Three Dimensional Viscous Flow Field in an Axial Flow Turbine Nozzle Passage
Ristic, D.; Lakshminarayana, B.
1997-01-01
The objective of this investigation is experimental and computational study of three dimensional viscous flow field in the nozzle passage of an axial flow turbine stage. The nozzle passage flow field has been measured using a two sensor hot-wire probe at various axial and radial stations. In addition, two component LDV measurements at one axial station (x/c(sum m) = 0.56) were performed to measure the velocity field. Static pressure measurements and flow visualization, using a fluorescent oil technique, were also performed to obtain the location of transition and the endwall limiting streamlines. A three dimensional boundary layer code, with a simple intermittency transition model, was used to predict the viscous layers along the blade and endwall surfaces. The boundary layers on the blade surface were found to be very thin and mostly laminar, except on the suction surface downstream of 70% axial chord. Strong radial pressure gradient, especially close to the suction surface, induces strong cross flow components in the trailing edge regions of the blade. On the end-walls the boundary layers were much thicker, especially near the suction corner of the casing surface, caused by secondary flow. The secondary flow region near the suction-casing surface corner indicates the presence of the passage vortex detached from the blade surface. The corner vortex is found to be very weak. The presence of a closely spaced rotor downstream (20% of the nozzle vane chord) introduces unsteadiness in the blade passage. The measured instantaneous velocity signal was filtered using FFT square window to remove the periodic unsteadiness introduced by the downstream rotor and fans. The filtering decreased the free stream turbulence level from 2.1% to 0.9% but had no influence on the computed turbulence length scale. The computation of the three dimensional boundary layers is found to be accurate on the nozzle passage blade surfaces, away from the end-walls and the secondary flow region. On
Moawad, S. M.; Ibrahim, D. A.
2016-01-01
The equilibrium properties of three-dimensional ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) are investigated. Incompressible and compressible flows are considered. The governing equations are taken in a steady state such that the magnetic field is parallel to the plasma flow. Equations of stationary equilibrium for both of incompressible and compressible MHD flows are derived and described in a mathematical mode. For incompressible MHD flows, Alfvénic and non-Alfvénic flows with constant and variable magnetofluid density are investigated. For Alfvénic incompressible flows, the general three-dimensional solutions are determined with the aid of two potential functions of the velocity field. For non-Alfvénic incompressible flows, the stationary equilibrium equations are reduced to two differential constraints on the potential functions, flow velocity, magnetofluid density, and the static pressure. Some examples which may be of some relevance to axisymmetric confinement systems are presented. For compressible MHD flows, equations of the stationary equilibrium are derived with the aid of a single potential function of the velocity field. The existence of three-dimensional solutions for these MHD flows is investigated. Several classes of three-dimensional exact solutions for several cases of nonlinear equilibrium equations are presented.
Spatial statistics of magnetic field in two-dimensional chaotic flow in the resistive growth stage
Kolokolov, I.V., E-mail: igor.kolokolov@gmail.com [Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics RAS, 119334, Kosygina 2, Moscow (Russian Federation); NRU Higher School of Economics, 101000, Myasnitskaya 20, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2017-03-18
The correlation tensors of magnetic field in a two-dimensional chaotic flow of conducting fluid are studied. It is shown that there is a stage of resistive evolution where the field correlators grow exponentially with time. The two- and four-point field correlation tensors are computed explicitly in this stage in the framework of Batchelor–Kraichnan–Kazantsev model. They demonstrate strong temporal intermittency of the field fluctuations and high level of non-Gaussianity in spatial field distribution.
Three-dimensional flow field measurements in a radial inflow turbine scroll using LDV
Malak, M. F.; Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.
1986-01-01
The results of an experimental study of the three-dimensional flow field in a radial inflow turbine scroll are presented. A two-color LDV system was used in the measurement of three orthogonal velocity components at 758 points located throughout the scroll and the unvaned portion of the nozzle. The cold flow experimental results are presented for through-flow velocity contours and the cross velocity vectors.
The Three Dimensional Flow Field at the Exit of an Axial-Flow Turbine Rotor
Lakshminarayana, B.; Ristic, D.; Chu, S.
1998-01-01
A systematic and comprehensive investigation was performed to provide detailed data on the three dimensional viscous flow phenomena downstream of a modem turbine rotor and to understand the flow physics such as origin, nature, development of wakes, secondary flow, and leakage flow. The experiment was carried out in the Axial Flow Turbine Research Facility (AFTRF) at Penn State, with velocity measurements taken with a 3-D LDV System. Two radial traverses at 1% and 10% of chord downstream of the rotor have been performed to identify the three-dimensional flow features at the exit of the rotor blade row. Sufficient spatial resolution was maintained to resolve blade wake, secondary flow, and tip leakage flow. The wake deficit is found to be substantial, especially at 1% of chord downstream of the rotor. At this location, negative axial velocity occurs near the tip, suggesting flow separation in the tip clearance region. Turbulence intensities peak in the wake region, and cross- correlations are mainly associated with the velocity gradient of the wake deficit. The radial velocities, both in the wake and in the endwall region, are found to be substantial. Two counter-rotating secondary flows are identified in the blade passage, with one occupying the half span close to the casino and the other occupying the half span close to the hub. The tip leakage flow is well restricted to 10% immersion from the blade tip. There are strong vorticity distributions associated with these secondary flows and tip leakage flow. The passage averaged data are in good agreement with design values.
A coupled three dimensional model of vanadium redox flow battery for flow field designs
Yin, Cong; Gao, Yan; Guo, Shaoyun; Tang, Hao
2014-01-01
A 3D (three-dimensional) model of VRB (vanadium redox flow battery) with interdigitated flow channel design is proposed. Two different stack inlet designs, single-inlet and multi-inlet, are structured in the model to study the distributions of fluid pressure, electric potential, current density and overpotential during operation of VRB cell. Electrolyte flow rate and stack channel dimension are proved to be the critical factors affecting flow distribution and cell performance. The model developed in this paper can be employed to optimize both VRB stack design and system operation conditions. Further improvements of the model concerning current density and electrode properties are also suggested in the paper. - Highlights: • A coupled three-dimensional model of vanadium redox flow cell is proposed. • Interdigitated flow channels with two different manifold designs are simulated. • Manifold structure affects uniformity of distribution patterns significantly. • Increased electrolyte flow rate improves cell performance for both designs. • Decreased channel size and enlarged land width enhance cell voltage
Three-Dimensional Flow Field Measurements in a Transonic Turbine Cascade
Giel, P. W.; Thurman, D. R.; Lopez, I.; Boyle, R. J.; VanFossen, G. J.; Jett, T. A.; Camperchioli, W. P.; La, H.
1996-01-01
Three-dimensional flow field measurements are presented for a large scale transonic turbine blade cascade. Flow field total pressures and pitch and yaw flow angles were measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 1.0 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.3 in a low turbulence environment. Flow field data was obtained on five pitchwise/spanwise measurement planes, two upstream and three downstream of the cascade, each covering three blade pitches. Three-hole boundary layer probes and five-hole pitch/yaw probes were used to obtain data at over 1200 locations in each of the measurement planes. Blade and endwall static pressures were also measured at an inlet Reynolds number of 0.5 x 10(exp 6) and at an isentropic exit Mach number of 1.0. Tests were conducted in a linear cascade at the NASA Lewis Transonic Turbine Blade Cascade Facility. The test article was a turbine rotor with 136 deg of turning and an axial chord of 12.7 cm. The flow field in the cascade is highly three-dimensional as a result of thick boundary layers at the test section inlet and because of the high degree of flow turning. The large scale allowed for very detailed measurements of both flow field and surface phenomena. The intent of the work is to provide benchmark quality data for CFD code and model verification.
Magnetic field effect on a three-dimensional mixed convective flow ...
A uniform magnetic field is assumed to be applied transversely to the direction of the free stream. The expressions for skin friction at the plate in the direction of the main flow and the rate of heat transfer and mass transfer from the plate to the fluid are obtained in non-dimensional form. The amplitudes of the perturbed parts of ...
Impact of magnetic field in three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid with convective condition
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Ahmad, B. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)
2016-09-01
This communication addresses the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid bounded by a surface stretched bidirectionally. Nanofluid model includes the Brownian motion and thermophoresis. Heat transfer through convective condition is discussed. Developed condition with the zero nanoparticles mass flux at the surface is implemented. The governing problems subject to boundary layer approximations are computed for the convergent series solutions. Effects of interesting flow parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions are studied and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and the local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flow of Sisko nanofluid is modeled. • Uniform applied magnetic field is adopted. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are accounted. • Heat transfer convective condition is utilized. • Recently constructed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is implemented.
Three-Dimensional Numerical Analysis of LOX/Kerosene Engine Exhaust Plume Flow Field Characteristics
Hong-hua Cai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aiming at calculating and studying the flow field characteristics of engine exhaust plume and comparative analyzing the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on the engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics, a method considering fully the combustion state influence is put forward, which is applied to exhaust plume flow field calculation of multinozzle engine. On this basis, a three-dimensional numerical analysis of the effects of different chemical reaction mechanisms on LOX/kerosene engine exhaust plume flow field characteristics was carried out. It is found that multistep chemical reaction can accurately describe the combustion process in the LOX/kerosene engine, the average chamber pressure from the calculation is 4.63% greater than that of the test, and the average chamber temperature from the calculation is 3.34% greater than that from the thermodynamic calculation. The exhaust plumes of single nozzle and double nozzle calculated using the global chemical reaction are longer than those using the multistep chemical reaction; the highest temperature and the highest velocity on the plume axis calculated using the former are greater than that using the latter. The important influence of chemical reaction mechanism must be considered in the study of the fixing structure of double nozzle engine on the rocket body.
Direct numerical simulation of the passive scalar field in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow
Kasagi, N.; Tomita, Y.; Kuroda, A.
1991-01-01
This paper reports on a direct numerical simulation (DNS) of the fully developed thermal field in a two-dimensional turbulent channel flow of air that was carried out. The iso-flux condition is imposed on the walls so that the local mean temperature linearly increases in the streamwise direction. The computation was executed on 1,589,248 grid points by using a spectral method. The statistics obtained include rms velocity and temperature fluctuations, Reynolds stresses, turbulent heat fluxes and other higher order correlations. They are compared mainly with the DNS data obtained by Kim and Moin (1987) and Kim (1987) in a higher Reynolds number flow with isothermal walls. Agreement between these two results is generally good. Each term in the budget equations of temperature variance, its dissipation rate and turbulent heat fluxes is also calculated in order to establish a data base of convective heat transfer for thermal turbulence modeling
Chen, Huai; Li, Danxun; Bai, Ruonan; Wang, Xingkui
2018-05-01
Swirling strength is an effective vortex indicator in wall turbulence, and it can be determined based on either two-dimensional (2D) or three-dimensional (3D) velocity fields, written as λci2D and λci3D, respectively. A comparison between λci2D and λci3D has been made in this paper in sliced XY, YZ, and XZ planes by using 3D DNS data of channel flow. The magnitude of λci2D in three orthogonal planes differs in the inner region, but the difference tends to diminish in the outer flow. The magnitude of λci3D exceeds each λci2D, and the square of λci3D is greater than the summation of squares of three λci2D. Extraction with λci2D in XY, YZ, and XZ planes yields different population densities and vortex sizes, i.e., in XZ plane, the vortices display the largest population density and the smallest size, and in XY and YZ planes the vortices are similar in size but fewer vortices are extracted in the XY plane in the inner layer. Vortex size increases inversely with the threshold used for growing the vortex region from background turbulence. When identical thresholds are used, the λci3D approach leads to a slightly smaller population density and a greater vortex radius than the λci2D approach. A threshold of 0.8 for the λci3D approach is approximately equivalent to a threshold of 1.5 for the λci2D approach.
Kim, Jinyong; Luo, Gang; Wang, Chao-Yang
2017-10-01
3D fine-mesh flow-fields recently developed by Toyota Mirai improved water management and mass transport in proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks, suggesting their potential value for robust and high-power PEM fuel cell stack performance. In such complex flow-fields, Forchheimer's inertial effect is dominant at high current density. In this work, a two-phase flow model of 3D complex flow-fields of PEMFCs is developed by accounting for Forchheimer's inertial effect, for the first time, to elucidate the underlying mechanism of liquid water behavior and mass transport inside 3D complex flow-fields and their adjacent gas diffusion layers (GDL). It is found that Forchheimer's inertial effect enhances liquid water removal from flow-fields and adds additional flow resistance around baffles, which improves interfacial liquid water and mass transport. As a result, substantial improvements in high current density cell performance and operational stability are expected in PEMFCs with 3D complex flow-fields, compared to PEMFCs with conventional flow-fields. Higher current density operation required to further reduce PEMFC stack cost per kW in the future will necessitate optimizing complex flow-field designs using the present model, in order to efficiently remove a large amount of product water and hence minimize the mass transport voltage loss.
Slip-line field analysis of metal flow during two dimensional forging
Fenton, R.G.; Khataan, H.A.
1981-01-01
A method of computation and a computer software package were developed for solving problems of two dimensional plastic flow between symmetrical dies of any specified shape. The load required to initiate plastic flow, the stress and velocity distributions in the plastic region of the metal, and the pressure distribution acting on the die are determined. The method can be used to solve any symmetrical plane strain flow problem regardless of the complexity of the die. The accurate solution obtained by this efficient method can provide valuable help to forging die designers. (Author) [pt
Akutsu, Toshinosuke; Matsumoto, Akira
2010-12-01
The current design of the bileaflet valve, the leaflets of which open outside first, differs significantly from the natural valve whose leaflets open center first. This difference generates a completely different flow field in the bileaflet valve compared to that in the natural heart valve. In a previous study, it was demonstrated that the valve design greatly affects the aortic flow field as well as the circulatory flow inside sinuses of Valsalva, using saline solution as a working fluid. A limited discussion on the turbulence flow field that could be generated by the valve was provided. In this continuation of that study, therefore, a dynamic PIV study was conducted to analyze the influence of the heart valve design on the aortic flow field, and particularly on the turbulent profile. This study also aimed to determine the influence of the viscosity of the testing fluid. Three bileaflet prostheses-the St. Jude Medical (SJM), the On-X, and the MIRA valves-were tested under pulsatile flow conditions. Flow through the central orifice of the SJM valve was slower than that through the newer designs. The newer designs tend to show strong flow through all orifices. The On-X valve generates simple jet-type flow while the MIRA valve with circumferentially curved leaflets generates a strong but three-dimensionally diffuse flow, resulting in a more complex flow field downstream of the aortic valve with higher turbulence. A 180° orientation that is more popular clinically seems to provide a less diffuse flow than a 90° orientation. The effect of increasing the viscosity was found to be an increase in the flow velocity through the central orifice and a more organized flow field for all of the valves tested.
Shehzad, S.A., E-mail: ali_qau70@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Abdullah, Z. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Hayat, T. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80257, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan)
2016-01-01
This research work addresses the three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey fluid with nanoparticles. Flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. The effects of thermal radiation and internal heat generation are encountered in energy expressions. More realistic convective boundary conditions at the surface are employed instead of constant surface temperature and mass species conditions. Boundary layer assumptions lead to the governing non-linear mathematical model. Resulting equations through momentum, energy and mass species are made dimensionless using suitable variables. The solution expressions of dimensionless velocities, temperature and nanoparticle concentration have been computed for the convergent series solutions. The impacts of interesting parameters on the dimensionless quantities are displayed and interpreted. The values of physical quantities are computed and analyzed. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional hydromagnetic flow of Jeffrey nanofluid is considered. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are encountered. • Heat transfer analysis is performed with thermal radiation. • Results are plotted and visualized.
Rasskazov, Andrey; Chertovskih, Roman; Zheligovsky, Vladislav
2018-04-01
We introduce six families of three-dimensional space-periodic steady solenoidal flows, whose kinetic helicity density is zero at any point. Four families are analytically defined. Flows in four families have zero helicity spectrum. Sample flows from five families are used to demonstrate numerically that neither zero kinetic helicity density nor zero helicity spectrum prohibit generation of large-scale magnetic field by the two most prominent dynamo mechanisms: the magnetic α -effect and negative eddy diffusivity. Our computations also attest that such flows often generate small-scale field for sufficiently small magnetic molecular diffusivity. These findings indicate that kinetic helicity and helicity spectrum are not the quantities controlling the dynamo properties of a flow regardless of whether scale separation is present or not.
Three-dimensional laryngeal flow fields induced by a model vocal fold polyp
Erath, Byron D., E-mail: erath@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, 739 Phillips Hall, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Plesniak, Michael W., E-mail: plesniak@gwu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, George Washington University, 801 22nd Street NW, 739 Phillips Hall, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)
2012-06-15
Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pathological speech with a unilateral polyp is modeled in a scaled-up flow facility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Vortex shedding from the polyp disrupts normal flow behavior. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hairpin vortices create spatial velocity asymmetries in the glottal flow. - Abstract: Pathological laryngeal flow fields are investigated in a dynamically-driven, scaled-up model of the vocal folds. Disruption of the flow field due to the presence of a geometric protuberance, representative of a sessile unilateral polyp, is investigated in both the streamwise and transverse flow directions using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry. It is shown that the protuberance disrupts the normal flow behavior of the glottal jet throughout the phonatory cycle. During the divergent portions of the glottal cycle, the flow is characterized by the formation of hairpin vortices downstream of the protuberance. The protuberance also introduces significant velocity gradients in the anterior-posterior direction, which cover {approx}30 - 40% of the vocal fold length. It is proposed that the disruption of the normal velocity behavior owing to the presence of a polyp will adversely impact the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold motion, contributing to the temporal and spatial vocal fold asymmetries that are clinically-observed in patients with unilateral polyps.
Three-dimensional laryngeal flow fields induced by a model vocal fold polyp
Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► Pathological speech with a unilateral polyp is modeled in a scaled-up flow facility. ► Vortex shedding from the polyp disrupts normal flow behavior. ► Hairpin vortices create spatial velocity asymmetries in the glottal flow. - Abstract: Pathological laryngeal flow fields are investigated in a dynamically-driven, scaled-up model of the vocal folds. Disruption of the flow field due to the presence of a geometric protuberance, representative of a sessile unilateral polyp, is investigated in both the streamwise and transverse flow directions using phase-averaged particle image velocimetry. It is shown that the protuberance disrupts the normal flow behavior of the glottal jet throughout the phonatory cycle. During the divergent portions of the glottal cycle, the flow is characterized by the formation of hairpin vortices downstream of the protuberance. The protuberance also introduces significant velocity gradients in the anterior-posterior direction, which cover ∼30 − 40% of the vocal fold length. It is proposed that the disruption of the normal velocity behavior owing to the presence of a polyp will adversely impact the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold motion, contributing to the temporal and spatial vocal fold asymmetries that are clinically-observed in patients with unilateral polyps.
Trewin, Richard R.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → CCFL in the hot leg of a PWR with ECC Injection. → Three-Field Model of counter flowing water film and entrained droplets. → Flow of steam can cause a hydraulic jump in the supercritical flow of water. → Condensation of steam on subcooled water increases the required flow for hydraulic jump. → Better agreement with UPTF experimental data than Wallis-type correlation. - Abstract: A one-dimensional three-field model was developed to predict the flow of liquid and vapor that results from countercurrent flow of water injected into the hot leg of a PWR and the oncoming steam flowing from the upper plenum. The model solves the conservation equations for mass, momentum, and energy in a continuous-vapor field, a continuous-liquid field, and a dispersed-liquid (entrained-droplet) field. Single-effect experiments performed in the upper plenum test facility (UPTF) of the former SIEMENS KWU (now AREVA) at Mannheim, Germany, were used to validate the countercurrent flow limitation (CCFL) model in case of emergency core cooling water injection into the hot legs. Subcooled water and saturated steam flowed countercurrent in a horizontal pipe with an inside diameter of 0.75 m. The flow of injected water was varied from 150 kg/s to 400 kg/s, and the flow of steam varied from 13 kg/s to 178 kg/s. The subcooling of the liquid ranged from 0 K to 104 K. The velocity of the water at the injection point was supercritical (greater than the celerity of a gravity wave) for all the experiments. The three-field model was successfully used to predict the experimental data, and the results from the model provide insight into the mechanisms that influence the flows of liquid and vapor during countercurrent flow in a hot leg. When the injected water was saturated and the flow of steam was small, all or most of the injected water flowed to the upper plenum. Because the velocity of the liquid remained supercritical, entrainment of droplets was suppressed. When the injected
Three-dimensional rotational plasma flows near solid surfaces in an axial magnetic field
Gorshunov, N. M., E-mail: gorshunov-nm@nrcki.ru; Potanin, E. P., E-mail: potanin45@yandex.ru [National Research Center Kurchatov Institute (Russian Federation)
2016-11-15
A rotational flow of a conducting viscous medium near an extended dielectric disk in a uniform axial magnetic field is analyzed in the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) approach. An analytical solution to the system of nonlinear differential MHD equations of motion in the boundary layer for the general case of different rotation velocities of the disk and medium is obtained using a modified Slezkin–Targ method. A particular case of a medium rotating near a stationary disk imitating the end surface of a laboratory device is considered. The characteristics of a hydrodynamic flow near the disk surface are calculated within the model of a finite-thickness boundary layer. The influence of the magnetic field on the intensity of the secondary flow is studied. Calculations are performed for a weakly ionized dense plasma flow without allowance for the Hall effect and plasma compressibility. An MHD flow in a rotating cylinder bounded from above by a retarding cap is considered. The results obtained can be used to estimate the influence of the end surfaces on the main azimuthal flow, as well as the intensities of circulating flows in various devices with rotating plasmas, in particular, in plasma centrifuges and laboratory devices designed to study instabilities of rotating plasmas.
Fujii, K.
1983-01-01
A method for generating three dimensional, finite difference grids about complicated geometries by using Poisson equations is developed. The inhomogenous terms are automatically chosen such that orthogonality and spacing restrictions at the body surface are satisfied. Spherical variables are used to avoid the axis singularity, and an alternating-direction-implicit (ADI) solution scheme is used to accelerate the computations. Computed results are presented that show the capability of the method. Since most of the results presented have been used as grids for flow-field computations, this is indicative that the method is a useful tool for generating three-dimensional grids about complicated geometries.
Yu Mingrui; Han Weishi; Wang Ge
2014-01-01
Servo-piston hydraulic control rod driving mechanism is a new type built-in driving mechanism which is suitable for integrated reactor and it can be moved continuously. The numerical calculation and analysis of the internal three-dimensional flow field inside the driving mechanism were carried out by the computational fluid dynamics software FLUENT. The result shows that the unique pressure mutation area of flow field inside the driving mechanism is at the place of the servo variable throttle orifice. The differential pressure of the piston can be effectively controlled by changing the gap of variable throttle orifice. When the gap changes within 0.5 mm, the differential pressure can be greatly changed, and then the driving mechanism motion state would be changed too. When the working pressure is 0.1 MPa, the hoisting capacity of the driving mechanism can meet the design requirements, and the flow rate is small. (authors)
Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo
2010-01-01
In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated
Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Strazisar, Anthony J.; Wood, Jerry R.
1995-01-01
A laser anemometer system was used to provide detailed surveys of the three-dimensional velocity field within the NASA low-speed centrifugal impeller operating with a vaneless diffuser. Both laser anemometer and aerodynamic performance data were acquired at the design flow rate and at a lower flow rate. Floor path coordinates, detailed blade geometry, and pneumatic probe survey results are presented in tabular form. The laser anemometer data are presented in the form of pitchwise distributions of axial, radial, and relative tangential velocity on blade-to-blade stream surfaces at 5-percent-of-span increments, starting at 95-percent-of-span from the hub. The laser anemometer data are also presented as contour and wire-frame plots of throughflow velocity and vector plots of secondary velocities at all measurement stations through the impeller.
Three Dimensional Flow Field Study of the Improve Scheme for a Brushless Exciter with Ｒotating Parts
LU Yi-ping
2017-06-01
Full Text Available To study deeply the influence of the frame ring plate increased between rectifier wheel and rotor on the size of eddy current of fluid field of brushless exciter，the fluid field of complete brushless exciter model is established. Based on the computational fluid dynamics ( CFD principles ，the finite volume method is adopted to simulate and analyze the three dimensional turbulent flow field in the computational domain. The distribution character of the fluid field for the brushless exciter is obtained under rated speed，after increasing the frame ring plate between rectifier wheel and rotor. The results show increased the frame ring plate between rectifier wheel and rotor can decrease effectively the size of eddy current in the air region between rectifier wheel and rotor. Compared with the result of running scheme，the air volume flow rate of the scheme has increased 13. 89% and the result is accuracy. It provides theoretical basis for further optimizing the air ducts structure of the brushless exciter .
Computational Methods for Inviscid and Viscous Two-and-Three-Dimensional Flow Fields.
1975-01-01
Difference Equations Over a Network, Watson Sei. Comput. Lab. Report, 19U9. 173- Isaacson, E. and Keller, H. B., Analaysis of Numerical Methods...element method has given a new impulse to the old mathematical theory of multivariate interpolation. We first study the one-dimensional case, which
The far field migration of radionuclides in two dimensional groundwater flows though geologic media
Ting, D.K.S.; Chambre, P.
1985-01-01
An analytical method to model the radionuclides migration in a two dimensional groundwater flor through geologic media has been developed and implemented into the computer code UCBNE21. Using this method, the potential hazard to the biosphere posed by the accidental release of radionuclides from a candidate repository site (WIPP) is determined. I-129 and Ra-226 are potentially the most hazardous nuclides in these sites but their discharge into the biosphere will not result in concentrations larger than their maximum permissible concentrations. (Author) [pt
Black, D.C.; Mayo, R.M.; Gerwin, R.A.; Schoenberg, K.F.; Scheuer, J.T.; Hoyt, R.P.; Henins, I.
1994-01-01
Local, time-dependent magnetic field measurements have been made in the Los Alamos coaxial thruster experiment (CTX) [C. W. Barnes et al., Phys. Fluids B 2, 1871 (1990); J. C. Fernandez et al., Nucl. Fusion 28, 1555 (1988)] using a 24 coil magnetic probe array (eight spatial positions, three axis probes). The CTX is a magnetized, coaxial plasma gun presently being used to investigate the viability of high pulsed power plasma thrusters for advanced electric propulsion. Previous efforts on this device have indicated that high pulsed power plasma guns are attractive candidates for advanced propulsion that employ ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) plasma stream flow through self-formed magnetic nozzles. Indirect evidence of magnetic nozzle formation was obtained from plasma gun performance and measurements of directed axial velocities up to v z ∼10 7 cm/s. The purpose of this work is to make direct measurement of the time evolving magnetic field topology. The intent is to both identify that applied magnetic field distortion by the highly conductive plasma is occurring, and to provide insight into the details of discharge evolution. Data from a magnetic fluctuation probe array have been used to investigate the details of applied magnetic field deformation through the reconstruction of time-dependent flux profiles. Experimentally observed magnetic field line distortion has been compared to that predicted by a simple one-dimensional (1-D) model of the discharge channel. Such a comparison is utilized to estimate the axial plasma velocity in the thruster. Velocities determined in this manner are in approximate agreement with the predicted self-field magnetosonic speed and those measured by a time-of-flight spectrometer
K. Kondoh
2009-06-01
Full Text Available Three-dimensional configuration of earthward fast flow in the near-Earth plasma sheet is studied using three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics (MHD simulations on the basis of the spontaneous fast reconnection model. In this study, the sheared magnetic field in the plasma sheet is newly considered in order to investigate the effects of it to the earthward fast flow, and the results are discussed in comparison with no-shear simulations. The virtual probes located at different positions in our simulation domain in shear/no-shear cases could explain different behavior of fast flows in the real observations.
Visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows
Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus
1991-01-01
Methods of automating the analysis and display of vector field topology in general and flow topology in particular are discussed. Two-dimensional vector field topology is reviewed as the basis for the examination of topology in three-dimensional separated flows. The use of tangent surfaces and clipping in visualizing vector field topology in fluid flows is addressed.
Witalis, E.A.
1965-12-01
Rigorous derivations are given of the basic equations and methods available for the analysis of transverse MHD flow when Hall currents are not suppressed. The gas flow is taken to be incompressible and viscous with uniform tensor conductivity and arbitrary magnetic Reynold's number. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow and has variable strength. Analytical solutions can be obtained either in terms of the induced magnetic field or from two types of electric potential. The relevant set of suitable simplifications, restrictive conditions and boundary value considerations for each method is given
Witalis, E A
1965-12-15
Rigorous derivations are given of the basic equations and methods available for the analysis of transverse MHD flow when Hall currents are not suppressed. The gas flow is taken to be incompressible and viscous with uniform tensor conductivity and arbitrary magnetic Reynold's number. The magnetic field is perpendicular to the flow and has variable strength. Analytical solutions can be obtained either in terms of the induced magnetic field or from two types of electric potential. The relevant set of suitable simplifications, restrictive conditions and boundary value considerations for each method is given.
Sang Soon Hwang
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are beingused extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of thefundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype forengineering application. In this study, we used a single-phase, fully three dimensionalsimulation model for PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field forexamining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. The results show thathydrogen and oxygen were solely supplied to the membrane by diffusion mechanism ratherthan convection transport, and the higher pressure drop at cathode side is thought to becaused by higher flow rate of oxygen at cathode. And it is found that the amount of water incathode channel was determined by water formation due to electrochemical reaction pluselectro-osmotic mass flux directing toward the cathode side. And it is very important tomodel the back diffusion and electro-osmotic mass flux accurately since the two flux wasclosely correlated each other and greatly influenced for determination of ionic conductivityof the membrane which directly affects the performance of fuel cell.
Lee, Pil Hyong; Han, Sang Seok; Hwang, Sang Soon
2008-03-03
Modeling and simulation for heat and mass transport in micro channel are beingused extensively in researches and industrial applications to gain better understanding of thefundamental processes and to optimize fuel cell designs before building a prototype forengineering application. In this study, we used a single-phase, fully three dimensionalsimulation model for PEMFC that can deal with both anode and cathode flow field forexamining the micro flow channel with electrochemical reaction. The results show thathydrogen and oxygen were solely supplied to the membrane by diffusion mechanism ratherthan convection transport, and the higher pressure drop at cathode side is thought to becaused by higher flow rate of oxygen at cathode. And it is found that the amount of water incathode channel was determined by water formation due to electrochemical reaction pluselectro-osmotic mass flux directing toward the cathode side. And it is very important tomodel the back diffusion and electro-osmotic mass flux accurately since the two flux wasclosely correlated each other and greatly influenced for determination of ionic conductivityof the membrane which directly affects the performance of fuel cell.
Onuma, Kazuhiro; Terada, Kenji; Matsumura, Katsuhide; Koyama, Toshihiro; Yajima, Kazuaki
2008-01-01
Demonstration test of underground cavern type disposal facilities is planed though carrying out construction of full scale engineering barrier system which simulated in the underground space in full scale and under actual environment. This test consists of three part, these are construction test, performance test and measurement test. Behavior of near field rock mass is measured about hydrological behavior under and after construction to evaluate effect at test facility. To make plan of pore pressure measurement, three dimensional groundwater flow analysis has been carried out. Based on comparison of analysis before and after test, detail plan has been studied. (author)
Dimensional analysis in field theory
Stevenson, P.M.
1981-01-01
Dimensional Transmutation (the breakdown of scale invariance in field theories) is reconciled with the commonsense notions of Dimensional Analysis. This makes possible a discussion of the meaning of the Renormalisation Group equations, completely divorced from the technicalities of renormalisation. As illustrations, I describe some very farmiliar QCD results in these terms
Park, Chan Wook; Lee, Sung Su
2008-01-01
Two-phase compressible flow fields of air-water are investigated numerically in the fixed Eulerian grid framework. The phase interface is captured via volume fractions of ech phase. A way to model two phase compressible flows as a single phase one is found based on an equivalent equation of states of Tait's type for a multiphase cell. The equivalent single phase field is discretized using the Roe's approximate Riemann solver. Two approaches are tried to suppress the pressure oscillation phenomena at the phase interface, a passive advection of volume fraction and a direct pressure relaxation with the compressible form of volume fraction equation. The direct pressure equalizing method suppresses pressure oscillation successfully and generates sharp discontinuities, transmitting and reflecting acoustic waves naturally at the phase interface. In discretizing the compressible form of volume fraction equation, phase interfaces are geometrically reconstructed to minimize the numerical diffusion of volume fraction and relevant variables. The motion of a projectile in a water-filled tube which is fired by the release of highly pressurized air is simulated presuming the flow field as a two dimensional one, and several design factors affecting the projectile movement are investigated
Three dimensional field computation
Trowbridge, C.W.
1981-06-01
Recent research work carried out at Rutherford and Appleton Laboratories into the Computation of Electromagnetic Fields is summarised. The topics covered include algorithms for integral and differential methods for the solution of 3D magnetostatic fields, comparison of results with experiment and an investigation into the strengths and weaknesses of both methods for an analytic problem. The paper concludes with a brief summary of the work in progress on the solution of 3D eddy currents using differential finite elements. (author)
Baumjohann, W.; Untiedt, J.; Greenwald, R.A.
1980-01-01
Two-dimensional distributions of ground magnetic and ionospheric electric fields in the evening sector auroral oval have been simultaneously observed by the Scandinavian Magnetometer Array and the Scandinavian Twin Auroral Radar Experiment (Stare) radars, respectively, on February 15, 1977. They were associated with varying, substorm-intensified, eastward electrojet current systems of the western, middle, and eastern segment of the eastward electrojet. We conclude that the substorm-intensified eastward electroject was a nearly pure Hall current driven by northward electric fields. The observed eastward increase of the current in the western segment of the electrojet was due to a gradual enhancement of the Hall conductivity. Here, the electrojet was fed by a broad sheet of net downward field-aligned current. During one period, the eastern-terminating part of the eastward electrojet diverged up the field lines in a rather local area because of a strong longitudinal decrease in the northward-directed electric field. On another occasion, it diverged northward within the ionosphere and joined the westward-flowing current because of a rotation of the northward electric field with increasing latitude through west- to southward. These two observed mechanisms of current divergence in the region where eastward and westward electrojects coexist may shed some new light on the controversy over the existence of upward field-aligned current flow in the Harang discontinuity
Analysis of the three dimensional flow in a turbine scroll
Hamed, A.; Baskharone, E.
1979-01-01
The present analysis describes the three-dimensional compressible inviscid flow in the scroll and the vaneless nozzle of a radial inflow turbine. The solution to this flow field, which is further complicated by the geometrical shape of the boundaries, is obtained using the finite element method. Symmetric and nonsymmetric scroll cross sectional geometries are investigated to determine their effect on the general flow field and on the exit flow conditions.
Maity, S., E-mail: susantamaiti@gmail.com [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India); Singh, S.K. [Engineering Mechanics Unit, Jawaharlal Nehru Centre for Advanced Scientific Research, Bangalore 560064 (India); Kumar, A.V. [Department of Mathematics, National Institute of Technology, Arunachal Pradesh, Yupia, Papumpare 791112 (India)
2016-12-01
Three dimensional flow of thin Casson liquid film over a porous unsteady stretching sheet is investigated under assumption of initial uniform film thickness. The effects of the uniform transverse magnetic field, suction and injection are also considered for investigation. The nonlinear governing set of equations and film evolution equation are solved analytically by using singular perturbation technique. It is found that the film thickness decreases with the increasing values of the Casson parameter. The Hartmann number and porosity parameter resist the film thinning process. It is also observed that the film thickness increases with the increasing values of the suction velocity whereas it decreases for increasing values of the injection velocity at the stretching surface.
Jamieson, E. C.; Rennie, C. D.; Townsend, R. D.
2009-05-01
towards the centre of the channel, away from the outside bank. Sawmill Creek has the added complexity of having predominately clay bed and banks. The erosional behaviour of cohesive sediments such as clay is difficult to model correctly, due to the complex site-specific physio- chemical properties of clay particles. Following the construction of the proposed barbs at our field test site this summer (2009), and data collection the following spring and summer, we hope to advance the current knowledge of cohesive sediment transport processes in a complicated three-dimensional turbulent flow field. For the present modelling effort, erodibility of the consolidated clay bed and bank material was estimated based on establishing an entrainment threshold at near-bankfull conditions. The focus of this research is on (i) the unique site conditions and environmental protection requirements, (ii) design methodology, and (iii) results of the numerical simulation. The three-dimensional numerical model was capable of reproducing the expected distribution of secondary flow in a channel bend, the unique three- dimensional flow field resulting from a series of submerged structures and the associated patterns of soil erosion and deposition. The numerical modelling also demonstrated to be a useful tool for optimizing barb design for stream bank protection at the proposed field test site. Modelling results confirmed that in the vicinity of the barbs, the addition of the proposed barb layout achieved substantial reduction in erosion (up to 98 %), bed shear stress (up to 59 %) and streamwise velocity (up to 51 %).
Sjöholm, Mikael; Angelou, Nikolas; Hansen, Per
2014-01-01
and rescue helicopter are presented. Since the line-of-sight directions of the two synchronized WindScanners were scanned within the plane of interest, the influence of the wind component perpendicular to the plane was avoided. The results also demonstrate the possibilities within less demanding flows...
Buehler, L.
1993-02-01
Inductionless magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flows at high Hartmann numbers are calculated by splitting the whole flow region into an inviscid core and into very thin boundary layers near channel walls. The momentum equations are linearized for high interaction parameters by neglecting inertial terms. These assumptions allow considerable simplifications of the governing equations in all subregions. In the core the general 3D equations are reduced to 2D equations by an analytical integration. The boundary conditions at channel walls are satisfied by the solution of boundary layer equations, leading to 2D equations for charge conservation in the layer. The interior of every arbitrary shaped channel is mapped by a coordinate transformation to a standard volume. The coupled 2D equations are solved numerically on the surface of this standard volume. (orig.)
Hożejowska Sylwia
2014-03-01
Full Text Available The paper presents application of the nodeless Trefftz method to calculate temperature of the heating foil and the insulating glass pane during continuous flow of a refrigerant along a vertical minichannel. Numerical computations refer to an experiment in which the refrigerant (FC-72 enters under controlled pressure and temperature a rectangular minichannel. Initially its temperature is below the boiling point. During the flow it is heated by a heating foil. The thermosensitive liquid crystals allow to obtain twodimensional temperature field in the foil. Since the nodeless Trefftz method has very good performance for providing solutions to such problems, it was chosen as a numerical method to approximate two-dimensional temperature distribution in the protecting glass and the heating foil. Due to known temperature of the refrigerant it was also possible to evaluate the heat transfer coefficient at the foil-refrigerant interface. For expected improvement of the numerical results the nodeless Trefftz method was combined with adjustment calculus. Adjustment calculus allowed to smooth the measurements and to decrease the measurement errors. As in the case of the measurement errors, the error of the heat transfer coefficient decreased.
Three-dimensional microbubble streaming flows
Rallabandi, Bhargav; Marin, Alvaro; Rossi, Massimiliano; Kaehler, Christian; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha
2014-11-01
Streaming due to acoustically excited bubbles has been used successfully for applications such as size-sorting, trapping and focusing of particles, as well as fluid mixing. Many of these applications involve the precise control of particle trajectories, typically achieved using cylindrical bubbles, which establish planar flows. Using astigmatic particle tracking velocimetry (APTV), we show that, while this two-dimensional picture is a useful description of the flow over short times, a systematic three-dimensional flow structure is evident over long time scales. We demonstrate that this long-time three-dimensional fluid motion can be understood through asymptotic theory, superimposing secondary axial flows (induced by boundary conditions at the device walls) onto the two-dimensional description. This leads to a general framework that describes three-dimensional flows in confined microstreaming systems, guiding the design of applications that profit from minimizing or maximizing these effects.
Poehler, Thorsten; Kunte, Robert; Hoenen, Herwart; Jeschke, Peter; Wissdorf, Walter; Brockmann, Klaus J; Benter, Thorsten
2011-11-01
In this study, the validation and analysis of steady state numerical simulations of the gas flows within a multi-purpose ion source (MPIS) are presented. The experimental results were obtained with particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurements in a non-scaled MPIS. Two-dimensional time-averaged velocity and turbulent kinetic energy distributions are presented for two dry gas volume flow rates. The numerical results of the validation simulations are in very good agreement with the experimental data. All significant flow features have been correctly predicted within the accuracy of the experiments. For technical reasons, the experiments were conducted at room temperature. Thus, numerical simulations of ionization conditions at two operating points of the MPIS are also presented. It is clearly shown that the dry gas volume flow rate has the most significant impact on the overall flow pattern within the APLI source; far less critical is the (larger) nebulization gas flow. In addition to the approximate solution of Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes equations, a transport equation for the relative analyte concentration has been solved. The results yield information on the three-dimensional analyte distribution within the source. It becomes evident that for ion transport into the MS ion transfer capillary, electromagnetic forces are at least as important as fluid dynamic forces. However, only the fluid dynamics determines the three-dimensional distribution of analyte gas. Thus, local flow phenomena in close proximity to the spray shield are strongly impacting on the ionization efficiency.
Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow
Schmidl, W.; Hassan, Y.A.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.
1996-01-01
Particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a nonintrusive measurement technique that can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time-varying, full-field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. The quantitative spatial velocity information can be further processed into information of flow parameters such as vorticity and turbulence over extended areas. The objective of this study was to apply recent advances and improvements in the PIV flow measurement technique to the full-field, nonintrusive analysis of a three-dimensional, two-phase fluid flow system in such a manner that both components of the two-phase system could be experimentally quantified
Two dimensional MHD flows between porous boundaries
Gratton, F.T.
1994-01-01
Similarity solutions of dissipative MHD equations representing conducting fluids injected through porous walls and flowing out in both directions from the center of the channel, are studied as a function of four non dimensional parameters, Reynolds number R e , magnetic Reynolds number R m , Alfvenic Mach number, M A , and pressure gradient coefficient, C. The effluence is restrained by an external magnetic field normal to the walls. When R m m >>1, the solution may model a collision of plasmas of astrophysical interest. In this case the magnetic field lines help to drive the outflow acting jointly with the pressure gradient. The law for C as a function of the other parameters is given for several asymptotic limits. (author). 3 refs, 6 figs
Inoue, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)
1992-05-01
For the purpose of developing a fan for an engine with ultra-high by-pass ratio, the design code of three-dimensional cascade of blades based on the Navier-Stokes equation has already been developed. This paper describes a method created by calculation grids which are part of this design code. This method is to generate boundary fitted grids to calculate the flow field across a cascade of blades placed radially in the axially symmetric space between hub and casing. In this method, one-period domain of the cascade of blades is mapped on a box in computational space by a series of combined streching transformation and conformal mapping. The grid in physical space is then obtained by successive inverse conformal mapping on the grid points in computational space. The grid obtained in this method is H-type and has a periodicity which includes the inclination of grid lines at the periodic boundary. As an example of the grid generated by this method, grids for primary and secondary models of the fan with ultra-high by-pass ratio are shown. 6 refs., 12 figs.
Inoue, K [National Aerospace Laboratory, Tokyo (Japan)
1992-05-01
For the purpose of developing a fan for an engine with ultra-high by-pass ratio, the design code of three-dimensional cascade of blades based on the Navier-Stokes equation has already been developed. This paper describes a method created by calculation grids which are part of this design code. This method is to generate boundary fitted grids to calculate the flow field across a cascade of blades placed radially in the axially symmetric space between hub and casing. In this method, one-period domain of the cascade of blades is mapped on a box in computational space by a series of combined streching transformation and conformal mapping. The grid in physical space is then obtained by successive inverse conformal mapping on the grid points in computational space. The grid obtained in this method is H-type and has a periodicity which includes the inclination of grid lines at the periodic boundary. As an example of the grid generated by this method, grids for primary and secondary models of the fan with ultra-high by-pass ratio are shown. 6 refs., 12 figs.
Ding, Ting; Hu, Hong; Bai, Chen; Guo, Shifang; Yang, Miao; Wang, Supin; Wan, Mingxi
2016-07-01
Cavitation plays important roles in almost all high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) applications. However, current two-dimensional (2D) cavitation mapping could only provide cavitation activity in one plane. This study proposed a three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound plane-by-plane active cavitation mapping (3D-UPACM) for HIFU in free field and pulsatile flow. The acquisition of channel-domain raw radio-frequency (RF) data in 3D space was performed by sequential plane-by-plane 2D ultrafast active cavitation mapping. Between two adjacent unit locations, there was a waiting time to make cavitation nuclei distribution of the liquid back to the original state. The 3D cavitation map equivalent to the one detected at one time and over the entire volume could be reconstructed by Marching Cube algorithm. Minimum variance (MV) adaptive beamforming was combined with coherence factor (CF) weighting (MVCF) or compressive sensing (CS) method (MVCS) to process the raw RF data for improved beamforming or more rapid data processing. The feasibility of 3D-UPACM was demonstrated in tap-water and a phantom vessel with pulsatile flow. The time interval between temporal evolutions of cavitation bubble cloud could be several microseconds. MVCF beamformer had a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) at 14.17dB higher, lateral and axial resolution at 2.88times and 1.88times, respectively, which were compared with those of B-mode active cavitation mapping. MVCS beamformer had only 14.94% time penalty of that of MVCF beamformer. This 3D-UPACM technique employs the linear array of a current ultrasound diagnosis system rather than a 2D array transducer to decrease the cost of the instrument. Moreover, although the application is limited by the requirement for a gassy fluid medium or a constant supply of new cavitation nuclei that allows replenishment of nuclei between HIFU exposures, this technique may exhibit a useful tool in 3D cavitation mapping for HIFU with high speed, precision and resolution
Three-dimensional flow and turbulence structure in electrostatic precipitator
Ullum, Thorvald Uhrskov; Larsen, Poul Scheel; Özcan, Oktay
2002-01-01
Stereo PIV is employed to study the three-dimensional velocity and turbulence fields in a laboratory model of a negative corona, barbed-wire, smooth-plate, electrostatic precipitator (figure 1). The study is focused on determining the parametric effects of axial development, mean current density Jm...... and bulk velocity U0 on secondary flows and turbulence levels and structures due to the action of the three-dimensional electrostatic field on the charged gas. At constant bulk velocity (U0 = 1 m/s) and current density (Jm = 0.4 mA/m2), secondary flows in the form of rolls of axial vorticity with swirl...
Visualization of numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields
Hian, Q.L.; Damodaran, M.
1991-01-01
The focus of this paper is to describe the development and the application of an interactive integrated software to visualize numerically simulated aerodynamic flow fields so as to enable the practitioner of computational fluid dynamics to diagnose the numerical simulation and to elucidate essential flow physics from the simulation. The input to the software is the numerical database crunched by a supercomputer and typically consists of flow variables and computational grid geometry. This flow visualization system (FVS), written in C language is targetted at the Personal IRIS Workstations. In order to demonstrate the various visualization modules, the paper also describes the application of this software to visualize two- and three-dimensional flow fields past aerodynamic configurations which have been numerically simulated on the NEC-SXIA Supercomputer. 6 refs
Topics in low-dimensional field theory
Crescimanno, M.J.
1991-01-01
Conformal field theory is a natural tool for understanding two- dimensional critical systems. This work presents results in the lagrangian approach to conformal field theory. The first sections are chiefly about a particular class of field theories called coset constructions and the last part is an exposition of the connection between two-dimensional conformal theory and a three-dimensional gauge theory whose lagrangian is the Chern-Simons density
Surface representations of two- and three-dimensional fluid flow topology
Helman, James L.; Hesselink, Lambertus
1990-01-01
We discuss our work using critical point analysis to generate representations of the vector field topology of numerical flow data sets. Critical points are located and characterized in a two-dimensional domain, which may be either a two-dimensional flow field or the tangential velocity field near a three-dimensional body. Tangent curves are then integrated out along the principal directions of certain classes of critical points. The points and curves are linked to form a skeleton representing the two-dimensional vector field topology. When generated from the tangential velocity field near a body in a three-dimensional flow, the skeleton includes the critical points and curves which provide a basis for analyzing the three-dimensional structure of the flow separation. The points along the separation curves in the skeleton are used to start tangent curve integrations to generate surfaces representing the topology of the associated flow separations.
Hosseinalipour, S. M.; Raja, A.; Hajikhani, S.
2012-06-01
A full three dimensional Navier - Stokes numerical simulation has been performed for performance analysis of a Kaplan turbine which is installed in one of the Irans south dams. No simplifications have been enforced in the simulation. The numerical results have been evaluated using some integral parameters such as the turbine efficiency via comparing the results with existing experimental data from the prototype Hill chart. In part of this study the numerical simulations were performed in order to calculate the prototype turbine efficiencies in some specific points which comes from the scaling up of the model efficiency that are available in the model experimental Hill chart. The results are very promising which shows the good ability of the numerical techniques for resolving the flow characteristics in these kind of complex geometries. A parametric study regarding the evaluation of turbine performance in three different runner angles of the prototype is also performed and the results are cited in this paper.
Effective field theory dimensional regularization
Lehmann, Dirk; Prezeau, Gary
2002-01-01
A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed
Effective field theory dimensional regularization
Lehmann, Dirk; Prézeau, Gary
2002-01-01
A Lorentz-covariant regularization scheme for effective field theories with an arbitrary number of propagating heavy and light particles is given. This regularization scheme leaves the low-energy analytic structure of Greens functions intact and preserves all the symmetries of the underlying Lagrangian. The power divergences of regularized loop integrals are controlled by the low-energy kinematic variables. Simple diagrammatic rules are derived for the regularization of arbitrary one-loop graphs and the generalization to higher loops is discussed.
Two-dimensional turbulent flows on a bounded domain
Kramer, W.
2006-01-01
Large-scale flows in the oceans and the atmosphere reveal strong similarities with purely two-dimensional flows. One of the most typical features is the cascade of energy from smaller flow scales towards larger scales. This is opposed to three-dimensional turbulence where larger flow structures
Three-dimensional flow about penguin wings
Noca, Flavio; Sudki, Bassem; Lauria, Michel
2012-11-01
Penguins, contrary to airborne birds, do not need to compensate for gravity. Yet, the kinematics of their wings is highly three-dimensional and seems exceedingly complex for plain swimming. Is such kinematics the result of an evolutionary optimization or is it just a forced adaptation of an airborne flying apparatus to underwater swimming? Some answers will be provided based on flow dynamics around robotic penguin wings. Updates will also be presented on the development of a novel robotic arm intended to simulate penguin swimming and enable novel propulsion devices.
Two-dimensional heat flow apparatus
McDougall, Patrick; Ayars, Eric
2014-06-01
We have created an apparatus to quantitatively measure two-dimensional heat flow in a metal plate using a grid of temperature sensors read by a microcontroller. Real-time temperature data are collected from the microcontroller by a computer for comparison with a computational model of the heat equation. The microcontroller-based sensor array allows previously unavailable levels of precision at very low cost, and the combination of measurement and modeling makes for an excellent apparatus for the advanced undergraduate laboratory course.
Three-dimensional investigation of the two-phase flow structure in a bubbly pipe flow
Hassan, Y.A.; Schmidl, W.D.; Ortiz-Villafuerte, J.
1997-01-01
Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is a non-intrusive measurement technique, which can be used to study the structure of various fluid flows. PIV is used to measure the time varying full field velocity data of a particle-seeded flow field within either a two-dimensional plane or three-dimensional volume. PIV is a very efficient measurement technique since it can obtain both qualitative and quantitative spatial information about the flow field being studied. This information can be further processed into information such as vorticity and pathlines. Other flow measurement techniques (Laser Doppler Velocimetry, Hot Wire Anemometry, etc...) only provide quantitative information at a single point. PIV can be used to study turbulence structures if a sufficient amount of data can be acquired and analyzed, and it can also be extended to study two-phase flows if both phases can be distinguished. In this study, the flow structure around a bubble rising in a pipe filled with water was studied in three-dimensions. The velocity of the rising bubble and the velocity field of the surrounding water was measured. Then the turbulence intensities and Reynolds stresses were calculated from the experimental data. (author)
Three-Dimensional Flow Behavior Inside the Submerged Entry Nozzle
Real-Ramirez, Cesar Augusto; Carvajal-Mariscal, Ignacio; Sanchez-Silva, Florencio; Cervantes-de-la-Torre, Francisco; Diaz-Montes, Jesus; Gonzalez-Trejo, Jesus
2018-05-01
According to various authors, the surface quality of steel depends on the dynamic conditions that occur within the continuous casting mold's upper region. The meniscus, found in that upper region, is where the solidification process begins. The liquid steel is distributed into the mold through a submerged entry nozzle (SEN). In this paper, the dynamic behavior inside the SEN is analyzed by means of physical experiments and numerical simulations. The particle imaging velocimetry technique was used to obtain the vector field in different planes and three-dimensional flow patterns inside the SEN volume. Moreover, large eddy simulation was performed, and the turbulence model results were used to understand the nonlinear flow pattern inside the SEN. Using scaled physical and numerical models, quasi-periodic behavior was observed due to the interaction of two three-dimensional vortices that move inside the SEN lower region located between the exit ports of the nozzle.
Su, Xiaoru; Shu, Longcang; Chen, Xunhong; Lu, Chengpeng; Wen, Zhonghui
2016-12-01
Interactions between surface waters and groundwater are of great significance for evaluating water resources and protecting ecosystem health. Heat as a tracer method is widely used in determination of the interactive exchange with high precision, low cost and great convenience. The flow in a river-bank cross-section occurs in vertical and lateral directions. In order to depict the flow path and its spatial distribution in bank areas, a genetic algorithm (GA) two-dimensional (2-D) heat-transport nested-loop method for variably saturated sediments, GA-VS2DH, was developed based on Microsoft Visual Basic 6.0. VS2DH was applied to model a 2-D bank-water flow field and GA was used to calibrate the model automatically by minimizing the difference between observed and simulated temperatures in bank areas. A hypothetical model was developed to assess the reliability of GA-VS2DH in inverse modeling in a river-bank system. Some benchmark tests were conducted to recognize the capability of GA-VS2DH. The results indicated that the simulated seepage velocity and parameters associated with GA-VS2DH were acceptable and reliable. Then GA-VS2DH was applied to two field sites in China with different sedimentary materials, to verify the reliability of the method. GA-VS2DH could be applied in interpreting the cross-sectional 2-D water flow field. The estimates of horizontal hydraulic conductivity at the Dawen River and Qinhuai River sites are 1.317 and 0.015 m/day, which correspond to sand and clay sediment in the two sites, respectively.
Indices for 6 dimensional superconformal field theories
Kim, Seok; Lee, Kimyeong
2017-01-01
We review some recent developments in the 6 dimensional (2, 0) superconformal field theories, focusing on their Bogomol’nyi–Prasad–Sommerfield (BPS) spectra in the Coulomb and symmetric phases computed by various Witten indices. We shall discuss the instanton partition function of 5d maximal super-Yang–Mills theory, and the 6d superconformal index. (topical review)
Soap film flows: Statistics of two-dimensional turbulence
Vorobieff, P.; Rivera, M.; Ecke, R.E.
1999-01-01
Soap film flows provide a very convenient laboratory model for studies of two-dimensional (2-D) hydrodynamics including turbulence. For a gravity-driven soap film channel with a grid of equally spaced cylinders inserted in the flow, we have measured the simultaneous velocity and thickness fields in the irregular flow downstream from the cylinders. The velocity field is determined by a modified digital particle image velocimetry method and the thickness from the light scattered by the particles in the film. From these measurements, we compute the decay of mean energy, enstrophy, and thickness fluctuations with downstream distance, and the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, thickness fluctuation, and vorticity flux. From these quantities we determine the microscale Reynolds number of the flow R λ ∼100 and the integral and dissipation scales of 2D turbulence. We also obtain quantitative measures of the degree to which our flow can be considered incompressible and isotropic as a function of downstream distance. We find coarsening of characteristic spatial scales, qualitative correspondence of the decay of energy and enstrophy with the Batchelor model, scaling of energy in k space consistent with the k -3 spectrum of the Kraichnan endash Batchelor enstrophy-scaling picture, and power-law scalings of the structure functions of velocity, vorticity, vorticity flux, and thickness. These results are compared with models of 2-D turbulence and with numerical simulations. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Dynamics of vortex interactions in two-dimensional flows
Juul Rasmussen, J.; Nielsen, A.H.; Naulin, V.
2002-01-01
The dynamics and interaction of like-signed vortex structures in two dimensional flows are investigated by means of direct numerical solutions of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations. Two vortices with distributed vorticity merge when their distance relative to their radius, d/R-0l. is below...... a critical value, a(c). Using the Weiss-field, a(c) is estimated for vortex patches. Introducing an effective radius for vortices with distributed vorticity, we find that 3.3 ... is effectively producing small scale structures and the relation to the enstrophy "cascade" in developed 2D turbulence is discussed. The influence of finite viscosity on the merging is also investigated. Additionally, we examine vortex interactions on a finite domain, and discuss the results in connection...
Numerical simulation of interior flow field of nuclear model pump
Wang Chunlin; Peng Na; Kang Can; Zhao Baitong; Zhang Hao
2009-01-01
Reynolds time-averaged N-S equations and the standard k-ε turbulent model were adopted, and three-dimensional non-structural of tetrahedral mesh division was used for modeling. Multiple reference frame model of rotating fluid mechanical model was used, under the design condition, the three-dimensional incompressible turbulent flow of nuclear model pump was simulated, and the results preferably post the characteristics of the interior flow field. This paper first analyzes the total pressure and velocity distribution in the flow field, and then describes the interior flow field characteristics of each part such as the impeller, diffuser and spherical shell, and also discusses the reasons that cause these characteristics. The study results can be used to estimate the performance of nuclear model pump, and will provide some useful references for its hydraulic optimized design. (authors)
Bjorken flow in one-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamics with magnetization
Pu, Shi; Roy, Victor; Rezzolla, Luciano; Rischke, Dirk H.
2016-04-01
We study the one-dimensional, longitudinally boost-invariant motion of an ideal fluid with infinite conductivity in the presence of a transverse magnetic field, i.e., in the ideal transverse magnetohydrodynamical limit. In an extension of our previous work Roy et al., [Phys. Lett. B 750, 45 (2015)], we consider the fluid to have a nonzero magnetization. First, we assume a constant magnetic susceptibility χm and consider an ultrarelativistic ideal gas equation of state. For a paramagnetic fluid (i.e., with χm>0 ), the decay of the energy density slows down since the fluid gains energy from the magnetic field. For a diamagnetic fluid (i.e., with χmlaw ˜τ-a, two distinct solutions can be found depending on the values of a and χm. Finally, we also solve the ideal magnetohydrodynamical equations for one-dimensional Bjorken flow with a temperature-dependent magnetic susceptibility and a realistic equation of state given by lattice-QCD data. We find that the temperature and energy density decay more slowly because of the nonvanishing magnetization. For values of the magnetic field typical for heavy-ion collisions, this effect is, however, rather small. It is only for magnetic fields about an order of magnitude larger than expected for heavy-ion collisions that the system is substantially reheated and the lifetime of the quark phase might be extended.
Statistical mechanics of two-dimensional and geophysical flows
Bouchet, Freddy; Venaille, Antoine
2012-01-01
The theoretical study of the self-organization of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulent flows is addressed based on statistical mechanics methods. This review is a self-contained presentation of classical and recent works on this subject; from the statistical mechanics basis of the theory up to applications to Jupiter’s troposphere and ocean vortices and jets. Emphasize has been placed on examples with available analytical treatment in order to favor better understanding of the physics and dynamics. After a brief presentation of the 2D Euler and quasi-geostrophic equations, the specificity of two-dimensional and geophysical turbulence is emphasized. The equilibrium microcanonical measure is built from the Liouville theorem. Important statistical mechanics concepts (large deviations and mean field approach) and thermodynamic concepts (ensemble inequivalence and negative heat capacity) are briefly explained and described. On this theoretical basis, we predict the output of the long time evolution of complex turbulent flows as statistical equilibria. This is applied to make quantitative models of two-dimensional turbulence, the Great Red Spot and other Jovian vortices, ocean jets like the Gulf-Stream, and ocean vortices. A detailed comparison between these statistical equilibria and real flow observations is provided. We also present recent results for non-equilibrium situations, for the studies of either the relaxation towards equilibrium or non-equilibrium steady states. In this last case, forces and dissipation are in a statistical balance; fluxes of conserved quantity characterize the system and microcanonical or other equilibrium measures no longer describe the system.
Two-dimensional steady unsaturated flow through embedded elliptical layers
Bakker, Mark; Nieber, John L.
2004-12-01
New analytic element solutions are presented for unsaturated, two-dimensional steady flow in vertical planes that include nonoverlapping impermeable elliptical layers and elliptical inhomogeneities. The hydraulic conductivity, which is represented by an exponential function of the pressure head, differs between the inside and outside of an elliptical inhomogeneity; both the saturated hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters are allowed to differ between the inside and outside. The Richards equation is transformed, through the Kirchhoff transformation and a second standard transformation, into the modified Helmholtz equation. Analytic element solutions are obtained through separation of variables in elliptical coordinates. The resulting equations for the Kirchhoff potential consist of infinite sums of products of exponentials and modified Mathieu functions. In practical applications the series are truncated but still fulfill the differential equation exactly; boundary conditions are met approximately but up to machine accuracy, provided that enough terms are used. The pressure head, saturation, and flow may be computed analytically at any point in the vadose zone. Examples are given of the shadowing effect of an impermeable elliptical layer in a uniform flow field and funnel-type flow between two elliptical inhomogeneities. The presented solutions may be applied to study transport processes in vadose zones containing many impermeable elliptical layers or elliptical inhomogeneities.
Self-organization in three-dimensional compressible magnetohydrodynamic flow
Horiuchi, Ritoku; Sato, Tetsuya.
1987-07-01
A three-dimensional self-organization process of a compressible dissipative plasma with a velocity-magnetic field correlation is investigated in detail by means of a variational method and a magnetohydrodynamic simulation. There are two types of relaxation, i.e., fast relaxation in which the cross helicity is not conserved, and slow relaxation in which the cross helicity is approximately conserved. In the slow relaxation case the cross helicity consists of two components with opposite sign which have almost the same amplitude in the large wavenumber region. In both cases the system approaches a high correlation state, dependent on the initial condition. These results are consistent with an observational data of the solar wind. Selective dissipation of magnetic energy, normal cascade of magnetic energy spectrum and inverse cascade of magnetic helicity spectrum are observed for the sub-Alfvenic flow case as was previously observed for the zero flow case. When the flow velocity is super-Alfvenic, the relaxation process is significantly altered from the zero flow case. (author)
Vector Fields and Flows on Differentiable Stacks
A. Hepworth, Richard
2009-01-01
This paper introduces the notions of vector field and flow on a general differentiable stack. Our main theorem states that the flow of a vector field on a compact proper differentiable stack exists and is unique up to a uniquely determined 2-cell. This extends the usual result on the existence...... of vector fields....
Discussion of the duality in three dimensional quantum field theory
Ma, Chen-Te, E-mail: yefgst@gmail.com
2017-05-10
We discuss the duality in three dimensional quantum field theory at infrared limit. The starting point is to use a conjecture of a duality between the free fermion and the interacting scalar field theories at the Wilson–Fisher fixed point. The conjecture is useful for deriving various dualities in three dimensions to obtain a duality web. The study is also interesting for understanding the dualities, or equivalence of different theories from the perspective of the renormalization group flow. We first discuss the “derivation” without losing the holonomy. Furthermore, we also derive these dualities from the mean-field study, and consider the extension of the conjecture or dualities at finite temperature.
Analysis of the pressure fields in a swirling annular jet flow
Perçin, M.; Vanierschot, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.
2017-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the flow structures and pressure fields of a free annular swirling jet flow undergoing vortex breakdown. The flow field is analyzed by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry measurements, which enable the reconstruction of the three-dimensional
Numerical study on the three-dimensional scroll volute flow of centrifugal compressor
Bae, Hwang; Chang, Keun Shik; Yoon, Ju Sig; Park, Ki Cheol
2005-01-01
Three dimensional turbulent flow in the scroll volute of centrifugal compressor has been numerically investigated in this paper by solving the Navier-Stokes equations and k -ε equation model. The computational grid for the flow field of the scroll volute has been constructed based on the multi-block grid, which is good to avoid the central grid singularity as well as to make grid stretching toward the volute wall. Numerical result has been obtained for the three-dimensional flow of scroll volute. The straight conical volute flow is also solved and compared with the scroll volute data. This comparison contributed to comprehend the effect of scroll in the three-dimensional volute flow of a centrifugal compressor
Separation prediction in two dimensional boundary layer flows using artificial neural networks
Sabetghadam, F.; Ghomi, H.A.
2003-01-01
In this article, the ability of artificial neural networks in prediction of separation in steady two dimensional boundary layer flows is studied. Data for network training is extracted from numerical solution of an ODE obtained from Von Karman integral equation with approximate one parameter Pohlhousen velocity profile. As an appropriate neural network, a two layer radial basis generalized regression artificial neural network is used. The results shows good agreements between the overall behavior of the flow fields predicted by the artificial neural network and the actual flow fields for some cases. The method easily can be extended to unsteady separation and turbulent as well as compressible boundary layer flows. (author)
Flow visualization of a low density hypersonic flow field
Masson, B.S.; Jumper, E.J.; Walters, E.; Segalman, T.Y.; Founds, N.D.
1989-01-01
Characteristics of laser induced iodine fluorescence (LIIF) in low density hypersonic flows are being investigated for use as a diagnostic technique. At low pressures, doppler broadening dominates the iodine absorption profile producing a fluorescence signal that is primarily temperature and velocity dependent. From this dependency, a low pressure flow field has the potential to be mapped for its velocity and temperature fields. The theory for relating iodine emission to the velocity and temperature fields of a hypersonic flow is discussed in this paper. Experimental observations are made of a fluorescencing free expansion and qualitatively related to the theory. 7 refs
Transient two-dimensional flow in porous media
Sharpe, L. Jr.
1979-01-01
The transient flow of an isothermal ideal gas from the cavity formed by an underground nuclear explosion is investigated. A two-dimensional finite element method is used in analyzing the gas flow. Numerical results of the pressure distribution are obtained for both the stemming column and the surrounding porous media
Ke, Xinyou; Prahl, Joseph M.; Alexander, J. Iwan D.; Savinell, Robert F.
2018-04-01
Redox flow batteries with flow field designs have been demonstrated to boost their capacities to deliver high current density and power density in medium and large-scale energy storage applications. Nevertheless, the fundamental mechanisms involved with improved current density in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs have been not fully understood. Here we report a three-dimensional model of a serpentine flow field over a porous carbon electrode to examine the distributions of pressure driven electrolyte flow penetrations into the porous carbon electrodes. We also estimate the maximum current densities associated with stoichiometric availability of electrolyte reactant flow penetrations through the porous carbon electrodes. The results predict reasonably well observed experimental data without using any adjustable parameters. This fundamental work on electrolyte flow distributions of limiting reactant availability will contribute to a better understanding of limits on electrochemical performance in flow batteries with serpentine flow field designs and should be helpful to optimizing flow batteries.
CFD Numerical Simulation of the Complex Turbulent Flow Field in an Axial-Flow Water Pump
Wan-You Li
2014-09-01
Full Text Available Further optimal design of an axial-flow water pump calls for a thorough recognition of the characteristics of the complex turbulent flow field in the pump, which is however extremely difficult to be measured using the up-to-date experimental techniques. In this study, a numerical simulation procedure based on computational fluid dynamics (CFD was elaborated in order to obtain the fully three-dimensional unsteady turbulent flow field in an axial-flow water pump. The shear stress transport (SST k-ω model was employed in the CFD calculation to study the unsteady internal flow of the axial-flow pump. Upon the numerical simulation results, the characteristics of the velocity field and pressure field inside the impeller region were discussed in detail. The established model procedure in this study may provide guidance to the numerical simulations of turbomachines during the design phase or the investigation of flow and pressure field characteristics and performance. The presented information can be of reference value in further optimal design of the axial-flow pump.
Study of one dimensional magnetic system via field theory
Talim, S.L.
1988-04-01
We present a study of one-dimensional magnetic system using field theory methods. We studied the discreteness effects in a classical anisotropic one dimensional antiferromagnet in an external magnetic field. It is shown that for TMMC, at the temperatures and magnetic fields where most experiments have been done, the corrections are small and can be neglected. (author)
Three-dimensional modeling of electron quasiviscous dissipation in guide-field magnetic reconnection
Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Masha; Schindler, Karl; Birn, Joachim
2005-01-01
A numerical study of guide-field magnetic reconnection in a three-dimensional model is presented. Starting from an initial, perturbed, force-free current sheet, it is shown that reconnection develops to an almost translationally invariant state, where magnetic perturbations are aligned primarily along the main current flow direction. An analysis of guide-field and electron flow signatures indicates behavior that is very similar to earlier, albeit not three-dimensional, simulations. Furthermore, a detailed investigation of electron pressure nongyrotropies in the central diffusion region confirms the major role the associated dissipation process plays in establishing the reconnection electric field
Bakker, Mark
2001-05-01
An analytic, approximate solution is derived for the modeling of three-dimensional flow to partially penetrating wells. The solution is written in terms of a correction on the solution for a fully penetrating well and is obtained by dividing the aquifer up, locally, in a number of aquifer layers. The resulting system of differential equations is solved by application of the theory for multiaquifer flow. The presented approach has three major benefits. First, the solution may be applied to any groundwater model that can simulate flow to a fully penetrating well; the solution may be superimposed onto the solution for the fully penetrating well to simulate the local three-dimensional drawdown and flow field. Second, the approach is applicable to isotropic, anisotropic, and stratified aquifers and to both confined and unconfined flow. Third, the solution extends over a small area around the well only; outside this area the three-dimensional effect of the partially penetrating well is negligible, and no correction to the fully penetrating well is needed. A number of comparisons are made to existing three-dimensional, analytic solutions, including radial confined and unconfined flow and a well in a uniform flow field. It is shown that a subdivision in three layers is accurate for many practical cases; very accurate solutions are obtained with more layers.
Cahn, Robert N.; de Putter, Roland; Linder, Eric V.
2008-07-08
Scalar field dark energy evolving from a long radiation- or matter-dominated epoch has characteristic dynamics. While slow-roll approximations are invalid, a well defined field expansion captures the key aspects of the dark energy evolution during much of the matter-dominated epoch. Since this behavior is determined, it is not faithfully represented if priors for dynamical quantities are chosen at random. We demonstrate these features for both thawing and freezing fields, and for some modified gravity models, and unify several special cases in the literature.
Wang, Bo; Wang, Xiaodong; Etay, Jacqueline; Na, Xianzhao; Zhang, Xinde; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-04-01
In this study, an Archimedean helical permanent magnetic field was constructed and its driving effects on liquid metal were examined. A magnetic stirrer was constructed using a series of arc-like magnets. The helical distribution of its magnetic field, which was confirmed via Gauss probe measurements and numerical simulations, can be considered a combination of rotating and traveling magnetic fields. The characteristics of the flow patterns, particularly the transitions between the meridian secondary flow (two vortices) and the global axial flow (one vortex), driven by this magnetic field were quantitatively measured using ultrasonic Doppler velocimetry. The transient and modulated flow behaviors will be presented in a companion article. The D/ H dimension ratio was used to characterize the transitions of these two flow patterns. The results demonstrated that the flow patterns depend on not only the intrinsic structure of the magnetic field, e.g., the helix lead angle, but also the performance parameters, e.g., the dimensional ratio of the liquid bulk. The notable opposing roles of these two flow patterns in the improvement of macrosegregations when imposing such magnetic fields near the solidifying front were qualitatively addressed.
Effect of TIPS placement on portal and splanchnic arterial blood flow in 4-dimensional flow MRI
Stankovic, Zoran [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Roessle, Martin; Schultheiss, Michael [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Gastroenterology, Freiburg (Germany); Euringer, Wulf; Langer, Mathias [University Medical Center Freiburg, Department of Diagnostic Radiology and Medical Physics, Freiburg (Germany); Salem, Riad; Barker, Alex; Carr, James; Collins, Jeremy D. [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Biomedical Engineering, McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States)
2015-09-15
To assess changes in portal and splanchnic arterial haemodynamics in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) using four-dimensional (4D) flow MRI, a non-invasive, non-contrast imaging technique. Eleven patients undergoing TIPS implantation were enrolled. K-t GRAPPA accelerated non-contrast 4D flow MRI of the liver vasculature was applied with acceleration factor R = 5 at 3Tesla. Flow analysis included three-dimensional (3D) blood flow visualization using time-resolved 3D particle traces and semi-quantitative flow pattern grading. Quantitative evaluation entailed peak velocities and net flows throughout the arterial and portal venous (PV) systems. MRI measurements were taken within 24 h before and 4 weeks after TIPS placement. Three-dimensional flow visualization with 4D flow MRI revealed good image quality with minor limitations in PV flow. Quantitative analysis revealed a significant increase in PV flow (562 ± 373 ml/min before vs. 1831 ± 965 ml/min after TIPS), in the hepatic artery (176 ± 132 ml/min vs. 354 ± 140 ml/min) and combined flow in splenic and superior mesenteric arteries (770 ml/min vs. 1064 ml/min). Shunt-flow assessment demonstrated stenoses in two patients confirmed and treated at TIPS revision. Four-dimensional flow MRI might have the potential to give new information about the effect of TIPS placement on hepatic perfusion. It may explain some unexpected findings in clinical observation studies. (orig.)
Dynamics of lava flow - Thickness growth characteristics of steady two-dimensional flow
Park, S.; Iversen, J. D.
1984-01-01
The thickness growth characteristics of flowing lava are investigated using a heat balance model and a two-dimensional model for flow of a Bingham plastic fluid down an inclined plane. It is found that yield strength plays a crucial role in the thickening of a lava flow of given flow rate. To illustrate this point, downstream thickness profiles and yield strength distributions were calculated for flows with mass flow rates of 10,000 and 100,000 kg/m-sec. Higher flow rates led to slow cooling rates which resulted in slow rate of increase of yield strength and thus greater flow lengths.
Norimasa Shiomi
2003-01-01
Full Text Available We carried out investigations for the purpose of clarifying the rotor outlet flow fields with rotating stall cell in a diagonal-flow fan. The test fan was a high–specific-speed (ns=1620 type of diagonal-flow fan that had 6 rotor blades and 11 stator blades. It has been shown that the number of the stall cell is 1, and its propagating speed is approximately 80% of its rotor speed, although little has been known about the behavior of the stall cell because a flow field with a rotating stall cell is essentially unsteady. In order to capture the behavior of the stall cell at the rotor outlet flow fields, hot-wire surveys were performed using a single-slant hotwire probe. The data obtained by these surveys were processed by means of a double phase-locked averaging technique, which enabled us to capture the flow field with the rotating stall cell in the reference coordinate system fixed to the rotor. As a result, time-dependent ensemble averages of the three-dimensional velocity components at the rotor outlet flow fields were obtained. The behavior of the stall cell was shown for each velocity component, and the flow patterns on the meridional planes were illustrated.
Instabilities in the flow past localized magnetic fields
Beltran, Alberto; Cuevas, Sergio; Smolentsev, Sergey
2007-01-01
The flow in a shallow layer of an electrically conducting fluid past a localized magnetic field is analyzed numerically. The field occupies only a small fraction of the total flow domain and resemblances the magnetic field created by a permanent magnet located close to the fluid layer. Two different physical cases are considered. In the first one, the fluid layer is free from externally injected electric currents, therefore, only induced currents are present. In the second case, an external electric current is injected to the fluid layer, transversally to the main flow direction. It is shown that the Lorentz force created by the interaction of the electric currents with the non-uniform magnetic field acts as an obstacle for the flow and creates different flow patterns similar to those observed in the flow past bluff bodies. A quasi-two-dimensional model that takes into account the existence of the bottom wall through a linear Hartmann-Rayleigh friction term is considered. When inertial and magnetic forces are strong enough, the wake formed behind the zone of high magnetic field is destabilized and a periodic vortex shedding similar to the classical von Karman street is found. The effect of Hartmann-Rayleigh friction in the emergence of the instability is analyzed
Topology of Flow Separation on Three-Dimensional Bodies
Chapman, Gary T.; Yates, Leslie A.
1991-01-01
In recent years there has been extensive research on three-dimensional flow separation. There are two different approaches: the phenomenological approach and a mathematical approach using topology. These two approaches are reviewed briefly and the shortcomings of some of the past works are discussed. A comprehensive approach applicable to incompressible and compressible steady-state flows as well as incompressible unsteady flow is then presented. The approach is similar to earlier topological approaches to separation but is more complete and in some cases adds more emphasis to certain points than in the past. To assist in the classification of various types of flow, nomenclature is introduced to describe the skin-friction portraits on the surface. This method of classification is then demonstrated on several categories of flow to illustrate particular points as well as the diversity of flow separation. The categories include attached, two-dimensional separation and three different types of simple, three-dimensional primary separation, secondary separation, and compound separation. Hypothetical experiments are utilized to illustrate the topological terminology and its role in characterizing these flows. These hypothetical experiments use colored oil injected onto the surface at singular points in the skin-friction portrait. Actual flow-visualization information, if available, is used to corroborate the hypothetical examples.
One-Dimensional Model for Mud Flows.
1985-10-01
law relation between the Chezy coefficient and the flow Reynolds number. Jeyapalan et al. [2], in their analysis of mine tailing dam failures...8217.. .: -:.. ; .r;./. : ... . :\\ :. . ... . RESULTS The model is compared with several dambreak experiments performed by Jeyapalan et al. [3]. In these...0.34 seconds per computational node. 5i Test 6 Test 2 Test 7 44 E 3 A2 Experimental Results0 Jeyapalan at al. (3) - C6- Numerical Results 4 8 12 i6 Time
Multiple-canister flow and transport code in 2-dimensional space. MCFT2D: user's manual
Lim, Doo-Hyun
2006-03-01
A two-dimensional numerical code, MCFT2D (Multiple-Canister Flow and Transport code in 2-Dimensional space), has been developed for groundwater flow and radionuclide transport analyses in a water-saturated high-level radioactive waste (HLW) repository with multiple canisters. A multiple-canister configuration and a non-uniform flow field of the host rock are incorporated in the MCFT2D code. Effects of heterogeneous flow field of the host rock on migration of nuclides can be investigated using MCFT2D. The MCFT2D enables to take into account the various degrees of the dependency of canister configuration for nuclide migration in a water-saturated HLW repository, while the dependency was assumed to be either independent or perfectly dependent in previous studies. This report presents features of the MCFT2D code, numerical simulation using MCFT2D code, and graphical representation of the numerical results. (author)
Shell-crossing in quasi-one-dimensional flow
Rampf, Cornelius; Frisch, Uriel
2017-10-01
Blow-up of solutions for the cosmological fluid equations, often dubbed shell-crossing or orbit crossing, denotes the breakdown of the single-stream regime of the cold-dark-matter fluid. At this instant, the velocity becomes multi-valued and the density singular. Shell-crossing is well understood in one dimension (1D), but not in higher dimensions. This paper is about quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) flow that depends on all three coordinates but differs only slightly from a strictly 1D flow, thereby allowing a perturbative treatment of shell-crossing using the Euler-Poisson equations written in Lagrangian coordinates. The signature of shell-crossing is then just the vanishing of the Jacobian of the Lagrangian map, a regular perturbation problem. In essence, the problem of the first shell-crossing, which is highly singular in Eulerian coordinates, has been desingularized by switching to Lagrangian coordinates, and can then be handled by perturbation theory. Here, all-order recursion relations are obtained for the time-Taylor coefficients of the displacement field, and it is shown that the Taylor series has an infinite radius of convergence. This allows the determination of the time and location of the first shell-crossing, which is generically shown to be taking place earlier than for the unperturbed 1D flow. The time variable used for these statements is not the cosmic time t but the linear growth time τ ˜ t2/3. For simplicity, calculations are restricted to an Einstein-de Sitter universe in the Newtonian approximation, and tailored initial data are used. However it is straightforward to relax these limitations, if needed.
Laboratory observation of magnetic field growth driven by shear flow
Intrator, T. P., E-mail: intrator@lanl.gov; Feng, Y.; Sears, J.; Weber, T. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, M.S. E526, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Dorf, L. [Applied Materials, Inc., Santa Clara, CA 95054 (United States); Sun, X. [University of Science and Technology, Hefei (China)
2014-04-15
Two magnetic flux ropes that collide and bounce have been characterized in the laboratory. We find screw pinch profiles that include ion flow v{sub i}, magnetic field B, current density J, and plasma pressure. The electron flow v{sub e} can be inferred, allowing the evaluation of the Hall J×B term in a two fluid magnetohydrodynamic Ohm's Law. Flux ropes that are initially cylindrical are mutually attracted and compress each other, which distorts the cylindrical symmetry. Magnetic field is created via the ∇×v{sub e}×B induction term in Ohm's Law where in-plane (perpendicular) shear of parallel flow (along the flux rope) is the dominant feature, along with some dissipation and magnetic reconnection. We predict and measure the growth of a quadrupole out-of-plane magnetic field δB{sub z}. This is a simple and coherent example of a shear flow driven dynamo. There is some similarity with two dimensional reconnection scenarios, which induce a current sheet and thus out-of-plane flow in the third dimension, despite the customary picture that considers flows only in the reconnection plane. These data illustrate a general and deterministic mechanism for large scale sheared flows to acquire smaller scale magnetic features, disordered structure, and possibly turbulence.
Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai
1998-01-01
Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of non-linear coordinate c...
Brøns, Morten; Hartnack, Johan Nicolai
1999-01-01
Streamline patterns and their bifurcations in two-dimensional incompressible flow are investigated from a topological point of view. The velocity field is expanded at a point in the fluid, and the expansion coefficients are considered as bifurcation parameters. A series of nonlinear coordinate ch...
Pattern formation and three-dimensional instability in rotating flows
Christensen, Erik A.; Aubry, Nadine; Sorensen, Jens N.
1997-03-01
A fluid flow enclosed in a cylindrical container where fluid motion is created by the rotation of one end wall as a centrifugal fan is studied. Direct numerical simulations and spatio-temporal analysis have been performed in the early transition scenario, which includes a steady-unsteady transition and a breakdown of axisymmetric to three-dimensional flow behavior. In the early unsteady regime of the flow, the central vortex undergoes a vertical beating motion, accompanied by axisymmetric spikes formation on the edge of the breakdown bubble. As traveling waves, the spikes move along the central vortex core toward the rotating end-wall. As the Reynolds number is increased further, the flow undergoes a three-dimensional instability. The influence of the latter on the previous patterns is studied.
Quantum field between moving mirrors: A three dimensional example
Hacyan, S.; Jauregui, Roco; Villarreal, Carlos
1995-01-01
The scalar quantum field uniformly moving plates in three dimensional space is studied. Field equations for Dirichlet boundary conditions are solved exactly. Comparison of the resulting wavefunctions with their instantaneous static counterpart is performed via Bogolubov coefficients. Unlike the one dimensional problem, 'particle' creation as well as squeezing may occur. The time dependent Casimir energy is also evaluated.
Numerical analysis of flow fields generated by accelerating flames
Kurylo, J.
1977-12-01
Presented here is a numerical technique for the analysis of non-steady flow fields generated by accelerating flames in gaseous media. Of particular interest in the study is the evaluation of the non-steady effects on the flow field and the possible transition of the combustion process to detonation caused by an abrupt change in the burning speed of an initially steady flame propagating in an unconfined combustible gas mixture. Optically recorded observations of accelerating flames established that the flow field can be considered to consist of non-steady flow fields associated with an assembly of interacting shock waves, contact discontinuities, deflagration and detonation fronts. In the analysis, these flow fields are treated as spatially one-dimensional, the influence of transport phenomena is considered to be negligible, and unburned and burned substances are assumed to behave as perfect gases with constant, but different, specific heats. The basis of the numerical technique is an explicit, two step, second order accurate, finite difference scheme employed to integrate the flow field equations expressed in divergence form. The burning speed, governing the motion of the deflagration, is expressed in the form of a power law dependence on pressure and temperature immediately ahead of its front. The steady wave solution is obtained by the vector polar interaction technique, that is, by determining the point of intersection between the loci of end states in the plane of the two interaction invariants, pressure and particle velocity. The technique is illustrated by a numerical example in which a steady flame experiences an abrupt change in its burning speed. Solutions correspond either to the eventual reestablishment of a steady state flow field commensurate with the burning speed or to the transition to detonation. The results are in satisfactory agreement with experimental observations.
Numerical Study of Flow Motion and Patterns Driven by a Rotating Permanent Helical Magnetic Field
Yang, Wenzhi; Wang, Xiaodong; Wang, Bo; Baltaretu, Florin; Etay, Jacqueline; Fautrelle, Yves
2016-10-01
Liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic flow driven by a rotating permanent helical magnetic field in a cylindrical container is numerically studied. A three-dimensional numerical simulation provides insight into the visualization of the physical fields, including the magnetic field, the Lorentz force density, and the flow structures, especially the flow patterns in the meridional plane. Because the screen parameter is sufficiently small, the model is decoupled into electromagnetic and hydrodynamic components. Two flow patterns in the meridional plane, i.e., the global flow and the secondary flow, are discovered and the impact of several system parameters on their transition is investigated. Finally, a verifying model is used for comparison with the previous experiment.
Three Dimensional Steady Subsonic Euler Flows in Bounded Nozzles
Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing
2013-01-01
In this paper, we study the existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady Euler flows in rectangular nozzles when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the exit are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal compon...
The three-dimensional compressible flow in a radial inflow turbine scroll
Hamed, A.; Tabakoff, W.; Malak, M.
1984-01-01
This work presents the results of an analytical study and an experimental investigation of the three-dimensional flow in a turbine scroll. The finite element method is used in the iterative numerical solution of the locally linearized governing equations for the three-dimensional velocity potential field. The results of the numerical computations are compared with the experimental measurements in the scroll cross sections, which were obtained using laser Doppler velocimetry and hot wire techniques. The results of the computations show a variation in the flow conditions around the rotor periphery which was found to depend on the scroll geometry.
A finite area scheme for shallow granular flows on three-dimensional surfaces
Rauter, Matthias
2017-04-01
Shallow granular flow models have become a popular tool for the estimation of natural hazards, such as landslides, debris flows and avalanches. The shallowness of the flow allows to reduce the three-dimensional governing equations to a quasi two-dimensional system. Three-dimensional flow fields are replaced by their depth-integrated two-dimensional counterparts, which yields a robust and fast method [1]. A solution for a simple shallow granular flow model, based on the so-called finite area method [3] is presented. The finite area method is an adaption of the finite volume method [4] to two-dimensional curved surfaces in three-dimensional space. This method handles the three dimensional basal topography in a simple way, making the model suitable for arbitrary (but mildly curved) topography, such as natural terrain. Furthermore, the implementation into the open source software OpenFOAM [4] is shown. OpenFOAM is a popular computational fluid dynamics application, designed so that the top-level code mimics the mathematical governing equations. This makes the code easy to read and extendable to more sophisticated models. Finally, some hints on how to get started with the code and how to extend the basic model will be given. I gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the OEAW project "beyond dense flow avalanches". Savage, S. B. & Hutter, K. 1989 The motion of a finite mass of granular material down a rough incline. Journal of Fluid Mechanics 199, 177-215. Ferziger, J. & Peric, M. 2002 Computational methods for fluid dynamics, 3rd edn. Springer. Tukovic, Z. & Jasak, H. 2012 A moving mesh finite volume interface tracking method for surface tension dominated interfacial fluid flow. Computers & fluids 55, 70-84. Weller, H. G., Tabor, G., Jasak, H. & Fureby, C. 1998 A tensorial approach to computational continuum mechanics using object-oriented techniques. Computers in physics 12(6), 620-631.
Flow-synchronous field motion refrigeration
Hassen, Charles N.
2017-08-22
An improved method to manage the flow of heat in an active regenerator in a magnetocaloric or an electrocaloric heat-pump refrigeration system, in which heat exchange fluid moves synchronously with the motion of a magnetic or electric field. Only a portion of the length of the active regenerator bed is introduced to or removed from the field at one time, and the heat exchange fluid flows from the cold side toward the hot side while the magnetic or electric field moves along the active regenerator bed.
Three-Dimensional Mapping of Air Flow at an Urban Canyon Intersection
Carpentieri, Matteo; Robins, Alan G.; Baldi, Sandro
2009-11-01
In this experimental work both qualitative (flow visualisation) and quantitative (laser Doppler anemometry) methods were applied in a wind tunnel in order to describe the complex three-dimensional flow field in a real environment (a street canyon intersection). The main aim was an examination of the mean flow, turbulence and flow pathlines characterising a complex three-dimensional urban location. The experiments highlighted the complexity of the observed flows, particularly in the upwind region of the intersection. In this complex and realistic situation some details of the upwind flow, such as the presence of two tall towers, play an important role in defining the flow field within the intersection, particularly at roof level. This effect is likely to have a strong influence on the mass exchange mechanism between the canopy flow and the air aloft, and therefore the distribution of pollutants. This strong interaction between the flows inside and outside the urban canopy is currently neglected in most state-of-the-art local scale dispersion models.
Approximate characteristics for one-dimensional two-phase flows
Sarayloo, A.; Peddleson, J.
1985-01-01
An approximate method for determining the characteristics associated with one-dimensional particulate two-phase flow models is presented. The method is based on iteration and is valid for small particulate volume fractions. The method is applied to several special cases involving incompressible particles suspended in a gas. The influences of certain changes in the physical model are investigated
One-dimensional energy flow model for poroelastic material
Kim, Jung Soo; Kang, Yeon June
2009-01-01
This paper presents a one-dimensional energy flow model to investigate the energy behavior for poroelastic media coupled with acoustical media. The proposed energy flow model is expressed by an independent energy governing equation that is classified into each wave component propagating in poroelastic media. The energy governing equation is derived using the General Energetic Method (GEM). To facilitate a comparison with the classical solution based on the conventional displacement-base formulation, approximate solutions of energy density and intensity are obtained. Furthermore, the limitations and usability of the proposed energy flow model for poroelastic media are described.
Chung, Stephen-wei.
1993-01-01
The authors first construct new parafermions in two-dimensional conformal field theory, generalizing the Z L parafermion theories from integer L to rational L. These non-unitary parafermions have some novel features: an infinite number of currents with negative conformal dimensions for most (if not all) of them. String functions of these new parafermion theories are calculated. They also construct new representations of N = 2 superconformal field theories, whose characters are obtained in terms of these new string functions. They then generalize Felder's BRST cohomology method to construct the characters and branching functions of the SU(2) L x SU(2) K /SU(2) K+L coset theories, where one of the (K,L) is an integer. This method of obtaining the branching functions also serves as a check of their new Z L parafermion theories. The next topic is the Lagrangian formulation of conformal field theory. They construct a chiral gauged WZW theory where the gauge fields are chiral and belong to the subgroups H L and H R , which can be different groups. This new construction is beyond the ordinary vector gauged WZW theory, whose gauge group H is a subgroup of both G L and G R . In the special case where H L = H R , the quantum theory of chiral gauged WZW theory is equivalent to that of the vector gauged WZW theory. It can be further shown that the chiral gauged WZW theory is equivalent to [G L /H L ](z) direct-product [G R /H R ](bar z) coset models in conformal field theory. In the second half of this thesis, they construct topological lattice field theories in three dimensions. After defining a general class of local lattice field theories, they impose invariance under arbitrary topology-preserving deformations of the underlying lattice, which are generated by two local lattice moves. Invariant solutions are in one-to-one correspondence with Hopf algebras satisfying a certain constraint
Channel flow analysis. [velocity distribution throughout blade flow field
Katsanis, T.
1973-01-01
The design of a proper blade profile requires calculation of the blade row flow field in order to determine the velocities on the blade surfaces. An analysis theory is presented for several methods used for this calculation and associated computer programs that were developed are discussed.
Three-dimensional flow measurements induced from serpentine plasma actuators in quiescent air
Durscher, R J; Roy, S
2012-01-01
This paper presents three-dimensional flow measurements performed on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) actuator with the electrodes in a serpentine design. Such a configuration induces a local pinching and a local spreading of the fluid as one follows along the span of the actuator. In this work two different variations on the serpentine configuration are evaluated: one constructed from patterned circular arcs and one from patterned rectangles. The influence of applied voltage is studied for the former case. To quantify these effects stereo particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to generate time averaged, spatially resolved measurements of the detailed flow structure. The three components of the velocity vector are measured along spanwise and streamwise cuts. These slices are then reconstructed to provide a three-dimensional view of the induced flow field. The results for the induced flow fields are also compared with stereo-PIV measurements made on a standard linear DBD actuator. A truly three-dimensional induced flow field was observed as a result of the serpentine configuration. These designs could be beneficial for rapid mixing of the local fluid. (paper)
John, Bibin; Surendranath, Srikanth; Natarajan, Ganesh; Kulkarni, Vinayak
2016-01-01
Highlights: • Leading edge bluntness based separation control has been analysed numerically for 2D and axi-symmetric flows. • Differential growth of entropy layer in the streamwise direction in these cases leads to different interaction with respective boundary layers. • Separation control is found possible for planar flows beyond a critical radius called as equivalent radius. • No equivalent radius has been noticed in axi-symmertric flows in the present studies due to thin entropy layer and lack of favourable pressure gradient. - Abstract: Present investigations are centered on passive control of shock wave boundary layer interaction (SWBLI) for double cone and double wedge configurations with leading edge bluntness. This study seeks the differences in the flow physics of SWBLI in case of two dimensional (2D) and axisymmetric flow fields. In-house developed second order accurate finite-volume 2D axisymmetric compressible flow solver is employed for these studies. It is observed that the idea of leading edge bluntness offers reduction in separation bubble for 2D flow fields, whereas it leads to enhanced separation zone in case of axisymmetric flow fields. Relevant flow physics is well explored herein using wall pressure profile and relative thicknesses of boundary layer and entropy layer. Thicker entropy layer and stronger favorable pressure gradient are found responsible for the possibility of separation control in case of 2D flow fields. Thin entropy layer due to three dimensional relieving effect and its swallowing by the boundary layer are attributed for higher separation bubble size in case of cone with range of radii under consideration.
Numerical analysis of blast flow-field of baffle type muzzle brake
Kim, D.H. [Graduate School, Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea); Ko, S. [Chungnam National University, Taejon (Korea)
1998-11-01
A three-dimensional unsteady, inviscid blast flow-field of a baffle type muzzle brake has been simulated by solving the Euler equation. The blast flow-field includes the effect of the free air blast, precursor blast flow and the propellant blast gas flow. Chimera grid scheme was used to generate 9 multi-block volume grids for the complex geometry. The evolution of the blast flow-field is presented by showing the contours of pressure, density and Mach number for certain time step. The comparison of the calculated and measured peak pressures on the surfaces of the muzzle brake is also presented. (author). 4 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.
Three-dimensional numerical study of flow and heat transfer from a cube placed in a uniform flow
Saha, A.K.
2006-01-01
The fluid flow and heat transfer from a stationary cube placed in a uniform flow is studied numerically. The three-dimensional unsteady Navier Stokes and energy equations are solved using higher order temporal and spatial discretizations. Computations are carried out for a Reynolds number range of 50-400. At Re = 218, the symmetry seen at Re = 216 breaks down in one of the orthogonal planes while remains symmetric on the other thus showing a planar symmetry. The flow experiences a Hopf bifurcation at a Reynolds number between 265 and 270 and becomes unsteady. The thermal field also shows all the transitions same as those of flow transitions. The drag coefficient decreases while the heat transfer shows an increasing trend with Reynolds number. The transition from a steady to an unsteady flow does not show any significant increase in the heat transfer. Both the flow and thermal fields show multiple frequencies at high Reynolds number and the number of frequencies increases with the increase in Reynolds number. The instantaneous flow and temperature field are seen to deviate from planar symmetry at Re = 400
Improved modeling techniques for turbomachinery flow fields
Lakshminarayana, B. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Fagan, J.R. Jr. [Allison Engine Company, Indianapolis, IN (United States)
1995-10-01
This program has the objective of developing an improved methodology for modeling turbomachinery flow fields, including the prediction of losses and efficiency. Specifically, the program addresses the treatment of the mixing stress tensor terms attributed to deterministic flow field mechanisms required in steady-state Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) models for turbo-machinery flow fields. These mixing stress tensors arise due to spatial and temporal fluctuations (in an absolute frame of reference) caused by rotor-stator interaction due to various blade rows and by blade-to-blade variation of flow properties. These tasks include the acquisition of previously unavailable experimental data in a high-speed turbomachinery environment, the use of advanced techniques to analyze the data, and the development of a methodology to treat the deterministic component of the mixing stress tensor. Penn State will lead the effort to make direct measurements of the momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors in high-speed multistage compressor flow field in the turbomachinery laboratory at Penn State. They will also process the data by both conventional and conditional spectrum analysis to derive momentum and thermal mixing stress tensors due to blade-to-blade periodic and aperiodic components, revolution periodic and aperiodic components arising from various blade rows and non-deterministic (which includes random components) correlations. The modeling results from this program will be publicly available and generally applicable to steady-state Navier-Stokes solvers used for turbomachinery component (compressor or turbine) flow field predictions. These models will lead to improved methodology, including loss and efficiency prediction, for the design of high-efficiency turbomachinery and drastically reduce the time required for the design and development cycle of turbomachinery.
Predicting transition in two- and three-dimensional separated flows
Cutrone, L.; De Palma, P.; Pascazio, G.; Napolitano, M.
2008-01-01
This paper is concerned with the numerical prediction of two- and three-dimensional transitional separated flows of turbomachinery interest. The recently proposed single-point transition model based on the use of a laminar kinetic energy transport equation is considered, insofar as it does not require to evaluate any integral parameter, such as boundary-layer thickness, and is thus directly applicable to three-dimensional flows. A well established model, combining a transition-onset correlation with an intermittency transport equation, is also used for comparison. Both models are implemented within a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes solver employing a low-Reynolds-number k-ω turbulence model. The performance of the transition models have been evaluated and tested versus well-documented incompressible flows past a flat plate with semi-circular leading edge, namely: tests T3L2, T3L3, T3L5, and T3LA1 of ERCOFTAC, with different Reynolds numbers and free-stream conditions, the last one being characterized by a non-zero pressure gradient. In all computations, the first model has proven as adequate as or superior to the second one and has been then applied with success to two more complex test cases, for which detailed experimental data are available in the literature, namely: the two- and three-dimensional flows through the T106 linear turbine cascade
Measuring three-dimensional flow structures in the conductive airways using 3D-PTV
Janke, Thomas; Schwarze, Rüdiger; Bauer, Katrin
2017-10-01
Detailed information about flow patterns and mass transport in the conductive airways is of crucial interest to improve ventilation strategies as well as targeted drug delivery. Despite a vast number of flow studies in this field, there is still a dearth in experimental data of three-dimensional flow patterns, in particular for the validation of numerical results. Therefore, oscillating flow within a realistic model of the upper human conductive airways is studied here experimentally. The investigated range of Reynolds numbers is Re = 250-2000 and the Womersley number is varied between α = 1.9-5.1, whereby physiological flow at rest conditions is included. In employing the three-dimensional particle tracking velocimetry measurement technique, we can directly visualize airway specific flow structures as well as examine Lagrangian trajectory statistics, which has not been covered to date. The systematic variation of characteristic flow parameters in combination with the advanced visualization technique sheds new light on the mechanisms of evolving flow patterns. By determining Lagrangian properties such as pathline curvature and torsion, we find that both strongly depend on the Reynolds number. Moreover, the probability density function of the curvature reveals a unique shape for certain flow regions and resembles a turbulent like behavior at the small scales.
Codimension-one tangency bifurcations of global Poincare maps of four-dimensional vector fields
Krauskopf, B.; Lee, C.M.; Osinga, H.M.
2009-01-01
When one considers a Poincarreturn map on a general unbounded (n - 1)-dimensional section for a vector field in R-n there are typically points where the flow is tangent to the section. The only notable exception is when the system is (equivalent to) a periodically forced system. The tangencies can
Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields
Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S
2002-01-01
A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation
Flow field mapping in data rack model
Matěcha J.
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to map the flow field inside the data rack model, fitted with three 1U server models. The server model is based on the common four-processor 1U server. The main dimensions of the data rack model geometry are taken fully from the real geometry. Only the model was simplified with respect to the greatest possibility in the experimental measurements. The flow field mapping was carried out both experimentally and numerically. PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry method was used for the experimental flow field mapping, when the flow field has been mapped for defined regions within the 2D/3D data rack model. Ansys CFX and OpenFOAM software were used for the numerical solution. Boundary conditions for numerical model were based on data obtained from experimental measurement of velocity profile at the output of the server mockup. This velocity profile was used as the input boundary condition in the calculation. In order to achieve greater consistency of the numerical model with experimental data, the numerical model was modified with regard to the results of experimental measurements. Results from the experimental and numerical measurements were compared and the areas of disparateness were identified. In further steps the obtained proven numerical model will be utilized for the real geometry of data racks and data.
Hamed, A.; Herring, J.; Povinelli, L.
1985-01-01
Papers in this volume provide an overview of the latest developments in experimental measurements and analytical and numerical predictions of three-dimensional flows in fluid machinery. Topics discussed include three-dimensional cascade testing of turbine nozzles at high exit Mach number; the use of a secondary flow computation in the compressor design process; an experimental investigation of static propeller flow field; and calculation of three-dimensional boundary layers on rotating turbine blades. Papers are also presented on a three-dimensional solution method for turbomachinery analysis; analysis of rotational inviscid flows in curved passages; and a mathematical model for the analysis of fluid flow in a scroll
Elevator mode convection in flows with strong magnetic fields
Liu, Li; Zikanov, Oleg, E-mail: zikanov@umich.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Michigan-Dearborn, 48128-1491 Michigan (United States)
2015-04-15
Instability modes in the form of axially uniform vertical jets, also called “elevator modes,” are known to be the solutions of thermal convection problems for vertically unbounded systems. Typically, their relevance to the actual flow state is limited by three-dimensional breakdown caused by rapid growth of secondary instabilities. We consider a flow of a liquid metal in a vertical duct with a heated wall and strong transverse magnetic field and find elevator modes that are stable and, thus, not just relevant, but a dominant feature of the flow. We then explore the hypothesis suggested by recent experimental data that an analogous instability to modes of slow axial variation develops in finite-length ducts, where it causes large-amplitude fluctuations of temperature. The implications for liquid metal blankets for tokamak fusion reactors that potentially invalidate some of the currently pursued design concepts are discussed.
Explicit Solutions for One-Dimensional Mean-Field Games
Prazeres, Mariana
2017-01-01
In this thesis, we consider stationary one-dimensional mean-field games (MFGs) with or without congestion. Our aim is to understand the qualitative features of these games through the analysis of explicit solutions. We are particularly interested
A three-dimensional field solutions of Halbach
Chen Jizhong; Xiao Jijun; Zhang Yiming; Xu Chunyan
2008-01-01
A three-dimensional field solutions are presented for Halback cylinder magnet. Based on Ampere equivalent current methods, the permanent magnets are taken as distributing of current density. For getting the three-dimensional field solution of ideal polarized permanent magnets, the solution method entails the use of the vector potential and involves the closed-form integration of the free-space Green's function. The programmed field solution are ideal for performing rapid parametric studies of the dipole Halback cylinder magnets made from rare earth materials. The field solutions are verified by both an analytical two-dimensional algorithm and three-dimensional finite element software. A rapid method is presented for extensive analyzing and optimizing Halbach cylinder magnet. (authors)
Gibbs perturbations of a two-dimensional gauge field
Petrova, E.N.
1981-01-01
Small Gibbs perturbations of random fields have been investigated up to now for a few initial fields only. Among them there are independent fields, Gaussian fields and some others. The possibility for the investigation of Gibbs modifications of a random field depends essentially on the existence of good estimates for semiinvariants of this field. This is the reason why the class of random fields for which the investigation of Gibbs perturbations with arbitrary potential of bounded support is possible is rather small. The author takes as initial a well-known model: a two-dimensional gauge field. (Auth.)
Two-dimensional analysis of motion artifacts, including flow effects
Litt, A.M.; Brody, A.S.; Spangler, R.A.; Scott, P.D.
1990-01-01
The effects of motion on magnetic resonance images have been theoretically analyzed for the case of a point-like object in simple harmonic motion and for other one-dimensional trajectories. The authors of this paper extend this analysis to a generalized two-dimensional magnetization with an arbitrary motion trajectory. The authors provide specific solutions for the clinically relevant cases of the cross-sections of cylindrical objects in the body, such as the aorta, which has a roughly one-dimensional, simple harmonic motion during respiration. By extending the solution to include inhomogeneous magnetizations, the authors present a model which allows the effects of motion artifacts and flow artifacts to be analyzed simultaneously
Stochastic and collisional diffusion in two-dimensional periodic flows
Doxas, I.; Horton, W.; Berk, H.L.
1990-05-01
The global effective diffusion coefficient D* for a two-dimensional system of convective rolls with a time dependent perturbation added, is calculated. The perturbation produces a background diffusion coefficient D, which is calculated analytically using the Menlikov-Arnold integral. This intrinsic diffusion coefficient is then enhanced by the unperturbed flow, to produce the global effective diffusion coefficient D*, which we can calculate theoretically for a certain range of parameters. The theoretical value agrees well with numerical simulations. 23 refs., 4 figs
Multi-dimensional two-fluid flow computation. An overview
Carver, M.B.
1992-01-01
This paper discusses a repertoire of three-dimensional computer programs developed to perform critical analysis of single-phase, two-phase and multi-fluid flow in reactor components. The basic numerical approach to solving the governing equations common to all the codes is presented and the additional constitutive relationships required for closure are discussed. Particular applications are presented for a number of computer codes. (author). 12 refs
Coding for Two Dimensional Constrained Fields
Laursen, Torben Vaarbye
2006-01-01
a first order model to model higher order constraints by the use of an alphabet extension. We present an iterative method that based on a set of conditional probabilities can help in choosing the large numbers of parameters of the model in order to obtain a stationary model. Explicit results are given...... for the No Isolated Bits constraint. Finally we present a variation of the encoding scheme of bit-stuffing that is applicable to the class of checkerboard constrained fields. It is possible to calculate the entropy of the coding scheme thus obtaining lower bounds on the entropy of the fields considered. These lower...... bounds are very tight for the Run-Length limited fields. Explicit bounds are given for the diamond constrained field as well....
Three-dimensional features on oscillating microbubbles streaming flows
Rossi, Massimiliano; Marin, Alvaro G.; Wang, Cheng; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Kähler, Christian J.
2013-11-01
Ultrasound-driven oscillating micro-bubbles have been used as active actuators in microfluidic devices to perform manifold tasks such as mixing, sorting and manipulation of microparticles. A common configuration consists in side-bubbles, created by trapping air pockets in blind channels perpendicular to the main channel direction. This configuration results in bubbles with a semi-cylindrical shape that creates a streaming flow generally considered quasi two-dimensional. However, recent experiments performed with three-dimensional velocimetry methods have shown how microparticles can present significant three-dimensional trajectories, especially in regions close to the bubble interface. Several reasons will be discussed such as boundary effects of the bottom/top wall, deformation of the bubble interface leading to more complex vibrational modes, or bubble-particle interactions. In the present investigation, precise measurements of particle trajectories close to the bubble interface will be performed by means of 3D Astigmatic Particle Tracking Velocimetry. The results will allow us to characterize quantitatively the three-dimensional features of the streaming flow and to estimate its implications in practical applications as particle trapping, sorting or mixing.
Three-dimensional numerical study of heat transfer enhancement in separated flows
Kumar, Saurav; Vengadesan, S.
2017-11-01
The flow separation appears in a wide range of heat transfer applications and causes poor heat transfer performance. It motivates the study of heat transfer enhancement in laminar as well as turbulent flows over a backward facing step by means of an adiabatic fin mounted on the top wall. Recently, we have studied steady, 2-D numerical simulations in laminar flow and investigated the effect of fin length, location, and orientation. It revealed that the addition of fin causes enhancement of heat transfer and it is very effective to control the flow and thermal behavior. The fin is most effective and sensitive when it is placed exactly above the step. A slight displacement of the fin in upstream of the step causes the complete change of flow and thermal behavior. Based on the obtained 2-D results it is interesting to investigate the side wall effect in three-dimensional simulations. The comparison of two-dimensional and three-dimensional numerical simulations with the available experimental results will be presented. Special attention has to be given to capture unsteadiness in the flow and thermal field.
Interactive flow field around two Savonius turbines
Shigetomi, Akinari; Murai, Yuichi; Tasaka, Yuji; Takeda, Yasushi [Laboratory for Flow Control, Division of Energy and Environmental System, Faculty of Engineering, Hokkaido University, N13W8, Sapporo 060-8628 (Japan)
2011-02-15
The use of a Savonius type of vertical axis wind turbine is expanding in urban environments as a result of its ability to withstand turbulence as well as its relatively quiet operation. In the past, single turbine performance has been investigated primarily for determining the optimum blade configuration. In contrast, combining multiple Savonius turbines in the horizontal plane produces extra power in particular configurations. This results from the interaction between the two flow fields around individual turbines. To understand quantitatively the interaction mechanism, we measured the flow field around two Savonius turbines in close configurations using particle image velocimetry. The phase-averaged flow fields with respect to the rotation angle of the turbines revealed two types of power-improvement interactions. One comes from the Magnus effect that bends the main stream behind the turbine to provide additional rotation of the downstream turbine. The other is obtained from the periodic coupling of local flow between the two turbines, which is associated with vortex shedding and cyclic pressure fluctuations. Use of this knowledge will assist the design of packaged installations of multiple Savonius turbines. (author)
Field aligned flows driven by neutral puffing at MAST
Waters, I.; Frerichs, H.; Silburn, S.; Feng, Y.; Harrison, J.; Kirk, A.; Schmitz, O.
2018-06-01
Neutral deuterium gas puffing at the high field side of the mega ampere spherical tokamak (MAST) is shown to drive carbon impurity flows that are aligned with the trajectory of the magnetic field lines in the plasma scrape-off-layer. These impurity flows were directly imaged with emissions from C2+ ions at MAST by coherence imaging spectroscopy and were qualitatively reproduced in deuterium plasmas by modeling with the EMC3-EIRENE plasma edge fluid and kinetic neutral transport code. A reduced one-dimensional momentum and particle balance shows that a localized increase in the static plasma pressure in front of the neutral gas puff yields an acceleration of the plasma due to local ionization. Perpendicular particle transport yields a decay from which a parallel length scale can be determined. Parameter scans in EMC3-EIRENE were carried out to determine the sensitivity of the deuterium plasma flow phenomena to local fueling and diffusion parameters and it is found that these flows robustly form across a wide variety of plasma conditions. Finally, efforts to couple this behavior in the background plasma directly to the impurity flows observed experimentally in MAST using a trace impurity model are discussed. These results provide insight into the fueling and exhaust features at this pivotal point of the radial and parallel particle flux balance, which is a major part of the plasma fueling and exhaust characteristics in a magnetically confined fusion device.
Three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann model for compressible flows.
Sun, Chenghai; Hsu, Andrew T
2003-07-01
A three-dimensional compressible lattice Boltzmann model is formulated on a cubic lattice. A very large particle-velocity set is incorporated in order to enable a greater variation in the mean velocity. Meanwhile, the support set of the equilibrium distribution has only six directions. Therefore, this model can efficiently handle flows over a wide range of Mach numbers and capture shock waves. Due to the simple form of the equilibrium distribution, the fourth-order velocity tensors are not involved in the formulation. Unlike the standard lattice Boltzmann model, no special treatment is required for the homogeneity of fourth-order velocity tensors on square lattices. The Navier-Stokes equations were recovered, using the Chapman-Enskog method from the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook (BGK) lattice Boltzmann equation. The second-order discretization error of the fluctuation velocity in the macroscopic conservation equation was eliminated by means of a modified collision invariant. The model is suitable for both viscous and inviscid compressible flows with or without shocks. Since the present scheme deals only with the equilibrium distribution that depends only on fluid density, velocity, and internal energy, boundary conditions on curved wall are easily implemented by an extrapolation of macroscopic variables. To verify the scheme for inviscid flows, we have successfully simulated a three-dimensional shock-wave propagation in a box and a normal shock of Mach number 10 over a wedge. As an application to viscous flows, we have simulated a flat plate boundary layer flow, flow over a cylinder, and a transonic flow over a NACA0012 airfoil cascade.
Path planning in uncertain flow fields using ensemble method
Wang, Tong
2016-08-20
An ensemble-based approach is developed to conduct optimal path planning in unsteady ocean currents under uncertainty. We focus our attention on two-dimensional steady and unsteady uncertain flows, and adopt a sampling methodology that is well suited to operational forecasts, where an ensemble of deterministic predictions is used to model and quantify uncertainty. In an operational setting, much about dynamics, topography, and forcing of the ocean environment is uncertain. To address this uncertainty, the flow field is parametrized using a finite number of independent canonical random variables with known densities, and the ensemble is generated by sampling these variables. For each of the resulting realizations of the uncertain current field, we predict the path that minimizes the travel time by solving a boundary value problem (BVP), based on the Pontryagin maximum principle. A family of backward-in-time trajectories starting at the end position is used to generate suitable initial values for the BVP solver. This allows us to examine and analyze the performance of the sampling strategy and to develop insight into extensions dealing with general circulation ocean models. In particular, the ensemble method enables us to perform a statistical analysis of travel times and consequently develop a path planning approach that accounts for these statistics. The proposed methodology is tested for a number of scenarios. We first validate our algorithms by reproducing simple canonical solutions, and then demonstrate our approach in more complex flow fields, including idealized, steady and unsteady double-gyre flows.
Identification of flow paths and quantification of return flow volumes and timing at field scale
Claes, N.; Paige, G. B.; Parsekian, A.
2017-12-01
Flood irrigation, which constitutes a large part of agricultural water use, accounts for a significant amount of the water that is diverted from western streams. Return flow, the portion of the water applied to irrigated areas that returns to the stream, is important for maintaining base flows in streams and ecological function of riparian zones and wetlands hydrologically linked with streams. Prediction of timing and volumes of return flow during and after flood irrigation pose a challenge due to the heterogeneity of pedogenic and soil physical factors that influence vadose zone processes. In this study, we quantify volumes of return flow and potential pathways in the subsurface through a vadose zone flow model that is informed by both hydrological and geophysical observations in a Bayesian setting. We couple a two-dimensional vadose zone flow model through a Bayesian Markov Chain Monte Carlo approach with time lapse ERT, borehole NMR datasets that are collected during and after flood irrigation experiments, and soil physical lab analysis. The combination of both synthetic models and field observations leads to flow path identification and allows for quantification of volumes and timing and associated uncertainties of subsurface return that stems from flood irrigation. The quantification of the impact of soil heterogeneity enables us to translate these results to other sites and predict return flow under different soil physical settings. This is key when managing irrigation water resources and predictions of outcomes of different scenarios have to be evaluated.
Three dimensional computations of the flow around a LM19 rotor
Hambraeus, T. [FFA, Bromma (Sweden)
1997-12-31
To achieve insight in the flow phenomenon occurring in wind power engineering modeling of the flow through the basic governing equations, Navier-Stokes and Euler, can be a great complement to experiments and other computational methods such as the BEM (Blade Element Momentum). Navier-Stokes methods is regularly used in prediction of air-foil flows but then mostly under attached flow conditions. One of the main differences between air-foil computations for aircraft industry and computations for wind turbine applications is that the former is not very interested in separated flow while for the latter case this is part of the operating conditions. It has been noted that separated flow poses problems since the most popular turbulence models such as Baldwin-Lomax and the {kappa}-{epsilon} model seems to over estimate the amount of turbulent viscosity produced and thus suppressing the separation. The work with finding better turbulence models is presently an area with large amount of research offering improved models. However, in the present report only the two mentioned turbulence models have been used. The present report shows computational results obtained with the Navier-Stokes solver EU-RANUS. First the results from a two-dimensional verification cases are shown to verify that the solver produces results comparable with other solvers. The flow computed is attached flow and slightly separated flow over the so called Profile-A. Secondly three dimensional computations of the flow over a full three dimensional rotor at attached and stalled conditions is shown. The computed results are compared with measured power data from field experiments. (EG)
Electromagnetic field in higher-dimensional black-hole spacetimes
Krtous, Pavel
2007-01-01
A special test electromagnetic field in the spacetime of the higher-dimensional generally rotating NUT-(anti-)de Sitter black hole is found. It is adjusted to the hidden symmetries of the background represented by the principal Killing-Yano tensor. Such an electromagnetic field generalizes the field of charged black hole in four dimensions. In higher dimensions, however, the gravitational backreaction of such a field cannot be consistently solved
Flow field of flexible flapping wings
Sallstrom, Erik
The agility and maneuverability of natural fliers would be desirable to incorporate into engineered micro air vehicles (MAVs). However, there is still much for engineers to learn about flapping flight in order to understand how such vehicles can be built for efficient flying. The goal of this study is to develop a methodology for capturing high quality flow field data around flexible flapping wings in a hover environment and to interpret it to gain a better understanding of how aerodynamic forces are generated. The flow field data was captured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) and required that measurements be taken around a repeatable flapping motion to obtain phase-averaged data that could be studied throughout the flapping cycle. Therefore, the study includes the development of flapping devices with a simple repeatable single degree of freedom flapping motion. The acquired flow field data has been examined qualitatively and quantitatively to investigate the mechanisms behind force production in hovering flight and to relate it to observations in previous research. Specifically, the flow fields have been investigated around a rigid wing and several carbon fiber reinforced flexible membrane wings. Throughout the whole study the wings were actuated with either a sinusoidal or a semi-linear flapping motion. The semi-linear flapping motion holds the commanded angular velocity nearly constant through half of each half-stroke while the sinusoidal motion is always either accelerating or decelerating. The flow fields were investigated by examining vorticity and vortex structures, using the Q criterion as the definition for the latter, in two and three dimensions. The measurements were combined with wing deflection measurements to demonstrate some of the key links in how the fluid-structure interactions generated aerodynamic forces. The flow fields were also used to calculate the forces generated by the flapping wings using momentum balance methods which yielded
Rauf, A., E-mail: raufamar@ciitsahiwal.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Siddiq, M.K. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Abbasi, F.M. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Meraj, M.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Ashraf, M. [Centre for Advanced Studies in Pure and Applied Mathematics, Department of Mathematics, Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan 63000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan)
2016-10-15
The present work deals with the steady laminar three-dimensional mixed convective magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid over a bidirectional stretching surface. A uniform magnetic field is applied normal to the flow direction. Similarity variables are implemented to convert the non-linear partial differential equations into ordinary ones. Convective boundary conditions are utilized at surface of the sheet. A numerical technique of Runge–Kutta–Fehlberg (RFK45) is used to obtain the results of velocity, temperature and concentration fields. The physical dimensionless parameters are discussed through tables and graphs. - Highlights: • Mixed convective boundary layer flow of Casson nanofluid is taken into account. • Impact of magnetic field is examined. • Convective heat and mass conditions are imposed. • Numerical solutions are presented and discussed.
Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner
Xiao-bo Lai
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three-dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k-∊ turbulence model of three-dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.
Research on Duct Flow Field Optimisation of a Robot Vacuum Cleaner
Xiao-bo Lai
2011-11-01
Full Text Available The duct of a robot vacuum cleaner is the length of the flow channel between the inlet of the rolling brush blower and the outlet of the vacuum blower. To cope with the pressure drop problem of the duct flow field in a robot vacuum cleaner, a method based on Pressure Implicit with Splitting of Operators (PRISO algorithm is introduced and the optimisation design of the duct flow field is implemented. Firstly, the duct structure in a robot vacuum cleaner is taken as a research object, with the computational fluid dynamics (CFD theories adopted; a three‐dimensional fluid model of the duct is established by means of the FLUENT solver of the CFD software. Secondly, with the k‐ε turbulence model of three‐ dimensional incompressible fluid considered and the PRISO pressure modification algorithm employed, the flow field numerical simulations inside the duct of the robot vacuum cleaner are carried out. Then, the velocity vector plots on the arbitrary plane of the duct flow field are obtained. Finally, an investigation of the dynamic characteristics of the duct flow field is done and defects of the original duct flow field are analysed, the optimisation of the original flow field has then been conducted. Experimental results show that the duct flow field after optimisation can effectively reduce pressure drop, the feasibility as well as the correctness of the theoretical modelling and optimisation approaches are validated.
Three-dimensional numerical simulation of natural convection under the influence of magnetic fields
Moessner, R.
1996-04-01
This report deals with the influence of strong magnetic fields on three-dimensional natural convection. First the dimensionless basic equations are derived in cartesian coordinates. This equations are solved numerically in rectangular domains with a Finite-Difference-Method. The following calculations investigate the flow in an electrically insulated cube which is heated and cooled at side walls. It is possible to perform systematic computations for the variation of the direction of the magnetic field and thermal boundary conditions. (orig.)
Sultan - forced flow, high field test facility
Horvath, I.; Vecsey, G.; Weymuth, P.; Zellweger, J.
1981-01-01
Three European laboratories: CNEN (Frascati, I) ECN (Petten, NL) and SIN (Villigen, CH) decided to coordinate their development efforts and to install a common high field forced flow test facility at Villigen Switzerland. The test facility SULTAN (Supraleiter Testanlage) is presently under construction. As a first step, an 8T/1m bore solenoid with cryogenic periphery will be ready in 1981. The cryogenic system, data acquisition system and power supplies which are contributed by SIN are described. Experimental feasibilities, including cooling, and instrumentation are reviewed. Progress of components and facility construction is described. Planned extension of the background field up to 12T by insert coils is outlined. 5 refs
Song, P P; Wei, M S; Shi, L; Ma, C C
2013-01-01
Three-dimensional numerical simulations of a scroll expander were performed with dynamic mesh technology. R245fa was selected as the working fluid in the simulations. The PISO algorithm was applied to solve the governing equations with RNG k-ε turbulent model. The distribution and variation of three-dimensional flow field inside the scroll expander were obtained. The research indicates that the flow field is nonuniform and asymmetrical distributions exist inside the expander. Vortex flows also exist in some working chambers. Dynamic clearance leakage flows and inlet orifice throttling have great effects on the flow field distribution. Transient output torque and the mass flux have periodic fluctuations during the working cycles
Bhateja, Ashish; Khakhar, Devang V.
2018-06-01
We consider the rheology of steady two-dimensional granular flows, in different geometries, using discrete element method-based simulations of soft spheres. The flow classification parameter (ψ ), which defines the local flow type (ranging from pure rotation to simple shear to pure extension), varies spatially, to a significant extent, in the flows. We find that the material behaves as a generalized Newtonian fluid. The μ -I scaling proposed by Jop et al. [Nature (London) 441, 727 (2006), 10.1038/nature04801] is found to be valid in both two-dimensional and unidirectional flows, as observed in previous studies; however, the data for each flow geometry fall on a different curve. The results for the two-dimensional silo flow indicate that the viscosity does not depend directly on the flow type parameter, ψ . We find that the scaling based on "granular fluidity" [Zhang and Kamrin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 058001 (2017), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.058001] gives good collapse of the data to a single curve for all the geometries. The data for the variation of the solid faction with inertial number show a reasonable collapse for the different geometries.
Turbulence prediction in two-dimensional bundle flows using large eddy simulation
Ibrahim, W.A.; Hassan, Y.A. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)
1995-09-01
Turbulent flow is characterized by random fluctuations in the fluid velocity and by intense mixing of the fluid. Due to velocity fluctuations, a wide range of eddies exists in the flow field. Because these eddies carry mass, momentum, and energy, this enhanced mixing can sometimes lead to serious problems, such as tube vibrations in many engineering systems that include fluid-tube bundle combinations. Nuclear fuel bundles and PWR steam generators are existing examples in nuclear power plants. Fluid-induced vibration problems are often discovered during the operation of such systems because some of the fluid-tube interaction characteristics are not fully understood. Large Eddy Simulation, incorporated in a three dimensional computer code, became one of the promising techniques to estimate flow turbulence, predict and prevent of long-term tube fretting affecting PWR steam generators. the present turbulence investigations is a step towards more understanding of fluid-tube interaction characteristics by comparing the tube bundles with various pitch-to-diameter ratios were performed. Power spectral densities were used for comparison with experimental data. Correlations, calculations of different length scales in the flow domain and other important turbulent-related parameters were calculated. Finally, important characteristics of turbulent flow field were presented with the aid of flow visualization with tracers impeded in the flow field.
Assessment of RELAP5-3D copyright using data from two-dimensional RPI flow tests
Davis, C.B.
1998-01-01
The capability of the RELAP5-3D copyright computer code to perform multi-dimensional thermal-hydraulic analysis was assessed using data from steady-state flow tests conducted at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute (RPI). The RPI data were taken in a two-dimensional test section in a low-pressure air/water loop. The test section consisted of a thin vertical channel that simulated a two-dimensional slice through the core of a pressurized water reactor. Single-phase and two-phase flows were supplied to the test section in an asymmetric manner to generate a two-dimensional flow field. A traversing gamma densitometer was used to measure void fraction at many locations in the test section. High speed photographs provided information on the flow patterns and flow regimes. The RPI test section was modeled using the multi-dimensional component in RELAP5-3D Version BF06. Calculations of three RPI experiments were performed. The flow regimes predicted by the base code were in poor agreement with those observed in the tests. The two-phase regions were observed to be in the bubbly and slug flow regimes in the test. However, nearly all of the junctions in the horizontal direction were calculated to be in the stratified flow regime because of the relatively low velocities in that direction. As a result, the void fraction predictions were also in poor agreement with the measured values. Significantly improved results were obtained in sensitivity calculations with a modified version of the code that prevented the horizontal junctions from entering the stratified flow regime. These results indicate that the code's logic in the determination of flow regimes in a multi-dimensional component must be improved. The results of the sensitivity calculations also indicate that RELAP5-3D will provide a significant multi-dimensional hydraulic analysis capability once the flow regime prediction is improved
Mixed finite element simulations in two-dimensional groundwater flow problems
Kimura, Hideo
1989-01-01
A computer code of groundwater flow in two-dimensional porous media based on the mixed finite element method was developed for accurate approximations of Darcy velocities in safety evaluation of radioactive waste disposal. The mixed finite element procedure solves for both the Darcy velocities and pressure heads simultaneously in the Darcy equation and continuity equation. Numerical results of a single well pumping at a constant rate in a uniform flow field showed that the mixed finite element method gives more accurate Darcy velocities nearly 50 % on average error than standard finite element method. (author)
THREE DIMENSIONAL CFD MODELLING OF FLOW STRUCTURE IN COMPOUND CHANNELS
Usman Ghani
2010-10-01
Full Text Available The computational modeling of three dimensional flows in a meandering compound channel has been performed in this research work. The flow calculations are performed by solving 3D steady state continuity and Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations. The turbulence closure is approximated with standard - turbulence model. The model equations are solved numerically with a general purpose software package. A comprehensive validation of the simulated results against the experimental data and a demonstration that the software used in this study has matured enough for investigating practical engineering problems are the major contributions of this paper. The model was initially validated. This was achieved by computing streamwise point velocities at different depths of various sections and depth averaged velocities at three cross sections along the main channel and comparing these results with experimental data. After the validation of the model, predictions were made for different flow parameters including velocity contours at the surface, pressure distribution, turbulence intensity etc. The results gave an overall understanding of these flow variables in meandering channels. The simulation also established the good prediction capability of the standard - turbulence model for flows in compound channels.
Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional strongly coupled dusty plasma
Gupta, Akanksha; Ganesh, R., E-mail: ganesh@ipr.res.in; Joy, Ashwin [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Gandhinagar, Gujarat 382 428 (India)
2014-07-15
Undriven, incompressible Kolmogorov flow in two dimensional doubly periodic strongly coupled dusty plasma is modelled using generalised hydrodynamics, both in linear and nonlinear regime. A complete stability diagram is obtained for low Reynolds numbers R and for a range of viscoelastic relaxation time τ{sub m} [0 < τ{sub m} < 10]. For the system size considered, using a linear stability analysis, similar to Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0), it is found that for Reynolds number beyond a critical R, say R{sub c}, the Kolmogorov flow becomes unstable. Importantly, it is found that R{sub c} is strongly reduced for increasing values of τ{sub m}. A critical τ{sub m}{sup c} is found above which Kolmogorov flow is unconditionally unstable and becomes independent of Reynolds number. For R < R{sub c}, the neutral stability regime found in Navier Stokes fluid (τ{sub m} = 0) is now found to be a damped regime in viscoelastic fluids, thus changing the fundamental nature of transition of Kolmogorov flow as function of Reynolds number R. A new parallelized nonlinear pseudo spectral code has been developed and is benchmarked against eigen values for Kolmogorov flow obtained from linear analysis. Nonlinear states obtained from the pseudo spectral code exhibit cyclicity and pattern formation in vorticity and viscoelastic oscillations in energy.
Three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in bounded nozzles
Chen, Chao; Xie, Chunjing
The existence and uniqueness of three dimensional steady subsonic Euler flows in rectangular nozzles were obtained when prescribing normal component of momentum at both the entrance and exit. If, in addition, the normal component of the voriticity and the variation of Bernoulli's function at the entrance are both zero, then there exists a unique subsonic potential flow when the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum is less than a critical number. As the magnitude of the normal component of the momentum approaches the critical number, the associated flows converge to a subsonic-sonic flow. Furthermore, when the normal component of vorticity and the variation of Bernoulli function are both small, the existence and uniqueness of subsonic Euler flows with non-zero vorticity are established. The proof of these results is based on a new formulation for the Euler system, a priori estimate for nonlinear elliptic equations with nonlinear boundary conditions, detailed study for a linear div-curl system, and delicate estimate for the transport equations.
Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit
Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef
2012-11-01
We study the mean-field limit of a particle-based system modeling the behavior of many indistinguishable pedestrians as their number increases. The base model is a modified version of Helbing\\'s social force model. In the mean-field limit, the time-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank-Nicholson method. The advection part is solved using a Lax-Wendroff-Leveque method or an upwind Backward Euler method depending on the advection speed. Moreover, we use multilevel Monte Carlo to estimate observables from the particle-based system. We discuss these numerical methods, and present numerical results showing the convergence of observables that were calculated using the particle-based model as the number of pedestrians increases to those calculated using the probability density function satisfying the Fokker-Planck equation.
Roszelle, Breigh N.; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B.
2010-01-01
In order to aid the ongoing concern of limited organ availability for pediatric heart transplants, Penn State has continued development of a pulsatile Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device (PVAD). Initial studies of the PVAD observed an increase in thrombus formation due to differences in flow field physics when compared to adult sized devices, which included a higher degree of three-dimensionality. This unique flow field brings into question the use of 2D planar particle image velocimetry (PIV...
A Comparison of Simplified Two-dimensional Flow Models Exemplified by Water Flow in a Cavern
Prybytak, Dzmitry; Zima, Piotr
2017-12-01
The paper shows the results of a comparison of simplified models describing a two-dimensional water flow in the example of a water flow through a straight channel sector with a cavern. The following models were tested: the two-dimensional potential flow model, the Stokes model and the Navier-Stokes model. In order to solve the first two, the boundary element method was employed, whereas to solve the Navier-Stokes equations, the open-source code library OpenFOAM was applied. The results of numerical solutions were compared with the results of measurements carried out on a test stand in a hydraulic laboratory. The measurements were taken with an ADV probe (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter). Finally, differences between the results obtained from the mathematical models and the results of laboratory measurements were analysed.
Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography: imaging and quantifying blood flow and vascularization.
Pairleitner, H; Steiner, H; Hasenoehrl, G; Staudach, A
1999-08-01
To assess the feasibility of imaging low-velocity blood flow in adnexal masses by transvaginal three-dimensional power Doppler sonography, to analyze three-dimensional power Doppler sonography data sets with a new computer-assisted method and to test the reproducibility of the technique. A commercially available 5-MHz Combison 530 ultrasound system was used to perform three-dimensional power Doppler sonography transvaginally. A cube (= volume of interest) was defined enclosing the vessels of the cyst and the Cartesian characteristics were stored on a hard disk. This cube was analyzed using specially designed software. Five indices representing vascularization (the vascularization index (VI) or blood flow (the flow index (FI)) or both (the vascularization-flow index (VFI)) were calculated. The intraobserver repeatability of cube definition and scan repetition was assessed using Hartley's test for homogeneous variances. Interobserver agreement was assessed by the Pearson correlation coefficient. Imaging of vessels with low-velocity blood flow by three-dimensional power Doppler sonography and cube definition was possible in all adnexal massed studied. In some cases even induced non-vascular flow related to endometriosis was detected. The calculated F value with intraobserver repeated Cartesian file-saving ranged from 0 to 18.8, with intraobserver scan repetition from 4.74 to 24.8 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the calculated F value was 64. The interobserver correlation coefficient ranged between 0.83 and 0.92 for VI, FI 1, FI 2 and VFI 1; for VFI 2 the correlation coefficient was less than 0.75. Vessels with low-velocity blood flow can be imaged using three-dimensional power Doppler sonography. Induced non-vascular flow was detected in endometriotic cyst fluid. Three-dimensional power Doppler sonography combined with the cube method gave reproducible information for all indices except VFI 2. These indices might prove to be a new predictor in all fields of
Three-dimensional instantaneous velocity field measurement using ...
2014-02-13
Feb 13, 2014 ... Abstract. In the present study, a digital holography microscope has been developed to study instantaneous 3D velocity field in a square channel of 1000 × 1000 μm2 cross-section. The flow field is seeded with polystyrene microspheres of size dp = 2.1 μm. The volumetric flow rate is set equal to 20 μl/min.
On the renormalization group flow in two dimensional superconformal models
Ahn, Changrim; Stanishkov, Marian
2014-01-01
We extend the results on the RG flow in the next to leading order to the case of the supersymmetric minimal models SM p for p≫1. We explain how to compute the NS and Ramond fields conformal blocks in the leading order in 1/p and follow the renormalization scheme proposed in [1]. As a result we obtained the anomalous dimensions of certain NS and Ramond fields. It turns out that the linear combination expressing the infrared limit of these fields in term of the IR theory SM p−2 is exactly the same as those of the nonsupersymmetric minimal theory
Research on one-dimensional two-phase flow
Adachi, Hiromichi
1988-10-01
In Part I the fundamental form of the hydrodynamic basic equations for a one-dimensional two-phase flow (two-fluid model) is described. Discussions are concentrated on the treatment of phase change inertial force terms in the equations of motion and the author's equations of motion which have a remarkable uniqueness on the following three points. (1) To express force balance of unit mass two-phase fluid instead of that of unit volume two-phase fluid. (2) To pick up the unit existing mass and the unit flowing mass as the unit mass of two-phase fluid. (3) To apply the kinetic energy principle instead of the momentum low in the evaluation of steady inertial force term. In these three, the item (1) is for excluding a part of momentum change or kinetic energy change due to mass change of the examined part of fluid, which is independent of force. The item (2) is not to introduce a phenomenological physical model into the evaluation of phase change inertial force term. And the item (3) is for correctly applying the momentum law taking into account the difference of representative velocities between the main flow fluid (vapor phase or liquid phase) and the phase change part of fluid. In Part II, characteristics of various kinds of high speed two-phase flow are clarified theoretically by the basic equations derived. It is demonstrated that the steam-water two-phase critical flow with violent flashing and the airwater two-phase critical flow without phase change can be described with fundamentally the same basic equations. Furthermore, by comparing the experimental data from the two-phase critical discharge test and the theoretical prediction, the two-phase discharge coefficient, C D , for large sharp-edged orifice is determined as the value which is not affected by the experimental facility characteristics, etc. (author)
Rao, S.I.; Dimiduk, D.M.; Parthasarathy, T.A.; Uchic, M.D.; Tang, M.; Woodward, C.
2008-01-01
Recent experimental studies have revealed that micrometer-scale face-centered cubic (fcc) crystals show strong strengthening effects, even at high initial dislocation densities. We use large-scale three-dimensional discrete dislocation simulations (DDS) to explicitly model the deformation behavior of fcc Ni microcrystals in the size range of 0.5-20 μm. This study shows that two size-sensitive athermal hardening processes, beyond forest hardening, are sufficient to develop the dimensional scaling of the flow stress, stochastic stress variation, flow intermittency and high initial strain-hardening rates, similar to experimental observations for various materials. One mechanism, source-truncation hardening, is especially potent in micrometer-scale volumes. A second mechanism, termed exhaustion hardening, results from a breakdown of the mean-field conditions for forest hardening in small volumes, thus biasing the statistics of ordinary dislocation processes
Dimensional expansion for the Ising limit of quantum field theory
Bender, C.M.; Boettcher, S.
1993-01-01
A recently proposed technique, called dimensional expansion, uses the space-time dimension D as an expansion parameter to extract nonperturbative results in quantum field theory. Here we apply dimensional-expansion methods to examine the Ising limit of a self-interacting scalar field theory. We compute the first few coefficients in the dimensional expansion of γ 2n , the renormalized 2n-point Green's function at zero momentum, for n=2, 3, 4, and 5. Because the exact results for γ 2n are known at D=1 we can compare the predictions of the dimensional expansion at this value of D. We find typical accuracies of less than 5%. The radius of convergence of the dimensional expansion for γ 2n appears to be 2n/(n-1). As a function of the space-time dimension D, γ 2n appears to rise monotonically with increasing D and we conjecture that it becomes infinite at D=2n/(n-1). We presume that for values of D greater than this critical value γ 2n vanishes identically because the corresponding φ 2n scalar quantum field theory is free for D>2n/(n-1)
Two-dimensional topological field theories coupled to four-dimensional BF theory
Montesinos, Merced; Perez, Alejandro
2008-01-01
Four-dimensional BF theory admits a natural coupling to extended sources supported on two-dimensional surfaces or string world sheets. Solutions of the theory are in one to one correspondence with solutions of Einstein equations with distributional matter (cosmic strings). We study new (topological field) theories that can be constructed by adding extra degrees of freedom to the two-dimensional world sheet. We show how two-dimensional Yang-Mills degrees of freedom can be added on the world sheet, producing in this way, an interactive (topological) theory of Yang-Mills fields with BF fields in four dimensions. We also show how a world sheet tetrad can be naturally added. As in the previous case the set of solutions of these theories are contained in the set of solutions of Einstein's equations if one allows distributional matter supported on two-dimensional surfaces. These theories are argued to be exactly quantizable. In the context of quantum gravity, one important motivation to study these models is to explore the possibility of constructing a background-independent quantum field theory where local degrees of freedom at low energies arise from global topological (world sheet) degrees of freedom at the fundamental level
Numerical Simulation of Two Dimensional Flows in Yazidang Reservoir
Huang, Lingxiao; Liu, Libo; Sun, Xuehong; Zheng, Lanxiang; Jing, Hefang; Zhang, Xuande; Li, Chunguang
2018-01-01
This paper studied the problem of water flow in the Yazid Ang reservoir. It built 2-D RNG turbulent model, rated the boundary conditions, used the finite volume method to discrete equations and divided the grid by the advancing-front method. It simulated the two conditions of reservoir flow field, compared the average vertical velocity of the simulated value and the measured value nearby the water inlet and the water intake. The results showed that the mathematical model could be applied to the similar industrial water reservoir.
Two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic equilibria with flow and studies of equilibria fluctuations
Agim, Y.Z.
1989-08-01
A set of reduced ideal MHD equations is derived to investigate equilibria of plasmas with mass flow in general two-dimensional geometry. These equations provide a means of investigating the effects of flow on self-consistent equilibria in a number of new two-dimensional configurations such as helically symmetric configurations with helical axis, which are relevant to stellarators, as well as axisymmetric configurations. It is found that as in the axisymmetric case, general two-dimensional flow equilibria are governed by a second-order quasi-linear partial differential equation for a magnetic flux function, which is coupled to a Bernoulli-type equation for the density. The equation for the magnetic flux function becomes hyperbolic at certain critical flow speeds which follow from its characteristic equation. When the equation is hyperbolic, shock phenomena may exist. As a particular example, unidirectional flow along the lines of symmetry is considered. In this case, the equation mentioned above is always elliptic. An exact solution for the case of helically symmetric unidirectional flow is found and studied to determine flow effects on the magnetic topology. In second part of this thesis, magnetic fluctuations due to the thermally excited MHD waves are investigated using fluid and kinetic models to describe stable, uniform, compressible plasma in the range above the drift wave frequency and below the ion cyclotron frequency. It is shown that the fluid model with resistivity yields spectral densities which are roughly Lorentzian, exhibit equipartition with no apparent cutoff in wavenumber space and a Bohm-type diffusion coefficient. Under certain conditions, the ensuing transport may be comparable to classical values. For a phenomenological cutoff imposed on the spectrum, the typical fluctuating-to-equilibrium magnetic field ratio is found to be of the order of 10 -10
Twistors and four-dimensional conformal field theory
Singer, M.A.
1990-01-01
This is a report (with technical details omitted) on work concerned with generalizations to four dimensions of two-dimensional Conformed Field Theory. Accounts of this and related material are contained elsewhere. The Hilbert space of the four-dimensional theory has a natural interpretation in terms of massless spinor fields on real Minkowski space. From the twistor point of view this follows from the boundary CR-manifold P being precisely the space of light rays in real compactified Minkowski space. All the amplitudes can therefore be regarded as defined on Hilbert spaces built from Lorentzian spinor fields. Thus the twistor picture provides a kind of halfway house between the Lorentzian and Euclidean field theories. (author)
Four dimensional sigma model coupled to the metric tensor field
Ghika, G.; Visinescu, M.
1980-02-01
We discuss the four dimensional nonlinear sigma model with an internal O(n) invariance coupled to the metric tensor field satisfying Einstein equations. We derive a bound on the coupling constant between the sigma field and the metric tensor using the theory of harmonic maps. A special attention is paid to Einstein spaces and some new explicit solutions of the model are constructed. (author)
Three-dimensional groundwater velocity field in an unconfined aquifer under irrigation
Zlotnik, V.
1990-01-01
A method for three-dimensional flow velocity calculation has been developed to evaluate unconfined aquifer sensitivity to areal agricultural contamination of groundwater. The methodology of Polubarinova-Kochina is applied to an unconfined homogeneous compressible or incompressible anisotropic aquifer. It is based on a three-dimensional groundwater flow model with a boundary condition on the moving surface. Analytical solutions are obtained for a hydraulic head under the influence of areal sources of circular and rectangular shape using integral transforms. Two-dimensional Hantush formulas result from the vertical averaging of the three-dimensional solutions, and the asymptotic behavior of solutions is analyzed. Analytical expressions for flow velocity components are obtained from the gradient of the hydraulic head field. Areal and temporal variability of specific yield in groundwater recharge areas is also taken into account. As a consequence of linearization of the boundary condition, the operation of any irrigation system with respect to groundwater is represented by superposition of the operating wells and circular and rectangular source influences. Combining the obtained solutions with Dagan or Neuman well functions, one can develop computer codes for the analytical computation of the three-dimensional groundwater hydraulic head and velocity component distributions. Methods for practical implementation are discussed. (Author) (20 refs., 4 figs.)
Plasma flow in a curved magnetic field
Lindberg, L.
1977-09-01
A beam of collisionless plasma is injected along a longitudinal magnetic field into a region of curved magnetic field. Two unpredicted phenomena are observed: The beam becomes deflected in the direction opposite to that in which the field is curved, and it contracts to a flat slab in the plane of curvature of the magnetic field. The phenomenon is of a general character and can be expected to occur in a very wide range of densities. The lower density limit is set by the condition for self-polarization, nm sub(i)/epsilon 0 B 2 >> 1 or, which is equivalent, c 2 /v 2 sub(A) >> 1, where c is the velocity of light, and v sup(A) the Alfven velocity. The upper limit is presumably set by the requirement ωsub(e)tau(e) >> 1. The phenomenon is likely to be of importance e.g. for injection of plasma into magnetic bottles and in space and solar physics. The paper illustrates the comlexity of plasma flow phenomena and the importance of close contact between experimental and theoretical work. (author)
Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography of Magnetic Fields
Sales, Morten; Strobl, Markus; Shinohara, Takenao
2018-01-01
Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non-destructively wi......Through the use of Time-of-Flight Three Dimensional Polarimetric Neutron Tomography (ToF 3DPNT) we have for the first time successfully demonstrated a technique capable of measuring and reconstructing three dimensional magnetic field strengths and directions unobtrusively and non...... and reconstructed, thereby providing the proof-of-principle of a technique able to reveal hitherto unobtainable information on the magnetic fields in the bulk of materials and devices, due to a high degree of penetration into many materials, including metals, and the sensitivity of neutron polarisation to magnetic...... fields. The technique puts the potential of the ToF time structure of pulsed neutron sources to full use in order to optimise the recorded information quality and reduce measurement time....
Two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and field theory
Koberle, R.
1980-01-01
Several features of two-dimensional models in statistical mechanics and Field theory, such as, lattice quantum chromodynamics, Z(N), Gross-Neveu and CP N-1 are discussed. The problems of confinement and dynamical mass generation are also analyzed. (L.C.) [pt
Generation of a Desired Three-Dimensional Electromagnetic Field
2005-01-01
The present invention relates to a method and a system for synthesizing a prescribed three-dimensional electromagnetic field based on generalized phase contrast imaging. Such a method and apparatus may be utilized in advanced optical micro and nano-manipulation, such as by provision of a multiple...
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Alsaedi, A.; Alhuthali, M.S. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-07-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of couple stress nanofluid in the presence of thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects is analyzed. Energy equation subject to nonlinear thermal radiation is taken into account. The flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. Fluid is electrically conducting in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. The induced magnetic field is neglected for a small magnetic Reynolds number. Mathematical formulation is performed using boundary layer analysis. Newly proposed boundary condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is employed. The governing nonlinear mathematical problems are first converted into dimensionless expressions and then solved for the series solutions of velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration. Convergence of the constructed solutions is verified. Effects of emerging parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Skin friction coefficients and Nusselt number are also computed and analyzed. It is found that the thermal boundary layer thickness is an increasing function of radiative effect. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional boundary layer flow of viscoelastic nanofluid is examined. • Nonlinear thermal radiation is analyzed. • Brownian motion and thermophoresis effects are present. • Recently developed condition requiring zero nanoparticle mass flux is implemented. • Construction of convergent solutions of nonlinear flow is possible.
Testing of a one dimensional model for Field II calibration
Bæk, David; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt; Willatzen, Morten
2008-01-01
Field II is a program for simulating ultrasound transducer fields. It is capable of calculating the emitted and pulse-echoed fields for both pulsed and continuous wave transducers. To make it fully calibrated a model of the transducer’s electro-mechanical impulse response must be included. We...... examine an adapted one dimensional transducer model originally proposed by Willatzen [9] to calibrate Field II. This model is modified to calculate the required impulse responses needed by Field II for a calibrated field pressure and external circuit current calculation. The testing has been performed...... to the calibrated Field II program for 1, 4, and 10 cycle excitations. Two parameter sets were applied for modeling, one real valued Pz27 parameter set, manufacturer supplied, and one complex valued parameter set found in literature, Alguer´o et al. [11]. The latter implicitly accounts for attenuation. Results show...
Examination of forced unsteady separated flow fields on a rotating wind turbine blade
Huyer, S [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (US)
1993-04-01
The wind turbine industry faces many problems regarding the construction of efficient and predictable wind turbine machines. Steady state, two-dimensional wind tunnel data are generally used to predict aerodynamic loads on wind turbine blades. Preliminary experimental evidence indicates that some of the underlying fluid dynamic phenomena could be attributed to dynamic stall, or more specifically to generation of forced unsteady separated flow fields. A collaborative research effort between the University of Colorado and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory was conducted to systematically categorize the local and global effects of three- dimensional forced unsteady flow fields.
Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations
Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu, E-mail: omata@nakl.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp, E-mail: sirayama@sys.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Systems Innovation, School of Engineering, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-8656 (Japan)
2017-10-15
We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)
Extracting quantitative three-dimensional unsteady flow direction from tuft flow visualizations
Omata, Noriyasu; Shirayama, Susumu
2017-01-01
We focus on the qualitative but widely used method of tuft flow visualization, and propose a method for quantifying it using information technology. By applying stereo image processing and computer vision, the three-dimensional (3D) flow direction in a real environment can be obtained quantitatively. In addition, we show that the flow can be divided temporally by performing appropriate machine learning on the data. Acquisition of flow information in real environments is important for design development, but it is generally considered difficult to apply simulations or quantitative experiments to such environments. Hence, qualitative methods including the tuft method are still in use today. Although attempts have been made previously to quantify such methods, it has not been possible to acquire 3D information. Furthermore, even if quantitative data could be acquired, analysis was often performed empirically or qualitatively. In contrast, we show that our method can acquire 3D information and analyze the measured data quantitatively. (paper)
Modeling field scale unsaturated flow and transport processes
Gelhar, L.W.; Celia, M.A.; McLaughlin, D.
1994-08-01
The scales of concern in subsurface transport of contaminants from low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities are in the range of 1 to 1,000 m. Natural geologic materials generally show very substantial spatial variability in hydraulic properties over this range of scales. Such heterogeneity can significantly influence the migration of contaminants. It is also envisioned that complex earth structures will be constructed to isolate the waste and minimize infiltration of water into the facility. The flow of water and gases through such facilities must also be a concern. A stochastic theory describing unsaturated flow and contamination transport in naturally heterogeneous soils has been enhanced by adopting a more realistic characterization of soil variability. The enhanced theory is used to predict field-scale effective properties and variances of tension and moisture content. Applications illustrate the important effects of small-scale heterogeneity on large-scale anisotropy and hysteresis and demonstrate the feasibility of simulating two-dimensional flow systems at time and space scales of interest in radioactive waste disposal investigations. Numerical algorithms for predicting field scale unsaturated flow and contaminant transport have been improved by requiring them to respect fundamental physical principles such as mass conservation. These algorithms are able to provide realistic simulations of systems with very dry initial conditions and high degrees of heterogeneity. Numerical simulation of the movement of water and air in unsaturated soils has demonstrated the importance of air pathways for contaminant transport. The stochastic flow and transport theory has been used to develop a systematic approach to performance assessment and site characterization. Hypothesis-testing techniques have been used to determine whether model predictions are consistent with observed data
Performance of a vanadium redox flow battery with and without flow fields
Xu, Q.; Zhao, T.S.; Zhang, C.
2014-01-01
Highlights: • The performances of a VRFB with/without flow fields are compared. • The respective maximum power efficiency occurs at different flow rates. • The battery with flow fields Exhibits 5% higher energy efficiency. - Abstract: A flow field is an indispensable component for fuel cells to macroscopically distribute reactants onto electrodes. However, it is still unknown whether flow fields are also required in all-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRFBs). In this work, the performance of a VRFB with flow fields is analyzed and compared with the performance of a VRFB without flow fields. It is demonstrated that the battery with flow fields has a higher discharge voltage at higher flow rates, but exhibits a larger pressure drop. The maximum power-based efficiency occurs at different flow rates for the both batteries with and without flow fields. It is found that the battery with flow fields Exhibits 5% higher energy efficiency than the battery without flow fields, when operating at the flow rates corresponding to each battery's maximum power-based efficiency. Therefore, the inclusion of flow fields in VRFBs can be an effective approach for improving system efficiency
GIS-based two-dimensional numerical simulation of rainfall-induced debris flow
C. Wang
2008-02-01
Full Text Available This paper aims to present a useful numerical method to simulate the propagation and deposition of debris flow across the three dimensional complex terrain. A depth-averaged two-dimensional numerical model is developed, in which the debris and water mixture is assumed to be continuous, incompressible, unsteady flow. The model is based on the continuity equations and Navier-Stokes equations. Raster grid networks of digital elevation model in GIS provide a uniform grid system to describe complex topography. As the raster grid can be used as the finite difference mesh, the continuity and momentum equations are solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical model is applied to simulate the rainfall-induced debris flow occurred in 20 July 2003, in Minamata City of southern Kyushu, Japan. The simulation reproduces the propagation and deposition and the results are in good agreement with the field investigation. The synthesis of numerical method and GIS makes possible the solution of debris flow over a realistic terrain, and can be used to estimate the flow range, and to define potentially hazardous areas for homes and road section.
Numerical study on the two-dimensional flows of plasma and ionizing gas using trial particles
Brushlinskij, K.V.; Kozlov, A.N.; Morozov, A.I.
1985-01-01
Two-dimensional flows of plasma and ionized αs in a channel between two coaxial electrodes are considered in the MHD-model with account of Hall effect. Stationary solutions of the problem on the flow are obtained either analytically in approximation of a ''smooth'' channel - for ideal conducting plasma, or numerically using the methos of establishment - in the ge-neral case of finite conductivity. A method of further numerical analysis of some peculiarities of flow is suggested in the paper. It is based on studying dynamics of single ''test'' particles in fields of the main MHD plasma flow. Trajectory of the test ion is calculated with account for interaction forces with earlier determined electromagentic field and friction responsible for Coulomb collisions with particles of the background flow. The calculations display trajectories of test particles with different masses, initial positions and initial rates. They are shown to be dose to current lines of background medium in plasma of finite conductivity, that testified to the virtue of effectiveness of the MHD-model. In case of ideal conductivity trajectories of test and background particles can noticeably differ from one another. Stabilization effects of motion of particles accidentally knocked out from the flow and separation of pariticles of different mass by electromao.netic forces are considered
One-dimensional calculation of flow branching using the method of characteristics
Meier, R.W.; Gido, R.G.
1978-05-01
In one-dimensional flow systems, the flow often branches, such as at a tee or manifold. The study develops a formulation for calculating the flow through branch points with one-dimensional method of characteristics equations. The resultant equations were verified by comparison with experimental measurements
Effects of flow shear and Alfven waves on two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence
Douglas, Jamie; Kim, Eun-jin; Thyagaraja, A.
2008-01-01
The suppression of turbulent transport by large scale mean shear flows and uniform magnetic fields is investigated in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic turbulence driven by a small-scale forcing with finite correlation time. By numerical integration the turbulent magnetic diffusivity D T is shown to be significantly quenched, with a scaling D T ∝B -2 Ω 0 -5/4 , which is much more severe than in the case of a short or delta correlated forcing typified by white noise, studied in E. Kim and B. Dubrulle [Phys. Plasmas 8, 813 (2001)]. Here B and Ω 0 are magnetic field strength and flow shear rate, respectively. The forcing with finite correlation time also leads to much stronger suppression of momentum transport through the cancellation of the Reynolds stress by the Maxwell stress with a positive small value of turbulent viscosity, ν T >0. While fluctuating kinetic and magnetic energies are unaffected by the magnetic field just as in the case of a delta correlated forcing, they are much more severely quenched by flow shear than in that of a delta correlated forcing. Underlying physical mechanisms for the reduction of turbulent transport and turbulence level by flow shear and magnetic field are discussed
Low-dimensional filiform Lie algebras over finite fields
Falcón Ganfornina, Óscar Jesús; Núñez Valdés, Juan; Pacheco Martínez, Ana María; Villar Liñán, María Trinidad; Vasek, Vladimir (Coordinador); Shmaliy, Yuriy S. (Coordinador); Trcek, Denis (Coordinador); Kobayashi, Nobuhiko P. (Coordinador); Choras, Ryszard S. (Coordinador); Klos, Zbigniew (Coordinador)
2011-01-01
In this paper we use some objects of Graph Theory to classify low-dimensional filiform Lie algebras over finite fields. The idea lies in the representation of each Lie algebra by a certain type of graphs. Then, some properties on Graph Theory make easier to classify the algebras. As results, which can be applied in several branches of Physics or Engineering, for instance, we find out that there exist, up to isomorphism, six 6-dimensional filiform Lie algebras over Z/pZ, for p = 2, 3, 5. Pl...
Introduction to two dimensional conformal and superconformal field theory
Shenker, S.H.
1986-01-01
Some of the basic properties of conformal and superconformal field theories in two dimensions are discussed in connection with the string and superstring theories built from them. In the first lecture the stress-energy tensor, the Virasoro algebra, highest weight states, primary fields, operator products coefficients, bootstrap ideas, and unitary and degenerate representations of the Virasoro algebra are discussed. In the second lecture the basic structure of superconformal two dimensional field theory is sketched and then the Ramond Neveu-Schwarz formulation of the superstring is described. Some of the issues involved in constructing the fermion vertex in this formalism are discussed
Lattice formulation of a two-dimensional topological field theory
Ohta, Kazutoshi; Takimi, Tomohisa
2007-01-01
We investigate an integrable property and the observables of 2-dimensional N=(4,4) topological field theory defined on a discrete lattice by using the 'orbifolding' and 'deconstruction' methods. We show that our lattice model is integrable and, for this reason, the partition function reduces to matrix integrals of scalar fields on the lattice sites. We elucidate meaningful differences between a discrete lattice and a differentiable manifold. This is important for studying topological quantities on a lattice. We also propose a new construction of N=(2,2) supersymmetric lattice theory, which is realized through a suitable truncation of scalar fields from the N=(4,4) theory. (author)
The flow field around a micropillar confined in a microchannel
Jung, Junkyu; Kuo, C.-J.; Peles, Yoav; Amitay, Michael
2012-01-01
The flow field over a low aspect ratio (AR) circular pillar (L/D = 1.5) in a microchannel was studied experimentally. Microparticle image velocimetry (μPIV) was employed to quantify flow parameters such as flow field, spanwise vorticity, and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) in the microchannel. Flow regimes of cylinder-diameter-based Reynolds number at 100 ⩽ Re D ⩽ 700 (i.e., steady, transition from quasi-steady to unsteady, and unsteady flow) were elucidated at the microscale. In addition, active flow control (AFC), via a steady control jet (issued from the pillar itself in the downstream direction), was implemented to induce favorable disturbances to the flow in order to alter the flow field, promote turbulence, and increase mixing. Together with passive flow control (i.e., a circular pillar), turbulent kinetic energy was significantly increased in a controllable manner throughout the flow field.
Finite volume model for two-dimensional shallow environmental flow
Simoes, F.J.M.
2011-01-01
This paper presents the development of a two-dimensional, depth integrated, unsteady, free-surface model based on the shallow water equations. The development was motivated by the desire of balancing computational efficiency and accuracy by selective and conjunctive use of different numerical techniques. The base framework of the discrete model uses Godunov methods on unstructured triangular grids, but the solution technique emphasizes the use of a high-resolution Riemann solver where needed, switching to a simpler and computationally more efficient upwind finite volume technique in the smooth regions of the flow. Explicit time marching is accomplished with strong stability preserving Runge-Kutta methods, with additional acceleration techniques for steady-state computations. A simplified mass-preserving algorithm is used to deal with wet/dry fronts. Application of the model is made to several benchmark cases that show the interplay of the diverse solution techniques.
Two-dimensional electron flow in pulsed power transmission lines and plasma opening switches
Church, B.W.; Longcope, D.W.; Ng, C.K.; Sudan, R.N.
1991-01-01
The operation of magnetically insulated transmission lines (MITL) and the interruption of current in a plasma opening switch (POS) are determined by the physics of the electrons emitted by the cathode surface. A mathematical model describes the self-consistent two-dimensional flow of an electron fluid. A finite element code, FERUS, has been developed to solve the two equations which describe Poisson's and Ampere's law in two dimensions. The solutions from this code are obtained for parameters where the electron orbits are considerably modified by the self-magnetic field of the current. Next, the self-insulated electron flow in a MITL with a step change in cross-section is studied using a conventional two-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code, MASK. The equations governing two-dimensional quasi-static electron flow are solved numerically by a third technique which is suitable for predicting current interruption in a POS. The object of the study is to determine the critical load impedance, Z CL , required for current interruption for a given applied voltage, cathode voltage and plasma length. (author). 9 refs, 5 figs
The holographic RG flow in a field theory on a curved background
Cardoso, Gabriel Lopes; Luest, Dieter
2002-01-01
As shown by Freedman, Gubser, Pilch and Warner, the RG flow in N=4 super-Yang-Mills theory broken to an N=1 theory by the addition of a mass term can be described in terms of a supersymmetric domain wall solution in five-dimensional N=8 gauged supergravity. The FGPW flow is an example of a holographic RG flow in a field theory on a flat background. Here we put the field theory studied by Freedman, Gubser, Pilch and Warner on a curved AdS 4 background, and we construct the supersymmetric domain wall solution which describes the RG flow in this field theory. This solution is a curved (non-Ricci flat) domain wall solution. This example demonstrates that holographic RG flows in supersymmetric field theories on a curved AdS 4 background can be described in terms of curved supersymmetric domain wall solutions. (author)
Hydrogen peroxide stabilization in one-dimensional flow columns
Schmidt, Jeremy T.; Ahmad, Mushtaque; Teel, Amy L.; Watts, Richard J.
2011-09-01
Rapid hydrogen peroxide decomposition is the primary limitation of catalyzed H 2O 2 propagations in situ chemical oxidation (CHP ISCO) remediation of the subsurface. Two stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide, citrate and phytate, were investigated for their effectiveness in one-dimensional columns of iron oxide-coated and manganese oxide-coated sand. Hydrogen peroxide (5%) with and without 25 mM citrate or phytate was applied to the columns and samples were collected at 8 ports spaced 13 cm apart. Citrate was not an effective stabilizer for hydrogen peroxide in iron-coated sand; however, phytate was highly effective, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals two orders of magnitude over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Both citrate and phytate were effective stabilizers for manganese-coated sand, increasing hydrogen peroxide residuals by four-fold over unstabilized hydrogen peroxide. Phytate and citrate did not degrade and were not retarded in the sand columns; furthermore, the addition of the stabilizers increased column flow rates relative to unstabilized columns. These results demonstrate that citrate and phytate are effective stabilizers of hydrogen peroxide under the dynamic conditions of one-dimensional columns, and suggest that citrate and phytate can be added to hydrogen peroxide before injection to the subsurface as an effective means for increasing the radius of influence of CHP ISCO.
Bettencourt, João H; López, Cristóbal; Hernández-García, Emilio
2013-01-01
In this paper, we use the finite-size Lyapunov exponent (FSLE) to characterize Lagrangian coherent structures in three-dimensional (3D) turbulent flows. Lagrangian coherent structures act as the organizers of transport in fluid flows and are crucial to understand their stirring and mixing properties. Generalized maxima (ridges) of the FSLE fields are used to locate these coherent structures. 3D FSLE fields are calculated in two phenomenologically distinct turbulent flows: a wall-bounded flow (channel flow) and a regional oceanic flow obtained by the numerical solution of the primitive equations where two-dimensional (2D) turbulence dominates. In the channel flow, autocorrelations of the FSLE field show that the structure is substantially different from the near wall to the mid-channel region and relates well to the more widely studied Eulerian coherent structure of the turbulent channel flow. The ridges of the FSLE field have complex shapes due to the 3D character of the turbulent fluctuations. In the oceanic flow, strong horizontal stirring is present and the flow regime is similar to that of 2D turbulence where the domain is populated by coherent eddies that interact strongly. This in turn results in the presence of high FSLE lines throughout the domain leading to strong non-local mixing. The ridges of the FSLE field are quasi-vertical surfaces, indicating that the horizontal dynamics dominates the flow. Indeed, due to rotation and stratification, vertical motions in the ocean are much less intense than horizontal ones. This suppression is absent in the channel flow, as the 3D character of the FSLE ridges shows. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Lyapunov analysis: from dynamical systems theory to applications’. (paper)
A three-dimensional model of PEM fuel cells with serpentine flow channels
Nguyen, P.T.; Berning, T.; Bang, M.; Djilali, N.
2003-01-01
A three-dimensional computational model of PEM fuel cell with serpentine flow field channels is presented in this paper. This model presents a comprehensive account for all important transport phenomena in fuel cell such as heat transfer, mass transfer, electrode kinetics, and potential fields in the membrane and gas diffusion layers. A new approach of solving for the potential losses across the cell was also developed in this model. The dependency of local current density on oxygen concentration and activation overpotential is fully addressed in this model. The computational domain consists of serpentine gas flow channels, porous gas diffusion layers, catalyst layers, and a membrane. Results obtained from this model are in good agreement with experimental results. (author)
K-FIX: a computer program for transient, two-dimensional, two-fluid flow
Rivard, W.C.; Torrey, M.D.
1976-11-01
The transient dynamics of two-dimensional, two-phase flow with interfacial exchange are calculated at all flow speeds using the K-FIX program. Each phase is described in terms of its own density, velocity, and temperature. The six field equations for the two phases couple through mass, momentum, and energy exchange. The equations are solved using an Eulerian finite difference technique that implicitly couples the rates of phase transitions, momentum, and energy exchange to determination of the pressure, density, and velocity fields. The implicit solution is accomplished iteratively without linearizing the equations, thus eliminating the need for numerous derivative terms. K-FIX is written in a highly modular form to be easily adaptable to a variety of problems. It is applied to growth of an isolated steam bubble in a superheated water pool
This paper presents the development and application of a three-dimensional numerical model for simulating the flow field and pollutant transport in a flood zone near the confluence of the Mississippi River and Iowa River in Oakville, Iowa. Due to a levee breaching along the Iowa River during the US ...
Branched flow and caustics in random media with magnetic fields
Metzger, Jakob; Fleischmann, Ragnar; Geisel, Theo
2009-03-01
Classical particles as well as quantum mechanical waves exhibit complex behaviour when propagating through random media. One of the dominant features of the dynamics in correlated, weak disorder potentials is the branching of the flow. This can be observed in several physical systems, most notably in the electron flow in two-dimensional electron gases [1], and has also been used to describe the formation of freak waves [2]. We present advances in the theoretical understanding and numerical simulation of classical branched flows in magnetic fields. In particular, we study branching statistics and branch density profiles. Our results have direct consequences for experiments which measure transport properties in electronic systems [3].[1] e.g. M. A. Topinka et al., Nature 410, 183 (2001), M. P. Jura et al., Nature Physics 3, 841 (2007)[2] E. J. Heller, L. Kaplan and A. Dahlen, J. Geophys. Res., 113, C09023 (2008)[3] J. J. Metzger, R. Fleischmann and T. Geisel, in preparation
Unsteady characteristics of a slat-cove flow field
Pascioni, Kyle A.; Cattafesta, Louis N.
2018-03-01
The leading-edge slat of a multielement wing is a significant contributor to the acoustic signature of an aircraft during the approach phase of the flight path. An experimental study of the two-dimensional 30P30N geometry is undertaken to further understand the flow physics and specific noise source mechanisms. The mean statistics from particle image velocimetry (PIV) shows the differences in the flow field with angle of attack, including the interaction between the cove and trailing-edge flow. Phase-locked PIV successfully links narrow-band peaks found in the surface pressure spectrum to shear layer instabilities and also reveals that a bulk cove oscillation at a Strouhal number based on a slat chord of 0.15 exists, indicative of shear layer flapping. Unsteady surface pressure measurements are documented and used to estimate spanwise coherence length scales. A narrow-band frequency prediction scheme is also tested and found to agree well with the data. Furthermore, higher-order spectral analysis suggests that nonlinear effects cause additional peaks to arise in the power spectrum, particularly at low angles of attack.
Particle image velocimetry measurements of 2-dimensional velocity field around twisted tape
Song, Min Seop; Park, So Hyun; Kim, Eung Soo, E-mail: kes7741@snu.ac.kr
2016-11-01
Highlights: • Measurements of the flow field in a pipe with twisted tape were conducted by particle image velocimetry (PIV). • A novel matching index of refraction technique utilizing 3D printing and oil mixture was adopted to make the test section transparent. • Undistorted particle images were clearly captured in the presence of twisted tape. • 2D flow field in the pipe with twisted tape revealed the characteristic two-peak velocity profile. - Abstract: Twisted tape is a passive component used to enhance heat exchange in various devices. It induces swirl flow that increases the mixing of fluid. Thus, ITER selected the twisted tape as one of the candidates for turbulence promoting in the divertor cooling. Previous study was mainly focused on the thermohydraulic performance of the twisted tape. As detailed data on the velocity field around the twisted tape was insufficient, flow visualization study was performed to provide fundamental data on velocity field. To visualize the flow in a complex structure, novel matching index of refraction technique was used with 3-D printing and mixture of anise and mineral oil. This technique enables the camera to capture undistorted particle image for velocity field measurement. Velocity fields at Reynolds number 1370–9591 for 3 different measurement plane were obtained through particle image velocimetry. The 2-dimensional averaged velocity field data were obtained from 177 pair of instantaneous velocity fields. It reveals the characteristic two-peak flow motion in axial direction. In addition, the normalized velocity profiles were converged with increase of Reynolds numbers. Finally, the uncertainty of the result data was analyzed.
Identifying three-dimensional nested groundwater flow systems in a Tóthian basin
Wang, Xu-Sheng; Wan, Li; Jiang, Xiao-Wei; Li, Hailong; Zhou, Yangxiao; Wang, Junzhi; Ji, Xiaohui
2017-10-01
Nested groundwater flow systems have been revealed in Tóth's theory as the structural property of basin-scale groundwater circulation but were only well known with two-dimensional (2D) profile models. The method of searching special streamlines across stagnation points for partitioning flow systems, which has been successfully applied in the 2D models, has never been implemented for three-dimensional (3D) Tóthian basins because of the difficulty in solving the dual stream functions. Alternatively, a new method is developed to investigate 3D nested groundwater flow systems without determination of stagnation points. Connective indices are defined to quantify the connection between individual recharge and discharge zones along streamlines. Groundwater circulation cells (GWCCs) are identified according to the distribution of the connective indices and then grouped into local, intermediate and regional flow systems. This method requires existing solution of the flow velocity vector and is implemented via particle tracking technique. It is applied in a hypothetical 3D Tóthian basin with an analytical solution of the flow field and in a real-world basin with a numerical modeling approach. Different spatial patterns of flow systems compared to 2D profile models are found. The outcrops boundaries of GWCCs on water table may significantly deviate from and are not parallel to the nearby water table divides. Topological network is proposed to represent the linked recharge-discharge zones through closed and open GWCCs. Sensitivity analysis indicates that the development of GWCCs depends on the basin geometry, hydraulic parameters and water table shape.
Three-Dimensional Flow Separation Induced by a Model Vocal Fold Polyp
Stewart, Kelley C.; Erath, Byron D.; Plesniak, Michael W.
2012-11-01
The fluid-structure energy exchange process for normal speech has been studied extensively, but it is not well understood for pathological conditions. Polyps and nodules, which are geometric abnormalities that form on the medial surface of the vocal folds, can disrupt vocal fold dynamics and thus can have devastating consequences on a patient's ability to communicate. A recent in-vitro investigation of a model polyp in a driven vocal fold apparatus demonstrated that such a geometric abnormality considerably disrupts the glottal jet behavior and that this flow field adjustment was a likely reason for the severe degradation of the vocal quality in patients. Understanding of the formation and propagation of vortical structures from a geometric protuberance, and their subsequent impact on the aerodynamic loadings that drive vocal fold dynamic, is a critical component in advancing the treatment of this pathological condition. The present investigation concerns the three-dimensional flow separation induced by a wall-mounted prolate hemispheroid with a 2:1 aspect ratio in cross flow, i.e. a model vocal fold polyp. Unsteady three-dimensional flow separation and its impact of the wall pressure loading are examined using skin friction line visualization and wall pressure measurements. Supported by the National Science Foundation, Grant No. CBET-1236351 and GW Center for Biomimetics and Bioinspired Engineering (COBRE).
Topological field theories and two-dimensional instantons
Schaposnik, F.A.
1990-01-01
In this paper, the author discusses some topics related to the recently developed Topological Field Theories (TFTs). The first part is devoted to a discussion on how a TFT can be quantized using techniques which are well-known from the study of gauge theories. Then the author describes the results that we have obtained in collaboration with George Thompson in the study of a two-dimensional TFT related to the Abelian Higgs model
Dimensional regularisation of Chern-Simons field theory
Martin, C.P.
1990-01-01
We discuss the dimensional regularisation program as applied to a pure Chern-Simons theory in Minkowski space. In order to make this regularisation program feasible, we propose adding a Yang-Mills term to the pure Chern-Simons action. It is argued that the pure Chern-Simons theory is recovered in a certain limit. Explicit computations are carried out at the one-loop level in the background field gauge. (orig.)
Three dimensional radiative flow of magnetite-nanofluid with homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions
Hayat, Tasawar; Rashid, Madiha; Alsaedi, Ahmed
2018-03-01
Present communication deals with the effects of homogeneous-heterogeneous reactions in flow of nanofluid by non-linear stretching sheet. Water based nanofluid containing magnetite nanoparticles is considered. Non-linear radiation and non-uniform heat sink/source effects are examined. Non-linear differential systems are computed by Optimal homotopy analysis method (OHAM). Convergent solutions of nonlinear systems are established. The optimal data of auxiliary variables is obtained. Impact of several non-dimensional parameters for velocity components, temperature and concentration fields are examined. Graphs are plotted for analysis of surface drag force and heat transfer rate.
Wave field restoration using three-dimensional Fourier filtering method.
Kawasaki, T; Takai, Y; Ikuta, T; Shimizu, R
2001-11-01
A wave field restoration method in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was mathematically derived based on a three-dimensional (3D) image formation theory. Wave field restoration using this method together with spherical aberration correction was experimentally confirmed in through-focus images of amorphous tungsten thin film, and the resolution of the reconstructed phase image was successfully improved from the Scherzer resolution limit to the information limit. In an application of this method to a crystalline sample, the surface structure of Au(110) was observed in a profile-imaging mode. The processed phase image showed quantitatively the atomic relaxation of the topmost layer.
Two dimensional topological insulator in quantizing magnetic fields
Olshanetsky, E. B.; Kvon, Z. D.; Gusev, G. M.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretsky, S. A.
2018-05-01
The effect of quantizing magnetic field on the electron transport is investigated in a two dimensional topological insulator (2D TI) based on a 8 nm (013) HgTe quantum well (QW). The local resistance behavior is indicative of a metal-insulator transition at B ≈ 6 T. On the whole the experimental data agrees with the theory according to which the helical edge states transport in a 2D TI persists from zero up to a critical magnetic field Bc after which a gap opens up in the 2D TI spectrum.
Three-dimensional phase-field simulations of directional solidification
Plapp, Mathis
2007-05-01
The phase-field method has become the method of choice for simulating microstructural pattern formation during solidification. One of its main advantages is that time-dependent three-dimensional simulations become feasible, which makes it possible to address long-standing questions of pattern stability and pattern selection. Here, a brief introduction to the phase-field model and its implementation is given, and its capabilities are illustrated by examples taken from the directional solidification of binary alloys. In particular, the morphological stability of hexagonal cellular arrays and of eutectic lamellar patterns is investigated.
Low dimensional field theories and condensed matter physics
Nagaoka, Yosuke
1992-01-01
This issue is devoted to the Proceedings of the Fourth Yukawa International Seminar (YKIS '91) on Low Dimensional Field Theories and Condensed Matter Physics, which was held on July 28 to August 3 in Kyoto. In recent years there have been great experimental discoveries in the field of condensed matter physics: the quantum Hall effect and the high temperature superconductivity. Theoretical effort to clarify mechanisms of these phenomena revealed that they are deeply related to the basic problem of many-body systems with strong correlation. On the other hand, there have been important developments in field theory in low dimensions: the conformal field theory, the Chern-Simons gauge theory, etc. It was found that these theories work as a powerful method of approach to the problems in condensed matter physics. YKIS '91 was devoted to the study of common problems in low dimensional field theories and condensed matter physics. The 17 of the presented papers are collected in this issue. (J.P.N.)
Plasma Flows in Crossed Magnetic and Electric Fields
Belikov, A.G.
2005-01-01
The effect of the magnitude and direction of an external electric field on the plasma flowing through a magnetic barrier is studied by numerically solving two-fluid MHD equations. The drift velocity of the plasma flow and the distribution of the flow electrons over transverse velocities are found to depend on the magnitude and direction of the electric field. It is shown that the direction of the induced longitudinal electric field is determined by the direction of the external field and that the electric current generated by the plasma flow significantly disturbs the barrier field
Pedestrian Flow in the Mean Field Limit
Haji Ali, Abdul Lateef
2012-01-01
-dependent density of two-dimensional pedestrians satisfies a four-dimensional integro-differential Fokker-Planck equation. To approximate the solution of the Fokker-Planck equation we use a time-splitting approach and solve the diffusion part using a Crank
Investigation of secondary flows in turbulent pipe flows with three-dimensional sinusoidal walls
Chan, Leon; MacDonald, Michael; Chung, Daniel; Hutchins, Nicholas; Ooi, Andrew
2017-11-01
The occurrence of secondary flows is systematically investigated via Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of turbulent flow in a rough wall pipe at friction Reynolds numbers of 540. In this study, the peak-to-trough height of the roughness elements, which consist of three-dimensional sinusoidal roughness, is fixed at 120 viscous units while the wavelength of the roughness elements is varied. The solidity or effective slope (ES) of the roughness ranges from the sparse regime (ES = 0.18) to the closely packed roughness/dense regime (ES = 0.72). The time-independent dispersive stresses, which arise due to the stationary features of the flow, are analysed and are found to increase with increasing roughness wavelength. These dispersive stresses are related to the occurrence of secondary flows and are maximum within the roughness canopy. Above the crest of the roughness elements, the dispersive stresses reduce to zero at wall-normal heights greater than half of the roughness wavelength. This study has found that the size and wall-normal extent of the secondary flows scales with the roughness wavelength and can reach wall-normal heights of almost half of the pipe radius.
Flow Patterns and Thermal Drag in a One-Dimensional Inviscid Channel with Heating or Cooling
无
1993-01-01
In this paper investigations on the flow patterns and the thermal drag phenomenon in one -dimensional inviscid channel flow with heating or cooling are described and discussed:expressions of flow rate ratio and thermal drag coefficient for different flow patterns and its physical mechanism are presented.
Studies on unsteady pressure fields in the region of separating and reattaching flows
Govinda Ram, H. S.; Arakeri, V. H.
1990-12-01
Experimental studies on the measurement of pressure fields in the region of separating and reattaching flows behind several two-dimensional fore-bodies and one axisymmetric body are reported. In particular, extensive measurements of mean pressure, surface pressure fluctuation, and pressure fluctuation within the flow were made for a series of two-dimensional fore-body shapes consisting of triangular nose with varying included angle. The measurements from different bodies are compared and one of the important findings is that the maximum values of rms pressure fluctuation levels in the shear layer approaching reattachment are almost equal to the maximum value of the surface fluctuation levels.
Three-dimensional simulation of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering.
Kirchhof, M J; Schmid, H -J; Peukert, W
2009-08-01
The viscous-flow sintering of different agglomerate particle morphologies is studied by three-dimensional computer simulations based on the concept of fractional volume of fluid. For a fundamental understanding of particle sintering characteristics, the neck growth kinetics in agglomerate chains and in doublets consisting of differently sized primary particles is investigated. Results show that different sintering contacts in agglomerates even during the first stages are not completely independent from each other, even though differences are small. The neck growth kinetics of differently sized primary particles is determined by the smaller one up to a size difference by a factor of approximately 2, whereas for larger size differences, the kinetics becomes faster. In particular, the agglomerate sintering kinetics is investigated for particle chains of different lengths and for different particle morphologies each having ten primary particles and nine initial sintering contacts. For agglomerate chains, the kinetics approximately can be normalized by using the radius of the fully coalesced sphere. In general, different agglomerate morphologies show equal kinetics during the first sintering stages, whereas during advanced stages, compact morphologies show significantly faster sintering progress than more open morphologies. Hence, the overall kinetics cannot be described by simply using constant morphology correction factors such as fractal dimension or mean coordination number which are used in common sintering models. However, for the first stages of viscous-flow agglomerate sintering, which are the most important for many particle processes, a sintering equation is presented. Although we use agglomerates consisting of spherical primary particles, our methodology can be applied to other aggregate geometries as well.
Diabil, Hayder Azeez; Li, Xin Kai; Abdalla, Ibrahim Elrayah
2017-09-01
Large-scale organized motions (commonly referred to coherent structures) and flow topology of a transitional separated-reattached flow have been visualised and investigated using flow visualisation techniques. Two geometrical shapes including two-dimensional flat plate with rectangular leading edge and three-dimensional square cylinder are chosen to shed a light on the flow topology and present coherent structures of the flow over these shapes. For both geometries and in the early stage of the transition, two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls are formed downstream of the leading edge. They are observed to be twisting around the square cylinder while they stay flat in the case of the two-dimensional flat plate. For both geometrical shapes, the two-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls move downstream of the leading edge and they are subjected to distortion to form three-dimensional hairpin structures. The flow topology in the flat plate is different from that in the square cylinder. For the flat plate, there is a merging process by a pairing of the Kelvin-Helmholtz rolls to form a large structure that breaks down directly into many hairpin structures. For the squire cylinder case, the Kelvin-Helmholtz roll evolves topologically to form a hairpin structure. In the squire cylinder case, the reattachment length is much shorter and a forming of the three-dimensional structures is closer to the leading edge than that in the flat plate case.
Three-dimensional numerical modeling of turbulent single-phase and two-phase flow in curved pipes
Xin, R.C.; Dong, Z.F.; Ebadian, M.A.
1996-01-01
In this study, three-dimensional single-phase and two-phase flows in curved pipes have been investigated numerically. Two different pipe configurations were computed. When the results of the single-phase flow simulation were compared with the experimental data, a fairly good agreement was achieved. A flow-developing process has been suggested in single-phase flow, in which the turbulence is stronger near the outer tube wall than near the inner tube wall. For two-phase flow, the Eulerian multiphase model was used to simulate the phase distribution of a three-dimensional gas-liquid bubble flow in curved pipe. The RNG/κ-ε turbulence model was used to determine the turbulence field. An inlet gas void fraction of 5 percent was simulated. The gas phase effects on the liquid phase flow velocity have been examined by comparing the results of single-phase flow and two-phase flow. The findings show that for the downward flow in the U bend, the gas concentrates at the inner portion of the cross section at φ = π/18 - π/6 in most cases. The results of the phase distribution simulation are compared to experimental observations qualitatively and topologically
Large eddy simulation of new subgrid scale model for three-dimensional bundle flows
Barsamian, H.R.; Hassan, Y.A.
2004-01-01
Having led to increased inefficiencies and power plant shutdowns fluid flow induced vibrations within heat exchangers are of great concern due to tube fretting-wear or fatigue failures. Historically, scaling law and measurement accuracy problems were encountered for experimental analysis at considerable effort and expense. However, supercomputers and accurate numerical methods have provided reliable results and substantial decrease in cost. In this investigation Large Eddy Simulation has been successfully used to simulate turbulent flow by the numeric solution of the incompressible, isothermal, single phase Navier-Stokes equations. The eddy viscosity model and a new subgrid scale model have been utilized to model the smaller eddies in the flow domain. A triangular array flow field was considered and numerical simulations were performed in two- and three-dimensional fields, and were compared to experimental findings. Results show good agreement of the numerical findings to that of the experimental, and solutions obtained with the new subgrid scale model represent better energy dissipation for the smaller eddies. (author)
Two dimensional analytical model for a reconfigurable field effect transistor
Ranjith, R.; Jayachandran, Remya; Suja, K. J.; Komaragiri, Rama S.
2018-02-01
This paper presents two-dimensional potential and current models for a reconfigurable field effect transistor (RFET). Two potential models which describe subthreshold and above-threshold channel potentials are developed by solving two-dimensional (2D) Poisson's equation. In the first potential model, 2D Poisson's equation is solved by considering constant/zero charge density in the channel region of the device to get the subthreshold potential characteristics. In the second model, accumulation charge density is considered to get above-threshold potential characteristics of the device. The proposed models are applicable for the device having lightly doped or intrinsic channel. While obtaining the mathematical model, whole body area is divided into two regions: gated region and un-gated region. The analytical models are compared with technology computer-aided design (TCAD) simulation results and are in complete agreement for different lengths of the gated regions as well as at various supply voltage levels.
Three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann front-tracking method for two-phase flow
Xie Hai-Qiong; Zeng Zhong; Zhang Liang-Qi
2016-01-01
We developed a three-dimensional multi-relaxation-time lattice Boltzmann method for incompressible and immiscible two-phase flow by coupling with a front-tracking technique. The flow field was simulated by using an Eulerian grid, an adaptive unstructured triangular Lagrangian grid was applied to track explicitly the motion of the two-fluid interface, and an indicator function was introduced to update accurately the fluid properties. The surface tension was computed directly on a triangular Lagrangian grid, and then the surface tension was distributed to the background Eulerian grid. Three benchmarks of two-phase flow, including the Laplace law for a stationary drop, the oscillation of a three-dimensional ellipsoidal drop, and the drop deformation in a shear flow, were simulated to validate the present model. (paper)
High-velocity two-phase flow two-dimensional modeling
Mathes, R.; Alemany, A.; Thilbault, J.P.
1995-01-01
The two-phase flow in the nozzle of a LMMHD (liquid metal magnetohydrodynamic) converter has been studied numerically and experimentally. A two-dimensional model for two-phase flow has been developed including the viscous terms (dragging and turbulence) and the interfacial mass, momentum and energy transfer between the phases. The numerical results were obtained by a finite volume method based on the SIMPLE algorithm. They have been verified by an experimental facility using air-water as a simulation pair and a phase Doppler particle analyzer for velocity and droplet size measurement. The numerical simulation of a lithium-cesium high-temperature pair showed that a nearly homogeneous and isothermal expansion of the two phases is possible with small pressure losses and high kinetic efficiencies. In the throat region a careful profiling is necessary to reduce the inertial effects on the liquid velocity field
Sabir, O; Ahmad, Norhafizan; Nukman, Y; Tuan Ya, T M Y S
2013-01-01
This paper describes an innovative method for computing fluid solid interaction using Immersed boundary methods with two stage pressure-velocity corrections. The algorithm calculates the interactions between incompressible viscous flows and a solid shape in three-dimensional domain. The fractional step method is used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in finite difference schemes. Most of IBMs are concern about exchange of the momentum between the Eulerian variables (fluid) and the Lagrangian nodes (solid). To address that concern, a new algorithm to correct the pressure and the velocity using Simplified Marker and Cell method is added. This scheme is applied on staggered grid to simulate the flow past a circular cylinder and study the effect of the new stage on calculations cost. To evaluate the accuracy of the computations the results are compared with the previous software results. The paper confirms the capacity of new algorithm for accurate and robust simulation of Fluid Solid Interaction with respect to pressure field
Assessment of turbulent flow effects on the vessel wall using four-dimensional flow MRI.
Ziegler, Magnus; Lantz, Jonas; Ebbers, Tino; Dyverfeldt, Petter
2017-06-01
To explore the use of MR-estimated turbulence quantities for the assessment of turbulent flow effects on the vessel wall. Numerical velocity data for two patient-derived models was obtained using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for two physiological flow rates. The four-dimensional (4D) Flow MRI measurements were simulated at three different spatial resolutions and used to investigate the estimation of turbulent wall shear stress (tWSS) using the intravoxel standard deviation (IVSD) of velocity and turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) estimated near the vessel wall. Accurate estimation of tWSS using the IVSD is limited by the spatial resolution achievable with 4D Flow MRI. TKE, estimated near the wall, has a strong linear relationship to the tWSS (mean R 2 = 0.84). Near-wall TKE estimates from MR simulations have good agreement to CFD-derived ground truth (mean R 2 = 0.90). Maps of near-wall TKE have strong visual correspondence to tWSS. Near-wall estimation of TKE permits assessment of relative maps of tWSS, but direct estimation of tWSS is challenging due to limitations in spatial resolution. Assessment of tWSS and near-wall TKE may open new avenues for analysis of different pathologies. Magn Reson Med 77:2310-2319, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Measurement of multi-dimensional flow structure for flow boiling in a tube
Adachi, Yu; Ito, Daisuke; Saito, Yasushi
2014-01-01
With an aim of the measurement of multi-dimensional flow structure of in-tube boiling two-phase flow, the authors built their own wire mesh measurement system based on electrical conductivity measurement, and examined the relationship between the electrical conductivity obtained by the wire mesh sensor and the void fraction. In addition, the authors measured the void fraction using neutron radiography, and compared the result with the measured value using the wire mesh sensor. From the comparison with neutron radiography, it was found that the new method underestimated the void fraction in the flow in the vicinity of the void fraction of 0.2-0.5, similarly to the conventional result. In addition, since the wire mesh sensor cannot measure dispersed droplets, it tends to overestimate the void fraction in the high void fraction region, such as churn flow accompanied by droplet generation. In the electrical conductivity wire-mesh sensor method, it is necessary to correctly take into account the effect of liquid film or droplets. The authors also built a measurement system based on the capacitance wire mesh sensor method using the difference in dielectric constant, performed the confirmation of transmission and reception signals using deionized water as a medium, and showed the validity of the system. As for the dispersed droplets, the capacitance method has a potential to be able to measure them. (A.O.)
Viscoelastic polymer flows and elastic turbulence in three-dimensional porous structures.
Mitchell, Jonathan; Lyons, Kyle; Howe, Andrew M; Clarke, Andrew
2016-01-14
Viscoelastic polymer solutions flowing through reservoir rocks have been found to improve oil displacement efficiency when the aqueous-phase shear-rate exceeds a critical value. A possible mechanism for this enhanced recovery is elastic turbulence that causes breakup and mobilization of trapped oil ganglia. Here, we apply nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion measurements in a novel way to detect increased motion of disconnected oil ganglia. The data are acquired directly from a three-dimensional (3D) opaque porous structure (sandstone) when viscoelastic fluctuations are expected to be present in the continuous phase. The measured increase in motion of trapped ganglia provides unequivocal evidence of fluctuations in the flowing phase in a fully complex 3D system. This work provides direct evidence of elastic turbulence in a realistic reservoir rock - a measurement that cannot be readily achieved by conventional laboratory methods. We support the NMR data with optical microscopy studies of fluctuating ganglia in simple two-dimensional (2D) microfluidic networks, with consistent apparent rheological behaviour of the aqueous phase, to provide conclusive evidence of elastic turbulence in the 3D structure and hence validate the proposed flow-fluctuation mechanism for enhanced oil recovery.
Finite-time barriers to front propagation in two-dimensional fluid flows
Mahoney, John R.; Mitchell, Kevin A.
2015-08-01
Recent theoretical and experimental investigations have demonstrated the role of certain invariant manifolds, termed burning invariant manifolds (BIMs), as one-way dynamical barriers to reaction fronts propagating within a flowing fluid. These barriers form one-dimensional curves in a two-dimensional fluid flow. In prior studies, the fluid velocity field was required to be either time-independent or time-periodic. In the present study, we develop an approach to identify prominent one-way barriers based only on fluid velocity data over a finite time interval, which may have arbitrary time-dependence. We call such a barrier a burning Lagrangian coherent structure (bLCS) in analogy to Lagrangian coherent structures (LCSs) commonly used in passive advection. Our approach is based on the variational formulation of LCSs using curves of stationary "Lagrangian shear," introduced by Farazmand et al. [Physica D 278-279, 44 (2014)] in the context of passive advection. We numerically validate our technique by demonstrating that the bLCS closely tracks the BIM for a time-independent, double-vortex channel flow with an opposing "wind."
Two-dimensional numerical simulation of flow around three-stranded rope
Wang, Xinxin; Wan, Rong; Huang, Liuyi; Zhao, Fenfang; Sun, Peng
2016-08-01
Three-stranded rope is widely used in fishing gear and mooring system. Results of numerical simulation are presented for flow around a three-stranded rope in uniform flow. The simulation was carried out to study the hydrodynamic characteristics of pressure and velocity fields of steady incompressible laminar and turbulent wakes behind a three-stranded rope. A three-cylinder configuration and single circular cylinder configuration are used to model the three-stranded rope in the two-dimensional simulation. The governing equations, Navier-Stokes equations, are solved by using two-dimensional finite volume method. The turbulence flow is simulated using Standard κ-ɛ model and Shear-Stress Transport κ-ω (SST) model. The drag of the three-cylinder model and single cylinder model is calculated for different Reynolds numbers by using control volume analysis method. The pressure coefficient is also calculated for the turbulent model and laminar model based on the control surface method. From the comparison of the drag coefficient and the pressure of the single cylinder and three-cylinder models, it is found that the drag coefficients of the three-cylinder model are generally 1.3-1.5 times those of the single circular cylinder for different Reynolds numbers. Comparing the numerical results with water tank test data, the results of the three-cylinder model are closer to the experiment results than the single cylinder model results.
Three dimensional computation of turbulent flow in meandering channels
Van Thinh Nguyen
2000-07-01
In this study a finite element calculation procedure together with two-equation turbulent model k-{epsilon} and mixing length are applied to the problem of simulating 3D turbulent flow in closed and open meandering channels. Near the wall a special approach is applied in order to overcome the weakness of the standard k-{epsilon} in the viscous sub-layer. A specialized shape function is used in the special near wall elements to capture accurately the strong variations of the mean flow variables in the viscosity-affected near wall region. Based on the analogy of water and air flows, a few characteristics of hydraulic problems can be examined in aerodynamic models, respectively. To study the relationships between an aerodynamic and a hydraulic model many experiments have been carried out by Federal Waterway Engineering and Research Institute of Karlsruhe, Germany. In order to test and examine the results of these physical models, an appropriated numerical model is necessary. The numerical mean will capture the limitations of the experimental setup. The similarity and the difference between an aerodynamic and a hydraulic model will be found out by the results of numerical computations and will be depicted in this study. Despite the presence of similarities between the flow in closed channels and the flow in open channels, it should be stated that the presence of a free surface in the open channel introduces serious complications to three dimensional computation. A new unknown, which represents the position of nodes on this free surface, is introduced. A special approach is required for solving this unknown. A procedure surface tracking is applied to the free surface boundary like a moving boundary. Grid nodes on the free surface are free to move in such a way that they belong to the spines, which are the generator lines to define the allowed motion of the nodes on the free surface. (orig.) [German] Die numerische Simulation ist heute ein wichtiges Hilfsmittel fuer die
Field analysis of two-dimensional focusing grating
Borsboom, P.P.; Frankena, H.J.
1995-01-01
The method that we have developed [P-P. Borsboom, Ph.D. dissertation (Delft University of Technology, Delft, The Netherlands); P-P. Borsboom and H. J. Frankena, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 12, 1134–1141 (1995)] is successfully applied to a two-dimensional focusing grating coupler. The field in the focal region has been determined for symmetrical chirped gratings consisting of as many as 124 corrugations. The intensity distribution in the focal region agrees well with the approximate predictions of geo...
Visualization of Flow Field: Application of PLIF Technique
Jiang Bo Peng
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to apply planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF technology to flow field visualization. This experiment was carried out in a one-meter wind tunnel to study the wake flow field around a circular cylinder. This experiment studied the method of injecting tracer into the flow field; the frequency of the vortex in the wake field and the vortex speed are quantitatively analyzed. This paper gives the correspondence between the speed of the flow field and the frequency of the laser, which could be used as a rough reference standard for future wind tunnel visualization experiments. The result shows that PLIF diagnostic technology has great potential in visualization of flow field.
Naymik, T.G.
1978-01-01
To evaluate the inability of a one-dimensional ground-water model to interact continuously with surrounding hydraulic head gradients, simulations using one-dimensional and two-dimensional ground-water flow models were compared. This approach used two types of models: flow-conserving one-and-two dimensional models, and one-dimensional and two-dimensional models designed to yield two-dimensional solutions. The hydraulic conductivities of controlling features were varied and model comparison was based on the travel times of marker particles. The solutions within each of the two model types compare reasonably well, but a three-dimensional solution is required to quantify the comparison
Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in forced two-dimensional turbulence.
Kadoch, B; Del-Castillo-Negrete, D; Bos, W J T; Schneider, K
2011-03-01
A study of the relationship between Lagrangian statistics and flow topology in fluid turbulence is presented. The topology is characterized using the Weiss criterion, which provides a conceptually simple tool to partition the flow into topologically different regions: elliptic (vortex dominated), hyperbolic (deformation dominated), and intermediate (turbulent background). The flow corresponds to forced two-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence in doubly periodic and circular bounded domains, the latter with no-slip boundary conditions. In the double periodic domain, the probability density function (pdf) of the Weiss field exhibits a negative skewness consistent with the fact that in periodic domains the flow is dominated by coherent vortex structures. On the other hand, in the circular domain, the elliptic and hyperbolic regions seem to be statistically similar. We follow a Lagrangian approach and obtain the statistics by tracking large ensembles of passively advected tracers. The pdfs of residence time in the topologically different regions are computed introducing the Lagrangian Weiss field, i.e., the Weiss field computed along the particles' trajectories. In elliptic and hyperbolic regions, the pdfs of the residence time have self-similar algebraic decaying tails. In contrast, in the intermediate regions the pdf has exponential decaying tails. The conditional pdfs (with respect to the flow topology) of the Lagrangian velocity exhibit Gaussian-like behavior in the periodic and in the bounded domains. In contrast to the freely decaying turbulence case, the conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian acceleration in forced turbulence show a comparable level of intermittency in both the periodic and the bounded domains. The conditional pdfs of the Lagrangian curvature are characterized, in all cases, by self-similar power-law behavior with a decay exponent of order -2.
Zhao, Guangpu [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Jian, Yongjun, E-mail: jianyj@imu.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China); Chang, Long [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Inner Mongolia University of Finance and Economics, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010051 (China); Buren, Mandula [School of Mathematical Science, Inner Mongolia University, Hohhot, Inner Mongolia 010021 (China)
2015-08-01
By using the method of separation of variables, an analytical solution for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field through a two-dimensional rectangular micropump is reduced. By the numerical computation, the variations of velocity profiles with the electrical oscillating Reynolds number Re, the Hartmann number Ha, the dimensionless relaxation time De are studied graphically. Further, the comparison with available experimental data and relevant researches is presented. - Highlights: • MHD flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field is analyzed. • The MHD flow is confined to a two-dimensional rectangular micropump. • Analytical solution is obtained by using the method of separation of variables. • The influences of related parameters on the MHD velocity are discussed.
Zhao, Guangpu; Jian, Yongjun; Chang, Long; Buren, Mandula
2015-01-01
By using the method of separation of variables, an analytical solution for the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field through a two-dimensional rectangular micropump is reduced. By the numerical computation, the variations of velocity profiles with the electrical oscillating Reynolds number Re, the Hartmann number Ha, the dimensionless relaxation time De are studied graphically. Further, the comparison with available experimental data and relevant researches is presented. - Highlights: • MHD flow of the generalized Maxwell fluids under AC electric field is analyzed. • The MHD flow is confined to a two-dimensional rectangular micropump. • Analytical solution is obtained by using the method of separation of variables. • The influences of related parameters on the MHD velocity are discussed
Wang, Yuhe; Li, Yanbin; Wang, Ronghui; Wang, Maohua; Lin, Jianhan
2017-04-01
As a result of the low concentration of avian influenza viruses in samples for routine screening, the separation and concentration of these viruses are vital for their sensitive detection. We present a novel three-dimensional printed magnetophoretic system for the continuous flow separation of the viruses using aptamer-modified magnetic nanoparticles, a magnetophoretic chip, a magnetic field, and a fluidic controller. The magnetic field was designed based on finite element magnetic simulation and developed using neodymium magnets with a maximum intensity of 0.65 T and a gradient of 32 T/m for dragging the nanoparticle-virus complexes. The magnetophoretic chip was designed by SOLIDWORKS and fabricated by a three-dimensional printer with a magnetophoretic channel for the continuous flow separation of the viruses using phosphate-buffered saline as carrier flow. The fluidic controller was developed using a microcontroller and peristaltic pumps to inject the carrier flow and the viruses. The trajectory of the virus-nanoparticle complexes was simulated using COMSOL for optimization of the carrier flow and the magnetic field, respectively. The results showed that the H5N1 viruses could be captured, separated, and concentrated using the proposed magnetophoretic system with the separation efficiency up to 88% in a continuous flow separation time of 2 min for a sample volume of 200 μL. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Representation and display of vector field topology in fluid flow data sets
Helman, James; Hesselink, Lambertus
1989-01-01
The visualization of physical processes in general and of vector fields in particular is discussed. An approach to visualizing flow topology that is based on the physics and mathematics underlying the physical phenomenon is presented. It involves determining critical points in the flow where the velocity vector vanishes. The critical points, connected by principal lines or planes, determine the topology of the flow. The complexity of the data is reduced without sacrificing the quantitative nature of the data set. By reducing the original vector field to a set of critical points and their connections, a representation of the topology of a two-dimensional vector field that is much smaller than the original data set but retains with full precision the information pertinent to the flow topology is obtained. This representation can be displayed as a set of points and tangent curves or as a graph. Analysis (including algorithms), display, interaction, and implementation aspects are discussed.
Accretion torques due to three-dimensional channelled flows in magnetic cataclysmic variables
Campbell, C.G.
1986-01-01
Angular momentum transfer due to three-dimensional magnetically channelled accretion flows in cataclysmic binaries is considered. The white dwarf experiences a torque due to the twist in that part of its magnetic field which interacts with the accretion stream. The channelling process can also enhance angular momentum exchange between the stream and the orbit by increasing the gravitational torques. The components of the accretion torque are calculated for an arbitrary static magnetic orientation of the white dwarf, and their variation with orientation is presented. For high inclinations of the accreting pole to the orbital plane the component of the accretion torque parallel to this plane can be comparable to its perpendicular component. It is shown that the parallel component of the torque is still significant relative to the perpendicular component if material links to the white dwarf's magnetic field well away from the L 1 region. (author)
Surge flow irrigation under short field conditions in Egypt
Ismail, S.M.; Depeweg, H.; Schultz, E.
2004-01-01
Several studies carried out in long furrows have shown that surge flow irrigation offers the potential of increasing the efficiency of irrigation. The effects of surge flow in short fields, such as in Egypt, are still not well known, however. To investigate the effect of surge flow irrigation in
Estimation of Centers and Stagnation points in optical flow fields
Larsen, Rasmus
1997-01-01
In a topological sense fluid flows are characterised by their stagnation points. Given a temporal sequence of images of fluids we will consider the application of local polynomials to the estimation of smooth fluid flow fields. The normal flow at intensity contours is estimated from the local dis...
Three-Dimensional Aeroelastic and Aerothermoelastic Behavior in Hypersonic Flow
McNamara, Jack J.; Friedmann, Peretz P.; Powell, Kenneth G.; Thuruthimattam, Biju J.; Bartels, Robert E.
2005-01-01
The aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic behavior of three-dimensional configurations in hypersonic flow regime are studied. The aeroelastic behavior of a low aspect ratio wing, representative of a fin or control surface on a generic hypersonic vehicle, is examined using third order piston theory, Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics. The sensitivity of the aeroelastic behavior generated using Euler and Navier-Stokes aerodynamics to parameters governing temporal accuracy is also examined. Also, a refined aerothermoelastic model, which incorporates the heat transfer between the fluid and structure using CFD generated aerodynamic heating, is used to examine the aerothermoelastic behavior of the low aspect ratio wing in the hypersonic regime. Finally, the hypersonic aeroelastic behavior of a generic hypersonic vehicle with a lifting-body type fuselage and canted fins is studied using piston theory and Euler aerodynamics for the range of 2.5 less than or equal to M less than or equal to 28, at altitudes ranging from 10,000 feet to 80,000 feet. This analysis includes a study on optimal mesh selection for use with Euler aerodynamics. In addition to the aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic results presented, three time domain flutter identification techniques are compared, namely the moving block approach, the least squares curve fitting method, and a system identification technique using an Auto-Regressive model of the aeroelastic system. In general, the three methods agree well. The system identification technique, however, provided quick damping and frequency estimations with minimal response record length, and therefore o ers significant reductions in computational cost. In the present case, the computational cost was reduced by 75%. The aeroelastic and aerothermoelastic results presented illustrate the applicability of the CFL3D code for the hypersonic flight regime.
Integrable models in 1+1 dimensional quantum field theory
Faddeev, Ludvig.
1982-09-01
The goal of this lecture is to present a unifying view on the exactly soluble models. There exist several reasons arguing in favor of the 1+1 dimensional models: every exact solution of a field-theoretical model can teach about the ability of quantum field theory to describe spectrum and scattering; some 1+1 d models have physical applications in the solid state theory. There are several ways to become acquainted with the methods of exactly soluble models: via classical statistical mechanics, via Bethe Ansatz, via inverse scattering method. Fundamental Poisson bracket relation FPR and/or fundamental commutation relations FCR play fundamental role. General classification of FPR is given with promizing generalizations to FCR
Primary decomposition of zero-dimensional ideals over finite fields
Gao, Shuhong; Wan, Daqing; Wang, Mingsheng
2009-03-01
A new algorithm is presented for computing primary decomposition of zero-dimensional ideals over finite fields. Like Berlekamp's algorithm for univariate polynomials, the new method is based on the invariant subspace of the Frobenius map acting on the quotient algebra. The dimension of the invariant subspace equals the number of primary components, and a basis of the invariant subspace yields a complete decomposition. Unlike previous approaches for decomposing multivariate polynomial systems, the new method does not need primality testing nor any generic projection, instead it reduces the general decomposition problem directly to root finding of univariate polynomials over the ground field. Also, it is shown how Groebner basis structure can be used to get partial primary decomposition without any root finding.
Description of flow field in the wheelhouses of cars
Regert, Tamas; Lajos, Tamas
2007-01-01
RANS and URANS modeling of flow past simplified vehicle bodies with wheelhouses and rotating wheels have been carried out in order to understand the flow phenomena through detailed analyses of flow in the wheelhouses. The vortex skeleton method was used to characterize the flow structure. The second invariant of the velocity gradient tensor (Q) and iso-surfaces of total pressure have been applied for detecting dynamically significant vortical structures. It was found that the flow field in the wheelhouse can be characterized by several large recirculation zones, of which six can be classified as qualitatively independent of the grid, numerical scheme, turbulence model and the shape of the vehicle body. The change of flow field structure was investigated for various wheelhouse geometries, and for closed lower and/or lateral gaps between the wheelhouse and the external flow field. Aerodynamic forces acting on the body, wheelhouse and wheel were determined separately for different configurations
Petrov, A. G.; Shkundin, S. Z.
2018-01-01
Fermat's variational principle is used for derivation of the formula for the time of propagation of a sonic signal between two set points A and B in a steady three-dimensional flow of a fluid or gas. It is shown that the fluid flow changes the time of signal reception by a value proportional to the flow rate independently of the velocity profile. The time difference in the reception of the signals from point B to point A and vice versa is proportional with a high accuracy to the flow rate. It is shown that the relative error of the formula does not exceed the square of the largest Mach number. This makes it possible to measure the flow rate of a fluid or gas with an arbitrary steady subsonic velocity field.
Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids
Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
or an estimate there-of is known. Estimated flow fields in weather satellite imagery might also be used on an operational basis as inputs to short-term weather prediction. In this article we describe a method for the estimation of dense flow fields. Local measurements of motion are obtained by analysis...
Estimation of Dense Image Flow Fields in Fluids
Larsen, Rasmus; Conradsen, Knut; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær
1998-01-01
or an estimate there-of is known. Estimated flow fields in weather satellite imagery might also be used on an operational basis as inputs to short-term weather prediction. In this article we describe a method for the estimation of dense flow fields. Local measurements of motion are obtained by analysis...
Three-dimensional polarization states of monochromatic light fields.
Azzam, R M A
2011-11-01
The 3×1 generalized Jones vectors (GJVs) [E(x) E(y) E(z)](t) (t indicates the transpose) that describe the linear, circular, and elliptical polarization states of an arbitrary three-dimensional (3-D) monochromatic light field are determined in terms of the geometrical parameters of the 3-D vibration of the time-harmonic electric field. In three dimensions, there are as many distinct linear polarization states as there are points on the surface of a hemisphere, and the number of distinct 3-D circular polarization states equals that of all two-dimensional (2-D) polarization states on the Poincaré sphere, of which only two are circular states. The subset of 3-D polarization states that results from the superposition of three mutually orthogonal x, y, and z field components of equal amplitude is considered as a function of their relative phases. Interesting contours of equal ellipticity and equal inclination of the normal to the polarization ellipse with respect to the x axis are obtained in 2-D phase space. Finally, the 3×3 generalized Jones calculus, in which elastic scattering (e.g., by a nano-object in the near field) is characterized by the 3-D linear transformation E(s)=T E(i), is briefly introduced. In such a matrix transformation, E(i) and E(s) are the 3×1 GJVs of the incident and scattered waves and T is the 3×3 generalized Jones matrix of the scatterer at a given frequency and for given directions of incidence and scattering.
Zou, Zhengping; Liu, Jingyuan; Zhang, Weihao; Wang, Peng
2016-01-01
Multi-dimensional coupling simulation is an effective approach for evaluating the flow and aero-thermal performance of shrouded turbines, which can balance the simulation accuracy and computing cost effectively. In this paper, 1D leakage models are proposed based on classical jet theories and dynamics equations, which can be used to evaluate most of the main features of shroud leakage flow, including the mass flow rate, radial and circumferential momentum, temperature and the jet width. Then, the 1D models are expanded to 2D distributions on the interface by using a multi-dimensional scaling method. Based on the models and multi-dimensional scaling, a multi-dimensional coupling simulation method for shrouded turbines is developed, in which, some boundary source and sink are set on the interface between the shroud and the main flow passage. To verify the precision, some simulations on the design point and off design points of a 1.5 stage turbine are conducted. It is indicated that the models and methods can give predictions with sufficient accuracy for most of the flow field features and will contribute to pursue deeper understanding and better design methods of shrouded axial turbines, which are the important devices in energy engineering. - Highlights: • Free and wall attached jet theories are used to model the leakage flow in shrouds. • Leakage flow rate is modeled by virtual labyrinth number and residual-energy factor. • A scaling method is applied to 1D model to obtain 2D distributions on interfaces. • A multi-dimensional coupling CFD method for shrouded turbines is proposed. • The proposed coupling method can give accurate predictions with low computing cost.
A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method for the solution of three-dimensional vortical flows
Felici, Helene Marie
1992-01-01
A coupled Eulerian/Lagrangian method is presented for the reduction of numerical diffusion observed in solutions of three-dimensional rotational flows using standard Eulerian finite-volume time-marching procedures. A Lagrangian particle tracking method using particle markers is added to the Eulerian time-marching procedure and provides a correction of the Eulerian solution. In turn, the Eulerian solutions is used to integrate the Lagrangian state-vector along the particles trajectories. The Lagrangian correction technique does not require any a-priori information on the structure or position of the vortical regions. While the Eulerian solution ensures the conservation of mass and sets the pressure field, the particle markers, used as 'accuracy boosters,' take advantage of the accurate convection description of the Lagrangian solution and enhance the vorticity and entropy capturing capabilities of standard Eulerian finite-volume methods. The combined solution procedures is tested in several applications. The convection of a Lamb vortex in a straight channel is used as an unsteady compressible flow preservation test case. The other test cases concern steady incompressible flow calculations and include the preservation of turbulent inlet velocity profile, the swirling flow in a pipe, and the constant stagnation pressure flow and secondary flow calculations in bends. The last application deals with the external flow past a wing with emphasis on the trailing vortex solution. The improvement due to the addition of the Lagrangian correction technique is measured by comparison with analytical solutions when available or with Eulerian solutions on finer grids. The use of the combined Eulerian/Lagrangian scheme results in substantially lower grid resolution requirements than the standard Eulerian scheme for a given solution accuracy.
Nonstandard approximation schemes for lower dimensional quantum field theories
Fitzpatrick, D.A.
1981-01-01
The purpose of this thesis has been to apply two different nonstandard approximation schemes to a variety of lower-dimensional schemes. In doing this, we show their applicability where (e.g., Feynman or Rayleigh-Schroedinger) approximation schemes are inapplicable. We have applied the well-known mean-field approximation scheme by Guralnik et al. to general lower dimensional theories - the phi 4 field theory in one dimension, and the massive and massless Thirring models in two dimensions. In each case, we derive a bound-state propagator and then expand the theory in terms of the original and bound-state propagators. The results obtained can be compared with previously known results thereby show, in general, reasonably good convergence. In the second half of the thesis, we develop a self-consistent quantum mechanical approximation scheme. This can be applied to any monotonic polynomial potential. It has been applied in detail to the anharmonic oscillator, and the results in several analytical domains are very good, including extensive tables of numerical results
Chung, B. D.; Bae, S. W.; Jeong, J. J.; Lee, S. M
2005-04-15
A new multi-dimensional component has been developed to allow for more flexible 3D capabilities in the system code, MARS. This component can be applied in the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. For the development of this model, the 3D convection and diffusion terms are implemented in the momentum and energy equation. And a simple Prandtl's mixing length model is applied for the turbulent viscosity. The developed multi-dimensional component was assessed against five conceptual problems with analytic solution. And some SETs are calculated and compared with experimental data. With this newly developed multi-dimensional flow module, the MARS code can realistic calculate the flow fields in pools such as those occurring in the core, steam generators and IRWST.
Chung, B. D.; Bae, S. W.; Jeong, J. J.; Lee, S. M.
2005-04-01
A new multi-dimensional component has been developed to allow for more flexible 3D capabilities in the system code, MARS. This component can be applied in the Cartesian and cylindrical coordinates. For the development of this model, the 3D convection and diffusion terms are implemented in the momentum and energy equation. And a simple Prandtl's mixing length model is applied for the turbulent viscosity. The developed multi-dimensional component was assessed against five conceptual problems with analytic solution. And some SETs are calculated and compared with experimental data. With this newly developed multi-dimensional flow module, the MARS code can realistic calculate the flow fields in pools such as those occurring in the core, steam generators and IRWST
Gupta, Vikas; Bustamante, Mariana; Fredriksson, Alexandru; Carlhäll, Carl-Johan; Ebbers, Tino
2018-01-01
Assessment of blood flow in the left ventricle using four-dimensional flow MRI requires accurate left ventricle segmentation that is often hampered by the low contrast between blood and the myocardium. The purpose of this work is to improve left-ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI for reliable blood flow analysis. The left ventricle segmentations are first obtained using morphological cine-MRI with better in-plane resolution and contrast, and then aligned to four-dimensional flow MRI data. This alignment is, however, not trivial due to inter-slice misalignment errors caused by patient motion and respiratory drift during breath-hold based cine-MRI acquisition. A robust image registration based framework is proposed to mitigate such errors automatically. Data from 20 subjects, including healthy volunteers and patients, was used to evaluate its geometric accuracy and impact on blood flow analysis. High spatial correspondence was observed between manually and automatically aligned segmentations, and the improvements in alignment compared to uncorrected segmentations were significant (P 0.05). Our results demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach in improving left-ventricular segmentation in four-dimensional flow MRI, and its potential for reliable blood flow analysis. Magn Reson Med 79:554-560, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Computational analysis of the flow field downstream of flow conditioners
Erdal, Asbjoern
1997-12-31
Technological innovations are essential for maintaining the competitiveness for the gas companies and here metering technology is one important area. This thesis shows that computational fluid dynamic techniques can be a valuable tool for examination of several parameters that may affect the performance of a flow conditioner (FC). Previous design methods, such as screen theory, could not provide fundamental understanding of how a FC works. The thesis shows, among other things, that the flow pattern through a complex geometry, like a 19-hole plate FC, can be simulated with good accuracy by a k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The calculations illuminate how variations in pressure drop, overall porosity, grading of porosity across the cross-section and the number of holes affects the performance of FCs. These questions have been studied experimentally by researchers for a long time. Now an understanding of the important mechanisms behind efficient FCs emerges from the predictions. 179 ref., 110 figs., 8 tabs.
Sutudy on exchange flow under the unstably stratified field
文沢, 元雄
2005-01-01
This paper deals with the exchange flow under the unstably stratified field. The author developed the effective measurement system as well as the numerical analysis program. The system and the program are applied to the helium-air exchange flow in a rectangular channel with inclination. Following main features of the exchange flow were discussed based on the calculated results.(1) Time required for establishing a quasi-steady state exchange flow.(2) The relationship between the inclination an...
Effective Rheology of Two-Phase Flow in Three-Dimensional Porous Media: Experiment and Simulation.
Sinha, Santanu; Bender, Andrew T; Danczyk, Matthew; Keepseagle, Kayla; Prather, Cody A; Bray, Joshua M; Thrane, Linn W; Seymour, Joseph D; Codd, Sarah L; Hansen, Alex
2017-01-01
We present an experimental and numerical study of immiscible two-phase flow of Newtonian fluids in three-dimensional (3D) porous media to find the relationship between the volumetric flow rate ( Q ) and the total pressure difference ([Formula: see text]) in the steady state. We show that in the regime where capillary forces compete with the viscous forces, the distribution of capillary barriers at the interfaces effectively creates a yield threshold ([Formula: see text]), making the fluids reminiscent of a Bingham viscoplastic fluid in the porous medium. In this regime, Q depends quadratically on an excess pressure drop ([Formula: see text]). While increasing the flow rate, there is a transition, beyond which the overall flow is Newtonian and the relationship is linear. In our experiments, we build a model porous medium using a column of glass beads transporting two fluids, deionized water and air. For the numerical study, reconstructed 3D pore networks from real core samples are considered and the transport of wetting and non-wetting fluids through the network is modeled by tracking the fluid interfaces with time. We find agreement between our numerical and experimental results. Our results match with the mean-field results reported earlier.
Analysis of one-dimensional nonequilibrium two-phase flow using control volume method
Minato, Akihiko; Naitoh, Masanori
1987-01-01
A one-dimensional numerical analysis model was developed for prediction of rapid flow transient behavior involving boiling. This model was based on six conservation equations of time averaged parameters of gas and liquid behavior. These equations were solved by using a control volume method with an explicit time integration. This model did not use staggered mesh scheme, which had been commonly used in two-phase flow analysis. Because void fraction and velocity of each phase were defined at the same location in the present model, effects of void fraction on phase velocity calculation were treated directly without interpolation. Though non-staggered mesh scheme was liable to cause numerical instability with zigzag pressure field, stability was achieved by employing the Godunov method. In order to verify the present analytical model, Edwards' pipe blow down and Zaloudek's initially subcooled critical two-phase flow experiments were analyzed. Stable solutions were obtained for rarefaction wave propagation with boiling and transient two-phase flow behavior in a broken pipe by using this model. (author)
Yamasaki, K; Iwayama, T; Yajima, T
2011-01-01
The Okubo-Weiss field, frequently used for partitioning incompressible two-dimensional (2D) fluids into coherent and incoherent regions, corresponds to the Gaussian curvature of the stream function. Therefore, we consider the differential geometric structures of stream functions and calculate the Gaussian curvatures of some basic flows. We find the following. (I) The vorticity corresponds to the mean curvature of the stream function. Thus, the stream-function surface for an irrotational flow and that for a parallel shear flow correspond to the minimal surface and a developable surface, respectively. (II) The relationship between the coherency and the magnitude of the vorticity is interpreted by the curvatures. (III) Using the Gaussian curvature, stability of single and double point vortex streets is analyzed. The results of this analysis are compared with the well-known linear stability analysis. (IV) Conformal mapping in fluid mechanics is the physical expression of the geometric fact that the sign of the Gaussian curvature does not change in conformal mapping. These findings suggest that the curvatures of stream functions are useful for understanding the geometric structure of an incompressible 2D flow.
Alias, M. S.; Rafie, A. S. Mohd; Marzuki, O. F.; Hamid, M. F. Abdul; Chia, C. C.
2017-12-01
Over the years, many studies have demonstrated the feasibility of the Magnus effect on spinning cylinder to improve lift production, which can be much higher than the traditional airfoil shape. With this characteristic, spinning cylinder might be used as a lifting device for short take-off distance aircraft or unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV). Nonetheless, there is still a gap in research to explain the use of spinning cylinder as a good lifting device. Computational method is used for this study to analyse the Magnus effect, in which two-dimensional finite element numerical analysis method is applied using ANSYS FLUENT software to examine the coefficients of lift and drag, and to investigate the flow field around the rotating cylinder surface body. Cylinder size of 30mm is chosen and several configurations in steady and concentrated air flows have been evaluated. All in all, it can be concluded that, with the right configuration of the concentrated air flow setup, the rotating cylinder can be used as a lifting device for very short take-off since it can produce very high coefficient of lift (2.5 times higher) compared with steady air flow configuration.
Experimental investigation of flow over two-dimensional multiple hill models.
Li, Qing'an; Maeda, Takao; Kamada, Yasunari; Yamada, Keisuke
2017-12-31
The aim of this study is to investigate the flow field characteristics in ABL (Atmospheric Boundary Layer) flow over multiple hills and valleys in two-dimensional models under neutral conditions. Active turbulence grids and boundary layer generation frame were used to simulate the natural winds in wind tunnel experiments. As a result, the mean wind velocity, the velocity vector diagram and turbulence intensity around the hills were investigated by using a PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) system. From the measurement results, it was known that the average velocity was increased along the upstream slope of upside hill, and then separated at the top of the hills, the acceleration region of U/U ref >1 was generated at the downstream of the hill. Meanwhile, a large clockwise circulation flow was generated between the two hill models. Moreover, the turbulence intensity showed small value in the circulation flow regions. Compared to 1H model, the turbulence intensity in the mainstream direction showed larger value than that in the vertical direction. This paper provided a better understanding of the wind energy distribution on the terrain for proper selection of suitable sites for installing wind farms in the ABL. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Desingularization strategies for three-dimensional vector fields
Torres, Felipe Cano
1987-01-01
For a vector field #3, where Ai are series in X, the algebraic multiplicity measures the singularity at the origin. In this research monograph several strategies are given to make the algebraic multiplicity of a three-dimensional vector field decrease, by means of permissible blowing-ups of the ambient space, i.e. transformations of the type xi=x'ix1, 2s. A logarithmic point of view is taken, marking the exceptional divisor of each blowing-up and by considering only the vector fields which are tangent to this divisor, instead of the whole tangent sheaf. The first part of the book is devoted to the logarithmic background and to the permissible blowing-ups. The main part corresponds to the control of the algorithms for the desingularization strategies by means of numerical invariants inspired by Hironaka's characteristic polygon. Only basic knowledge of local algebra and algebraic geometry is assumed of the reader. The pathologies we find in the reduction of vector fields are analogous to pathologies in the pro...
Nebel, R.A.; Hagenson, R.L.; Moses, R.W.; Krakowski, R.A.
1980-01-01
Conceptual fusion reactor designs of the Reversed-Field Pinch Reactor (RFPR) have been based on profile-averaged zero-dimensional (point) plasma models. The plasma response/performance that has been predicted by the point plasma model is re-examined by a comprehensive one-dimensional (radial) burn code that has been developed and parametrically evaluated for the RFPR. Agreement is good between the zero-dimensional and one-dimensional models, giving more confidence in the RFPR design point reported previously from the zero-dimensional analysis
Elovic, E. (Editor); O'Brien, J. E. (Editor); Pepper, D. W. (Editor)
1988-01-01
The present conference on heat transfer characteristics of gas turbines and three-dimensional flows discusses velocity-temperature fluctuation correlations at the flow stagnation flow of a circular cylinder in turbulent flow, heat transfer across turbulent boundary layers with pressure gradients, the effect of jet grid turbulence on boundary layer heat transfer, and heat transfer characteristics predictions for discrete-hole film cooling. Also discussed are local heat transfer in internally cooled turbine airfoil leading edges, secondary flows in vane cascades and curved ducts, three-dimensional numerical modeling in gas turbine coal combustor design, numerical and experimental results for tube-fin heat exchanger airflow and heating characteristics, and the computation of external hypersonic three-dimensional flow field and heat transfer characteristics.
Geology of the Tyrrhenus Mons Lava Flow Field, Mars
Crown, David A.; Mest, Scott C.
2014-11-01
The ancient, eroded Martian volcano Tyrrhenus Mons exhibits a central caldera complex, layered flank deposits dissected by radial valleys, and a 1000+ km-long flow field extending to the southwest toward Hellas Planitia. Past studies suggested an early phase of volcanism dominated by large explosive eruptions followed by subsequent effusive activity at the summit and to the southwest. As part of a new geologic mapping study of northeast Hellas, we are examining the volcanic landforms and geologic evolution of the Tyrrhenus Mons flow field, including the timing and nature of fluvial activity and effects on volcanic units. New digital geologic mapping incorporates THEMIS IR (100 m/pixel) and CTX (5 m/pixel) images as well as constraints from MOLA topography.Mapping results to-date include delineation of the boundaries of the flow field, identification and mapping of volcanic and erosional channels within the flow field, and mapping and analysis of lava flow lobes. THEMIS IR and CTX images allow improved discrimination of the numerous flow lobes that are observed in the flow field, including refinement of the margins of previously known flows and identification of additional and smaller lobes. A prominent sinuous rille extending from Tyrrhenus Mons’ summit caldera is a major feature that supplied lava to the flow field. Smaller volcanic channels are common throughout the flow field; some occur in segments along crests of local topographic highs and may delineate lava tubes. In addition to volcanic channels, the flow field surface is characterized by several types of erosional channels, including wide troughs with scour marks, elongate sinuous channels, and discontinuous chains of elongate pits and troughs. High-resolution images reveal the widespread and significant effects of fluvial activity in the region, and further mapping studies will examine spatial and temporal interactions between volcanism and fluvial processes.
Chen Minsun; Jiang Houman; Liu Zejin
2011-01-01
Fundamental equations governing the temperature field of thermally decomposing resin composite irradiated by laser are derived from mass and energy conservation laws with the control Janume method. The thermal decomposition of resin is described by a multi-step model. An assumption is proposed that the flow of pyrolysis gas is one-dimensional, which makes it possible to consider the influence of pyrolysis gas convective transport and realize the closure of the three-dimensional model without introducing mechanical quantities. In view of the anisotropy of resin composite, expressions of the thermal conductivities of partially pyrolyzed material are deduced, as well as the computing formula for the laser absorption coefficient of partially pyrolyzed material. The energy conservation equation is consistent with reference under some simplifications. (authors)
A Semi-implicit Numerical Scheme for a Two-dimensional, Three-field Thermo-Hydraulic Modeling
Hwang, Moonkyu; Jeong, Jaejoon
2007-07-01
The behavior of two-phase flow is modeled, depending on the purpose, by either homogeneous model, drift flux model, or separated flow model, Among these model, in the separated flow model, the behavior of each flow phase is modeled by its own governing equation, together with the interphase models which describe the thermal and mechanical interactions between the phases involved. In this study, a semi-implicit numerical scheme for two-dimensional, transient, two-fluid, three-field is derived. The work is an extension to the previous study for the staggered, semi-implicit numerical scheme in one-dimensional geometry (KAERI/TR-3239/2006). The two-dimensional extension is performed by specifying a relevant governing equation set and applying the related finite differencing method. The procedure for employing the semi-implicit scheme is also described in detail. Verifications are performed for a 2-dimensional vertical plate for a single-phase and two-phase flows. The calculations verify the mass and energy conservations. The symmetric flow behavior, for the verification problem, also confirms the momentum conservation of the numerical scheme
Li, Cheng Gong [National Engineering Laboratory for MTO, Dalian National Laboratory for Clean Energy, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 457 Zhongshan Road, Dalian 116023 (China); Maa, Jerome P-Y, E-mail: chenggongli@dicp.ac.cn [Virginia Institute of Marine Science, College of William and Mary, Gloucester Point, VA 23062 (United States)
2017-04-15
Numerical study on three-dimensional (3D), incompressible, four-sided lid (FSL) driven cavity flows has been conducted to show the effects of the transverse aspect ratio, K , on the flow field by using a multiple relaxation time lattice Boltzmann equation. The top wall is driven from left to right, the left wall is moved downward, whereas the right wall is driven upward, and the bottom wall is moved from right to left, all the four moving walls have the same speed and the others boundaries are fixed. Numerical computations are performed for several Reynolds numbers for laminar flows, up to 1000, with various transverse aspect ratios. The flow can reach a steady state and the flow pattern is symmetric with respect to the two cavity diagonals (i.e., the center of the cavity). At Reynolds number = 300, the flow structures of the 3D FSL cavity flow at steady state with various transverse aspect ratio, i.e., 3, 2, 1, 0.75, 0.5 and 0.25 only show the unstable symmetrical flow pattern. The stable asymmetrical flow pattern could be reproduced only by increasing the Reynolds number that is above a critical value which is dependent on the aspect ratio. It is found that an aspect ratio of more than 5 is needed to reproduce flow patterns, both symmetric and asymmetric flows, simulated by using 2D numerical models. (paper)
Numerical studies of unsteady coherent structures and transport in two-dimensional flows
Hesthaven, J.S.
1995-08-01
The dynamics of unsteady two-dimensional coherent structures in various physical systems is studied through direct numerical solution of the dynamical equations using spectral methods. The relation between the Eulerian and the Lagrangian auto-correlation functions in two-dimensional homogeneous, isotropic turbulence is studied. A simple analytic expression for the Eulerian and Lagrangian auto-correlation function for the fluctuating velocity field is derived solely on the basis of the one-dimensional power spectrum. The long-time evolution of monopolar and dipolar vortices in anisotropic systems relevant for geophysics and plasma physics is studied by direct numerical solution. Transport properties and spatial reorganization of vortical structures are found to depend strongly on the initial conditions. Special attention is given to the dynamics of strong monopoles and the development of unsteady tripolar structures. The development of coherent structures in fluid flows, incompressible as well as compressible, is studied by novel numerical schemes. The emphasis is on the development of spectral methods sufficiently advanced as to allow for detailed and accurate studies of the self-organizing processes. (au) 1 ill., 94 refs.
Three-dimensional features of GAM zonal flows in the HL-2A tokamak
Yan, L.W.; Cheng, J.; Hong, W.Y.; Zhao, K.J.; Lan, T.; Dong, J.Q.; Liu, A.D.; Yu, C.X.; Yu, D.L.; Qian, J.; Huang, Y.; Yang, Q.W.; Ding, X.T.; Liu, Y.; Pan, C.H.
2007-01-01
A novel design of the three-step Langmuir probe (TSLP) array has been developed to investigate the zonal flow (ZF) physics in the HL-2A tokamak. Three TSLP arrays are applied to measure the three-dimensional (3D) features of ZFs. They are separated by 65 mm in the poloidal and 800 mm in the toroidal directions, respectively. The 3D properties of the geodesic acoustic mode (GAM) ZFs are presented. The poloidal and toroidal modes of the radial electric fields of the GAM perturbations are simultaneously determined in the HL-2A tokamak for the first time. The modes have narrow radial wave numbers (k r ρ i = 0.03-0.07) and short radial scale lengths (2.4-4.2 cm). High coherence of both the GAM and the ambient turbulence separated by toroidal 22.5 0 along a magnetic field line is observed, which contrasts with the high coherence of the GAM and the low coherence of the ambient turbulence apart from the field line. The nonlinear three wave coupling between the turbulent fluctuations and the ZFs is a plausible mechanism for flow generation. The skewness and kurtosis spectra of the probability distribution function of the potential perturbations are contrasted with the corresponding bicoherence for the first time, which support the three wave coupling mechanism
Propulsion efficiency and imposed flow fields of a copepod jump
Jiang, H.; Kiørboe, Thomas
2011-01-01
Pelagic copepods jump to relocate, to attack prey and to escape predators. However, there is a price to be paid for these jumps in terms of their energy costs and the hydrodynamic signals they generate to rheotactic predators. Using observed kinematics of various types of jumps, we computed...... the imposed flow fields and associated energetics of jumps by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations by modeling the copepod as a self-propelled body. The computational fluid dynamics simulation was validated by particle image velocimetry data. The flow field generated by a repositioning jump...... the flow structure. The flow field associated with an escape jump sequence also includes two dominant vortex structures: one leading wake vortex generated as a result of the first jump and one around the body, but between these two vortex structures is an elongated, long-lasting flow trail with flow...
Optimization Design of Bipolar Plate Flow Field in PEM Stack
Wen, Ming; He, Kanghao; Li, Peilong; Yang, Lei; Deng, Li; Jiang, Fei; Yao, Yong
2017-12-01
A new design of bipolar plate flow field in proton exchange membrane (PEM) stack was presented to develop a high-performance transfer efficiency of the two-phase flow. Two different flow fields were studied by using numerical simulations and the performance of the flow fields was presented. the hydrodynamic properties include pressure gap between inlet and outlet, the Reynold’s number of the two types were compared based on the Navier-Stokes equations. Computer aided optimization software was implemented in the design of experiments of the preferable flow field. The design of experiments (DOE) for the favorable concept was carried out to study the hydrodynamic properties when changing the design parameters of the bipolar plate.
Analysis of the pressure fields in a swirling annular jet flow
Percin, M.; Vanierschot, M.; Oudheusden, B. W. van
2017-12-01
In this paper, we investigate the flow structures and pressure fields of a free annular swirling jet flow undergoing vortex breakdown. The flow field is analyzed by means of time-resolved tomographic particle image velocimetry measurements, which enable the reconstruction of the three-dimensional time-resolved pressure fields using the governing flow equations. Both time-averaged and instantaneous flow structures are discussed, including a characterization of the first- and second-order statistical moments. A Reynolds decomposition of the flow field shows that the time-averaged flow is axisymmetric with regions of high anisotropic Reynolds stresses. Two recirculation zones exist that are surrounded by regions of very intense mixing. Notwithstanding the axisymmetric nature of the time-averaged flow, a non-axisymmetric structure of the instantaneous flow is revealed, comprising a central vortex core which breaks up into a precessing vortex core. The winding sense of this helical structure is opposite to the swirl direction and it is wrapped around the vortex breakdown bubble. It precesses around the central axis of the flow at a frequency corresponding to a Strouhal number of 0.27. The precessing vortex core is associated with a low-pressure region along the central axis of the jet and the maximum pressure fluctuations occur upstream of the vortex breakdown location, where the azimuthal velocity component also reaches peak values as a result of the inward motion of the fluid and the conservation of angular momentum. The POD analysis of the pressure fields suggests that the precessing helical vortex formation is the dominant coherent structure in the instantaneous flow.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A., E-mail: diogo.gomes@kaust.edu.sa; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc [King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST), CEMSE Division (Saudi Arabia)
2016-12-15
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Sedjro, Marc
2016-01-01
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
One-Dimensional Forward–Forward Mean-Field Games
Gomes, Diogo A.
2016-11-01
While the general theory for the terminal-initial value problem for mean-field games (MFGs) has achieved a substantial progress, the corresponding forward–forward problem is still poorly understood—even in the one-dimensional setting. Here, we consider one-dimensional forward–forward MFGs, study the existence of solutions and their long-time convergence. First, we discuss the relation between these models and systems of conservation laws. In particular, we identify new conserved quantities and study some qualitative properties of these systems. Next, we introduce a class of wave-like equations that are equivalent to forward–forward MFGs, and we derive a novel formulation as a system of conservation laws. For first-order logarithmic forward–forward MFG, we establish the existence of a global solution. Then, we consider a class of explicit solutions and show the existence of shocks. Finally, we examine parabolic forward–forward MFGs and establish the long-time convergence of the solutions.
De Marchis, M.; Napoli, E.
2012-01-01
Highlights: ► 3D irregular rough surfaces produce higher effects than those observed over 2D. ► Effective slope is a geometrical parameter representative of the roughness effects. ► 3D rough surfaces enhance the turbulence isotropization. ► 2D and 3D irregular roughness partially support the wall similarity. ► Irregular rough surfaces shear some features with regular rough walls. - Abstract: Wall-resolved Large Eddy Simulation of fully developed turbulent channel flows over two different rough surfaces is performed to investigate on the effects of irregular 2D and 3D roughness on the turbulence. The two geometries are obtained through the superimposition of sinusoidal functions having random amplitudes and different wave lengths. In the 2D configuration the irregular shape in the longitudinal direction is replicated in the transverse one, while in the 3D case the sinusoidal functions are generated both in streamwise and spanwise directions. Both channel walls are roughened in such a way as to obtain surfaces with statistically equivalent roughness height, but different shapes. In order to compare the turbulence properties over the two rough walls and to analyse the differences with a smooth wall, the simulations are performed at the same Reynolds number Re τ = 395. The same mean roughness height h = 0.05δ (δ the half channel height) is used for the rough walls. The roughness function obtained with the 3D roughness is larger than in the 2D case, although the two walls share the same mean height. Thus, the considered irregular 3D roughness is more effective in reducing the flow velocity with respect to the 2D roughness, coherently with the literature results that identified a clear dependence of the roughness function on the effective slope (see ), higher in the generated 3D rough wall. The analysis of higher-order statistics shows that the effects of the roughness, independently on its two- or three-dimensional shape, are mainly confined in the inner
Two dimensional magnetic field calculations for the SSC dipole magnets
Krefta, M.P.; Pavlik, D.
1991-01-01
In this work two-dimensional methods are used to calculate the magnetic fields throughout the cross section of a SSC dipole magnet. Analytic techniques, which are based on closed form solutions to the defining field equations, are used to calculate the multipole content for any specified conductor positioning. The method is extended to investigate the effects of radial slots or keyways in the iron yoke. The multipole components of field, directly attributable to the slots or keyways, are examined as a function of size and location. It is shown that locating the slots or keyways at the magnet pole centers has a large effect on the multipole components; whereas, locating the keyways between the magnet poles has little effect on any of the multipoles. The investigation of nonlinear effects such as ferromagnetic saturation or superconductor magnetization relies on the use of numerical methods such as the finite element method. The errors associated with these codes are explained in terms of numerical round-off, spatial discretization error and the representation of distant boundaries. A method for increasing the accuracy of the multipole calculation from finite element solutions is set forth. It is shown that calculated multipole coefficients are sensitive to boundary conditions external to the cold mass during conditions of magnetic saturation
Nonrelativistic Conformed Symmetry in 2 + 1 Dimensional Field Theory.
Bergman, Oren
This thesis is devoted to the study of conformal invariance and its breaking in non-relativistic field theories. It is a well known feature of relativistic field theory that theories which are conformally invariant at the classical level can acquire a conformal anomaly upon quantization and renormalization. The anomaly appears through the introduction of an arbitrary, but dimensionful, renormalization scale. One does not usually associate the concepts of renormalization and anomaly with nonrelativistic quantum mechanics, but there are a few examples where these concepts are useful. The most well known case is the two-dimensional delta -function potential. In two dimensions the delta-function scales like the kinetic term of the Hamiltonian, and therefore the problem is classically conformally invariant. Another example of classical conformal invariance is the famous Aharonov-Bohm (AB) problem. In that case each partial wave sees a 1/r^2 potential. We use the second quantized formulation of these problems, namely the nonrelativistic field theories, to compute Green's functions and derive the conformal anomaly. In the case of the AB problem we also solve an old puzzle, namely how to reproduce the result of Aharonov and Bohm in perturbation theory. The thesis is organized in the following manner. Chapter 1 is an introduction to nonrelativistic field theory, nonrelativistic conformal invariance, contact interactions and the AB problem. In Chapter 2 we discuss nonrelativistic scalar field theory, and how its quantization produces the anomaly. Chapter 3 is devoted to the AB problem, and the resolution of the perturbation puzzle. In Chapter 4 we generalize the discussion of Chapter 3 to particles carrying nonabelian charges. The structure of the nonabelian theory is much richer, and deserves a separate discussion. We also comment on the issues of forward scattering and single -valuedness of wavefunctions, which are important for Chapter 3 as well. (Copies available
Ion distributions in a two-dimensional reconnection field geometry
Curran, D.B.; Goertz, C.K.; Whelan, T.A.
1987-01-01
ISEE observations have shown trapped ion distributions in the magnetosphere along with streaming ion distributions in the magnetosheath. The more energetic ion beams are found to exist further away from the magnetopause than lower-energy ion beams. In order to understand these properties of the data, we have taken a simple two-dimensional reconnection model which contains a neutral line and an azimuthal electric field and compared its predictions with the experimental data of September 8, 1978. Our model explains trapped particles in the magnetosphere due to nonadiabatic mirroring in the magnetosheath and streaming ions in the magnetosheath due to energization at the magnetopause. The model also shows the higher-energy ions extending further into the magnetosheath, away from the magnetopause than the lower-energy ions. This suggests the ion data of September 8, 1978 are consistent with a reconnection geometry. Copyright American Geophysical Union 1987
Explicit Solutions for One-Dimensional Mean-Field Games
Prazeres, Mariana
2017-04-05
In this thesis, we consider stationary one-dimensional mean-field games (MFGs) with or without congestion. Our aim is to understand the qualitative features of these games through the analysis of explicit solutions. We are particularly interested in MFGs with a nonmonotonic behavior, which corresponds to situations where agents tend to aggregate. First, we derive the MFG equations from control theory. Then, we compute explicit solutions using the current formulation and examine their behavior. Finally, we represent the solutions and analyze the results. This thesis main contributions are the following: First, we develop the current method to solve MFG explicitly. Second, we analyze in detail non-monotonic MFGs and discover new phenomena: non-uniqueness, discontinuous solutions, empty regions and unhappiness traps. Finally, we address several regularization procedures and examine the stability of MFGs.
Two-phase flow field simulation of horizontal steam generators
Rabiee, Ataollah; Kamalinia, Amir Hossein; Hadad, Kamal [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-02-15
The analysis of steam generators as an interface between primary and secondary circuits in light water nuclear power plants is crucial in terms of safety and design issues. VVER-1000 nuclear power plants use horizontal steam generators which demand a detailed thermal hydraulics investigation in order to predict their behavior during normal and transient operational conditions. Two phase flow field simulation on adjacent tube bundles is important in obtaining logical numerical results. However, the complexity of the tube bundles, due to geometry and arrangement, makes it complicated. Employment of porous media is suggested to simplify numerical modeling. This study presents the use of porous media to simulate the tube bundles within a general-purpose computational fluid dynamics code. Solved governing equations are generalized phase continuity, momentum, and energy equations. Boundary conditions, as one of the main challenges in this numerical analysis, are optimized. The model has been verified and tuned by simple two-dimensional geometry. It is shown that the obtained vapor volume fraction near the cold and hot collectors predict the experimental results more accurately than in previous studies.
Local relativistic invariant flows for quantum fields
Albeverio, S.; Hoeegh-Krahn, R.; Sirugue, M.
1983-01-01
For quantum fields with trigonometric interaction in arbitrary space dimension we construct a representation of the Lorentz group by automorphisms on a Banach space generated by the Weyl algebra. (orig.)
PIV Measurements of Gas Flow Fields from Burning End
Huang, Yifei; Wu, Junzhang; Zeng, Jingsong; Tang, Darong; Du, Liang
2017-12-01
To study the influence of cigarette gas on the environment, it is necessary to know the cigarette gas flow fields from burning end. By using PIV technique, in order to reveal velocity characteristics of gas flow fields, the velocities of cigarette gas flow fields was analyzed with different stepping motor frequencies corresponding to suction pressures, and the trend of velocity has been given with image fitting. The results shows that the velocities of the burning end increased with suction pressures; Between velocities of the burning end and suction pressures, the relations present polynomial rule; The cigarette gas diffusion in combustion process is faster than in the smoldering process.
Three-Dimensional Adjustment of Stratified Flow Over a Sloping Bottom
Chapman, David
2002-01-01
This study focused on understanding how advection of density within the bottom boundary layer influence the three-dimensional structure, evolution, and dynamics of both the bottom boundary layer and the overlying (interior) flow...
Modulating patterns of two-phase flow with electric fields.
Liu, Dingsheng; Hakimi, Bejan; Volny, Michael; Rolfs, Joelle; Anand, Robbyn K; Turecek, Frantisek; Chiu, Daniel T
2014-07-01
This paper describes the use of electro-hydrodynamic actuation to control the transition between three major flow patterns of an aqueous-oil Newtonian flow in a microchannel: droplets, beads-on-a-string (BOAS), and multi-stream laminar flow. We observed interesting transitional flow patterns between droplets and BOAS as the electric field was modulated. The ability to control flow patterns of a two-phase fluid in a microchannel adds to the microfluidic tool box and improves our understanding of this interesting fluid behavior.
Three-dimensional shape perception from chromatic orientation flows
Zaidi, Qasim; Li, Andrea
2010-01-01
The role of chromatic information in 3-D shape perception is controversial. We resolve this controversy by showing that chromatic orientation flows are sufficient for accurate perception of 3-D shape. Chromatic flows required less cone contrast to convey shape than did achromatic flows, thus ruling out luminance artifacts as a problem. Luminance artifacts were also ruled out by a protanope’s inability to see 3-D shape from chromatic flows. Since chromatic orientation flows can only be extracted from retinal images by neurons that are responsive to color modulations and selective for orientation, the psychophysical results also resolve the controversy over the existence of such neurons. In addition, we show that identification of 3-D shapes from chromatic flows can be masked by luminance modulations, indicating that it is subserved by orientation-tuned neurons sensitive to both chromatic and luminance modulations. PMID:16961963
A geometrical approach to two-dimensional Conformal Field Theory
Dijkgraaf, Robertus Henricus
1989-09-01
manifold obtained as the quotient of a smooth manifold by a discrete group. In Chapter 6 our considerations will be of a somewhat complementary nature. We will investigate models with central charge c = 1 by deformation techniques. The central charge is a fundamental parameter in any conformal invariant model, and the value c = 1 is of considerable interest, since it forms in many ways a threshold value. For c 1 is still very much terra incognita. Our results give a partial classification for the intermediate case of c = 1 models. The formulation of these c = 1 CFT's on surfaces of arbitrary topology is central in Chapter 7. Here we will provide many explicit results that provide illustrations for our more abstract discussions of higher genus quantities in Chapters 3 and 1. Unfortunately, our calculations will become at this point rather technical, since we have to make extensive use of the mathematics of Riemann surfaces and their coverings. Finally, in Chapter 8 we leave the two-dimensional point of view that we have been so loyal to up to then , and ascend to threedimensions where we meet topological gauge theories. These so-called Chern-Simons theories encode in a very economic way much of the structure of two-dimensional (rational) conformal field theories, and this direction is generally seen to be very promising. We will show in particular how many of our results of Chapter 5 have a natural interpretation in three dimensions.
Research on external flow field of a car based on reverse engineering
Hu, Shushan; Liu, Ronge
2018-05-01
In this paper, the point cloud data of FAW-VOLKSWAGEN car body shape is obtained by three coordinate measuring instrument and laser scanning method. The accurate three dimensional model of the car is obtained using CATIA software reverse modelling technology. The car body is gridded, the calculation field and boundary condition type of the car flow field are determined, and the numerical simulation is carried out in Hyper Mesh software. The pressure cloud diagram, velocity vector diagram, air resistance coefficient and lift coefficient of the car are obtained. The calculation results reflect the aerodynamic characteristics of the car's external flow field. The motion of the separation flow on the surface of the vehicle body is well simulated, and the area where the vortex motion is relatively intense has been determined. The results provide a theoretical basis for improving and optimizing the body shape.
Taylor-Couette flow stability with toroidal magnetic field
Shalybkov, D
2005-01-01
The linear stability of the dissipative Taylor-Couette flow with imposed azimuthal magnetic field is considered. Unlike to ideal flow, the magnetic field is fixed function of radius with two parameters only: a ratio of inner to outer cylinder radii and a ratio of the magnetic field values on outer and inner cylinders. The magnetic field with boundary values ratio greater than zero and smaller than inverse radii ratio always stabilizes the flow and called stable magnetic field below. The current free magnetic field is the stable magnetic field. The unstable magnetic field destabilizes every flow if the magnetic field (or Hartmann number) exceeds some critical value. This instability survives even without rotation (for zero Reynolds number). For the stable without the magnetic field flow, the unstable modes are located into some interval of the vertical wave numbers. The interval length is zero for critical Hartmann number and increases with increasing Hartmann number. The critical Hartmann numbers and the length of the unstable vertical wave numbers interval is the same for every rotation law. There are the critical Hartmann numbers for m = 0 sausage and m = 1 kink modes only. The critical Hartmann numbers are smaller for kink mode and this mode is the most unstable mode like to the pinch instability case. The flow stability do not depend on the magnetic Prandtl number for m = 0 mode. The same is true for critical Hartmann numbers for m = 0 and m = 1 modes. The typical value of the magnetic field destabilizing the liquid metal Taylor-Couette flow is order of 100 Gauss
Quantification of topological changes of vorticity contours in two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow.
Ohkitani, Koji; Al Sulti, Fayeza
2010-06-01
A characterization of reconnection of vorticity contours is made by direct numerical simulations of the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes flow at a relatively low Reynolds number. We identify all the critical points of the vorticity field and classify them by solving an eigenvalue problem of its Hessian matrix on the basis of critical-point theory. The numbers of hyperbolic (saddles) and elliptic (minima and maxima) points are confirmed to satisfy Euler's index theorem numerically. Time evolution of these indices is studied for a simple initial condition. Generally speaking, we have found that the indices are found to decrease in number with time. This result is discussed in connection with related works on streamline topology, in particular, the relationship between stagnation points and the dissipation. Associated elementary procedures in physical space, the merging of vortices, are studied in detail for a number of snapshots. A similar analysis is also done using the stream function.
Pandey, Pradeep; Nayak, A.K.; Vijayan, P.K.
2014-01-01
Three dimensional flow patterns appearing in geometries such as curved pipes and T-channel junctions have important applications and are attractive for research. Unlike the flow in a straight tube, fluid motion in a curved tube is not parallel to the axis of bend, owing to the presence of centrifugal effects. It is characterized by a secondary flow in a cross-sectional plane normal to the main flow. Consequently, secondary flow separation near the inner wall is observed in the developing region. The strength of the secondary flow is greatly influenced by the curvature ratio and in turn, a non-dimensional parameter called the Dean Number. Secondary flow increases flow resistance, resulting in a larger pressure drop along the bend. The location of the maximum axial velocity gets shifted towards the outer wall. Flow in a T-channel junction is also a configuration of great significance. The simulations of the present work show that flow at low Reynolds numbers (Re ≤ 115) is steady and symmetric. For low Reynolds numbers, flow in the downstream channel remains highly segregated about the centerline. The appearance of vortices in the T-channel junction does little to redistribute concentration when flow remains symmetric. With increasing Reynolds number, transition takes place towards asymmetric flow. The incoming flow field gets redistributed at the center-plane and the dividing streamline becomes increasingly distorted. The flow field is characterized by thin elongated fluid interfaces across which momentum diffusion takes place. Flow at higher Reynolds numbers (Re ≥ 250) becomes unsteady in which unstable stagnation stream traces move periodically leftward and rightward at top and bottom walls. Trajectories of mass-less particles show greater dwelling in the junction as compared to those of finite mass particle. The numerical simulation is carried out in the present work using ANUPRAVAHA, a general purpose CFD solver developed at IIT Kanpur in collaboration with
Flow field studies on a micro-air-vehicle-scale cycloidal rotor in forward flight
Lind, Andrew H.; Jarugumilli, Tejaswi; Benedict, Moble; Lakshminarayan, Vinod K.; Jones, Anya R.; Chopra, Inderjit
2014-12-01
This paper examines the flow physics and principles of force production on a cycloidal rotor (cyclorotor) in forward flight. The cyclorotor considered here consists of two blades rotating about a horizontal axis, with cyclic pitch angle variation about the blade quarter-chord. The flow field at the rotor mid-span is analyzed using smoke flow visualization and particle image velocimeV are compared with flow fields predicted using 2D CFD and time-averaged force measurements acquired in an open-jet wind tunnel at three advance ratios. It is shown that the experimental flow field is nearly two dimensional at μ = 0.73 allowing for qualitative comparisons to be made with CFD. The incoming flow velocity decreases in magnitude as the flow passes through the retreating (upper) half of the rotor and is attributed to power extraction by the blades. A significant increase in flow velocity is observed across the advancing (lower) half of the rotor. The aerodynamic analysis demonstrates that the blades accelerate the flow through the lower aft region of the rotor, where they operate in a high dynamic pressure environment. This is consistent with CFD-predicted values of instantaneous aerodynamic forces which reveal that the aft section of the rotor is the primary region of force production. Phase-averaged flow field measurements showed two blade wakes in the flow, formed by each of the two blades. Analysis of the blades at several azimuthal positions revealed two significant blade-wake interactions. The locations of these blade-wake interactions are correlated with force peaks in the CFD-predicted instantaneous blade forces and highlight their importance to the generation of lift and propulsive force of the cyclorotor.
Three-dimensional attached viscous flow basic principles and theoretical foundations
Hirschel, Ernst Heinrich; Kordulla, Wilhelm
2014-01-01
Viscous flow is usually treated in the frame of boundary-layer theory and as a two-dimensional flow. At best, books on boundary layers provide the describing equations for three-dimensional boundary layers, and solutions only for certain special cases. This book presents the basic principles and theoretical foundations of three-dimensional attached viscous flows as they apply to aircraft of all kinds. Though the primary flight speed range is that of civil air transport vehicles, flows past other flying vehicles up to hypersonic speeds are also considered. Emphasis is put on general three-dimensional attached viscous flows and not on three-dimensional boundary layers, as this wider scope is necessary in view of the theoretical and practical problems that have to be overcome in practice. The specific topics covered include weak, strong, and global interaction; the locality principle; properties of three-dimensional viscous flows; thermal surface effects; characteristic properties; wall compatibility con...
Numerical simulation of flow fields and particle trajectories
Mayer, Stefan
2000-01-01
. The time-dependent flow is approximated with a continuous sequence of steady state creeping flow fields, where metachronously beating ciliary bands are modelled by linear combinations of singularity solutions to the Stokes equations. Generally, the computed flow fields can be divided into an unsteady......A model describing the ciliary driven flow and motion of suspended particles in downstream suspension feeders is developed. The quasi-steady Stokes equations for creeping flow are solved numerically in an unbounded fluid domain around cylindrical bodies using a boundary integral formulation...... in the simulated unsteady ciliary driven flow. A fraction of particles appear to follow trajectories, that resemble experimentally observed particle capture events in the downstream feeding system of the polycheate Sabella penicillus, indicating that particles can be captured by ciliary systems without mechanical...
Two-dimensional flow characteristics of wave interactions with a free-rolling rectangular structure
Kwang Hyo Jung; Kuang-An Chang [Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Civil Engineering; Huang, E.T. [Naval Facilities Engineering Service Center, Port Hueneme, CA (United States). Amphibious System Div.
2005-01-01
This paper presents laboratory observations of flow characteristics for regular waves passing a rectangular structure in a two-dimensional wave tank. The structure with a draft one-half of its height was hinged at the center of gravity and free to roll (one degree of freedom) by waves. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) was used to measure the velocity field in the vicinity of the structure. The mean velocity and turbulence properties were obtained by phase-averaging the PIV velocity maps from repeated test runs. Since the viscous damping (also called the eddy making damping) in a vortical flow affects the roll motion of a blunt body, the quantitative flow pattern was represented to elucidate the coupled interactions between the body motion and the waves. Additionally, the turbulence properties including the turbulence length scale and the turbulent kinetic energy budget were investigated to characterize the interactions. The results show that vortices were generated near the structure corners at locations opposing to that of the roll damping effect for waves with a period longer than the roll natural period of the structure. (Author)
Steady finite-Reynolds-number flows in three-dimensional collapsible tubes
Hazel, Andrew L.; Heil, Matthias
2003-07-01
A fully coupled finite-element method is used to investigate the steady flow of a viscous fluid through a thin-walled elastic tube mounted between two rigid tubes. The steady three-dimensional Navier Stokes equations are solved simultaneously with the equations of geometrically nonlinear Kirchhoff Love shell theory. If the transmural (internal minus external) pressure acting on the tube is sufficiently negative then the tube buckles non-axisymmetrically and the subsequent large deformations lead to a strong interaction between the fluid and solid mechanics. The main effect of fluid inertia on the macroscopic behaviour of the system is due to the Bernoulli effect, which induces an additional local pressure drop when the tube buckles and its cross-sectional area is reduced. Thus, the tube collapses more strongly than it would in the absence of fluid inertia. Typical tube shapes and flow fields are presented. In strongly collapsed tubes, at finite values of the Reynolds number, two ’jets‘ develop downstream of the region of strongest collapse and persist for considerable axial distances. For sufficiently high values of the Reynolds number, these jets impact upon the sidewalls and spread azimuthally. The consequent azimuthal transport of momentum dramatically changes the axial velocity profiles, which become approximately uTheta-shaped when the flow enters the rigid downstream pipe. Further convection of momentum causes the development of a ring-shaped velocity profile before the ultimate return to a parabolic profile far downstream.
Lima E Silva, A.L.F.; Silveira-Neto, A.; Damasceno, J.J.R.
2003-01-01
In this work, a virtual boundary method is applied to the numerical simulation of a uniform flow over a cylinder. The force source term, added to the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations, guarantees the imposition of the no-slip boundary condition over the body-fluid interface. These equations are discretized, using the finite differences method. The immersed boundary is represented with a finite number of Lagrangian points, distributed over the solid-fluid interface. A Cartesian grid is used to solve the fluid flow equations. The key idea is to propose a method to calculate the interfacial force without ad hoc constants that should usually be adjusted for the type of flow and the type of the numerical method, when this kind of model is used. In the present work, this force is calculated using the Navier-Stokes equations applied to the Lagrangian points and then distributed over the Eulerian grid. The main advantage of this approach is that it enables calculation of this force field, even if the interface is moving or deforming. It is unnecessary to locate the Eulerian grid points near this immersed boundary. The lift and drag coefficients and the Strouhal number, calculated for an immersed cylinder, are compared with previous experimental and numerical results, for different Reynolds numbers
Thompson, J.S.; Zeiler, R.M.
1995-01-01
A field investigation characterizing contamination at the Rocky Flats Plant (Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site) near Golden, Colorado revealed unexpectedly high moisture contents in the unsaturated soil column (vadose zone) beneath several of the Plant's Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) sludge drying beds. Because these beds were seldom in use, researchers had hypothesized that the water required to maintain the saturated conditions observed beneath several of the sludge drying beds was coming from sources other than the beds themselves. In an effort to substantiate this hypothesis, a one-dimensional physically-based unsaturated flow model was utilized to simulate the vertical movement of moisture from the sludge drying beds into the unsaturated soil column below. The model was run to simulate vertical flow over a two-year period and results indicated that no significant changes from initial conditions were apparent. This evidence supports the hypothesis that the high moisture contents found beneath the sludge drying beds are being fed by sources other than infiltration of sludge applied to the beds themselves. This paper presents the details of the simulation and provides further evidence of the hypothesized flow regime
Perfect 3-dimensional lattice actions for 4-dimensional quantum field theories at finite temperature
Kerres, U.; Mack, G.; Palma, G.
1994-12-01
We propose a two-step procedure to study the order of phase transitions at finite temperature in electroweak theory and in simplified models thereof. In a first step a coarse grained free energy is computed by perturbative methods. It is obtained in the form of a 3-dimensional perfect lattice action by a block spin transformation. It has finite temperature dependent coefficients. In this way the UV-problem and the infrared problem is separated in a clean way. In the second step the effective 3-dimensional lattice theory is treated in a nonperturbative way, either by the Feynman-Bololiubov method (solution of a gap equation), by real space renormalization group methods, or by computer simulations. In this paper we outline the principles for φ 4 -theory and scalar electrodynamics. The Balaban-Jaffe block spin transformation for the gauge field is used. It is known how to extend this transformation to the nonabelian case, but this will not be discussed here. (orig.)
Massive Higher Dimensional Gauge Fields as Messengers of Supersymmetry Breaking
Chacko, Z.; Luty, Markus A.; Ponton, Eduardo
2000-01-01
We consider theories with one or more compact dimensions with size r > 1/M, where M is the fundamental Planck scale, with the visible and hidden sectors localized on spatially separated 3 -branes''. We show that a bulk U(1) gauge field spontaneously broken on the hidden-sector 3-brane is an attractive candidate for the messenger of supersymmetry breaking. In this scenario scalar mass-squared terms are proportional to U(1) charges, and therefore naturally conserve flavor. Arbitrary flavor violation at the Planck scale gives rise to exponentially suppressed flavor violation at low energies. Gaugino masses can be generated if the standard gauge fields propagate in the bulk; μ and Bμ terms can be generated by the Giudice-Masiero or by the VEV of a singlet in the visible sector. The latter case naturally solves the SUSY CP problem. Realistic phenomenology can be obtained either if all microscopic parameters are order one in units of M, or if the theory is strongly coupled at the scale M. (For the latter case, we estimate parameters by extending n aive dimensional analysis'' to higher-dimension theories with branes.) In either case, the only unexplained hierarchy is the l arge'' size of the extra dimensions in fundamental units, which need only be an order of magnitude. All soft masses are naturally within an order of magnitude of m 3/2 , and trilinear scalar couplings are negligible. Squark and slepton masses can naturally unify even in the absence of grand unification. (author)
Visualizing flow fields using acoustic Doppler current profilers and the Velocity Mapping Toolbox
Jackson, P. Ryan
2013-01-01
The purpose of this fact sheet is to provide examples of how the U.S. Geological Survey is using acoustic Doppler current profilers for much more than routine discharge measurements. These instruments are capable of mapping complex three-dimensional flow fields within rivers, lakes, and estuaries. Using the Velocity Mapping Toolbox to process the ADCP data allows detailed visualization of the data, providing valuable information for a range of studies and applications.
Flow field induced particle accumulation inside droplets in rectangular channels.
Hein, Michael; Moskopp, Michael; Seemann, Ralf
2015-07-07
Particle concentration is a basic operation needed to perform washing steps or to improve subsequent analysis in many (bio)-chemical assays. In this article we present field free, hydrodynamic accumulation of particles and cells in droplets flowing within rectangular micro-channels. Depending on droplet velocity, particles either accumulate at the rear of the droplet or are dispersed over the entire droplet cross-section. We show that the observed particle accumulation behavior can be understood by a coupling of particle sedimentation to the internal flow field of the droplet. The changing accumulation patterns are explained by a qualitative change of the internal flow field. The topological change of the internal flow field, however, is explained by the evolution of the droplet shape with increasing droplet velocity altering the friction with the channel walls. In addition, we demonstrate that accumulated particles can be concentrated, removing excess dispersed phase by splitting the droplet at a simple channel junction.
Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields
D. Chalikov
2005-01-01
Full Text Available A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.
Statistical properties of nonlinear one-dimensional wave fields
Chalikov, D.
2005-06-01
A numerical model for long-term simulation of gravity surface waves is described. The model is designed as a component of a coupled Wave Boundary Layer/Sea Waves model, for investigation of small-scale dynamic and thermodynamic interactions between the ocean and atmosphere. Statistical properties of nonlinear wave fields are investigated on a basis of direct hydrodynamical modeling of 1-D potential periodic surface waves. The method is based on a nonstationary conformal surface-following coordinate transformation; this approach reduces the principal equations of potential waves to two simple evolutionary equations for the elevation and the velocity potential on the surface. The numerical scheme is based on a Fourier transform method. High accuracy was confirmed by validation of the nonstationary model against known solutions, and by comparison between the results obtained with different resolutions in the horizontal. The scheme allows reproduction of the propagation of steep Stokes waves for thousands of periods with very high accuracy. The method here developed is applied to simulation of the evolution of wave fields with large number of modes for many periods of dominant waves. The statistical characteristics of nonlinear wave fields for waves of different steepness were investigated: spectra, curtosis and skewness, dispersion relation, life time. The prime result is that wave field may be presented as a superposition of linear waves is valid only for small amplitudes. It is shown as well, that nonlinear wave fields are rather a superposition of Stokes waves not linear waves. Potential flow, free surface, conformal mapping, numerical modeling of waves, gravity waves, Stokes waves, breaking waves, freak waves, wind-wave interaction.
Josephson flux-flow oscillators in nonuniform microwave fields
Salerno, Mario; Samuelsen, Mogens Rugholm
2000-01-01
We present a simple theory for Josephson flux-flow oscillators in the presence of nonuniform microwave fields. In particular we derive an analytical expression for the I-V characteristic of the oscillator from which we show that satellite steps are spaced around the main flux-flow resonance by only...
Numerical simulation of flow field in the China advanced research reactor flow-guide tank
Xu Changjiang
2002-01-01
The flow-guide tank in China advanced research reactor (CARR) acts as a reactor inlet coolant distributor and play an important role in reducing the flow-induced vibration of the internal components of the reactor core. Numerical simulations of the flow field in the flow-guide tank under different conceptual designing configurations are carried out using the PHOENICS3.2. It is seen that the inlet coolant is well distributed circumferentially into the flow-guide tank with the inlet buffer plate and the flow distributor barrel. The maximum cross-flow velocity within the flow-guide tank is reduced significantly, and the reduction of flow-induced vibration of reactor internals is expected
Olsen, W. A.; Boldman, D.
1978-01-01
Fairly extensive measurements have been conducted of the turbulent flow around various surfaces as a basis for a study of the acoustic characteristics involved. In the experiments the flow from a nozzle was directed upon various two-dimensional surface configurations such as the three-flap model. A turbulent flow field description is given and an estimate of the acoustic characteristics is provided. The developed equations are based upon fundamental theories for simple configurations having simple flows. Qualitative estimates are obtained regarding the radiation pattern and the velocity power law. The effect of geometry and turbulent flow distribution on the acoustic emission from simple configurations are discussed.
Effects of forcing in three-dimensional turbulent flows
Biferale, L.; Lanotte, A.; Toschi, F.
2004-01-01
We present the results of a numerical investigation of three-dimensional homogeneous and isotropic turbulence, stirred by a random forcing with a power-law spectrum, Ef(k)~k3-y. Numerical simulations are performed at different resolutions up to 5123. We show that at varying the spectrum slope y,
Semi-analytical Study of a One-dimensional Contaminant Flow in a ...
ADOWIE PERE
ABSTRACT: The Bubnov-Galerkin weighted residual method was used to solve a one- dimensional contaminant flow problem in this paper. The governing equation of the contaminant flow, which is characterized by advection, dispersion and adsorption was discretized and solved to obtain the semi-analytical solution.
Computation of two-dimensional isothermal flow in shell-and-tube heat exchangers
Carlucci, L.N.; Galpin, P.F.; Brown, J.D.; Frisina, V.
1983-07-01
A computational procedure is outlined whereby two-dimensional isothermal shell-side flow distributions can be calculated for tube bundles having arbitrary boundaries and flow blocking devices, such as sealing strips, defined in arbitrary locations. The procedure is described in some detail and several computed results are presented to illustrate the robustness and generality of the method
Three-dimensional magnetotelluric characterization of the Coso geothermal field
Newman, Gregory A.; Gasperikova, Erika [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Earth Sciences Division, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Hoversten, G. Michael [Chevron Energy Technology Company, Seismic Analysis and Property Estimation, San Ramon, CA 94583 (United States); Wannamaker, Philip E. [Energy and Geoscience Institute, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84108 (United States)
2008-08-15
A dense grid of 125 magnetotelluric (MT) stations plus a single line of contiguous bipole array profiling has been acquired over the east flank of the Coso geothermal system, CA, USA. Due to production related electromagnetic (EM) noise the permanent observatory at Parkfield, CA was used as a remote reference to suppress this cultural EM noise interference. These data have been inverted to a fully three-dimensional (3D) resistivity model. This model shows the controlling geological structures possibly influencing well production at Coso and correlations with mapped surface features such as faults and the regional geoelectric strike. The 3D model also illustrates the refinement in positioning of resistivity contacts when compared to isolated 2D inversion transects. The resistivity model has also been correlated with micro-earthquake locations, reservoir fluid production intervals and most importantly with an acoustic and shear velocity model derived by Wu and Lees [Wu, H., Lees, J.M., 1999. Three-dimensional P and S wave velocity structures of the Coso Geothermal Area, California, from microseismic travel time data. J. Geophys. Res. 104 (B6), 13217-13233]. This later correlation shows that the near-vertical low-resistivity structure on the eastern flank of the producing field is also a zone of increased acoustic velocity and increased V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio bounded by mapped fault traces. Over of the Devils' Kitchen is an area of large geothermal well density, where highly conductive near surface material is interpreted as a smectite clay cap alteration zone manifested from the subsurface geothermal fluids and related geochemistry. Enhanced resistivity beneath this cap and within the reservoir is diagnostic of propylitic alteration causing the formation of illite clays, which is typically observed in high-temperature reservoirs (>230 C). In the southwest flank of the field the V{sub p}/V{sub s} ratio is enhanced over the production intervals, but the
Electromagnetic-field equations in the six-dimensional space-time R6
Teli, M.T.; Palaskar, D.
1984-01-01
Maxwell's equations (without monopoles) for electromagnetic fields are obtained in six-dimensional space-time. The equations possess structural symmetry in space and time, field and source densities. Space-time-symmetric conservation laws and field solutions are obtained. The results are successfully correlated with their four-dimensional space-time counterparts
Discharge characteristics in inhomogeneous fields under air flow
Vogel, Stephan; Holbøll, Joachim
2017-01-01
the frequency and magnitude of partial discharges in the vicinity of the electrode due to an increased rate of space charge removal around the tip of the needle and in the gap. The positive polarity shows higher dependency on air flow compared to the negative polarity. It is shown that positive breakdown......This research investigates the impact of high velocity air flow on Partial Discharge (PD) patterns generated in strongly inhomogeneous fields. In the laboratory, a needle plane electrode configuration was exposed to a high electrical DC-field and a laminar air flow up to 22 ms. The needle...
Polymer electrolyte fuel cells: flow field for efficient air operation
Buechi, F N; Tsukada, A; Haas, O; Scherer, G G [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)
1997-06-01
A new flow field was designed for a polymer electrolyte fuel cell stack with an active area of 200 cm{sup 2} for operation at low air stoichiometry and low air over pressure. Optimum of gas flow and channel dimensions were calculated based on the required pressure drop in the fluid. Single cells and a bi-cell stack with the new flow field show an improved current/voltage characteristic when operated at low air stoichiometries as compared to that of the previous non optimized design. (author) 4 figs., 3 refs.
Multigrid Computation of Stratified Flow over Two-Dimensional Obstacles
Paisley, M. F.
1997-09-01
A robust multigrid method for the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations is presented and applied to the computation of viscous flow over obstacles in a bounded domain under conditions of neutral stability and stable density stratification. Two obstacle shapes have been used, namely a vertical barrier, for which the grid is Cartesian, and a smooth cosine-shaped obstacle, for which a boundary-conforming transformation is incorporated. Results are given for laminar flows at low Reynolds numbers and turbulent flows at a high Reynolds number, when a simple mixing length turbulence model is included. The multigrid algorithm is used to compute steady flows for each obstacle at low and high Reynolds numbers in conditions of weak static stability, defined byK=ND/πU≤ 1, whereU,N, andDare the upstream velocity, bouyancy frequency, and domain height respectively. Results are also presented for the vertical barrier at low and high Reynolds number in conditions of strong static stability,K> 1, when lee wave motions ensure that the flow is unsteady, and the multigrid algorithm is used to compute the flow at each timestep.
Goetzbach, G.
1977-10-01
For the simulation of non stationary, three-dimensional, turbulent flow- and temperature-fields in channel flows with constant properties a method is presented which is based on a finite difference scheme of the complete conservation equations for mass, momentum and enthalpie. The fluxes of momentum and heat within the grid cells are described by sub-grid scale models. The sub-grid scale model for momentum introduced here is for the first time applicable to small Reynolds-numbers, rather coarse grids, and channels with space dependent roughness distributions. (orig.) [de
Hazard Monitoring of Growing Lava Flow Fields Using Seismic Tremor
Eibl, E. P. S.; Bean, C. J.; Jónsdottir, I.; Hoskuldsson, A.; Thordarson, T.; Coppola, D.; Witt, T.; Walter, T. R.
2017-12-01
An effusive eruption in 2014/15 created a 85 km2 large lava flow field in a remote location in the Icelandic highlands. The lava flows did not threaten any settlements or paved roads but they were nevertheless interdisciplinarily monitored in detail. Images from satellites and aircraft, ground based video monitoring, GPS and seismic recordings allowed the monitoring and reconstruction of a detailed time series of the growing lava flow field. While the use of satellite images and probabilistic modelling of lava flows are quite common tools to monitor the current and forecast the future growth direction, here we show that seismic recordings can be of use too. We installed a cluster of seismometers at 15 km from the vents and recorded the ground vibrations associated with the eruption. This seismic tremor was not only generated below the vents, but also at the edges of the growing lava flow field and indicated the parts of the lava flow field that were most actively growing. Whilst the time resolution is in the range of days for satellites, seismic stations easily sample continuously at 100 Hz and could therefore provide a much better resolution and estimate of the lava flow hazard in real-time.
Visualization of velocity field and phase distribution in gas-liquid two-phase flow by NMR imaging
Matsui, G.; Monji, H.; Obata, J.
2004-01-01
NMR imaging has been applied in the field of fluid mechanics, mainly single phase flow, to visualize the instantaneous flow velocity field. In the present study, NMR imaging was used to visualize simultaneously both the instantaneous phase structure and velocity field of gas-liquid two-phase flow. Two methods of NMR imaging were applied. One is useful to visualize both the one component of liquid velocity and the phase distribution. This method was applied to horizontal two-phase flow and a bubble rising in stagnant oil. It was successful in obtaining some pictures of velocity field and phase distribution on the cross section of the pipe. The other is used to visualize a two-dimensional velocity field. This method was applied to a bubble rising in a stagnant water. The velocity field was visualized after and before the passage of a bubble at the measuring cross section. Furthermore, the distribution of liquid velocity was obtained. (author)
Analysis of the one-dimensional transient compressible vapor flow in heat pipes
Jang, Jong H.; Faghri, Amir; Chang, Won S.
1991-01-01
The transient compressible one-dimensional vapor flow dynamics in a heat pipe is modeled. The numerical results are obtained by using the implicit non-iterative Beam-Warming finite difference method. The model is tested for simulated heat pipe vapor flow and actual vapor flow in cylindrical heat pipes. A good comparison of the present transient results for the simulated heat pipe vapor flow with the previous results of a two-dimensional numerical model is achieved and the steady state results are in agreement with the existing experimental data. The transient behavior of the vapor flow under subsonic, sonic, and supersonic speeds as well as high mass flow rates are successfully predicted.
Flow predictions for MHD channels with an approximation for three-dimensional effects
Blottner, F.G.
1978-01-01
A finite-difference procedure has been formulated for predicting the flow properties across channels. A quasi-two-dimensional approach has been developed which allows the three-dimensional channel effects to be taken into account. Comparison of the numerical solutions with experimental results show that this approach is a reasonable approximation for MHD flow conditions if there is not significant merging of the wall boundary layers. The resulting code provides a technique to obtain the flow details in the symmetry plane of the channel and requires only a small amount of computer time
Rubab, Khansa; Mustafa, M
2016-01-01
This letter investigates the MHD three-dimensional flow of upper-convected Maxwell (UCM) fluid over a bi-directional stretching surface by considering the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model. This model has tendency to capture the characteristics of thermal relaxation time. The governing partial differential equations even after employing the boundary layer approximations are non linear. Accurate analytic solutions for velocity and temperature distributions are computed through well-known homotopy analysis method (HAM). It is noticed that velocity decreases and temperature rises when stronger magnetic field strength is accounted. Penetration depth of temperature is a decreasing function of thermal relaxation time. The analysis for classical Fourier heat conduction law can be obtained as a special case of the present work. To our knowledge, the Cattaneo-Christov heat flux model law for three-dimensional viscoelastic flow problem is just introduced here.
Gigault, Julien; Pettibone, John M.; Schmitt, Charlène; Hackley, Vincent A.
2014-01-01
Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Underlying theory and critical parameters are introduced. •A rational workflow is proposed to optimize and refine A4F methods. •Specific optimization steps and validation parameters are delineated. •Pedagogical examples are provided to demonstrate the process. •Use and relevance of different detection modalities is addressed. -- Abstract: This tutorial proposes a comprehensive and rational measurement strategy that provides specific guidance for the application of asymmetric-flow field flow fractionation (A4F) to the size-dependent separation and characterization of nanoscale particles (NPs) dispersed in aqueous media. A range of fractionation conditions are considered, and challenging applications, including industrially relevant materials (e.g., metal NPs, asymmetric NPs), are utilized in order to validate and illustrate this approach. We demonstrate that optimization is material dependent and that polystyrene NPs, widely used as a reference standard for retention calibration in A4F, in fact represent a class of materials with unique selectivity, recovery and optimal conditions for fractionation; thus use of these standards to calibrate retention for other materials must be validated a posteriori. We discuss the use and relevance of different detection modalities that can potentially yield multi-dimensional and complementary information on NP systems. We illustrate the fractionation of atomically precise nanoclusters, which are the lower limit of the nanoscale regime. Conversely, we address the upper size limit for normal mode elution in A4F. The protocol for A4F fractionation, including the methods described in the present work is proposed as a standardized strategy to realize interlaboratory comparability and to facilitate the selection and validation of material-specific measurement parameters and conditions. It is intended for both novice and advanced users of this measurement technology
Bubbly flows around a two-dimensional circular cylinder
Lee, Jubeom; Park, Hyungmin
2016-11-01
Two-phase cross flows around a bluff body occur in many thermal-fluid systems like steam generators, heat exchangers and nuclear reactors. However, our current knowledge on the interactions among bubbles, bubble-induced flows and the bluff body are limited. In the present study, the gas-liquid bubbly flows around a solid circular cylinder are experimentally investigated while varying the mean void fraction from 5 to 27%. The surrounding liquid (water) is initially static and the liquid flow is only induced by the air bubbles. For the measurements, we use the high-speed two-phase particle image velocimetry techniques. First, depending on the mean void fraction, two regimes are classified with different preferential concentration of bubbles in the cylinder wake, which are explained in terms of hydrodynamic force balances acting on rising bubbles. Second, the differences between the two-phase and single-phase flows (while matching their Reynolds numbers) around a circular cylinder will be discussed in relation to effects of bubble dynamics and the bubble-induced turbulence on the cylinder wake. Supported by a Grant (MPSS-CG-2016-02) through the Disaster and Safety Management Institute funded by Ministry of Public Safety and Security of Korean government.
Experimental and computational investigation of the NASA low-speed centrifugal compressor flow field
Hathaway, Michael D.; Chriss, Randall M.; Wood, Jerry R.; Strazisar, Anthony J.
1993-01-01
An experimental and computational investigation of the NASA Lewis Research Center's low-speed centrifugal compressor (LSCC) flow field was conducted using laser anemometry and Dawes' three-dimensional viscous code. The experimental configuration consisted of a backswept impeller followed by a vaneless diffuser. Measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field were acquired at several measurement planes through the compressor. The measurements describe both the throughflow and secondary velocity field along each measurement plane. In several cases the measurements provide details of the flow within the blade boundary layers. Insight into the complex flow physics within centrifugal compressors is provided by the computational fluid dynamics analysis (CFD), and assessment of the CFD predictions is provided by comparison with the measurements. Five-hole probe and hot-wire surveys at the inlet and exit to the impeller as well as surface flow visualization along the impeller blade surfaces provided independent confirmation of the laser measurement technique. The results clearly document the development of the throughflow velocity wake that is characteristic of unshrouded centrifugal compressors.
Three-dimensional Casimir piston for massive scalar fields
Lim, S.C.; Teo, L.P.
2009-01-01
We consider Casimir force acting on a three-dimensional rectangular piston due to a massive scalar field subject to periodic, Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. Exponential cut-off method is used to derive the Casimir energy. It is shown that the divergent terms do not contribute to the Casimir force acting on the piston, thus render a finite well-defined Casimir force acting on the piston. Explicit expressions for the total Casimir force acting on the piston is derived, which show that the Casimir force is always attractive for all the different boundary conditions considered. As a function of a - the distance from the piston to the opposite wall, it is found that the magnitude of the Casimir force behaves like 1/a 4 when a→0 + and decays exponentially when a→∞. Moreover, the magnitude of the Casimir force is always a decreasing function of a. On the other hand, passing from massless to massive, we find that the effect of the mass is insignificant when a is small, but the magnitude of the force is decreased for large a in the massive case.
MHD shear flows with non-constant transverse magnetic field
Núñez, Manuel
2012-01-01
Viscous conducting flows parallel to a fixed plate are studied. In contrast with the Hartmann setting, the problem is not linearized near a fixed transverse magnetic field, although the field tends to be transversal far from the wall. While general solutions may be formally obtained for all cases, their behavior is far more clear when the magnetic Prandtl number equals one. We consider two different instances: a fixed magnetic field at the wall, or an insulating sheet. The evolution of the flow and the magnetic field both near the plate and far from it are detailed, analyzing the possibility of reverse flow and instability of the solutions. -- Highlights: ► A conducting shear flow does not leave a transverse magnetic field invariant. ► Solutions are found for all cases, but these are more useful when kinetic and magnetic diffusivities coincide. ► Dirichlet and Neumann conditions on the magnetic field are studied. ► Reverse flow, and eventual instability, are possible.
Magnetic field correlations in random flow with strong steady shear
Kolokolov, I. V.; Lebedev, V. V.; Sizov, G. A.
2011-01-01
We analyze the magnetic kinematic dynamo in a conducting fluid where a stationary shear flow is accompanied by relatively weak random velocity fluctuations. The diffusionless and diffusion regimes are described. The growth rates of the magnetic field moments are related to the statistical characteristics of the flow describing divergence of the Lagrangian trajectories. The magnetic field correlation functions are examined, and their growth rates and scaling behavior are established. General assertions are illustrated by the explicit solution of a model where the velocity field is short-correlated in time.
Analysis of a solar collector field water flow network
Rohde, J. E.; Knoll, R. H.
1976-01-01
A number of methods are presented for minimizing the water flow variation in the solar collector field for the Solar Building Test Facility at the Langley Research Center. The solar collector field investigated consisted of collector panels connected in parallel between inlet and exit collector manifolds to form 12 rows. The rows were in turn connected in parallel between the main inlet and exit field manifolds to complete the field. The various solutions considered included various size manifolds, manifold area change, different locations for the inlets and exits to the manifolds, and orifices or flow control valves. Calculations showed that flow variations of less than 5 percent were obtainable both inside a row between solar collector panels and between various rows.
Peterson, D.L.; Bowers, R.L.; McLenithan, K.D.; Deeney, C.; Chandler, G.A.; Spielman, R.B.; Matzen, M.K.; Roderick, N.F.
1998-01-01
A two-dimensional (2-D) Eulerian Radiation-Magnetohydrodynamic (RMHD) code has been used to simulate imploding z pinches for three experiments fielded on the Los Alamos Pegasus II capacitor bank [J. C. Cochrane et al., Dense Z-Pinches, Third International Conference, London, United Kingdom 1993 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1994), p. 381] and the Sandia Saturn accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Dense Z-Pinches, Second International Conference, Laguna Beach, 1989 (American Institute of Physics, New York, 1989), p. 3] and Z accelerator [R. B. Spielman et al., Phys. Plasmas 5, 2105 (1998)]. These simulations match the experimental results closely and illustrate how the code results may be used to track the flow of energy in the simulation and account for the amount of total radiated energy. The differences between the calculated radiated energy and power in 2-D simulations and those from zero-dimensional (0-D) and one-dimensional (1-D) Lagrangian simulations (which typically underpredict the total radiated energy and overpredict power) are due to the radially extended nature of the plasma shell, an effect which arises from the presence of magnetically driven Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities. The magnetic Rayleigh endash Taylor instabilities differ substantially from hydrodynamically driven instabilities and typical measures of instability development such as e-folding times and mixing layer thickness are inapplicable or of limited value. A new measure of global instability development is introduced, tied to the imploding plasma mass, termed open-quotes fractional involved mass.close quotes Examples of this quantity are shown for the three experiments along with a discussion of the applicability of this measure. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
Elliptic Length Scales in Laminar, Two-Dimensional Supersonic Flows
2015-06-01
sophisticated computational fluid dynamics ( CFD ) methods. Additionally, for 3D interactions, the length scales would require determination in spanwise as well...Manna, M. “Experimental, Analytical, and Computational Methods Applied to Hypersonic Compression Ramp Flows,” AIAA Journal, Vol. 32, No. 2, Feb. 1994
Asymptotic theory of two-dimensional trailing-edge flows
Melnik, R. E.; Chow, R.
1975-01-01
Problems of laminar and turbulent viscous interaction near trailing edges of streamlined bodies are considered. Asymptotic expansions of the Navier-Stokes equations in the limit of large Reynolds numbers are used to describe the local solution near the trailing edge of cusped or nearly cusped airfoils at small angles of attack in compressible flow. A complicated inverse iterative procedure, involving finite-difference solutions of the triple-deck equations coupled with asymptotic solutions of the boundary values, is used to accurately solve the viscous interaction problem. Results are given for the correction to the boundary-layer solution for drag of a finite flat plate at zero angle of attack and for the viscous correction to the lift of an airfoil at incidence. A rational asymptotic theory is developed for treating turbulent interactions near trailing edges and is shown to lead to a multilayer structure of turbulent boundary layers. The flow over most of the boundary layer is described by a Lighthill model of inviscid rotational flow. The main features of the model are discussed and a sample solution for the skin friction is obtained and compared with the data of Schubauer and Klebanoff for a turbulent flow in a moderately large adverse pressure gradient.
Elementary notions on one-dimensional flow thermohydraulic modelling
Perrin, M.
1982-02-01
This paper is an overview of the notions of mathematical and simulation model applied to flows met in pipes and in several components of power plants (valves, pump, turbine). Finally, the results of a computer code based on the equations previously presented are given [fr
two - dimensional mathematical model of water flow in open
ES Obe
1996-09-01
Sep 1, 1996 ... ... one or more navigation locks or of a hydro electric plant. In a case like this it is often necessary to consider how, for instance, the handling of the weir gates influences the flow upstream of the hydropower plant or, on the contrary, what effect the operation of the wajerwork would have on the distribution of.
On the One-Dimensional Steady and Unsteady Porous Flow Equation
Andersen, O. H.; Burcharth, H. F.
1995-01-01
Porous flow in coarse granular media is discussed theoretically with special concern given to the variation of the flow resistance with the porosity. For steady state flow, the Navier-Stokes equation is applied as a basis for the derivations. A turbulent flow equation is suggested. Alternative...... derivations based on dimensional analysis and a pipe analogy, respectively, are discussed. For non-steady state flow, the derivations are based on a cylinder/sphere analogy leading to a virtual mass coefficient. For the fully turbulent flow regime, existing experimental data values of the quadratic flow...... resistance coefficients are presented. Moreover, a simple formula for estimation of the turbulent flow coefficient is given. Virtual mass coefficients based on existing data are presented, however, no definite conclusions can be given due to the scarce data available....
Microrelief-Controlled Overland Flow Generation: Laboratory and Field Experiments
Xuefeng Chu
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Surface microrelief affects overland flow generation and the related hydrologic processes. However, such influences vary depending on other factors such as rainfall characteristics, soil properties, and initial soil moisture conditions. Thus, in-depth research is needed to better understand and evaluate the combined effects of these factors on overland flow dynamics. The objective of this experimental study was to examine how surface microrelief, in conjunction with the factors of rainfall, soil, and initial moisture conditions, impacts overland flow generation and runoff processes in both laboratory and field settings. A series of overland flow experiments were conducted for rough and smooth surfaces that represented distinct microtopographic characteristics and the experimental data were analyzed and compared. Across different soil types and initial moisture conditions, both laboratory and field experiments demonstrated that a rough soil surface experienced a delayed initiation of runoff and featured a stepwise threshold flow pattern due to the microrelief-controlled puddle filling-spilling-merging dynamics. It was found from the field experiments that a smooth plot surface was more responsive to rainfall variations especially during an initial rainfall event. However, enhanced capability of overland flow generation and faster puddle connectivity of a rough field plot occurred during the subsequent rain events.
Development of a 3-dimensional flow analysis procedure for axial pump impellers
Kim, Min Hwan; Kim, Jong In; Park, Jin Seok; Huh, Houng Huh; Chang, Moon Hee
1999-06-01
A fluid dynamic analysis procedure was developed using the three-dimensional solid model of an axial pump impeller which was theoretically designed using I-DEAS CAD/CAM/CAE software. The CFD software FLUENT was used in the flow field analysis. The steady-state flow regime in the MCP impeller and diffuser was simulated using the developed procedure. The results of calculation were analyzed to confirm whether the design requirements were properly implemented in the impeller model. The validity of the developed procedure was demonstrated by comparing the calculation results with the experimental data available. The pump performance at the design point could be effectively predicted using the developed procedure. The computed velocity distributions have shown a good agreement with the experimental data except for the regions near the wall. The computed head, however, was over-predicted than the experiment. The design period and cost required for the development of an axial pump impeller can be significantly reduced by applying the proposed methodology. (author). 7 refs., 2 tabs
Linear and nonlinear viscous flow in two-dimensional fluids
Gravina, D.; Ciccotti, G.; Holian, B.L.
1995-01-01
We report on molecular dynamics simulations of shear viscosity η of a dense two-dimensional fluid as a function of the shear rate γ. We find an analytic dependence of η on γ, and do not find any evidence whatsoever of divergence in the Green-Kubo (GK) value that would be caused by the well-known long-time tail for the shear-stress autocorrelation function, as predicted by the mode-coupling theory. In accordance with the linear response theory, the GK value of η agrees remarkably well with nonequilibrium values at small shear rates. (c) 1995 The American Physical Society
Huang, W D; Fan, H G; Chen, N X
2012-01-01
To study the interaction between the transient flow in pipe and the unsteady turbulent flow in turbine, a coupled model of the transient flow in the pipe and three-dimensional unsteady flow in the turbine is developed based on the method of characteristics and the fluid governing equation in the accelerated rotational relative coordinate. The load-rejection process under the closing of guide vanes of the hydraulic power plant is simulated by the coupled method, the traditional transient simulation method and traditional three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation method respectively and the results are compared. The pressure, unit flux and rotation speed calculated by three methods show a similar change trend. However, because the elastic water hammer in the pipe and the pressure fluctuation in the turbine have been considered in the coupled method, the increase of pressure at spiral inlet is higher and the pressure fluctuation in turbine is stronger.
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-01
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities
Development of One Dimensional Hyperbolic Coupled Solver for Two-Phase Flows
Kim, Eoi Jin; Kim, Jong Tae; Jeong, Jae June
2008-08-15
The purpose of this study is a code development for one dimensional two-phase two-fluid flows. In this study, the computations of two-phase flow were performed by using the Roe scheme which is one of the upwind schemes. The upwind scheme is widely used in the computational fluid dynamics because it can capture discontinuities clearly such as a shock. And this scheme is applicable to multi-phase flows by the extension methods which were developed by Toumi, Stadtke, etc. In this study, the extended Roe upwind scheme by Toumi for two-phase flow was implemented in the one-dimensional code. The scheme was applied to a shock tube problem and a water faucet problem. This numerical method seems efficient for non oscillating solutions of two phase flow problems, and also capable for capturing discontinuities.
Huang, W. D.; Fan, H. G.; Chen, N. X.
2012-11-01
To study the interaction between the transient flow in pipe and the unsteady turbulent flow in turbine, a coupled model of the transient flow in the pipe and three-dimensional unsteady flow in the turbine is developed based on the method of characteristics and the fluid governing equation in the accelerated rotational relative coordinate. The load-rejection process under the closing of guide vanes of the hydraulic power plant is simulated by the coupled method, the traditional transient simulation method and traditional three-dimensional unsteady flow calculation method respectively and the results are compared. The pressure, unit flux and rotation speed calculated by three methods show a similar change trend. However, because the elastic water hammer in the pipe and the pressure fluctuation in the turbine have been considered in the coupled method, the increase of pressure at spiral inlet is higher and the pressure fluctuation in turbine is stronger.
Field-effect Flow Control in Polymer Microchannel Networks
Sniadecki, Nathan; Lee, Cheng S.; Beamesderfer, Mike; DeVoe, Don L.
2003-01-01
A new Bio-MEMS electroosmotic flow (EOF) modulator for plastic microchannel networks has been developed. The EOF modulator uses field-effect flow control (FEFC) to adjust the zeta potential at the Parylene C microchannel wall. By setting a differential EOF pumping rate in two of the three microchannels at a T-intersection with EOF modulators, the induced pressure at the intersection generated pumping in the third, field-free microchannel. The EOF modulators are able to change the magnitude and direction of the pressure pumping by inducing either a negative or positive pressure at the intersection. The flow velocity is tracked by neutralized fluorescent microbeads in the microchannels. The proof-of-concept of the EOF modulator described here may be applied to complex plastic ,microchannel networks where individual microchannel flow rates are addressable by localized induced-pressure pumping.
Plocková, Jana; Chmelík, Josef
2001-01-01
Roč. 918, č. 2 (2001), s. 361-370 ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA4031805 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4031919 Keywords : field-flow fractionation * field programming * flow-rate gradients Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.793, year: 2001
Propulsion efficiency and imposed flow fields of a copepod jump.
Jiang, Houshuo; Kiørboe, Thomas
2011-02-01
Pelagic copepods jump to relocate, to attack prey and to escape predators. However, there is a price to be paid for these jumps in terms of their energy costs and the hydrodynamic signals they generate to rheotactic predators. Using observed kinematics of various types of jumps, we computed the imposed flow fields and associated energetics of jumps by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations by modeling the copepod as a self-propelled body. The computational fluid dynamics simulation was validated by particle image velocimetry data. The flow field generated by a repositioning jump quickly evolves into two counter-rotating viscous vortex rings that are near mirror image of one another, one in the wake and one around the body of the copepod; this near symmetrical flow may provide hydrodynamic camouflage because it contains no information about the position of the copepod prey within the flow structure. The flow field associated with an escape jump sequence also includes two dominant vortex structures: one leading wake vortex generated as a result of the first jump and one around the body, but between these two vortex structures is an elongated, long-lasting flow trail with flow velocity vectors pointing towards the copepod; such a flow field may inform the predator of the whereabouts of the escaping copepod prey. High Froude propulsion efficiency (0.94-0.98) was obtained for individual power stroke durations of all simulated jumps. This is unusual for small aquatic organisms but is caused by the rapidity and impulsiveness of the jump that allows only a low-cost viscous wake vortex to travel backwards.
Measurement of two-dimensional Doppler wind fields using a field widened Michelson interferometer.
Langille, Jeffery A; Ward, William E; Scott, Alan; Arsenault, Dennis L
2013-03-10
An implementation of the field widened Michelson concept has been applied to obtain high resolution two-dimensional (2D) images of low velocity (interferometer scanning mirror position is controlled to subangstrom precision with subnanometer repeatability using the multi-application low-voltage piezoelectric instrument control electronics developed by COM DEV Ltd.; it is the first implementation of this system as a phase stepping Michelson. In this paper the calibration and characterization of the Doppler imaging system is described and the planned implementation of this new technique for imaging 2D wind and irradiance fields using the earth's airglow is introduced. Observations of Doppler winds produced by a rotating wheel are reported and shown to be of sufficient precision for buoyancy wave observations in airglow in the mesopause region of the terrestrial atmosphere.
Experimental investigation of flow field in a laboratory-scale compressor
Hongwei Ma
2017-02-01
Full Text Available The inner flow environment of turbomachinery presents strong three-dimensional, rotational, and unsteady characteristics. Consequently, a deep understanding of these flow phenomena will be the prerequisite to establish a state-of-the-art design system of turbomachinery. Currently the development of more accurate turbulence models and CFD tools is in urgent need for a high-quality database for validation, especially the advanced CFD tools, such as large eddy simulation (LES. Under this circumstance, this paper presents a detailed experimental investigation on the 3D unsteady flow field inside a laboratory-scale isolated-rotor with multiple advanced measurement techniques, including traditional aerodynamic probes, hotwire probes, unsteady endwall static pressure measurement, and stereo particle image velocimetry (SPIV. The inlet boundary layer profile is measured with both hotwire probe and aerodynamic probe. The steady and unsteady flow fields at the outlet of the rotor are measured with a mini five-hole probe and a single-slanted hotwire probe. The instantaneous flow field in the rotor tip region inside the passage is captured with SPIV, and then a statistical analysis of the spatial distribution of the instantaneous tip leakage vortex/flow is performed to understand its dynamic characteristics. Besides these, the uncertainty analysis of each measurement technique is described. This database is quite sufficient to validate the advanced numerical simulation with LES. The identification process of the tip leakage vortex core in the instantaneous frames obtained from SPIV is performed deliberately. It is concluded that the ensemble-averaged flow field could not represent the tip leakage vortex strength and the trajectory trace. The development of the tip leakage vortex could be clearly cataloged into three phases according to their statistical spatial distribution. The streamwise velocity loss induced by the tip leakage flow increases until the
Zhang, Y X; Su, M; Hou, H C; Song, P F
2013-01-01
This research adopts the quasi three-dimensional hydraulic design method for the impeller of high specific speed mixed-flow pump to achieve the purpose of verifying the hydraulic design method and improving hydraulic performance. Based on the two families of stream surface theory, the direct problem is completed when the meridional flow field of impeller is obtained by employing iterative calculation to settle the continuity and momentum equation of fluid. The inverse problem is completed by using the meridional flow field calculated in the direct problem. After several iterations of the direct and inverse problem, the shape of impeller and flow field information can be obtained finally when the result of iteration satisfies the convergent criteria. Subsequently the internal flow field of the designed pump are simulated by using RANS equations with RNG k-ε two-equation turbulence model. The static pressure and streamline distributions at the symmetrical cross-section, the vector velocity distribution around blades and the reflux phenomenon are analyzed. The numerical results show that the quasi three-dimensional hydraulic design method for high specific speed mixed-flow pump improves the hydraulic performance and reveal main characteristics of the internal flow of mixed-flow pump as well as provide basis for judging the rationality of the hydraulic design, improvement and optimization of hydraulic model
Reproduction of pressure field in ultrasonic-measurement-integrated simulation of blood flow.
Funamoto, Kenichi; Hayase, Toshiyuki
2013-07-01
Ultrasonic-measurement-integrated (UMI) simulation of blood flow is used to analyze the velocity and pressure fields by applying feedback signals of artificial body forces based on differences of Doppler velocities between ultrasonic measurement and numerical simulation. Previous studies have revealed that UMI simulation accurately reproduces the velocity field of a target blood flow, but that the reproducibility of the pressure field is not necessarily satisfactory. In the present study, the reproduction of the pressure field by UMI simulation was investigated. The effect of feedback on the pressure field was first examined by theoretical analysis, and a pressure compensation method was devised. When the divergence of the feedback force vector was not zero, it influenced the pressure field in the UMI simulation while improving the computational accuracy of the velocity field. Hence, the correct pressure was estimated by adding pressure compensation to remove the deteriorating effect of the feedback. A numerical experiment was conducted dealing with the reproduction of a synthetic three-dimensional steady flow in a thoracic aneurysm to validate results of the theoretical analysis and the proposed pressure compensation method. The ability of the UMI simulation to reproduce the pressure field deteriorated with a large feedback gain. However, by properly compensating the effects of the feedback signals on the pressure, the error in the pressure field was reduced, exhibiting improvement of the computational accuracy. It is thus concluded that the UMI simulation with pressure compensation allows for the reproduction of both velocity and pressure fields of blood flow. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Field differential equations for a potential flow from a Hamilton type variational principle
Fierros Palacios, A.
1992-01-01
The same theoretical frame that was used to solve the problem of the field equations for a viscous fluid is utilized in this work. The purpose is to obtain the differential field equations for a potential flow from the Lagrangian formalism as in classical field theory. An action functional is introduced as a space-time integral over a region of three-dimensional Euclidean space, of a Lagrangian density as a function of certain field variables. A Hamilton type extremum action principle is postulated with adequate boundary conditions, and a set of differential field equations is derived. A particular Lagrangian density of the T-V type leads to the wave equation for the velocity potential. (Author)
Flow field measurements in the cell culture unit
Walker, Stephen; Wilder, Mike; Dimanlig, Arsenio; Jagger, Justin; Searby, Nancy
2002-01-01
The cell culture unit (CCU) is being designed to support cell growth for long-duration life science experiments on the International Space Station (ISS). The CCU is a perfused loop system that provides a fluid environment for controlled cell growth experiments within cell specimen chambers (CSCs), and is intended to accommodate diverse cell specimen types. Many of the functional requirements depend on the fluid flow field within the CSC (e.g., feeding and gas management). A design goal of the CCU is to match, within experimental limits, all environmental conditions, other than the effects of gravity on the cells, whether the hardware is in microgravity ( micro g), normal Earth gravity, or up to 2g on the ISS centrifuge. In order to achieve this goal, two steps are being taken. The first step is to characterize the environmental conditions of current 1g cell biology experiments being performed in laboratories using ground-based hardware. The second step is to ensure that the design of the CCU allows the fluid flow conditions found in 1g to be replicated from microgravity up to 2g. The techniques that are being used to take these steps include flow visualization, particle image velocimetry (PIV), and computational fluid dynamics (CFD). Flow visualization using the injection of dye has been used to gain a global perspective of the characteristics of the CSC flow field. To characterize laboratory cell culture conditions, PIV is being used to determine the flow field parameters of cell suspension cultures grown in Erlenmeyer flasks on orbital shakers. These measured parameters will be compared to PIV measurements in the CSCs to ensure that the flow field that cells encounter in CSCs is within the bounds determined for typical laboratory experiments. Using CFD, a detailed simulation is being developed to predict the flow field within the CSC for a wide variety of flow conditions, including microgravity environments. Results from all these measurements and analyses of the
New techniques for the scientific visualization of three-dimensional multi-variate and vector fields
Crawfis, Roger A. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)
1995-10-01
Volume rendering allows us to represent a density cloud with ideal properties (single scattering, no self-shadowing, etc.). Scientific visualization utilizes this technique by mapping an abstract variable or property in a computer simulation to a synthetic density cloud. This thesis extends volume rendering from its limitation of isotropic density clouds to anisotropic and/or noisy density clouds. Design aspects of these techniques are discussed that aid in the comprehension of scientific information. Anisotropic volume rendering is used to represent vector based quantities in scientific visualization. Velocity and vorticity in a fluid flow, electric and magnetic waves in an electromagnetic simulation, and blood flow within the body are examples of vector based information within a computer simulation or gathered from instrumentation. Understand these fields can be crucial to understanding the overall physics or physiology. Three techniques for representing three-dimensional vector fields are presented: Line Bundles, Textured Splats and Hair Splats. These techniques are aimed at providing a high-level (qualitative) overview of the flows, offering the user a substantial amount of information with a single image or animation. Non-homogenous volume rendering is used to represent multiple variables. Computer simulations can typically have over thirty variables, which describe properties whose understanding are useful to the scientist. Trying to understand each of these separately can be time consuming. Trying to understand any cause and effect relationships between different variables can be impossible. NoiseSplats is introduced to represent two or more properties in a single volume rendering of the data. This technique is also aimed at providing a qualitative overview of the flows.
[Application advances of three-dimensional bioprinting in burn and plastic surgery field].
Li, R B; Li, M X; Guo, G H; Zhang, H Y
2017-10-20
Three-dimensional bioprinting is one of the latest and fastest growing technologies in the medical field. It has been implemented to print part of the transplantable tissues and organs, such as skin, ear, and bone. This paper introduces the application status, challenges, and application prospect of three-dimensional bioprinting in burn and plastic surgery field.
Dimensional reduction in field theory and hidden symmetries in extended supergravity
Kremmer, E.
1985-01-01
Dimensional reduction in field theories is discussed both in theories which do not include gravity and in gravity theories. In particular, 11-dimensional supergravity and its reduction to 4 dimensions is considered. Hidden symmetries of supergravity with N=8 in 4 dimensions, global E 7 and local SU(8)-invariances in particular are detected. The hidden symmmetries permit to interpret geometrically the scalar fields
Dalle Donne, M.; Meyer, L.
1978-01-01
Measurements of friction factor and heat transfer coefficients for two rods of 18.9 mm 0.D. with two-dimensional roughness, each in two different outer smooth tubes have been performed in turbulent and laminar flow. The turbulent flow results indicate that the flow was not thermally fully established, the isothermal data however agree reasonably well with our previously obtained general correlation. Laminar flow results can be correlated best when the Reynolds and Greatz numbers are evaluated at the temperature average between the temperature of the inner rod surface and of the outer smooth surface of the annulus, the average being weighted over the two surfaces. (orig.) [de
Interaction of magnetic field in flow of Maxwell nanofluid with convective effect
Hayat, T. [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Muhammad, Taseer, E-mail: taseer_qau@yahoo.com [Department of Mathematics, Quaid-I-Azam University 45320, Islamabad 44000 (Pakistan); Shehzad, S.A. [Department of Mathematics, Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Sahiwal 57000 (Pakistan); Chen, G.Q. [Nonlinear Analysis and Applied Mathematics (NAAM) Research Group, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, P. O. Box 80203, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia); Laboratory of Systems Ecology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Abbas, Ibrahim A. [Mathematics Department (Khulais), Faculty of Science and Arts, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)
2015-09-01
Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) three-dimensional flow of Maxwell nanofluid subject to the convective boundary condition is investigated. The flow is generated by a bidirectional stretching surface. Thermophoresis and Brownian motion effects are present. Fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of a constant applied magnetic field. Unlike the previous cases even in the absence of nanoparticles, the correct formulation for the flow of Maxwell fluid in the presence of a magnetic field is established. Newly proposed boundary condition with the zero nanoparticles mass flux at the boundary is employed. The governing nonlinear boundary layer equations through appropriate transformations are reduced in the nonlinear ordinary differential system. The resulting nonlinear system has been solved for the velocities, temperature and nanoparticles concentration distributions. Convergence of the constructed solutions is verified. Effects of emerging parameters on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are plotted and discussed. Numerical values of local Nusselt number are computed and analyzed. It is observed that the effects of magnetic parameter and the Biot number on the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are quite similar. Both the temperature and nanoparticles concentration are enhanced for the increasing value of magnetic parameter and Biot number. - Highlights: • Three-dimensional flow of Maxwell fluid. • Consideration of nanoparticles effect. • Formulation through convective condition. • Analysis in magnetohydrodynamic regime. • Utilization of new condition associated with mass flux.
R. C. Chaudhary
2004-11-01
Full Text Available We investigate the hydromagnetic effect on viscous incompressible flow between two horizontal parallel porous flat plates with transverse sinusoidal injection of the fluid at the stationary plate and its corresponding removal by periodic suction through the plate in uniform motion. The flow becomes three dimensional due to this injection/suction velocity. Approximate solutions are obtained for the flow field, the pressure, the skin-friction, the temperature field, and the rate of heat transfer. The dependence of solution on M (Hartmann number and ÃŽÂ» (injection/suction is investigated by the graphs and tables.
Modeling and simulation of flow field in giant magnetostrictive pump
Zhao, Yapeng; Ren, Shiyong; Lu, Quanguo
2017-09-01
Recent years, there has been significant research in the design and analysis of giant magnetostrictive pump. In this paper, the flow field model of giant magnetostrictive pump was established and the relationship between pressure loss and working frequency of piston was studied by numerical simulation method. Then, the influence of different pump chamber height on pressure loss in giant magnetostrictive pump was studied by means of flow field simulation. Finally, the fluid pressure and velocity vector distribution in giant magnetostrictive pump chamber were simulated.
Complex analysis with applications to flows and fields
Braga da Costa Campos, Luis Manuel
2012-01-01
Complex Analysis with Applications to Flows and Fields presents the theory of functions of a complex variable, from the complex plane to the calculus of residues to power series to conformal mapping. The book explores numerous physical and engineering applications concerning potential flows, the gravity field, electro- and magnetostatics, steady heat conduction, and other problems. It provides the mathematical results to sufficiently justify the solution of these problems, eliminating the need to consult external references.The book is conveniently divided into four parts. In each part, the ma
Aerodynamic structures and processes in rotationally augmented flow fields
Schreck, S.J.; Sørensen, Niels N.; Robinson, M.C.
2007-01-01
. Experimental measurements consisted of surface pressure data statistics used to infer sectional boundary layer state and to quantify normal force levels. Computed predictions included high-resolution boundary layer topologies and detailed above-surface flow field structures. This synergy was exploited...... to reliably identify and track pertinent features in the rotating blade boundary layer topology as they evolved in response to varying wind speed. Subsequently, boundary layer state was linked to above-surface flow field structure and used to deduce mechanisms; underlying augmented aerodynamic force...
Testud, Frederik; Gallichan, Daniel; Layton, Kelvin J; Barmet, Christoph; Welz, Anna M; Dewdney, Andrew; Cocosco, Chris A; Pruessmann, Klaas P; Hennig, Jürgen; Zaitsev, Maxim
2015-03-01
PatLoc (Parallel Imaging Technique using Localized Gradients) accelerates imaging and introduces a resolution variation across the field-of-view. Higher-dimensional encoding employs more spatial encoding magnetic fields (SEMs) than the corresponding image dimensionality requires, e.g. by applying two quadratic and two linear spatial encoding magnetic fields to reconstruct a 2D image. Images acquired with higher-dimensional single-shot trajectories can exhibit strong artifacts and geometric distortions. In this work, the source of these artifacts is analyzed and a reliable correction strategy is derived. A dynamic field camera was built for encoding field calibration. Concomitant fields of linear and nonlinear spatial encoding magnetic fields were analyzed. A combined basis consisting of spherical harmonics and concomitant terms was proposed and used for encoding field calibration and image reconstruction. A good agreement between the analytical solution for the concomitant fields and the magnetic field simulations of the custom-built PatLoc SEM coil was observed. Substantial image quality improvements were obtained using a dynamic field camera for encoding field calibration combined with the proposed combined basis. The importance of trajectory calibration for single-shot higher-dimensional encoding is demonstrated using the combined basis including spherical harmonics and concomitant terms, which treats the concomitant fields as an integral part of the encoding. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Topology of streamlines and vorticity contours for two - dimensional flows
Andersen, Morten
on the vortex filament by the localised induction approximation the stream function is slightly modified and an extra parameter is introduced. In this setting two new flow topologies arise, but not more than two critical points occur for any combination of the parameters. The analysis of the closed form show...... by a point vortex above a wall in inviscid fluid. There is no reason to a priori expect equivalent results of the three vortex definitions. However, the study is mainly motivated by the findings of Kudela & Malecha (Fluid Dyn. Res. 41, 2009) who find good agreement between the vorticity and streamlines...
Castro, A.L.S.; Campos, T.P.R., E-mail: radioterapia.andre@gmail.com [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear
2016-11-01
Radiotherapy is the most used clinical method used for brain metastases treatment, the most frequent secondary tumors provided by breast, lung and melanomas as primary origin. The protocols often use high daily doses and, depending on the irradiation technique there is high probability of complications in health tissues. In order to minimize adverse effects, it is important the dosimetric analysis of three-dimensional radiotherapy planning through tomographic images or, concerning to the 2D simulations, by the application of techniques that optimize dose distribution by increasing the homogeneity. The study aimed to compare the 2D and 3D conformal planning for total brain irradiation in a individual equivalent situation and evaluate the progress of these planning applying the field in field technique. The methodology consisted of simulating a two-dimensional planning, reproduce it on a set of tomographic images and compare it with the conformal plan for two fields and four fields (field in field). The results showed no significant difference between 2D and 3D planning for whole brain irradiation, and the field in field technique significantly improved the dose distribution in brain volume compared with two fields for the proposal situation. As conclusion, the two-dimensional plane for the four fields described was viable for whole brain irradiation in the treatment of brain metastases at the proposal situation. (author)
B. Mahanthesh
Full Text Available Impact of induced magnetic field over a flat porous plate by utilizing incompressible water-copper nanoliquid is examined analytically. Flow is supposed to be laminar, steady and two-dimensional. The plate is subjected to a regular free stream velocity as well as suction velocity. Flow formulation is developed by considering MaxwellâGarnetts (MG and Brinkman models of nanoliquid. Impacts of thermal radiation, viscous dissipation, temperature dependent heat source/sink and first order chemical reaction are also retained. The subjected non-linear problems are non-dimensionalized and analytic solutions are presented via series expansion method. The graphs are plotted to analyze the influence of pertinent parameters on flow, magnetism, heat and mass transfer fields as well as friction factor, current density, Nusselt and Sherwood numbers. It is found that friction factor at the plate is more for larger magnetic Prandtl number. Also the rate of heat transfer decayed with increasing nanoparticles volume fraction and the strength of magnetism. Keywords: Induced magnetic field, Nanoliquids, Heat source/sink, Series expansion method, Chemical reaction, Thermal radiation
Extended forward sensitivity analysis of one-dimensional isothermal flow
Johnson, M.; Zhao, H.
2013-01-01
Sensitivity analysis and uncertainty quantification is an important part of nuclear safety analysis. In this work, forward sensitivity analysis is used to compute solution sensitivities on 1-D fluid flow equations typical of those found in system level codes. Time step sensitivity analysis is included as a method for determining the accumulated error from time discretization. The ability to quantify numerical error arising from the time discretization is a unique and important feature of this method. By knowing the relative sensitivity of time step with other physical parameters, the simulation is allowed to run at optimized time steps without affecting the confidence of the physical parameter sensitivity results. The time step forward sensitivity analysis method can also replace the traditional time step convergence studies that are a key part of code verification with much less computational cost. One well-defined benchmark problem with manufactured solutions is utilized to verify the method; another test isothermal flow problem is used to demonstrate the extended forward sensitivity analysis process. Through these sample problems, the paper shows the feasibility and potential of using the forward sensitivity analysis method to quantify uncertainty in input parameters and time step size for a 1-D system-level thermal-hydraulic safety code. (authors)
Merging of magnetic fields with field-aligned plasma flow components
Mitchell, H.G. Jr.; Kan, J.R.
1978-01-01
The Sonnerup merging model for an incompressible plasma is extended to allow a flow component along the field lines in the inflow regions. Solutions are found to exist as long as the difference between the quantities B. V for the two inflow regions does not exceed a critical magnitude dependent on the inflow field magnitudes and plasma densities. All such solutions satisfy Vasyliunas' definition of merging, but some classes of solution have radically altered geometries, i.e. geometries in which the inflow regions are much smaller than the outflow regions. The necessary but not sufficient condition for these unusual geometries is that the field-aligned flow component in at least one inflow region be super-Alfvenic. A solution for the case of a vacuum field in one inflow region is obtained in which any flow velocity is allowed in the non-vacuum inflow region, although super-Alfvenic flow can still result in an unusual geometry. For symmetric configurations, the usual geometry, that of Petschek and Sonnerup, is retained as long as both field-aligned flow components in the inflow regions are less than twice the inflow Alfven speed. For the case of a vacuum field on one side and fields approximating the boundary between the solar wind and the earth's dayside magnetosphere, the usual geometry is retained for flow less than about 2.5 times the local Alfven speed. (author)
Time resolved flow-field measurements of a turbulent mixing layer over a rectangular cavity
Bian, Shiyao; Driscoll, James F.; Elbing, Brian R.; Ceccio, Steven L.
2011-07-01
High Reynolds number, low Mach number, turbulent shear flow past a rectangular, shallow cavity has been experimentally investigated with the use of dual-camera cinematographic particle image velocimetry (CPIV). The CPIV had a 3 kHz sampling rate, which was sufficient to monitor the time evolution of large-scale vortices as they formed, evolved downstream and impinged on the downstream cavity wall. The time-averaged flow properties (velocity and vorticity fields, streamwise velocity profiles and momentum and vorticity thickness) were in agreement with previous cavity flow studies under similar operating conditions. The time-resolved results show that the separated shear layer quickly rolled-up and formed eddies immediately downstream of the separation point. The vortices convect downstream at approximately half the free-stream speed. Vorticity strength intermittency as the structures approach the downstream edge suggests an increase in the three-dimensionality of the flow. Time-resolved correlations reveal that the in-plane coherence of the vortices decays within 2-3 structure diameters, and quasi-periodic flow features are present with a vortex passage frequency of ~1 kHz. The power spectra of the vertical velocity fluctuations within the shear layer revealed a peak at a non-dimensional frequency corresponding to that predicted using linear, inviscid instability theory.
Flow field bipolar plates in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell: Analysis & modeling
Kahraman, Huseyin; Orhan, Mehmet F.
2017-01-01
Highlights: • Covers a comprehensive review of available flow field channel configurations. • Examines the main design considerations and limitations for a flow field network. • Explores the common materials and material properties used for flow field plates. • Presents a case study of step-by-step modeling for an optimum flow field design. - Abstract: This study investigates flow fields and flow field plates (bipolar plates) in proton exchange membrane fuel cells. In this regard, the main design considerations and limitations for a flow field network have been examined, along with a comprehensive review of currently available flow field channel configurations. Also, the common materials and material properties used for flow field plates have been explored. Furthermore, a case study of step-by-step modeling for an optimum flow field design has been presented in-details. Finally, a parametric study has been conducted with respect to many design and performance parameters in a flow field plate.
Pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump
Wang Chunlin; Yang Xiaoyong; Li Changjun; Jia Fei; Zhao Binjuan
2013-01-01
In order to research the pressure fluctuation characteristics of flow field of mixed flow nuclear primary pump, this study used the technique of ANSYS-Workbench and CFX fluid solid heat coupling to do numerical simulation analysis for model pump. According to the situation of pressure fluctuation of time domain and frequency domain, the main cause of pressure fluctuation was discussed. For different flow, the pressure fluctuations were compared. This study shows it is feasible that large eddy simulation method is used for the research of pressure fluctuation. The pressure fluctuation amplitudes of four sections are increasing from wheel hub to wheel rim. The pressure fluctuation of inlet and outlet of impeller depends on the rotational frequency of impeller. Along with the fluid flowing away from the impeller, the effect of the impeller on the fluid pressure fluctuation weakens gradually. Comparing the different results of three flow conditions, the pressure fluctuation in design condition flow is superior to the others. (authors)
Viecelli, J.A.
1993-01-01
The Hamiltonian flow of a set of point vortices of like sign and strength has a low-temperature phase consisting of a rotating triangular lattice of vortices, and a normal temperature turbulent phase consisting of random clusters of vorticity that orbit about a common center along random tracks. The mean-field flow in the normal temperature phase has similarities with turbulent quasi-two-dimensional rotating laboratory and geophysical flows, whereas the low-temperature phase displays effects associated with quantum fluids. In the normal temperature phase the vortices follow power-law clustering distributions, while in the time domain random interval modulation of the vortex orbit radii fluctuations produces singular fractional exponent power-law low-frequency spectra corresponding to time autocorrelation functions with fractional exponent power-law tails. Enhanced diffusion is present in the turbulent state, whereas in the solid-body rotation state vortices thermally diffuse across the lattice. Over the entire temperature range the interaction energy of a single vortex in the field of the rest of the vortices follows positive temperature Fermi--Dirac statistics, with the zero temperature limit corresponding to the rotating crystal phase, and the infinite temperature limit corresponding to a Maxwellian distribution. Analyses of weather records dependent on the large-scale quasi-two-dimensional atmospheric circulation suggest the presence of singular fractional exponent power-law spectra and fractional exponent power-law autocorrelation tails, consistent with the theory
Lindner, Michael; Donner, Reik V
2017-03-01
We study the Lagrangian dynamics of passive tracers in a simple model of a driven two-dimensional vortex resembling real-world geophysical flow patterns. Using a discrete approximation of the system's transfer operator, we construct a directed network that describes the exchange of mass between distinct regions of the flow domain. By studying different measures characterizing flow network connectivity at different time-scales, we are able to identify the location of dynamically invariant structures and regions of maximum dispersion. Specifically, our approach allows us to delimit co-existing flow regimes with different dynamics. To validate our findings, we compare several network characteristics to the well-established finite-time Lyapunov exponents and apply a receiver operating characteristic analysis to identify network measures that are particularly useful for unveiling the skeleton of Lagrangian chaos.
Elbaz, Ayman M.; Zayed, M.F.; Samy, M.; Roberts, William L.; Mansour, Mohy S.
2015-01-01
The stability limits, the stabilization mechanism, and the flow field structure of highly stabilized partially premixed methane flames in a concentric flow conical nozzle burner with air co-flow have been investigated and presented in this work
L2F and LDV velocimetry measurement and analysis of the 3-D flow field in a centrifugal compressor
Fagan, John R., Jr.; Fleeter, Sanford
1989-01-01
The flow field in the Purdue Research Centrifugal Compressor is studied using a laser two-focus (L2F) velocimeter. L2F data are obtained which quantify: (1) the compressor inlet flow field; (2) the steady-state velocity field in the impeller blade passages; and (3) the flow field in the radial diffuser. The L2F data are compared with both laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) data and predictions from three-dimensional inviscid and viscous flow models. In addition, a model is developed to calculate the effect on the measurement volume geometry of refraction by curved windows. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using the L2F for turbomachinery measurements is discussed in terms of measurement accuracy, ease of use, including sample time per correlated event and the ability to make measurements in regions of high noise due to stray radiation from wall reflections.
Numerical Simulation of Non-Rotating and Rotating Coolant Channel Flow Fields. Part 1
Rigby, David L.
2000-01-01
Future generations of ultra high bypass-ratio jet engines will require far higher pressure ratios and operating temperatures than those of current engines. For the foreseeable future, engine materials will not be able to withstand the high temperatures without some form of cooling. In particular the turbine blades, which are under high thermal as well as mechanical loads, must be cooled. Cooling of turbine blades is achieved by bleeding air from the compressor stage of the engine through complicated internal passages in the turbine blades (internal cooling, including jet-impingement cooling) and by bleeding small amounts of air into the boundary layer of the external flow through small discrete holes on the surface of the blade (film cooling and transpiration cooling). The cooling must be done using a minimum amount of air or any increases in efficiency gained through higher operating temperature will be lost due to added load on the compressor stage. Turbine cooling schemes have traditionally been based on extensive empirical data bases, quasi-one-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis, and trial and error. With improved capabilities of CFD, these traditional methods can be augmented by full three-dimensional simulations of the coolant flow to predict in detail the heat transfer and metal temperatures. Several aspects of turbine coolant flows make such application of CFD difficult, thus a highly effective CFD methodology must be used. First, high resolution of the flow field is required to attain the needed accuracy for heat transfer predictions, making highly efficient flow solvers essential for such computations. Second, the geometries of the flow passages are complicated but must be modeled accurately in order to capture all important details of the flow. This makes grid generation and grid quality important issues. Finally, since coolant flows are turbulent and separated the effects of turbulence must be modeled with a low Reynolds number
Two dimensional numerical model for steam--water flow in a sudden contraction
Crowe, C.T.; Choi, H.N.
1976-01-01
A computational model developed for two-dimensional dispersed two-phase flows is applied to steam--water flow in a sudden contraction. The calculational scheme utilizes the cellular approach in which each cell is regarded as a control volume and the droplets are regarded as sources of mass, momentum and energy to the conveying (steam) phase. The predictions show how droplets channel in the entry region and affect the velocity and pressure distributions along the duct
STRUYA a code for two-dimensional fluid flow analysis with and without structure coupling
Katz, F.W.; Schlechtendahl, E.G.; Stoelting, K.
1979-11-01
STRUYA is a code for two-dimensional subsonic and supersonic flow analysis. Both Eulerian and Lagrangian grids are allowed. In the third dimension the flow domain may be bounded by a moving wall. The wall movement may be prescribed in a time-and space varying way or computed by a structural model. STRUYA offers a general scheme for adapting various structural models. As a standard feature it includes a cylindrical shell model (CYLDY2). (orig.) [de
Roszelle, Breigh N; Deutsch, Steven; Manning, Keefe B
2010-02-01
In order to aid the ongoing concern of limited organ availability for pediatric heart transplants, Penn State has continued development of a pulsatile Pediatric Ventricular Assist Device (PVAD). Initial studies of the PVAD observed an increase in thrombus formation due to differences in flow field physics when compared to adult sized devices, which included a higher degree of three-dimensionality. This unique flow field brings into question the use of 2D planar particle image velocimetry (PIV) as a flow visualization technique, however the small size and high curvature of the PVAD make other tools such as stereoscopic PIV impractical. In order to test the reliability of the 2D results, we perform a pseudo-3D PIV study using planes both parallel and normal to the diaphragm employing a mock circulatory loop containing a viscoelastic fluid that mimics 40% hematocrit blood. We find that while the third component of velocity is extremely helpful to a physical understanding of the flow, particularly of the diastolic jet and the development of a desired rotational pattern, the flow data taken parallel to the diaphragm is sufficient to describe the wall shear rates, a critical aspect to the study of thrombosis and design of such pumps.
One-dimensional acoustic standing waves in rectangular channels for flow cytometry.
Austin Suthanthiraraj, Pearlson P; Piyasena, Menake E; Woods, Travis A; Naivar, Mark A; Lόpez, Gabriel P; Graves, Steven W
2012-07-01
Flow cytometry has become a powerful analytical tool for applications ranging from blood diagnostics to high throughput screening of molecular assemblies on microsphere arrays. However, instrument size, expense, throughput, and consumable use limit its use in resource poor areas of the world, as a component in environmental monitoring, and for detection of very rare cell populations. For these reasons, new technologies to improve the size and cost-to-performance ratio of flow cytometry are required. One such technology is the use of acoustic standing waves that efficiently concentrate cells and particles to the center of flow channels for analysis. The simplest form of this method uses one-dimensional acoustic standing waves to focus particles in rectangular channels. We have developed one-dimensional acoustic focusing flow channels that can be fabricated in simple capillary devices or easily microfabricated using photolithography and deep reactive ion etching. Image and video analysis demonstrates that these channels precisely focus single flowing streams of particles and cells for traditional flow cytometry analysis. Additionally, use of standing waves with increasing harmonics and in parallel microfabricated channels is shown to effectively create many parallel focused streams. Furthermore, we present the fabrication of an inexpensive optical platform for flow cytometry in rectangular channels and use of the system to provide precise analysis. The simplicity and low-cost of the acoustic focusing devices developed here promise to be effective for flow cytometers that have reduced size, cost, and consumable use. Finally, the straightforward path to parallel flow streams using one-dimensional multinode acoustic focusing, indicates that simple acoustic focusing in rectangular channels may also have a prominent role in high-throughput flow cytometry. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
DEM simulation of granular flows in a centrifugal acceleration field
Cabrera, Miguel Angel; Peng, Chong; Wu, Wei
2017-04-01
The main purpose of mass-flow experimental models is abstracting distinctive features of natural granular flows, and allow its systematic study in the laboratory. In this process, particle size, space, time, and stress scales must be considered for the proper representation of specific phenomena [5]. One of the most challenging tasks in small scale models, is matching the range of stresses and strains among the particle and fluid media observed in a field event. Centrifuge modelling offers an alternative to upscale all gravity-driven processes, and it has been recently employed in the simulation of granular flows [1, 2, 3, 6, 7]. Centrifuge scaling principles are presented in Ref. [4], collecting a wide spectrum of static and dynamic models. However, for the case of kinematic processes, the non-uniformity of the centrifugal acceleration field plays a major role (i.e., Coriolis and inertial effects). In this work, we discuss a general formulation for the centrifugal acceleration field, implemented in a discrete element model framework (DEM), and validated with centrifuge experimental results. Conventional DEM simulations relate the volumetric forces as a function of the gravitational force Gp = mpg. However, in the local coordinate system of a rotating centrifuge model, the cylindrical centrifugal acceleration field needs to be included. In this rotating system, the centrifugal acceleration of a particle depends on the rotating speed of the centrifuge, as well as the position and speed of the particle in the rotating model. Therefore, we obtain the formulation of centrifugal acceleration field by coordinate transformation. The numerical model is validated with a series of centrifuge experiments of monodispersed glass beads, flowing down an inclined plane at different acceleration levels and slope angles. Further discussion leads to the numerical parameterization necessary for simulating equivalent granular flows under an augmented acceleration field. The premise of
Wilms, D; Virnau, P; Binder, K; Deutschländer, S; Siems, U; Franzrahe, K; Henseler, P; Keim, P; Schwierz, N; Maret, G; Nielaba, P
2012-01-01
In this work, we focus on low-dimensional colloidal model systems, via simulation studies and also some complementary experiments, in order to elucidate the interplay between phase behavior, geometric structures and transport properties. In particular, we try to investigate the (nonlinear!) response of these very soft colloidal systems to various perturbations: uniform and uniaxial pressure, laser fields, shear due to moving boundaries and randomly quenched disorder. We study ordering phenomena on surfaces or in monolayers by Monte Carlo computer simulations of binary hard-disk mixtures, the influence of a substrate being modeled by an external potential. Weak external fields allow a controlled tuning of the miscibility of the mixture. We discuss the laser induced de-mixing for the three different possible couplings to the external potential. The structural behavior of hard spheres interacting with repulsive screened Coulomb or dipolar interaction in 2D and 3D narrow constrictions is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Due to misfits between multiples of the lattice parameter and the channel widths, a variety of ordered and disordered lattice structures have been observed. The resulting local lattice structures and defect probabilities are studied for various cross sections. The influence of a self-organized order within the system is reflected in the velocity of the particles and their diffusive behavior. Additionally, in an experimental system of dipolar colloidal particles confined by gravity on a solid substrate we investigate the effect of pinning on the dynamics of a two-dimensional colloidal liquid. This work contains sections reviewing previous work by the authors as well as new, unpublished results. Among the latter are detailed studies of the phase boundaries of the de-mixing regime in binary systems in external light fields, configurations for shear induced effects at structured walls, studies on the effect of confinement on the structures
A Study of the Flow Field Surrounding Interacting Line Fires
Trevor Maynard
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The interaction of converging fires often leads to significant changes in fire behavior, including increased flame length, angle, and intensity. In this paper, the fluid mechanics of two adjacent line fires are studied both theoretically and experimentally. A simple potential flow model is used to explain the tilting of interacting flames towards each other, which results from a momentum imbalance triggered by fire geometry. The model was validated by measuring the velocity field surrounding stationary alcohol pool fires. The flow field was seeded with high-contrast colored smoke, and the motion of smoke structures was analyzed using a cross-correlation optical flow technique. The measured velocities and flame angles are found to compare reasonably with the predicted values, and an analogy between merging fires and wind-blown flames is proposed.
Field research program for unsaturated flow and transport experimentation
Tidwell, V.C.; Rautman, C.A.; Glass, R.J.
1992-01-01
As part of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project, a field research program has been developed to refine and validate models for flow and transport through unsaturated fractured rock. Validation of these models within the range of their application for performance assessment requires a more sophisticated understanding of the processes that govern flow and transport within fractured porous media than currently exists. In particular, our research is prioritized according to understanding and modeling processes that, if not accurately incorporated into performance assessment models, would adversely impact the project's ability to evaluate repository performance. For this reason, we have oriented our field program toward enhancing our understanding of scaling processes as they relate to effective media property modeling, as well as to the conceptual modeling of complex flow and transport phenomena
Factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation
colloidal material is illustrated through the evaluation of thermal diffusion coefficient of PS ... Field-flow fractionation (FFF) is a separation method introduced by Giddings in 1966 [1]. It is a ... no stationary phase is used in FFF. .... that the inversion diameter (diameter at which order of retention changes) can be shifted up or.
factors affecting particle retention in thermal field-flow fractionation
In this paper, we report a range of factors which affect the retention of colloidal particles in thermal field-flow fractionation (ThFFF). These results are observed among different sizes of polystyrene (PS) latex particles suspended in both aqueous and nonaqueous liquid carriers and very low density lipoproteins in a phosphate ...
Magnetic and velocity fields MHD flow of a stretched vertical ...
Analytical solutions for heat and mass transfer by laminar flow of Newtonian, viscous, electrically conducting and heat generation/absorbing fluid on a continuously moving vertical permeable surface with buoyancy in the presence of a magnetic field and a first order chemical reaction are reported. The solutions for magnetic ...
Wang Xiaodong; Yan Weimon; Duan Yuanyuan; Weng Fangbor; Jung Guobin; Lee Chiyuan
2010-01-01
This work numerically investigates the effect of the channel size on the cell performance of proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cells with serpentine flow fields using a three-dimensional, two-phase model. The local current densities in the PEM, oxygen mass flow rates and liquid water concentrations at the interface of the cathode gas diffusion layer and catalyst layer were analyzed to understand the channel size effect. The predictions show that smaller channel sizes enhance liquid water removal and increase oxygen transport to the porous layers, which improve cell performance. Additionally, smaller channel sizes also provide more uniform current density distributions in the cell. However, as the channel size decreases, the total pressure drops across the cell increases, which leads to more pump work. With taking into account the pressure losses, the optimal cell performance occurs for a cell with a flow channel cross-sectional area of 0.535 x 0.535 mm 2 .
Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel bundle for SFR
Jeong, Jae Ho; Yoo, Jin; Lee, Kwi Lim; Ha, Kwi Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-08-15
Three-dimensional flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly mock-up of a Japanese loop-type sodium-cooled fast reactor, Monju, were investigated with a numerical analysis using a general-purpose commercial computational fluid dynamics code, CFX. Complicated and vortical flow phenomena in the wire-wrapped 37-pin fuel assembly were captured by a Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes flow simulation using a shear stress transport turbulence model. The main purpose of the current study is to understand the three-dimensional complex flow phenomena in a wire-wrapped fuel assembly to support the license issue for the core design. Computational fluid dynamics results show good agreement with friction factor correlation models. The secondary flow in the corner and edge subchannels is much stronger than that in an interior subchannel. The axial velocity averaged in the corner and edge subchannels is higher than that averaged in the interior subchannels. Three-dimensional multiscale vortex structures start to be formed by an interaction between secondary flows around each wire-wrapped pin. Behavior of the large-scale vortex structures in the corner and edge subchannels is closely related to the relative position between the hexagonal duct wall and the helically wrapped wire spacer. The small-scale vortex is axially developed in the interior subchannels. Furthermore, a driving force on each wire spacer surface is closely related to the relative position between the hexagonal duct wall and the wire spacer.
Wu, Chung-Hua
1993-01-01
This report represents a general theory applicable to axial, radial, and mixed flow turbomachines operating at subsonic and supersonic speeds with a finite number of blades of finite thickness. References reflect the evolution of computational methods used, from the inception of the theory in the 50's to the high-speed computer era of the 90's. Two kinds of relative stream surfaces, S(sub 1) and S(sub 2), are introduced for the purpose of obtaining a three-dimensional flow solution through the combination of two-dimensional flow solutions. Nonorthogonal curvilinear coordinates are used for the governing equations. Methods of computing transonic flow along S(sub 1) and S(sub 2) stream surfaces are given for special cases as well as for fully three-dimensional transonic flows. Procedures pertaining to the direct solutions and inverse solutions are presented. Information on shock wave locations and shapes needed for computations are discussed. Experimental data from a Deutsche Forschungs- und Versuchsanstalt fur Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V. (DFVLR) rotor and from a Chinese Academy of Sciences (CAS) transonic compressor rotor are compared with the computed flow properties.
Flow field design for high-pressure PEM electrolysis cells
Olesen, Anders Christian; Kær, Søren Knudsen
-water distributes. Water not only serves a reactant, it also aids in cooling due to its high specific heat capacity. The movement of liquid water at the anode is difficult to model, since it is highly coupled to the formation of gas bubbles. To capture the complex two-phase flow behaviour that takes place within...... micro-channels and porous media, our research group has developed an Euler-Euler model in the computational fluid dynamics modelling framework of ANSYS CFX. In addition to two-phase flow, the model accounts for turbulence, species transport in the gas phase, heat transport in all three phases (i.......e. solid, gas and liquid), as well as charge transport of electrons and ions. Our recent improvements have focused on the models ability to account for phase change and electrochemistry as well as the modelling of two-phase flow regimes. For comparison, an interdigitated and parallel channel flow field...
Distillation and Visualization of Spatiotemporal Structures in Turbulent Flow Fields
Hege, Hans-Christian; Hotz, Ingrid; Kasten, Jens
2011-01-01
Although turbulence suggests randomness and disorder, organized motions that cause spatiotemporal 'coherent structures' are of particular interest. Revealing such structures in numerically given turbulent or semi-turbulent flows is of interest both for practically working engineers and theoretically oriented physicists. However, as long as there is no common agreement about the mathematical definition of coherent structures, extracting such structures is a vaguely defined task. Instead of searching for a general definition, the data visualization community takes a pragmatic approach and provides various tool chains implemented in flexible software frameworks that allow the user to extract distinct flow field structures. Thus physicists or engineers can select those flow structures which might advance their insight best. We present different approaches to distill important features from turbulent flows and discuss the necessary steps to be taken on the example of Lagrangian coherent structures.
Particle trajectories in full 3D flow field of turbomachinery
Ling, Z.G.; Huang, S.L.
1986-01-01
Particle trajectory prediction is important for particulate laden flow turbomachinery as it helps to understand the cause of erosion phenomena and to improve the design of blade passages. In this paper, on the basis of previous works, particle trajectories in turbine stages are predicted in connection with full 3D gas flow field solved by time marching method. The secondary flow effect is also partially considered by assuming a total pressure distribution at the inlet of the moving blade row. The results show that passage vortex due to secondary flow will cause upward and downward divergence of particle trajectories at the rear part of near blade pressure surface which is evidenced by the real appearance of eroded trace on turbine blade after long period of operation
Flow in porous media under the influence of thermal fields
Bories, S; Thirriot, C
1970-01-01
Fluid flow in porous media, including natural convection caused by temperature fields, is of particular importance in the exploitation of petroleum deposits. Laboratory experiments with a horizontal Hele-Shaw model in which the convection currents can be visually observed, are reported. The main observations are concerned with fairly stable flow regime cells and the velocity distribution. Photos of the flow, and graphs of the temperature distribution measured by interferometric methods, are given. The essential elements observed are well-represented by a simplified theory; at large Reynolds numbers, large temperature gradients have been observed in the vicinity of the isothermal boundaries. The temperature distribution can be expressed by a dimensionless law, and it seems possible to generalize the observations from the Hele-Shaw model to flow in porous media.
Mass conservative fluid flow visualization for CFD velocity fields
Li, Zhenquan; Mallinson, Gordon D.
2001-01-01
Mass conservation is a key issue for accurate streamline and stream surface visualization of flow fields. This paper complements an existing method (Feng et al., 1997) for CFD velocity fields defined at discrete locations in space that uses dual stream functions to generate streamlines and stream surfaces. Conditions for using the method have been examined and its limitations defined. A complete set of dual stream functions for all possible cases of the linear fields on which the method relies are presented. The results in this paper are important for developing new methods for mass conservative streamline visualization from CFD data and using the existing method
Sistaninia, M.; Phillion, A.B.; Drezet, J.-M.; Rappaz, M.
2012-01-01
A three-dimensional (3-D) granular model which simulates fluid flow within solidifying alloys with a globular microstructure, such as that found in grain refined Al alloys, is presented. The model geometry within a representative volume element (RVE) consists of a set of prismatic triangular elements representing the intergranular liquid channels. The pressure field within the liquid channels is calculated using a finite elements (FEs) method assuming a Poiseuille flow within each channel and flow conservation at triple lines. The fluid flow is induced by solidification shrinkage and openings at grain boundaries due to deformation of the coherent solid. The granular model predictions are validated against bulk data calculated with averaging techniques. The results show that a fluid flow simulation of globular semi-solid materials is able to reproduce both a map of the 3-D intergranular pressure and the localization of feeding within the mushy zone. A new hot cracking sensitivity coefficient is then proposed. Based on a mass balance performed over a solidifying isothermal volume element, this coefficient accounts for tensile deformation of the semi-solid domain and for the induced intergranular liquid feeding. The fluid flow model is then used to calculate the pressure drop in the mushy zone during the direct chill casting of aluminum alloy billets. The predicted pressure demonstrates that deep in the mushy zone where the permeability is low the local pressure can be significantly lower than the pressure predicted by averaging techniques.
Linearized analysis of one-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic flows
Gundersen, Roy M
1964-01-01
Magnetohydrodynamics is concerned with the motion of electrically conducting fluids in the presence of electric or magnetic fields. Un fortunately, the subject has a rather poorly developed experimental basis and because of the difficulties inherent in carrying out controlled laboratory experiments, the theoretical developments, in large measure, have been concerned with finding solutions to rather idealized problems. This lack of experimental basis need not become, however, a multi megohm impedance in the line of progress in the development of a satisfactory scientific theory. While it is true that ultimately a scientific theory must agree with and, in actuality, predict physical phenomena with a reasonable degree of accuracy, such a theory must be sanctioned by its mathematical validity and consistency. Physical phenomena may be expressed precisely and quite comprehensively through the use of differential equations, and the equations formulated by LUNDQUIST and discussed by FRIEDRICHS belong to a class ...
The Chimera Method of Simulation for Unsteady Three-Dimensional Viscous Flow
Meakin, Robert L.
1996-01-01
The Chimera overset grid method is reviewed and discussed in the context of a method of solution and analysis of unsteady three-dimensional viscous flows. The state of maturity of the various pieces of support software required to use the approach is discussed. A variety of recent applications of the method is presented. Current limitations of the approach are defined.
Alignment dynamics of diffusive scalar gradient in a two-dimensional model flow
Gonzalez, M.
2018-04-01
The Lagrangian two-dimensional approach of scalar gradient kinematics is revisited accounting for molecular diffusion. Numerical simulations are performed in an analytic, parameterized model flow, which enables considering different regimes of scalar gradient dynamics. Attention is especially focused on the influence of molecular diffusion on Lagrangian statistical orientations and on the dynamics of scalar gradient alignment.
Isogeometric analysis of sound propagation through laminar flow in 2-dimensional ducts
Nørtoft, Peter; Gravesen, Jens; Willatzen, Morten
2015-01-01
We consider the propagation of sound through a slowly moving fluid in a 2-dimensional duct. A detailed description of a flow-acoustic model of the problem using B-spline based isogeometric analysis is given. The model couples the non-linear, steady-state, incompressible Navier-Stokes equation in ...
J. McKean; D. Tonina; C. Bohn; C. W. Wright
2014-01-01
New remote sensing technologies and improved computer performance now allow numerical flow modeling over large stream domains. However, there has been limited testing of whether channel topography can be remotely mapped with accuracy necessary for such modeling. We assessed the ability of the Experimental Advanced Airborne Research Lidar, to support a multi-dimensional...
LLUVIA-II: A program for two-dimensional, transient flow through partially saturated porous media
Eaton, R.R.; Hopkins, P.L.
1992-08-01
LLUVIA-II is a program designed for the efficient solution of two- dimensional transient flow of liquid water through partially saturated, porous media. The code solves Richards equation using the method-of-lines procedure. This document describes the solution procedure employed, input data structure, output, and code verification
Experimental investigation of three-dimensional flow instabilities in a rotating lid-driven cavity
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming
2006-01-01
liquid. For the first time the onset of three-dimensionality and transition are analysed by combining the high spatial resolution of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and the temporal accuracy of Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA). A detailed mapping of the transition from steady and axisymmetric flow...
Braided structure in 4-dimensional conformal quantum field theory
Schroer, Bert
2001-03-01
Higher dimensional conformal QFT possesses an intersting braided structure which different from the d=1+1 models, is restricted to the timelike region and therefore easily escapes euclidean action methods. It lies behind the spectrum of anamalous which may be viewed as a kind of substitute for a missing particle interpretation in the presence of interactions. (author)
Using optic flow in the far peripheral field.
McManus, Meaghan; D'Amour, Sarah; Harris, Laurence R
2017-07-01
Self-motion information can be used to update spatial memory of location through an estimate of a change in position. Viewing optic flow alone can create Illusory self-motion or "vection." Early studies suggested that peripheral vision is more effective than central vision in evoking vection, but controlling for retinal area and perceived distance suggests that all retinal areas may be equally effective. However, the contributions of the far periphery, beyond 90°, have been largely neglected. Using a large-field Edgeless Graphics Geometry display (EGG, Christie, Canada, field of view ±112°) and systematically blocking central (±20° to ±90°) or peripheral (viewing through tunnels ±20° to ±40°) parts of the field, we compared the effectiveness of different retinal regions at evoking forwards linear vection. Fifteen participants indicated when they had reached the position of a previously presented target after visually simulating motion down a simulated corridor. The amount of simulated travel needed to match a given target distance was modelled with a leaky spatial integrator model to estimate gains (perceived/actual distance) and a spatial decay factor. When optic flow was presented only in the far periphery (beyond 90°) gains were significantly higher than for the same motion presented full field or in only the central field, resulting in accurate performance in the range of speeds associated with normal walking. The increased effectiveness of optic flow in the peripheral field alone compared to full-field motion is discussed in terms of emerging neurophysiological studies that suggest brain areas dedicated to processing information from the far peripheral field.
Development of non-orthogonal and 2-dimensional numerical code TFC2D-BFC for fluid flow
Park, Ju Yeop; In, Wang Kee; Chun, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok
2000-09-01
The development of algorithm for three dimensional non-orthogonal coordinate system has been made. The algorithm adopts a non-staggered grid system, Cartesian velocity components for independent variables of momentum equations and a SIMPLER algorithm for a pressure correction equation. Except the pressure correction method, the selected grid system and the selected independent variables for momentum equations have been widely used in a commercial code. It is well known that the SIMPLER is superior to the SIMPLE algorithm in the view of convergence rate. Using this algorithm, a two dimensional non-orthogonal numerical code has been completed. The code adopts a structured single square block in a computational domain with a uniform mesh interval. Consequently, any solid body existing in a flow field can be implemented in the numerical code through a blocked-off method which was devised by Patankar
Experimental study on two-dimensional film flow with local measurement methods
Yang, Jin-Hwa, E-mail: evo03@snu.ac.kr [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Hyoung-Kyu [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Euh, Dong-Jin, E-mail: djeuh@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 989-111, Daedeok-daero, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Nuclear Thermal-Hydraulic Engineering Laboratory, Seoul National University, Gwanak 599, Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-12-01
Highlights: • An experimental study on the two-dimensional film flow with lateral air injection was performed. • The ultrasonic thickness gauge was used to measure the local liquid film thickness. • The depth-averaged PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method was applied to measure the local liquid film velocity. • The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV was quantified with a validation experiment. • Characteristics of two-dimensional film flow were classified following the four different flow patterns. - Abstract: In an accident condition of a nuclear reactor, multidimensional two-phase flows may occur in the reactor vessel downcomer and reactor core. Therefore, those have been regarded as important issues for an advanced thermal-hydraulic safety analysis. In particular, the multi-dimensional two-phase flow in the upper downcomer during the reflood phase of large break loss of coolant accident appears with an interaction between a downward liquid and a transverse gas flow, which determines the bypass flow rate of the emergency core coolant and subsequently, the reflood coolant flow rate. At present, some thermal-hydraulic analysis codes incorporate multidimensional modules for the nuclear reactor safety analysis. However, their prediction capability for the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer has not been validated sufficiently against experimental data based on local measurements. For this reason, an experimental study was carried out for the two-phase cross flow to clarify the hydraulic phenomenon and provide local measurement data for the validation of the computational tools. The experiment was performed in a 1/10 scale unfolded downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). Pitot tubes, a depth-averaged PIV method and ultrasonic thickness gauge were applied for local measurement of the air velocity, the liquid film velocity and the liquid film thickness, respectively. The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV method for the averaged
Three-dimensional fluid flow phenomena in the blade end wall corner region
Hazarika, B. K.; Raj, R.; Boldman, D. R.
1986-01-01
Flow visualization, static and total pressure measurements, and mean velocity profile measurements with a single-sensor inclined hot wire probe, are used in a study of three-dimensional flow at a turbine blade end wall corner region for six critical axial stations along the blade chord. Three vortices are identified: (1) a horseshoe vortex near the leading edge; (2) a corner eddy between the horseshoe vortex and the corner; and (3) a vortex at the rear portion of the corner due to the corner eddy's secondary flow. Attention is given to the relative size and rate-of-spread of the vortices in the streamwise direction.
Decaying quasi-two-dimensional viscous flow on a square domain
Konijnenberg, J.A. van de; Flor, J.B.; Heijst, G.J.F. van
1998-01-01
A comparison is made between experimental, numerical and analytical results for the two-dimensional flow on a square domain. The experiments concern the flow at the interface of a two-layer stratified fluid, evoked by either stirring the fluid with a rake, or by injecting additional fluid...... at the interface. Two numerical simulations were performed with initial conditions and boundary conditions that correspond approximately with those met in the experiments. The analytical results concern the calculation of the lowest modes of a decaying Stokes flow on a square domain. At late times...... relationship between vorticity and stream function in the experiments and the simulations. (C) 1998 American Institute of Physics....
Experimental study on two-dimensional film flow with local measurement methods
Yang, Jin-Hwa; Cho, Hyoung-Kyu; Kim, Seok; Euh, Dong-Jin; Park, Goon-Cherl
2015-01-01
Highlights: • An experimental study on the two-dimensional film flow with lateral air injection was performed. • The ultrasonic thickness gauge was used to measure the local liquid film thickness. • The depth-averaged PIV (Particle Image Velocimetry) method was applied to measure the local liquid film velocity. • The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV was quantified with a validation experiment. • Characteristics of two-dimensional film flow were classified following the four different flow patterns. - Abstract: In an accident condition of a nuclear reactor, multidimensional two-phase flows may occur in the reactor vessel downcomer and reactor core. Therefore, those have been regarded as important issues for an advanced thermal-hydraulic safety analysis. In particular, the multi-dimensional two-phase flow in the upper downcomer during the reflood phase of large break loss of coolant accident appears with an interaction between a downward liquid and a transverse gas flow, which determines the bypass flow rate of the emergency core coolant and subsequently, the reflood coolant flow rate. At present, some thermal-hydraulic analysis codes incorporate multidimensional modules for the nuclear reactor safety analysis. However, their prediction capability for the two-phase cross flow in the upper downcomer has not been validated sufficiently against experimental data based on local measurements. For this reason, an experimental study was carried out for the two-phase cross flow to clarify the hydraulic phenomenon and provide local measurement data for the validation of the computational tools. The experiment was performed in a 1/10 scale unfolded downcomer of Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400). Pitot tubes, a depth-averaged PIV method and ultrasonic thickness gauge were applied for local measurement of the air velocity, the liquid film velocity and the liquid film thickness, respectively. The uncertainty of the depth-averaged PIV method for the averaged
Transient simulation in interior flow field of lobe pump
Li, Y B; Sang, X H; Shen, H; Jia, K; Meng, Q W
2013-01-01
The subject of this paper is mainly focused on the development and control of the double folium and trifolium lobe pump profiles by using the principle of involute engagement and use CAD to get an accurate involute profile. We use the standard k-ε turbulence model and PISO algorithm based on CFD software FLUENT. The dynamic mesh and UDF technology is introduced to simulate the interior flow field inside a lobe pump, and the variation of interior flow field under the condition of the lobe rotating is analyzed. We also analyse the influence produced by the difference in lobes, and then reveal which lobe is best. The results show that dynamic variation of the interior flow field is easily obtained by dynamic mesh technology and the distribution of its pressure and velocity. Because of the small gaps existing between the rotors and pump case, the higher pressure area will flow into the lower area though the small gaps which cause the working area keep with higher pressure all the time. Both of the double folium and trifolium are existing the vortex during the rotting time and its position, size and shape changes all the time. The vortexes even disappear in a circle period and there are more vortexes in double folium lobe pump. The velocity and pressure pulsation of trifolium pump are lower than that of the double folium
On the geometry of field lines in plasma flows
Bagewadi, C.S.; Prasanna Kumar, K.N.
1988-01-01
Many research investigators have applied differential geometry to plasma. Intrinsic properties of fluid flows in streamline, vortex line geometries are we ll known under certain set of geometric conditions. Though this approach has yielded some interesting results but the most general properties of flows can be obtained, using eight geometric parameters ksub(s), tsub(s) θsub(ns), θsub(bs), phisub(s), Ωsub(s), div n, div b and the basic necessary conditions to be satisfied by the flow in general anholonomic co-ordinate system together with the conditions to be satisfied by the geometric parameters of triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences. Adopting the above techniques for triply orthogonal spatial curves of congruences related to the lines of forces, Purushottam has studied the geometric properties of spatial hydromagnetic fluid flows. Again these results have been studied by him in general along the field lines. These results have been studied for plasma along field lines and the basic equations of plasma have been expressed in intrinsic decomposition forms. Furthe r complex lamellar magnetic field have been studied by introducing Lie surface. (a uthor)
Tang, Yi.
1991-01-01
A computational procedure was developed in this study to provide flexibility needed in the application of three-dimensional groundwater flow and dissolved multicomponent solute transport simulations. In the first part of this study, analytical solutions were proposed for the dissolved single-component solute transport problem. These closed form solutions were developed for homogeneous but stratified porous media. This analytical model took into account two-dimensional diffusion-advection in the main aquifer layer and one-dimensional diffusion-advection in the adjacent aquitards, as well as first order radioactive decay and linear adsorption isotherm in both aquifer and aquitards. The associated analytical solutions for solute concentration distributions in the aquifer and aquitards were obtained using Laplace Transformation and Method of Separation of Variables techniques. Next, in order to analyze the problem numerically, a quasi-three-dimensional finite element algorithm was developed based on the multilayer aquifer concept. In this phase, advection, dispersion, adsorption and first order multi-species chemical reaction terms were included to the analysis. Employing this model, without restriction on groundwater flow pattern in the multilayer aquifer system, one may analyze the complex behavior of the groundwater flow and solute movement pattern in the system. These numerical models may be utilized as calibration tools in site characterization studies, or as predictive models during the initial stages of a typical site investigation study. Through application to several test and field problems, the usefulness, accuracy and efficiency of the proposed models were demonstrated. Comparison of results with analytical solution, experimental data and other numerical methods were also discussed
Numerical analysis of steady state fluid flow in a two-dimensional wavy channel
Gorji, M.; Hosseinzadeh, E.
2007-01-01
A simple geometry of the flow passage that may be used to enhance the heat transfer rate is called wavy and periodic channel. Wavy channel can provide significant heat transfer augmentation and was always important for heat transfer engineering and so far many researches have been done in this field. In this paper, the effects of channel geometry and Reynolds number on the heat transfer coefficient, heat flux and pressure drop for the laminar fully developed flow in a two dimensional channel whereas the walls are considered fix temperature is numerically investigated. The problem is solved for channel with one and two wavy walls and comparisons with the straight channel, in the same flow rate, have been performed. Results indicate that, by decreasing the channel wave length and the distance between the channel walls the pressure drop, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient increase. Results and Conclusions: The following conclusion may be drawn: 1. In a specified channel, for the fluid flow with the constant Reynolds number, by decreasing the wave length from 0.2 m to 0.1 m, the pressure drop, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient increase by 37% , 54% and 29% respectively, whereas by decreasing the wave length from the same value the above mentioned parameters decrease to 108% , 143% and 47% respectively. 2. In a specified wave length, where the amplitude and the Reynolds number is constant, by increasing the distance between the walls from 0.15 m to 0.25 m, the pressure drop, heat flux and heat transfer coefficient decrease by 41% ,8% and 7.8% respectively. References [1] J.C. Burns, T. Parks, J. Fluid Mesh, 29(1967), 405-416. [2] J.L. Goldestein, E.M. Sparrow, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 99 (1977), 187. [3] J.E.O. Brain, E.M. Sparrow, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 104 (1982), 410 [4] N. Sanie, S. Dini, ASME J. Heat Transfer, 115 (1993), 788. [5] G. Wang, P. Vanka, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, 38 (17) (1995), 3219. [6] T.A. Rush, T.A. Newell, A.M. Jacobi, Int, J. Heat Mass
Ebbers, T.
2001-01-01
Cardiovascular blood flow is highly complex and incompletely understood. Blood flow patterns are expected to influence the opening and closing of normal and prosthetic heart valves, the efficiency of cardiac filling and ejection, and the resistance to thrombus formation within the heart. Conventional diagnostic techniques are poorly suited to the study of the three-dimensional (3D) blood flow patterns in the heart chambers and large vessels. Noninvasive methods have also been inadequate in studying intracardiac pressure differences, which are the driving force of flow and are critical in the evaluation of many cardiovascular abnormalities. This thesis focuses on the development of non-invasive methods for analysis of 3D cardiovascular blood flow. Simultaneous study of cardiovascular fluid dynamics allowed knowledge exchange across the two disciplines, facilitating the development process and broadening the applicability of the methods. A time-resolved 3D phase-contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique was used to acquire the velocity vector field in a 3D volume encompassing the entire heart or a large vessel. Cardiovascular blood flow patterns were visualized by use of particle traces, which revealed, for instance, vortical flow patterns in the left atrium. By applying the Navier-Stokes equation along a user-defined line in the 3D velocity vector field, the relative pressure could be obtained as an excellent supplement to the flow pattern visualization. Using a delineation of the blood pool, the time-varying 3D relative pressure field in the human left ventricle was obtained from the velocity field by use of the pressure Poisson equation. A delineation of the heart muscle, a task that is almost impossible to perform on 3D MRI either automatically or manually, was also achieved by usage of particle traces. This segmentation allows automatic calculation of the 3D relative pressure field, as well as calculation of well-established parameters such as
Ebbers, T
2001-05-01
Cardiovascular blood flow is highly complex and incompletely understood. Blood flow patterns are expected to influence the opening and closing of normal and prosthetic heart valves, the efficiency of cardiac filling and ejection, and the resistance to thrombus formation within the heart. Conventional diagnostic techniques are poorly suited to the study of the three-dimensional (3D) blood flow patterns in the heart chambers and large vessels. Noninvasive methods have also been inadequate in studying intracardiac pressure differences, which are the driving force of flow and are critical in the evaluation of many cardiovascular abnormalities. This thesis focuses on the development of non-invasive methods for analysis of 3D cardiovascular blood flow. Simultaneous study of cardiovascular fluid dynamics allowed knowledge exchange across the two disciplines, facilitating the development process and broadening the applicability of the methods. A time-resolved 3D phase-contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) technique was used to acquire the velocity vector field in a 3D volume encompassing the entire heart or a large vessel. Cardiovascular blood flow patterns were visualized by use of particle traces, which revealed, for instance, vortical flow patterns in the left atrium. By applying the Navier-Stokes equation along a user-defined line in the 3D velocity vector field, the relative pressure could be obtained as an excellent supplement to the flow pattern visualization. Using a delineation of the blood pool, the time-varying 3D relative pressure field in the human left ventricle was obtained from the velocity field by use of the pressure Poisson equation. A delineation of the heart muscle, a task that is almost impossible to perform on 3D MRI either automatically or manually, was also achieved by usage of particle traces. This segmentation allows automatic calculation of the 3D relative pressure field, as well as calculation of well-established parameters such as
Ohsuga, Ken; Mineshige, Shin
2011-01-01
We present the detailed global structure of black hole accretion flows and outflows through newly performed two-dimensional radiation-magnetohydrodynamic simulations. By starting from a torus threaded with weak toroidal magnetic fields and by controlling the central density of the initial torus, ρ 0 , we can reproduce three distinct modes of accretion flow. In model A, which has the highest central density, an optically and geometrically thick supercritical accretion disk is created. The radiation force greatly exceeds the gravity above the disk surface, thereby driving a strong outflow (or jet). Because of mild beaming, the apparent (isotropic) photon luminosity is ∼22L E (where L E is the Eddington luminosity) in the face-on view. Even higher apparent luminosity is feasible if we increase the flow density. In model B, which has moderate density, radiative cooling of the accretion flow is so efficient that a standard-type, cold, and geometrically thin disk is formed at radii greater than ∼7 R S (where R S is the Schwarzschild radius), while the flow is radiatively inefficient otherwise. The magnetic-pressure-driven disk wind appears in this model. In model C, the density is too low for the flow to be radiatively efficient. The flow thus becomes radiatively inefficient accretion flow, which is geometrically thick and optically thin. The magnetic-pressure force, together with the gas-pressure force, drives outflows from the disk surface, and the flow releases its energy via jets rather than via radiation. Observational implications are briefly discussed.
Klein, S A; Moran, J L; Posner, J D; Frakes, D H
2012-01-01
We present a diagnostic platform for measuring three-dimensional three-component (3D3C) velocity fields in microscopic volumes. The imaging system uses high-speed Nipkow spinning disk confocal microscopy. Confocal microscopy provides optical sectioning using pinhole spatial filtering which rejects light originating from out-of-focus objects. The system accomplishes volumetric scanning by rapid translation of the high numerical aperture objective using a piezo objective positioner. The motion of fluorescent microspheres is quantified using 3D3C super resolution particle-imaging velocimetry with instantaneous spatial resolutions of the order of 5 µm or less in all three dimensions. We examine 3D3C flow in a PDMS microchannel with an expanding section at 3D acquisition rates of 30 Hz, and find strong agreement with a computational model. Equations from the PIV and PTV literature adapted for a scanning objective provide estimates of maximum measurable velocity. The technique allows for isosurface visualization of 3D particle motion and robust high spatial resolution velocity measurements without requiring a calibration step or reconstruction algorithms. (paper)
Sensitivity Analysis of Unsteady Flow Fields and Impact of Measurement Strategy
Takashi Misaka
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Difficulty of data assimilation arises from a large difference between the sizes of a state vector to be determined, that is, the number of spatiotemporal mesh points of a discretized numerical model and a measurement vector, that is, the amount of measurement data. Flow variables on a large number of mesh points are hardly defined by spatiotemporally limited measurements, which poses an underdetermined problem. In this study we conduct the sensitivity analysis of two- and three-dimensional vortical flow fields within a framework of data assimilation. The impact of measurement strategy, which is evaluated by the sensitivity of the 4D-Var cost function with respect to measurements, is investigated to effectively determine a flow field by limited measurements. The assimilation experiment shows that the error defined by the difference between the reference and assimilated flow fields is reduced by using the sensitivity information to locate the limited number of measurement points. To conduct data assimilation for a long time period, the 4D-Var data assimilation and the sensitivity analysis are repeated with a short assimilation window.
The Topology of Three-Dimensional Symmetric Tensor Fields
Lavin, Yingmei; Levy, Yuval; Hesselink, Lambertus
1994-01-01
We study the topology of 3-D symmetric tensor fields. The goal is to represent their complex structure by a simple set of carefully chosen points and lines analogous to vector field topology. The basic constituents of tensor topology are the degenerate points, or points where eigenvalues are equal to each other. First, we introduce a new method for locating 3-D degenerate points. We then extract the topological skeletons of the eigenvector fields and use them for a compact, comprehensive description of the tensor field. Finally, we demonstrate the use of tensor field topology for the interpretation of the two-force Boussinesq problem.
Zeng, Y. K.; Zhou, X. L.; Zeng, L.; Yan, X. H.; Zhao, T. S.
2016-09-01
The catalyst for the negative electrode of iron-chromium redox flow batteries (ICRFBs) is commonly prepared by adding a small amount of Bi3+ ions in the electrolyte and synchronously electrodepositing metallic particles onto the electrode surface at the beginning of charge process. Achieving a uniform catalyst distribution in the porous electrode, which is closely related to the flow field design, is critically important to improve the ICRFB performance. In this work, the effects of flow field designs on catalyst electrodeposition and battery performance are investigated. It is found that compared to the serpentine flow field (SFF) design, the interdigitated flow field (IFF) forces the electrolyte through the porous electrode between the neighboring channels and enhances species transport during the processes of both the catalyst electrodeposition and iron/chromium redox reactions, thus enabling a more uniform catalyst distribution and higher mass transport limitation. It is further demonstrated that the energy efficiency of the ICRFB with the IFF reaches 80.7% at a high current density (320 mA cm-2), which is 8.2% higher than that of the ICRFB with the SFF. With such a high performance and intrinsically low-cost active materials, the ICRFB with the IFF offers a great promise for large-scale energy storage.
One-dimensional pulse-flow modeling of a twin-scroll turbine
Chiong, M.S.; Rajoo, S.; Romagnoli, A.; Costall, A.W.; Martinez-Botas, R.F.
2016-01-01
This paper presents a revised one-dimensional (1D) pulse flow modeling of twin-scroll turbocharger turbine under pulse flow operating conditions. The proposed methodology in this paper provides further consideration for the turbine partial admission performance during model characterization. This gives rise to significant improvement on the model pulse flow prediction quality compared to the previous model. The results show that a twin-scroll turbine is not operating at full admission throughout the in-phase pulse flow conditions. Instead, they are operating at unequal admission state due to disparity in the magnitude of turbine inlet flow. On the other hand, during out-of-phase pulse flow, a twin-scroll turbine is working at partial admission state for majority of the pulse cycle. An amended mathematical correlation in calculating the twin-scroll turbine partial admission characteristics is also presented in the paper. The impact of its accuracy on the pulse flow model prediction is explored. - Highlights: • Paper presents a 1D modeling for twin-scroll turbine under pulsating flow. • Predicted pulse pressure propagation is in good agreement with experimental data. • A methodology is proposed to consider the turbine partial admission performance. • Prediction shows twin-scroll turbine operates at unequal admission during in-phase flow. • During out-of-phase flow a twin-scroll turbine mainly operates at partial admission.
Subsonic flow past three-dimensional localised heating elements in boundary layers
Aljohani, A F [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, University of Tabuk (Saudi Arabia); Gajjar, J S B, E-mail: j.gajjar@manchester.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)
2017-12-15
The problem of subsonic flow past three-dimensional micro-electro-mechanical-type (MEMS-type) heating elements placed on a flat surface, where the MEMS devices have hump-shaped surfaces, is investigated using the triple-deck theory. The compressible Navier–Stokes equations supplemented by the energy equation are considered in the limit when the Reynolds number is large. The dimensions of the MEMS devices considered are such that the flow perturbations are governed by the three-dimensional subsonic triple-deck equations formulated with the aid of method of matched expansions. The linear analysis of these equations is presented and our results provide an insight into how the MEMS heating elements may be used to positively control the local flow properties. (paper)
Stabilisation of a three-dimensional boundary layer by base-flow manipulation using plasma actuators
Dörr, P C; Kloker, M J
2015-01-01
The applicability of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators for controlling the crossflow-vortex-induced laminar breakdown in a three-dimensional swept-wing-type boundary-layer flow is investigated using direct numerical simulation. Similar to the classical application of suction at the wall the aim is to modify the quasi two-dimensional base flow and to weaken primary crossflow (CF) instability, mainly due to a reduction of the basic CF. Not only localised volumetric forcing by plasma actuators but also CF counter-blowing and spots with a moving wall are investigated to identify effective fundamental mechanisms. It is found that counter blowing always results in partial blockage of the flow and eventually increased CF velocity, whereas moving-wall spots can slightly reduce the CF and the amplitude of crossflow vortices. Using discrete volumetric forcing a significant attenuation even of finite-amplitude crossflow vortices and thus a distinct transition delay is achieved. (paper)
Chudnovsky, D.V.; Columbia Univ., New York; Chudnovsky, G.V.; Columbia Univ., New York
1980-01-01
General algebraic and analytic formalism for derivation and solution of general two dimensional field theory equations of Zakharov-Shabat-Mikhailov type is presented. The examples presented show that this class of equations covers most of the known two-dimensional completely integrable equations. Possible generalizations for four dimensional systems require detailed analysis of Baecklund transformation of these equations. Baecklund transformation is presented in the form of Riemann problem and one special case of dual symmetry is worked out. (orig.)
Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock [Chungbuk National University, Cheongju (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Yong [Korea Water Resources Corporation, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2017-07-15
Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.
Kim, Nak-Geun; Lee, Kye-Bock; Cho, Yong
2017-01-01
Numerical analysis on the flow induced vibration and flow characteristics in the water gate has been carried out by 2-dimensional unsteady CFD simulation when sea water flows into the port in the river. Effect of gate opening on the frequency and the mean velocity and the vortex shedding under the water gate were studied. The streamlines were compared for various gate openings. To get the frequency spectrum, Fourier transform should be performed. Spectral analysis of the excitation force signals permitted identification of the main characteristics of the interaction process. The results show that the sources of disturbed frequency are the vortex shedding from under the water gate. As the gate opening ratio increases, the predicted vibration frequency decreases. The bottom scouring occurs for large gate opening rather than smaller one. The unstable operation conditions can be estimated by using the CFD results and the Strouhal number results for various gate opening gaps.
Field measurement of basal forces generated by erosive debris flows
McCoy, S.W.; Tucker, G.E.; Kean, J.W.; Coe, J.A.
2013-01-01
It has been proposed that debris flows cut bedrock valleys in steeplands worldwide, but field measurements needed to constrain mechanistic models of this process remain sparse due to the difficulty of instrumenting natural flows. Here we present and analyze measurements made using an automated sensor network, erosion bolts, and a 15.24 cm by 15.24 cm force plate installed in the bedrock channel floor of a steep catchment. These measurements allow us to quantify the distribution of basal forces from natural debris‒flow events that incised bedrock. Over the 4 year monitoring period, 11 debris‒flow events scoured the bedrock channel floor. No clear water flows were observed. Measurements of erosion bolts at the beginning and end of the study indicated that the bedrock channel floor was lowered by 36 to 64 mm. The basal force during these erosive debris‒flow events had a large‒magnitude (up to 21 kN, which was approximately 50 times larger than the concurrent time‒averaged mean force), high‒frequency (greater than 1 Hz) fluctuating component. We interpret these fluctuations as flow particles impacting the bed. The resulting variability in force magnitude increased linearly with the time‒averaged mean basal force. Probability density functions of basal normal forces were consistent with a generalized Pareto distribution, rather than the exponential distribution that is commonly found in experimental and simulated monodispersed granular flows and which has a lower probability of large forces. When the bed sediment thickness covering the force plate was greater than ~ 20 times the median bed sediment grain size, no significant fluctuations about the time‒averaged mean force were measured, indicating that a thin layer of sediment (~ 5 cm in the monitored cases) can effectively shield the subjacent bed from erosive impacts. Coarse‒grained granular surges and water‒rich, intersurge flow had very similar basal force distributions despite
Numerical simulation of multi-dimensional two-phase flow based on flux vector splitting
Staedtke, H.; Franchello, G.; Worth, B. [Joint Research Centre - Ispra Establishment (Italy)
1995-09-01
This paper describes a new approach to the numerical simulation of transient, multidimensional two-phase flow. The development is based on a fully hyperbolic two-fluid model of two-phase flow using separated conservation equations for the two phases. Features of the new model include the existence of real eigenvalues, and a complete set of independent eigenvectors which can be expressed algebraically in terms of the major dependent flow parameters. This facilitates the application of numerical techniques specifically developed for high speed single-phase gas flows which combine signal propagation along characteristic lines with the conservation property with respect to mass, momentum and energy. Advantages of the new model for the numerical simulation of one- and two- dimensional two-phase flow are discussed.
Three Dimensional Dynamic Model Based Wind Field Reconstruction from Lidar Data
Raach, Steffen; Schlipf, David; Haizmann, Florian; Cheng, Po Wen
2014-01-01
Using the inflowing horizontal and vertical wind shears for individual pitch controller is a promising method if blade bending measurements are not available. Due to the limited information provided by a lidar system the reconstruction of shears in real-time is a challenging task especially for the horizontal shear in the presence of changing wind direction. The internal model principle has shown to be a promising approach to estimate the shears and directions in 10 minutes averages with real measurement data. The static model based wind vector field reconstruction is extended in this work taking into account a dynamic reconstruction model based on Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis. The presented method provides time series over several seconds of the wind speed, shears and direction, which can be directly used in advanced optimal preview control. Therefore, this work is an important step towards the application of preview individual blade pitch control under realistic wind conditions. The method is tested using a turbulent wind field and a detailed lidar simulator. For the simulation, the turbulent wind field structure is flowing towards the lidar system and is continuously misaligned with respect to the horizontal axis of the wind turbine. Taylor's Frozen Turbulence Hypothesis is taken into account to model the wind evolution. For the reconstruction, the structure is discretized into several stages where each stage is reduced to an effective wind speed, superposed with a linear horizontal and vertical wind shear. Previous lidar measurements are shifted using again Taylor's Hypothesis. The wind field reconstruction problem is then formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem, which minimizes the residual between the assumed wind model and the lidar measurements to obtain the misalignment angle and the effective wind speed and the wind shears for each stage. This method shows good results in reconstructing the wind characteristics of a three
Numerical computation of space shuttle orbiter flow field
Tannehill, John C.
1988-01-01
A new parabolized Navier-Stokes (PNS) code has been developed to compute the hypersonic, viscous chemically reacting flow fields around 3-D bodies. The flow medium is assumed to be a multicomponent mixture of thermally perfect but calorically imperfect gases. The new PNS code solves the gas dynamic and species conservation equations in a coupled manner using a noniterative, implicit, approximately factored, finite difference algorithm. The space-marching method is made well-posed by special treatment of the streamwise pressure gradient term. The code has been used to compute hypersonic laminar flow of chemically reacting air over cones at angle of attack. The results of the computations are compared with the results of reacting boundary-layer computations and show excellent agreement.
Kansal, Anuj Kumar; Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B.; Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar; Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan
2015-01-01
Highlights: • 3D CFD of vertical calandria vessel. • Spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. • Effect of Archimedes number. • Non-dimensional analysis. - Abstract: Three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed for the moderator flow and temperature fields inside a vertical calandria vessel of nuclear reactor under normal operating condition using OpenFOAM CFD code. OpenFOAM is validated by comparing the predicted results with the experimental data available in literature. CFD model includes the calandria vessel, calandria tubes, inlet header and outlet header. Analysis has been performed for the cases of uniform and spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. Studies show that the maximum temperature in moderator is lower in the case of spatial distribution of heat generation as compared to that in the uniform heat generation in calandria. In addition, the effect of Archimedes number on maximum and average moderator temperature was investigated
Kansal, Anuj Kumar, E-mail: akansal@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Joshi, Jyeshtharaj B., E-mail: jbjoshi@gmail.com [Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Maheshwari, Naresh Kumar, E-mail: nmahesh@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayan, Pallippattu Krishnan, E-mail: vijayanp@barc.gov.in [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400085 (India)
2015-06-15
Highlights: • 3D CFD of vertical calandria vessel. • Spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. • Effect of Archimedes number. • Non-dimensional analysis. - Abstract: Three dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis has been performed for the moderator flow and temperature fields inside a vertical calandria vessel of nuclear reactor under normal operating condition using OpenFOAM CFD code. OpenFOAM is validated by comparing the predicted results with the experimental data available in literature. CFD model includes the calandria vessel, calandria tubes, inlet header and outlet header. Analysis has been performed for the cases of uniform and spatial distribution of volumetric heat generation. Studies show that the maximum temperature in moderator is lower in the case of spatial distribution of heat generation as compared to that in the uniform heat generation in calandria. In addition, the effect of Archimedes number on maximum and average moderator temperature was investigated.
Huggins, E.R.
1994-01-01
Expressing hydrodynamics in terms of the flow of vorticity, using the vortex current tensor, helps unify the picture of turbulent channel flow for viscous fluids and for superfluids. In both, eddy viscosity plays a major role in energy dissipation, and in both there is a similar cross stream flow of vorticity, which in the case of superfluids leads to the Josephson frequency. The vortex current tensor, which was introduced in an earlier paper to derive an exact three dimensional Magnus effect formula, turns out to be the classical hydrodynamic limit of the vortex current that is the source for a classical Goldstone-boson field
Five-dimensional rotating black hole in a uniform magnetic field: The gyromagnetic ratio
Aliev, A.N.; Frolov, Valeri P.
2004-01-01
In four-dimensional general relativity, the fact that a Killing vector in a vacuum spacetime serves as a vector potential for a test Maxwell field provides one with an elegant way of describing the behavior of electromagnetic fields near a rotating Kerr black hole immersed in a uniform magnetic field. We use a similar approach to examine the case of a five-dimensional rotating black hole placed in a uniform magnetic field of configuration with biazimuthal symmetry that is aligned with the angular momenta of the Myers-Perry spacetime. Assuming that the black hole may also possess a small electric charge we construct the five-vector potential of the electromagnetic field in the Myers-Perry metric using its three commuting Killing vector fields. We show that, like its four-dimensional counterparts, the five-dimensional Myers-Perry black hole rotating in a uniform magnetic field produces an inductive potential difference between the event horizon and an infinitely distant surface. This potential difference is determined by a superposition of two independent Coulomb fields consistent with the two angular momenta of the black hole and two nonvanishing components of the magnetic field. We also show that a weakly charged rotating black hole in five dimensions possesses two independent magnetic dipole moments specified in terms of its electric charge, mass, and angular momentum parameters. We prove that a five-dimensional weakly charged Myers-Perry black hole must have the value of the gyromagnetic ratio g=3
Flow and Jamming of Granular Materials in a Two-dimensional Hopper
Tang, Junyao
Flow in a hopper is both a fertile testing ground for understanding fundamental granular flow rheology and industrially highly relevant. Despite increasing research efforts in this area, a comprehensive physical theory is still lacking for both jamming and flow of granular materials in a hopper. In this work, I have designed a two dimensional (2D) hopper experiment using photoelastic particles (particles' shape: disk or ellipse), with the goal to build a bridge between macroscopic phenomenon of hopper flow and microscopic particle-scale dynamics. Through synchronized data of particle tracking and stress distributions in particles, I have shown differences between my data of the time-averaged velocity/stress profile of 2D hopper flow with previous theoretical predictions. I have also demonstrated the importance of a mechanical stable arch near the opening on controlling hopper flow rheology and suggested a heuristic phase diagram for the hopper flow/jamming transition. Another part of this thesis work is focused on studying the impact of particle shape of particles on hopper flow. By comparing particle-tracking and photoelastic data for ellipses and disks at the appropriate length scale, I have demonstrated an important role for the rotational freedom of elliptical particles in controlling flow rheology through particle tracking and stress analysis. This work has been supported by International Fine Particle Research Institute (IFPRI) .
Entropy Bounds for Constrained Two-Dimensional Fields
Forchhammer, Søren Otto; Justesen, Jørn
1999-01-01
The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived.......The maximum entropy and thereby the capacity of 2-D fields given by certain constraints on configurations are considered. Upper and lower bounds are derived....
An algebraic approach towards the classification of 2 dimensional conformal field theories
Bouwknegt, P.G.
1988-01-01
This thesis treats an algebraic method for the construction of 2-dimensional conformal field theories. The method consists of the study of the representation theory of the Virasoro algebra and suitable extensions of this. The classification of 2-dimensional conformal field theories is translated into the classification of combinations of representations which satisfy certain consistence conditions (unitarity and modular invariance). For a certain class of 2-dimensional field theories, namely the one with central charge c = 1 from the theory of Kac-Moody algebra's. there exist indications, but as yet mainly hope, that this construction will finally lead to a classification of 2-dimensional conformal field theories. 182 refs.; 2 figs.; 26 tabs
Explicit solutions of one-dimensional, first-order, stationary mean-field games with congestion
Gomes, Diogo A.; Nurbekyan, Levon; Prazeres, Mariana
2017-01-01
Here, we consider one-dimensional first-order stationary mean-field games with congestion. These games arise when crowds face difficulty moving in high-density regions. We look at both monotone decreasing and increasing interactions and construct
Getmanov, B.S.
1988-01-01
The results of classification of two-dimensional relativistic field models (1) spinor; (2) essentially-nonlinear scalar) possessing higher conservation laws using the system of symbolic computer calculations are presented shortly
Li Ying; Zhou Wenxia; Zhang Jige; Wang Dezhong
2009-01-01
In order to achieve the level of self-design and domestic manufacture of the reactor coolant pump (nuclear main pump), the software FLUENT was used to simulate the three-dimensional flow through full passage of one nuclear main pump basing on RNG κ-ε turbulence model and SIMPLE algorithm. The distribution of pressure and velocity of the flow in the impeller's surface was analyzed in different working conditions. Moreover, the performance of the pump was predicted based on the simulation results. The results show that the distributions of pressure and velocity are reasonable in both the working and back face of the blade in the steady working condition. The pressure of the flow is increased from the inlet to the outlet of the pump, and shows the maximal value in the impeller region. Comparatively satisfactory efficiency and head value were obtained in the condition of the pump design. The shaft power of the nuclear main pump is gradually increased with the increase of the flow flux. These results are helpful in understanding the change of the internal flow field in the nuclear main pump, which is of some importance for the pre-exploration and theoretical research on the domestic manufacture of the nuclear main pump. (authors)
Preliminary study on the flow field over Greece
Pissimanis, D; Karras, G; Notaridou, V; Bartzis, J.G.
1989-02-01
Full text: For radiation risk assessment from long distance sources, the knowledge of the synoptic air flow field patterns over the territory under consideration is required. In the present study a first representation of the air flow field in the atmospheric boundary layer over Greece is attempted. For this purpose, synoptic weather maps at 850mb available for a ten-years period, as well as sounding data from six meteorological stations were utilized, while the Greek territory was divided into four parts, i.e. NW, NE, SW, SE, with a number of stations in each sector. It was shown that the prevailing wind directions of the upper flow are either of the W/SW sector (winter, spring) or the northern sector (summer, autumn). In the SE sector a stronger tendency towards winds from the nothern sector was shown, due to the thermal low near Cyprus. The main characteristics of the surface flow is the strong influence by topographical features. Typical examples are the strong NW winds in Northern Greece due to the Vardar Valley, and the sea breeze circulations at coastal environments. (author)
Three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow in a cylinder: Experiments and computations
Gupta, Amit; Kumar, Ranganathan
2007-01-01
Dynamics of the three-dimensional flow in a cyclone with tangential inlet and tangential exit were studied using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a three-dimensional computational model. The PTV technique is described in this paper and appears to be well suited for the current flow situation. The flow was helical in nature and a secondary recirculating flow was observed and well predicted by computations using the RNG k-ε turbulence model. The secondary flow was characterized by a single vortex which circulated around the axis and occupied a large fraction of the cylinder diameter. The locus of the vortex center meandered around the cylinder axis, making one complete revolution for a cylinder aspect ratio of 2. Tangential velocities from both experiments and computations were compared and found to be in good agreement. The general structure of the flow does not vary significantly as the Reynolds number is increased. However, slight changes in all components of velocity and pressure were seen as the inlet velocity is increased. By increasing the inlet aspect ratio it was observed that the vortex meandering changed significantly
Three-dimensional turbulent swirling flow in a cylinder: Experiments and computations
Gupta, Amit [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States); Kumar, Ranganathan [Department of Mechanical, Materials and Aerospace Engineering, University of Central Florida, Orlando, FL 32816 (United States)]. E-mail: rnkumar@mail.ucf.edu
2007-04-15
Dynamics of the three-dimensional flow in a cyclone with tangential inlet and tangential exit were studied using particle tracking velocimetry (PTV) and a three-dimensional computational model. The PTV technique is described in this paper and appears to be well suited for the current flow situation. The flow was helical in nature and a secondary recirculating flow was observed and well predicted by computations using the RNG k-{epsilon} turbulence model. The secondary flow was characterized by a single vortex which circulated around the axis and occupied a large fraction of the cylinder diameter. The locus of the vortex center meandered around the cylinder axis, making one complete revolution for a cylinder aspect ratio of 2. Tangential velocities from both experiments and computations were compared and found to be in good agreement. The general structure of the flow does not vary significantly as the Reynolds number is increased. However, slight changes in all components of velocity and pressure were seen as the inlet velocity is increased. By increasing the inlet aspect ratio it was observed that the vortex meandering changed significantly.
Cutting risk, boosting cash flow and developing marginal fields
Baustad, T.; Courtin, G.; Davies, T.; Kenison, R.; Turnbull, J.; Gray, B.; Jalali, Y.; Remondet, J.C.; Hjelmsmark, L.; Oldfield, T.; Romano, C.; Saier, R.; Rannestad, G.
1996-01-01
To minimize financial risk and accelerate return on investment, oil companies are using low-cost, reusable production systems. The scope of these development options is illustrated by looking at three offshore case studies that range from extended well test to marginal field development. In each case, production systems technology has been deployed to provide superior data, early oil or both, thus reducing economic uncertainty and delivering accelerated cash flow. 10 figs., 23 refs
Hawking radiation of five-dimensional charged black holes with scalar fields
Yan-Gang Miao
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We investigate the Hawking radiation cascade from the five-dimensional charged black hole with a scalar field coupled to higher-order Euler densities in a conformally invariant manner. We give the semi-analytic calculation of greybody factors for the Hawking radiation. Our analysis shows that the Hawking radiation cascade from this five-dimensional black hole is extremely sparse. The charge enhances the sparsity of the Hawking radiation, while the conformally coupled scalar field reduces this sparsity.
Workshop on low-dimensional quantum field theory and its applications
Yamamoto, Hisashi
1990-02-01
The workshop on 'Low-Dimensional Quantum Field Theory and its Applications' was held at INS on December 18 - 20, 1989 with about seventy participants. Some pedagogical reviews and the latest results were delivered on the recent topics related to both solid-state and particle physics. Among them are quantum Hall effect, high T c superconductivity and related topics in low-dimensional quantum field theory. Many active discussions were made on these issues. (J.P.N.)
Intense field stabilization in circular polarization: Three-dimensional time-dependent dynamics
Choi, Dae-Il; Chism, Will
2002-01-01
We investigate the stabilization of hydrogen atoms in a circularly polarized laser field. We use a three-dimensional, time-dependent approach to study the quantum dynamics of hydrogen atoms subject to high-intensity, short-wavelength, laser pulses. We find an enhanced survival probability as the field is increased under fixed envelope conditions. We also confirm wave packet behaviors previously seen in two-dimensional time-dependent computations
Size-sensitive particle trajectories in three-dimensional micro-bubble acoustic streaming flows
Volk, Andreas; Rossi, Massimiliano; Hilgenfeldt, Sascha; Rallabandi, Bhargav; Kähler, Christian; Marin, Alvaro
2015-11-01
Oscillating microbubbles generate steady streaming flows with interesting features and promising applications for microparticle manipulation. The flow around oscillating semi-cylindrical bubbles has been typically assumed to be independent of the axial coordinate. However, it has been recently revealed that particle motion is strongly three-dimensional: Small tracer particles follow vortical trajectories with pronounced axial displacements near the bubble, weaving a toroidal stream-surface. A well-known consequence of bubble streaming flows is size-dependent particle migration, which can be exploited for sorting and trapping of microparticles in microfluidic devices. In this talk, we will show how the three-dimensional toroidal topology found for small tracer particles is modified as the particle size increases up to 1/3 of the bubble radius. Our results show size-sensitive particle positioning along the axis of the semi-cylindrical bubble. In order to analyze the three-dimensional sorting and trapping capabilities of the system, experiments with an imposed flow and polydisperse particle solutions are also shown.
On a modified form of navier-stokes equations for three-dimensional flows.
Venetis, J
2015-01-01
A rephrased form of Navier-Stokes equations is performed for incompressible, three-dimensional, unsteady flows according to Eulerian formalism for the fluid motion. In particular, we propose a geometrical method for the elimination of the nonlinear terms of these fundamental equations, which are expressed in true vector form, and finally arrive at an equivalent system of three semilinear first order PDEs, which hold for a three-dimensional rectangular Cartesian coordinate system. Next, we present the related variational formulation of these modified equations as well as a general type of weak solutions which mainly concern Sobolev spaces.
Lee, Seok Min; Lee, Un Chul; Bae, Sung Won; Chung, Bub Dong
2004-01-01
The Multi-Dimensional flow models in system code have been developed during the past many years. RELAP5-3D, CATHARE and TRACE has its specific multi-dimensional flow models and successfully applied it to the system safety analysis. In KAERI, also, MARS(Multi-dimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety) code was developed by integrating RELAP5/MOD3 code and COBRA-TF code. Even though COBRA-TF module can analyze three-dimensional flow models, it has a limitation to apply 3D shear stress dominant phenomena or cylindrical geometry. Therefore, Multi-dimensional analysis models are newly developed by implementing three-dimensional momentum flux and diffusion terms. The multi-dimensional model has been assessed compared with multi-dimensional conceptual problems and CFD code results. Although the assessment results were reasonable, the multi-dimensional model has not been validated to two-phase flow using experimental data. In this paper, the multi-dimensional air-water two-phase flow experiment was simulated and analyzed
Using travel times to simulate multi-dimensional bioreactive transport in time-periodic flows.
Sanz-Prat, Alicia; Lu, Chuanhe; Finkel, Michael; Cirpka, Olaf A
2016-04-01
In travel-time models, the spatially explicit description of reactive transport is replaced by associating reactive-species concentrations with the travel time or groundwater age at all locations. These models have been shown adequate for reactive transport in river-bank filtration under steady-state flow conditions. Dynamic hydrological conditions, however, can lead to fluctuations of infiltration velocities, putting the validity of travel-time models into question. In transient flow, the local travel-time distributions change with time. We show that a modified version of travel-time based reactive transport models is valid if only the magnitude of the velocity fluctuates, whereas its spatial orientation remains constant. We simulate nonlinear, one-dimensional, bioreactive transport involving oxygen, nitrate, dissolved organic carbon, aerobic and denitrifying bacteria, considering periodic fluctuations of velocity. These fluctuations make the bioreactive system pulsate: The aerobic zone decreases at times of low velocity and increases at those of high velocity. For the case of diurnal fluctuations, the biomass concentrations cannot follow the hydrological fluctuations and a transition zone containing both aerobic and obligatory denitrifying bacteria is established, whereas a clear separation of the two types of bacteria prevails in the case of seasonal velocity fluctuations. We map the 1-D results to a heterogeneous, two-dimensional domain by means of the mean groundwater age for steady-state flow in both domains. The mapped results are compared to simulation results of spatially explicit, two-dimensional, advective-dispersive-bioreactive transport subject to the same relative fluctuations of velocity as in the one-dimensional model. The agreement between the mapped 1-D and the explicit 2-D results is excellent. We conclude that travel-time models of nonlinear bioreactive transport are adequate in systems of time-periodic flow if the flow direction does not change
3-dimensional simulation of dynamo effect of reversed field pinch
Koide, Shinji.
1990-09-01
A non-linear numerical simulation of the dynamo effect of a reversed field pinch (RFP) with finite beta is presented. It is shown that the m=-1, n=(9,10,11,....,19) modes cause the dynamo effect and sustain the field reversed configuration. The role of the m=0 modes on the dynamo effect is carefully examined. Our simulation shows that the magnetic field fluctuation level scales as S -0.2 or S -0.3 in the range of 10 3 5 , while Nebel, Caramana and Schnack obtained the fluctuation level is independent of S for a pressureless RFP plasma. (author)
Plenoptic Imaging for Three-Dimensional Particle Field Diagnostics.
Guildenbecher, Daniel Robert [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hall, Elise Munz [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)
2017-06-01
Plenoptic imaging is a promising emerging technology for single-camera, 3D diagnostics of particle fields. In this work, recent developments towards quantitative measurements of particle size, positions, and velocities are discussed. First, the technique is proven viable with measurements of the particle field generated by the impact of a water drop on a thin film of water. Next, well cont rolled experiments are used to verify diagnostic uncertainty. Finally, an example is presented of 3D plenoptic imaging of a laboratory scale, explosively generated fragment field.
Particle Based Modeling of Electrical Field Flow Fractionation Systems
Tonguc O. Tasci
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Electrical Field Flow Fractionation (ElFFF is a sub method in the field flow fractionation (FFF family that relies on an applied voltage on the channel walls to effect a separation. ElFFF has fallen behind some of the other FFF methods because of the optimization complexity of its experimental parameters. To enable better optimization, a particle based model of the ElFFF systems has been developed and is presented in this work that allows the optimization of the main separation parameters, such as electric field magnitude, frequency, duty cycle, offset, flow rate and channel dimensions. The developed code allows visualization of individual particles inside the separation channel, generation of realistic fractograms, and observation of the effects of the various parameters on the behavior of the particle cloud. ElFFF fractograms have been generated via simulations and compared with experiments for both normal and cyclical ElFFF. The particle visualizations have been used to verify that high duty cycle voltages are essential to achieve long retention times and high resolution separations. Furthermore, by simulating the particle motions at the channel outlet, it has been demonstrated that the top channel wall should be selected as the accumulation wall for cyclical ElFFF to reduce band broadening and achieve high efficiency separations. While the generated particle based model is a powerful tool to estimate the outcomes of the ElFFF experiments and visualize particle motions, it can also be used to design systems with new geometries which may lead to the design of higher efficiency ElFFF systems. Furthermore, this model can be extended to other FFF techniques by replacing the electrical field component of the model with the fields used in the other FFF techniques.
Two-dimensional electric field measurements in the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event
K. A. McWilliams
2000-12-01
Full Text Available Line-of-sight Doppler velocities from the SuperDARN CUTLASS HF radar pair have been combined to produce the first two-dimensional vector measurements of the convection pattern throughout the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event (a pulsed ionospheric flow, or PIF. Very stable and moderate interplanetary magnetic field conditions, along with a preceding prolonged period of northward interplanetary magnetic field, allow a detailed study of the spatial and the temporal evolution of the ionospheric response to magnetic reconnection. The flux tube footprint is tracked for half an hour across six hours of local time in the auroral zone, from magnetic local noon to dusk. The motion of the footprint of the newly reconnected flux tube is compared with the ionospheric convection velocity. Two primary intervals in the PIF's evolution have been determined. For the first half of its lifetime in the radar field of view the phase speed of the PIF is highly variable and the mean speed is nearly twice the ionospheric convection speed. For the final half of its lifetime the phase velocity becomes much less variable and slows down to the ionospheric convection velocity. The evolution of the flux tube in the magnetosphere has been studied using magnetic field, magnetopause and magnetosheath models. The data are consistent with an interval of azimuthally propagating magnetopause reconnection, in a manner consonant with a peeling of magnetic flux from the magnetopause, followed by an interval of anti-sunward convection of reconnected flux tubes.Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions; plasma convection; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions
Two-dimensional electric field measurements in the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event
K. A. McWilliams
Full Text Available Line-of-sight Doppler velocities from the SuperDARN CUTLASS HF radar pair have been combined to produce the first two-dimensional vector measurements of the convection pattern throughout the ionospheric footprint of a flux transfer event (a pulsed ionospheric flow, or PIF. Very stable and moderate interplanetary magnetic field conditions, along with a preceding prolonged period of northward interplanetary magnetic field, allow a detailed study of the spatial and the temporal evolution of the ionospheric response to magnetic reconnection. The flux tube footprint is tracked for half an hour across six hours of local time in the auroral zone, from magnetic local noon to dusk. The motion of the footprint of the newly reconnected flux tube is compared with the ionospheric convection velocity. Two primary intervals in the PIF's evolution have been determined. For the first half of its lifetime in the radar field of view the phase speed of the PIF is highly variable and the mean speed is nearly twice the ionospheric convection speed. For the final half of its lifetime the phase velocity becomes much less variable and slows down to the ionospheric convection velocity. The evolution of the flux tube in the magnetosphere has been studied using magnetic field, magnetopause and magnetosheath models. The data are consistent with an interval of azimuthally propagating magnetopause reconnection, in a manner consonant with a peeling of magnetic flux from the magnetopause, followed by an interval of anti-sunward convection of reconnected flux tubes.
Key words: Magnetospheric physics (magnetosphere · ionosphere interactions; plasma convection; solar wind · magnetosphere interactions
Four-dimensional boson field theory. II. Existence
Baker, G.A. Jr.
1986-01-01
The existence of the continuum, quantum field theory found by Baker and Johnson [G. A. Baker, Jr. and J. D. Johnson, J. Phys. A 18, L261 (1985)] to be nontrivial is proved rigorously. It is proved to satisfy all usual requirements of such a field theory, except rotational invariance. Currently known information is consistent with rotational invariance however. Most of the usual properties of other known Euclidean boson quantum field theories hold here, in a somewhat weakened form. Summability of the sufficiently strongly ultraviolet cutoff bare coupling constant perturbation series is proved as well as a nonzero radius of convergence for high-temperature expansions of the corresponding continuous-spin Ising model. The description of the theory by these two series methods is shown to be equivalent. The field theory is probably not asymptotically free
CFRX, a one-and-a-quarter-dimensional transport code for field-reversed configuration studies
Hsiao Mingyuan
1989-01-01
A one-and-a-quarter-dimensional transport code, which includes radial as well as some two-dimensional effects for field-reversed configurations, is described. The set of transport equations is transformed to a set of new independent and dependent variables and is solved as a coupled initial-boundary value problem. The code simulation includes both the closed and open field regions. The axial effects incorporated include global axial force balance, axial losses in the open field region, and flux surface averaging over the closed field region. A typical example of the code results is also given. (orig.)
Flowing states and vortices in the classical XY model in an external field
Homma, Shigeo; Aoki, Toshizumi; Takeno, Shozo.
1981-01-01
Uniformly flowing states and vortices in the classical XY model in an external field are studied. This is done by using a continuum approximation and by paying attention to particular solutions to nonlinear partial differential equations for two angles theta and phi of rotation of spins for which phi satisfies the Laplace equation. For these two states equations for theta have forms similar to that in the classical Ising model in a transverse field. The uniformly flowing states are therefore described by kink-type excitations identical to those in the two-dimensional Ising model. Phonon modes associated with the uniformly flowing states are also studied, which are similar to Bogoliubov phonons. Vortex solutions and vortex formation energy are studied in close similarity to the case of liquid He 4 . By comparing the energies of these two states, an expression for critical velocity is obtained. By making correspondence to the case of liquid He 4 , numerical values of the critical velocity and of the velocity of phonons around the uniformly flowing states are estimated. For the former the numerical value is in fair agreement with experimental data. (author)
Cook, Chris B; Richmond, Marshall C; Guensch, Greg
2001-01-01
The Bonneville Project is one of four US Army Corps of Engineers operated dams along the Lower Columbia River. Each year thousands of smelt pass through this Project on their way to the Pacific Ocean. High flow outfalls, if specifically designed for fish passage, are thought to have as good or better smelt survival rates as spillways. To better understand the hydrodynamic flow field around an operating outfall, the Corps of Engineers commissioned measurement of water velocities in the tailrace of the Second Powerhouse. These data also are necessary for proper calibration and verification of three-dimensional numerical models currently under development at PNNL. Hydrodynamic characterization of the tailrace with and without the outfall operating was accomplished through use of a surface drogue and acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP). Both the ADCP and drogue were linked to a GPS (global positioning system); locating the data in both space and time. Measurements focused on the area nearest to the high flow outfall, however several ADCP transects and drogue releases were performed away from the outfall to document ambient flow field conditions when the outfall was not operating
Unsteady hydrodynamic forces acting on a hand and its flow field during sculling motion.
Takagi, Hideki; Shimada, Shohei; Miwa, Takahiro; Kudo, Shigetada; Sanders, Ross; Matsuuchi, Kazuo
2014-12-01
The goal of this research is to clarify the mechanism by which unsteady forces are generated during sculling by a skilled swimmer and thereby to contribute to improving propulsive techniques. We used particle image velocimetry (PIV) to acquire data on the kinematics of the hand during sculling, such as fluid forces and flow field. By investigating the correlations between these data, we expected to find a new propulsion mechanism. The experiment was performed in a flow-controlled water channel. The participant executed sculling motions to remain at a fixed position despite constant water flow. PIV was used to visualize the flow-field cross-section in the plane of hand motion. Moreover, the fluid forces acting on the hand were estimated from pressure distribution measurements performed on the hand and simultaneous three-dimensional motion analysis. By executing the sculling motion, a skilled swimmer produces large unsteady fluid forces when the leading-edge vortex occurs on the dorsal side of the hand and wake capture occurs on the palm side. By using a new approach, we observed interesting unsteady fluid phenomena similar to those of flying insects. The study indicates that it is essential for swimmers to fully exploit vortices. A better understanding of these phenomena might lead to an improvement in sculling techniques. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lodato, Luigi; Harris, A.; Spampinato, L.; Calvari, Sonia; Dehn, J.; Patrick, M.
2007-01-01
The use of a hand-held thermal camera during the 2002–2003 Stromboli effusive eruption proved essential in tracking the development of flow field structures and in measuring related eruption parameters, such as the number of active vents and flow lengths. The steep underlying slope on which the flow field was emplaced resulted in a characteristic flow field morphology. This comprised a proximal shield, where flow stacking and inflation caused piling up of lava on the relatively flat ground of the vent zone, that fed a medial–distal lava flow field. This zone was characterized by the formation of lava tubes and tumuli forming a complex network of tumuli and flows linked by tubes. Most of the flow field was emplaced on extremely steep slopes and this had two effects. It caused flows to slide, as well as flow, and flow fronts to fail frequently, persistent flow front crumbling resulted in the production of an extensive debris field. Channel-fed flows were also characterized by development of excavated debris levees in this zone (Calvari et al. 2005). Collapse of lava flow fronts and inflation of the upper proximal lava shield made volume calculation very difficult. Comparison of the final field volume with that expecta by integrating the lava effusion rates through time suggests a loss of ~70% erupted lava by flow front crumbling and accumulation as debris flows below sea level. Derived relationships between effusion rate, flow length, and number of active vents showed systematic and correlated variations with time where spreading of volume between numerous flows caused an otherwise good correlation between effusion rate, flow length to break down. Observations collected during this eruption are useful in helping to understand lava flow processes on steep slopes, as well as in interpreting old lava–debris sequences found in other steep-sided volcanoes subject to effusive activity.
Sub critical transition to turbulence in three-dimensional Kolmogorov flow
Veen, Lennaert van [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, L1H 7K4 Oshawa, Ontario (Canada); Goto, Susumu, E-mail: lennaert.vanveen@uoit.ca [Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University 1–3 Machikaneyama, Toyonaka, Osaka, 560-8531 Japan (Japan)
2016-12-15
We study Kolmogorov flow on a three dimensional, periodic domain with aspect ratios fixed to unity. Using an energy method, we give a concise proof of the linear stability of the laminar flow profile. Since turbulent motion is observed for high enough Reynolds numbers, we expect the domain of attraction of the laminar flow to be bounded by the stable manifolds of simple invariant solutions. We show one such edge state to be an equilibrium with a spatial structure reminiscent of that found in plane Couette flow, with streamwise rolls on the largest spatial scales. When tracking the edge state, we find two branches of solutions that join in a saddle node bifurcation at a finite Reynolds number. (paper)
Synchrotron 4-dimensional imaging of two-phase flow through porous media.
Kim, F H; Penumadu, D; Patel, P; Xiao, X; Garboczi, E J; Moylan, S P; Donmez, M A
2016-01-01
Near real-time visualization of complex two-phase flow in a porous medium was demonstrated with dynamic 4-dimensional (4D) (3D + time) imaging at the 2-BM beam line of the Advanced Photon Source (APS) at Argonne National Laboratory. Advancing fluid fronts through tortuous flow paths and their interactions with sand grains were clearly captured, and formations of air bubbles and capillary bridges were visualized. The intense X-ray photon flux of the synchrotron facility made 4D imaging possible, capturing the dynamic evolution of both solid and fluid phases. Computed Tomography (CT) scans were collected every 12 s with a pixel size of 3.25 µm. The experiment was carried out to improve understanding of the physics associated with two-phase flow. The results provide a source of validation data for numerical simulation codes such as Lattice-Boltzmann, which are used to model multi-phase flow through porous media.
A soap film shock tube to study two-dimensional compressible flows
Wen, C.Y.; Chen, Y.M.; Chang-Jian, S.K. [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Da-Yeh University Chang-Hwa (Taiwan)
2001-07-01
A new experimental approach to the study of the two-dimensional compressible flow phenomena is presented. In this technique, a variety of compressible flows were generated by bursting plane vertical soap films. An aureole and a ''shock wave'' preceding the rim of the expanding hole were clearly observed using traditional high-speed flash photography and a fast line-scan charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The moving shock wave images obtained from the line-scan CCD camera were similar to the x-t diagrams in gas dynamics. The moving shock waves cause thickness jumps and induce supersonic flows. Photographs of the supersonic flows over a cylinder and a wedge are presented. The results suggest clearly the feasibility of the ''soap film shock tube''. (orig.)
Intermittent Lagrangian velocities and accelerations in three-dimensional porous medium flow.
Holzner, M; Morales, V L; Willmann, M; Dentz, M
2015-07-01
Intermittency of Lagrangian velocity and acceleration is a key to understanding transport in complex systems ranging from fluid turbulence to flow in porous media. High-resolution optical particle tracking in a three-dimensional (3D) porous medium provides detailed 3D information on Lagrangian velocities and accelerations. We find sharp transitions close to pore throats, and low flow variability in the pore bodies, which gives rise to stretched exponential Lagrangian velocity and acceleration distributions characterized by a sharp peak at low velocity, superlinear evolution of particle dispersion, and double-peak behavior in the propagators. The velocity distribution is quantified in terms of pore geometry and flow connectivity, which forms the basis for a continuous-time random-walk model that sheds light on the observed Lagrangian flow and transport behaviors.
Field-Flow Fractionation of Carbon Nanotubes and Related Materials
John P. Selegue
2011-11-17
During the grant period, we carried out FFF studies of carbonaceous soot, single-walled and multi-walled carbon nanotubes, carbon nano-onions and polyoxometallates. FFF alone does not provide enough information to fully characterize samples, so our suite of characterization techniques grew to include light scattering (especially Photon Correlation Spectroscopy), scanning and transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis and spectroscopic methods. We developed convenient techniques to deposit and examine minute FFF fractions by electron microscopy. In collaboration with Arthur Cammers (University of Kentucky), we used Flow Field-Flow Fractionation (Fl-FFF) to monitor the solution-phase growth of keplerates, a class of polyoxometallate (POM) nanoparticles. We monitored the evolution of Mo-POM nanostructures over the course of weeks by by using flow field-flow fractionation and corroborated the nanoparticle structures by using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Total molybdenum in the solution and precipitate phases was monitored by using inductively coupled plasma analyses, and total Mo-POM concentration by following the UV-visible spectra of the solution phase. We observe crystallization-driven formation of (Mo132) keplerate and solution phase-driven evolution of structurally related nanoscopic species (3-60 nm). FFF analyses of other classes of materials were less successful. Attempts to analyze platelets of layered materials, including exfoliated graphite (graphene) and TaS2 and MoS2, were disappointing. We were not able to optimize flow conditions for the layered materials. The metal sulfides react with the aqueous carrier liquid and settle out of suspension quickly because of their high density.
Choo, Y. K.; Civinskas, K. C.
1985-01-01
The three-dimensional inviscid DENTON code is used to analyze flow through a radial-inflow turbine rotor. Experimental data from the rotor are compared with analytical results obtained by using the code. The experimental data available for comparison are the radial distributions of circumferentially averaged values of absolute flow angle and total pressure downstream of the rotor exit. The computed rotor-exit flow angles are generally underturned relative to the experimental values, which reflect the boundary-layer separation at the trailing edge and the development of wakes downstream of the rotor. The experimental rotor is designed for a higher-than-optimum work factor of 1.126 resulting in a nonoptimum positive incidence and causing a region of rapid flow adjustment and large velocity gradients. For this experimental rotor, the computed radial distribution of rotor-exit to turbine-inlet total pressure ratios are underpredicted due to the errors in the finite-difference approximations in the regions of rapid flow adjustment, and due to using the relatively coarser grids in the middle of the blade region where the flow passage is highly three-dimensional. Additional results obtained from the three-dimensional inviscid computation are also presented, but without comparison due to the lack of experimental data. These include quasi-secondary velocity vectors on cross-channel surfaces, velocity components on the meridional and blade-to-blade surfaces, and blade surface loading diagrams. Computed results show the evolution of a passage vortex and large streamline deviations from the computational streamwise grid lines. Experience gained from applying the code to a radial turbine geometry is also discussed.
AN AERIAL-IMAGE DENSE MATCHING APPROACH BASED ON OPTICAL FLOW FIELD
W. Yuan
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Dense matching plays an important role in many fields, such as DEM (digital evaluation model producing, robot navigation and 3D environment reconstruction. Traditional approaches may meet the demand of accuracy. But the calculation time and out puts density is hardly be accepted. Focus on the matching efficiency and complex terrain surface matching feasibility an aerial image dense matching method based on optical flow field is proposed in this paper. First, some high accurate and uniformed control points are extracted by using the feature based matching method. Then the optical flow is calculated by using these control points, so as to determine the similar region between two images. Second, the optical flow field is interpolated by using the multi-level B-spline interpolation in the similar region and accomplished the pixel by pixel coarse matching. Final, the results related to the coarse matching refinement based on the combined constraint, which recognizes the same points between images. The experimental results have shown that our method can achieve per-pixel dense matching points, the matching accuracy achieves sub-pixel level, and fully meet the three-dimensional reconstruction and automatic generation of DSM-intensive matching’s requirements. The comparison experiments demonstrated that our approach’s matching efficiency is higher than semi-global matching (SGM and Patch-based multi-view stereo matching (PMVS which verifies the feasibility and effectiveness of the algorithm.
CFD Modeling of Flow, Temperature, and Concentration Fields in a Pilot-Scale Rotary Hearth Furnace
Liu, Ying; Su, Fu-Yong; Wen, Zhi; Li, Zhi; Yong, Hai-Quan; Feng, Xiao-Hong
2014-01-01
A three-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of flow, temperature, and concentration fields in a pilot-scale rotary hearth furnace (RHF) has been developed using a commercial computational fluid dynamics software, FLUENT. The layer of composite pellets under the hearth is assumed to be a porous media layer with CO source and energy sink calculated by an independent mathematical model. User-defined functions are developed and linked to FLUENT to process the reduction process of the layer of composite pellets. The standard k-ɛ turbulence model in combination with standard wall functions is used for modeling of gas flow. Turbulence-chemistry interaction is taken into account through the eddy-dissipation model. The discrete ordinates model is used for modeling of radiative heat transfer. A comparison is made between the predictions of the present model and the data from a test of the pilot-scale RHF, and a reasonable agreement is found. Finally, flow field, temperature, and CO concentration fields in the furnace are investigated by the model.
Cross-field flow and electric potential in a plasma slab
J. De Keyser
2013-08-01
Full Text Available We consider cross-field plasma flow inside a field-aligned plasma slab embedded in a uniform background in a 1-dimensional geometry. This situation may arise, for instance, when long-lasting reconnection pulses inject plasma into the inner magnetosphere. The present paper presents a detailed analysis of the structure of the interfaces that separate the slab from the background plasma on either side; a fully kinetic model is used to do so. Since the velocity shear across both interfaces has opposite signs, and given the typical gyroradius differences between injected and background ions and electrons, the structure of both interfaces can be very different. The behaviour of the slab and its interfaces depends critically on the flow of the plasma transverse to the magnetic field; in particular, it is shown that there are bounds to the flow speed that can be supported by the magnetised plasma. Further complicating the picture is the effect of the potential difference between the slab and its environment.
Nath, G; Sahu, P K
2016-01-01
A self-similar model for one-dimensional unsteady isothermal and adiabatic flows behind a strong exponential shock wave driven out by a cylindrical piston moving with time according to an exponential law in an ideal gas in the presence of azimuthal magnetic field and variable density is discussed in a rotating atmosphere. The ambient medium is assumed to possess radial, axial and azimuthal component of fluid velocities. The initial density, the fluid velocities and magnetic field of the ambient medium are assumed to be varying with time according to an exponential law. The gas is taken to be non-viscous having infinite electrical conductivity. Solutions are obtained, in both the cases, when the flow between the shock and the piston is isothermal or adiabatic by taking into account the components of vorticity vector. The effects of the variation of the initial density index, adiabatic exponent of the gas and the Alfven-Mach number on the flow-field behind the shock wave are investigated. It is found that the presence of the magnetic field have decaying effects on the shock wave. Also, it is observed that the effect of an increase in the magnetic field strength is more impressive in the case of adiabatic flow than in the case of isothermal flow. The assumption of zero temperature gradient brings a profound change in the density, non-dimensional azimuthal and axial components of vorticity vector distributions in comparison to those in the case of adiabatic flow. A comparison is made between isothermal and adiabatic flows. It is obtained that an increase in the initial density variation index, adiabatic exponent and strength of the magnetic field decrease the shock strength.
Numerical approach of multi-field two-phase flow models in the OVAP code
Anela Kumbaro
2005-01-01
Full text of publication follows: A significant progress has been made in modeling the complexity of vapor-liquid two-phase flow. Different three-dimensional models exist in order to simulate the evolution of parameters which characterize a two-phase model. These models can be classified into various groups depending on the inter-field coupling. A hierarchy of increasing physical complexity can be defined. The simplest group corresponds to the homogeneous mixture models where no interactions are taken into account. Another group is constituted by the two-fluid models employing physically important interfacial forces between two-phases, liquid, and water. The last group is multi-field modeling where inter-field couplings can be taken into account at different degrees, such as the MUltiple Size Group modeling [2], the consideration of separate equations for the transport and generation of mass and momentum for each field under the assumption of the same energy for all the fields of the same phase, and a full multi-field two-phase model [1]. The numerical approach of the general three-dimensional two-phase flow is by complexity of the phenomena a very challenging task; the ideal numerical method should be at the same time simple in order to apply to any model, from equilibrium to multi-field model and conservative in order to respect the fundamental conservation physical laws. The approximate Riemann solvers have the good properties of conservation of mass, momentum and energy balance and have been extended successfully to two-fluid models [3]- [5]. But, the up-winding of the flux is based on the Eigen-decomposition of the two-phase flow model and the computation of the Eigen-structure of a multi-field model can be a high cost procedure. Our contribution will present a short review of the above two-phase models, and show numerical results obtained for some of them with an approximate Riemann solver and with lower-complexity alternative numerical methods that do not
Simulation of 2-dimensional subsurface seepage flow in an anisotropic porous medium
Chhaya K. Lande
2016-09-01
Full Text Available In this study, we develop new analytical solution to estimate the transient behavior of phreatic surface in an anisotropic unconfined aquifer which is overlying a leaky base and subjected to multiple recharge and withdrawal. The hydrologic setting consists of a rectangular unconfined leaky aquifer adjacent to two water bodies of constant water head along the opposite faces of the aquifer. The remaining two faces of the aquifer have no flow conditions. The flow of seepage is approximated using two-dimensional Boussinesq equation, and solved analytically using mixed finite Fourier transform. Application of the new solution is demonstrated using an illustrative example.
Fluid flow and fuel-air mixing in a motored two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine
Shih, T. I.-P.; Nguyen, H. L.; Stegeman, J.
1986-01-01
The implicit-factored method of Beam and Warming was employed to obtain numerical solutions to the conservation equations of mass, species, momentum, and energy to study the unsteady, multidimensional flow and mixing of fuel and air inside the combustion chambers of a two-dimensional Wankel rotary engine under motored conditions. The effects of the following engine design and operating parameters on fluid flow and fuel-air mixing during the intake and compression cycles were studied: engine speed, angle of gaseous fuel injection during compression cycle, and speed of the fuel leaving fuel injector.
Transient response in granular quasi-two-dimensional bounded heap flow.
Xiao, Hongyi; Ottino, Julio M; Lueptow, Richard M; Umbanhowar, Paul B
2017-10-01
We study the transition between steady flows of noncohesive granular materials in quasi-two-dimensional bounded heaps by suddenly changing the feed rate. In both experiments and simulations, the primary feature of the transition is a wedge of flowing particles that propagates downstream over the rising free surface with a wedge front velocity inversely proportional to the square root of time. An additional longer duration transient process continues after the wedge front reaches the downstream wall. The entire transition is well modeled as a moving boundary problem with a diffusionlike equation derived from local mass balance and a local relation between the flux and the surface slope.
Three-dimensional visualization of myocardial motion and blood flow with cine-MR images
Oshiro, Osamu; Matani, Ayumu; Chihara, Kunihiro; Mikami, Taisei; Kitabatake, Akira.
1997-01-01
This paper describes a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction and presentation method to visualize myocardial motion and blood flow in a heart using cine-MR (magnetic resonance) images. Firstly, the region of myocardium and blood were segmented with certain threshold gray values. Secondly, some slices were interpolated linearly to reconstruct a 3D static image. Finally, a 3D dynamic image was presented with displaying the 3D static images sequentially. The experimental results indicate that this method enables to visualize not only normal but also abnormal blood flow in cine-mode. (author)
PIV measurements in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure with three-dimensional flow behaviour
Klank, Henning; Goranovic, Goran; Kutter, Jörg Peter
2002-01-01
. The structures are often of complex geometry and include strongly three-dimensional flow behaviour, which poses a challenge for the micro particle image velocimetry (micro-PIV) technique. The flow in a microfluidic 3D-sheathing structure has been measured throughout the volume using micro-PIV. In addition......, a stereoscopic principle was applied to obtain all three velocity components, showing the feasibility of obtaining full volume mapping (x, y, z, U, V, W) from micro-PIV measurements. The results are compared with computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations....
On the role of radiation and dimensionality in predicting flow opposed flame spread over thin fuels
Kumar, Chenthil; Kumar, Amit
2012-06-01
In this work a flame-spread model is formulated in three dimensions to simulate opposed flow flame spread over thin solid fuels. The flame-spread model is coupled to a three-dimensional gas radiation model. The experiments [1] on downward spread and zero gravity quiescent spread over finite width thin fuel are simulated by flame-spread models in both two and three dimensions to assess the role of radiation and effect of dimensionality on the prediction of the flame-spread phenomena. It is observed that while radiation plays only a minor role in normal gravity downward spread, in zero gravity quiescent spread surface radiation loss holds the key to correct prediction of low oxygen flame spread rate and quenching limit. The present three-dimensional simulations show that even in zero gravity gas radiation affects flame spread rate only moderately (as much as 20% at 100% oxygen) as the heat feedback effect exceeds the radiation loss effect only moderately. However, the two-dimensional model with the gas radiation model badly over-predicts the zero gravity flame spread rate due to under estimation of gas radiation loss to the ambient surrounding. The two-dimensional model was also found to be inadequate for predicting the zero gravity flame attributes, like the flame length and the flame width, correctly. The need for a three-dimensional model was found to be indispensable for consistently describing the zero gravity flame-spread experiments [1] (including flame spread rate and flame size) especially at high oxygen levels (>30%). On the other hand it was observed that for the normal gravity downward flame spread for oxygen levels up to 60%, the two-dimensional model was sufficient to predict flame spread rate and flame size reasonably well. Gas radiation is seen to increase the three-dimensional effect especially at elevated oxygen levels (>30% for zero gravity and >60% for normal gravity flames).
Onishi, Y.; Trent, D.S.
1985-04-01
The three-dimensional, finite difference model, FLESCOT simulates time-varying movements of flow, turbulent kinetic energy, salinity, water temperature, sediment, and contaminants in estuarine, coastal, and ocean waters. The model was applied to a 106-km (66-mi) reach of the Hudson River estuary in New York between Chelsea and the mouth of the river. It predicted the time-varying, three-dimensional distributions of tidal flow, salinity, three separate groups of sediments (i.e., sand, silt, and clay), and a radionuclide ( 137 Cs) in both dissolved and particulate (those sorbed by sediments) forms for over 40 days. The model also calculated riverbed elevation changes caused by sediment deposition and bed erosion, bed sediment size distribution and armoring, and distributions of the particulate 137 Cs sorbed by sand, silt, and clay in the bed
PARALLEL ALGORITHM FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL STOKES FLOW SIMULATION USING BOUNDARY ELEMENT METHOD
D. G. Pribytok
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Parallel computing technique for modeling three-dimensional viscous flow (Stokes flow using direct boundary element method is presented. The problem is solved in three phases: sampling and construction of system of linear algebraic equations (SLAE, its decision and finding the velocity of liquid at predetermined points. For construction of the system and finding the velocity, the parallel algorithms using graphics CUDA cards programming technology have been developed and implemented. To solve the system of linear algebraic equations the implemented software libraries are used. A comparison of time consumption for three main algorithms on the example of calculation of viscous fluid motion in three-dimensional cavity is performed.
Newtonian heating effects in three-dimensional flow of viscoelastic fluid
Qayyum, A.; Hayat, T.; Alhuthali, M. S.; Malaikah, H. M.
2014-01-01
A mathematical model is constructed to investigate the three-dimensional flow of a non-Newtonian fluid. An incompressible viscoelastic fluid is used in mathematical formulation. The conjugate convective process (in which heat the transfer rate from the bounding surface with a finite capacity is proportional to the local surface temperature) in three-dimensional flow of a differential type of non-Newtonian fluid is analyzed for the first time. Series solutions for the nonlinear differential system are computed. Plots are presented for the description of emerging parameters entering into the problem. It is observed that the conjugate heating phenomenon causes an appreciable increase in the temperature at the stretching wall. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)
Advanced One-Dimensional Entrained-Flow Gasifier Model Considering Melting Phenomenon of Ash
Jinsu Kim
2018-04-01
Full Text Available A one-dimensional model is developed to represent the ash-melting phenomenon, which was not considered in the previous one-dimensional (1-D entrained-flow gasifier model. We include sensible heat of slag and the fusion heat of ash in the heat balance equation. To consider the melting of ash, we propose an algorithm that calculates the energy balance for three scenarios based on temperature. We also use the composition and the thermal properties of anorthite mineral to express ash. gPROMS for differential equations is used to solve this algorithm in a simulation; the results include coal conversion, gas composition, and temperature profile. Based on the Texaco pilot plant gasifier, we validate our model. Our results show good agreement with previous experimental data. We conclude that the sensible heat of slag and the fusion heat of ash must be included in the entrained flow gasifier model.
A three-dimensional model for negative half cell of the vanadium redox flow battery
Ma Xiangkun; Zhang Huamin; Xing Feng
2011-01-01
A stationary, isothermal, three-dimensional model for negative half cell of the vanadium redox flow battery is developed, which is based on the comprehensive conservation laws, such as charge, mass and momentum, together with a kinetic model for reaction involving vanadium species. The model is validated against the results calculated by the available two-dimensional model. With the given geometry of the negative half cell, the distributions of velocity, concentration, overpotential and transfer current density in the sections that are perpendicular and parallel to the applied current are studied. It is shown that the distribution of the electrolyte velocity in the electrode has significant impact on the distribution of concentration, overpotential and transfer current density. The lower velocity in the electrode will cause the higher overpotential, further result in the side reaction and corrosion of key materials locally. The development of the design of the vanadium redox flow battery is discussed, and the further research is proposed.
Effect of an alternating nonuniform magnetic field on ferrofluid flow and heat transfer in a channel
Goharkhah, Mohammad; Ashjaee, Mehdi
2014-01-01
Forced convective heat transfer of water based Fe 3 O 4 nanofluid (ferrofluid) in the presence of an alternating non-uniform magnetic field is investigated numerically. The geometry is a two-dimensional channel which is subjected to a uniform heat flux at the top and bottom surfaces. Nonuniform magnetic field produced by eight line source dipoles is imposed on several parts of the channel. Also, a rectangular wave function is applied to the dipoles in order to turn them on and off alternatingly. The effects of the alternating magnetic field strength and frequency on the convective heat transfer are investigated for four different Reynolds numbers (Re=100, 600, 1200 and 2000) in the laminar flow regime. Comparing the results with zero magnetic field case, show that the heat transfer enhancement increases with the Reynolds number and reaches a maximum of 13.9% at Re=2000 and f=20 Hz. Moreover, at a constant Reynolds number, it increases with the magnetic field intensity while an optimum value exists for the frequency. Also, the optimum frequency increases with the Reynolds number. On the other hand, the heat transfer enhancement due to the magnetic field is always accompanied by a pressure drop penalty. A maximum pressure drop increase of 6% is observed at Re=2000 and f=5 Hz which shows that the pressure drop increase is not as significant as the heat transfer enhancement. - Highlights: • An alternating magnetic field is imposed on ferrofluid flow in a heated channel. • Heat transfer is enhanced noticeably compared to the case with no magnetic field. • Heat transfer depends on Reynolds number, magnetic field intensity and frequency. • Optimum frequency is independent of intensity but increases with Reynolds number. • Pressure drop increase is not as significant as the heat transfer enhancement
Two-dimensional frustrated spin systems in high magnetic fields
Schmidt, B; Shannon, N; Thalmeier, P
2006-01-01
We discuss our numerical results on the properties of the S = 1/2 frustrated J 1 -J 2 Heisenberg model on a square lattice as a function of temperature and frustration angle φ = tan -1 (J 2 /J 1 ) in an applied magnetic field. We cover the full phase diagram of the model in the range π ≤ φ ≤ π. The discussion includes the parameter dependence of the saturation field itself, and addresses the instabilities associated with it. We also discuss the magnetocaloric effect of the model and show how it can be used to uniquely determine the effective interaction constants of the compounds which were investigated experimentally
Grid-converged solution and analysis of the unsteady viscous flow in a two-dimensional shock tube
Zhou, Guangzhao; Xu, Kun; Liu, Feng
2018-01-01
The flow in a shock tube is extremely complex with dynamic multi-scale structures of sharp fronts, flow separation, and vortices due to the interaction of the shock wave, the contact surface, and the boundary layer over the side wall of the tube. Prediction and understanding of the complex fluid dynamics are of theoretical and practical importance. It is also an extremely challenging problem for numerical simulation, especially at relatively high Reynolds numbers. Daru and Tenaud ["Evaluation of TVD high resolution schemes for unsteady viscous shocked flows," Comput. Fluids 30, 89-113 (2001)] proposed a two-dimensional model problem as a numerical test case for high-resolution schemes to simulate the flow field in a square closed shock tube. Though many researchers attempted this problem using a variety of computational methods, there is not yet an agreed-upon grid-converged solution of the problem at the Reynolds number of 1000. This paper presents a rigorous grid-convergence study and the resulting grid-converged solutions for this problem by using a newly developed, efficient, and high-order gas-kinetic scheme. Critical data extracted from the converged solutions are documented as benchmark data. The complex fluid dynamics of the flow at Re = 1000 are discussed and analyzed in detail. Major phenomena revealed by the numerical computations include the downward concentration of the fluid through the curved shock, the formation of the vortices, the mechanism of the shock wave bifurcation, the structure of the jet along the bottom wall, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability near the contact surface. Presentation and analysis of those flow processes provide important physical insight into the complex flow physics occurring in a shock tube.
Plocková, J; Chmelík, J
2001-05-25
Gravitational field-flow fractionation (GFFF) utilizes the Earth's gravitational field as an external force that causes the settlement of particles towards the channel accumulation wall. Hydrodynamic lift forces oppose this action by elevating particles away from the channel accumulation wall. These two counteracting forces enable modulation of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF. In this work, force-field programming based on modulating the magnitude of hydrodynamic lift forces was implemented via changes of flow-rate, which was accomplished by a programmable pump. Several flow-rate gradients (step gradients, linear gradients, parabolic, and combined gradients) were tested and evaluated as tools for optimization of the separation of a silica gel particle mixture. The influence of increasing amount of sample injected on the peak resolution under flow-rate gradient conditions was also investigated. This is the first time that flow-rate gradients have been implemented for programming of the resulting force field acting on particles in GFFF.
Improved Flow-Field Structures for Direct Methanol Fuel Cells
Gurau, Bogdan [Nuvant Systems Inc., Crown Point, IN (United States)
2013-05-31
The direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) is ideal if high energy-density liquid fuels are required. Liquid fuels have advantages over compressed hydrogen including higher energy density and ease of handling. Although state-of-the-art DMFCs exhibit manageable degradation rates, excessive fuel crossover diminishes system energy and power density. Although use of dilute methanol mitigates crossover, the concomitant lowering of the gross fuel energy density (GFED) demands a complex balance-of-plant (BOP) that includes higher flow rates, external exhaust recirculation, etc. An alternative approach is redesign of the fuel delivery system to accommodate concentrated methanol. NuVant Systems Inc. (NuVant) will maximize the GFED by design and assembly of a DMFC that uses near neat methanol. The approach is to tune the diffusion of highly concentrated methanol (to the anode catalytic layer) to the back-diffusion of water formed at the cathode (i.e. in situ generation of dilute methanol at the anode layer). Crossover will be minimized without compromising the GFED by innovative integration of the anode flow-field and the diffusion layer. The integrated flow-field-diffusion-layers (IFDLs) will widen the current and potential DMFC operating ranges and enable the use of cathodes optimized for hydrogen-air fuel cells.
Arabnia, O.; Sklar, L. S.; Mclaughlin, M. K.
2014-12-01
. Laboratory data are compared with longitudinal evolution of grain size and angularity of particles deposited by debris flows along Inyo Creek, Sierra Nevada, California. Preliminary results suggest wear rates can be scaled across drum sizes and to field conditions using non-dimensional metrics of flow dynamics including Savage, Bagnold, and Froude numbers.
Goldberg, L.F.
1990-08-01
The activities described in this report do not constitute a continuum but rather a series of linked smaller investigations in the general area of one- and two-dimensional Stirling machine simulation. The initial impetus for these investigations was the development and construction of the Mechanical Engineering Test Rig (METR) under a grant awarded by NASA to Dr. Terry Simon at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Minnesota. The purpose of the METR is to provide experimental data on oscillating turbulent flows in Stirling machine working fluid flow path components (heater, cooler, regenerator, etc.) with particular emphasis on laminar/turbulent flow transitions. Hence, the initial goals for the grant awarded by NASA were, broadly, to provide computer simulation backup for the design of the METR and to analyze the results produced. This was envisaged in two phases: First, to apply an existing one-dimensional Stirling machine simulation code to the METR and second, to adapt a two-dimensional fluid mechanics code which had been developed for simulating high Rayleigh number buoyant cavity flows to the METR. The key aspect of this latter component was the development of an appropriate turbulence model suitable for generalized application to Stirling simulation. A final-step was then to apply the two-dimensional code to an existing Stirling machine for which adequate experimental data exist. The work described herein was carried out over a period of three years on a part-time basis. Forty percent of the first year's funding was provided as a match to the NASA funds by the Underground Space Center, University of Minnesota, which also made its computing facilities available to the project at no charge
Three dimensional PNS solutions of hypersonic internal flows with equilibrium chemistry
Liou, May-Fun
1989-01-01
An implicit procedure for solving parabolized Navier-Stokes equations under the assumption of a general equation of state for a gas in chemical equilibrium is given. A general and consistent approach for the evaluation of Jacobian matrices in the implicit operator avoids the use of unnecessary auxiliary quantities and approximations, and leads to a simple expression. Applications to two- and three-dimensional flow problems show efficiency in computer time and economy in storage.
Time evolution of the eddy viscosity in two-dimensional navier-stokes flow
Chaves; Gama
2000-02-01
The time evolution of the eddy viscosity associated with an unforced two-dimensional incompressible Navier-Stokes flow is analyzed by direct numerical simulation. The initial condition is such that the eddy viscosity is isotropic and negative. It is shown by concrete examples that the Navier-Stokes dynamics stabilizes negative eddy viscosity effects. In other words, this dynamics moves monotonically the initial negative eddy viscosity to positive values before relaxation due to viscous term occurs.
Large Eddy Simulations of the Flow in a Three-Dimensional Ventilated Room
Davidson, Lars; Nielsen, Peter V.
We have done Large Eddy Simulations (LES) of the flow in a three-dimensional ventilated room. A finite volume method is used with a collocated grid arrangement. The momentum equations are solved with an explicit method using central differencing for all terms. The pressure is obtained from a Pois...... a Poisson equation, which is solved with a conjugate gradient method. For the discretization in time we use the Adam-Bashfourth scheme, which is second-order accurate....
Three dimensional alignment of molecules using elliptically polarized laser fields
Larsen, J.J.; Bjerre, N.; Hald, K.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate, theoretically and experimentally, that an intense, elliptically polarized, nonresonant laser field can simultaneously force all three axes of a molecule to align along given axes fixed in space, thus inhibiting the free rotation in all three Euler angles. Theoretically, the effect...
Dimensional dependence of exchange interactions at high magnetic fields
Zehnder, U.; Kuhn-Heinrich, B.; Ossau, W.; Waag, A.; Landwehr, G.; Cheng, H.H.; Nicholas, R.J.
1996-01-01
We studied the contribution of the breaking of the antiferromagnetically coupled spin clusters to the total magnetization in thin (CdMn)Te layers as a function of the layer thickness by reflectivity spectroscopy in magnetic fields up to 45 T. The experimental results show that the contribution of the breaking of antiferromagnetically coupled spin clusters is reduced by decreasing layer thickness. (author)
Three-dimensional wake field analysis by boundary element method
Miyata, K.
1987-01-01
A computer code HERTPIA was developed for the calculation of electromagnetic wake fields excited by charged particles travelling through arbitrarily shaped accelerating cavities. This code solves transient wave problems for a Hertz vector. The numerical analysis is based on the boundary element method. This program is validated by comparing its results with analytical solutions in a pill-box cavity
Roozeboom, Nettie H.; Lee, Henry C.; Simurda, Laura J.; Zilliac, Gregory G.; Pulliam, Thomas H.
2016-01-01
Wing-body juncture flow fields on commercial aircraft configurations are challenging to compute accurately. The NASA Advanced Air Vehicle Program's juncture flow committee is designing an experiment to provide data to improve Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling in the juncture flow region. Preliminary design of the model was done using CFD, yet CFD tends to over-predict the separation in the juncture flow region. Risk reduction wind tunnel tests were requisitioned by the committee to obtain a better understanding of the flow characteristics of the designed models. NASA Ames Research Center's Fluid Mechanics Lab performed one of the risk reduction tests. The results of one case, accompanied by CFD simulations, are presented in this paper. Experimental results suggest the wall mounted wind tunnel model produces a thicker boundary layer on the fuselage than the CFD predictions, resulting in a larger wing horseshoe vortex suppressing the side of body separation in the juncture flow region. Compared to experimental results, CFD predicts a thinner boundary layer on the fuselage generates a weaker wing horseshoe vortex resulting in a larger side of body separation.
Tellez Alvarez, Jackson David; Redondo, Jose Manuel; Sanchez, Jesu Mary
2016-04-01
fresh water in order to form density interfaces. The Reynolds number can be reduced adding Glicerine the set of dimensionless parameters define different conditions of both numeric and small scale laboratory applied often in modeling environmental flows. Fields of velocity, density and their gradients are computed using advanced visualization [8 9]. Visualizations are performed by PIV, Particle tracking and shadowgraph. When convective heating and cooling takes place the patterns depend on the parameter space region of the initial conditions We also map the different transitions between two and three dimensional convection in an enclosure with several complex driven flows. The size of the water tank is of 0.2 x 0.2 x 0.1 m and the heat sources or sinks can be regulated both in power and sign [2-4]. The thermal convective driven flows are generated by Seebeck and Peltier effects in 4 wall extended positions of 0.05 x 0.05 cm each. The parameter range of convective cell array varies strongly with the Topology of the boundary conditions. At present side heat fluxes are considered and estimated as a function of Rayleigh, Peclet and Nusselt numbers, [4-6] The evolution of the mixing fronts are compared and the topological characteristics of the merging of plumes and jets in different configurations presenting detailed comparison of the evolution of RM and RT, Jets and Plumes in overall mixing. The relation between structure functions, fractal analysis and spectral analysis can be very useful to determine the evolution of scales. Experimental and numerical results on the advance of a mixing or non-mixing front occurring at a density interface due to body forces [12] can be compared with the convective fronts. The evolution of the turbulent mixing layer and its complex configuration is studied taking into account the dependence on the initial modes at the early stages, Self-similar information [13]. Spectral and Fractal analysis on the images seems very useful in order to
Liakos, Anastasios; Malamataris, Nikolaos
2014-11-01
The topology and evolution of flow around a surface mounted cubical object in three dimensional channel flow is examined for low to moderate Reynolds numbers. Direct numerical simulations were performed via a home made parallel finite element code. The computational domain has been designed according to actual laboratory experimental conditions. Analysis of the results is performed using the three dimensional theory of separation. Our findings indicate that a tornado-like vortex by the side of the cube is present for all Reynolds numbers for which flow was simulated. A horse-shoe vortex upstream from the cube was formed at Reynolds number approximately 1266. Pressure distributions are shown along with three dimensional images of the tornado-like vortex and the horseshoe vortex at selected Reynolds numbers. Finally, and in accordance to previous work, our results indicate that the upper limit for the Reynolds number for which steady state results are physically realizable is roughly 2000. Financial support of author NM from the Office of Naval Research Global (ONRG-VSP, N62909-13-1-V016) is acknowledged.
Tounsi Nabil
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Volumetric 3-component Velocimetry measurements are carried out in the flow field around the rear window of a generic car model, the so-called Ahmed body. This particular flow field is known to be highly unsteady, three dimensional and characterized by strong vortices. The volumetric velocity measurements from the present experiments provide the most comprehensive data for this flow field to date. The present study focuses on the wake flow modifications which result from using a simple flow control device, such as the one recently employed by Fourrié et al. [1]. The mean data clearly show the structure of this complex flow and confirm the drag reduction mechanism suggested by Fourrié et al. The results show that strengthening the separated flow leads to weakening the longitudinal vortices and vice versa. The present paper shows that the Volumetric 3-component Velocimetry technique is a powerful tool used for a better understanding of a threedimensional unsteady complex flow such that developing around a bluffbody.
The use of multi-dimensional flow and morphodynamic models for restoration design analysis
McDonald, R.; Nelson, J. M.
2013-12-01
River restoration projects with the goal of restoring a wide range of morphologic and ecologic channel processes and functions have become common. The complex interactions between flow and sediment-transport make it challenging to design river channels that are both self-sustaining and improve ecosystem function. The relative immaturity of the field of river restoration and shortcomings in existing methodologies for evaluating channel designs contribute to this problem, often leading to project failures. The call for increased monitoring of constructed channels to evaluate which restoration techniques do and do not work is ubiquitous and may lead to improved channel restoration projects. However, an alternative approach is to detect project flaws before the channels are built by using numerical models to simulate hydraulic and sediment-transport processes and habitat in the proposed channel (Restoration Design Analysis). Multi-dimensional models provide spatially distributed quantities throughout the project domain that may be used to quantitatively evaluate restoration designs for such important metrics as (1) the change in water-surface elevation which can affect the extent and duration of floodplain reconnection, (2) sediment-transport and morphologic change which can affect the channel stability and long-term maintenance of the design; and (3) habitat changes. These models also provide an efficient way to evaluate such quantities over a range of appropriate discharges including low-probability events which often prove the greatest risk to the long-term stability of restored channels. Currently there are many free and open-source modeling frameworks available for such analysis including iRIC, Delft3D, and TELEMAC. In this presentation we give examples of Restoration Design Analysis for each of the metrics above from projects on the Russian River, CA and the Kootenai River, ID. These examples demonstrate how detailed Restoration Design Analysis can be used to
Magnetic field dynamos and magnetically triggered flow instabilities
Stefani, F.; Albrecht, T.; Arlt, R.; Christen, M.; Gailitis, A.; Gellert, M.; Giesecke, A.; Goepfert, O.; Herault, J.; Kirillov, O. N.; Mamatsashvili, G.; Priede, J.; Rüdiger, G.; Seilmayer, M.; Tilgner, A.; Vogt, T.
2017-07-01
The project A2 of the LIMTECH Alliance aimed at a better understanding of those magnetohydrodynamic instabilities that are relevant for the generation and the action of cosmic magnetic fields. These comprise the hydromagnetic dynamo effect and various magnetically triggered flow instabilities, such as the magnetorotational instability and the Tayler instability. The project was intended to support the experimental capabilities to become available in the framework of the DREsden Sodium facility for DYNamo and thermohydraulic studies (DRESDYN). An associated starting grant was focused on the dimensioning of a liquid metal experiment on the newly found magnetic destabilization of rotating flows with positive shear. In this survey paper, the main results of these two projects are summarized.