. Talvacchio, " Lanthanum Copper Oxide Buffer Layers for Growth of High-T c Superconductor Films," Disclosure No. RDS 90-065, filed
Superconductivity in doped semiconductors
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bustarret, E., E-mail: Etienne.bustarret@neel.cnrs.fr
2015-07-15
A historical survey of the main normal and superconducting state properties of several semiconductors doped into superconductivity is proposed. This class of materials includes selenides, tellurides, oxides and column-IV semiconductors. Most of the experimental data point to a weak coupling pairing mechanism, probably phonon-mediated in the case of diamond, but probably not in the case of strontium titanate, these being the most intensively studied materials over the last decade. Despite promising theoretical predictions based on a conventional mechanism, the occurrence of critical temperatures significantly higher than 10 K has not been yet verified. However, the class provides an enticing playground for testing theories and devices alike.
Technology of RF superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1995-01-01
This work has several parts, two of which are collaborative development projects with the majority of the work being performed at Argonne. The first is the development of a superconducting RFQ structure in collaboration with AccSys Technology Inc. of Pleasanton, California, funded as a Phase II SBIR grant. Another is a collaborative project with the Nuclear Science Centre, New Delhi, India (who are funding the work) to develop new superconducting ion accelerating structures. Other initiatives are developing various aspects of the technology required to utilize ATLAS as a secondary beam linac for radioactive beams
Superconducting magnetic quadrupole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, J.W.; Shepard, K.W.; Nolen, J.A.
1995-08-01
A design was developed for a 350 T/m, 2.6-cm clear aperture superconducting quadrupole focussing element for use in a very low q/m superconducting linac as discussed below. The quadrupole incorporates holmium pole tips, and a rectangular-section winding using standard commercially-available Nb-Ti wire. The magnet was modeled numerically using both 2D and 3D codes, as a basis for numerical ray tracing using the quadrupole as a linac element. Components for a prototype singlet are being procured during FY 1995.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rossleigh, M.A.; Christian, C.L.; Craig, J.C.; Howman-Giles, R.B.; Grunewald, S.
2004-01-01
Purpose: To determine whether the provision of DMSA images obtained by pinhole collimation reduces inter-observer variability of reporting compared with planar DMSA images alone. Methods: One hundred consecutive DMSA images were independently interpreted three times (pinhole alone, planar alone, pinhole and planar) by four participating nuclear medicine specialists from different departments and in random order. The presence or absence of renal parenchymal abnormality was classified using the modified four level grading system of Goldraich with mean values for the 6 comparisons reported. Results: The proportion of DMSA images interpreted as abnormal was 31% for planar, 34% for pinhole and 33% for planar with pinhole. Agreement was 89% for planar alone, 89% for pinhole alone and 90% for planar with pinhole, with kappa values 0.74, 0.75 and 0.80 respectively for the normal-abnormal scan classification of individual children. These results did not vary appreciably whether interpretation of patients, kidneys or kidney zones was compared. Reasons for disagreement in reporting included different interpretations of 'abnormalities' as normal anatomical variations (splenic impression, fetal lobulation, duplex collecting systems, column of Bertin) or true parenchymal abnormalities, different adjustments in thresholds for reporting abnormality when images were technically suboptimal, different weighting given to pinhole and planar images when both were provided, and error. Conclusion: Four experienced nuclear medicine physicians showed substantial agreement in the interpretation of planar alone, pinhole alone and planar with pinhole DMSA images, but the provision of both sets of images, planar and pinhole, did not reduce variability. (authors)
Comparison of V/Q SPECT and planar V/Q lung scintigraphy in diagnosing acute pulmonary embolism
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Borgwardt, Henrik Gutte; Mortensen, Jann; Jensen, Claus Verner
2010-01-01
Planar ventilation/perfusion (V/Q) scintigraphy is currently the standard method for the diagnosis of pulmonary embolism (PE) in most nuclear medicine centers. However, recent studies have shown a superior sensitivity and specificity when applying V/Q single photon emission computed tomography...... (SPECT) in diagnosing PE. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of three-dimensional V/Q SPECT in comparison with planar V/Q scintigraphy....
Quench protection in superconducting magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shajii, A.; Freidberg, J.P.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this obviously non-plasma physics research is to demonstrate that many of the powerful and sophisticated theoretical techniques widely used by the plasma physics community can be applied to engineering problems of direct interest to the magnetic fusion program. Quench protection is such a problem. If a sudden pulse of energy is delivered (usually by accident) to a small section of a superconducting magnet, it may go normal. Under such conditions, the magnet current flows in the surrounding copper matrix, which is essentially in parallel with the superconductor. Although the copper is a good conductor, it still dissipates ohmic power, further adding to the energy input. It is important to detect the quench as early as possible in order to shut off the current, thereby preventing irreversible damage to the conductor. This a non-trivial problem since the cables comprising a coil can be as long as one kilometer. The theory presented here starts with a set of multi-dimensional Navier-Stokes and heat transport equations for the coupled system of helium coolant, superconducting/copper cable, and surrounding jacket. A combination of multiple time scale expansions and asymptotic analysis reduces the problem to a nonlinear fourth order system of 1-D plus time equations. A code has been written whose numerical results are in excellent agreement with more complex engineering codes. There is at least an order of magnitude savings in CPU over the existing codes where a typical run requires one hour Cray CPU. By investigating a number of different cases the authors have been able to introduce further analytic approximations which reduce the problem to quasi-analytic form, a set of three ODE's in time. The results here too are in excellent agreement with the engineering code and requires only several seconds of CPU time. More important, the critical dimensionless parameters have been identified, as well as practical scaling information for the magnet design
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrera, E.W.; Rojas Sarmiento, M.P.; Rincon, L.F.; Landinez Tellez, D.A.; Roa-Rojas, J.
2007-01-01
The synthesis of the Y 0.5 Sm 0.5 Ba 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ superconducting material by the standard solid state reaction is reported. DC resistivity measurements reveal the improvement of the critical temperature (T c ) when substitution of exact 50-50 mix of Yttrium and Samarium is performed. A bulk T c = 101 K was determined by the criterion of the maximum in the temperature derivative of electrical resistivity. Structure characterization by means the x-ray diffraction technique shows the crystalline appropriated distribution of Yttrium and Samarium to create substantial planar weight disparity (PWD) in alternating layers. This PWD increases T c in copper-oxide superconductors. In order to examine the effect of PWD on the pairing mechanism close to T c , conductivity fluctuation analysis was performed by the method of logarithmic temperature derivative of the conductivity excess. We found the occurrence of Gaussian and genuinely critical fluctuations. Our results are in agreement with reports on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-δ , but an enhancement of the Gaussian fluctuation regimes was experimentally detected as a result of the PWD. The correlations of the critical exponents with the dimensionality of the fluctuation system for each Gaussian regime were performed by using the Aslamazov-Larkin theory. The genuinely critical exponent is interpreted by the 3D-XY model as corresponding with the dynamical universality class of the E-model. (copyright 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Superconductivity in the elements, alloys and simple compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Webb, G.W. [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States); Marsiglio, F. [Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada T6G 2E1 (Canada); Hirsch, J.E., E-mail: jhirsch@ucsd.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0319 (United States)
2015-07-15
Highlights: • A review of superconductivity in elements, alloys and simple compounds is given. • These materials are believed to be described by BCS–Eliashberg theory. • The McMillan–Rowell inversion process is described. • Calculations of Tc’s from first principles are surveyed. • Other criteria beyond BCS to characterize these superconductors are discussed. - Abstract: We give a brief review of superconductivity at ambient pressure in elements, alloys, and simple three-dimensional compounds. Historically these were the first superconducting materials studied, and based on the experimental knowledge gained from them the BCS theory of superconductivity was developed in 1957. Extended to include the effect of phonon retardation, the theory is believed to describe the subset of superconducting materials known as ‘conventional superconductors’, where superconductivity is caused by the electron–phonon interaction. These include the elements, alloys and simple compounds discussed in this article and several other classes of materials discussed in other articles in this Special Issue.
Superconductivity in the elements, alloys and simple compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Webb, G.W.; Marsiglio, F.; Hirsch, J.E.
2015-01-01
Highlights: • A review of superconductivity in elements, alloys and simple compounds is given. • These materials are believed to be described by BCS–Eliashberg theory. • The McMillan–Rowell inversion process is described. • Calculations of Tc’s from first principles are surveyed. • Other criteria beyond BCS to characterize these superconductors are discussed. - Abstract: We give a brief review of superconductivity at ambient pressure in elements, alloys, and simple three-dimensional compounds. Historically these were the first superconducting materials studied, and based on the experimental knowledge gained from them the BCS theory of superconductivity was developed in 1957. Extended to include the effect of phonon retardation, the theory is believed to describe the subset of superconducting materials known as ‘conventional superconductors’, where superconductivity is caused by the electron–phonon interaction. These include the elements, alloys and simple compounds discussed in this article and several other classes of materials discussed in other articles in this Special Issue
Inhomogeneous superconductivity in a ferromagnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kontos, T.; Aprili, M.; Lesueur, J.; Genet, F.; Boursier, R.; Grison, X.
2003-01-01
We have studied a new superconducting state where the condensate wave function resulting from conventional pairing, is modified by an exchange field. Superconductivity is induced into a ferromagnetic thin film (F) by the proximity effect with a superconducting reservoir (S). We observed oscillations of the superconducting order parameter induced in F as a function of the distance from the S/F interface. They originate from the finite momentum transfer provided to Cooper pairs by the splitting of the spin up and down bands. We measured the superconducting density of states in F by tunneling spectroscopy and the Josephson critical current when F is coupled with a superconducting counter-electrode. Negative values of the superconducting order parameter are revealed by capsized tunneling spectra in F and a negative Josephson coupling (π-junction)
Elastocapillary fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures
van Honschoten, J.W.; Berenschot, Johan W.; Ondarcuhu, T.; Sanders, Remco G.P.; Sundaram, J.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt; Tas, Niels Roelof
2010-01-01
We describe the fabrication of three-dimensional microstructures by means of capillary forces. Using an origami-like technique, planar silicon nitride structures of various geometries are folded to produce three-dimensional objects of 50–100 m. Capillarity is a particularly effective mechanism since
Superconductivity and magnet technology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lubell, M.S.
1975-01-01
The background theory of superconducting behavior is reviewed. Three parameters that characterize superconducting materials with values of commercial materials as examples are discussed. More than 1000 compounds and alloy systems and 26 elements are known to exhibit superconducting properties under normal conditions at very low temperatures. A wide variety of crystal structures are represented among the known superconductors. The most important ones do seem to have cubic symmetry such as the body-centered cubic (NbZr and NbTi), face-centered cubic (NbN), and the A15 or β-tungsten structures (Nb 3 Sn), V 3 Ga, Nb 3 Ge, Nb 3 Al, and V 3 Si). Attempts to understand some of the particular phenomena associated with superconductors as a necessary prelude to constructing superconducting magnets are discussed by the author. The origin of degradation is briefly discussed and methods to stabilize magnets are illustrated. The results of Oak Ridge National Laboratory design studies of toroidal magnet systems for fusion reactors are described
High temperature interface superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gozar, A.; Bozovic, I.
2016-01-01
Highlight: • This review article covers the topic of high temperature interface superconductivity. • New materials and techniques used for achieving interface superconductivity are discussed. • We emphasize the role played by the differences in structure and electronic properties at the interface with respect to the bulk of the constituents. - Abstract: High-T_c superconductivity at interfaces has a history of more than a couple of decades. In this review we focus our attention on copper-oxide based heterostructures and multi-layers. We first discuss the technique, atomic layer-by-layer molecular beam epitaxy (ALL-MBE) engineering, that enabled High-T_c Interface Superconductivity (HT-IS), and the challenges associated with the realization of high quality interfaces. Then we turn our attention to the experiments which shed light on the structure and properties of interfacial layers, allowing comparison to those of single-phase films and bulk crystals. Both ‘passive’ hetero-structures as well as surface-induced effects by external gating are discussed. We conclude by comparing HT-IS in cuprates and in other classes of materials, especially Fe-based superconductors, and by examining the grand challenges currently laying ahead for the field.
ISR Superconducting Quadrupoles
1977-01-01
Michel Bouvier is preparing for curing the 6-pole superconducting windings inbedded in the cylindrical wall separating liquid helium from vacuum in the quadrupole aperture. The heat for curing the epoxy glue was provided by a ramp of infrared lamps which can be seen above the slowly rotating cylinder. See also 7703512X, 7702690X.
Forecasting of superconducting compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savitskii, E.M.; Gribulya, V.G.; Kiseleva, N.N.
1981-01-01
In forecasting new superconducting intermetallic compounds of the A15 and Mo 3 Se types most promising from the viewpoint of high critical temperature Tsub(c), high critical magnetic fields Hsub(c), and high critical currents and in estimating their transition temperature it is proposed to apply cybernetic methods of computer learning
Superconducting Super Collider project
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perl, M.L.
1986-04-01
The scientific need for the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) is outlined, along with the history of the development of the SSC concept. A brief technical description is given of each of the main points of the SSC conceptual design. The construction cost and construction schedule are discussed, followed by issues associated with the realization of the SSC. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs
Checking BEBC superconducting magnet
CERN PhotoLab
1974-01-01
The superconducting coils of the magnet for the 3.7 m Big European Bubble Chamber (BEBC) had to be checked, see Annual Report 1974, p. 60. The photo shows a dismantled pancake. By December 1974 the magnet reached again the field design value of 3.5 T.
Niobium superconducting cavity
CERN PhotoLab
1980-01-01
This 5-cell superconducting cavity, made from bulk-Nb, stems from the period of general studies, not all directed towards direct use at LEP. This one is dimensioned for 1.5 GHz, the frequency used at CEBAF and also studied at Saclay (LEP RF was 352.2 MHz). See also 7908227, 8007354, 8209255, 8210054, 8312339.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1993-06-01
This report discusses the following topics on Superconducting Magnets; SSC Magnet Industrialization; Collider Quadrupole Development; A Record-Setting Magnet; D20: The Push Beyond 10T; Nonaccelerator Applications; APC Materials Development; High-T c at Low Temperature; Cable and Cabling-Machine Development; and Analytical Magnet Design
Patrice Loiez
1999-01-01
This cross-section through a strand of superconducting matieral as used in the LHC shows the 8000 Niobium-Titanium filaments embedded like a honeycomb in copper. When cooled to 1.9 degrees above absolute zero in the LHC accelerator, these filaments will have zero resistance and so will carry a high electric current with no energy loss.
Electrical Conduction and Superconductivity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
When an electric field is applied, this electron can be lifted to this higher energy ... By such a virtual process two electrons .... using superconducting coils has come to be a reality. ... nance imaging techniques used in medical diagnostics. Com ...
Superconducting magnets for HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wolff, S.
1987-01-01
The Hadron-Electron-Ring Accelerator (HERA) presently under construction at DESY, Hamburg, consists of an electron storage ring of 30 GeV and a proton storage ring of 820 GeV. Superconducting magnets are used for the proton ring. There are 416 superconducting bending magnets of 4.698 T central field and 8.824 m magnetic length, 224 superconducting quadrupoles of 91.2 T/m central gradient and many superconducting correction dipoles, quadrupoles and sextupoles. The main dipoles and quadrupoles consist of two-layer coils of 75 mm inner diameter clammed with aluminium (for the dipoles) or stainless steel laminations (for the quadrupoles). The collared coils are surrounded by a laminated cold iron yoke and supported inside a low loss cryostat. The protection system uses cold diodes to bypass the current around a quenching magnet. The magnets are cooled with one phase helium supplied by a 3 block central refrigeration system of 20 kW refrigeration power at 4.3 K. Two helium is returned through the magnets in good thermal contact with the one phase helium in the dipoles for temperature control. This paper describes the magnet system and gives the results obtained for prototype magnets
1995-01-01
Engineers work in a clean room on one of the superconducting cavities for the upgrade to the LEP accelerator, known as LEP-2. The use of superconductors allow higher electric fields to be produced so that higher beam energies can be reached.
Gossamer superconductivity, new paradigm?
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Won, Hyekyung [Department of Physics, Hallym University, Chuncheon 200-702 (Korea); Haas, Stephan; Parker, David [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States); Maki, Kazumi [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States); Max-Planck Institute for the Physics of Complex Systems, Noethnitzer Str. 38, 01187 Dresden (Germany); Dora, Balazs [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest (Hungary); Virosztek, Attila [Department of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, 1521 Budapest (Hungary); Research Institute for Solid State Physics and Optics, P.O. Box 49, 1525 Budapest (Hungary)
2006-01-01
We review our recent works on d-wave density wave (dDW) and gossamer superconductivity (i.e. d-wave superconductivity in the presence of dDW) in high-T{sub c} cuprates and CeCoIn{sub 5}. a) We show that both the giant Nernst effect and the angle dependent magnetoresistance (ADMR) in the pseudogap phases of the cuprates and CeCoIn{sub 5} are manifestations of dDW. b) The phase diagram of high-T{sub c} cuprates is understood in terms of mean field theory, which includes two order parameters {delta}{sub 1} and {delta}{sub 2}, where one order paremeter is from dDW and the other from d-wave superconductivity. c) In the optimally to the overdoped region we find the spatially periodic dDW, an analogue of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, becomes more stable. d) In the underdoped region where {delta}{sub 2}/{delta}{sub 1}<<1 the Uemera relation is obtained within the present model. We speculate that the gossamer superconductivity is at the heart of high-T{sub c} cuprate superconductors, the heavy-fermion superconductor CeCoIn{sub 5} and the organic superconductors {kappa}-(ET){sub 2}Cu(NCS){sub 2} and (TMTSF){sub 2}PF{sub 6}. (copyright 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)
Superconductivity : Controlling magnetism
Golubov, Alexandre Avraamovitch; Kupriyanov, Mikhail Yu.
Manipulation of the magnetic state in spin valve structures by superconductivity has now been achieved, opening a new route for the development of ultra-fast cryogenic memories. Spintronics is a rapidly developing field that allows insight into fundamental spin-dependent physical properties and the
High-temperature superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lynn, J.W.
1990-01-01
This book discusses development in oxide materials with high superconducting transition temperature. Systems with Tc well above liquid nitrogen temperature are already a reality and higher Tc's are anticipated. The author discusses how the idea of a room-temperature superconductor appears to be a distinctly possible outcome of materials research
Magnetic levitation and superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Albrecht, C.
1989-01-01
The paper explains the impressive advances made in the development of superconducting magnets, in cryogenic engineering, and in the development of drive and vehicle concepts in Japan in the period following termination of West German development work for the electrodynamical system (MLU 001, MLU 002). The potentials engineering due to the development of high-Tc superconductors are discussed. (orig./MM) [de
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciovati, G [Jefferson Lab (United States)
2014-07-01
This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ciovati, Gianluigi [JLAB
2015-02-01
This contribution provides a brief introduction to AC/RF superconductivity, with an emphasis on application to accelerators. The topics covered include the surface impedance of normal conductors and superconductors, the residual resistance, the field dependence of the surface resistance, and the superheating field.
Planar impact experiments for EOS measurements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Furnish, M.D.
1993-01-01
The community concerned with the numerical modeling of groundshock produced by underground nuclear tests must have access to materials data to benchmark models of rock behavior. Historically the primary source of these data has been planar impact experiments. These experiments have involved gun, explosive and electrical launchers. Other methods of introducing planar shocks include shock driving by in-contact explosives or laser bursts. This paper briefly describes gun launcher-based planar impact methods used to characterize geological materials at Sandia National Laboratories
Piezo Voltage Controlled Planar Hall Effect Devices.
Zhang, Bao; Meng, Kang-Kang; Yang, Mei-Yin; Edmonds, K W; Zhang, Hao; Cai, Kai-Ming; Sheng, Yu; Zhang, Nan; Ji, Yang; Zhao, Jian-Hua; Zheng, Hou-Zhi; Wang, Kai-You
2016-06-22
The electrical control of the magnetization switching in ferromagnets is highly desired for future spintronic applications. Here we report on hybrid piezoelectric (PZT)/ferromagnetic (Co2FeAl) devices in which the planar Hall voltage in the ferromagnetic layer is tuned solely by piezo voltages. The change of planar Hall voltage is associated with magnetization switching through 90° in the plane under piezo voltages. Room temperature magnetic NOT and NOR gates are demonstrated based on the piezo voltage controlled Co2FeAl planar Hall effect devices without the external magnetic field. Our demonstration may lead to the realization of both information storage and processing using ferromagnetic materials.
A Cardy-like formula for rotating black holes with planar horizon
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gaete, Moisés Bravo [Facultad de Ciencias Básicas, Universidad Católica del Maule,Casilla 617, Talca (Chile); Guajardo, Luis; Hassaïne, Mokhtar [Instituto de Matemática y Fisica, Universidad de Talca,Casilla 747, Talca (Chile)
2017-04-18
We show that the semiclassical entropy of D−dimensional rotating (an)isotropic black holes with planar horizon can be successfully computed according to a Cardy-like formula. This formula does not refer to any central charges but instead involves the vacuum energy which is identified with a gravitational bulk soliton. The soliton is obtained from the non-rotating black hole solution by means of a double analytic continuation. The robustness of the Cardy-like formula is tested with numerous and varied examples, including AdS, Lifshitz and hyperscaling violation planar black holes.
Interacting loop-current model of superconducting networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chi, C.C.; Santhanam, P.; Bloechl, P.E.
1992-01-01
The authors review their recent approximation scheme to calculate the normal-superconducting phase boundary, T c (H), of a superconducting wire network in a magnetic field in terms of interacting loop currents. The theory is based on the London approximation of the linearized Ginzburg-Landau equation. An approximate general formula is derived for any two-dimensional space-filling lattice comprising tiles of two shapes. Many examples are provided illustrating the use of this method, with a particular emphasis on the fluxoid distribution. In addition to periodic lattices, quasiperiodic lattices and fractal Sierpinski gaskets are also discussed
Towards inducing superconductivity into graphene
Efetov, Dmitri K.
dependent effective Debey temperature - the so-called Bloch-Gruneisen temperature theta BG. We also probe the transport properties of the high energy sub-bands in bilayer graphene by electrolyte gating. Furthermore we demonstrate that electrolyte gates can be used to drive intercalation reactions in graphite and present an all optical study of the reaction kinetics during the creation of the graphene derived graphite intercalation compound LiC 6, and show the general applicability of the electrolyte gates to other 2-dimensional materials such as thin films of complex oxides, where we demonstrate gating dependent conductance changes in the spin-orbit Mott insulator Sr 2IrO4. Another, entirely different approach to induce superconducting correlations into graphene is by bringing it into proximity to a superconductor. Although not intrinsic to graphene, Cooper pairs can leak in from the superconductor and exist in graphene in the form of phase-coherent electron-hole states, the so-called Andreev states. Here we demonstrate a new way of fabricating highly transparent graphene/superconductor junctions by vertical stacking of graphene and the type-II van der Waals superconductor NbSe2. Due to NbSe2's high upper critical field of Hc2=4T we are able to test a long proposed and yet not well understood regime, where proximity effect and quantum Hall effect coexist.
Modified planar functions and their components
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Anbar Meidl, Nurdagül; Meidl, Wilfried Meidl
2017-01-01
functions in odd characteristic as a vectorial bent function. We finally point out that though these components behave somewhat different than the multivariate bent4 functions, they are bent or semibent functions shifted by a certain quadratic term, a property which they share with their multivariate......Zhou ([20]) introduced modified planar functions in order to describe (2n; 2n; 2n; 1) relative difference sets R as a graph of a function on the finite field F2n, and pointed out that projections of R are difference sets that can be described by negabent or bent4 functions, which are Boolean...... functions given in multivariate form. One of the objectives of this paper is to contribute to the understanding of these component functions of modified planar functions. Moreover, we obtain a description of modified planar functions by their components which is similar to that of the classical planar...
Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.
2009-01-01
A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....
Generators for finite depth subfactor planar algebras
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The main result of Kodiyalam and Tupurani [3] shows that a subfactor planar algebra of finite depth is singly generated with a finite presentation. If P is a subfactor planar algebra of depth k, it is shown there that a single 2k-box generates P. It is natural to ask what the smallest s is such that a single s-box generates P. While ...
Planar half-cell shaped precursor body
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
2015-01-01
The invention relates to a half-cell shaped precursor body of either anode type or cathode type, the half-cell shaped precursor body being prepared to be free sintered to form a sintered or pre-sintered half-cell being adapted to be stacked in a solid oxide fuel cell stack. The obtained half......-cell has an improved planar shape, which remains planar also after a sintering process and during temperature fluctuations....
2017 Gordon Conference on Superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chubukov, Andrey [Univ. of Minnesota, Twin Cities, MN (United States)
2017-11-14
The DOE award was for a 2017 Gordon Research conference on Superconductivity (GRC). The objective of GRC is to interchange the information about the latest theoretical and experimental developments in the area of superconductivity and to select most perspective directions for future research in this area.The goal of the Gordon Conference on Superconductivity is to present and discuss the latest results in the field of modern superconductivity, discuss new ideas and new directions of research in the area. It is a long-standing tradition of the Gordon conference on Superconductivity that the vast majority of participants are junior scientists. Funding for the conference would primarily be used to support junior researchers, particularly from under-represented groups. We had more 10 female speakers, some of them junior researchers, and some funding was used to support these speakers. The conference was held together with Gordon Research Seminar on Superconductivity, where almost all speakers and participants were junior scientists.
Vector superconductivity in cosmic strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, G.R.; Mahajan, S.M.
1992-03-01
We argue that in most realistic cases, the usual Witten-type bosonic superconductivity of the cosmic string is automatically (independent of the existence of superconducting currents) accompanied by the condensation of charged gauge vector bosons in the core giving rise to a new vector type superconductivity. The value of the charged vector condensate is related with the charged scalar expectation value, and vanishes only if the latter goes to zero. The mechanism for the proposed vector superconductivity, differing fundamentally from those in the literature, is delineated using the simplest realistic example of the two Higgs doublet standard model interacting with the extra cosmic string. It is shown that for a wide range of parameters, for which the string becomes scalarly superconducting, W boson condensates (the sources of vector superconductivity) are necessarily excited. (author). 14 refs
Superconducting Accelerator Magnets
Mess, K H; Wolff, S
1996-01-01
The main topic of the book are the superconducting dipole and quadrupole magnets needed in high-energy accelerators and storage rings for protons, antiprotons or heavy ions. The basic principles of low-temperature superconductivity are outlined with special emphasis on the effects which are relevant for accelerator magnets. Properties and fabrication methods of practical superconductors are described. Analytical methods for field calculation and multipole expansion are presented for coils without and with iron yoke. The effect of yoke saturation and geometric distortions on field quality is studied. Persistent magnetization currents in the superconductor and eddy currents the copper part of the cable are analyzed in detail and their influence on field quality and magnet performance is investigated. Superconductor stability, quench origins and propagation and magnet protection are addressed. Some important concepts of accelerator physics are introduced which are needed to appreciate the demanding requirements ...
Infrared Quenched Photoinduced Superconductivity
Federici, J. F.; Chew, D.; Guttierez-Solana, J.; Molina, G.; Savin, W.; Wilber, W.
1996-03-01
Persistant photoconductivity (PPC) and photoinduced superconductivity (PISC) in oxygen deficient YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x have received recent attention. It has been suggested that oxygen vacancy defects play an important role in the PISC/PPC mechanism.(J. F. Federici, D. Chew, B. Welker, W. Savin, J. Gutierrez-Solana, and T. Fink, Phys. Rev. B), December 1995 Supported by National Science Foundation In this model, defects trap photogenerated electrons so that electron-hole recombination can not occur thereby allowing photogenerated holes to contribute to the carrier density. Nominally, the photoinduced state is long-lived, persisting for days at low temperature. Experiment results will be presented demonstrating that the photoinduced superconductivity state can be quenched using infrared radiation. Implications for the validity of the PISC/PCC defect model will be discussed.
Superconductivity an introduction
Kleiner, Reinhold
2016-01-01
The third edition of this proven text has been developed further in both scope and scale to reflect the potential for superconductivity in power engineering to increase efficiency in electricity transmission or engines. The landmark reference remains a comprehensive introduction to the field, covering every aspect from fundamentals to applications, and presenting the latest developments in organic superconductors, superconducting interfaces, quantum coherence, and applications in medicine and industry. Due to its precise language and numerous explanatory illustrations, it is suitable as an introductory textbook, with the level rising smoothly from chapter to chapter, such that readers can build on their newly acquired knowledge. The authors cover basic properties of superconductors and discuss stability and different material groups with reference to the latest and most promising applications, devoting the last third of the book to applications in power engineering, medicine, and low temperature physics. An e...
Variable temperature superconducting microscope
Cheng, Bo; Yeh, W. J.
2000-03-01
We have developed and tested a promising type of superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) microscope, which can be used to detect vortex motion and can operate in magnetic fields over a large temperature range. The system utilizes a single-loop coupling transformer, consisting of a patterned high Tc superconducting thin film. At one end of the transformer, a 20 μm diam detecting loop is placed close to the sample. At the other end, a large loop is coupled to a NbTi coil, which is connected to a low Tc SQUID sensor. Transformers in a variety of sizes have been tested and calibrated. The results show that the system is capable of detecting the motion of a single vortex. We have used the microscope to study the behavior of moving vortices at various positions in a YBa2Cu3O7 thin film bridge.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elsel, W.
1986-01-01
The advantages obtained by the energy store device according to the invention with a superconducting solenoid system consist of the fact that only relatively short superconducting forward and return leads are required, which are collected into cables as far as possible. This limits the coolant losses of the cables. Only one relatively expensive connecting part with a transition of its conductors from room temperature to a low temperature is required, which, like the normal conducting current switch, is easily accessible. As the continuation has to be cooled independently of the upper part solenoid, cooling of this continuation part can prevent the introduction of large quantities of heat into the connected part solenoid. Due to the cooling of the forward and return conductors of the connecting cable with the coolant of the lower part solenoid, there are relatively few separations between the coolant spaces of the part solenoids. (orig./MM) [de
Statistical mechanics of superconductivity
Kita, Takafumi
2015-01-01
This book provides a theoretical, step-by-step comprehensive explanation of superconductivity for undergraduate and graduate students who have completed elementary courses on thermodynamics and quantum mechanics. To this end, it adopts the unique approach of starting with the statistical mechanics of quantum ideal gases and successively adding and clarifying elements and techniques indispensible for understanding it. They include the spin-statistics theorem, second quantization, density matrices, the Bloch–De Dominicis theorem, the variational principle in statistical mechanics, attractive interaction, and bound states. Ample examples of their usage are also provided in terms of topics from advanced statistical mechanics such as two-particle correlations of quantum ideal gases, derivation of the Hartree–Fock equations, and Landau’s Fermi-liquid theory, among others. With these preliminaries, the fundamental mean-field equations of superconductivity are derived with maximum mathematical clarity based on ...
Metastable superconducting alloys
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, W.L.
1978-07-01
The study of metastable metals and alloys has become one of the principal activities of specialists working in the field of superconducting materials. Metastable crystalline superconductors such as the A15-type materials have been given much attention. Non-crystalline superconductors were first studied over twenty years ago by Buckel and Hilsch using the technique of thin film evaporation on a cryogenic substrate. More recently, melt-quenching, sputtering, and ion implantation techniques have been employed to produce a variety of amorphous superconductors. The present article presents a brief review of experimental results and a survey of current work on these materials. The systematics of superconductivity in non-crystalline metals and alloys are described along with an analysis of the microscopic parameters which underlie the observed trends. The unique properties of these superconductors which arise from the high degree of structural disorder in the amorphous state are emphasized
Superconducting frustration bit
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Y.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • A frustration bit element is proposed for a conventional superconducting circuit. • It is composed of π-junctions. • It mimics the multiband superconductor. - Abstract: A basic design is proposed for a classical bit element of a superconducting circuit that mimics a frustrated multiband superconductor and is composed of an array of π-Josephson junctions (π-junction). The phase shift of π provides the lowest energy for one π-junction, but neither a π nor a zero phase shift gives the lowest energy for an assembly of π-junctions. There are two chiral states that can be used to store one bit information. The energy scale for reading and writing to memory is of the same order as the junction energy, and is thus in the same order of the driving energy of the circuit. In addition, random access is also possible
Superconductivity and spin fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scalapino, D.J.
1999-01-01
The organizers of the Memorial Session for Herman Rietschel asked that the author review some of the history of the interplay of superconductivity and spin fluctuations. Initially, Berk and Schrieffer showed how paramagnon spin fluctuations could suppress superconductivity in nearly-ferromagnetic materials. Following this, Rietschel and various co-workers wrote a number of papers in which they investigated the role of spin fluctuations in reducing the Tc of various electron-phonon superconductors. Paramagnon spin fluctuations are also believed to provide the p-wave pairing mechanism responsible for the superfluid phases of 3 He. More recently, antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations have been proposed as the mechanism for d-wave pairing in the heavy-fermion superconductors and in some organic materials as well as possibly the high-Tc cuprates. Here the author will review some of this early history and discuss some of the things he has learned more recently from numerical simulations
Stabilized superconducting materials and fabrication process
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chevallier, B.; Dance, J.M.; Etourneau, J.; Lozano, L.; Tressaud, A.; Tournier, R.; Sulpice, A.; Chaussy, J.; Lejay, P.
1989-01-01
Superconducting ceramics are fluorinated at a temperature ≤ 120 0 C. Are also claimed new superconducting materials with a fluorine concentration gradient decreasing from the surface to the core. Superconductivity is stabilized and/or improved [fr
Superconductivity in MgB{sub 2}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Muranaka, Takahiro; Akimitsu, Jun [Aoyama Gakuin Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Dept. of Physics and Mathematics
2011-07-01
We review superconductivity in MgB{sub 2} in terms of crystal and electronic structure, electron-phonon coupling, two-gap superconductivity and application. Finally, we introduce the development of new superconducting materials in related compounds. (orig.)
Topological confinement and superconductivity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al-hassanieh, Dhaled A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Batista, Cristian D [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
We derive a Kondo Lattice model with a correlated conduction band from a two-band Hubbard Hamiltonian. This mapping allows us to describe the emergence of a robust pairing mechanism in a model that only contains repulsive interactions. The mechanism is due to topological confinement and results from the interplay between antiferromagnetism and delocalization. By using Density-Matrix-Renormalization-Group (DMRG) we demonstrate that this mechanism leads to dominant superconducting correlations in aID-system.
Unconventional superconductivity near inhomogeneities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poenicke, A.F.
2008-01-01
After the presentation of a quasi-classical theory the specific heat of Sr 2 RuO 4 is considered. Then tunneling spectroscopy on cuprate superconductors is discussed. Thereafter the subharmonic gap structure in d-wave superconductors is considered. Finally the application of the S-matrix in superconductivity is discussed with spin mixing, CrO 2 as example, and an interface model. (HSI)
Unconventional superconductivity near inhomogeneities
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poenicke, A F
2008-01-25
After the presentation of a quasi-classical theory the specific heat of Sr{sub 2}RuO{sub 4} is considered. Then tunneling spectroscopy on cuprate superconductors is discussed. Thereafter the subharmonic gap structure in d-wave superconductors is considered. Finally the application of the S-matrix in superconductivity is discussed with spin mixing, CrO{sub 2} as example, and an interface model. (HSI)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mueller, H.G.
1989-01-01
This general paper deals with the advantages which may result from the use of ceramic high-temperature superconductors. The use of these new superconductors for generators and electric motors for ship propulsion is regarded as a promising potential defense application. Furthermore, SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage) can be used as a 'power compressor' for future high-performance weapon systems such as electromagnetic cannons, high-energy lasers, and high power microwaves. (MM) [de
Advanced superconducting materials
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fluekiger, R.
1983-11-01
The superconducting properties of various materials are reviewed in view of their use in high field magnets. The critical current densities above 12 T of conductors based on NbN or PbMo 6 S 8 are compared to those of the most advanced practical conductors based on alloyed by Nb 3 Sn. Different aspects of the mechanical reinforcement of high field conductors, rendered necessary by the strong Lorentz forces (e.g. in fusion magnets), are discussed. (orig.) [de
Schuller, Ivan K.; Ketterson, John B.; Banerjee, Indrajit
1986-01-01
A superconducting tape or wire with an improved critical field is formed of alternating layers of a niobium-containing superconductor such as Nb, NbTi, Nb.sub.3 Sn or Nb.sub.3 Ge with a thickness in the range of about 0.5-1.5 times its coherence length, supported and separated by layers of copper with each copper layer having a thickness in the range of about 170-600 .ANG..
Superconductivity in power engineering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaddah, P.; Dande, Y.D.; Dasannacharya, B.A.; Malik, M.K.; Raghavan, R.V.
1987-01-01
The advantages of low power loss, high magnetic fields and compactness of size of superconducting magnets have generated world-wide interest in using them for MHD generators, Tokamak fusion reactors, energy storage systems etc. With a view to assess the feasibility of using the technology in power engineering in India, the status of the efforts in the country is reviewed and the areas of R and D required are indicated. 13 figures, 15 refs. (author)
Superconducting linear colliders
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1990-01-01
The advantages of superconducting radiofrequency (SRF) for particle accelerators have been demonstrated by successful operation of systems in the TRISTAN and LEP electron-positron collider rings respectively at the Japanese KEK Laboratory and at CERN. If performance continues to improve and costs can be lowered, this would open an attractive option for a high luminosity TeV (1000 GeV) linear collider
Superconducting Ferromagnetic Nanodiamond
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Zhang, G.; Samuely, T.; Xu, Z.; Jochum, J. K.; Volodin, A.; Zhou, S. Q.; May, P. W.; Onufriienko, O.; Kacmarik, J.; Steele, J. A.; Li, J.; Vanacken, J.; Vacík, Jiří; Szabo, P.; Yuan, H. F.; Roeffaers, M. B. J.; Cerbu, D.; Samuely, P.; Hofkens, J.; Moshchalkov, V.V.
2017-01-01
Roč. 11, č. 6 (2017), s. 5358-5366 ISSN 1936-0851 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GBP108/12/G108; GA MŠk LM2015056 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : nanodiamond * superconductivity and ferromagnetism * spin fluctuations * giant positive magnetoresistance * anamalous Hall effect Subject RIV: BG - Nuclear, Atomic and Molecular Physics, Colliders OBOR OECD: Nano-materials (production and properties ) Impact factor: 13.942, year: 2016
Superconducting cavities for HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dwersteg, B.; Ebeling, W.; Moeller, W.D.; Renken, D.; Proch, D.; Sekutowicz, J.; Susta, J.; Tong, D.
1988-01-01
Superconducting 500 MHz cavities are developed to demonstrate the feasibility of upgrading the e-beam energy of the HERA storage ring. A prototype module with 2 x 4 cell resonators and appropriate fundamental and higher mode couplers has been designed at DESY and is being built by industrial firms. The design and results of RF and cryogenic measurements are reported in detail. 17 references, 10 figures, 2 tables
Superconductivity is pair work
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wengenmayr, Roland
2011-01-01
Electric cables that routinely conduct electricity without loss - physicists have been motivated by this idea ever since superconductivity was discovered 100 years ago. Researchers working with Bernhard Keimer at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research in Stuttgart and Frank Steglich at the Max Planck Institute for Chemical Physics of Solids in Dresden want to gain a detailed understanding of how unconventional superconductors lose their resistivity. (orig.)
Superconducting Panofsky quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harwood, L.H.
1981-01-01
A design for a rectangular aperture quadrupole magnet without pole-tips was introduced by Hand and Panofsky in 1959. This design was quite radical but simple to construct. Few magnets of this design were ever built because of the large power needed. With the advent of superconducting coils there has been a renewed interest in them. The mathematical basis, field characteristics, and present and future construction of these magnets are described
Two-Loop Master Integrals for $\\gamma^{*} \\to 3$ Jets the Non-Planar Topologies
Gehrmann, T
2001-01-01
The calculation of the two-loop corrections to the three-jet production rate and to event shapes in electron--positron annihilation requires the computation of a number of two-loop four-point master integrals with one off-shell and three on-shell legs. Up to now, only those master integrals corresponding to planar topologies were known. In this paper, we compute the yet outstanding non-planar master integrals by solving differential equations in the external invariants which are fulfilled by these master integrals. We obtain the master integrals as expansions in $\\e=(4-d)/2$, where $d$ is the space-time dimension. The fully analytic results are expressed in terms of the two-dimensional harmonic polylogarithms already introduced in the evaluation of the planar topologies.
Cooldown of superconducting magnet strings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yuecel, A.; Carcagno, R.H.
1995-01-01
A numerical model for the cooldown of the superconducting magnet strings in the Accelerator System String Test (ASST) Facility at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) Laboratory is presented. Numerical results are compared with experimental data from the ASST test runs. Agreement between the numerical predictions and experiments is very good over the entire range from room temperature to liquid helium temperatures. The model can be readily adapted to predict the cooldown and warmup behavior of other superconducting magnets or cold masses
Superconductivity in borides and carbides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muranaka, Takahiro
2007-01-01
It was thought that intermetallic superconductors do not exhibit superconductivity at temperatures over 30 K because of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) limit; therefore, researchers have been interested in high-T c cuprates. Our group discovered high-T c superconductivity in MgB 2 at 39 K in 2001. This discovery has initiated a substantial interest in the potential of high-T c superconductivity in intermetallic compounds that include 'light' elements (borides, carbides, etc.). (author)
The one-dimensional extended Bose–Hubbard model
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
method to obtain the zero-temperature phase diagram of the one-dimensional, extended ... Progress in this field has been driven by an interplay between ... superconductor-insulator transition in thin films of superconducting materials like bis-.
Quenching of superconductivity in disordered thin films by phase fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hebard, A.F.; Palaanen, M.A.
1992-01-01
The amplitude Ψ 0 and phase Φ of the superconducting order parameter in thin-film systems are affected differently by disorder and dimensionality. With increasing disorder superconducting long range order is quenched in sufficiently thin films by physical processes driven by phase fluctuations. This occurs at both the zero-field vortex-antivortex unbinding transition and at the zero-temperature magnetic-field-tuned superconducting-insulating transition. At both of these transitions Ψ 0 is finite and constant, vanishing only when temperature, disorder, and/or magnetic field are increased further. Experimental results on amorphous-composite InO x films are presented to illustrate these points and appropriate comparisons are made to other experimental systems. (orig.)
Superconductivity in an Inhomogeneous Bundle of Metallic and Semiconducting Nanotubes
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ilya Grigorenko
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Using Bogoliubov-de Gennes formalism for inhomogeneous systems, we have studied superconducting properties of a bundle of packed carbon nanotubes, making a triangular lattice in the bundle's transverse cross-section. The bundle consists of a mixture of metallic and doped semiconducting nanotubes, which have different critical transition temperatures. We investigate how a spatially averaged superconducting order parameter and the critical transition temperature depend on the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes in the bundle. Our simulations suggest that the superconductivity in the bundle will be suppressed when the fraction of the doped semiconducting carbon nanotubes will be less than 0.5, which is the percolation threshold for a two-dimensional triangular lattice.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Takashi Yanagisawa
2015-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the ground state of two-dimensional Hubbard model on the basis of the variational Monte Carlo method. We use wave functions that include kinetic correlation and doublon-holon correlation beyond the Gutzwiller ansatz. It is still not clear whether the Hubbard model accounts for high-temperature superconductivity. The antiferromagnetic correlation plays a key role in the study of pairing mechanism because the superconductive phase exists usually close to the antiferromagnetic phase. We investigate the stability of the antiferromagnetic state when holes are doped as a function of the Coulomb repulsion U. We show that the antiferromagnetic correlation is suppressed as U is increased exceeding the bandwidth. High-temperature superconductivity is possible in this region with enhanced antiferromagnetic spin fluctuation and pairing interaction.
Superconducting energy storage magnet
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eyssa, Y.M.; Boom, R.W.; Young, W.C.; McIntosh, G.E.; Abdelsalam, M.K.
1986-01-01
A superconducting magnet is described comprising: (a) a first, outer coil of one layer of conductor including at least a superconducting composite material; (b) a second, inner coil of one layer of conductor including at least a superconducting composite material. The second coil disposed adjacent to the first coil with each turn of the second inner coil at substantially the same level as a turn on the first coil; (c) an inner support structure between the first and second coils and engaged to the conductors thereof, including support rails associated with each turn of conductor in each coil and in contact therewith along its length at positions on the inwardly facing periphery of the conductor. The rail associated with each conductor is electrically isolated from other rails in the inner support structure. The magnetic field produced by a current flowing in the same direction through the conductors of the first and second coils produces a force on the conductors that are directed inwardly toward the inner support structure
Magnetically leviated superconducting bearing
Weinberger, Bernard R.; Lynds, Jr., Lahmer
1993-01-01
A magnetically levitated superconducting bearing includes a magnet (2) mounted on a shaft (12) that is rotatable around an axis of rotation and a Type II superconductor (6) supported on a stator (14) in proximity to the magnet (2). The superconductor (6) is positioned so that when it is cooled to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field, it interacts with the magnet (2) to produce an attractive force that levitates the magnet (2) and supports a load on the shaft (12). The interaction between the superconductor (6) and magnet(2) also produces surface screening currents (8) that generate a repulsive force perpendicular to the load. The bearing also has means for maintaining the superconductor at a temperature below its critical temperature (16, 18). The bearing could also be constructed so the magnet (2) is supported on the stator (14) and the superconductor (6) is mounted on the shaft (12). The bearing can be operated by cooling the superconductor (6) to its superconducting state in the presence of a magnetic field.
Superconductivity in Pb inverse opal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aliev, Ali E.; Lee, Sergey B.; Zakhidov, Anvar A.; Baughman, Ray H.
2007-01-01
Type-II superconducting behavior was observed in highly periodic three-dimensional lead inverse opal prepared by infiltration of melted Pb in blue (D = 160 nm), green (D = 220 nm) and red (D = 300 nm) opals and followed by the extraction of the SiO 2 spheres by chemical etching. The onset of a broad phase transition (ΔT = 0.3 K) was shifted from T c = 7.196 K for bulk Pb to T c = 7.325 K. The upper critical field H c2 (3150 Oe) measured from high-field hysteresis loops exceeds the critical field for bulk lead (803 Oe) fourfold. Two well resolved peaks observed in the hysteresis loops were ascribed to flux penetration into the cylindrical void space that can be found in inverse opal structure and into the periodic structure of Pb nanoparticles. The red inverse opal shows pronounced oscillations of magnetic moment in the mixed state at low temperatures, T 0.9T c has been observed for all of the samples studied. The magnetic field periodicity of resistivity modulation is in good agreement with the lattice parameter of the inverse opal structure. We attribute the failure to observe pronounced modulation in magneto-resistive measurement to difficulties in the precision orientation of the sample along the magnetic field
High temperature superconductivity and cold fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rabinowitz, M.
1990-01-01
There are numerous historical and scientific parallels between high temperature superconductivity (HTSC) and the newly emerging field of cold fusion (CF). Just as the charge carrier effective mass plays an important role in SC, the deuteron effective mass may play a vital role in CF. A new theory including effects of proximity, electron shielding, and decreased effective mass of the fusing nuclei can account for the reported CF results. A quantum-gas model that covers the range from low temperature to superhigh temperature SC indicates an increased T c with reduced dimensionality. A reduced dimensionality effect may also enhance CF. A relation is shown between CF and the significant cluster-impact fusion experiments
Impurity-induced states in superconducting heterostructures
Liu, Dong E.; Rossi, Enrico; Lutchyn, Roman M.
2018-04-01
Heterostructures allow the realization of electronic states that are difficult to obtain in isolated uniform systems. Exemplary is the case of quasi-one-dimensional heterostructures formed by a superconductor and a semiconductor with spin-orbit coupling in which Majorana zero-energy modes can be realized. We study the effect of a single impurity on the energy spectrum of superconducting heterostructures. We find that the coupling between the superconductor and the semiconductor can strongly affect the impurity-induced states and may induce additional subgap bound states that are not present in isolated uniform superconductors. For the case of quasi-one-dimensional superconductor/semiconductor heterostructures we obtain the conditions for which the low-energy impurity-induced bound states appear.
Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smith, Robert P. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Dean, Mark P.M. [Department of Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Rahnejat, Kaveh C. [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom); Saxena, Siddharth S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); Ellerby, Mark, E-mail: mark.ellerby@ucl.ac.uk [Department of Physics & Astronomy, University College of London, Gower Street, London WCIE 6BT (United Kingdom)
2015-07-15
Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC{sub 6} and YbC{sub 6} in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition.
Superconductivity in graphite intercalation compounds
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Robert P.; Weller, Thomas E.; Howard, Christopher A.; Dean, Mark P.M.; Rahnejat, Kaveh C.; Saxena, Siddharth S.; Ellerby, Mark
2015-01-01
Highlights: • Historical background of graphite intercalates. • Superconductivity in graphite intercalates and its place in the field of superconductivity. • Recent developments. • Relevant modeling of superconductivity in graphite intercalates. • Interpretations that pertain and questions that remain. - Abstract: The field of superconductivity in the class of materials known as graphite intercalation compounds has a history dating back to the 1960s (Dresselhaus and Dresselhaus, 1981; Enoki et al., 2003). This paper recontextualizes the field in light of the discovery of superconductivity in CaC 6 and YbC 6 in 2005. In what follows, we outline the crystal structure and electronic structure of these and related compounds. We go on to experiments addressing the superconducting energy gap, lattice dynamics, pressure dependence, and how these relate to theoretical studies. The bulk of the evidence strongly supports a BCS superconducting state. However, important questions remain regarding which electronic states and phonon modes are most important for superconductivity, and whether current theoretical techniques can fully describe the dependence of the superconducting transition temperature on pressure and chemical composition
Korea's developmental program for superconductivity
Hong, Gye-Won; Won, Dong-Yeon; Kuk, Il-Hyun; Park, Jong-Chul
1995-04-01
Superconductivity research in Korea was firstly carried out in the late 70's by a research group in Seoul National University (SNU), who fabricated a small scale superconducting magnetic energy storage system under the financial support from Korea Electric Power Company (KEPCO). But a few researchers were involved in superconductivity research until the oxide high Tc superconductor was discovered by Bednorz and Mueller. After the discovery of YBaCuO superconductor operating above the boiling point of liquid nitrogen (77 K)(exp 2), Korean Ministry of Science and Technology (MOST) sponsored a special fund for the high Tc superconductivity research to universities and national research institutes by recognizing its importance. Scientists engaged in this project organized 'High Temperature Superconductivity Research Association (HITSRA)' for effective conducting of research. Its major functions are to coordinate research activities on high Tc superconductivity and organize the workshop for active exchange of information. During last seven years the major superconductivity research has been carried out through the coordination of HITSRA. The major parts of the Korea's superconductivity research program were related to high temperature superconductor and only a few groups were carrying out research on conventional superconductor technology, and Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) and Korea Electrotechnology Research Institute (KERI) have led this research. In this talk, the current status and future plans of superconductivity research in Korea will be reviewed based on the results presented in interim meeting of HITSRA, April 1-2, 1994. Taejeon, as well as the research activity of KAERI.
The development of superconducting equipment
Ueda, T; Hiue, H
2003-01-01
Fuji Electric has been developing various types of superconducting equipment for over a quarter of a century. This paper describes the development results achieved for superconducting equipment and especially focuses on large-capacity current leads and superconducting transmission systems, the development of which is being promoted for application to the field of nuclear fusion. High temperature superconductor (HTS) is becoming the mainstream in the field of superconductivity, and the HTS floating coil and conduction-cooled HTS transformed are also introduced as recent developments for devices that utilize this technology. (author)
Superconducting magnet development in Japan
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yasukochi, K.
1983-01-01
The present state of R and D works on the superconducting magnet and its applications in Japan are presented. On electrical rotating machines, 30 MVA superconducting synchronous rotary condenser (Mitsubishi and Fuji) and 50 MVA generator are under construction. Two ways of ship propulsion by superconducting magnets are developing. A superconducting magnetically levitated and linear motor propelled train ''MAGLEV'' was developed by the Japan National Railways (JNR). The superconducting magnet development for fusion is the most active field in Japan. The Cluster Test program has been demonstrated on a 10 T Nb 3 Sn coil and the first coil of Large Coil Task in IEA collaboration has been constructed and the domestic test was completed in JAERI. These works are for the development of toroidal coils of the next generation tokamak machine. R and D works on superconducting ohmic heating coil are in progress in JAERI and ETL. The latter group has constructed 3.8 MJ pulsed coil. A high ramp rate of changing field in pulsed magnet, 200 T/s, has been tested successfully. High Energy Physics Laboratory (KEK) are conducting active works. The superconducting μ meson channel and π meson channel have been constructed and are operating successfully. KEK has also a project of big accelerator named ''TRISTAN'', which is similar to ISABELLE project of BNL. Superconducting synchrotron magnets are developed for this project. The development of superconducting three thin wall solenoid has been started. One of them, CDF, is progressing under USA-Japan collaboration
Superconducting Nonlinear Kinetic Inductance Devices
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Superconducting quantum interference devices, or SQUIDs, are by far the most sensitive magnetometers available, but two issues limit their commercial potential:...
Unconventional superconductivity in honeycomb lattice
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P Sahebsara
2013-03-01
Full Text Available The possibility of symmetrical s-wave superconductivity in the honeycomb lattice is studied within a strongly correlated regime, using the Hubbard model. The superconducting order parameter is defined by introducing the Green function, which is obtained by calculating the density of the electrons . In this study showed that the superconducting order parameter appears in doping interval between 0 and 0.5, and x=0.25 is the optimum doping for the s-wave superconductivity in honeycomb lattice.
Superconducting proximity effect in topological materials
Reeg, Christopher R.
In recent years, there has been a renewed interest in the proximity effect due to its role in the realization of topological superconductivity. In this dissertation, we discuss several results that have been obtained in the field of proximity-induced superconductivity and relate the results to the search for Majorana fermions. First, we show that repulsive electron-electron interactions can induce a non-Majorana zero-energy bound state at the interface between a conventional superconductor and a normal metal. We show that this state is very sensitive to disorder, owing to its lack of topological protection. Second, we show that Rashba spin-orbit coupling, which is one of the key ingredients in engineering a topological superconductor, induces triplet pairing in the proximity effect. When the spin-orbit coupling is strong (i.e., when the characteristic energy scale for spin-orbit coupling is comparable to the Fermi energy), the induced singlet and triplet pairing amplitudes can be comparable in magnitude. Finally, we discuss how the size of the proximity-induced gap, which appears in a low-dimensional material coupled to a superconductor, evolves as the thickness of the (quasi-)low-dimensional material is increased. We show that the induced gap can be comparable to the bulk energy gap of the underlying superconductor in materials that are much thicker than the Fermi wavelength, even in the presence of an interfacial barrier and strong Fermi surface mismatch. This result has important experimental consequences for topological superconductivity, as a sizable gap is required to isolate and detect the Majorana modes.
Rickard, Scott
Electromagnets are a crucial component in a wide range of more complex electrical devices due to their ability to turn electrical energy into mechanical energy and vice versa. The trend for electronics becoming smaller and lighter has led to increased interest in using flat, planar electromagnetic coils, which have been shown to perform better at scaled down sizes. The two-dimensional geometry of a planar electromagnetic coil yields itself to be produced by a roll-to-roll additive manufacturing process. The emergence of the printed electronics field, which uses traditional printing processes to pattern functional inks, has led to new methods of mass-producing basic electrical components. The ability to print a planar electromagnetic coil using printed electronics could rival the traditional subtractive and semi-subtractive PCB process of manufacturing. The ability to print lightweight planar electromagnetic coils on flexible substrates could lead to their inclusion into intelligent packaging applications and could have specific use in actuating devices, transformers, and electromagnetic induction applications such as energy harvesting or wireless charging. In attempts to better understand the limitations of printing planar electromagnetic coils, the effect that the design parameters of the planar coils have on the achievable magnetic field strength were researched. A comparison between prototyping methods of digital extrusion and manufacturing scale flexographic printing are presented, discussing consistency in the printed coils and their performance in generating magnetic fields. A method to predict the performance of these planar coils is introduced to allow for design within required needs of an application. Results from the research include a demonstration of a printed coil being used in a flat speaker design, working off of actuating principles.
Structural phase transitions and superconductivity in lanthanum copper oxides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Crawford, M.K.; Harlow, R.L.; McCarron, E.M.
1996-01-01
Despite the enormous effort expended over the past ten years to determine the mechanism underlying high temperature superconductivity in cuprates there is still no consensus on the physical origin of this fascinating phenomenon. This is a consequence of a number of factors, among which are the intrinsic difficulties in understanding the strong electron correlations in the copper oxides, determining the roles played by antiferromagnetic interactions and low dimensionality, analyzing the complex phonon dispersion relationships, and characterizing the phase diagrams which are functions of the physical parameters of temperature and pressure, as well as the chemical parameters of stoichiometry and hole concentration. In addition to all of these intrinsic difficulties, extrinsic materials issues such as sample quality and homogeneity present additional complications. Within the field of high temperature superconductivity there exists a subfield centered around the material originally reported to exhibit high temperature superconductivity by Bednorz and Mueller, Ba doped La 2 CuO 4 . This is structurally the simplest cuprate superconductor. The authors report on studies of phase differences observed between such base superconductors doped with Ba or Sr. What these studies have revealed is a fascinating interplay of structural, magnetic and superconducting properties which is unique in the field of high temperature superconductivity and is summarized in this paper
Superconductivity in the Penson-Kolb Model on a Triangular Lattice
Ptok, A.; Mierzejewski, M.
2008-07-01
We investigate properties of the two-dimensional Penson-Kolb model with repulsive pair hopping interaction. In the case of a bipartite square lattice this interaction may lead to the η-type pairing, when the phase of superconducting order parameter changes from one lattice site to the neighboring one. We show that this interaction may be responsible for the onset of superconductivity also for a triangular lattice. We discuss the spatial dependence of the superconducting order parameter and demonstrate that the total momentum of the paired electrons is determined by the lattice geometry.
Heavy-ion superconducting linacs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delayen, J.R.
1989-01-01
This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs
Heavy-ion superconducting linacs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Delayen, J.R.
1989-01-01
This paper reviews the status of the superconducting heavy-ion accelerators. Most of them are linacs used as boosters for tandem electrostatic accelerators, although the technology is being extended to very low velocity to eliminate the need for an injector. The characteristics and features of the various superconducting heavy-ion accelerators are discussed. 45 refs.
Meissner effect in superconducting microtraps
Cano, Daniel
2009-01-01
This thesis investigates the impact of the Meissner effect on magnetic microtraps for ultracold atoms near superconducting microstructures. This task has been accomplished both theoretically and experimentally. The Meissner effect distorts the magnetic fields near superconducting surfaces, thus altering the parameters of magnetic microtraps. Both computer simulations and experimental measurements demonstrate that the Meissner effect shortens the distance between the magnetic microtrap and the...
Superconducting magnet for 'ML-100'
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Saito, R; Fujinaga, T; Tada, N; Kimura, H
1974-07-01
A magneticaly levitated experimental vehicle (Ml-100) was designed and constructed in commemoration of the centenary of the Japanese National Railways. For magnetic levitation the vehicle is provided with two superconducting magnets. In the test operation of the vehicle, these superconducting magnets showed stable performance in levitating vehicle body.
Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abrahamsen, Asger Bech
2001-05-01
A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found on the applications of superconducting bearings in flywheels. (au)
Superconducting bearings for flywheel applications
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abrahamsen, A.B.
2001-01-01
A literature study on the application of superconducting bearings in energy storage flywheel systems. The physics of magnetic levitation and superconductors are presented in the first part of the report, followed by a discussion of the literature found onthe applications of superconducting bearings...
Superconducting Qubit Optical Transducer (SQOT)
2015-08-05
parts on optical signals and any quasiparticle loss caused by optical photons on microwave signals. Using a superconducting 3D cavity as the microwave...plasmonic and quasiparticle losses. 3. The electro-optic material should be easily integrable with superconducting circuits. A fully integrated
The Danish Superconducting Cable Project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tønnesen, Ole
1997-01-01
The design and construction of a superconducting cable is described. The cable has a room temperature dielectric design with the cryostat placed inside the electrical insulation.BSCCO 2223 superconducting tapes wound in helix form around a former are used as the cable conductor. Results from...
the tj model and superconductivity
African Journals Online (AJOL)
DJFLEX
Perhaps that in the reason why their explanations of the superconductivity have had limited scope . A proper theory and mechanism of superconductivity in the ceramic cuprates should take account of magnetism inherent in the compounds. For the (214) compound experiment have revealed strong antiferromagnetic (AF).
Superconducting cavities for beauty factories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lengeler, H.
1992-01-01
The possibilities and merits of superconducting accelerating cavities for Beauty-factories are considered. There exist already large sc systems of size and frequency comparable to the ones needed for Beauty-factories. Their status and operation experience is discussed. A comparison of normal conducting and superconducting systems is done for two typical Beauty-factory rings
Imaging orbitals and defects in superconducting FeSe/SrTiO{sub 3}
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hoffman, Jennifer [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); University of British Columbia, Vancouver (Canada); Huang, Dennis; Webb, Tatiana; Feng, Shiang; Kaxiras, Efthimios [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Song, Can-Li [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Tsinghua University, Beijing (China); Chang, Cui-Zu; Moodera, Jagadeesh [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)
2016-07-01
Single-layer FeSe grown epitaxially on SrTiO{sub 3} has been shown to superconduct with T{sub c} as high as 100 K, more than a factor of 10 higher than bulk FeSe. This dramatic enhancement motivates intense efforts to understand the superconducting mechanism and to design and fabricate devices. Nematic order, breaking the 4-fold rotational symmetry of the crystal, has been proposed as an important factor in the superconducting phase diagram. Meanwhile, atomic defects, which may pin nematic fluctuations or otherwise perturb superconductivity, can provide important clues into the superconducting mechanism as well as practical routes to superconducting devices. Here we use scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) to search for orbital nematicity in single-layer FeSe/SrTiO{sub 3}, and to investigate atomic-scale defects which locally influence superconductivity. From quasiparticle interference (QPI) images, we disentangle scattering intensities from the orthogonal Fe 3d{sub xz} and 3d{sub yz} bands, and quantitatively exclude pinned nematic orbital order with domain size larger than δ r ∝ 20 nm. Furthermore, we identify a prevalent ''dumbbell''-shaped atomic-scale defect whose placement could be harnessed to define two-dimensional superconducting devices.
A superconducting magnetic gear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, A M
2016-01-01
A comparison is made between a magnetic gear using permanent magnets and superconductors. The objective is to see if there are any fundamental reasons why superconducting magnets should not provide higher power densities than permanent magnets. The gear is based on the variable permeability design of Attilah and Howe (2001 IEEE Trans. Magn. 37 2844–46) in which a ring of permanent magnets surrounding a ring of permeable pole pieces with a different spacing gives an internal field component at the beat frequency. Superconductors can provide much larger fields and forces but will saturate the pole pieces. However the gear mechanism still operates, but in a different way. The magnetisation of the pole pieces is now constant but rotates with angle at the beat frequency. The result is a cylindrical Halbach array which produces an internal field with the same symmetry as in the linear regime, but has an analytic solution. In this paper a typical gear system is analysed with finite elements using FlexPDE. It is shown that the gear can work well into the saturation regime and that the Halbach array gives a good approximation to the results. Replacing the permanent magnets with superconducting tapes can give large increases in torque density, and for something like a wind turbine a combined gear and generator is possible. However there are major practical problems. Perhaps the most fundamental is the large high frequency field which is inevitably present and which will cause AC losses. Also large magnetic fields are required, with all the practical problems of high field superconducting magnets in rotating machines. Nevertheless there are ways of mitigating these difficulties and it seems worthwhile to explore the possibilities of this technology further. (paper)
Superconductivity at the industrial scale
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tixador, P.; Lebrun, Ph.
2011-01-01
The discovery of superconductivity is 100 years old but theoretical works are still necessary: the BCS theory does not apply to the new families of high temperature superconducting materials discovered after 1986. In 2001 it was discovered that MgB 2 is superconducting at 39 K, this critical temperature is not the highest but MgB 2 is easy to produce and cheap. Today's highest critical temperature under atmospheric pressure is that of the HgTlBaCaCuO compound: 138 K. The complexity and the cost of cryogenic systems restrain the applications of superconductivity. The author reviews the applications of superconducting in medical imaging, particle detectors, and in the safety systems of power networks. (A.C.)
Japan. Superconductivity for Smart Grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hayakawa, K.
2012-11-15
Currently, many smart grid projects are running or planned worldwide. These aim at controlling the electricity supply more efficiently and more stably in a new power network system. In Japan, especially superconductivity technology development projects are carried out to contribute to the future smart grid. Japanese cable makers such as Sumitomo Electric and Furukawa Electric are leading in the production of high-temperature superconducting (HTS) power cables. The world's largest electric current and highest voltage superconductivity proving tests have been started this year. Big cities such as Tokyo will be expected to introduce the HTS power cables to reduce transport losses and to meet the increased electricity demand in the near future. Superconducting devices, HTS power cables, Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and flywheels are the focus of new developments in cooperations between companies, universities and research institutes, funded by the Japanese research and development funding organization New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization (NEDO)
Three-terminal superconducting devices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gallagher, W.J.
1985-01-01
The transistor has a number of properties that make it so useful. The authors discuss these and the additional properties a transistor would need to have for high performance applications at temperatures where superconductivity could contribute advantages to system-level performance. These properties then serve as criteria by which to evaluate three-terminal devices that have been proposed for applications at superconducting temperatures. FETs can retain their transistor properties at low temperatures, but their power consumption is too large for high-speed, high-density cryogenic applications. They discuss in detail why demonstrated superconducting devices with three terminals -Josephson effect based devices, injection controlled weak links, and stacked tunnel junction devices such as the superconducting transistor proposed by K. Gray and the quiteron -- each fail to have true transistor-like properties. They conclude that the potentially very rewarding search for a transistor compatible with superconductivity in high performance applications must be in new directions
Review of superconducting linacs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollinger, L.M.
1992-01-01
This paper summarizes the status of the technology of superconducting (SC) linacs designed for the acceleration of ions. The emphasis is on the technical issues involved, with only brief descriptions of the numerous linacs now in operation or under construction. Recent developments of special interest are treated in more detail, and remaining technical challenges are outlined. The technology required for acceleration of ions with velocity β ∼ 1 is not discussed because it is almost the same as for relativistic electrons. That is, this paper is mainly about SC linacs for low-velocity heavy ions. (Author) 5 tabs., 6 figs., 29 refs
A superconducting electron spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guttormsen, M.; Huebel, H.; Grumbkow, A. von
1983-03-01
The set-up and tests of an electron spectrometer for in-beam conversion electron measurements are described. A superconducting solenoid is used to transport the electrons from the target to cooled Si(Li) detectors. The solenoid is designed to produce either a homogeneous axially symmetric field of up to 2 Tesla or a variety of field profiles by powering the inner and outer set of coils of the solenoid separately. The electron trajectories resulting for various field profiles are discussed. In-beam electron spectra taken in coincidence with electrons, gammas and alpha-particles are shown. (Auth.)
Schmidt, F.
1980-11-01
The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings or = 2000 MVA were developed. The cable design is of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope containing a flexible hollow coaxial cable core. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-A1 composite wires electrically insulated by high pressure polyethylene tape wrappings. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminals rated at 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of this cable design.
Remarks on superconductive networks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dominguez, D.; Lopez, A.R.N.; Simonin, J.M.
1989-01-01
Some remarks on the determination of the normal-superconductor phase boundary in random superconductive networks are made. A recently reported work by Soukoulis, Grest and Li which introduces weak links between nodes as these are removed in the site percolation problem is discussed. By the analysis of two simple geometries, it is shown that this procedure introduces spurious effects which mask the physical properties of the system. These affect in particular the field slope critical index and the sharpness of the normal-superconductor boundary. (Author)
Superconducting magnet cooling system
Vander Arend, Peter C.; Fowler, William B.
1977-01-01
A device is provided for cooling a conductor to the superconducting state. The conductor is positioned within an inner conduit through which is flowing a supercooled liquid coolant in physical contact with the conductor. The inner conduit is positioned within an outer conduit so that an annular open space is formed therebetween. Through the annular space is flowing coolant in the boiling liquid state. Heat generated by the conductor is transferred by convection within the supercooled liquid coolant to the inner wall of the inner conduit and then is removed by the boiling liquid coolant, making the heat removal from the conductor relatively independent of conductor length.
Introduction to superconductivity
Rose-Innes, A C
1978-01-01
Introduction to Superconductivity differs from the first edition chiefly in Chapter 11, which has been almost completely rewritten to give a more physically-based picture of the effects arising from the long-range coherence of the electron-waves in superconductors and the operation of quantum interference devices. In this revised second edition, some further modifications have been made to the text and an extra chapter dealing with """"high-temperature"""" superconductors has been added. A vast amount of research has been carried out on these since their discovery in 1986 but the results, both
Ruthenates: simple superconducting qubits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gulian, Armen M.; Wood, Kent S.
2004-01-01
We propose triplet superconductors, such as ruthenates, as a prospective material for qubit construction. The vectorial nature of the order parameter in triplet superconductors makes it conceptually very easy to imagine the performance of the qubits. The Cooper condensate of pairs in triplet superconductors has all the attributes of the Bose-Einstein condensates and should facilitate long decoherence times of these qubits versus other 'vectorial' schemes for qubits, such as small ferromagnets. There are other benefits, which the superconducting state provides for a requirement like entanglement between qubits via the proximity effect
Superconductivity in nanowires
Bezryadin, Alexey
2012-01-01
The importance and actuality of nanotechnology is unabated and will be for years to come. A main challenge is to understand the various properties of certain nanostructures, and how to generate structures with specific properties for use in actual applications in Electrical Engineering and Medicine.One of the most important structures are nanowires, in particular superconducting ones. They are highly promising for future electronics, transporting current without resistance and at scales of a few nanometers. To fabricate wires to certain defined standards however, is a major challenge, and so i
Superconductivity at disordered interfaces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Simanek, E.
1979-01-01
The increase of the superconducting transition temperature Tsub(c) due to the tunneling of conduction electrons into negative-u centers at a disordered metal-semiconductor interface is calculated. The strong dependence of the experimental increase of Tsub(c) on the Fermi energy of the metal is accounted for by the polaronic reduction of the tunneling matrix elements. The latter reduction is dynamically suppressed by the decreasing lifetime of the localized state as Esub(F) increases. The theoretical enhancement is sufficiently strong to explain the increase of Tsub(c) observed in eutectic alloys. (author)
New theory of superconductivity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bell, A.B.; Bell, D.M.
1978-01-01
Based on three earlier papers which treat electromagnetic, elastogravitational, and radiant-nonradiant thermal phenomena in terms of six types of electric or nonelectric charges, the authors classify states of matter as hyperefficient, efficient, semiefficient, and hypoefficient in transmitting a particular type of charge, by means of a generalization of Ohm's law to two or three dimensions. Conventional states of matter (solid, liquid, gas, vacuum) are associated with torsional (gravitational) charges. Applications are made to electric superconductivity of crystals at elevated temperatures, and to frequency shift
AGS superconducting bending magnets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Robins, K.E.; Sampson, W.B.; McInturff, A.D.; Dahl, P.F.; Abbatiello, F.; Aggus, J.; Bamberger, J.; Brown, D.; Damm, R.; Kassner, D.; Lasky, C.; Schlafke, A.
1976-01-01
Four large aperture superconducting bending magnets are being built for use in the experimental beams at the AGS. Each of these magnets is 2.5 m long and has a room temperature aperture of 20 cm. The magnets are similar in design to the dipoles being developed for ISABELLE and employ a low temperature iron core. Results are presented on the ''training'' behavior of the magnets and a comparison will be made with the smaller aperture versions of this design. The magnet field measurements include end fields and leakage fields as well as the harmonic components of the straight section of the magnet
High gradient superconducting quadrupoles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lundy, R.A.; Brown, B.C.; Carson, J.A.; Fisk, H.E.; Hanft, R.H.; Mantsch, P.M.; McInturff, A.D.; Remsbottom, R.H.
1987-07-01
Prototype superconducting quadrupoles with a 5 cm aperture and gradient of 16 kG/cm have been built and tested as candidate magnets for the final focus at SLC. The magnets are made from NbTi Tevatron style cable with 10 inner and 14 outer turns per quadrant. Quench performance and multipole data are presented. Design and data for a low current, high gradient quadrupole, similar in cross section but wound with a cable consisting of five insulated conductors are also discussed
Stabilized superconductive wires
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Randall, R.N.; Wong, J.
1976-01-01
A stable, high field, high current conductor is produced by packing multiple, multi-layer rods of a bronze core and niobium or vanadium inner jacket and copper outer jacket into a pure copper tube or other means for forming a pure copper matrix, sealing, working the packed tube to a wire, and by diffusion, heat treating to form a type II superconducting, Beta-Wolfram structure, intermetallic compound as a layer within each of several filaments derived from the rods. The layer of Beta-Wolfram structure compound may be formed in less than 2 h of diffusion heat treatment in a thickness of 0.5--2μ
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmidt, F.
1980-01-01
The components of a superconducting 110 kV ac cable for power ratings >= 2000 MVA have been developed. The cable design especially considered was of the semiflexible type, with a rigid cryogenic envelope and flexible hollow coaxial cable cores pulled into the former. The cable core consists of spirally wound Nb-Al composite wires and a HDPE-tape wrapped electrical insulation. A 35 m long single phase test cable with full load terminations for 110 kV and 10 kA was constructed and successfully tested. The results obtained prove the technical feasibility and capability of our cable design. (orig.) [de
Direct drive acceleration of planar liquid deuterium targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sethian, J.D.; Bodner, S.E.; Colombant, D.G.; Dahlburg, J.P.; Obenschain, S.P.; Pawley, C.J.; Serlin, V.; Gardner, J.H.; Aglitskiy, Y.; Chan, Y.; Deniz, A.V.; Lehecka, T.; Klapisch, M.
1999-01-01
The Nike laser (∼2 - 3 kJ, ∼10 14 W/cm 2 ) has been used to ablatively accelerate planar liquid deuterium targets. These experiments are designed to test some aspects of a high gain direct drive target design. The target consists of a low-density foam that is filled with liquid deuterium and covered with a thin polyimide membrane. The measured target trajectory agrees well with one-dimensional (1D) simulations. The growth of the areal mass modulations were measured with a new, 1.26 keV x-ray backlighter. The modulations appear later and grow to a smaller amplitude when the foot of the laser pulse is made spatially smoother. A thin layer of gold on the front of the target reduces the modulations. The results are compared with 2D modeling
Reflection and transmission of electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified media
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Caviglia, G.
1999-01-01
Propagation of time-harmonic electromagnetic waves in planarly stratified multilayers is investigated. Each layer is allowed to be inhomogeneous and the layers are separated by interfaces. The procedure is based on the representation of the electromagnetic field in the basis of the eigenvectors of the matrix characterizing the first-order system. Hence the local reflection and transmission matrices are defined and the corresponding differential equations, in the pertinent space variable are determined. The jump conditions at interfaces are also established. The present model incorporates dissipative materials and the procedure holds without any restrictions to material symmetries. Differential equations appeared in the literature are shown to hold in particular (one-dimensional) cases or to represent homogeneous layers only
Kac's question, planar isospectral pairs and involutions in projective space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thas, Koen
2006-01-01
In a paper published in Am. Math. Mon. (1966 73 1-23), Kac asked his famous question 'Can one hear the shape of a drum?'. Gordon et al answered this question negatively by constructing planar isospectral pairs in their paper published in Invent. Math. (1992 110 1-22). Only a finite number of pairs have been constructed till now. Further in J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. (2005 38 L477-83), Giraud showed that most of the known examples can be generated from solutions of a certain equation which involves certain involutions of an n-dimensional projective space over some finite field. He then generated all possible solutions when n = 2. In this letter we handle all dimensions, and show that no other examples arise. (letter to the editor)
Relativistic electron planar channeling and diffraction in thin monocrystals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorob'ev, S.A.; Nurmagambetov, S.B.; Kaplin, V.V.; Rozum, E.I.
1985-01-01
The interaction of relativistic electrons with thin monocrystals was investigated in approximation of continuous potential of crystal plane system. Numerical technique for solution of one-dimensional Schroedinger equation with a periodic potential was developed. Numerical solutions conducted according to the technique were used to determine the forms of ngular distributions of electrons located in various zones of lteral motion. Calculation results were applied for analyzing experimentally obtained data on agular distribution of 5.1 MeV electrons projected at small angles onto the (110) planar system of a Si monocrystal. The conducted complex experimental and theoretical: investigations demonstrated the possibility of prevalen occupation of certain states of lateral motion and enabled to determine angular reg in directions of the electron beam projection on a crystal where either channeling effects or those of electron diffraction are important
Electron inertia effects on the planar plasma sheath problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duarte, V. N.; Clemente, R. A.
2011-01-01
The steady one-dimensional planar plasma sheath problem, originally considered by Tonks and Langmuir, is revisited. Assuming continuously generated free-falling ions and isothermal electrons and taking into account electron inertia, it is possible to describe the problem in terms of three coupled integro-differential equations that can be numerically integrated. The inclusion of electron inertia in the model allows us to obtain the value of the plasma floating potential as resulting from an electron density discontinuity at the walls, where the electrons attain sound velocity and the electric potential is continuous. Results from numerical computation are presented in terms of plots for densities, electric potential, and particles velocities. Comparison with results from literature, corresponding to electron Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution (neglecting electron inertia), is also shown.