Hydraulic fracturing with distinct element method
Pruiksma, J.P.; Bezuijen, A.
2002-01-01
In this report, hydraulic fracturing is investigated using the distinct element code PFC2D from Itasca. Special routines were written to be able to model hydraulic fracturing. These include adding fluid flow to PFC2D and updating the fluid flow domains when fractures appear. A brief description of
Application of the distinct element method to the analysis of the concrete members under impact
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masuya, Hiroshi; Kajikawa, Yasuo; Nakata, Yoshihiko
1994-01-01
In this paper, the distinct element method is applied to the analysis of the behavior of a structure under impact. At first, this method is applied to the one-dimensional wave propagation problem by comparing with the experimental results and the theoretical results. The effectiveness of this method is confirmed by including not only elastic behavior but also the fracture of a structural member. Second, this method is developed to two-dimensional problems to simulate the behavior of a simply supported beam under an impact load. Finally, it could be shown that this method is effective to simulate wide phenomena from elastic behavior to a fracture under impact. ((orig.))
Distinct element modelling of joint behavior in nearfield rock
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoekmark, H.; Israelsson, J.
1991-09-01
The investigation reported here concerns numerical simulations of the behaviour of the jointed rock mass in the nearest surroundings Of a portion of a KBS3 type tunnel, including one deposition hole. Results from three-dimensional models are presented and compared to results obtained from previous investigations of two-dimensional models. The three-dimensional models and the previous two-dimensional models relate to conditions prevailing in and around the BMT drift in Stripa mine. In particular are the importance of conditions, implicitly assumed in two-dimensional models, regarding joint orientation and joint persistence, investigated. The evaluation of the results is focused on effects on joint apertures. The implications regarding rock permeability is discussed for a couple of cases. It is found that the real three-dimensional geometry is of great importance, and that the two-dimensional models in some cases tend to overestimate the magnitudes of inelastic joint displacements and associated aperture changes considerably, i.e. the real three-dimensional situation implies locking effects, that generally stabilizes the block assembly. It is recommended that further three-dimensional simulations should be performed to determine relevant ranges of alteration of fracture apertures, caused by excavation and thermal processes, and that fracture geometries, that are typical to virgin granitic rock, should be defined and used as input for these simulations. (au)
Hindle, D.; Malz, A.; Donndorf, S.; Kley, J.; Kopp, H.
2012-04-01
We develop a coupled numerical model for fluid flow in deforming sedimentary basins. We combine a distinct element method for large deformations of crustal materials, with a finite element method for fluid flow according to a diffusion type equation. The key question in such a model is how to simulate evolving permeabilities due to upper and possibly middle crustal deformation, and the coupled issue of how localisation of deformation in faults and shear zones is itself influenced by fluid flow and fluid pressure and vice versa. Currently our knowledge of these issues is restricted, even sketchy. There are a number of hypotheses, based partly on geological and isotope geochemical observations, such as "seismic pumping" models, and fluid induced weak décollement models for thrust sheet transport which have gained quite wide acceptance. Observations around thrusts at the present day have also often been interpreted as showing deformation induced permeability. However, combining all the physics of these processes into a numerical simulation is a complicated task given the ranges of, in particular time scales of the processes we infer to be operating based on our various observations. We start this task by using an elastic fracture relationship between normal stresses across distinct element contacts (which we consider to be the equivalent of discrete, sliding fractures) and their openness and hence their transmissivity. This relates the mechanical state of the distinct element system to a discrete permeability field. Further than that, the geometry of the mechanical system is used to provide boundary conditions for fluid flow in a diffusion equation which also incorporates the permeability field. The next question we address is how to achieve a feedback between fluid pressures and deformation. We try two approaches: one treats pore space in the DEM as real, and calculates the force exerted locally by fluids and adds this to the force balance of the model; another
A 2-dimensional finite element simulation of cooling in castings ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this work we present a 2 dimensional finite element simulation of the cooling process in castings. A one way coupling +technique was used to predict the behavior of thermal strains and stresses from the temperature history of casting. The temperature distribution across the casting at different times, the cooling pattern of ...
hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
125, No. 3, August 2015, pp. 413–447. c Indian Academy of Sciences h-p Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems on non-smooth domains, Part-II: Proof of stability theorem. P DUTT1, AKHLAQ HUSAIN2,∗, A S VASUDEVA MURTHY3 and C S UPADHYAY4. 1Department of Mathematics & Statistics ...
Finite element analysis of one–dimensional hydrodynamic ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this research work, we consider the one dimensional hydrodynamic dispersion of a reactive solute in electroosmotic flow. We present results demonstrating the utility of finite element methods to simulate and visualize hydrodynamic dispersion in the electroosmotic flow. From examination of concentration profile, effective ...
Davenport, Ernest C.; Davison, Mark L.; Liou, Pey-Yan; Love, Quintin U.
2015-01-01
This article uses definitions provided by Cronbach in his seminal paper for coefficient a to show the concepts of reliability, dimensionality, and internal consistency are distinct but interrelated. The article begins with a critique of the definition of reliability and then explores mathematical properties of Cronbach's a. Internal consistency…
Distinct element analysis of toppling instability at the Luscar Mine, Luscar, Alberta
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Benko, B.; Stead, D.; Hebil, K.E. [University of Saskatchewan, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Department of Geological Sciences
1996-12-31
The potential application of distinct element modelling for assessment of toppling instability in surface coal mines is reviewed. A case study is analyzed using data from the South wall of Luscar Mine`s 50-A-5 Phase 2 pit, where the bedding orientation indicates conditions for flexure toppling deformation. Numerical models of the site deformation were constructed based on previous limit equilibrium analyses. The results of the slope failure analyses are applied to examine the mechanism of toppling failure and the factors that affect instability. 18 refs., 11 figs.
Spreafico, Margherita Cecilia; Francioni, Mirko; Cervi, Federico; Stead, Doug; Bitelli, Gabriele; Ghirotti, Monica; Girelli, Valentina Alena; Lucente, Claudio Corrado; Tini, Maria Alessandra; Borgatti, Lisa
2016-06-01
Landslides of the lateral spreading type, involving brittle geological units overlying ductile terrains, are a common occurrence in the sandstone and limestone plateaux of the northern Apennines of Italy. The edges of these plateaux are often the location of rapid landslide phenomena, such as rock slides, rock falls and topples. In this paper, we present a back analysis of a recent landslide (February 2014), involving the north-eastern sector of the San Leo rock slab (northern Apennines, Emilia-Romagna Region) which is a representative example of this type of phenomena. The aquifer hosted in the fractured slab, due to its relatively higher secondary permeability in comparison to the lower clayey units leads to the development of perennial and ephemeral springs at the contact between the two units. The related piping erosion phenomena, together with slope processes in the clay-shales have led to the progressive undermining of the slab, eventually predisposing large-scale landslides. Stability analyses were conducted coupling terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) and distinct element methods (DEMs). TLS point clouds were analysed to determine the pre- and post-failure geometry, the extension of the detachment area and the joint network characteristics. The block dimensions in the landslide deposit were mapped and used to infer the spacing of the discontinuities for insertion into the numerical model. Three-dimensional distinct element simulations were conducted, with and without undermining of the rock slab. The analyses allowed an assessment of the role of the undermining, together with the presence of an almost vertical joint set, striking sub-parallel to the cliff orientation, on the development of the slope instability processes. Based on the TLS and on the numerical simulation results, an interpretation of the landslide mechanism is proposed.
Ma, Meng; Ru, Ying; Chuang, Ling-Shiang; Hsu, Nai-Yun; Shi, Li-Song; Hakenberg, Jörg; Cheng, Wei-Yi; Uzilov, Andrew; Ding, Wei; Glicksberg, Benjamin S; Chen, Rong
2015-01-01
The invention of high throughput sequencing technologies has led to the discoveries of hundreds of thousands of genetic variants associated with thousands of human diseases. Many of these genetic variants are located outside the protein coding regions, and as such, it is challenging to interpret the function of these genetic variants by traditional genetic approaches. Recent genome-wide functional genomics studies, such as FANTOM5 and ENCODE have uncovered a large number of regulatory elements across hundreds of different tissues or cell lines in the human genome. These findings provide an opportunity to study the interaction between regulatory elements and disease-associated genetic variants. Identifying these diseased-related regulatory elements will shed light on understanding the mechanisms of how these variants regulate gene expression and ultimately result in disease formation and progression. In this study, we curated and categorized 27,558 Mendelian disease variants, 20,964 complex disease variants, 5,809 cancer predisposing germline variants, and 43,364 recurrent cancer somatic mutations. Compared against nine different types of regulatory regions from FANTOM5 and ENCODE projects, we found that different types of disease variants show distinctive propensity for particular regulatory elements. Mendelian disease variants and recurrent cancer somatic mutations are 22-fold and 10- fold significantly enriched in promoter regions respectively (qdisease variants and recurrent cancer somatic mutations share very similar distribution across types of functional effects. We further found that regulatory regions are located within over 50% coding exon regions. Transcription promoters, methylation regions, and transcription insulators have the highest density of disease variants, with 472, 239, and 72 disease variants per one million base pairs, respectively. Disease-associated variants in different disease categories are preferentially located in particular regulatory
2015-01-01
Background The invention of high throughput sequencing technologies has led to the discoveries of hundreds of thousands of genetic variants associated with thousands of human diseases. Many of these genetic variants are located outside the protein coding regions, and as such, it is challenging to interpret the function of these genetic variants by traditional genetic approaches. Recent genome-wide functional genomics studies, such as FANTOM5 and ENCODE have uncovered a large number of regulatory elements across hundreds of different tissues or cell lines in the human genome. These findings provide an opportunity to study the interaction between regulatory elements and disease-associated genetic variants. Identifying these diseased-related regulatory elements will shed light on understanding the mechanisms of how these variants regulate gene expression and ultimately result in disease formation and progression. Results In this study, we curated and categorized 27,558 Mendelian disease variants, 20,964 complex disease variants, 5,809 cancer predisposing germline variants, and 43,364 recurrent cancer somatic mutations. Compared against nine different types of regulatory regions from FANTOM5 and ENCODE projects, we found that different types of disease variants show distinctive propensity for particular regulatory elements. Mendelian disease variants and recurrent cancer somatic mutations are 22-fold and 10- fold significantly enriched in promoter regions respectively (qdisease variants and recurrent cancer somatic mutations share very similar distribution across types of functional effects. We further found that regulatory regions are located within over 50% coding exon regions. Transcription promoters, methylation regions, and transcription insulators have the highest density of disease variants, with 472, 239, and 72 disease variants per one million base pairs, respectively. Conclusions Disease-associated variants in different disease categories are preferentially
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rubin-Pitel, Sheryl B.; Zhang, Houjin; Vu, Trang; Brunzelle, Joseph S.; Zhao, Huimin; Nair, Satish K. (UIUC); (NWU)
2009-01-15
The fungal type III polyketide synthase 2'-oxoalkylresorcyclic acid synthase (ORAS) primes with a range of acyl-Coenzyme A thioesters (C{sub 4}--C{sub 20}) and extends using malonyl-Coenzyme A to produce pyrones, resorcinols, and resorcylic acids. To gain insight into this unusual substrate specificity and product profile, we have determined the crystal structures of ORAS to 1.75 {angstrom} resolution, the Phe-252{yields}Gly site-directed mutant to 2.1 {angstrom} resolution, and a binary conplex of ORAS with eicosanoic acid to 2.0 {angstrom} resolution. The structures reveal a distinct rearrangement of structural elements near the active site that allows accomodation of long-chain fatty acid esters and a reorientation of the gating mechanism that controls cyclization and polyketide chain length. The roles of these structural elements are further elucidated by characterization of various structure-based site-directed variants. These studies establish an unexpected plasticity to the PKS fold, unanticipated from structural studies of other members of this enzyme family.
Geomechanical Simulations of CO2 Storage Integrity using the Livermore Distinct Element Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Morris, J P; Johnson, S M; Friedmann, S J
2008-07-11
Large-scale carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) projects involving annual injections of millions of tons of CO{sub 2} are a key infrastructural element needed to substantially reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The large rate and volume of injection will induce pressure and stress gradients within the formation that could activate existing fractures and faults, or drive new fractures through the caprock. We will present results of an ongoing investigation to identify conditions that will activate existing fractures/faults or make new fractures within the caprock using the Livermore Distinct Element Code (LDEC). LDEC is a multiphysics code, developed at LLNL, capable of simulating dynamic fracture of rock masses under a range of conditions. As part of a recent project, LDEC has been extended to consider fault activation and dynamic fracture of rock masses due to pressurization of the pore-space. We will present several demonstrations of LDEC functionality and applications of LDEC to CO{sub 2} injection scenarios including injection into an extensively fractured rockmass. These examples highlight the advantages of explicitly including the geomechanical response of each interface within the rockmass. We present results from our investigations of Teapot Dome using LDEC to study the potential for fault activation during injection. Using this approach, we built finite element models of the rock masses surrounding bounding faults and explicitly simulated the compression and shear on the fault interface. A CO{sub 2} injection source was introduced and the area of fault activation was predicted as a function of injection rate. This work presents an approach where the interactions of all locations on the fault are considered in response to specific injection scenarios. For example, with LDEC, as regions of the fault fail, the shear load is taken up elsewhere on the fault. The results of this study are consistent with previous studies of Teapot Dome and indicate
Two-dimensional isostatic meshes in the finite element method
Martínez Marín, Rubén; Samartín, Avelino
2002-01-01
In a Finite Element (FE) analysis of elastic solids several items are usually considered, namely, type and shape of the elements, number of nodes per element, node positions, FE mesh, total number of degrees of freedom (dot) among others. In this paper a method to improve a given FE mesh used for a particular analysis is described. For the improvement criterion different objective functions have been chosen (Total potential energy and Average quadratic error) and the number of nodes and dof's...
Finite element analysis of three dimensional crack growth by the use of a boundary element sub model
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lucht, Tore
2009-01-01
A new automated method to model non-planar three dimensional crack growth is proposed which combines the advantages of both the boundary element method and the finite element method. The proposed method links the two methods by a submodelling strategy in which the solution of a global finite...... element model containing an approximation of the crack is interpolated to a much smaller boundary element model containing a fine discretization of the real crack. The method is validated through several numerical comparisons and by comparison to crack growth measured in a test specimen for an engineering...
Deng, Yongbo; Korvink, Jan G
2016-05-01
This paper develops a topology optimization procedure for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves with an edge element-based finite-element method. In contrast to the two-dimensional case, three-dimensional electromagnetic waves must include an additional divergence-free condition for the field variables. The edge element-based finite-element method is used to both discretize the wave equations and enforce the divergence-free condition. For wave propagation described in terms of the magnetic field in the widely used class of non-magnetic materials, the divergence-free condition is imposed on the magnetic field. This naturally leads to a nodal topology optimization method. When wave propagation is described using the electric field, the divergence-free condition must be imposed on the electric displacement. In this case, the material in the design domain is assumed to be piecewise homogeneous to impose the divergence-free condition on the electric field. This results in an element-wise topology optimization algorithm. The topology optimization problems are regularized using a Helmholtz filter and a threshold projection method and are analysed using a continuous adjoint method. In order to ensure the applicability of the filter in the element-wise topology optimization version, a regularization method is presented to project the nodal into an element-wise physical density variable.
Korvink, Jan G.
2016-01-01
This paper develops a topology optimization procedure for three-dimensional electromagnetic waves with an edge element-based finite-element method. In contrast to the two-dimensional case, three-dimensional electromagnetic waves must include an additional divergence-free condition for the field variables. The edge element-based finite-element method is used to both discretize the wave equations and enforce the divergence-free condition. For wave propagation described in terms of the magnetic field in the widely used class of non-magnetic materials, the divergence-free condition is imposed on the magnetic field. This naturally leads to a nodal topology optimization method. When wave propagation is described using the electric field, the divergence-free condition must be imposed on the electric displacement. In this case, the material in the design domain is assumed to be piecewise homogeneous to impose the divergence-free condition on the electric field. This results in an element-wise topology optimization algorithm. The topology optimization problems are regularized using a Helmholtz filter and a threshold projection method and are analysed using a continuous adjoint method. In order to ensure the applicability of the filter in the element-wise topology optimization version, a regularization method is presented to project the nodal into an element-wise physical density variable. PMID:27279766
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoo, Sung Min; Kim, Yoon Young
2007-01-01
This work is concerned with the topology optimization of three-dimensional cooling fins or heat sinks. Motivated by earlier success of the Internal Element Connectivity Method (I-ECP) method in two dimensional problems, the extension of I-ECP to three-dimensional problems is carried out. The main efforts were made to maintain the numerical trouble-free characteristics of I-ECP for full three-dimensional problems; a serious numerical problem appearing in thermal topology optimization is erroneous temperature undershooting. The effectiveness of the present implementation was checked through the design optimization of three-dimensional fins
hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
we use spectral element functions which are non-conforming and hence there are no com- mon boundary ... We assume our spectral element functions to be a sum of tensor product of polynomials of variable degree .... R3 with a Lipschitz boundary ∂O. Assume in addition that ∂O is piecewise C2. Let P be a point on ∂O ...
K. V. Pagalthivarthi; R. J. Visintainer
2013-01-01
Multi-size particulate dense slurry flow through three-dimensional rectangular channel is modeled using penalty finite elements with 8-noded hexahedral elements. The methodology previously developed for two-dimensional channel is extended. The computed eddy viscosity of the pure carrier flow is modified to account for the presence of solid particles. Predictions from Spalart-Almaras and k-ε turbulence models are compared to show consistency of trends in results. Results are also found to comp...
An Interactive Preprocessor Program with Graphics for a Three-Dimensional Finite Element Code.
Hamilton, Claude Hayden, III
The development and capabilities of an interactive preprocessor program with graphics for an existing three-dimensional finite element code is presented. This preprocessor program, EDGAP3D, is designed to be used in conjunction with the Texas Three Dimensional Grain Analysis Program (TXCAP3D). The code presented in this research is capable of the…
Finite element model to study two dimensional unsteady state ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Kunal Pathak
2015-10-20
Oct 20, 2015 ... Excess buffer;. Finite element method. Abstract The calcium signaling plays a crucial role in expansion and contraction of cardiac myo- cytes. This calcium signaling is achieved by calcium diffusion, buffering mechanisms and influx in cardiac myocytes. The various calcium distribution patterns required for ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choi, S. N.; Kim, H. N.; Jang, K. S.; Kim, H. J.
2000-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to determine a two dimensional axisymmetric model through a comparative study between a three dimensional and an axisymmetric finite element analysis of the reactor coolant piping nozzle subject to internal pressure. The finite element analysis results show that the stress adopting the axisymmetric model with the radius of equivalent spherical vessel are well agree with that adopting the three dimensional model. The radii of equivalent spherical vessel are 3.5 times and 7.3 times of the radius of the reactor coolant piping for the safety injection nozzle and for the residual heat removal nozzle, respectively
Dimensional analysis system for fuel elements experience in hot cells plate format
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carneiro, Orozimbo J.; Dutra Neto, Aimore; Campos, Tarcisio P.R.; Dias, Ailton F.
2002-01-01
This paper describes a system for visual and dimensional analysis of compact-core reactors fuel elements in plate format. The system, composed of a co-ordinated x, y, z computerized table, has to be operative inside of a hot cell for the visual inspection and dimensional measurements of the post irradiated fuel elements. The control method of the x, y, z table axes, the data acquisition and the process control technique using computer, are described. Experimental data handling and the expected future of the project are presented and commented. This work expand previous investigations on a dimensional analysis system carried out by Brazilian Navy Technological Center in Sao Paulo (CTMSP). (author)
Curved low order angular elements in two-dimensional neutron transport problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silvennoinen, P.; Tuominen, J.
1974-01-01
A two-dimensional finite element scheme is presented. The angular discretization is based on curved rather than rectangular elements. Numerical computations performed indicate improved accuracy as compared to rectangular methods of a same order. No ray effects are found even in low order results. In addition to linear trial functions the paper is concerned with higher degree polynomials. (author)
Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Puškar Tatjana
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction. The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects in programmes for solid modeling. Objective. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. Methods. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analyzing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,.... Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Results. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Conclusion Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.
[Three dimensional mathematical model of tooth for finite element analysis].
Puskar, Tatjana; Vasiljević, Darko; Marković, Dubravka; Jevremović, Danimir; Pantelić, Dejan; Savić-Sević, Svetlana; Murić, Branka
2010-01-01
The mathematical model of the abutment tooth is the starting point of the finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The simplest and easiest way is to form a model according to the literature data of dimensions and morphological characteristics of teeth. Our method is based on forming 3D models using standard geometrical forms (objects) in programmes for solid modeling. Forming the mathematical model of abutment of the second upper premolar for finite element analysis of stress and deformation of dental structures. The abutment tooth has a form of a complex geometric object. It is suitable for modeling in programs for solid modeling SolidWorks. After analysing the literature data about the morphological characteristics of teeth, we started the modeling dividing the tooth (complex geometric body) into simple geometric bodies (cylinder, cone, pyramid,...). Connecting simple geometric bodies together or substricting bodies from the basic body, we formed complex geometric body, tooth. The model is then transferred into Abaqus, a computational programme for finite element analysis. Transferring the data was done by standard file format for transferring 3D models ACIS SAT. Using the programme for solid modeling SolidWorks, we developed three models of abutment of the second maxillary premolar: the model of the intact abutment, the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining cavity walls and the model of the endodontically treated tooth with two remaining walls and inserted post. Mathematical models of the abutment made according to the literature data are very similar with the real abutment and the simplifications are minimal. These models enable calculations of stress and deformation of the dental structures. The finite element analysis provides useful information in understanding biomechanical problems and gives guidance for clinical research.
Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D; Reed, Laura K; Smith, Sheryl T; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E J; Machone, Joshua F; Patterson, Seantay D; Price, Amber L; Turner, Bryce A; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K; McCartha, Shannon R; Walji, Tezin A; Walker, Chelsea A; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K; Armstrong, Andrew R; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J; Barberi, Chelsea R; Beck, Lauren R; Blaker, Amanda L; Blunden, Christopher E; Brand, Jordan P; Brock, Ethan J; Brooks, Dana W; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C; Clark, Eric M; Clark, Nicole B; Collins, Ashley A; Cotteleer, Rebecca J; Cullimore, Peterson R; Dawson, Seth G; Docking, Carter T; Dorsett, Sasha L; Dougherty, Grace A; Downey, Kaitlyn A; Drake, Andrew P; Earl, Erica K; Floyd, Trevor G; Forsyth, Joshua D; Foust, Jonathan D; Franchi, Spencer L; Geary, James F; Hanson, Cynthia K; Harding, Taylor S; Harris, Cameron B; Heckman, Jonathan M; Holderness, Heather L; Howey, Nicole A; Jacobs, Dontae A; Jewell, Elizabeth S; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A; Kehoe, James L; Koaches, Hannah C; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J; Kus, Jordan E; Lammers, Jennifer A; Leads, Rachel R; Leatherman, Emily C; Lippert, Rachel N; Messenger, Gregory S; Morrow, Adam T; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J; Potocny, Stephanie J; Powers, Michelle K; Reem, Rachel M; Rennhack, Jonathan P; Reynolds, Katherine R; Reynolds, Lyndsey A; Rhee, Dong K; Rivard, Allyson B; Ronk, Adam J; Rooney, Meghan B; Rubin, Lainey S; Salbert, Luke R; Saluja, Rasleen K; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R; Schulz, Robert W; Smith, Karl E; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R; Tache, Melissa A; Tewilliager, Ashley A; Tilot, Amanda K; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M; Vylonis, Megan B; Watson, David T; Wurzler, Juliana A; Wysocki, Lauren M; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A; Emerson, Julia A; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J; DiLorenzo, Lauren A; Goeller, Katie L; Macchi, Christopher R; Muller, Sarah E; Pasierb, Brittany D; Sable, Joseph E; Tucci, Jessica M; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A; Beken, Levent H; Conturso, Alaina C; Danner, Benjamin L; DeMichele, Gabriella A; Gonzales, Justin A; Hammond, Maureen S; Kelley, Colleen V; Kelly, Elisabeth A; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M; McCabe, Nikie L; Newman, Alyssa M; Spaeder, Lindsay A; Tumminello, Richard A; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M; Cristostomo, Michael C; DaSilva, Paolo A; Harker, Katherine S; Jarrell, Jenifer N; Jimenez, Luis A; Katz, Brandon M; Kennedy, William R; Kolibas, Kimberly S; LeBlanc, Mark T; Nguyen, Trung T; Nicolas, Daniel S; Patao, Melissa D; Patao, Shane M; Rupley, Bryan J; Sessions, Bridget J; Weaver, Jennifer A; Goodman, Anya L; Alvendia, Erica L; Baldassari, Shana M; Brown, Ashley S; Chase, Ian O; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B; Custer, Ashley F; DiTommaso, Tia M; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C; Grove, Ryan A; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L; Hopkins, Barbara L; Huerta, Vilma F; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M; Lee, Cassidy T; Lewis, Benjamin M; Lydon, Anniken M; Maniaci, Brian J; Mitchell, Ryan D; Morlock, Elaine V; Morris, William M; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C; Osterloh, Jeannette M; Perez, Marcos A; Presley, Jonathan D; Randazzo, Matt J; Regan, Melanie K; Rossi, Franca G; Smith, Melanie A; Soliterman, Eugenia A; Sparks, Ciani J; Tran, Danny L; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A; Wong, Jeremy N; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J; Hoogewerf, Arlene J; Ackerman, Cheri M; Armistead, Isaac O; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J; Brouwer, Lindsay K; Burkhart, Brandon J; Bushhouse, Kelsey T; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y Y; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M; Darusz, Jess M; Dauphin, Cory M; Davis, Yelena P; Diekema, Emily J; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E M; Faber, Hayley M; Faber, Katherine J; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T; Hammond, Brandy L; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R; Hilbrands, Julia A; Howell, Emily J; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A; Jelsema, Timothy R; Johnson, Benjamin K; Jones, Kelly K; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D; Menyes, Erika E; Nollet, Eric A; Plescher, Brittany E; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L; Schepers, Allison J; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R; Sterling, Allison M; Tenney, Jenna C; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I; Boudoures, Anna L; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S; French, Kristin M; Gill, Ishwar S; Havill, Jessen T; Johnson, Jaelyn L; Keny, Lauren J; Kerber, John M; Klett, Bethany M; Kufel, Christina N; May, Francis J; Mecoli, Jonathan P; Merry, Callie R; Meyer, Lauren R; Miller, Emily G; Mullen, Gregory J; Palozola, Katherine C; Pfeil, Jacob J; Thomas, Jessica G; Verbofsky, Evan M; Spana, Eric P; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I N; Fitzgibbons, John D; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J; Knouse, Kristin A; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U; Shuen, Jessica A; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G; Burg, Martin G; Adams, Stephanie J; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J; Robertson, Gregory M; Smith, Samuel I; DiAngelo, Justin R; Sassu, Eric D; Bhalla, Satish C; Sharif, Karim A; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E; Alvarez, Consuelo J; Davis, Kristen C; Dunham, Carrie A; Grantham, Alaina J; Hare, Amber N; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W; Kuleck, Gary A; Yu, Nicole S; Kaehler, Marian M; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques Dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T; Poet, Jeffrey L; Allen, Alica B; Anderson, John E; Barnett, Jason M; Baumgardner, Jordan S; Brown, Adam D; Carney, Jordan E; Chavez, Ramiro A; Christgen, Shelbi L; Christie, Jordan S; Clary, Andrea N; Conn, Michel A; Cooper, Kristen M; Crowley, Matt J; Crowley, Samuel T; Doty, Jennifer S; Dow, Brian A; Edwards, Curtis R; Elder, Darcie D; Fanning, John P; Janssen, Bridget M; Lambright, Anthony K; Lane, Curtiss E; Limle, Austin B; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R; McDonough, Alexa M; Melton, Amy D; Minnick, Phillip J; Musick, Adam E; Newhart, William H; Noynaert, Joseph W; Ogden, Bradley J; Sandusky, Michael W; Schmuecker, Samantha M; Shipman, Anna L; Smith, Anna L; Thomsen, Kristen M; Unzicker, Matthew R; Vernon, William B; Winn, Wesley W; Woyski, Dustin S; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R; Johnson, Todd D; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R; Waggoner, Andrew W; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K; Hark, Amy T; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E; Smith, Mary A; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C P; Johnson, Ashlee G; White, Jackie X; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L M; Chau, Kim M; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E Gloria C; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M; Bahr, Thomas J; Caesar, Nicole M; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W; Cognetti, Peter A; English, Johnathan D; Fadus, Matthew C; Fick, Cameron N; Freda, Philip J; Hennessy, Bryan M; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K; King, Jessica E; Knob, Christopher R; Kraftmann, Karen J; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N; Minniti, Carl J; Minton, Thomas F; Moran, Joseph V; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C; Puetz, William J; Robinson, Lauren M; Rose, Thomas J; Sweeney, Edward P; Timko, Ashley S; Paetkau, Don W; Eisler, Heather L; Aldrup, Megan E; Bodenberg, Jessica M; Cole, Mara G; Deranek, Kelly M; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M; Eckardt, Alexandra K; Ehret, Sharon C; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L; Light, Morgan R; Meier, Anne C; O'Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R; Reilly, Mary T; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R; Herrick, Douglas A; Khoury, Christopher B; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A; Lowell, Shannon M; Reynolds, Thomas J; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D; Lopilato, Jane E; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B; Smith, Jonathan E; 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Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M; delValle, Frank R Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A; Colón-Cruz, Luis R; Correa-Muller, Ana I; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L; Cruz-García, José M; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P; Torres-Castillo, José L; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; 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2015-03-04
The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25-50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3-11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11-27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4-3.6 vs. 8.4-8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. Copyright © 2015 Leung et al.
Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. J.; Machone, Joshua F.; Patterson, Seantay D.; Price, Amber L.; Turner, Bryce A.; Robic, Srebrenka; Luippold, Erin K.; McCartha, Shannon R.; Walji, Tezin A.; Walker, Chelsea A.; Saville, Kenneth; Abrams, Marita K.; Armstrong, Andrew R.; Armstrong, William; Bailey, Robert J.; Barberi, Chelsea R.; Beck, Lauren R.; Blaker, Amanda L.; Blunden, Christopher E.; Brand, Jordan P.; Brock, Ethan J.; Brooks, Dana W.; Brown, Marie; Butzler, Sarah C.; Clark, Eric M.; Clark, Nicole B.; Collins, Ashley A.; Cotteleer, Rebecca J.; Cullimore, Peterson R.; Dawson, Seth G.; Docking, Carter T.; Dorsett, Sasha L.; Dougherty, Grace A.; Downey, Kaitlyn A.; Drake, Andrew P.; Earl, Erica K.; Floyd, Trevor G.; Forsyth, Joshua D.; Foust, Jonathan D.; Franchi, Spencer L.; Geary, James F.; Hanson, Cynthia K.; Harding, Taylor S.; Harris, Cameron B.; Heckman, Jonathan M.; Holderness, Heather L.; Howey, Nicole A.; Jacobs, Dontae A.; Jewell, Elizabeth S.; Kaisler, Maria; Karaska, Elizabeth A.; Kehoe, James L.; Koaches, Hannah C.; Koehler, Jessica; Koenig, Dana; Kujawski, Alexander J.; Kus, Jordan E.; Lammers, Jennifer A.; Leads, Rachel R.; Leatherman, Emily C.; Lippert, Rachel N.; Messenger, Gregory S.; Morrow, Adam T.; Newcomb, Victoria; Plasman, Haley J.; Potocny, Stephanie J.; Powers, Michelle K.; Reem, Rachel M.; Rennhack, Jonathan P.; Reynolds, Katherine R.; Reynolds, Lyndsey A.; Rhee, Dong K.; Rivard, Allyson B.; Ronk, Adam J.; Rooney, Meghan B.; Rubin, Lainey S.; Salbert, Luke R.; Saluja, Rasleen K.; Schauder, Taylor; Schneiter, Allison R.; Schulz, Robert W.; Smith, Karl E.; Spencer, Sarah; Swanson, Bryant R.; Tache, Melissa A.; Tewilliager, Ashley A.; Tilot, Amanda K.; VanEck, Eve; Villerot, Matthew M.; Vylonis, Megan B.; Watson, David T.; Wurzler, Juliana A.; Wysocki, Lauren M.; Yalamanchili, Monica; Zaborowicz, Matthew A.; Emerson, Julia A.; Ortiz, Carlos; Deuschle, Frederic J.; DiLorenzo, Lauren A.; Goeller, Katie L.; Macchi, Christopher R.; Muller, Sarah E.; Pasierb, Brittany D.; Sable, Joseph E.; Tucci, Jessica M.; Tynon, Marykathryn; Dunbar, David A.; Beken, Levent H.; Conturso, Alaina C.; Danner, Benjamin L.; DeMichele, Gabriella A.; Gonzales, Justin A.; Hammond, Maureen S.; Kelley, Colleen V.; Kelly, Elisabeth A.; Kulich, Danielle; Mageeney, Catherine M.; McCabe, Nikie L.; Newman, Alyssa M.; Spaeder, Lindsay A.; Tumminello, Richard A.; Revie, Dennis; Benson, Jonathon M.; Cristostomo, Michael C.; DaSilva, Paolo A.; Harker, Katherine S.; Jarrell, Jenifer N.; Jimenez, Luis A.; Katz, Brandon M.; Kennedy, William R.; Kolibas, Kimberly S.; LeBlanc, Mark T.; Nguyen, Trung T.; Nicolas, Daniel S.; Patao, Melissa D.; Patao, Shane M.; Rupley, Bryan J.; Sessions, Bridget J.; Weaver, Jennifer A.; Goodman, Anya L.; Alvendia, Erica L.; Baldassari, Shana M.; Brown, Ashley S.; Chase, Ian O.; Chen, Maida; Chiang, Scott; Cromwell, Avery B.; Custer, Ashley F.; DiTommaso, Tia M.; El-Adaimi, Jad; Goscinski, Nora C.; Grove, Ryan A.; Gutierrez, Nestor; Harnoto, Raechel S.; Hedeen, Heather; Hong, Emily L.; Hopkins, Barbara L.; Huerta, Vilma F.; Khoshabian, Colin; LaForge, Kristin M.; Lee, Cassidy T.; Lewis, Benjamin M.; Lydon, Anniken M.; Maniaci, Brian J.; Mitchell, Ryan D.; Morlock, Elaine V.; Morris, William M.; Naik, Priyanka; Olson, Nicole C.; Osterloh, Jeannette M.; Perez, Marcos A.; Presley, Jonathan D.; Randazzo, Matt J.; Regan, Melanie K.; Rossi, Franca G.; Smith, Melanie A.; Soliterman, Eugenia A.; Sparks, Ciani J.; Tran, Danny L.; Wan, Tiffany; Welker, Anne A.; Wong, Jeremy N.; Sreenivasan, Aparna; Youngblom, Jim; Adams, Andrew; Alldredge, Justin; Bryant, Ashley; Carranza, David; Cifelli, Alyssa; Coulson, Kevin; Debow, Calise; Delacruz, Noelle; Emerson, Charlene; Farrar, Cassandra; Foret, Don; Garibay, Edgar; Gooch, John; Heslop, Michelle; Kaur, Sukhjit; Khan, Ambreen; Kim, Van; Lamb, Travis; Lindbeck, Peter; Lucas, Gabi; Macias, Elizabeth; Martiniuc, Daniela; Mayorga, Lissett; Medina, Joseph; Membreno, Nelson; Messiah, Shady; Neufeld, Lacey; Nguyen, San Francisco; Nichols, Zachary; Odisho, George; Peterson, Daymon; Rodela, Laura; Rodriguez, Priscilla; Rodriguez, Vanessa; Ruiz, Jorge; Sherrill, Will; Silva, Valeria; Sparks, Jeri; Statton, Geeta; Townsend, Ashley; Valdez, Isabel; Waters, Mary; Westphal, Kyle; Winkler, Stacey; Zumkehr, Joannee; DeJong, Randall J.; Hoogewerf, Arlene J.; Ackerman, Cheri M.; Armistead, Isaac O.; Baatenburg, Lara; Borr, Matthew J.; Brouwer, Lindsay K.; Burkhart, Brandon J.; Bushhouse, Kelsey T.; Cesko, Lejla; Choi, Tiffany Y. Y.; Cohen, Heather; Damsteegt, Amanda M.; Darusz, Jess M.; Dauphin, Cory M.; Davis, Yelena P.; Diekema, Emily J.; Drewry, Melissa; Eisen, Michelle E. M.; Faber, Hayley M.; Faber, Katherine J.; Feenstra, Elizabeth; Felzer-Kim, Isabella T.; Hammond, Brandy L.; Hendriksma, Jesse; Herrold, Milton R.; Hilbrands, Julia A.; Howell, Emily J.; Jelgerhuis, Sarah A.; Jelsema, Timothy R.; Johnson, Benjamin K.; Jones, Kelly K.; Kim, Anna; Kooienga, Ross D.; Menyes, Erika E.; Nollet, Eric A.; Plescher, Brittany E.; Rios, Lindsay; Rose, Jenny L.; Schepers, Allison J.; Scott, Geoff; Smith, Joshua R.; Sterling, Allison M.; Tenney, Jenna C.; Uitvlugt, Chris; VanDyken, Rachel E.; VanderVennen, Marielle; Vue, Samantha; Kokan, Nighat P.; Agbley, Kwabea; Boham, Sampson K.; Broomfield, Daniel; Chapman, Kayla; Dobbe, Ali; Dobbe, Ian; Harrington, William; Ibrahem, Marwan; Kennedy, Andre; Koplinsky, Chad A.; Kubricky, Cassandra; Ladzekpo, Danielle; Pattison, Claire; Ramirez, Roman E.; Wande, Lucia; Woehlke, Sarah; Wawersik, Matthew; Kiernan, Elizabeth; Thompson, Jeffrey S.; Banker, Roxanne; Bartling, Justina R.; Bhatiya, Chinmoy I.; Boudoures, Anna L.; Christiansen, Lena; Fosselman, Daniel S.; French, Kristin M.; Gill, Ishwar S.; Havill, Jessen T.; Johnson, Jaelyn L.; Keny, Lauren J.; Kerber, John M.; Klett, Bethany M.; Kufel, Christina N.; May, Francis J.; Mecoli, Jonathan P.; Merry, Callie R.; Meyer, Lauren R.; Miller, Emily G.; Mullen, Gregory J.; Palozola, Katherine C.; Pfeil, Jacob J.; Thomas, Jessica G.; Verbofsky, Evan M.; Spana, Eric P.; Agarwalla, Anant; Chapman, Julia; Chlebina, Ben; Chong, Insun; Falk, I.N.; Fitzgibbons, John D.; Friedman, Harrison; Ighile, Osagie; Kim, Andrew J.; Knouse, Kristin A.; Kung, Faith; Mammo, Danny; Ng, Chun Leung; Nikam, Vinayak S.; Norton, Diana; Pham, Philip; Polk, Jessica W.; Prasad, Shreya; Rankin, Helen; Ratliff, Camille D.; Scala, Victoria; Schwartz, Nicholas U.; Shuen, Jessica A.; Xu, Amy; Xu, Thomas Q.; Zhang, Yi; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Burg, Martin G.; Adams, Stephanie J.; Baker, Morgan; Botsford, Bobbi; Brinkley, Briana; Brown, Carter; Emiah, Shadie; Enoch, Erica; Gier, Chad; Greenwell, Alyson; Hoogenboom, Lindsay; Matthews, Jordan E.; McDonald, Mitchell; Mercer, Amanda; Monsma, Nicholaus; Ostby, Kristine; Ramic, Alen; Shallman, Devon; Simon, Matthew; Spencer, Eric; Tomkins, Trisha; Wendland, Pete; Wylie, Anna; Wolyniak, Michael J.; Robertson, Gregory M.; Smith, Samuel I.; DiAngelo, Justin R.; Sassu, Eric D.; Bhalla, Satish C.; Sharif, Karim A.; Choeying, Tenzin; Macias, Jason S.; Sanusi, Fareed; Torchon, Karvyn; Bednarski, April E.; Alvarez, Consuelo J.; Davis, Kristen C.; Dunham, Carrie A.; Grantham, Alaina J.; Hare, Amber N.; Schottler, Jennifer; Scott, Zackary W.; Kuleck, Gary A.; Yu, Nicole S.; Kaehler, Marian M.; Jipp, Jacob; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Cyrankowski, Olivia; Hoover, Betsy; Kusner, Matt; Lin, Devry; Martinov, Tijana; Misch, Jonathan; Salzman, Garrett; Schiedermayer, Holly; Snavely, Michael; Zarrasola, Stephanie; Parrish, Susan; Baker, Atlee; Beckett, Alissa; Belella, Carissa; Bryant, Julie; Conrad, Turner; Fearnow, Adam; Gomez, Carolina; Herbstsomer, Robert A.; Hirsch, Sarah; Johnson, Christen; Jones, Melissa; Kabaso, Rita; Lemmon, Eric; Vieira, Carolina Marques dos Santos; McFarland, Darryl; McLaughlin, Christopher; Morgan, Abbie; Musokotwane, Sepo; Neutzling, William; Nietmann, Jana; Paluskievicz, Christina; Penn, Jessica; Peoples, Emily; Pozmanter, Caitlin; Reed, Emily; Rigby, Nichole; Schmidt, Lasse; Shelton, Micah; Shuford, Rebecca; Tirasawasdichai, Tiara; Undem, Blair; Urick, Damian; Vondy, Kayla; Yarrington, Bryan; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeffrey L.; Allen, Alica B.; Anderson, John E.; Barnett, Jason M.; Baumgardner, Jordan S.; Brown, Adam D.; Carney, Jordan E.; Chavez, Ramiro A.; Christgen, Shelbi L.; Christie, Jordan S.; Clary, Andrea N.; Conn, Michel A.; Cooper, Kristen M.; Crowley, Matt J.; Crowley, Samuel T.; Doty, Jennifer S.; Dow, Brian A.; Edwards, Curtis R.; Elder, Darcie D.; Fanning, John P.; Janssen, Bridget M.; Lambright, Anthony K.; Lane, Curtiss E.; Limle, Austin B.; Mazur, Tammy; McCracken, Marly R.; McDonough, Alexa M.; Melton, Amy D.; Minnick, Phillip J.; Musick, Adam E.; Newhart, William H.; Noynaert, Joseph W.; Ogden, Bradley J.; Sandusky, Michael W.; Schmuecker, Samantha M.; Shipman, Anna L.; Smith, Anna L.; Thomsen, Kristen M.; Unzicker, Matthew R.; Vernon, William B.; Winn, Wesley W.; Woyski, Dustin S.; Zhu, Xiao; Du, Chunguang; Ament, Caitlin; Aso, Soham; Bisogno, Laura Simone; Caronna, Jason; Fefelova, Nadezhda; Lopez, Lenin; Malkowitz, Lorraine; Marra, Jonathan; Menillo, Daniella; Obiorah, Ifeanyi; Onsarigo, Eric Nyabeta; Primus, Shekerah; Soos, Mahdi; Tare, Archana; Zidan, Ameer; Jones, Christopher J.; Aronhalt, Todd; Bellush, James M.; Burke, Christa; DeFazio, Steve; Does, Benjamin R.; Johnson, Todd D.; Keysock, Nicholas; Knudsen, Nelson H.; Messler, James; Myirski, Kevin; Rekai, Jade Lea; Rempe, Ryan Michael; Salgado, Michael S.; Stagaard, Erica; Starcher, Justin R.; Waggoner, Andrew W.; Yemelyanova, Anastasia K.; Hark, Amy T.; Bertolet, Anne; Kuschner, Cyrus E.; Parry, Kesley; Quach, Michael; Shantzer, Lindsey; Shaw, Mary E.; Smith, Mary A.; Glenn, Omolara; Mason, Portia; Williams, Charlotte; Key, S. Catherine Silver; Henry, Tyneshia C. P.; Johnson, Ashlee G.; White, Jackie X.; Haberman, Adam; Asinof, Sam; Drumm, Kelly; Freeburg, Trip; Safa, Nadia; Schultz, Darrin; Shevin, Yakov; Svoronos, Petros; Vuong, Tam; Wellinghoff, Jules; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Chau, Kim M.; Ward, Alyssa; Regisford, E. Gloria C.; Augustine, LaJerald; Davis-Reyes, Brionna; Echendu, Vivienne; Hales, Jasmine; Ibarra, Sharon; Johnson, Lauriaun; Ovu, Steven; Braverman, John M.; Bahr, Thomas J.; Caesar, Nicole M.; Campana, Christopher; Cassidy, Daniel W.; Cognetti, Peter A.; English, Johnathan D.; Fadus, Matthew C.; Fick, Cameron N.; Freda, Philip J.; Hennessy, Bryan M.; Hockenberger, Kelsey; Jones, Jennifer K.; King, Jessica E.; Knob, Christopher R.; Kraftmann, Karen J.; Li, Linghui; Lupey, Lena N.; Minniti, Carl J.; Minton, Thomas F.; Moran, Joseph V.; Mudumbi, Krishna; Nordman, Elizabeth C.; Puetz, William J.; Robinson, Lauren M.; Rose, Thomas J.; Sweeney, Edward P.; Timko, Ashley S.; Paetkau, Don W.; Eisler, Heather L.; Aldrup, Megan E.; Bodenberg, Jessica M.; Cole, Mara G.; Deranek, Kelly M.; DeShetler, Megan; Dowd, Rose M.; Eckardt, Alexandra K.; Ehret, Sharon C.; Fese, Jessica; Garrett, Amanda D.; Kammrath, Anna; Kappes, Michelle L.; Light, Morgan R.; Meier, Anne C.; O’Rouke, Allison; Perella, Mallory; Ramsey, Kimberley; Ramthun, Jennifer R.; Reilly, Mary T.; Robinett, Deirdre; Rossi, Nadine L.; Schueler, Mary Grace; Shoemaker, Emma; Starkey, Kristin M.; Vetor, Ashley; Vrable, Abby; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Beck, Christopher; Hatfield, Kristen R.; Herrick, Douglas A.; Khoury, Christopher B.; Lea, Charlotte; Louie, Christopher A.; Lowell, Shannon M.; Reynolds, Thomas J.; Schibler, Jeanine; Scoma, Alexandra H.; Smith-Gee, Maxwell T.; Tuberty, Sarah; Smith, Christopher D.; Lopilato, Jane E.; Hauke, Jeanette; Roecklein-Canfield, Jennifer A.; Corrielus, Maureen; Gilman, Hannah; Intriago, Stephanie; Maffa, Amanda; Rauf, Sabya A.; Thistle, Katrina; Trieu, Melissa; Winters, Jenifer; Yang, Bib; Hauser, Charles R.; Abusheikh, Tariq; Ashrawi, Yara; Benitez, Pedro; Boudreaux, Lauren R.; Bourland, Megan; Chavez, Miranda; Cruz, Samantha; Elliott, GiNell; Farek, Jesse R.; Flohr, Sarah; Flores, Amanda H.; Friedrichs, Chelsey; Fusco, Zach; Goodwin, Zane; Helmreich, Eric; Kiley, John; Knepper, John Mark; Langner, Christine; Martinez, Megan; Mendoza, Carlos; Naik, Monal; Ochoa, Andrea; Ragland, Nicolas; Raimey, England; Rathore, Sunil; Reza, Evangelina; Sadovsky, Griffin; Seydoux, Marie-Isabelle B.; Smith, Jonathan E.; Unruh, Anna K.; Velasquez, Vicente; Wolski, Matthew W.; Gosser, Yuying; Govind, Shubha; Clarke-Medley, Nicole; Guadron, Leslie; Lau, Dawn; Lu, Alvin; Mazzeo, Cheryl; Meghdari, Mariam; Ng, Simon; Pamnani, Brad; Plante, Olivia; Shum, Yuki Kwan Wa; Song, Roy; Johnson, Diana E.; Abdelnabi, Mai; Archambault, Alexi; Chamma, Norma; Gaur, Shailly; Hammett, Deborah; Kandahari, Adrese; Khayrullina, Guzal; Kumar, Sonali; Lawrence, Samantha; Madden, Nigel; Mandelbaum, Max; Milnthorp, Heather; Mohini, Shiv; Patel, Roshni; Peacock, Sarah J.; Perling, Emily; Quintana, Amber; Rahimi, Michael; Ramirez, Kristen; Singhal, Rishi; Weeks, Corinne; Wong, Tiffany; Gillis, Aubree T.; Moore, Zachary D.; Savell, Christopher D.; Watson, Reece; Mel, Stephanie F.; Anilkumar, Arjun A.; Bilinski, Paul; Castillo, Rostislav; Closser, Michael; Cruz, Nathalia M.; Dai, Tiffany; Garbagnati, Giancarlo F.; Horton, Lanor S.; Kim, Dongyeon; Lau, Joyce H.; Liu, James Z.; Mach, Sandy D.; Phan, Thu A.; Ren, Yi; Stapleton, Kenneth E.; Strelitz, Jean M.; Sunjed, Ray; Stamm, Joyce; Anderson, Morgan C.; Bonifield, Bethany Grace; Coomes, Daniel; Dillman, Adam; Durchholz, Elaine J.; Fafara-Thompson, Antoinette E.; Gross, Meleah J.; Gygi, Amber M.; Jackson, Lesley E.; Johnson, Amy; Kocsisova, Zuzana; Manghelli, Joshua L.; McNeil, Kylie; Murillo, Michael; Naylor, Kierstin L.; Neely, Jessica; Ogawa, Emmy E.; Rich, Ashley; Rogers, Anna; Spencer, J. Devin; Stemler, Kristina M.; Throm, Allison A.; Van Camp, Matt; Weihbrecht, Katie; Wiles, T. Aaron; Williams, Mallory A.; Williams, Matthew; Zoll, Kyle; Bailey, Cheryl; Zhou, Leming; Balthaser, Darla M.; Bashiri, Azita; Bower, Mindy E.; Florian, Kayla A.; Ghavam, Nazanin; Greiner-Sosanko, Elizabeth S.; Karim, Helmet; Mullen, Victor W.; Pelchen, Carly E.; Yenerall, Paul M.; Zhang, Jiayu; Rubin, Michael R.; Arias-Mejias, Suzette M.; Bermudez-Capo, Armando G.; Bernal-Vega, Gabriela V.; Colon-Vazquez, Mariela; Flores-Vazquez, Arelys; Gines-Rosario, Mariela; Llavona-Cartagena, Ivan G.; Martinez-Rodriguez, Javier O.; Ortiz-Fuentes, Lionel; Perez-Colomba, Eliezer O.; Perez-Otero, Joseph; Rivera, Elisandra; Rodriguez-Giron, Luke J.; Santiago-Sanabria, Arnaldo J.; Senquiz-Gonzalez, Andrea M.; delValle, Frank R. Soto; Vargas-Franco, Dorianmarie; Velázquez-Soto, Karla I.; Zambrana-Burgos, Joan D.; Martinez-Cruzado, Juan Carlos; Asencio-Zayas, Lillyann; Babilonia-Figueroa, Kevin; Beauchamp-Pérez, Francis D.; Belén-Rodríguez, Juliana; Bracero-Quiñones, Luciann; Burgos-Bula, Andrea P.; Collado-Méndez, Xavier A.; Colón-Cruz, Luis R.; Correa-Muller, Ana I.; Crooke-Rosado, Jonathan L.; Cruz-García, José M.; Defendini-Ávila, Marianna; Delgado-Peraza, Francheska M.; Feliciano-Cancela, Alex J.; Gónzalez-Pérez, Valerie M.; Guiblet, Wilfried; Heredia-Negrón, Aldo; Hernández-Muñiz, Jennifer; Irizarry-González, Lourdes N.; Laboy-Corales, Ángel L.; Llaurador-Caraballo, Gabriela A.; Marín-Maldonado, Frances; Marrero-Llerena, Ulises; Martell-Martínez, Héctor A.; Martínez-Traverso, Idaliz M.; Medina-Ortega, Kiara N.; Méndez-Castellanos, Sonya G.; Menéndez-Serrano, Krizia C.; Morales-Caraballo, Carol I.; Ortiz-DeChoudens, Saryleine; Ortiz-Ortiz, Patricia; Pagán-Torres, Hendrick; Pérez-Afanador, Diana; Quintana-Torres, Enid M.; Ramírez-Aponte, Edwin G.; Riascos-Cuero, Carolina; Rivera-Llovet, Michelle S.; Rivera-Pagán, Ingrid T.; Rivera-Vicéns, Ramón E.; Robles-Juarbe, Fabiola; Rodríguez-Bonilla, Lorraine; Rodríguez-Echevarría, Brian O.; Rodríguez-García, Priscila M.; Rodríguez-Laboy, Abneris E.; Rodríguez-Santiago, Susana; Rojas-Vargas, Michael L.; Rubio-Marrero, Eva N.; Santiago-Colón, Albeliz; Santiago-Ortiz, Jorge L.; Santos-Ramos, Carlos E.; Serrano-González, Joseline; Tamayo-Figueroa, Alina M.; Tascón-Peñaranda, Edna P.; Torres-Castillo, José L.; Valentín-Feliciano, Nelson A.; Valentín-Feliciano, Yashira M.; Vargas-Barreto, Nadyan M.; Vélez-Vázquez, Miguel; Vilanova-Vélez, Luis R.; Zambrana-Echevarría, Cristina; MacKinnon, Christy; Chung, Hui-Min; Kay, Chris; Pinto, Anthony; Kopp, Olga R.; Burkhardt, Joshua; Harward, Chris; Allen, Robert; Bhat, Pavan; Chang, Jimmy Hsiang-Chun; Chen, York; Chesley, Christopher; Cohn, Dara; DuPuis, David; Fasano, Michael; Fazzio, Nicholas; Gavinski, Katherine; Gebreyesus, Heran; Giarla, Thomas; Gostelow, Marcus; Greenstein, Rachel; Gunasinghe, Hashini; Hanson, Casey; Hay, Amanda; He, Tao Jian; Homa, Katie; Howe, Ruth; Howenstein, Jeff; Huang, Henry; Khatri, Aaditya; Kim, Young Lu; Knowles, Olivia; Kong, Sarah; Krock, Rebecca; Kroll, Matt; Kuhn, Julia; Kwong, Matthew; Lee, Brandon; Lee, Ryan; Levine, Kevin; Li, Yedda; Liu, Bo; Liu, Lucy; Liu, Max; Lousararian, Adam; Ma, Jimmy; Mallya, Allyson; Manchee, Charlie; Marcus, Joseph; McDaniel, Stephen; Miller, Michelle L.; Molleston, Jerome M.; Diez, Cristina Montero; Ng, Patrick; Ngai, Natalie; Nguyen, Hien; Nylander, Andrew; Pollack, Jason; Rastogi, Suchita; Reddy, Himabindu; Regenold, Nathaniel; Sarezky, Jon; Schultz, Michael; Shim, Jien; Skorupa, Tara; Smith, Kenneth; Spencer, Sarah J.; Srikanth, Priya; Stancu, Gabriel; Stein, Andrew P.; Strother, Marshall; Sudmeier, Lisa; Sun, Mengyang; Sundaram, Varun; Tazudeen, Noor; Tseng, Alan; Tzeng, Albert; Venkat, Rohit; Venkataram, Sandeep; Waldman, Leah; Wang, Tracy; Yang, Hao; Yu, Jack Y.; Zheng, Yin; Preuss, Mary L.; Garcia, Angelica; Juergens, Matt; Morris, Robert W.; Nagengast, Alexis A.; Azarewicz, Julie; Carr, Thomas J.; Chichearo, Nicole; Colgan, Mike; Donegan, Megan; Gardner, Bob; Kolba, Nik; Krumm, Janice L.; Lytle, Stacey; MacMillian, Laurell; Miller, Mary; Montgomery, Andrew; Moretti, Alysha; Offenbacker, Brittney; Polen, Mike; Toth, John; Woytanowski, John; Kadlec, Lisa; Crawford, Justin; Spratt, Mary L.; Adams, Ashley L.; Barnard, Brianna K.; Cheramie, Martin N.; Eime, Anne M.; Golden, Kathryn L.; Hawkins, Allyson P.; Hill, Jessica E.; Kampmeier, Jessica A.; Kern, Cody D.; Magnuson, Emily E.; Miller, Ashley R.; Morrow, Cody M.; Peairs, Julia C.; Pickett, Gentry L.; Popelka, Sarah A.; Scott, Alexis J.; Teepe, Emily J.; TerMeer, Katie A.; Watchinski, Carmen A.; Watson, Lucas A.; Weber, Rachel E.; Woodard, Kate A.; Barnard, Daron C.; Appiah, Isaac; Giddens, Michelle M.; McNeil, Gerard P.; Adebayo, Adeola; Bagaeva, Kate; Chinwong, Justina; Dol, Chrystel; George, Eunice; Haltaufderhyde, Kirk; Haye, Joanna; Kaur, Manpreet; Semon, Max; Serjanov, Dmitri; Toorie, Anika; Wilson, Christopher; Riddle, Nicole C.; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.
2015-01-01
The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25–50%) than euchromatic reference regions (3–11%). Among the F elements, D. grimshawi has the lowest transposon density (particularly DINE-1: 2% vs. 11–27%). F element genes have larger coding spans, more coding exons, larger introns, and lower codon bias. Comparison of the Effective Number of Codons with the Codon Adaptation Index shows that, in contrast to the other species, codon bias in D. grimshawi F element genes can be attributed primarily to selection instead of mutational biases, suggesting that density and types of transposons affect the degree of local heterochromatin formation. F element genes have lower estimated DNA melting temperatures than D element genes, potentially facilitating transcription through heterochromatin. Most F element genes (~90%) have remained on that element, but the F element has smaller syntenic blocks than genome averages (3.4–3.6 vs. 8.4–8.8 genes per block), indicating greater rates of inversion despite lower rates of recombination. Overall, the F element has maintained characteristics that are distinct from other autosomes in the Drosophila lineage, illuminating the constraints imposed by a heterochromatic milieu. PMID:25740935
THREE-DIMENSIONAL NONLINEAR FINITE ELEMENT MODELING FOR LATERALLY LOADED VERTICAL PILES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Kubilay KELESOĞLU
2006-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a study for laterally loaded free head concrete piles using the finite element method (FEM. The finite element mesh is constituted from three-dimensional elements. The pile and soil boundary are defined cylindrically while lateral load is defined as single concentrated load from the top of the pile head. Various types of soil and pile properties are analysed and the load-deformation curves for different types of soils namely, sands and clays are evaluated.
Plane-wave basis finite elements and boundary elements for three-dimensional wave scattering.
Perrey-Debain, E; Laghrouche, O; Bettess, P; Trevelyan, J
2004-03-15
Classical finite-element and boundary-element formulations for the Helmholtz equation are presented, and their limitations with respect to the number of variables needed to model a wavelength are explained. A new type of approximation for the potential is described in which the usual finite-element and boundary-element shape functions are modified by the inclusion of a set of plane waves, propagating in a range of directions evenly distributed on the unit sphere. Compared with standard piecewise polynomial approximation, the plane-wave basis is shown to give considerable reduction in computational complexity. In practical terms, it is concluded that the frequency for which accurate results can be obtained, using these new techniques, can be up to 60 times higher than that of the conventional finite-element method, and 10 to 15 times higher than that of the conventional boundary-element method.
Cognitive flexibility: A distinct element of performance impairment due to sleep deprivation.
Honn, K A; Hinson, J M; Whitney, P; Van Dongen, H P A
2018-03-14
their response. In phase 1 of the task, subjects were explicitly told which stimuli were assigned to the go and no go sets. In phases 2 and 3, new stimuli were used that were different from those used in phase 1. Subjects were not explicitly told the go/no go mappings and were instead required to use accuracy feedback to learn which stimuli were in the go and nogo sets. Phase 3 continued directly from phase 2 and retained the same stimuli as in phase 2, but there was an unannounced reversal of the stimulus-response mappings. Task results confirmed that sleep deprivation resulted in loss of cognitive flexibility through feedback blunting, and that this effect was not produced solely by (1) general performance impairment because of overwhelming sleep drive; (2) reduced working memory resources available to perform the task; (3) incomplete learning of stimulus-response mappings before the unannounced reversal; or (4) interference with stimulus identification through lapses in vigilant attention. Overall, the results suggest that sleep deprivation causes a fundamental problem with dynamic attentional control. This element of performance impairment due to sleep deprivation appears to be distinct from vigilant attention deficits, and represents a particularly significant challenge for fatigue risk management. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muto, K.; Motosaka, M.; Kamata, M.; Masuda, K.; Urao, K.; Mameda, T.
1985-01-01
In order to investigate the 3-dimensional earthquake response characteristics of an embedded structure with consideration for soil-structure interaction, the authors have developed an analytical method using 3-dimensional hybrid model of boundary elements (BEM) and finite elements (FEM) and have conducted a dynamic analysis of an actual nuclear reactor building. This paper describes a comparative study between two different embedment depths in soil as elastic half-space. As the results, it was found that the earthquake response intensity decreases with the increase of the embedment depth and that this method was confirmed to be effective for investigating the 3-D response characteristics of embedded structures such as deflection pattern of each floor level, floor response spectra in high frequency range. (orig.)
TWO-DIMENSIONAL SIMULATION OF DEBRIS FLOW USING DISTINCT ELEMENT METHOD
LUIS ALONSO SALAS ALVARADO
2006-01-01
Apresenta-se neste trabalho uma ferramenta numérica programada que permite a simulação bidimensional de corridas de detritos usando o Método de Elementos Discretos (DEM) desenvolvido por Cundall em 1979, cuja metodologia resolve as equações do movimento simultaneamente de cada elemento mediante a técnica numérica de Relaxação Dinâmica (MRD) por se tratar de um problema transiente. Esta metologia parte da existência do programa SAND desenvolvido na PUC...
Three-dimensional finite element simulation of a piezoelectric vibrator under gyration.
Kagawa, Y; Tsuchiya, T; Sakai, T
2001-01-01
A three-dimensional finite element modeling is applied to the characteristic evaluation of the piezoelectric gyroscopes. The Coriolis' effect is incorporated with the three-dimensional finite element code that we have already developed. There is no limitation for the vibrational modes and the direction of the gyratory axis. The piezoelectric thin plate gyroscope in plane vibration is again considered for the demonstration. The solution characteristics are compared with those of the two-dimensional modeling and also with the experimental results. Reasonable agreement is achieved. The application is then extended to a bimorph-type gyroscope vibrating out of plane, which is only numerically considered for another example of demonstration. The examination shows that, with this configuration, not only the rotation but also the gyratory axis can be detected in the three-dimensional space.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
K. V. Pagalthivarthi
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Multi-size particulate dense slurry flow through three-dimensional rectangular channel is modeled using penalty finite elements with 8-noded hexahedral elements. The methodology previously developed for two-dimensional channel is extended. The computed eddy viscosity of the pure carrier flow is modified to account for the presence of solid particles. Predictions from Spalart-Almaras and k-ε turbulence models are compared to show consistency of trends in results. Results are also found to compare well with experimental results from the literature.
Nondestructive three-dimensional elemental microanalysis by combined helical x-ray microtomographies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Golosio, Bruno; Somogyi, Andrea; Simionovici, Alexandre; Bleuet, Pierre; Susini, Jean; Lemelle, Laurence
2004-01-01
A nondestructive x-ray technique combining simultaneous transmission, fluorescence, and Compton microtomography has been developed. Simultaneous three-dimensional structural information and three-dimensional internal elemental composition maps down to trace concentration levels have been obtained by a helical scan of the sample through an x-ray microbeam. With this method quantitative three-dimensional chemical distributions can be obtained at (sub)micrometric resolution in a nondestructive and noninvasive way, opening unique possibilities for the microanalysis of rare and fragile samples from several research fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Elliott Ferris
2018-03-01
Full Text Available The identity of most functional elements in the mammalian genome and the phenotypes they impact are unclear. Here, we perform a genome-wide comparative analysis of patterns of accelerated evolution in species with highly distinctive traits to discover candidate functional elements for clinically important phenotypes. We identify accelerated regions (ARs in the elephant, hibernating bat, orca, dolphin, naked mole rat, and thirteen-lined ground squirrel lineages in mammalian conserved regions, uncovering ∼33,000 elements that bind hundreds of different regulatory proteins in humans and mice. ARs in the elephant, the largest land mammal, are uniquely enriched near elephant DNA damage response genes. The genomic hotspot for elephant ARs is the E3 ligase subunit of the Fanconi anemia complex, a master regulator of DNA repair. Additionally, ARs in the six species are associated with specific human clinical phenotypes that have apparent concordance with overt traits in each species.
Construction and validation of a three-dimensional finite element model of degenerative scoliosis.
Zheng, Jie; Yang, Yonghong; Lou, Shuliang; Zhang, Dongsheng; Liao, Shenghui
2015-12-24
With the aging of the population, degenerative scoliosis (DS) incidence rate is increasing. In recent years, increasing research on this topic has been carried out, yet biomechanical research on the subject is seldom seen and in vitro biomechanical model of DS nearly cannot be available. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a complete three-dimensional finite element model of DS in order to build the digital platform for further biomechanical study. A 55-year-old female DS patient (Suer Pan, ID number was P141986) was selected for this study. This study was performed in accordance with the ethical standards of Declaration of Helsinki and its amendments and was approved by the local ethics committee (117 hospital of PLA ethics committee). Spiral computed tomography (CT) scanning was conducted on the patient's lumbar spine from the T12 to S1. CT images were then imported into a finite element modeling system. A three-dimensional solid model was then formed from segmentation of the CT scan. The three-dimensional model of each vertebra was then meshed, and material properties were assigned to each element according to the pathological characteristics of DS. Loads and boundary conditions were then applied in such a manner as to simulate in vitro biomechanical experiments conducted on lumbar segments. The results of the model were then compared with experimental results in order to validate the model. An integral three-dimensional finite element model of DS was built successfully, consisting of 113,682 solid elements, 686 cable elements, 33,329 shell elements, 4968 target elements, 4968 contact elements, totaling 157,635 elements, and 197,374 nodes. The model accurately described the physical features of DS and was geometrically similar to the object of study. The results of analysis with the finite element model agreed closely with in vitro experiments, validating the accuracy of the model. The three-dimensional finite element model of DS built in
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Al Heib, M.M.; Piguet, J.P.; Slimane, K.B. (INERIS, Nancy (France). Ecole des Mines de Nancy)
1993-01-01
The model simulates a longwall mining face. The behaviour of rock mass can be studied by using the distinct element methods. The authors are using numerical models for studying the interaction between the rock mass and the mining zone. The model particularly analyses the processes of the goaf phenomena but not the complete mechanism. The blocks' movement and the consequences to the environment (subsidence, stresses modification, etc...) are studied. The conditions for the first movement of goaf, the evolution and the concerned volume of rock are analysed. The methodology adopted follows three main steps: a consolidation phase without excavation in which the induced joints have a very high friction angle; simulation of longwall mining excavation; and the goaf processes. The joints of the goaf zone have a very small friction angle. The validation of the results is set up between the curve of in situ subsidence measurements and the values of a subsidence model. Thus, a comparison has been achieved between the results of finite element models and distinct element models. The results are encouraging for planification problems. 10 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.
Investigation of a two-dimensional spectral element method for Helmholtz's equation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mehdizadeh, Omid Z.; Paraschivoiu, Marius
2003-01-01
A spectral element method is developed for solving the two-dimensional Helmholtz's equation, which is the equation governing time-harmonic acoustic waves. Computational cost for solving Helmholtz's equation with the Galerkin finite element method increases as the wave number increases, due to the pollution effect. Therefore a more efficient numerical method is sought. The comparison between a spectral element method and a second-order finite element method shows that the spectral element method leads to fewer grid points per wavelength and less computational cost, for the same accuracy. It also offers the same advantage as the finite element method to address complex geometry and general material property. Some simple examples are addressed and compared with the exact solutions to confirm the accuracy of the method. For unbounded problems, the symmetric perfectly matched layer (PML) method is applied to treat the non-reflecting boundary conditions. In the PML method, a fictitious absorbing layer is introduced outside the truncated boundary
Ogre elements - a distinct group of plant Ty3/gypsy-like retrotransposons
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Macas, Jiří; Neumann, Pavel
2007-01-01
Roč. 390, 1-2 (2007), s. 108-116 ISSN 0378-1119 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50510513 Keywords : Ogre elements Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.871, year: 2007
Non-Linear Three Dimensional Finite Elements for Composite Concrete Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O. Kohnehpooshi
Full Text Available Abstract The current investigation focused on the development of effective and suitable modelling of reinforced concrete component with and without strengthening. The modelling includes physical and constitutive models. New interface elements have been developed, while modified constitutive law have been applied and new computational algorithm is utilised. The new elements are the Truss-link element to model the interaction between concrete and reinforcement bars, the interface element between two plate bending elements and the interface element to represent the interfacial behaviour between FRP, steel plates and concrete. Nonlinear finite-element (FE codes were developed with pre-processing. The programme was written using FORTRAN language. The accuracy and efficiency of the finite element programme were achieved by analyzing several examples from the literature. The application of the 3D FE code was further enhanced by carrying out the numerical analysis of the three dimensional finite element analysis of FRP strengthened RC beams, as well as the 3D non-linear finite element analysis of girder bridge. Acceptable distributions of slip, deflection, stresses in the concrete and FRP plate have also been found. These results show that the new elements are effective and appropriate to be used for structural component modelling.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tony S Cardno
Full Text Available Frameshifting during translation of viral or in rare cases cellular mRNA results in the synthesis of proteins from two overlapping reading frames within the same mRNA. In HIV-1 the protease, reverse transcriptase, and integrase enzymes are in a second reading frame relative to the structural group-specific antigen (gag, and their synthesis is dependent upon frameshifting. This ensures that a strictly regulated ratio of structural proteins and enzymes, which is critical for HIV-1 replication and viral infectivity, is maintained during protein synthesis. The frameshift element in HIV-1 RNA is an attractive target for the development of a new class of anti HIV-1 drugs. However, a number of examples are now emerging of human genes using -1 frameshifting, such as PEG10 and CCR5. In this study we have compared the HIV-1 and PEG10 frameshift elements and shown they have distinct functional characteristics. Frameshifting occurs at several points within each element. Moreover, frameshift modulators that were isolated by high-throughput screening of a library of 114,000 lead-like compounds behaved differently with the PEG10 frameshift element. The most effective compounds affecting the HIV-1 element enhanced frameshifting by 2.5-fold at 10 μM in two different frameshift reporter assay systems. HIV-1 protease:gag protein ratio was affected by a similar amount in a specific assay of virally-infected cultured cell, but the modulation of frameshifting of the first-iteration compounds was not sufficient to show significant effects on viral infectivity. Importantly, two compounds did not affect frameshifting with the human PEG10 element, while one modestly inhibited rather than enhanced frameshifting at the human element. These studies indicate that frameshift elements have unique characteristics that may allow targeting of HIV-1 and of other viruses specifically for development of antiviral therapeutic molecules without effect on human genes like PEG10 that
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yoon, Gil Ho; Joung, Young Soo; Kim, Yoon Young
2005-01-01
The topology design optimization of “three-dimensional geometrically-nonlinear” continuum structures is still a difficult problem not only because of its problem size but also the occurrence of unstable continuum finite elements during the design optimization. To overcome this difficulty, the ele...
Three dimensional finite element analysis of layered fiber-reinforced composite materials
Lee, J. D.
1980-01-01
A three-dimensional finite element analysis was performed for a biaxially loaded composite laminate (with a centered hole) consisting of several fiber-reinforced composite layers each with a specified fiber orientation. The detailed stress distribution around the hole was determined. Also, the locations of initial damage zones due to different failure mechanisms were indicated.
Finite element simulation of a two-dimensional standing wave thermoacoustic engine
de Jong, Anne; Wijnant, Ysbrand H.; de Boer, Andries
2013-01-01
Thermoacoustic engines use heat to produce acoustic power. The subject of this manuscript is modeling of thermoacoustic engines. A finite element simulation has been performed on a theoretical example of a two-dimensional standing wave thermoacoustic engine. The simulation solves the linearized
A simplified two-dimensional boundary element method with arbitrary uniform mean flow
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bassem Barhoumi
2017-07-01
Full Text Available To reduce computational costs, an improved form of the frequency domain boundary element method (BEM is proposed for two-dimensional radiation and propagation acoustic problems in a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. The boundary integral equation (BIE representation solves the two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation (CHE and its fundamental solution, which must satisfy a new Sommerfeld radiation condition (SRC in the physical space. In order to facilitate conventional formulations, the variables of the advanced form are expressed only in terms of the acoustic pressure as well as its normal and tangential derivatives, and their multiplication operators are based on the convected Greenâs kernel and its modified derivative. The proposed approach significantly reduces the CPU times of classical computational codes for modeling acoustic domains with arbitrary mean flow. It is validated by a comparison with the analytical solutions for the sound radiation problems of monopole, dipole and quadrupole sources in the presence of a subsonic uniform flow with arbitrary orientation. Keywords: Two-dimensional convected Helmholtz equation, Two-dimensional convected Greenâs function, Two-dimensional convected boundary element method, Arbitrary uniform mean flow, Two-dimensional acoustic sources
Three-dimensional linear fracture mechanics analysis by a displacement-hybrid finite-element model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Atluri, S.N.; Kathiresan, K.; Kobayashi, A.S.
1975-01-01
This paper deals with a finite-element procedures for the calculation of modes I, II and III stress intensity factors, which vary, along an arbitrarily curved three-dimensional crack front in a structural component. The finite-element model is based on a modified variational principle of potential energy with relaxed continuity requirements for displacements at the inter-element boundary. The variational principle is a three-field principle, with the arbitrary interior displacements for the element, interelement boundary displacements, and element boundary tractions as variables. The unknowns in the final algebraic system of equations, in the present displacement hybrid finite element model, are the nodal displacements and the three elastic stress intensity factors. Special elements, which contain proper square root and inverse square root crack front variations in displacements and stresses, respectively, are used in a fixed region near the crack front. Interelement displacement compatibility is satisfied by assuming an independent interelement boundary displacement field, and using a Lagrange multiplier technique to enforce such interelement compatibility. These Lagrangean multipliers, which are physically the boundary tractions, are assumed from an equilibrated stress field derived from three-dimensional Beltrami (or Maxwell-Morera) stress functions that are complete. However, considerable care should be exercised in the use of these stress functions such that the stresses produced by any of these stress function components are not linearly dependent
Fei, Qi; Li, Qiu-jun; Yang, Yong; Li, Dong; Tang, Hai; Li, Jin-jun; Wang, Bing-qiang; Wang, Yi-peng
2010-11-09
To build a three-dimensional finite element model of thoracolumbar spine with osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture (OVCF) and analyze its biomechanical change. The T10-L2 segment data were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of an elderly female with a single T12 OVCF. A three-dimensional finite element model of thoracolumbar spine was constructed with the MIMICS and ABAQUS software. The model was composed of bony vertebrae, articulating facets, intervertebral disc and associated ligaments. The basic stress analysis of T10-L2 motion segment was made for different material properties of bone, ligaments and facet joints contacting frictional property. The stress on the annulus fiber, nucleus pulposus, endplate and facet joints under axial pressure (0.3 MPa, 1.0 MPa, 4.0 MPa) were analyzed. A three-dimensional finite element model of human T12-L2 motion segment had 617468 elements. And the stress was higher in vertebral body than posterior structure. The distribution of pressure stresses in intervertebral disc was asymmetrical. The stress increased with a rising axial pressure. 3D finite element model of thoracolumbar OVCF and adjacent segments are successfully established. The results of stress analysis are both feasible and reliable.
Three-dimensional finite element simulation of intermingled-fiber hybrid composite behavior
Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.
1992-01-01
Three-dimensional finite element methods and the intraply hybrid micromechanics equations are used to predict composite properties for a unidirectional graphite-epoxy primary composite with S-glass fibers used as hybridizing fibers. The micromechanics equations are embedded in a computer code ICAN (Integrated Composites Analyzer). The three-dimensional finite element model consists of three-by-three unit cell array, with a total fiber volume ratio of 0.54. There is a good agreement between the composite properties and microstresses obtained from both methods. The results indicate that the finite element methods and micromechanics equations can be used to obtain the properties of intermingled hybrid composites needed for analysis/design of hybrid composite structures.
Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
1999-01-01
Test problems are used to examine the performance of several one-dimensional numerical schemes based on the space-time conservation and solution element (CE/SE) method. Investigated in this paper are the CE/SE schemes constructed previously for solving the linear unsteady advection-diffusion equation and the schemes derived here for solving the nonlinear viscous and inviscid Burgers equations. In comparison with the numerical solutions obtained using several traditional finite-difference schemes with similar accuracy, the CE/SE solutions display much lower numerical dissipation and dispersion errors.
Crozaz, Ghislaine; Mckay, Gordon
1990-01-01
Data are presented on ion microprobe measurements of REE and selected trace element abundances in individual grains of merrillite, fassaite, olivine, kirschsteinite, and plagioclase of Lewis Cliff 86010 (LEW 86010) meteorite and in merrillite and fassaite grains of Angra dos Reis (ADOR). Results show a close relationship between the two meteorites and support a magmatic origin for LEW 86010. However, the measurements indicate that, despite numerous common characteristics, the two meteorites must have been produced in separate magmatic events involving similar but distinct processes and parent melts.
Wang, Q; Yang, Y; Fei, Q; Li, D; Li, J J; Meng, H; Su, N; Fan, Z H; Wang, B Q
2017-06-06
Objective: To build a three-dimensional finite element models of a modified posterior cervical single open-door laminoplasty with short-segmental lateral mass screws fusion. Methods: The C(2)-C(7) segmental data were obtained from computed tomography (CT) scans of a male patient with cervical spondylotic myelopathy and spinal stenosis.Three-dimensional finite element models of a modified cervical single open-door laminoplasty (before and after surgery) were constructed by the combination of software package MIMICS, Geomagic and ABAQUS.The models were composed of bony vertebrae, articulating facets, intervertebral disc and associated ligaments.The loads of moments 1.5Nm at different directions (flexion, extension, lateral bending and axial rotation)were applied at preoperative model to calculate intersegmental ranges of motion.The results were compared with the previous studies to verify the validation of the models. Results: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty had 102258 elements (preoperative model) and 161 892 elements (postoperative model) respectively, including C(2-7) six bony vertebraes, C(2-3)-C(6-7) five intervertebral disc, main ligaments and lateral mass screws.The intersegmental responses at the preoperative model under the loads of moments 1.5 Nm at different directions were similar to the previous published data. Conclusion: Three-dimensional finite element models of the modified cervical single open- door laminoplasty were successfully established and had a good biological fidelity, which can be used for further study.
Distinct functional constraints partition sequence conservation in a cis-regulatory element.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Antoine Barrière
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Different functional constraints contribute to different evolutionary rates across genomes. To understand why some sequences evolve faster than others in a single cis-regulatory locus, we investigated function and evolutionary dynamics of the promoter of the Caenorhabditis elegans unc-47 gene. We found that this promoter consists of two distinct domains. The proximal promoter is conserved and is largely sufficient to direct appropriate spatial expression. The distal promoter displays little if any conservation between several closely related nematodes. Despite this divergence, sequences from all species confer robustness of expression, arguing that this function does not require substantial sequence conservation. We showed that even unrelated sequences have the ability to promote robust expression. A prominent feature shared by all of these robustness-promoting sequences is an AT-enriched nucleotide composition consistent with nucleosome depletion. Because general sequence composition can be maintained despite sequence turnover, our results explain how different functional constraints can lead to vastly disparate rates of sequence divergence within a promoter.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, H.W.; Vaish, A.K.; Porter, F.L.; McGeorge, R.
1975-01-01
A modelling technique which can be used to obtain the dynamic response of a floating nuclear plant (FNP) moored in an artificial basin is presented. Hydrodynamic effects of the seawater in the basin have a significant impact on the response of the FNP and must be included. A three dimensional model of the platform and mooring system (using beam elements) is used, with the hydrodynamic effects represented by added mass and damping. For an essentially square plant in close proximity to the site structures, the three dimensional nature of the basin must be considered in evaluating the added mass and damping. A method for estimating these effects from planer finite element analyses is developed. The accuracy of the planar finite element model in obtaining two-dimensional added mass and damping is shown through comparison with existing the documented results. In addition, a comparison is shown for open ocean added mass and damping with a three-dimensional solution using velocity potential functions. It is concluded that the overall technique results in a reasonable and conservative calculation of the dynamic response of the floating nuclear plant. (orig./HP) [de
Calculation of two-dimensional thermal transients by the method of finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fontoura Rodrigues, J.L.A. da.
1980-08-01
The unsteady linear heat conduction analysis throught anisotropic and/or heterogeneous matter, in either two-dimensional fields with any kind of geometry or three-dimensional fields with axial symmetry is presented. The boundary conditions and the internal heat generation are supposed time - independent. The solution is obtained by modal analysis employing the finite element method under Galerkin formulation. Optionally, it can be used with a reduced resolution method called Stoker Economizing Method wich allows a decrease on the program processing costs. (Author) [pt
Zeng, Zhi-Li; Cheng, Li-Ming; Zhu, Rui; Wang, Jian-Jie; Yu, Yan
2011-08-23
To build an effective nonlinear three-dimensional finite-element (FE) model of T(11)-L(3) segments for a further biomechanical study of thoracolumbar spine. The CT (computed tomography) scan images of healthy adult T(11)-L(3) segments were imported into software Simpleware 2.0 to generate a triangular mesh model. Using software Geomagic 8 for model repair and optimization, a solid model was generated into the finite element software Abaqus 6.9. The reasonable element C3D8 was selected for bone structures. Created between bony endplates, the intervertebral disc was subdivided into nucleus pulposus and annulus fibrosus (44% nucleus, 56% annulus). The nucleus was filled with 5 layers of 8-node solid elements and annulus reinforced by 8 crisscross collagenous fiber layers. The nucleus and annulus were meshed by C3D8RH while the collagen fibers meshed by two node-truss elements. The anterior (ALL) and posterior (PLL) longitudinal ligaments, flavum (FL), supraspinous (SSL), interspinous (ISL) and intertransverse (ITL) ligaments were modeled with S4R shell elements while capsular ligament (CL) was modeled with 3-node shell element. All surrounding ligaments were represented by envelope of 1 mm uniform thickness. The discs and bone structures were modeled with hyper-elastic and elasto-plastic material laws respectively while the ligaments governed by visco-elastic material law. The nonlinear three-dimensional finite-element model of T(11)-L(3) segments was generated and its efficacy verified through validating the geometric similarity and disc load-displacement and stress distribution under the impact of violence. Using ABAQUS/ EXPLICIT 6.9 the explicit dynamic finite element solver, the impact test was simulated in vitro. In this study, a 3-dimensional, nonlinear FE model including 5 vertebrae, 4 intervertebral discs and 7 ligaments consisted of 78 887 elements and 71 939 nodes. The model had good geometric similarity under the same conditions. The results of FEM
Pocock, Ginger M; Becker, Jordan T; Swanson, Chad M; Ahlquist, Paul; Sherer, Nathan M
2016-04-01
Retroviruses encode cis-acting RNA nuclear export elements that override nuclear retention of intron-containing viral mRNAs including the full-length, unspliced genomic RNAs (gRNAs) packaged into assembling virions. The HIV-1 Rev-response element (RRE) recruits the cellular nuclear export receptor CRM1 (also known as exportin-1/XPO1) using the viral protein Rev, while simple retroviruses encode constitutive transport elements (CTEs) that directly recruit components of the NXF1(Tap)/NXT1(p15) mRNA nuclear export machinery. How gRNA nuclear export is linked to trafficking machineries in the cytoplasm upstream of virus particle assembly is unknown. Here we used long-term (>24 h), multicolor live cell imaging to directly visualize HIV-1 gRNA nuclear export, translation, cytoplasmic trafficking, and virus particle production in single cells. We show that the HIV-1 RRE regulates unique, en masse, Rev- and CRM1-dependent "burst-like" transitions of mRNAs from the nucleus to flood the cytoplasm in a non-localized fashion. By contrast, the CTE derived from Mason-Pfizer monkey virus (M-PMV) links gRNAs to microtubules in the cytoplasm, driving them to cluster markedly to the centrosome that forms the pericentriolar core of the microtubule-organizing center (MTOC). Adding each export element to selected heterologous mRNAs was sufficient to confer each distinct export behavior, as was directing Rev/CRM1 or NXF1/NXT1 transport modules to mRNAs using a site-specific RNA tethering strategy. Moreover, multiple CTEs per transcript enhanced MTOC targeting, suggesting that a cooperative mechanism links NXF1/NXT1 to microtubules. Combined, these results reveal striking, unexpected features of retroviral gRNA nucleocytoplasmic transport and demonstrate roles for mRNA export elements that extend beyond nuclear pores to impact gRNA distribution in the cytoplasm.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Midtgaard, Ole-Morten
1997-12-31
This thesis considers the feasibility of doing calculations to optimize electrical machines without the need to build expensive prototypes. It deals with the construction and assessment of new, hierarchical, hexahedral edge elements for three-dimensional computations of eddy currents with the electric vector potential formulation. The new elements, five in all, gave up to second-order approximations for both the magnetic field and the current density. Theoretical arguments showed these elements to be more economical for a given polynomial order of the approximated fields than the serendipity family of nodal elements. Further it was pointed out how the support of a source field computed by using edge elements could be made very small provided that a proper spanning tree was used in the edge element mesh. This was exploited for the voltage forcing technique, where source fields were used as basis functions, with unknown total currents in voltage forced conductors as degrees of freedom. The practical assessment of the edge elements proved the accuracy to improve with increasing polynomial order, both for local and global quantities. The most economical element was, however, one giving only complete first-order approximations for both fields. Further, the edge elements turned out to be better than the nodal elements also in practice. For the voltage forcing technique, source field basis functions which had small support, resulted in large reduction of the CPU-time for solving the main equation system, compared to source fields which had large support. The new elements can be used in a p-type adaptive scheme, and they should also be applicable for other tangentially continuous field problems. 67 refs., 34 figs., 10 tabs.
A distinct element approach to model the interaction between debris avalanches and embankments
Salciarini, Diana; Tamagnini, Claudio; Conversini, Pietro; Rapinesi, Silvia
2010-05-01
Protective measures against hazards associated with debris flows and debris avalanches, include a variety of barriers such as rock/boulder fences, deflection berms, gabions and earthfill barriers, which are placed along the potential flow path where the debris is transported and deposited or close to infrastructures potentially at risk. Recent progress in the field of numerical methods for the lagrangian analysis of discrete particulate systems provides an opportunity to develop a rational design strategy for earthfill barriers as well as other protection methods against debris avalanches. In this work, the Discrete Element Method (DEM) has been used to model the interaction between such natural phenomena and embankments. In the DEM approach, the motion of a granular mass subject to gravity is simulated by numerically solving Newton's equation of motion for each particle considered as an individual body. A parametric study based on a case-history from a marginally stable rock slope near Assisi, in central Italy, has been conducted. The embankment has been simulated in two different ways. In the first case, the embankment acts as a rigid body. In this case, a series of DEM simulations has been conducted to investigate the effect of the influence of the geometry of the sliding mass, slope and barrier, and strength properties of the granular mass on the main design parameters for the barrier. Results show that the barriers considered are all effective in retaining the debris mass; less than 6% of the initial rock mass passes the barrier. The predicted efficiency of the barriers is primarily affected by: i) barrier height; ii) run-out distance; iii) macroscopic friction angle of the debris; and, iv) size of the storage area left between the barrier and the slope base. For the limited range of values considered, the slope angle has only a minor impact on the computed results. In the second case the embankment has been treated as a deformable body, which can slide at the
Three dimensional finite element methods: Their role in the design of DC accelerator systems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Podaru, Nicolae C.; Gottdang, A.; Mous, D. J. W. [High Voltage Engineering Europa B.V., P.O. Box 99, 3800 AB, Amersfoort (Netherlands)
2013-04-19
High Voltage Engineering has designed, built and tested a 2 MV dual irradiation system that will be applied for radiation damage studies and ion beam material modification. The system consists of two independent accelerators which support simultaneous proton and electron irradiation (energy range 100 keV - 2 MeV) of target sizes of up to 300 Multiplication-Sign 300 mm{sup 2}. Three dimensional finite element methods were used in the design of various parts of the system. The electrostatic solver was used to quantify essential parameters of the solid-state power supply generating the DC high voltage. The magnetostatic solver and ray tracing were used to optimize the electron/ion beam transport. Close agreement between design and measurements of the accelerator characteristics as well as beam performance indicate the usefulness of three dimensional finite element methods during accelerator system design.
Three-dimensional dynamic response modeling of floating nuclear plants using finite element methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, H.W.; Vaish, A.K.; Porter, F.L.; McGeorge, R.
1976-01-01
A modelling technique which can be used to obtain the dynamic response of a floating nuclear plant (FNP) moored in an artificial basin is presented. Hydrodynamic effects of the seawater in the basin have a significant impact on the response of the FNP and must be included. A three-dimensional model of the platform and mooring system (using beam elements) is used, with the hydrodynamic effects represented by added mass and damping. For an essentially square plant in close proximity to the site structures, the three-dimensional nature of the basin must be considered in evaluating the added mass and damping. However, direct solutions for hydrodynamic effects with complex basin geometry are not, as yet, available. A method for estimating these effects from planar finite element analysis is developed. (Auth.)
Finite Element Model for Failure Study of Two-Dimensional Triaxially Braided Composite
Li, Xuetao; Binienda, Wieslaw K.; Goldberg, Robert K.
2010-01-01
A new three-dimensional finite element model of two-dimensional triaxially braided composites is presented in this paper. This meso-scale modeling technique is used to examine and predict the deformation and damage observed in tests of straight sided specimens. A unit cell based approach is used to take into account the braiding architecture as well as the mechanical properties of the fiber tows, the matrix and the fiber tow-matrix interface. A 0 deg / plus or minus 60 deg. braiding configuration has been investigated by conducting static finite element analyses. Failure initiation and progressive degradation has been simulated in the fiber tows by use of the Hashin failure criteria and a damage evolution law. The fiber tow-matrix interface was modeled by using a cohesive zone approach to capture any fiber-matrix debonding. By comparing the analytical results to those obtained experimentally, the applicability of the developed model was assessed and the failure process was investigated.
Three-dimensional finite element modelling of the uniaxial tension test
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Østergaard, Lennart; Stang, Henrik
2002-01-01
. One of the most direct methods for determination of the σ-w relationship is the uniaxial tension test, where a notched specimen is pulled apart while the tensile load and the crack opening displacement is observed. This method is appealing since the interpretation is straightforward. The method...... is examined in this paper through three dimensional finite element analyses. It is concluded that the interpretation of the uniaxial tension test is indeed straightforward, if the testing machine stiffness is sufficiently high....
Development of three-dimensional transport code by the double finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Toichiro
1985-01-01
Development of a three-dimensional neutron transport code by the double finite element method is described. Both of the Galerkin and variational methods are adopted to solve the problem, and then the characteristics of them are compared. Computational results of the collocation method, developed as a technique for the vaviational one, are illustrated in comparison with those of an Ssub(n) code. (author)
Two-dimensional finite element neutron diffusion analysis using hierarchic shape functions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carpenter, D.C.
1997-01-01
Recent advances have been made in the use of p-type finite element method (FEM) for structural and fluid dynamics problems that hold promise for reactor physics problems. These advances include using hierarchic shape functions, element-by-element iterative solvers and more powerful mapping techniques. Use of the hierarchic shape functions allows greater flexibility and efficiency in implementing energy-dependent flux expansions and incorporating localized refinement of the solution space. The irregular matrices generated by the p-type FEM can be solved efficiently using element-by-element conjugate gradient iterative solvers. These solvers do not require storage of either the global or local stiffness matrices and can be highly vectorized. Mapping techniques based on blending function interpolation allow exact representation of curved boundaries using coarse element grids. These features were implemented in a developmental two-dimensional neutron diffusion program based on the use of hierarchic shape functions (FEM2DH). Several aspects in the effective use of p-type analysis were explored. Two choices of elemental preconditioning were examined--the proper selection of the polynomial shape functions and the proper number of functions to use. Of the five shape function polynomials tested, the integral Legendre functions were the most effective. The serendipity set of functions is preferable over the full tensor product set. Two global preconditioners were also examined--simple diagonal and incomplete Cholesky. The full effectiveness of the finite element methodology was demonstrated on a two-region, two-group cylindrical problem but solved in the x-y coordinate space, using a non-structured element grid. The exact, analytic eigenvalue solution was achieved with FEM2DH using various combinations of element grids and flux expansions
Two Dimensional Complex Wavenumber Dispersion Analysis using B-Spline Finite Elements Method
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Y. Mirbagheri
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Grid dispersion is one of the criteria of validating the finite element method (FEM in simulating acoustic or elastic wave propagation. The difficulty usually arisen when using this method for simulation of wave propagation problems, roots in the discontinuous field which causes the magnitude and the direction of the wave speed vector, to vary from one element to the adjacent one. To solve this problem and improve the response accuracy, two approaches are usually suggested: changing the integration method and changing shape functions. The Finite Element iso-geometric analysis (IGA is used in this research. In the IGA, the B-spline or non-uniform rational B-spline (NURBS functions are used which improve the response accuracy, especially in one-dimensional structural dynamics problems. At the boundary of two adjacent elements, the degree of continuity of the shape functions used in IGA can be higher than zero. In this research, for the first time, a two dimensional grid dispersion analysis has been used for wave propagation in plane strain problems using B-spline FEM is presented. Results indicate that, for the same degree of freedom, the grid dispersion of B-spline FEM is about half of the grid dispersion of the classic FEM.
Prediction of Three-Dimensional Milling Forces Based on Finite Element
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lida Zhu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The model of milling force is mainly proposed to predict and analyze the cutting process based on finite element method in this paper. Firstly, milling finite element model is given based on orthogonal cutting principle, and then the influence laws of cutting parameters on chip formation are analyzed by using different simulation parameters. In addition, the three-dimensional milling forces are obtained from finite element models. Finally, the values of milling force by the milling experiment are also compared and analyzed with the simulation values to verify the feasibility and reasonability. It can be shown that milling forces match well between simulation and experiment results, which can provide many good basic data and analysis methods to optimize the machining parameters, reduce tool wear, and improve the workpiece surface roughness and adapt to the programming strategy of high speed machining.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulak, R.F.; Belytschko, T.B.
1975-09-01
The formulation of a finite-element procedure for the implicit transient and static analysis of plate/shell type structures in three-dimensional space is described. The triangular plate/shell element can sustain both membrane and bending stresses. Both geometric and material nonlinearities can be treated, and an elastic-plastic material law has been incorporated. The formulation permits the element to undergo arbitrarily large rotations and translations; but, in its present form it is restricted to small strains. The discretized equations of motion are obtained by a stiffness method. An implicit integration algorithm based on trapezoidal integration formulas is used to integrate the discretized equations of motion in time. To ensure numerical stability, an iterative solution procedure with equilibrium checks is used
Application of finite-element method to three-dimensional nuclear reactor analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, K.Y.
1985-01-01
The application of the finite element method to solve a realistic one-or-two energy group, multiregion, three-dimensional static neutron diffusion problem is studied. Linear, quadratic, and cubic serendipity box-shape elements are used. The resulting sets of simultaneous algebraic equations with thousands of unknowns are solved by the conjugate gradient method, without forming the large coefficient matrix explicitly. This avoids the complicated data management schemes to store such a large coefficient matrix. Three finite-element computer programs: FEM-LINEAR, FEM-QUADRATIC and FEM-CUBIC were developed, using the linear, quadratic, and cubic box-shape elements respectively. They are self-contained, using simple nodal labeling schemes, without the need for separate finite element mesh generating routines. The efficiency and accuracy of these computer programs are then compared among themselves, and with other computer codes. The cubic element model is not recommended for practical usage because it gives almost identical results as the quadratic model, but it requires considerably longer computation time. The linear model is less accurate than the quadratic model, but it requires much shorter computation time. For a large 3-D problem, the linear model is to be preferred since it gives acceptable accuracy. The quadratic model may be used if improved accuracy is desired
Holberg, Christof; Schwenzer, Katja; Rudzki-Janson, Ingrid
2005-03-01
The prediction of soft tissue esthetics is important for achieving an optimal esthetic outcome in orthodontic treatment planning. Applicable procedures have so far been restricted to two-dimensional profile predictions that have not proven to be very reliable. The goal of this investigation was therefore to develop a novel finite element-based procedure that allows a three-dimensional, easily visualized, quantitative analysis and prediction of soft tissue behavior for the clinician. The procedure to be developed should be easy to handle and not entail any additional radiation exposure for the patient. Using a three-dimensional scanner, the facial surfaces of 20 probands were digitalized and individual FEM models were generated. After reduction of data redundancy via several conversion steps, a patient-specific simulation model was prepared consisting of 20,000 to 40,000 individual elements to which specific physical properties could be assigned. The average time required for generating a virtual model was 50 minutes. Problems occurring during model generation were rare (mainly shadowing phenomena and movement artifacts). The procedure outlined herein makes the reliable generation of patient-specific simulation models possible for facial soft tissue prediction in orthodontics.
Three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a nuclear waste truck cask
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, J.D.
1985-01-01
This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element impact analysis of a hypothetical accident event for the preliminary design of a shipping cask which is used to transport radioactive waste by standard tractor-semitrailer truck. The nonlinear dynamic structural analysis code DYNA3D run on Sandia's Cray-1 computer was used to calculate the effects of the cask's closure-end impacting a rigid frictionless surface on an edge of its external impact limiter after a 30-foot fall. The center of gravity of the cask (made of 304 stainless steel and depleted uranium) was assumed to be directly above the impact point. An elastic-plastic material constitutive model was used to calculate the nonlinear response of the cask components to the transient loading. Interactive color graphics (PATRAN and MOVIE BYU) were used throughout the analysis, proving to be extremely helpful for generation and verification of the geometry and boundary conditions of the finite element model and for interpretation of the analysis results. Results from the calculations show the cask sustained large localized deformations. However, these were almost entirely confined to the impact limiters built into the cask. The closure sections were determined to remain intact, and leakage would not be expected after the event. As an example of a large three-dimensional finite element dynamic impact calculation, this analysis can serve as an excellent benchmark for computer aided design procedures
Structural dynamic modeling for rotating blades using three dimensional finite elements
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kee, Young Jung; Shin, Sang Joon [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2015-04-15
A precise analysis model was developed in this paper to investigate the dynamic characteristics of rotating composite blades. An eighteen-node solid-shell finite element was used to model the blade structures. This study is focused on geometrically nonlinear problems, because the material is assumed linear elastic. Incremental total Lagrangian approach was adopted to allow estimations on arbitrarily large rotations and displacements. The equations of motion for the finite element model were derived by using Hamilton's principle, and the resulting nonlinear equilibrium equations were solved by applying Newton-Raphson method combined with load control. A modified stress-strain relation was adopted to avoid the transverse shear locking problem, and fairly reliable results were obtained with no sign of locking phenomenon. The obtained numerical results were compared to several benchmark problems, and the results show a good correlation with the experimental data and other finite element analysis results. The vibration characteristics of shell- and beam-type blades were investigated. For shell-type blades, the dynamic characteristics may be significantly influenced by blade curvature, pre-twist, and geometric nonlinearity. For beam-type blades, one-dimensional beam and three-dimensional solid models offer comparable predictions for the straight and large aspect ratio blade. As blade aspect ratio decreases, considerable differences appear in the bending and torsion modes. The tip sweep angle tends to decrease the flap bending frequencies, but the torsion frequency increases with the tip sweep angle.
Structural dynamic modeling for rotating blades using three dimensional finite elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kee, Young Jung; Shin, Sang Joon
2015-01-01
A precise analysis model was developed in this paper to investigate the dynamic characteristics of rotating composite blades. An eighteen-node solid-shell finite element was used to model the blade structures. This study is focused on geometrically nonlinear problems, because the material is assumed linear elastic. Incremental total Lagrangian approach was adopted to allow estimations on arbitrarily large rotations and displacements. The equations of motion for the finite element model were derived by using Hamilton's principle, and the resulting nonlinear equilibrium equations were solved by applying Newton-Raphson method combined with load control. A modified stress-strain relation was adopted to avoid the transverse shear locking problem, and fairly reliable results were obtained with no sign of locking phenomenon. The obtained numerical results were compared to several benchmark problems, and the results show a good correlation with the experimental data and other finite element analysis results. The vibration characteristics of shell- and beam-type blades were investigated. For shell-type blades, the dynamic characteristics may be significantly influenced by blade curvature, pre-twist, and geometric nonlinearity. For beam-type blades, one-dimensional beam and three-dimensional solid models offer comparable predictions for the straight and large aspect ratio blade. As blade aspect ratio decreases, considerable differences appear in the bending and torsion modes. The tip sweep angle tends to decrease the flap bending frequencies, but the torsion frequency increases with the tip sweep angle.
The dimension split element-free Galerkin method for three-dimensional potential problems
Meng, Z. J.; Cheng, H.; Ma, L. D.; Cheng, Y. M.
2018-02-01
This paper presents the dimension split element-free Galerkin (DSEFG) method for three-dimensional potential problems, and the corresponding formulae are obtained. The main idea of the DSEFG method is that a three-dimensional potential problem can be transformed into a series of two-dimensional problems. For these two-dimensional problems, the improved moving least-squares (IMLS) approximation is applied to construct the shape function, which uses an orthogonal function system with a weight function as the basis functions. The Galerkin weak form is applied to obtain a discretized system equation, and the penalty method is employed to impose the essential boundary condition. The finite difference method is selected in the splitting direction. For the purposes of demonstration, some selected numerical examples are solved using the DSEFG method. The convergence study and error analysis of the DSEFG method are presented. The numerical examples show that the DSEFG method has greater computational precision and computational efficiency than the IEFG method.
Latif, A. Afiff; Ibrahim, M. Rasidi; Rahim, E. A.; Cheng, K.
2017-04-01
The conventional milling has many difficulties in the processing of hard and brittle material. Hence, ultrasonic vibration assisted milling (UVAM) was proposed to overcome this problem. The objective of this research is to study the behavior of compliance mechanism (CM) as the critical part affect the performance of the UVAM. The design of the CM was investigated and focuses on 1-Dimensional. Experimental result was obtained from a portable laser digital vibrometer. While the 1-Dimensional value such as safety factor, deformation of hinges and stress analysis are obtained from finite elements simulation. Finally, the findings help to find the best design judging from the most travelled distance of the piezoelectric actuators. In addition, this paper would provide a clear picture the behavior of the CM embedded in the UVAM, which can provide good data and to improve the machining on reducing tool wear, and lower cutting force on the workpiece surface roughness.
Numerical simulation of potato slices drying using a two-dimensional finite element model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Beigi Mohsen
2017-01-01
Full Text Available An experimental and numerical study was conducted to investigate the process of potato slices drying. For simulating the moisture transfer in the samples and predict the dehydration curves, a two-dimensional finite element model was developed and programmed in Compaq Visual Fortran, version 6.5. The model solved the Fick’s second law for slab in a shrinkage system to calculate the unsteady two-dimensional moisture transmission in rectangular coordinates (x,y. Moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient were determined by minimizing the sum squares of residuals between experimental and numerical predicted data. Shrinkage kinetics of the potato slices during dehydration was determined experimentally and found to be a linear function of removed moisture. The determined parameters were used in the mathematical model. The predicted moisture content values were compared to the experimental data and the validation results demonstrated that the dynamic drying curves were predicted by the methodology very well.
One-dimensional finite-elements method for the analysis of whispering gallery microresonators.
Bagheri-Korani, Ebrahim; Mohammad-Taheri, Mahmoud; Shahabadi, Mahmoud
2014-07-01
By taking advantage of axial symmetry of the planar whispering gallery microresonators, the three-dimensional (3D) problem of the resonator is reduced to a two-dimensional (2D) one; thus, only the cross section of the resonator needs to be analyzed. Then, the proposed formulation, which works based on a combination of the finite-elements method (FEM) and Fourier expansion of the fields, can be applied to the 2D problem. First, the axial field variation is expressed in terms of a Fourier series. Then, a FEM method is applied to the radial field variation. This formulation yields an eigenvalue problem with sparse matrices and can be solved using a well-known numerical technique. This method takes into account both the radiation loss and the dielectric loss; hence, it works efficiently either for high number or low number modes. Efficiency of the method was investigated by comparison of the results with those of commercial software.
Three-dimensional elemental mapping at the atomic scale in bimetallic nanocrystals.
Goris, Bart; De Backer, Annick; Van Aert, Sandra; Gómez-Graña, Sergio; Liz-Marzán, Luis M; Van Tendeloo, Gustaaf; Bals, Sara
2013-09-11
A thorough understanding of the three-dimensional (3D) atomic structure and composition of core-shell nanostructures is indispensable to obtain a deeper insight on their physical behavior. Such 3D information can be reconstructed from two-dimensional (2D) projection images using electron tomography. Recently, different electron tomography techniques have enabled the 3D characterization of a variety of nanostructures down to the atomic level. However, these methods have all focused on the investigation of nanomaterials containing only one type of chemical element. Here, we combine statistical parameter estimation theory with compressive sensing based tomography to determine the positions and atom type of each atom in heteronanostructures. The approach is applied here to investigate the interface in core-shell Au@Ag nanorods but it is of great interest in the investigation of a broad range of nanostructures.
Zhang, Jun; Wang, Xu-xia; Ma, Shi-liang; Ru, Jie; Ren, Xu-sheng
2008-02-01
To analyze stress around the impacted tooth by constituting a 3-dimensional finite element model of impacted tooth, consequently offer reference basis for clinic traction treatment. The 3-dimensional finite element model of the impacted tooth was constituted by CT scan, append pericementum and alveolar bone model was used to constitute impacted model. 3 forces were loaded to 3-dimensional finite element model and the periodontal stress of impacted tooth was calculated. When force 1 was loaded to the model, the maximum stress was smaller, but the stress distribution was more average. When force 3 was loaded to the model, the maximum stress was larger, but the stress concentrated at the side of the force. When force 2 was loaded to the model, the stress distribution was medium. When the direction of the force is in line with the central axis, the maximum stress is smaller, and the stress distribution is more average, while this has advantage to the eruption of the impacted tooth. When the direction of the force has angle with the central axis of the impacted tooth, the angle is larger, the maximum stress is larger and the stress distribution is more concentrate, and this goes against the eruption of the impacted tooth. The angle between the orientation of the traction and central axis of the impacted tooth is smaller, there are more advantages to the eruption of the impacted tooth. So the angle should be properly selected in order to make sure of the eruption of the impacted tooth. When the angle is quite large, more anchorage is needed to resist to the large force.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael A Lodato
Full Text Available SOX2 is a master regulator of both pluripotent embryonic stem cells (ESCs and multipotent neural progenitor cells (NPCs; however, we currently lack a detailed understanding of how SOX2 controls these distinct stem cell populations. Here we show by genome-wide analysis that, while SOX2 bound to a distinct set of gene promoters in ESCs and NPCs, the majority of regions coincided with unique distal enhancer elements, important cis-acting regulators of tissue-specific gene expression programs. Notably, SOX2 bound the same consensus DNA motif in both cell types, suggesting that additional factors contribute to target specificity. We found that, similar to its association with OCT4 (Pou5f1 in ESCs, the related POU family member BRN2 (Pou3f2 co-occupied a large set of putative distal enhancers with SOX2 in NPCs. Forced expression of BRN2 in ESCs led to functional recruitment of SOX2 to a subset of NPC-specific targets and to precocious differentiation toward a neural-like state. Further analysis of the bound sequences revealed differences in the distances of SOX and POU peaks in the two cell types and identified motifs for additional transcription factors. Together, these data suggest that SOX2 controls a larger network of genes than previously anticipated through binding of distal enhancers and that transitions in POU partner factors may control tissue-specific transcriptional programs. Our findings have important implications for understanding lineage specification and somatic cell reprogramming, where SOX2, OCT4, and BRN2 have been shown to be key factors.
Three-dimensional analysis of eddy current with the finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Takano, Ichiro; Suzuki, Yasuo
1977-05-01
The finite element method is applied to three-dimensional analysis of eddy current induced in a large Tokamak device (JT-60). Two techniques to study the eddy current are presented: those of ordinary vector potential and modified vector potential. The latter is originally developed for decreasing dimension of the global matrix. Theoretical treatment of these two is given. The skin effect for alternate current flowing in the circular loop of rectangular cross section is examined as an example of the modified vector potential technique, and the result is compared with analytical one. This technique is useful in analysis of the eddy current problem. (auth.)
Three-dimensional radiative transfer modeling using the control volume finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grissa, H.; Askri, F.; Ben Salah, M.; Ben Nasrallah, S.
2007-01-01
In the present study, a three-dimensional algorithm for the treatment of radiative heat transfer in emitting, absorbing and scattering media is developed. The approach is based on the utilization of control volume finite element method (CVFEM) which, to the knowledge of the authors, is applied at the first time to 3D radiative heat transfer in participating media. The accuracy of the present algorithm is tested by comparing its predictions to other published works. Comparisons show that CVFEM produces good results. Moreover, this approach permits compatibility with other numerical methods used for computational fluids mechanics problems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mordant, Maurice.
1981-04-01
To solve a multigroup stationary neutron transport equation in two-dimensional geometries (X-Y), (R-O) or (R-Z) generally on uses discrete ordinates and rectangular meshes. The way to do it is then well known, well documented and somewhat obvious. If one needs to treat awkward geometries or distorted meshes, things are not so easy and the way to do it is no longer straightforward. We have studied this problem at Limeil Nuclear Center and as an alternative to Monte Carlo methods and code we have implemented in ZEPHYR code at least two efficient finite element solutions for Lagrangian meshes involving any kind of triangles and quadrilaterals
Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometric Image Depth Profiling for Three-Dimensional Elemental Analysis.
1981-10-01
69-74. 18. Hofker, W.K.; et al. Rad. Eff. 1973, 17, 83-90. 19. Lindhard , J .; Scharff, M.; Schiott, H.E. Mat. Fys. Medd. Dan . Vid. Selsk. 1963, 33, 1...7A-A1OS 092 CORNELL UNIV ITHACA NY DEPT OF CHEMISTRY F/9 7/4 SCONARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRIC MAGE DEPTH PROFILING FOR THKf-ETC LW OCT SI A . J PATKIN...SECONDARY ION MASS SPECTROMETRIC IMAGE DEPTH PROFILING FOR THREE-DIMENSIONAL ELEMENTAL ANALYSIS by Adam J . Patkin and George H. Morrison Prepared for
A three-dimensional viscous/potential flow interaction analysis method for multi-element wings
Dvorak, F. A.; Woodward, F. A.; Maskew, B.
1977-01-01
An analysis method and computer program were developed for the calculation of the viscosity dependent aerodynamic characteristics of multi-element, finite wings in incompressible flow. A fully-three dimensional potential flow program is used to determine the inviscid pressure distribution about the configuration. The potential flow program uses surface source and vortex singularities to represent the inviscid flow. The method is capable of analysing configurations having at most one slat, a main element, and two slotted flaps. Configurations are limited to full span slats or flaps. The configuration wake is allowed to relax as a force free wake, although roll up is not allowed at this time. Once the inviscid pressure distribution is calculated, a series of boundary layer computations are made along streamwise strips.
Band Structures Analysis Method of Two-Dimensional Phononic Crystals Using Wavelet-Based Elements
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Mao Liu
2017-10-01
Full Text Available A wavelet-based finite element method (WFEM is developed to calculate the elastic band structures of two-dimensional phononic crystals (2DPCs, which are composed of square lattices of solid cuboids in a solid matrix. In a unit cell, a new model of band-gap calculation of 2DPCs is constructed using plane elastomechanical elements based on a B-spline wavelet on the interval (BSWI. Substituting the periodic boundary conditions (BCs and interface conditions, a linear eigenvalue problem dependent on the Bloch wave vector is derived. Numerical examples show that the proposed method performs well for band structure problems when compared with those calculated by traditional FEM. This study also illustrates that filling fractions, material parameters, and incline angles of a 2DPC structure can cause band-gap width and location changes.
Finite element analysis of electromagnetic waves in two-dimensional transformed bianisotropic media.
Liu, Yan; Gralak, Boris; Guenneau, Sebastien
2016-11-14
We analyze the wave propagation in two-dimensional bianisotropic media with the Finite Element Method (FEM). Starting from the Maxwell-Tellegen's equations in bianisotropic media, we derive some system of coupled Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) for longitudinal electric and magnetic field components. These PDEs are implemented in FEM using a solid mechanics formulation. Perfectly Matched Layers (PMLs) are also discussed to model unbounded bianisotropic media. The PDEs and PMLs are then implemented in a finite element software, and transformation optics is further introduced to design some bianisotropic media with interesting functionalities, such as cloaks, concentrators and rotators. In addition, we propose a design of metamaterial with concentric layers made of homogeneous media with isotropic permittivity, permeability and magnetoelectric parameters that mimic the required effective anisotropic tensors of a bianisotropic cloak in the long wavelength limit (homogenization approach). Our numerical results show that transformation based electromagnetic metamaterials can be extended to bianisotropic media.
FEAST: a two-dimensional non-linear finite element code for calculating stresses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tayal, M.
1986-06-01
The computer code FEAST calculates stresses, strains, and displacements. The code is two-dimensional. That is, either plane or axisymmetric calculations can be done. The code models elastic, plastic, creep, and thermal strains and stresses. Cracking can also be simulated. The finite element method is used to solve equations describing the following fundamental laws of mechanics: equilibrium; compatibility; constitutive relations; yield criterion; and flow rule. FEAST combines several unique features that permit large time-steps in even severely non-linear situations. The features include a special formulation for permitting many finite elements to simultaneously cross the boundary from elastic to plastic behaviour; accomodation of large drops in yield-strength due to changes in local temperature and a three-step predictor-corrector method for plastic analyses. These features reduce computing costs. Comparisons against twenty analytical solutions and against experimental measurements show that predictions of FEAST are generally accurate to ± 5%
Tang, C.; Hu, J.; Lin, M.
2006-12-01
Large landslides occurred in the mountainous area near the epicenter on Sept. 21st, 1999, Chi-Chi earthquake in central Taiwan. These landslides were triggered by the Mw = 7.6 earthquake, which resulted in more than 2,400 people casualties and widespread damage. The 1999 Chi-Chi earthquake triggered a catastrophic Tsaloing landslide, which mobilized about 0.125 km3 of rock and soil that slid across the Chingshui River and created a 5 km long natural dam. One fifth of the landslide mass dropped into the Chingshui River, the rest crossed over Chingshui River. At least five large landslides occurred in Tsaoling area are induced by big earthquakes and downpours since 1862 to 1999. Geological investigation shows that the prevailing attitude of sedimentary formation is about N50W with a dipping angle of 12S. First we used Newmark Method to calculate the stability of slope distinct-element method to simulate Tsaoling landslide (PFC3d and PFC2d discrete element code). Because of the discrete, particle-based nature of the model, specification of material properties and boundary condition is more difficult than available continuum methods. The user may specify micro-properties that control particle-particle interaction, but have no way to directly prescribe the micro-properties of the model such as Young's modulus(E), unconfined compressive strength (UCS), Cohesion(C0), Possion's ratio(£h), coefficient of friction(£g), porosity, and the initial stress state. As a result, the process of generating an initial model with the appropriate material behavior and initial stress state is by trial-and-error, requiring the use of numerical equivalent of a biaxial rock mechanics test rig to derive the rock mechanical macro-properties. We conclude that the characteristics of Tsaoling landslide process are: (1) the rocks were bond together on sliding, and (2) the frictional coefficient was very small.
Three-dimensional finite element analysis of implant-assisted removable partial dentures.
Eom, Ju-Won; Lim, Young-Jun; Kim, Myung-Joo; Kwon, Ho-Beom
2017-06-01
Whether the implant abutment in implant-assisted removable partial dentures (IARPDs) functions as a natural removable partial denture (RPD) tooth abutment is unknown. The purpose of this 3-dimensional finite element study was to analyze the biomechanical behavior of implant crown, bone, RPD, and IARPD. Finite element models of the partial maxilla, teeth, and prostheses were generated on the basis of a patient's computed tomographic data. The teeth, surveyed crowns, and RPDs were created in the model. With the generated components, four 3-dimensional finite element models of the partial maxilla were constructed: tooth-supported RPD (TB), implant-supported RPD (IB), tooth-tissue-supported RPD (TT), and implant-tissue-supported RPD (IT) models. Oblique loading of 300 N was applied on the crowns and denture teeth. The von Mises stress and displacement of the denture abutment tooth and implant system were identified. The highest von Mises stress values of both IARPDs occurred on the implants, while those of both natural tooth RPDs occurred on the frameworks of the RPDs. The highest von Mises stress of model IT was about twice that of model IB, while the value of model TT was similar to that of model TB. The maximum displacement was greater in models TB and TT than in models IB and IT. Among the 4 models, the highest maximum displacement value was observed in the model TT and the lowest value was in the model IB. Finite element analysis revealed that the stress distribution pattern of the IARPDs was different from that of the natural tooth RPDs and the stress distribution of implant-supported RPD was different from that of implant-tissue-supported RPD. When implants are used for RPD abutments, more consideration concerning the RPD design and the number or location of the implant is necessary. Copyright © 2016 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stefano Luisa
2005-01-01
/CREB fusion protein and a mutant of the PKA catalytic subunit that is targeted to the nucleus, we have shown that the glucose-6-phosphatase gene has two distinct genetic elements that function as bona fide CRE. This study further shows that the expression vectors encoding C2/CREB and catalytic subunit of PKA are valuable tools for the study of CREB-mediated gene transcription and the biological functions of CREB.
A three-dimensional finite element model for the mechanics of cell-cell interactions.
Viens, Denis; Brodland, G Wayne
2007-10-01
Technical challenges, including significant ones associated with cell rearrangement, have hampered the development of three-dimensional finite element models for the mechanics of embryonic cells. These challenges have been overcome by a new formulation in which the contents of each cell, assumed to have a viscosity mu, are modeled using a system of orthogonal dashpots. This approach overcomes a stiffening artifact that affects more traditional models, in which space-filling viscous elements are used to model the cytoplasm. Cells are assumed to be polyhedral in geometry, and each n-sided polygonal face is subdivided into n triangles with a common node at the face center so that it needs not remain flat. A constant tension gamma is assumed to act along each cell-cell interface, and cell rearrangements occur through one of two complementary topological transformations. The formulation predicts mechanical interactions between pairs of similar or dissimilar cells that are consistent with experiments, two-dimensional simulations, contact angle theory, and intracellular pressure calculations. Simulations of the partial engulfment of one tissue type by another show that the formulation is able to model aggregates of several hundred cells without difficulty. Simulations carried out using this formulation suggest new experimental approaches for measuring cell surface tensions and interfacial tensions. The formulation holds promise as a tool for gaining insight into the mechanics of isolated or aggregated embryonic cells and for the design and interpretation of experiments that involve them.
Bermudo, Carolina; Sevilla, Lorenzo; Castillo López, Germán
2017-06-21
The present work shows the material flow analysis in indentation by the numerical two dimensional Finite Elements (FEM) method and the experimental two-dimensional Digital Image Correlation (DIC) method. To achieve deep indentation without cracking, a ductile material, 99% tin, is used. The results obtained from the DIC technique depend predominantly on the pattern conferred to the samples. Due to the absence of a natural pattern, black and white spray painting is used for greater contrast. The stress-strain curve of the material has been obtained and introduced in the Finite Element simulation code used, DEFORM™, allowing for accurate simulations. Two different 2D models have been used: a plain strain model to obtain the load curve and a plain stress model to evaluate the strain maps on the workpiece surface. The indentation displacement load curve has been compared between the FEM and the experimental results, showing a good correlation. Additionally, the strain maps obtained from the material surface with FEM and DIC are compared in order to validate the numerical model. The Von Mises strain results between both of them present a 10-20% difference. The results show that FEM is a good tool for simulating indentation processes, allowing for the evaluation of the maximum forces and deformations involved in the forming process. Additionally, the non-contact DIC technique shows its potential by measuring the superficial strain maps, validating the FEM results.
hree-Dimensional Finite Element Simulation of the Buried Pipe Problem in Geogrid Reinforced Soil
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohammed Yousif Fattah
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Buried pipeline systems are commonly used to transport water, sewage, natural oil/gas and other materials. The beneficial of using geogrid reinforcement is to increase the bearing capacity of the soil and decrease the load transfer to the underground structures. This paper deals with simulation of the buried pipe problem numerically by finite elements method using the newest version of PLAXIS-3D software. Rajkumar and Ilamaruthi's study, 2008 has been selected to be reanalyzed as 3D problem because it is containing all the properties needed by the program such as the modulus of elasticity, Poisson's ratio, angle of internal friction. It was found that the results of vertical crown deflection for the model without geogrid obtained from PLAXIS-3D are higher than those obtained by two-dimensional plane strain by about 21.4% while this percent becomes 12.1 for the model with geogrid, but in general, both have the same trend. The two dimensional finite elements analysis predictions of pipe-soil system behavior indicate an almost linear displacement of pipe deflection with applied pressure while 3-D analysis exhibited non-linear behavior especially at higher loads.
Xiao, Tiaojie; Liu, Yun; Wang, Yun; Fu, Li-Yun
2018-02-01
It is important to understand how magnetotelluric (MT) modeling can most effectively be performed in general anisotropic media. However, previous studies in this area have mainly focused on the use of one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) algorithms. Thus, building on earlier work, it is important to study the performance of three-dimensional (3D) modeling in arbitrary conductivity media; therefore, an edge-based finite element (FE) method has been developed for 3D MT modeling in arbitrary conductivity media. This approach is based on the initial derivation of a series of equivalent variational equations that are based on Maxwell equations, generated using the weighted residual method. Specific values were then obtained for coefficient matrixes of this edge-based FE method using hexahedral meshes, and the algorithm was verified by comparing its results with finite difference (FD) solutions generated using a 2D anisotropic model. Finally, the results of a 3D anisotropic model were analyzed detailed for three conditions; another 3D anisotropic model was designed and its results were compared with two isotropic models'.
Application of three dimensional finite element modeling for the simulation of machining processes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fischer, C.E.; Wu, W.T.; Chigurupati, P.; Jinn, J.T.
2004-01-01
For many years, metal cutting simulations have been performed using two dimensional approximations of the actual process. Factors such as chip morphology, cutting force, temperature, and tool wear can all be predicted on the computer. However, two dimensional simulation is limited to processes which are orthogonal, or which can be closely approximated as orthogonal.Advances in finite element technology, coupled with continuing improvement in the availability of low cost, high performance computer hardware, have made the three dimensional simulation of a large variety of metal cutting processes practical. Specific improvements include efficient FEM solvers, and robust adaptive remeshing. As researchers continue to gain an improved understanding of wear, material representation, tool coatings, fracture, and other such phenomena, the machining simulation system also must adapt to incorporate these evolving models.To demonstrate the capabilities of the 3D simulation system, a variety of drilling, milling, and turning processes have been simulated and will be presented in this paper. Issues related to computation time and simulation accuracy will also be addressed
Seismic response of three-dimensional rockfill dams using the Indirect Boundary Element Method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sanchez-Sesma, Francisco J; Arellano-Guzman, Mauricio; Perez-Gavilan, Juan J; Suarez, Martha; Marengo-Mogollon, Humberto; Chaillat, Stephanie; Jaramillo, Juan Diego; Gomez, Juan; Iturraran-Viveros, Ursula; Rodriguez-Castellanos, Alejandro
2010-01-01
The Indirect Boundary Element Method (IBEM) is used to compute the seismic response of a three-dimensional rockfill dam model. The IBEM is based on a single layer integral representation of elastic fields in terms of the full-space Green function, or fundamental solution of the equations of dynamic elasticity, and the associated force densities along the boundaries. The method has been applied to simulate the ground motion in several configurations of surface geology. Moreover, the IBEM has been used as benchmark to test other procedures. We compute the seismic response of a three-dimensional rockfill dam model placed within a canyon that constitutes an irregularity on the surface of an elastic half-space. The rockfill is also assumed elastic with hysteretic damping to account for energy dissipation. Various types of incident waves are considered to analyze the physical characteristics of the response: symmetries, amplifications, impulse response and the like. Computations are performed in the frequency domain and lead to time response using Fourier analysis. In the present implementation a symmetrical model is used to test symmetries. The boundaries of each region are discretized into boundary elements whose size depends on the shortest wavelength, typically, six boundary segments per wavelength. Usually, the seismic response of rockfill dams is simulated using either finite elements (FEM) or finite differences (FDM). In most applications, commercial tools that combine features of these methods are used to assess the seismic response of the system for a given motion at the base of model. However, in order to consider realistic excitation of seismic waves with different incidence angles and azimuth we explore the IBEM.
A Galleria Boundary Element Method for two-dimensional nonlinear magnetostatics
Brovont, Aaron D.
The Boundary Element Method (BEM) is a numerical technique for solving partial differential equations that is used broadly among the engineering disciplines. The main advantage of this method is that one needs only to mesh the boundary of a solution domain. A key drawback is the myriad of integrals that must be evaluated to populate the full system matrix. To this day these integrals have been evaluated using numerical quadrature. In this research, a Galerkin formulation of the BEM is derived and implemented to solve two-dimensional magnetostatic problems with a focus on accurate, rapid computation. To this end, exact, closed-form solutions have been derived for all the integrals comprising the system matrix as well as those required to compute fields in post-processing; the need for numerical integration has been eliminated. It is shown that calculation of the system matrix elements using analytical solutions is 15-20 times faster than with numerical integration of similar accuracy. Furthermore, through the example analysis of a c-core inductor, it is demonstrated that the present BEM formulation is a competitive alternative to the Finite Element Method (FEM) for linear magnetostatic analysis. Finally, the BEM formulation is extended to analyze nonlinear magnetostatic problems via the Dual Reciprocity Method (DRBEM). It is shown that a coarse, meshless analysis using the DRBEM is able to achieve RMS error of 3-6% compared to a commercial FEM package in lightly saturated conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiang-Jun Zhou
2017-01-01
Full Text Available In this study, we developed and validated a refined three-dimensional finite element model of middle femoral comminuted fracture to compare the biomechanical stability after two kinds of plate fixation: a newly designed assembly locking compression plate (NALCP and a locking compression plate (LCP. CT data of a male volunteer was converted to middle femoral comminuted fracture finite element analysis model. The fracture was fixated by NALCP and LCP. Stress distributions were observed. Under slow walking load and torsion load, the stress distribution tendency of the two plates was roughly uniform. The anterolateral femur was the tension stress area, and the bone block shifted toward the anterolateral femur. Maximum stress was found on the lateral border of the number 5 countersink of the plate. Under a slow walking load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.160e+03 MPa and the LCP was 8.561e+02 MPa. Under torsion load, the NALCP maximum stress was 2.260e+03 MPa and the LCP was 6.813e+02 MPa. Based on those results of finite element analysis, the NALCP can provide adequate mechanical stability for comminuted fractures, which would help fixate the bone block and promote bone healing.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Marcato
2007-11-01
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to present the modelling of the ground effects of seismic waves on a large debris deposit lying on a steep mountain slope, with particular attention paid to the potential triggering of slope movements.
The study site is a mass of 2.5 million m^{3} rock fall deposit, named "Monte Salta Landslide", located on the northern slope of the Vajont valley, at the border between Veneto and Friuli Venezia Giulia regions in north-eastern Italy.
Several historical landslide events were reported in the area in the past, first one dating back to the 17th century. The landslide deposit completely mantles the slope with a thick cover of rock blocks.
The Mt. Salta landslide is conditioned by the presence of Mt. Borgà regional thrust, which uplifts Jurassic limestone on the top of Cretaceous rock units. Above the thrust zone, folded and highly fractured rock mass dips steeply towards the slope free face, producing highly unstable setting.
The study area has been classified as high seismic hazard and different vulnerable elements can be affected by the remobilisation of debris, among which a village, a national road and a big quarry that was opened, with the intent to exploit the part of the landslide deposit for construction purposes.
In this study, numerical analysis was performed, to simulate the slope behaviour using distinct element method and applying UDEC code. The 2-D models were built on three cross-sections and elasto-plastic behaviour was assumed, both for rock matrix and discontinuities. The earthquake effect was modelled in pseudo-dynamic way, i.e. by magnifying the acceleration and applying also its horizontal component. The expected seismic acceleration in the study area was calculated on the basis of previous studies as equal to 0.28 g.
The results proved that the increase of the vertical component alone has a small influence on the deformational behaviour of the
A parallel finite element simulator for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems.
Tu, Bin; Chen, Minxin; Xie, Yan; Zhang, Linbo; Eisenberg, Bob; Lu, Benzhuo
2013-09-15
A parallel finite element simulator, ichannel, is developed for ion transport through three-dimensional ion channel systems that consist of protein and membrane. The coordinates of heavy atoms of the protein are taken from the Protein Data Bank and the membrane is represented as a slab. The simulator contains two components: a parallel adaptive finite element solver for a set of Poisson-Nernst-Planck (PNP) equations that describe the electrodiffusion process of ion transport, and a mesh generation tool chain for ion channel systems, which is an essential component for the finite element computations. The finite element method has advantages in modeling irregular geometries and complex boundary conditions. We have built a tool chain to get the surface and volume mesh for ion channel systems, which consists of a set of mesh generation tools. The adaptive finite element solver in our simulator is implemented using the parallel adaptive finite element package Parallel Hierarchical Grid (PHG) developed by one of the authors, which provides the capability of doing large scale parallel computations with high parallel efficiency and the flexibility of choosing high order elements to achieve high order accuracy. The simulator is applied to a real transmembrane protein, the gramicidin A (gA) channel protein, to calculate the electrostatic potential, ion concentrations and I - V curve, with which both primitive and transformed PNP equations are studied and their numerical performances are compared. To further validate the method, we also apply the simulator to two other ion channel systems, the voltage dependent anion channel (VDAC) and α-Hemolysin (α-HL). The simulation results agree well with Brownian dynamics (BD) simulation results and experimental results. Moreover, because ionic finite size effects can be included in PNP model now, we also perform simulations using a size-modified PNP (SMPNP) model on VDAC and α-HL. It is shown that the size effects in SMPNP can
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuwabara, Y.; Ogiwara, Y.; Suzuki, T.; Tsuchiya, H.; Nakayama, M.
1981-01-01
It is generally recognized that the earthquake response of a structure can be significantly affected by the dynamic interaction between the structure and the surrounding soil. Dynamic soil-structure interaction effects are usually analyzed by using a lumped mass model or a finite element model. In the lumped mass model, the soil is represented by springs and dashpots based on the half-space elastic theory. Each model has its advantages and limitations. The Three Dimensional Thin Layered Element Theory has been developed by Dr. Hiroshi Tajimi based on the combined results of the abovementioned lumped mass model and finite element model. The main characteristic of this theory is that, in consideration and can be applied in the analysis of many problems in soil-structure interaction, such as those involving radiation damping, embedded structures, and multi-layered soil deposits. This paper describes test results on a small scale model used to prove the validity of the computer program based on the Thin Layered Element Theory. As a numerical example, the response analysis of a PWR nuclear power plant is carried out using this program. The vibration test model is simplified and the scale is 1/750 for line. The soil layer of the model is made of congealed gelatine. The test soil layer is 80 cm long, 35 cm wide and 10 cm thick. The super structure is a one mass model made of metal sheet spring and solid mass metal. As fixed inputs, sinusoidal waves (10, 20 gal level) are used. The displacements of the top and base of the super structure, and the accelerations and the displacements of the shaking table are measured. The main parameter of the test is the shear wave velocity of the soil layer. (orig./RW)
[Three-dimensional Finite Element Analysis to T-shaped Fracture of Pelvis in Sitting Position].
Fan, Yanping; Lei, Jianyin; Liu, Haibo; Li, Zhiqiang; Cai, Xianhua; Chen, Weiyi
2015-10-01
We developed a three-dimensional finite element model of the pelvis. According to Letournel methods, we established a pelvis model of T-shaped fracture with its three different fixation systems, i. e. double column reconstruction plates, anterior column plate combined with posterior column screws and anterior column plate combined with quadrilateral area screws. It was found that the pelvic model was effective and could be used to simulate the mechanical behavior of the pelvis. Three fixation systems had great therapeutic effect on the T-shaped fracture. All fixation systems could increase the stiffness of the model, decrease the stress concentration level and decrease the displacement difference along the fracture line. The quadrilateral area screws, which were drilled into cortical bone, could generate beneficial effect on the T-type fracture. Therefore, the third fixation system mentioned above (i. e. the anterior column plate combined with quadrilateral area screws) has the best biomechanical stability to the T-type fracture.
Fiber pushout test: A three-dimensional finite element computational simulation
Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.
1990-01-01
A fiber pushthrough process was computationally simulated using three-dimensional finite element method. The interface material is replaced by an anisotropic material with greatly reduced shear modulus in order to simulate the fiber pushthrough process using a linear analysis. Such a procedure is easily implemented and is computationally very effective. It can be used to predict fiber pushthrough load for a composite system at any temperature. The average interface shear strength obtained from pushthrough load can easily be separated into its two components: one that comes from frictional stresses and the other that comes from chemical adhesion between fiber and the matrix and mechanical interlocking that develops due to shrinkage of the composite because of phase change during the processing. Step-by-step procedures are described to perform the computational simulation, to establish bounds on interfacial bond strength and to interpret interfacial bond quality.
Fiber pushout test - A three-dimensional finite element computational simulation
Mital, Subodh K.; Chamis, Christos C.
1991-01-01
A fiber pushthrough process was computationally simulated using three-dimensional finite element method. The interface material is replaced by an anisotropic material with greatly reduced shear modulus in order to simulate the fiber pushthrough process using a linear analysis. Such a procedure is easily implemented and is computational very effective. It can be used to predict fiber pushthrough load for a composite system at any temperature. The average interface shear strength obtained from pushthrough load can easily be separated into its two components: one that comes from frictioal stresses and the other that comes from chemical adhesion between fiber and the matrix and mechanical interlocking that develops due to shrinkage of the composite because of phase change during the processing. Step-by-step procedures are described to perform the computational simulation, to establish bounds on interfacial bond strength and to interpret interfacial bond quality.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kunal Pathak
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The calcium signaling plays a crucial role in expansion and contraction of cardiac myocytes. This calcium signaling is achieved by calcium diffusion, buffering mechanisms and influx in cardiac myocytes. The various calcium distribution patterns required for achieving calcium signaling in myocytes are still not well understood. In this paper an attempt has been made to develop a model of calcium distribution in myocytes incorporating diffusion of calcium, point source and excess buffer approximation. The model has been developed for a two dimensional unsteady state case. Appropriate boundary conditions and initial condition have been framed. The finite element method has been employed to obtain the solution. The numerical results have been used to study the effect of buffers and source amplitude on calcium distribution in myocytes.
Two-dimensional finite elements model for selenium transport in saturated and unsaturated zones.
Tayfur, Gokmen; Tanji, Kenneth K; Baba, Alper
2010-10-01
A two-dimensional finite element model was developed to simulate species of selenium transport in two dimensions in both saturated and unsaturated soil zones. The model considers water, selenate, selenite, and selenomethionine uptake by plants. It also considers adsorption and desorption, oxidation and reduction, volatilization, and chemical and biological transformations of selenate, selenite, and selenomethionine. In addition to simulating water flow, selenate, selenite, and selenomethionine transport, the model also simulates organic and gaseous selenium transport. The developed model was applied to simulate two different observed field data. The simulation of the observed data was satisfactory, with mean absolute error of 48.5 microg/l and mean relative error of 8.9%.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutchinson, S.; Costillo, S.; Dalton, K.; Hensel, E.
1990-01-01
A study is conducted of the finite element solution of the partial differential equations governing two-dimensional electromagnetic field scattering problems on a SIMD computer. A nodal assembly technique is introduced which maps a single node to a single processor. The physical domain is first discretized in parallel to yield the node locations of an O-grid mesh. Next, the system of equations is assembled and then solved in parallel using a conjugate gradient algorithm for complex-valued, non-symmetric, non-positive definite systems. Using this technique and Thinking Machines Corporation's Connection Machine-2 (CM-2), problems with more than 250k nodes are solved. Results of electromagnetic scattering, governed by the 2-d scalar Hemoholtz wave equations are presented in this paper. Solutions are demonstrated for a wide range of objects. A summary of performance data is given for the set of test problems
Three-dimensional stress analysis of threaded cups - a finite element analysis.
Witzel, U; Rieger, W; Effenberger, H
2008-04-01
A three-dimensional model of the left acetabulum with inserted threaded cup has been generated, based on the finite element method, to calculate stress patterns in the standing phase during walking. In this study, a hemispherical cup with sharp threads, a parabolic cup with flat threads and a conical cup with sharp threads were analysed and compared. Stress patterns in both implant components and adjacent bony structures were calculated in a directly postoperative situation. The different cups were found to induce different stress patterns, deformations and shifting tendencies. The inlays deform notably and show characteristic rotational movement patterns together with the shell. The inclination angle increases in the hemispherical cup and decreases in the parabolic cup. The conical cup levers outward almost parallel to the bone stock by approximately 0.05 mm. The pole surfaces of the various cups - especially the very convex area next to the threads - induce increased compressive stress in the superior section of the acetabular base. This is increased by a factor of three in the conical cup in comparison to the hemispherical cup and less so in comparison to the parabolic cup. This study illustrates that three-dimensional stress calculations are suitable for procuring additional biomechanical information to augment clinical studies, for evaluating implants and for establishing stability prognoses, especially for newly developed prototypes.
Three-dimensional stress analysis of threaded cups – a finite element analysis
Witzel, U.; Rieger, W.
2007-01-01
A three-dimensional model of the left acetabulum with inserted threaded cup has been generated, based on the finite element method, to calculate stress patterns in the standing phase during walking. In this study, a hemispherical cup with sharp threads, a parabolic cup with flat threads and a conical cup with sharp threads were analysed and compared. Stress patterns in both implant components and adjacent bony structures were calculated in a directly postoperative situation. The different cups were found to induce different stress patterns, deformations and shifting tendencies. The inlays deform notably and show characteristic rotational movement patterns together with the shell. The inclination angle increases in the hemispherical cup and decreases in the parabolic cup. The conical cup levers outward almost parallel to the bone stock by approximately 0.05 mm. The pole surfaces of the various cups – especially the very convex area next to the threads – induce increased compressive stress in the superior section of the acetabular base. This is increased by a factor of three in the conical cup in comparison to the hemispherical cup and less so in comparison to the parabolic cup. This study illustrates that three-dimensional stress calculations are suitable for procuring additional biomechanical information to augment clinical studies, for evaluating implants and for establishing stability prognoses, especially for newly developed prototypes. PMID:17318551
Qin, Min; Yi, Longtao; Wang, Jingbang; Han, Yue; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo
2017-11-01
The macroscopic mechanical properties of 3D printing product are closely related to their microstructure, it has significant importance to accurately characterize the micro-structure of 3D printing products. Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. Therefore, this technique is also very suitable for element distribution measurement of 3D printing product which is printed layer by layer. In this paper the 3D-XRF technique was used to study the spatial elemental distribution of a micro zone from the 3D printing stainless steel gear. An elemental mapping of two orthogonal sections in the depth direction and three dimensional elemental rendering of one micro-region were obtained. The result shows that elemental distribution of the sample is not uniform, the elemental layer structure is formed in the depth direction, the content of the element in measured area vary smoothly, and with no elemental mutation region. This indicates that the 3D printing sample are fused well between layers and layers, with no large pores or bubbles inside the sample. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to make assessment for micro-structure of 3D printing metal product by using confocal 3D-XRF.
Leung, Wilson; Shaffer, Christopher D.; Reed, Laura K.; Smith, Sheryl T.; Barshop, William; Dirkes, William; Dothager, Matthew; Lee, Paul; Wong, Jeannette; Xiong, David; Yuan, Han; Bedard, James E. J.; Machone, Joshua F.; Patterson, Seantay D.; Price, Amber L.
2015-01-01
The Muller F element (4.2 Mb, ~80 protein-coding genes) is an unusual autosome of Drosophila melanogaster; it is mostly heterochromatic with a low recombination rate. To investigate how these properties impact the evolution of repeats and genes, we manually improved the sequence and annotated the genes on the D. erecta, D. mojavensis, and D. grimshawi F elements and euchromatic domains from the Muller D element. We find that F elements have greater transposon density (25?50%) than euchromatic...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, T.Y.; Prachuktam, S.; Reich, M.
1975-01-01
The formulation of the stiffness equation for an 8 to 21 node isoparametric element with elastic-plastic material and large deformation is presented. The formulation has been implemented in a nonlinear finite element program for the analysis of three-dimensional continuums. To demonstrate the utility of the formulation, a thick-walled cylinder was analyzed and the results are compared favorably with a known solution. The element type presented can be applied not only to 3-D continuums, but also to plate or shell structures, for which degenerated isoparametric elements may be used
Johnson, Kyle; Thurow, Brian; Kim, Taehoon; Blois, Gianluca; Christensen, Kenneth
2016-11-01
Three-dimensional, three-component (3D-3C) measurements were made using a plenoptic camera on the flow around a roughness element immersed in a turbulent boundary layer. A refractive index matched approach allowed whole-field optical access from a single camera to a measurement volume that includes transparent solid geometries. In particular, this experiment measures the flow over a single hemispherical roughness element made of acrylic and immersed in a working fluid consisting of Sodium Iodide solution. Our results demonstrate that plenoptic particle image velocimetry (PIV) is a viable technique to obtaining statistically-significant volumetric velocity measurements even in a complex separated flow. The boundary layer to roughness height-ratio of the flow was 4.97 and the Reynolds number (based on roughness height) was 4.57×103. Our measurements reveal key flow features such as spiraling legs of the shear layer, a recirculation region, and shed arch vortices. Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) analysis was applied to the instantaneous velocity and vorticity data to extract these features. Supported by the National Science Foundation Grant No. 1235726.
Li, Jianfeng; Xiao, Mingqing; Liang, Yajun; Tang, Xilang; Li, Chao
2018-01-01
The solenoid valve is a kind of basic automation component applied widely. It’s significant to analyze and predict its degradation failure mechanism to improve the reliability of solenoid valve and do research on prolonging life. In this paper, a three-dimensional finite element analysis model of solenoid valve is established based on ANSYS Workbench software. A sequential coupling method used to calculate temperature filed and mechanical stress field of solenoid valve is put forward. The simulation result shows the sequential coupling method can calculate and analyze temperature and stress distribution of solenoid valve accurately, which has been verified through the accelerated life test. Kalman filtering algorithm is introduced to the data processing, which can effectively reduce measuring deviation and restore more accurate data information. Based on different driving current, a kind of failure mechanism which can easily cause the degradation of coils is obtained and an optimization design scheme of electro-insulating rubbers is also proposed. The high temperature generated by driving current and the thermal stress resulting from thermal expansion can easily cause the degradation of coil wires, which will decline the electrical resistance of coils and result in the eventual failure of solenoid valve. The method of finite element analysis can be applied to fault diagnosis and prognostic of various solenoid valves and improve the reliability of solenoid valve’s health management.
A Reduced Three Dimensional Model for SAW Sensors Using Finite Element Analysis.
El Gowini, Mohamed M; Moussa, Walied A
2009-01-01
A major problem that often arises in modeling Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) such as Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) sensors using Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is the extensive computational capacity required. In this study a new approach is adopted to significantly reduce the computational capacity needed for analyzing the response of a SAW sensor using the finite element (FE) method. The approach is based on the plane wave solution where the properties of the wave vary in two dimensions and are uniform along the thickness of the device. The plane wave solution therefore allows the thickness of the SAW device model to be minimized; the model is referred to as a Reduced 3D Model (R3D). Various configurations of this novel R3D model are developed and compared with theoretical and experimental frequency data and the results show very good agreement. In addition, two-dimensional (2D) models with similar configurations to the R3D are developed for comparison since the 2D approach is widely adopted in the literature as a computationally inexpensive approach to model SAW sensors using the FE method. Results illustrate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the SAW response more accurately than the 2D model; this is demonstrated by comparison of centre frequency and insertion loss values. These results are very encouraging and indicate that the R3D model is capable of capturing the MEMS-based SAW sensor response without being computationally expensive.
A one-dimensional mixed porohyperelastic transport swelling finite element model with growth
Harper, J.L.; Simon, B.R.; Vande Geest, J.P.
2013-01-01
A one-dimensional, large-strain, mixed porohyperelastic transport and swelling (MPHETS) finite element model was developed in MATLAB and incorporated with a well-known growth model for soft tissues to allow the model to grow (increase in length) or shrink (decrease in length) at constant material density. By using the finite element model to determine the deformation and stress state, it is possible to implement different growth laws in the program in the future to simulate how soft tissues grow and behave when exposed to various stimuli (e.g. mechanical, chemical, or electrical). The essential assumptions needed to use the MPHETS model with growth are clearly identified and explained in this paper. The primary assumption in this work, however, is that the stress upon which growth acts is the stress in the solid skeleton, i.e. the effective stress, Seff. It is shown that significantly different amounts of growth are experienced for the same loading conditions when using a porohyperelastic model as compared to a purely solid model. In one particular example, approximately 51% less total growth occurred in the MPHETS model than in the solid model even though both problems were subjected to the same external loading. This work represents a first step in developing more sophisticated models capable of capturing the complex mechanical and biochemical environment in growing and remodeling tissues. PMID:23778062
2015-01-01
PURPOSE The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of various cement types on the stress distribution in monolithic zirconia crowns under maximum bite force using the finite element analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The models of the prepared #46 crown (deep chamfer margin) were scanned and solid models composed of the monolithic zirconia crown, cement layer, and prepared tooth were produced using the computer-aided design technology and were subsequently translated into 3-dimensional finite element models. Four models were prepared according to different cement types (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and resin). A load of 700 N was applied vertically on the crowns (8 loading points). Maximum principal stress was determined. RESULTS Zinc phosphate cement had a greater stress concentration in the cement layer, while polycarboxylate cement had a greater stress concentration on the distal surface of the monolithic zirconia crown and abutment tooth. Resin cement and glass ionomer cement showed similar patterns, but resin cement showed a lower stress distribution on the lingual and mesial surface of the cement layer. CONCLUSION The test results indicate that the use of different luting agents that have various elastic moduli has an impact on the stress distribution of the monolithic zirconia crowns, cement layers, and abutment tooth. Resin cement is recommended for the luting agent of the monolithic zirconia crowns. PMID:26816578
A three-dimensional finite element model for biomechanical analysis of the hip.
Chen, Guang-Xing; Yang, Liu; Li, Kai; He, Rui; Yang, Bin; Zhan, Yan; Wang, Zhi-Jun; Yu, Bing-Nin; Jian, Zhe
2013-11-01
The objective of this study was to construct a three-dimensional (3D) finite element model of the hip. The images of the hip were obtained from Chinese visible human dataset. The hip model includes acetabular bone, cartilage, labrum, and bone. The cartilage of femoral head was constructed using the AutoCAD and Solidworks software. The hip model was imported into ABAQUS analysis system. The contact surface of the hip joint was meshed. To verify the model, the single leg peak force was loaded, and contact area of the cartilage and labrum of the hip and pressure distribution in these structures were observed. The constructed 3D hip model reflected the real hip anatomy. Further, this model reflected biomechanical behavior similar to previous studies. In conclusion, this 3D finite element hip model avoids the disadvantages of other construction methods, such as imprecision of cartilage construction and the absence of labrum. Further, it provides basic data critical for accurately modeling normal and abnormal loads, and the effects of abnormal loads on the hip.
Li, Zhan; Schaefer, Michael; Strahler, Alan; Schaaf, Crystal; Jupp, David
2018-04-06
The Dual-Wavelength Echidna Lidar (DWEL), a full waveform terrestrial laser scanner (TLS), has been used to scan a variety of forested and agricultural environments. From these scanning campaigns, we summarize the benefits and challenges given by DWEL's novel coaxial dual-wavelength scanning technology, particularly for the three-dimensional (3D) classification of vegetation elements. Simultaneous scanning at both 1064 nm and 1548 nm by DWEL instruments provides a new spectral dimension to TLS data that joins the 3D spatial dimension of lidar as an information source. Our point cloud classification algorithm explores the utilization of both spectral and spatial attributes of individual points from DWEL scans and highlights the strengths and weaknesses of each attribute domain. The spectral and spatial attributes for vegetation element classification each perform better in different parts of vegetation (canopy interior, fine branches, coarse trunks, etc.) and under different vegetation conditions (dead or live, leaf-on or leaf-off, water content, etc.). These environmental characteristics of vegetation, convolved with the lidar instrument specifications and lidar data quality, result in the actual capabilities of spectral and spatial attributes to classify vegetation elements in 3D space. The spectral and spatial information domains thus complement each other in the classification process. The joint use of both not only enhances the classification accuracy but also reduces its variance across the multiple vegetation types we have examined, highlighting the value of the DWEL as a new source of 3D spectral information. Wider deployment of the DWEL instruments is in practice currently held back by challenges in instrument development and the demands of data processing required by coaxial dual- or multi-wavelength scanning. But the simultaneous 3D acquisition of both spectral and spatial features, offered by new multispectral scanning instruments such as the DWEL, opens
Low-dimensional approximations for Finite Element Models of mechanical systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Elmegaard, Michael; Starke, Jens; Schilder, Frank
2011-01-01
The present study is dedicated to the dimension reduction of high-dimensional FE models of mechanical systems in which low-dimensional behaviour is observable. A low-dimensional model of the such a FE model is constructed and the bifurcation diagram of the low-dimensional system is compared...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhi-Ping Zeng
Full Text Available Abstract A three-dimensional rail-bridge coupling element of unequal lengths in which the length of the rail element is shorter than that of the bridge element is presented in this paper to investigate the spatial dynamic responses of a train-track-bridge interaction system. Formulation of stiffness and damping matrices for the fastener, ballast, and bearing, as well as the three-dimensional equations of motion in matrix form for a train-track-bridge interaction system using the proposed element are derived in detail using the energy principle. The accuracy of the proposed three-dimensional rail-bridge coupling element is verified using the existing two-dimensional element. Three examples of a seven-span continuous beam bridge are shown: the first investigates the influence of the efficiency and accuracy of the lengths of the rail and bridge elements on the spatial dynamic responses of the train-track-bridge interaction system, and the other two illustrate the influence of two types of track models and two types of wheel-rail interaction models on the dynamic responses of the system. Results show that (1 the proposed rail-bridge coupling element is not only able to help conserve calculation time, but it also gives satisfactory results when investigating the spatial dynamic responses of a train-track-bridge interaction system; (2 the double-layer track model is more accurate in comparison with the single-layer track model, particularly in relation to vibrations of bridge and rail; and (3 the no-jump wheel-rail interaction model is generally reliable and efficient in predicting the dynamic responses of a train-track-bridge interaction system.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maker, B.N.
1995-04-14
This report provides a user`s manual for NIKE3D, a fully implicit three-dimensional finite element code for analyzing the finite strain static and dynamic response of inelastic solids, shells, and beams. Spatial discretization is achieved by the use of 8-node solid elements, 2-node truss and beam elements, and 4-node membrane and shell elements. Over twenty constitutive models are available for representing a wide range of elastic, plastic, viscous, and thermally dependent material behavior. Contact-impact algorithms permit gaps, frictional sliding, and mesh discontinuities along material interfaces. Several nonlinear solution strategies are available, including Full-, Modified-, and Quasi-Newton methods. The resulting system of simultaneous linear equations is either solved iteratively by an element-by-element method, or directly by a factorization method, for which case bandwidth minimization is optional. Data may be stored either in or out of core memory to allow for large analyses.
Nakamura, Keiko; Tajima, Kiyoshi; Chen, Ker-Kong; Nagamatsu, Yuki; Kakigawa, Hiroshi; Masumi, Shin-ich
2013-12-01
This study focused on the application of novel finite-element analysis software for constructing a finite-element model from the computed tomography data of a human dentulous mandible. The finite-element model is necessary for evaluating the mechanical response of the alveolar part of the mandible, resulting from occlusal force applied to the teeth during biting. Commercially available patient-specific general computed tomography-based finite-element analysis software was solely applied to the finite-element analysis for the extraction of computed tomography data. The mandibular bone with teeth was extracted from the original images. Both the enamel and the dentin were extracted after image processing, and the periodontal ligament was created from the segmented dentin. The constructed finite-element model was reasonably accurate using a total of 234,644 nodes and 1,268,784 tetrahedral and 40,665 shell elements. The elastic moduli of the heterogeneous mandibular bone were determined from the bone density data of the computed tomography images. The results suggested that the software applied in this study is both useful and powerful for creating a more accurate three-dimensional finite-element model of a dentulous mandible from the computed tomography data without the need for any other software.
Abe, Shinya; Narra, Nathaniel; Nikander, Riku; Hyttinen, Jari; Kouhia, Reijo; Sievänen, Harri
2016-11-01
Over 90% of hip fractures are caused by falls. Due to a fall-induced impact on the greater trochanter, the posterior part of the thin superolateral cortex of the femoral neck is known to experience the highest stress, making it a fracture-prone region. Cortical geometry of the proximal femur, in turn, reflects a mechanically appropriate form with respect to habitual exercise loading. In this finite element (FE) modeling study, we investigated whether specific exercise loading history is associated with femoral neck structural strength and estimated fall-induced stresses along the femoral neck. One hundred and eleven three-dimensional (3D) proximal femur FE models for a sideways falling situation were constructed from magnetic resonance (MR) images of 91 female athletes (aged 24.7±6.1years, >8years competitive career) and 20 non-competitive habitually active women (aged 23.7±3.8years) that served as a control group. The athletes were divided into five distinct groups based on the typical loading pattern of their sports: high-impact (H-I: triple-jumpers and high-jumpers), odd-impact (O-I: soccer and squash players), high-magnitude (H-M: power-lifters), repetitive-impact (R-I: endurance runners), and repetitive non-impact (R-NI: swimmers). The von Mises stresses obtained from the FE models were used to estimate mean fall-induced stresses in eight anatomical octants of the cortical bone cross-sections at the proximal, middle, and distal sites along the femoral neck axis. Significantly (pexercise loading history comprising various impacts in particular is associated with a stronger femoral neck in a falling situation and may have potential to reduce hip fragility. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Fazi, Giovanni; Tellini, Simone; Vangi, Dario; Branchi, Roberto
2011-01-01
The distribution of stresses in bone, implants, and prosthesis were analyzed via three-dimensional finite element modeling in different implant configurations for a fixed implant-supported prosthesis in an edentulous mandible. A finite element model was created with data obtained from computed tomographic scans of a human mandible. Anisotropic characteristics for cortical and cancellous bone were incorporated into the model. Six different configurations of intraforaminal implants were tested, with the number of implants varying from three to five and the distal implants inserted either parallel to the other implants or tilted distally by 17 or 34 degrees. A prosthetic structure connecting the implants was designed, with 20-mm posterior cantilevers for the parallel implant configurations, and a load of 200 N was applied to the distal portion of the cantilevers. Stresses were measured at the level of the implant, the prosthetic structure, and the bone. Bone-level stresses were analyzed at the implant-bone interface, at the external cortical bone surface, distal to the terminal implant, and in the cancellous bone along the implant body. A three-parallel-implant configuration resulted in higher stress in the implant and bone than configurations with four or five parallel implants. Configurations with the distal implants tilted resulted in a more favorable stress distribution at all levels. In parallel-implant configurations for fixed implant-supported mandibular prostheses, four and five implants resulted in similar stress distribution in the bone, framework, and implants. A distribution of four implants with the distal implants tilted 34 degrees (ie, the "All-on-Four" configuration) resulted in a favorable reduction of stresses in the bone, framework, and implants.
Yang, Taiseung; Spilker, Robert L
2007-06-01
A three-dimensional (3D) contact finite element formulation has been developed for biological soft tissue-to-tissue contact analysis. The linear biphasic theory of Mow, Holmes, and Lai (1984, J. Biomech., 17(5), pp. 377-394) based on continuum mixture theory, is adopted to describe the hydrated soft tissue as a continuum of solid and fluid phases. Four contact continuity conditions derived for biphasic mixtures by Hou et al. (1989, ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 111(1), pp. 78-87) are introduced on the assumed contact surface, and a weighted residual method has been used to derive a mixed velocity-pressure finite element contact formulation. The Lagrange multiplier method is used to enforce two of the four contact continuity conditions, while the other two conditions are introduced directly into the weighted residual statement. Alternate formulations are possible, which differ in the choice of continuity conditions that are enforced with Lagrange multipliers. Primary attention is focused on a formulation that enforces the normal solid traction and relative fluid flow continuity conditions on the contact surface using Lagrange multipliers. An alternate approach, in which the multipliers enforce normal solid traction and pressure continuity conditions, is also discussed. The contact nonlinearity is treated with an iterative algorithm, where the assumed area is either extended or reduced based on the validity of the solution relative to contact conditions. The resulting first-order system of equations is solved in time using the generalized finite difference scheme. The formulation is validated by a series of increasingly complex canonical problems, including the confined and unconfined compression, the Hertz contact problem, and two biphasic indentation tests. As a clinical demonstration of the capability of the contact analysis, the gleno-humeral joint contact of human shoulders is analyzed using an idealized 3D geometry. In the joint, both glenoid and humeral head
Esmail, Enas; Hassan, Noha; Kadah, Yasser
2010-02-01
In this study, three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis was used to model the effect of the peri-implant bone geometry and thickness on the biomechanical behavior of a dental implant/supporting bone system. The 3D finite element model of the jaw bone, cancellous and cortical, was developed based on computerized tomography (CT) scan technology while the dental implant model was created based on a commercially available implant design. Two models, cylindrical and threaded, representing the peri-implant bone region were simulated. In addition, various thicknesses (0.1 mm, 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm) of the peri-implant bone region were modeled to account for the misalingnment during the drilling process. Different biomechanical properties of the peri-implant bone region were used to simulate the progression of the osseointegration process with time. Four stages of osseointegration were modeled to mimic different phases of tissue healing of the peri- implant region starting with soft connective tissue and ending with complete bone maturation. For the realistic threaded model of the peri-implant bone region, the maximum von Mises stress and displacement in the dental implant and jaw bone were higher than those computed for the simple cylindrical peri-implant bone region model. The average von Mises stress and displacement in the dental implant and the jaw bone decreased as the oseeointegration progressed with time for all thicknesses of the peri-implant bone region. On the other hand, the maximum absolute vertical displacement of the dental implant increased as the drilled thickness of the peri-implant bone region increased.
Suryanto, A.; van Groesen, Embrecht W.C.; Hammer, Manfred
We present a new approach based on the recently reported finite element scheme16 to study the optical response of a finite one-dimensional nonlinear grating. Using the transmitted wave amplitude as a numerical input parameter, we are able to find all stable and unstable solutions related to a
Frehner, Marcel; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Saenger, Erik H.; Steeb, Holger Karl
2008-01-01
Two-dimensional scattering of elastic waves in a medium containing a circular heterogeneity is investigated with an analytical solution and numerical wave propagation simulations. Different combinations of finite difference methods (FDM) and finite element methods (FEM) are used to numerically solve
Wang, Feiyan; Petter Morten, Jan; Spitzer, Klaus
2018-01-01
In this paper, we present a recently developed anisotropic three-dimensional (3-D) inversion framework for interpreting controlled-source electromagnetic (CSEM) data in the frequency domain. The framework integrates a high-order finite element forward operator and a Gauss-Newton inversion algorithm. Conductivity constraints are applied using a parameter transformation. We discretize the continuous forward and inverse problems on unstructured grids for a flexible treatment of arbitrarily complex geometries. Moreover, an unstructured mesh is more desirable in comparison to a single rectilinear mesh for multi-source problems because local grid refinement will not significantly influence the mesh density outside the region of interest. The non-uniform spatial discretization facilitates parameterization of the inversion domain at a suitable scale. For a rapid simulation of multi-source EM data, we opt to use a parallel direct solver. We further accelerate the inversion process by decomposing the entire data set into subsets with respect to frequencies (and transmitters if memory requirement is affordable). The computational tasks associated with each data subset are distributed to different processes and run in parallel. We validate the scheme using a synthetic marine CSEM model with rough bathymetry, and finally, apply it to an industrial-size 3-D data set from the Troll field oil province in the North Sea acquired in 2008 to examine its robustness and practical applicability.
Application of equivalent elastic methods in three-dimensional finite element structural analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, D.P.; Gordon, J.L.; Hutula, D.N.; Holliday, J.E.; Jandrasits, W.G.
1998-02-01
This paper describes use of equivalent solid (EQS) modeling to obtain efficient solutions to perforated material problems using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA) programs. It is shown that the accuracy of EQS methods in 3D-FEA depends on providing sufficient equivalent elastic properties to allow the EQS material to respond according to the elastic symmetry of the pattern. Peak stresses and ligament stresses are calculated from the EQS stresses by an appropriate 3D-FEA submodel approach. The method is demonstrated on the problem of a transversely pressurized simply supported plate with a central divider lane separating two perforated regions with circular penetrations arranged in a square pattern. A 3D-FEA solution for a model that incorporates each penetration explicitly is used for comparison with results from an EQS solution for the plate. Results for deflection and stresses from the EQS solution are within 3% of results from the explicit 3D-FE model. A solution to the sample problem is also provided using the procedures in the ASME B and PV Code. The ASME B and PV Code formulas for plate deflection were shown to overestimate the stiffening effects of the divider lane and the outer stiffening ring
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Neng Wan
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In terms of the poor geometric adaptability of spline element method, a geometric precision spline method, which uses the rational Bezier patches to indicate the solution domain, is proposed for two-dimensional viscous uncompressed Navier-Stokes equation. Besides fewer pending unknowns, higher accuracy, and computation efficiency, it possesses such advantages as accurate representation of isogeometric analysis for object boundary and the unity of geometry and analysis modeling. Meanwhile, the selection of B-spline basis functions and the grid definition is studied and a stable discretization format satisfying inf-sup conditions is proposed. The degree of spline functions approaching the velocity field is one order higher than that approaching pressure field, and these functions are defined on one-time refined grid. The Dirichlet boundary conditions are imposed through the Nitsche variational principle in weak form due to the lack of interpolation properties of the B-splines functions. Finally, the validity of the proposed method is verified with some examples.
Park, Jung-Chul; Shin, Hyun-Seung; Cha, Jung-Yul; Park, Jong-Tae
2015-02-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the transfer of different occlusal forces in various skeletal malocclusions using finite element analysis (FEA). Three representative human cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images of three skeletal malocclusions were obtained from the Department of Orthodontics, Yonsei University Dental Hospital, Seoul, South Korea. The CBCT scans were read into the visualization software after separating bones and muscles by uploading the CBCT images into Mimics (Materialise). Two separate three-dimensional (3D) files were exported to visualize the solid morphology of skeletal outlines without considering the inner structures. Individual dental impressions were taken and stone models were scanned with a 3D scanner. These images were integrated and occlusal motions were simulated. Displacement and Von Mises stress were measured at the nodes of the FEA models. The displacement and stress distribution were analyzed. FEA was performed to obtain the 3D deformation of the mandibles under loads of 100, 150, 200, and 225 kg. The distortion in all three skeletal malocclusions was comparable. Greater forces resulted in observing more distortion in FEA. Further studies are warranted to fully evaluate the impact of skeletal malocclusion on masticatory performance using information on muscle attachment and 3D temporomandibular joint movements.
Multi-Scale Finite Element Analyses of Thermal Conductivities of Three Dimensional Woven Composites
Zhao, Yufen; Song, Leilei; Li, Jialu; Jiao, Yanan
2017-12-01
This paper summarizes an extensive experimental and prediction study of thermal conductivities of three-dimensional woven composites (3DWCs). Three kinds of innovative 3D woven architectures are examined, including 2.5D angle-interlock, 2.5D angle-interlock (with warp reinforcement), and 3D orthogonal woven architectures. The differences of thermal behaviors of 3DWCs in plane and out of plane are assessed by using multi-scale finite element analysis. For the validation of models, the thickness direction thermal conductivity of 3DWCs are measured. It is indicated that the predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental results. The effects of weave density and fabric architecture on the distribution of heat flux and temperature have been discussed in this work, which determined the thermal conductivities of 3DWCs. From this study, it can be expected that the need of thermal performance of 3DWCs can obtained according to optimize the weave parameters based on the high designability of 3DWCs.
A unidirectional approach for d-dimensional finite element methods for higher order on sparse grids
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bungartz, H.J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany)
1996-12-31
In the last years, sparse grids have turned out to be a very interesting approach for the efficient iterative numerical solution of elliptic boundary value problems. In comparison to standard (full grid) discretization schemes, the number of grid points can be reduced significantly from O(N{sup d}) to O(N(log{sub 2}(N)){sup d-1}) in the d-dimensional case, whereas the accuracy of the approximation to the finite element solution is only slightly deteriorated: For piecewise d-linear basis functions, e. g., an accuracy of the order O(N{sup - 2}(log{sub 2}(N)){sup d-1}) with respect to the L{sub 2}-norm and of the order O(N{sup -1}) with respect to the energy norm has been shown. Furthermore, regular sparse grids can be extended in a very simple and natural manner to adaptive ones, which makes the hierarchical sparse grid concept applicable to problems that require adaptive grid refinement, too. An approach is presented for the Laplacian on a uinit domain in this paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. N. S. Jamaludin
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The composition of hydroxyapatite (HA as the ceramic phase and titanium (Ti as the metallic phase in HA/Ti functionally graded materials (FGMs shows an excellent combination of high biocompatibility and high mechanical properties in a structure. Because the gradation of these properties is one of the factors that affects the response of the functionally graded (FG plates, this paper is presented to show the domination of the grading parameter on the displacement and stress distribution of the plates. A three-dimensional (3D thermomechanical model of a 20-node brick quadratic element is used in the simulation of the thermoelastic behaviors of HA/Ti FG plates subjected to constant and functional thermal, mechanical, and thermomechanical loadings. The convergence properties of the present results are examined thoroughly in order to assess the accuracy of the theory applied and to compare them with the established research results. Instead of the grading parameter, this study reveals that the loading field distribution can be another factor that reflects the thermoelastic properties of the HA/Ti FG plates. The FG structure is found to be able to withstand the thermal stresses while preserving the high toughness properties and thus shows its ability to operate at high temperature.
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Bo Zhang
2016-02-01
Full Text Available Numerical simulation is very useful for understanding the hydraulic fracturing mechanism. In this paper, we simulate the hydraulic fracturing using the distinct element approach, to investigate the effect of some critical parameters on hydraulic fracturing characteristics. The breakdown pressure obtained by the distinct element approach is consistent with the analytical solution. This indicates that the distinct element approach is feasible on modeling the hydraulic fracturing. We independently examine the influence of in-situ stress ratio, injection rate and fluid viscosity on hydraulic fracturing. We further emphasize the relationship between these three factors and their contributions to the hydraulic fracturing. With the increase of stress ratio, the fracture aperture increases almost linearly; with the increase of injection rate and fluid viscosity, the fracture aperture and breakdown pressure increase obviously. A low value of product of injection rate and fluid viscosity (i.e., Qμ will lead to narrow fracture aperture, low breakdown pressure, and complex or dispersional hydraulic fractures. A high value of Qμ would lead wide fracture aperture, high breakdown pressure, and simple hydraulic fractures (e.g., straight or wing shape. With low viscosity fluid, the hydraulic fracture geometry is not sensitive to stress ratio, and thus becomes a complex fracture network.
Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen; Chang, Sin-Chung
1995-01-01
The existing 2-D alpha-mu scheme and alpha-epsilon scheme based on the method of space-time conservation element and solution element, which were constructed for solving the linear 2-D unsteady advection-diffusion equation and unsteady advection equation, respectively, are tested. Also, the alpha-epsilon scheme is modified to become the V-E scheme for solving the nonlinear 2-D inviscid Burgers equation. Numerical solutions of six test problems are presented in comparison with their exact solutions or numerical solutions obtained by traditional finite-difference or finite-element methods. It is demonstrated that the 2-D alpha-mu, alpha-epsilon, and nu-epsilon schemes can be used to obtain numerical results which are more accurate than those based on some of the traditional methods but without using any artificial tuning in the computation. Similar to the previous 1-D test problems, the high accuracy and simplicity features of the space-time conservation element and solution element method have been revealed again in the present 2-D test results.
Robol, Valentina; Grassi, Massimo; Casco, Clara
2013-08-09
Both neurophysiological and psychophysical evidence suggest a strong influence of context on texture-segmentation. Here we extend and further analyse this issue, with a particular focus on the underlying mechanism. Specifically, we use a texture-edge discrimination task and separately investigate the effect of elements far from and along the edge. Consistent with previous studies, we report both an iso-near contextual effect - whereby performance is better if elements along the edge are iso-oriented compared to ortho-oriented to the edge - as well as an ortho-far effect - whereby discrimination is higher when elements far from the edge are orthogonal to the edge. We found that backward mask, which is known to interrupt re-entrant processing from extrastriate areas, only interferes with the iso-near effect whereas perturbing orientation, position or contrast polarity of elements far from the edge only abolishes the ortho-far effect. This suggests that feedback processes may be involved in the iso-near effect. Instead, the ortho-far effect may be accounted for by recurrent interactions among 1st order filters. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Three-dimensional tsunami propagation simulations using an unstructured mesh finite element model
Oishi, Yusuke; Piggott, Matthew D.; Maeda, Takuto; Kramer, Stephan C.; Collins, Gareth S.; Tsushima, Hiroaki; Furumura, Takashi
2013-06-01
Large-scale tsunami propagation simulations from the fault region to the coast are conducted using a three-dimensional (3-D) parallel unstructured mesh finite element code (Fluidity-ICOM). Unlike conventional 2-D approximation models, our tsunami model solves the full 3-D incompressible Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The model is tested against analytical solutions to simple dispersive wave propagation problems. Comparisons of our 3-D NS model results with those from linear shallow water and linear dispersive wave models demonstrate that the 3-D NS model simulates the dispersion of very short wavelength components more accurately than the 2-D models. This improved accuracy is achieved using only a small number (three to five) of vertical layers in the mesh. The numerical error in the wave velocity compared with the linear wave theory is less than 3% up to kH = 40, where k is the wave number and H is the sea depth. The same 2-D and 3-D models are also used to simulate two earthquake-generated tsunamis off the coast of Japan: the 2004 off Kii peninsula and the 2011 off Tohoku tsunamis. The linear dispersive and NS models showed good agreement in the leading waves but differed especially in their near-source, short wavelength dispersive wave components. This is consistent with the results from earlier tests, suggesting that the 3-D NS simulations are more accurate. The computational performance on a parallel computer showed good scalability up to 512 cores. By using a combination of unstructured meshes and high-performance computers, highly accurate 3-D tsunami simulations can be conducted in a practical timescale.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yokoi, T. [Building Research Institute, Tokyo (Japan); Sanchez-Sesma, F. [Universidad National Autonoma de Mexico, (Mexico). Institute de Ingenieria
1997-05-27
Formulation is introduced for discretizing a boundary integral equation into an indirect boundary element method for the solution of 3-dimensional topographic problems. Yokoi and Takenaka propose an analytical solution-capable reference solution (solution for the half space elastic body with flat free surface) to problems of topographic response to seismic motion in a 2-dimensional in-plane field. That is to say, they propose a boundary integral equation capable of effectively suppressing the non-physical waves that emerge in the result of computation in the wake of the truncation of the discretized ground surface making use of the wave field in a semi-infinite elastic body with flat free surface. They apply the proposed boundary integral equation discretized into the indirect boundary element method to solve some examples, and succeed in proving its validity. In this report, the equation is expanded to deal with 3-dimensional topographic problems. A problem of a P-wave vertically landing on a flat and free surface is solved by the conventional boundary integral equation and the proposed boundary integral equation, and the solutions are compared with each other. It is found that the new method, different from the conventional one, can delete non-physical waves from the analytical result. 4 figs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yi, Longtao; Qin, Min; Wang, Kai; Peng, Shiqi; Sun, Tianxi; Liu, Zhiguo [Beijing Normal University, College of Nuclear Science and Technology, Beijing (China); Lin, Xue [Northwest University, School of Cultural Heritage, Xi' an (China)
2016-09-15
Confocal three-dimensional micro-X-ray fluorescence (3D-XRF) is a good surface analysis technology widely used to analyse elements and elemental distributions. However, it has rarely been applied to analyse surface topography and 3D elemental mapping in surface morphology. In this study, a surface adaptive algorithm using the progressive approximation method was designed to obtain surface topography. A series of 3D elemental mapping analyses in surface morphology were performed in laboratories to analyse painted pottery fragments from the Majiayao Culture (3300-2900 BC). To the best of our knowledge, for the first time, sample surface topography and 3D elemental mapping were simultaneously obtained. Besides, component and depth analyses were also performed using synchrotron radiation confocal 3D-XRF and tabletop confocal 3D-XRF, respectively. The depth profiles showed that the sample has a layered structure. The 3D elemental mapping showed that the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat contain a large amount of Fe, Mn, and Ca, respectively. From the 3D elemental mapping analyses at different depths, a 3D rendering was obtained, clearly showing the 3D distributions of the red pigment, black pigment, and pottery coat. Compared with conventional 3D scanning, this method is time-efficient for analysing 3D elemental distributions and hence especially suitable for samples with non-flat surfaces. (orig.)
Mondaini, Rubem; Rigol, Marcos
2017-07-01
We study the matrix elements of few-body observables, focusing on the off-diagonal ones, in the eigenstates of the two-dimensional transverse field Ising model. By resolving all symmetries, we relate the onset of quantum chaos to the structure of the matrix elements. In particular, we show that a general result of the theory of random matrices, namely, the value 2 of the ratio of variances (diagonal to off-diagonal) of the matrix elements of Hermitian operators, occurs in the quantum chaotic regime. Furthermore, we explore the behavior of the off-diagonal matrix elements of observables as a function of the eigenstate energy differences and show that it is in accordance with the eigenstate thermalization hypothesis ansatz.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoav Hadas
Full Text Available Cell fate commitment of spinal progenitor neurons is initiated by long-range, midline-derived, morphogens that regulate an array of transcription factors that, in turn, act sequentially or in parallel to control neuronal differentiation. Included among these are transcription factors that regulate the expression of receptors for guidance cues, thereby determining axonal trajectories. The Ig/FNIII superfamily molecules TAG1/Axonin1/CNTN2 (TAG1 and Neurofascin (Nfasc are co-expressed in numerous neuronal cell types in the CNS and PNS - for example motor, DRG and interneurons - both promote neurite outgrowth and both are required for the architecture and function of nodes of Ranvier. The genes encoding TAG1 and Nfasc are adjacent in the genome, an arrangement which is evolutionarily conserved. To study the transcriptional network that governs TAG1 and Nfasc expression in spinal motor and commissural neurons, we set out to identify cis elements that regulate their expression. Two evolutionarily conserved DNA modules, one located between the Nfasc and TAG1 genes and the second directly 5' to the first exon and encompassing the first intron of TAG1, were identified that direct complementary expression to the CNS and PNS, respectively, of the embryonic hindbrain and spinal cord. Sequential deletions and point mutations of the CNS enhancer element revealed a 130bp element containing three conserved E-boxes required for motor neuron expression. In combination, these two elements appear to recapitulate a major part of the pattern of TAG1 expression in the embryonic nervous system.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.
1983-01-01
The role played by the dimensions of space and space-time in determining the form of various physical laws and constants of Nature is examined. Low dimensional manifolds are also seen to possess special mathematical properties. The concept of fractal dimension is introduced and the recent renaissance of Kaluza-Klein theories obtained by dimensional reduction from higher dimensional gravity or supergravity theories is discussed. A formulation of the anthropic principle is suggested. (author)
Summary of three-dimensional animation creation based on ethnic culture element
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Shao Zhaopo
2016-01-01
Full Text Available three-dimensional animation is a product combined by technology and art. It is an artistic ex-pression form combining painting, film & television, digital technology, music, and literature. As an audio and visual art, three-dimensional animation has its own unique culture-loading function, technical aesthetic charac-teristics, and requirements for national art expression. This paper aims to find the method to combine digital technology and national art in combination of three-dimensional animation short film creation, and hopes to clear the road for the cultivation of domestic three-dimensional animation quality project.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Seyed Abolfazl Hosseini
2016-02-01
Full Text Available In the present paper, development of the three-dimensional (3D computational code based on Galerkin finite element method (GFEM for solving the multigroup forward/adjoint diffusion equation in both rectangular and hexagonal geometries is reported. Linear approximation of shape functions in the GFEM with unstructured tetrahedron elements is used in the calculation. Both criticality and fixed source calculations may be performed using the developed GFEM-3D computational code. An acceptable level of accuracy at a low computational cost is the main advantage of applying the unstructured tetrahedron elements. The unstructured tetrahedron elements generated with Gambit software are used in the GFEM-3D computational code through a developed interface. The forward/adjoint multiplication factor, forward/adjoint flux distribution, and power distribution in the reactor core are calculated using the power iteration method. Criticality calculations are benchmarked against the valid solution of the neutron diffusion equation for International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA-3D and Water-Water Energetic Reactor (VVER-1000 reactor cores. In addition, validation of the calculations against the P1 approximation of the transport theory is investigated in relation to the liquid metal fast breeder reactor benchmark problem. The neutron fixed source calculations are benchmarked through a comparison with the results obtained from similar computational codes. Finally, an analysis of the sensitivity of calculations to the number of elements is performed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Franke, H.P.
1976-05-01
The finite element method is applied to the solution of the stationary 3D group diffusion equations. For this, a programme system with the name of FEM3D is established which also includes a module for semi-automatic mesh generation. Tetrahedral finite elements are used. The neutron fluxes are described by complete first- or second-order Lagrangian polynomials. General homogeneous boundary conditions are allowed. The studies show that realistic three-dimensional problems can be solved at less expense by iterative methods, in particular so when especially adapted matrix handling and storage schemes are used efficiently. (orig./RW) [de
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Král, Radomil; Náprstek, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 113, November (2017), s. 54-75 ISSN 0965-9978 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-34467P; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Fokker-Planck equation * finite element method * simplex element * multi-dimensional problem * non-symmetric operator Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering OBOR OECD: Mechanical engineering Impact factor: 3.000, year: 2016 https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0965997817301904
Kang, Cheng-rong; Wei, Su-hua; Zhang, Mei-chao; Zhang, Xin-chun
2008-08-01
To study the stress changes of maxillary central incisor restored with or without fiber post using three dimensional finite element method, and analysis the role of fiber post in determining the stress distribution in dentin. Three dimensional finite element models of maxillary central incisor with various remaining tooth structure were established by spiral CT, Mimics software and ANSYS software. Test samples were restored with all-ceramic crown and fiber post all-ceramic crown, respectively. The von Mises stress and maximal tensile stress of dentin were recorded. The stress level in dentin of maxillary central incisor restored with fiber post all-ceramic crown was smaller than that restored with all-ceramic crown, the stress distribution of both were similar. The apply of fiber post can reduce the stress level in dentin of maxillary central incisor and decrease the risk of tooth breakage, but not change the stress pattern.
Karatolios, Konstantinos; Wittek, Andreas; Nwe, Thet Htar; Bihari, Peter; Shelke, Amit; Josef, Dennis; Schmitz-Rixen, Thomas; Geks, Josef; Maisch, Bernhard; Blase, Christopher; Moosdorf, Rainer; Vogt, Sebastian
2013-11-01
Aortic wall strains are indicators of biomechanical changes of the aorta due to aging or progressing pathologies such as aortic aneurysm. We investigated the potential of time-resolved three-dimensional ultrasonography coupled with speckle-tracking algorithms and finite element analysis as a novel method for noninvasive in vivo assessment of aortic wall strain. Three-dimensional volume datasets of 6 subjects without cardiovascular risk factors and 2 abdominal aortic aneurysms were acquired with a commercial real time three-dimensional echocardiography system. Longitudinal and circumferential strains were computed offline with high spatial resolution using a customized commercial speckle-tracking software and finite element analysis. Indices for spatial heterogeneity and systolic dyssynchrony were determined for healthy abdominal aortas and abdominal aneurysms. All examined aortic wall segments exhibited considerable heterogenous in-plane strain distributions. Higher spatial resolution of strain imaging resulted in the detection of significantly higher local peak strains (p ≤ 0.01). In comparison with healthy abdominal aortas, aneurysms showed reduced mean strains and increased spatial heterogeneity and more pronounced temporal dyssynchrony as well as delayed systole. Three-dimensional ultrasound speckle tracking enables the analysis of spatially highly resolved strain fields of the aortic wall and offers the potential to detect local aortic wall motion deformations and abnormalities. These data allow the definition of new indices by which the different biomechanical properties of healthy aortas and aortic aneurysms can be characterized. Copyright © 2013 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Lee, Chia-Fone; Chen, Peir-Rong; Lee, Wen-Jeng; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Liu, Tien-Chen
2006-05-01
To present a systematic and practical approach that uses high-resolution computed tomography to derive models of the middle ear for finite element analysis. This prospective study included 31 subjects with normal hearing and no previous otologic disorders. Temporal bone images obtained from 15 right ears and 16 left ears were used for evaluation and reconstruction. High-resolution computed tomography of temporal bone was performed using simultaneous acquisition of 16 sections with a collimated slice thickness of 0.625 mm. All images were transferred to an Amira visualization system for three-dimensional reconstruction. The created three-dimensional model was translated into two commercial modeling packages, Patran and ANSYS, for finite element analysis. The characteristic dimensions of the model were measured and compared with previously published histologic section data. This result confirms that the geometric model created by the proposed method is accurate except that the tympanic membrane is thicker than when measured by the histologic section method. No obvious difference in the geometrical dimension between right and left ossicles was found (P > .05). The three-dimensional model created by finite element method and predicted umbo and stapes displacements are close to the bounds of the experimental curves of Nishihara's, Huber's, Gan's, and Sun's data across the frequency range of 100 to 8000 Hz. The model includes a description of the geometry of the middle ear components and dynamic equations of vibration. The proposed method is quick, practical, low-cost, and, most importantly, noninvasive as compared with histologic section methods.
Tsujimoto, Takuji; Matsuno, Tadafumi; Aoki, Wako; Ishigaki, Miho N.; Shigeyama, Toshikazu
2017-11-01
The stellar record of elemental abundances in satellite galaxies is important to identify the origin of r-process because such a small stellar system could have hosted a single r-process event, which would distinguish member stars that are formed before and after the event through the evidence of a considerable difference in the abundances of r-process elements, as found in the ultra-faint dwarf galaxy Reticulum II (Ret II). However, the limited mass of these systems prevents us from collecting information from a sufficient number of stars in individual satellites. Hence, it remains unclear whether the discovery of a remarkable r-process enrichment event in Ret II explains the nature of r-process abundances or is an exception. We perform high-resolution spectroscopic measurements of r-process abundances for 12 metal-poor stars in the Draco dwarf galaxy in the metallicity range of -2.5populations of stars with different r-process abundances, which are built by two r-process events that enriched gases at levels that differ by more than one order of magnitude. This work is based on data collected at the Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.
Chang, Sin-Chung; Wang, Xiao-Yen; To, Wai-Ming
2000-01-01
In the space-time conservation element and solution element (CE/SE) method, the independent marching variables used comprise not only the mesh value of the physical dependent variables but also, in contrast to it typical numerical method, the Mesh values of the spatial derivatives of the physical variables The use of the extra marching variables results from the need to construct the two-level explicit and nondissipative schemes which are at the core of the CE/SE development. It also results from the need to minimize the stencil while maintaining accuracy. In this paper using the 1D(sub (alpha)-mu) scheme as an example, the effect of this added complication on consistency, accuracy and operation count is assessed. As part of this effort, an equivalent yet more efficient form of the alpha-mu scheme in which the independent marching variables are the local fluxes tied to each mesh point is introduced. Also, the intriguing relations that exist among the alpha-mu. Leapfrog, and DuFort-Frankel schemes are further explored. In addition, the redundance of the Leapfrog, DUFort-Frankel, and Lax scheme and the remedy for this redundance are discussed. This paper is concluded with the construction and evaluation of a CE/SE solver for the inviscid Burger equation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hatice Z Nenseth
Full Text Available Closely related transcription factors (TFs can bind to the same response elements (REs with similar affinities and activate transcription. However, it is unknown whether transcription is similarly orchestrated by different TFs bound at the same RE. Here we have compared the recovery half time (t1/2, binding site occupancy and the resulting temporal changes in transcription upon binding of two closely related steroid receptors, the androgen and glucocorticoid receptors (AR and GR, to their common hormone REs (HREs. We show that there are significant differences at all of these levels between AR and GR at the MMTV HRE when activated by their ligands. These data show that two TFs bound at the same RE can have significantly different modes of action that can affect their responses to environmental cues.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stone, C.M.
1997-07-01
SANTOS is a finite element program designed to compute the quasistatic, large deformation, inelastic response of two-dimensional planar or axisymmetric solids. The code is derived from the transient dynamic code PRONTO 2D. The solution strategy used to compute the equilibrium states is based on a self-adaptive dynamic relaxation solution scheme, which is based on explicit central difference pseudo-time integration and artificial mass proportional damping. The element used in SANTOS is a uniform strain 4-node quadrilateral element with an hourglass control scheme to control the spurious deformation modes. Finite strain constitutive models for many common engineering materials are included. A robust master-slave contact algorithm for modeling sliding contact is implemented. An interface for coupling to an external code is also provided. 43 refs., 22 figs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young Soo Kim
2013-05-01
Full Text Available BackgroundTo construct a sophisticated three-dimensional framework, numerous modifications have been reported in the literature. However, most surgeons have paid little attention to the anatomical configuration of the concha and more to its deepness and hollowness, leading to unsatisfactory outcomes.MethodsFor a configuration of the concha that is definitely anatomical, the author further developed and employed the conchal bowl element, which has been used by several surgeons although the results have not been published elsewhere. The author constructed the conchal bowl element in one of three patterns according to the amount of available cartilages: one block, two-pieces, or a cymba bowl element only. A total of 20 patients underwent auricular reconstruction using a costal cartilage framework between 2009 and 2012. The 8 earliest reconstructions were performed without a conchal bowl element and the latter 12 with a conchal bowl element. The patients were followed up for more than 1 year. The aesthetic results were scored by evaluating characteristics involving the stability of the crus helicis, the conchal definition, and the smoothness of the helical curve.ResultsThe ears reconstructed early without a conchal bowl element showed a shallow and one or two incompletely separated concha with an obliterated cymba conchal space. They also did not have a realistic or smooth curve of the helix because of an unstable crus helicis. However, ears reconstructed later with the concha bowl element showed a definite crus helicis, deep cymba conchal space, and smooth helical curve.ConclusionsThe construction of the conchal bowl element is simple, not time-consuming procedure. It is suggested that the conchal bowl element must be constructed and attached to the main framework for natural configuration of the reconstructed ear.
Gonzales, Matthew J; Sturgeon, Gregory; Krishnamurthy, Adarsh; Hake, Johan; Jonas, René; Stark, Paul; Rappel, Wouter-Jan; Narayan, Sanjiv M; Zhang, Yongjie; Segars, W Paul; McCulloch, Andrew D
2013-07-01
High-order cubic Hermite finite elements have been valuable in modeling cardiac geometry, fiber orientations, biomechanics, and electrophysiology, but their use in solving three-dimensional problems has been limited to ventricular models with simple topologies. Here, we utilized a subdivision surface scheme and derived a generalization of the "local-to-global" derivative mapping scheme of cubic Hermite finite elements to construct bicubic and tricubic Hermite models of the human atria with extraordinary vertices from computed tomography images of a patient with atrial fibrillation. To an accuracy of 0.6 mm, we were able to capture the left atrial geometry with only 142 bicubic Hermite finite elements, and the right atrial geometry with only 90. The left and right atrial bicubic Hermite meshes were G1 continuous everywhere except in the one-neighborhood of extraordinary vertices, where the mean dot products of normals at adjacent elements were 0.928 and 0.925. We also constructed two biatrial tricubic Hermite models and defined fiber orientation fields in agreement with diagrammatic data from the literature using only 42 angle parameters. The meshes all have good quality metrics, uniform element sizes, and elements with aspect ratios near unity, and are shared with the public. These new methods will allow for more compact and efficient patient-specific models of human atrial and whole heart physiology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Two and three-dimensional stress analysis of continua using the UNCLE finite element scheme
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Richardson, T.
1982-04-01
A description of the data requirements for the solution of stress analysis problems in bodies of complex shape using finite elements is given. The elements available include quadratic isoparametric elements in two- and three-dimensions. In addition to solving problems involving elastic deformation, calculations may be performed which involve creep or plasticity. It is also possible to carry out vibrational analysis of structures to find the natural frequencies and the corresponding modal shapes. (author)
Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Sheet-Pile Cellular Cofferdams
1992-04-01
CTC HC TC.SS T CTE fRTE ZI Figure 5.7: Projection of stress paths on triaxial plane. 168 CHAPTER 5. THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOIL CONSTITUTIVE MODEL source of... CTE RTE Figure 5.8: Stress paths in q-p stress space. 170 CHAPTER 5. THREE-DIMENSIONAL SOIL CONSTITUTIVE MODEL 10.00 8.00 I0 SHEA ST.00.c Fiue59 ha...from Mt. Blue High School, Farmingtion, Maine where he excelled in mathematic and science and was a standout in football and wrestling. He attended
Que, Ruiyi; Zhu, Rong
2013-12-31
This paper demonstrates a novel flow sensor with two-dimensional 360° direction sensitivity achieved with a simple structure and a novel data fusion algorithm. Four sensing elements with roundabout wires distributed in four quadrants of a circle compose the sensor probe, and work in constant temperature difference (CTD) mode as both Joule heaters and temperature detectors. The magnitude and direction of a fluid flow are measured by detecting flow-induced temperature differences among the four elements. The probe is made of Ti/Au thin-film with a diameter of 2 mm, and is fabricated using micromachining techniques. When a flow goes through the sensor, the flow-induced temperature differences are detected by the sensing elements that also serve as the heaters of the sensor. By measuring the temperature differences among the four sensing elements symmetrically distributed in the sensing area, a full 360° direction sensitivity can be obtained. By using a BP neural network to model the relationship between the readouts of the four sensor elements and flow parameters and execute data fusion, the magnitude and direction of the flow can be deduced. Validity of the sensor design was proven through both simulations and experiments. Wind tunnel experimental results show that the measurement accuracy of the airflow speed reaches 0.72 m/s in the range of 3 m/s-30 m/s and the measurement accuracy of flow direction angle reaches 1.9° in the range of 360°.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujimura, Toichiro
1996-01-01
A three-dimensional neutron transport code DFEM has been developed by the double finite element method to analyze reactor cores with complex geometry as large fast reactors. Solution algorithm is based on the double finite element method in which the space and angle finite elements are employed. A reactor core system can be divided into some triangular and/or quadrangular prism elements, and the spatial distribution of neutron flux in each element is approximated with linear basis functions. As for the angular variables, various basis functions are applied, and their characteristics were clarified by comparison. In order to enhance the accuracy, a general method is derived to remedy the truncation errors at reflective boundaries, which are inherent in the conventional FEM. An adaptive acceleration method and the source extrapolation method were applied to accelerate the convergence of the iterations. The code structure is outlined and explanations are given on how to prepare input data. A sample input list is shown for reference. The eigenvalue and flux distribution for real scale fast reactors and the NEA benchmark problems were presented and discussed in comparison with the results of other transport codes. (author)
Atluri, S. N.; Nakagaki, M.; Kathiresan, K.
1980-01-01
In this paper, efficient numerical methods for the analysis of crack-closure effects on fatigue-crack-growth-rates, in plane stress situations, and for the solution of stress-intensity factors for arbitrary shaped surface flaws in pressure vessels, are presented. For the former problem, an elastic-plastic finite element procedure valid for the case of finite deformation gradients is developed and crack growth is simulated by the translation of near-crack-tip elements with embedded plastic singularities. For the latter problem, an embedded-elastic-singularity hybrid finite element method, which leads to a direct evaluation of K-factors, is employed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. K. Shayakhmetov
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In the work there are presented the results of studying the filtering elements weight changes when heated. For all the variants of filtering elements at the primary stages of heating there is characteristic increasing their linear dimensions due to their thermal expansion. It was established that using hydrolyzed ethyl silicate as a binder, as well as water solution of liquid glass with addition of aluminum powder in the refractory material permits to obtain filtering elements without high-temperature solid-phase sintering.
Two-dimensional finite element analysis of rectangular panel with hole using NICE/SPAR
Razzaq, Zia; Prasad, Venkatesh; Darbhamulla, Siva Prasad
1987-01-01
A panel 30 in. long, 11.5 in. wide, with a 2.0 in. diameter hole at the center is analyzed. Since a two-dimensional analysis is conducted, the thickness of the panel is taken as unity. Owing to the symmetry, it is sufficient to analyze only one fourth of the panel with appropriate boundary conditions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Smith Nadine
2005-06-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background Prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia are very common diseases in older American men, thus having a reliable treatment modality for both diseases is of great importance. The currently used treating options, mainly surgical ones, have numerous complications, which include the many side effects that accompany such procedures, besides the invasive nature of such techniques. Focused ultrasound is a relatively new treating modality that is showing promising results in treating prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia. Thus this technique is gaining more attention in the past decade as a non-invasive method to treat both diseases. Methods In this paper, the design, construction and evaluation of a 1.75 dimensional ultrasound phased array to be used for treating prostate cancer and benign prostatic hyperplasia is presented. With this array, the position of the focus can be controlled by changing the electrical power and phase to the individual elements for electronically focusing and steering in a three dimensional volume. The array was designed with a maximum steering angle of ± 13.5° in the transverse direction and a maximum depth of penetration of 11 cm, which allows the treatment of large prostates. The transducer piezoelectric ceramic, matching layers and cable impedance have been designed for maximum power transfer to tissue. Results To verify the capability of the transducer for focusing and steering, exposimetry was performed and the results correlated well with the calculated field. Ex vivo experiments using bovine tissue were performed with various lesion sizes and indicated the capability of the transducer to ablate tissue using short sonications. Conclusion A 1.75 dimensional array, that overcame the drawbacks associated with one-dimensional arrays, has been designed, built and successfully tested. Design issues, such as cable and ceramic capacitances, were taken into account when designing this
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hrehor, M.
1979-01-01
The paper deals with an application of the finite element method to the heat transfer study in seven-pin models of LMFBR fuel subassembly. The developed code NCEL solves two-dimensional steady state heat conduction equation in the whole subassembly model cross-section and enebles to perform the analysis of thermal behaviour in both normal and accidental operational conditions as eccentricity of the central rod or full or partial (porous) blockage of some part of the cross-flow area. The heat removal is simulated by heat sinks in coolant under conditions of subchannels slug flow approximation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kai Wei
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper investigates the use of three-dimensional (3D ϕ-u potential-based fluid elements for seismic analyses of deep water pile foundation. The mathematical derivations of the potential-based formulations are presented for reference. The potential-based modeling technique is studied and validated through experimental data and analytical solutions. Earthquake time history analyses for a 9-pile foundation in dry and different water environments are conducted, respectively. The seismic responses are discussed to investigate the complex effect of earthquake-induced fluid-structure interaction. Through the analyses, the potential-based fluid and interface elements are shown to perform adequately for the seismic analyses of pile foundation-water systems, and some interesting conclusions and recommendations are drawn.
Development of a two-dimensional finite element plasma edge model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vesey, R.A.
1992-01-01
The fluid equations modeling plasma transport in the tokamak scrape-off region are discretized via optimal upwind finite element methods developed for convection-dominated problems. These methods allow the non-orthogonal geometry of the edge region to be represented accurately, while applying the necessary boundary conditions. Newton's method with mesh sequencing is used to arrive at a converged solution to the resulting nonlinear algebraic system of equations. Preliminary results are presented for a 20x20 finite element discretization of the ASDEX edge region, with some simplifications. General agreement between the finite element solution and the Braams code B2 is observed. The code will be extended to allow equilibrium-based meshes and arbitrary boundary geometries
Kurt, Melike; Moored, Keith
2018-04-19
-dimensions. These results can aid in the design of networked bio-inspired control elements that through integrated sensing can synchronize to three-dimensional flow interactions. © 2018 IOP Publishing Ltd.
Zhang, Zeng-Chan; Yu, S. T. John; Chang, Sin-Chung; Jorgenson, Philip (Technical Monitor)
2001-01-01
In this paper, we report a version of the Space-Time Conservation Element and Solution Element (CE/SE) Method in which the 2D and 3D unsteady Euler equations are simulated using structured or unstructured quadrilateral and hexahedral meshes, respectively. In the present method, mesh values of flow variables and their spatial derivatives are treated as independent unknowns to be solved for. At each mesh point, the value of a flow variable is obtained by imposing a flux conservation condition. On the other hand, the spatial derivatives are evaluated using a finite-difference/weighted-average procedure. Note that the present extension retains many key advantages of the original CE/SE method which uses triangular and tetrahedral meshes, respectively, for its 2D and 3D applications. These advantages include efficient parallel computing ease of implementing non-reflecting boundary conditions, high-fidelity resolution of shocks and waves, and a genuinely multidimensional formulation without using a dimensional-splitting approach. In particular, because Riemann solvers, the cornerstones of the Godunov-type upwind schemes, are not needed to capture shocks, the computational logic of the present method is considerably simpler. To demonstrate the capability of the present method, numerical results are presented for several benchmark problems including oblique shock reflection, supersonic flow over a wedge, and a 3D detonation flow.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Panescu, D. (EP Technologies, Inc., Sunnyvale, CA (United States)); Webster, J.G.; Tompkins, W.J. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)); Stratbucker, R.A. (Radiation Health Center of the State of Nebraska, Omaha, NE (United States))
1995-02-01
The goal of this study was to determine the optimal electrode placement and size to minimize myocardial damage during defibrillation while rendering refractory a critical mass of cardiac tissue of 100%. For this purpose, we developed a 3-D finite element model with 55 388 nodes, 50 913 hexahedral elements, and simulated 16 different organs and tissues, as well as the properties of the electrolyte. The model used a nonuniform mesh with an average spatial resolution of 0.8 cm in all three dimensions. To validate this model, we measured the voltage across 3-cm[sup 2] Ag-AgCl electrodes when currents of 5 mA at 50 kHz were injected into a human subject's thorax through the same electrodes. For the same electrode placements and sizes and the same injected current, the finite element analysis produced results in good agreement with the experimental data. For the optimization of defibrillation, we tested 12 different electrode placements and seven different electrode sizes. The finite element analyses showed that the anterior-posterior electrode placement and an electrode size of about 90 cm[sup 2] offered the least chance of potential myocardial damage and required a shock energy of less than 350 J for 5-ms defibrillation pulses to achieve 100% critical mass. 47 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Arunachalam Sangeetha
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Context: To understand the effect of masticatory and parafunctional forces on the integrity of the prosthesis and the underlying cement layer. Aims: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stress pattern in the cement layer and the fixed prosthesis, on subjecting a three-dimensional finite element model to simulated occlusal loading. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element model was simulated to replace missing mandibular first molar with second premolar and second molar as abutments. The model was subjected to a range of occlusal loads (20, 30, 40 MPa in two different directions - vertical and 30° to the vertical. The cements (zinc phosphate, polycarboxylate, glass ionomer, and composite were modeled with two cement thicknesses - 25 and 100 μm. Stresses were determined in certain reference points in fixed prosthesis and the cement layer. Statistical Analysis Used: The stress values are mathematic calculations without variance; hence, statistical analysis is not routinely required. Results: Stress levels were calculated according to Von Mises criteria for each node. Maximum stresses were recorded at the occlusal surface, axio-gingival corners, followed by axial wall. The stresses were greater with lateral load and with 100-μm cement thickness. Results revealed higher stresses for zinc phosphate cement, followed by composites. Conclusions: The thinner cement interfaces favor the success of the prosthesis. The stresses in the prosthesis suggest rounding of axio-gingival corners and a well-established finish line as important factors in maintaining the integrity of the prosthesis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Samba, G.
1985-04-01
It is often desirable to solve the two dimensional multigroup transport equation for (r-z) geometries directly given by hydrodynamic calculations. Usually, only Monte-Carlo codes are able to compute α or k eigenvalues on such geometries. Most deterministic codes use an orthogonal mesh or restrict the mesh to a regular triangular grid. Other methods were developed in C.E.A. and Los Alamos but do not solve the problem of sliding between two Lagrangian blocks. Thus, we have developed a production code which solves these problems and is able to get α or k eigenvalues with a good accuracy for such geometries
A three-dimensional spectral element model for the solution of the hydrostatic primitive equations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iskandarani, M.; Haidvogel, D.B.; Levin, J.C.
2003-01-01
We present a spectral element model to solve the hydrostatic primitive equations governing large-scale geophysical flows. The highlights of this new model include unstructured grids, dual h-p paths to convergence, and good scalability characteristics on present day parallel computers including Beowulf-class systems. The behavior of the model is assessed on three process-oriented test problems involving wave propagation, gravitational adjustment, and nonlinear flow rectification, respectively. The first of these test problems is a study of the convergence properties of the model when simulating the linear propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves. The second is an intercomparison of spectral element and finite-difference model solutions to the adjustment of a density front in a straight channel. Finally, the third problem considers the comparison of model results to measurements obtained from a laboratory simulation of flow around a submarine canyon. The aforementioned tests demonstrate the good performance of the model in the idealized/process-oriented limits
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nunes, Rogerio Chaffin
2002-01-01
The transport equation defined in a medium with axial symmetry is angularly approached by a method of discrete ordinates and the system of partial differential equations obtained like this is solved by the method of the finite elements. The variational formulation for the system of differential equations of 2nd order with generalized Neumann boundary conditions (3rd type) it is approximated with triangular elements of 1st order. This work investigates the sensibility of the incoming flux and the absorption properties and scattering of the medium. Various non homogeneity types were investigated inside the medium. Various simulations involving the influence of the incoming flux, of the outgoing flux and of the material properties of the medium in the mapping of 'Dirichlet-Neumann' will be presented. (author)
Three-dimensional Finite Element Modelling of Composite Slabs for High Speed Rails
Mlilo, Nhlanganiso; Kaewunruen, Sakdirat
2017-12-01
Currently precast steel-concrete composite slabs are being considered on railway bridges as a viable alternative replacement for timber sleepers. However, due to their nature and the loading conditions, their behaviour is often complex. Present knowledge of the behaviour of precast steel-concrete composite slabs subjected to rail loading is limited. FEA is an important tool used to simulate real life behaviour and is widely accepted in many disciples of engineering as an alternative to experimental test methods, which are often costly and time consuming. This paper seeks to detail FEM of precast steel-concrete slabs subjected to standard in-service loading in high-speed rail with focus on the importance of accurately defining material properties, element type, mesh size, contacts, interactions and boundary conditions that will give results representative of real life behaviour. Initial finite element model show very good results, confirming the accuracy of the modelling procedure
Three-dimensionality of space in the structure of the periodic table of chemical elements
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veremeichik, T. F.
2006-01-01
The effect of the dimension of the 3D homogeneous and isotropic Euclidean space, and the electron spin on the self-organization of the electron systems of atoms of chemical elements is considered. It is shown that the finite dimension of space creates the possibility of periodicity in the structure of an electron cloud, while the value of the dimension determines the number of stable systems of electrons at different levels of the periodic table of chemical elements and some characteristics of the systems. The conditions for the stability of systems of electrons and the electron system of an atom as a whole are considered. On the basis of the results obtained, comparison with other hierarchical systems (nanostructures and biological structures) is performed
A three-dimensional spectral element model for the solution of the hydrostatic primitive equations
Iskandarani, M; Levin, J C
2003-01-01
We present a spectral element model to solve the hydrostatic primitive equations governing large-scale geophysical flows. The highlights of this new model include unstructured grids, dual h-p paths to convergence, and good scalability characteristics on present day parallel computers including Beowulf-class systems. The behavior of the model is assessed on three process-oriented test problems involving wave propagation, gravitational adjustment, and nonlinear flow rectification, respectively. The first of these test problems is a study of the convergence properties of the model when simulating the linear propagation of baroclinic Kelvin waves. The second is an intercomparison of spectral element and finite-difference model solutions to the adjustment of a density front in a straight channel. Finally, the third problem considers the comparison of model results to measurements obtained from a laboratory simulation of flow around a submarine canyon. The aforementioned tests demonstrate the good performance of th...
Static Analysis of Thick Composite Plates Using Higher Order Three Dimensional Finite Elements
1990-12-01
DERIVATION OF FINITE ELEMENT EQUILIBRIUM EQUATIONS The principle of virtual work is invoked for the general formulation of equilib- rium [Bathe, 1982...Cook, 19891. The principle of virtual work states that a body is in equilibrium, if and only if, the total virtual work done by the internal forces...is equal to the total virtual work done by the external forces. That is, 6WW.t = .t (2.1) This principle is equivalent to the minimum total potential
Ha, Seung-Ryong
2015-01-01
PURPOSE The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of various cement types on the stress distribution in monolithic zirconia crowns under maximum bite force using the finite element analysis. MATERIALS AND METHODS The models of the prepared #46 crown (deep chamfer margin) were scanned and solid models composed of the monolithic zirconia crown, cement layer, and prepared tooth were produced using the computer-aided design technology and were subsequently translated into 3-dimens...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulak, R.F.; Kennedy, J.M.; Belytschko, T.B.; Schoeberle, D.F.
1977-01-01
This paper describes finite-element formulations for the thermal stress analysis of LMFBR structures. The first formulation is applicable to large displacement rotation problems in which the strains are small. For this formulation, a general temperature-dependent constituent relationship is derived from a Gibbs potential function and a temperature dependent yield surface. The temperature dependency of the yield surface is based upon a temperature-dependent, material-hardening model. The model uses a temperature-equivalent stress-plastic strain diagram which is generated from isothermal uniaxial stress-strain data. A second formulation is presented for problems characterized by both large displacement-rotations and large strains. Here a set of large strain hypoelastic-plastic relationships are developed to linearly relate the rate of stress to the rate of deformation. The temperature field is described through time-dependent values at mesh node points; the temperature fields in each element are then obtained by interpolation formulas. Hence, problems with both spatial and temporal dependent temperature fields can easily be treated. The above developments were incorporated into two ANL developed finite-element computer codes: the implicit version of STRAW and the 3D Implicit Structural Analysis Code. STRAW is a two-dimensional code with a plane stress/plane strain beam element. The 3D Implicit code has a triangular flat plate element which is capable of sustaining both membrane and bending loads. To insure numerical stability both codes are based on an iterative-incremental solution procedure with equilibrium checks based on an error in energy
Liu, Ying; Xu, Zhenhuan; Li, Yuguo
2018-04-01
We present a goal-oriented adaptive finite element (FE) modelling algorithm for 3-D magnetotelluric fields in generally anisotropic conductivity media. The model consists of a background layered structure, containing anisotropic blocks. Each block and layer might be anisotropic by assigning to them 3 × 3 conductivity tensors. The second-order partial differential equations are solved using the adaptive finite element method (FEM). The computational domain is subdivided into unstructured tetrahedral elements, which allow for complex geometries including bathymetry and dipping interfaces. The grid refinement process is guided by a global posteriori error estimator and is performed iteratively. The system of linear FE equations for electric field E is solved with a direct solver MUMPS. Then the magnetic field H can be found, in which the required derivatives are computed numerically using cubic spline interpolation. The 3-D FE algorithm has been validated by comparisons with both the 3-D finite-difference solution and 2-D FE results. Two model types are used to demonstrate the effects of anisotropy upon 3-D magnetotelluric responses: horizontal and dipping anisotropy. Finally, a 3D sea hill model is modelled to study the effect of oblique interfaces and the dipping anisotropy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cai, Hongzhu; Čuma, Martin; Zhdanov, Michael
2015-01-01
This paper presents a parallelized version of the edge-based finite element method with a novel post-processing approach for numerical modeling of an electromagnetic field in complex media. The method uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh which can reduce the number of degrees of freedom signific......This paper presents a parallelized version of the edge-based finite element method with a novel post-processing approach for numerical modeling of an electromagnetic field in complex media. The method uses an unstructured tetrahedral mesh which can reduce the number of degrees of freedom...... significantly. The linear system of finite element equations is solved using parallel direct solvers which are robust for ill-conditioned systems and efficient for multiple source electromagnetic (EM) modeling. We also introduce a novel approach to compute the scalar components of the electric field from...... the tangential components along each edge based on field redatuming. The method can produce a more accurate result as compared to conventional approach. We have applied the developed algorithm to compute the EM response for a typical 3D anisotropic geoelectrical model of the off-shore HC reservoir with complex...
Parallelized Three-Dimensional Resistivity Inversion Using Finite Elements And Adjoint State Methods
Schaa, Ralf; Gross, Lutz; Du Plessis, Jaco
2015-04-01
The resistivity method is one of the oldest geophysical exploration methods, which employs one pair of electrodes to inject current into the ground and one or more pairs of electrodes to measure the electrical potential difference. The potential difference is a non-linear function of the subsurface resistivity distribution described by an elliptic partial differential equation (PDE) of the Poisson type. Inversion of measured potentials solves for the subsurface resistivity represented by PDE coefficients. With increasing advances in multichannel resistivity acquisition systems (systems with more than 60 channels and full waveform recording are now emerging), inversion software require efficient storage and solver algorithms. We developed the finite element solver Escript, which provides a user-friendly programming environment in Python to solve large-scale PDE-based problems (see https://launchpad.net/escript-finley). Using finite elements, highly irregular shaped geology and topography can readily be taken into account. For the 3D resistivity problem, we have implemented the secondary potential approach, where the PDE is decomposed into a primary potential caused by the source current and the secondary potential caused by changes in subsurface resistivity. The primary potential is calculated analytically, and the boundary value problem for the secondary potential is solved using nodal finite elements. This approach removes the singularity caused by the source currents and provides more accurate 3D resistivity models. To solve the inversion problem we apply a 'first optimize then discretize' approach using the quasi-Newton scheme in form of the limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) method (see Gross & Kemp 2013). The evaluation of the cost function requires the solution of the secondary potential PDE for each source current and the solution of the corresponding adjoint-state PDE for the cost function gradients with respect to the subsurface
Değer, Yalçın; Adigüzel, Özkan; Yiğit Özer, Senem; Kaya, Sadullah; Seyfioğlu Polat, Zelal; Bozyel, Bejna
2015-11-29
BACKGROUND The mouth is exposed to thermal irritation from hot and cold food and drinks. Thermal changes in the oral cavity produce expansions and contractions in tooth structures and restorative materials. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of temperature and stress distribution on 2 different post systems using the 3-dimensional (3D) finite element method. MATERIAL AND METHODS The 3D finite element model shows a labio-lingual cross-sectional view of the endodontically treated upper right central incisor and supporting periodontal ligament with bone structures. Stainless steel and glass fiber post systems with different physical and thermal properties were modelled in the tooth restored with composite core and ceramic crown. We placed 100 N static vertical occlusal loading onto the center of the incisal surface of the tooth. Thermal loads of 0°C and 65°C were applied on the model for 5 s. Temperature and thermal stresses were determined on the labio-lingual section of the model at 6 different points. RESULTS The distribution of stress, including thermal stress values, was calculated using 3D finite element analysis. The stainless steel post system produced more temperature and thermal stresses on the restorative materials, tooth structures, and posts than did the glass fiber reinforced composite posts. CONCLUSIONS Thermal changes generated stresses in the restorative materials, tooth, and supporting structures.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ku, F.H.; Riccardella, P.C.; Lashley, M.S. [Structural Integrity Associates Inc., California (United States); Chen, Y. [Structural Integrity Associates, Inc., Ontario (Canada); Yee, R.K. [San Jose State Univ., California (United States)
2010-07-01
This paper presents a finite element analysis (FEA) model to predict the residual stresses in a tight-radius warm bend feeder tube in a CANDU nuclear reactor coolant system throughout the various stages of the manufacturing and welding processes, including feeder tube forming, Grayloc hub weld, and weld overlay application. The FEA employs 3-D elastic-plastic technology with large deformation capability to predict the residual stresses due to the feeder tube forming and various welding processes. The results demonstrate that the FEA method captures the residual stress trends resulted from warm bending and weld overlay with acceptable accuracy. (author)
Multi-dimensional Fokker-Planck equation analysis using the modified finite element method
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Náprstek, Jiří; Král, Radomil
2016-01-01
Roč. 744, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 012177. ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Motion and Vibration Control (MOVIC 2016) /13./ and International Conference on Recent Advances in Structural Dynamics (RASD 2016) /12./. Southampton, 04.07.2016-06.07.2016] R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-34467P; GA ČR(CZ) GA15-01035S Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : Fokker-Planck equation * finite element method * single degree of freedom systems (SDOF) Subject RIV: JM - Building Engineering http://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1742-6596/744/1/012177
ImageParser: a tool for finite element generation from three-dimensional medical images.
Yin, H M; Sun, L Z; Wang, G; Yamada, T; Wang, J; Vannier, M W
2004-10-01
The finite element method (FEM) is a powerful mathematical tool to simulate and visualize the mechanical deformation of tissues and organs during medical examinations or interventions. It is yet a challenge to build up an FEM mesh directly from a volumetric image partially because the regions (or structures) of interest (ROIs) may be irregular and fuzzy. A software package, ImageParser, is developed to generate an FEM mesh from 3-D tomographic medical images. This software uses a semi-automatic method to detect ROIs from the context of image including neighboring tissues and organs, completes segmentation of different tissues, and meshes the organ into elements. The ImageParser is shown to build up an FEM model for simulating the mechanical responses of the breast based on 3-D CT images. The breast is compressed by two plate paddles under an overall displacement as large as 20% of the initial distance between the paddles. The strain and tangential Young's modulus distributions are specified for the biomechanical analysis of breast tissues. The ImageParser can successfully exact the geometry of ROIs from a complex medical image and generate the FEM mesh with customer-defined segmentation information.
ImageParser: a tool for finite element generation from three-dimensional medical images
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yamada T
2004-10-01
Full Text Available Abstract Background The finite element method (FEM is a powerful mathematical tool to simulate and visualize the mechanical deformation of tissues and organs during medical examinations or interventions. It is yet a challenge to build up an FEM mesh directly from a volumetric image partially because the regions (or structures of interest (ROIs may be irregular and fuzzy. Methods A software package, ImageParser, is developed to generate an FEM mesh from 3-D tomographic medical images. This software uses a semi-automatic method to detect ROIs from the context of image including neighboring tissues and organs, completes segmentation of different tissues, and meshes the organ into elements. Results The ImageParser is shown to build up an FEM model for simulating the mechanical responses of the breast based on 3-D CT images. The breast is compressed by two plate paddles under an overall displacement as large as 20% of the initial distance between the paddles. The strain and tangential Young's modulus distributions are specified for the biomechanical analysis of breast tissues. Conclusion The ImageParser can successfully exact the geometry of ROIs from a complex medical image and generate the FEM mesh with customer-defined segmentation information.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Czarnecki, J.B.; Faunt, C.C.; Gable, C.W.; Zyvoloski, G.A.
1996-01-01
Development of a preliminary three-dimensional model of the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain, the potential location for a high-level nuclear waste repository, is presented. The development of the model advances the technology of interfacing: (1)complex three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework modeling; (2) fully three-dimensional, unstructured, finite-element mesh generation; and (3) groundwater flow, heat, and transport simulation. The three-dimensional hydrogeologic framework model is developed using maps, cross sections, and well data. The framework model data are used to feed an automated mesh generator, designed to discretize irregular three-dimensional solids,a nd to assign materials properties from the hydrogeologic framework model to the tetrahedral elements. The mesh generator facilitated the addition of nodes to the finite-element mesh which correspond to the exact three-dimensional position of the potentiometric surface based on water-levels from wells. A ground water flow and heat simulator is run with the resulting finite- element mesh, within a parameter-estimation program. The application of the parameter-estimation program is designed to provide optimal values of permeability and specified fluxes over the model domain to minimize the residual between observed and simulated water levels
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Vishal Shrishail Kudagi
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Connecting the contralateral upper molars by means of a transpalatal arch (TPA is thought to decrease the tendency of the molars to move mesially in response to orthodontic force (i.e., provide orthodontic anchorage. This study was hence conducted to investigate the effects of the TPA on the displacement of the molars and stresses generated in the periodontium during orthodontic tooth movement using the finite element method (FEM. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional (3D model was generated using medical modeling software (Mimics using the computed tomography slice images of the skull which were obtained at a slice thickness of 1 mm. From this, the finite element model was built using HyperMesh and analysis was performed using PATRAN software (MSC Software Corporation, 4675 MacArthur Court, Newport Beach, California 92660. The 3D finite element models were fabricated in two versions such as maxillary first molars including their associated periodontal ligament and alveolar bone one with TPA and another without TPA. Both were subjected to orthodontic forces, and the resultant stress patterns and displacements between the models with and without TPA were determined. Results: The stress and displacement plots in this study failed to show any significant differences in stress and displacement within the periodontium of molars, between the two models – one with TPA and the other without, in response to the orthodontic force. Interpretation and Conclusion: The results of the current finite element analysis, therefore, suggest that the presence of a TPA brings about no change in the initial dental and periodontal stress distribution and displacement.
Çelik Köycü, Berrak; Imirzalioğlu, Pervin; Özden, Utku Ahmet
2016-01-01
Functional occlusal loads and intraoral temperature changes create stress in teeth. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of simultaneous thermomechanical loads on stress distribution related to inlay restored teeth by three-dimensional finite element analysis. A mandibular first molar was constructed with tooth structures, surrounding bone and inlays of Type II gold alloy, ceramic, and composite resin. Stress patterns on the restorative materials, adhesive resin, enamel and dentin were analyzed after simulated temperature changes from 36°C to 4 or 60°C for 2 s with 200-N oblique loading. The results showed that the three types of inlays had similar stress distribution in the tooth structures and restorative materials. Concerning the adhesive resin, the composite resin inlay model exhibited lower stresses than ceramic and gold alloy inlays. Simultaneous thermomechanical loads caused high stress patterns in inlay-restored teeth. Composite resin inlays may be the better choice to avoid adhesive failure.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Liu Bing
2014-10-01
Full Text Available Earthquake action is the main external factor which influences long-term safe operation of civil construction, especially of the high-rise building. Applying time-history method to simulate earthquake response process of civil construction foundation surrounding rock is an effective method for the anti-knock study of civil buildings. Therefore, this paper develops a civil building earthquake disaster three-dimensional dynamic finite element numerical simulation system. The system adopts the explicit central difference method. Strengthening characteristics of materials under high strain rate and damage characteristics of surrounding rock under the action of cyclic loading are considered. Then, dynamic constitutive model of rock mass suitable for civil building aseismic analysis is put forward. At the same time, through the earthquake disaster of time-history simulation of Shenzhen Children’s Palace, reliability and practicability of system program is verified in the analysis of practical engineering problems.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yue-Feng, Gong; Zhi-Tang, Song; Yun, Ling; Yan, Liu; Yi-Jin, Li; Song-Lin, Feng
2010-01-01
Simulation of the heat consumption in phase change random access memories (PCRAMs) is investigated by a three-dimensional finite element model. It is revealed that the thermal conductivity and electrical conductivity of the buffer layer are crucial in controlling the heating efficiency in RESET process. The buffer layer materials W, TiN, WO 3 , TiO 2 and poly-germanium (poly-Ge) are applied in the simulation respectively, and compared with each other. The simulation results show that limitation of electrical conductivity is effective on heating efficiency and the limitation of thermal conductivity is important on the reliable RESET process. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Two Dimensional Finite Element Analysis for the Effect of a Pressure Wave in the Human Brain
Ponce L., Ernesto; Ponce S., Daniel
2008-11-01
Brain injuries in people of all ages is a serious, world-wide health problem, with consequences as varied as attention or memory deficits, difficulties in problem-solving, aggressive social behavior, and neuro degenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. Brain injuries can be the result of a direct impact, but also pressure waves and direct impulses. The aim of this work is to develop a predictive method to calculate the stress generated in the human brain by pressure waves such as high power sounds. The finite element method is used, combined with elastic wave theory. The predictions of the generated stress levels are compared with the resistance of the arterioles that pervade the brain. The problem was focused to the Chilean mining where there are some accidents happen by detonations and high sound level. There are not formal medical investigation, however these pressure waves could produce human brain damage.
B-spline based finite element method in one-dimensional discontinuous elastic wave propagation
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Kolman, Radek; Okrouhlík, Miloslav; Berezovski, A.; Gabriel, Dušan; Kopačka, Ján; Plešek, Jiří
2017-01-01
Roč. 46, June (2017), s. 382-395 ISSN 0307-904X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP101/12/2315; GA MŠk(CZ) EF15_003/0000493 Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-12; AV ČR(CZ) ETA-15-03 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce; Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : discontinuous elastic wave propagation * B-spline finite element method * isogeometric analysis * implicit and explicit time integration * dispersion * spurious oscillations Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics OBOR OECD: Acoustics Impact factor: 2.350, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0307904X17300835
Bonfante, Estevam A; Rafferty, Brian T; Silva, Nelson R F A; Hanan, Jay C; Rekow, Elizabeth Dianne; Thompson, Van P; Coelho, Paulo G
2012-10-01
To simulate coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE)-generated stress fields in monolithic metal and ceramic crowns, and CTE mismatch stresses between metal, alumina, or zirconia cores and veneer layered crowns when cooled from high temperature processing. A 3D computer-aided design model of a mandibular first molar crown was generated. Tooth preparation comprised reduction of proximal walls by 1.5 mm and of occlusal surfaces by 2.0 mm. Crown systems were monolithic (all-porcelain, alumina, metal, or zirconia) or subdivided into a core (metallic, zirconia, or alumina) and a porcelain veneer layer. The model was thermally loaded from 900°C to 25°C. A finite element mesh of three nodes per edge and a first/last node interval ratio of 1 was used, resulting in approximately 60,000 elements for both solids. Regions and values of maximum principal stress at the core and veneer layers were determined through 3D graphs and software output. The metal-porcelain and zirconia-porcelain systems showed compressive fields within the veneer cusp bulk, whereas alumina-porcelain presented tensile fields. At the core/veneer interface, compressive fields were observed for the metal-porcelain system, slightly tensile for the zirconia-porcelain, and higher tensile stress magnitudes for the alumina-porcelain. Increasingly compressive stresses were observed for the metal, alumina, zirconia, and all-porcelain monolithic systems. Variations in residual thermal stress levels were observed between bilayered and single-material systems due to the interaction between crown configuration and material properties. © 2012 by the American College of Prosthodontists.
Andonegui, Imanol; Garcia-Adeva, Angel J
2013-02-25
A critical assessment of the finite element (FE) method for studying two-dimensional dielectric photonic crystals is made. Photonic band structures, transmission coefficients, and quality factors of various two-dimensional, periodic and aperiodic, dielectric photonic crystals are calculated by using the FE (real-space) method and the plane wave expansion or the finite difference time domain (FDTD) methods and a comparison is established between those results. It is found that, contrarily to popular belief, the FE method (FEM) not only reproduces extremely well the results obtained with the standard plane wave method with regards to the eigenvalue analysis (photonic band structure and density of states calculations) but it also allows to study very easily the time-harmonic propagation of electromagnetic fields in finite clusters of arbitrary complexity and, thus, to calculate their transmission coefficients in a simple way. Moreover, the advantages of using this real space method in the context of point defect cluster quality factor calculations are also stressed by comparing the results obtained with this method with those obtained with the FDTD one. As a result of this study, FEM comes out as an stable, robust, rigorous, and reliable tool to study light propagation and confinement in both periodic and aperiodic dielectric photonic crystals and clusters.
Gomez, Juan Pablo; Peña, Fabio Marcelo; Martínez, Valentina; Giraldo, Diana C; Cardona, Carlos Iván
2015-05-01
To describe, using a three-dimensional finite element (FE) model, the initial force system generated during bodily movement of upper canines with plastic aligners with and without composite attachments. A CAD model of an upper right canine, its alveolar bone and periodontal ligament, thermoformed plastic aligner, and two light-cured composite attachments were constructed. A FE model was used to analyze the effects of imposing a distal movement condition of 0.15 mm on the aligner (simulating the mechanics used to produce a distal bodily movement) with and without composite attachments. In terms of tension and compression stress distribution, without composite attachments a compression area in the cervical third of the distal root surface and a tension area in the apical third of the mesial surface were observed. With composite attachments, uniform compression areas in the distal root surface and uniform tension area in the mesial root surface were observed. Compression areas in the active surfaces of the composite attachments were also observed. In terms of movement patterns, an uncontrolled distal inclination, with rotation axis between the middle and cervical root thirds, was observed without composite attachment. Distal bodily movement (translation) was observed with composite attachment. In a three-dimensional FE analysis of a plastic aligner system biomechanically supplementary composite attachments generate the force system required to produce bodily tooth movement; the absence of biomechanically supplementary composite attachments favors the undesired inclination of the tooth during the translation movements.
Zhao, Chunjiang; Dong, Daming; Du, Xiaofan; Zheng, Wengang
2016-10-22
Sensing and mapping element distributions in plant tissues and its growth environment has great significance for understanding the uptake, transport, and accumulation of nutrients and harmful elements in plants, as well as for understanding interactions between plants and the environment. In this study, we developed a 3-dimensional elemental mapping system based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy that can be deployed in- field to directly measure the distribution of multiple elements in living plants as well as in the soil. Mapping is performed by a fast scanning laser, which ablates a micro volume of a sample to form a plasma. The presence and concentration of specific elements are calculated using the atomic, ionic, and molecular spectral characteristics of the plasma emission spectra. Furthermore, we mapped the pesticide residues in maize leaves after spraying to demonstrate the capacity of this method for trace elemental mapping. We also used the system to quantitatively detect the element concentrations in soil, which can be used to further understand the element transport between plants and soil. We demonstrate that this method has great potential for elemental mapping in plant tissues and soil with the advantages of 3-dimensional and multi-elemental mapping, in situ and in vivo measurement, flexible use, and low cost.
Smeets, Daniel; Markaki, Yolanda; Schmid, Volker J; Kraus, Felix; Tattermusch, Anna; Cerase, Andrea; Sterr, Michael; Fiedler, Susanne; Demmerle, Justin; Popken, Jens; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Brockdorff, Neil; Cremer, Thomas; Schermelleh, Lothar; Cremer, Marion
2014-01-01
A Xist RNA decorated Barr body is the structural hallmark of the compacted inactive X territory in female mammals. Using super-resolution three-dimensional structured illumination microscopy (3D-SIM) and quantitative image analysis, we compared its ultrastructure with active chromosome territories (CTs) in human and mouse somatic cells, and explored the spatio-temporal process of Barr body formation at onset of inactivation in early differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We demonstrate that all CTs are composed of structurally linked chromatin domain clusters (CDCs). In active CTs the periphery of CDCs harbors low-density chromatin enriched with transcriptionally competent markers, called the perichromatin region (PR). The PR borders on a contiguous channel system, the interchromatin compartment (IC), which starts at nuclear pores and pervades CTs. We propose that the PR and macromolecular complexes in IC channels together form the transcriptionally permissive active nuclear compartment (ANC). The Barr body differs from active CTs by a partially collapsed ANC with CDCs coming significantly closer together, although a rudimentary IC channel system connected to nuclear pores is maintained. Distinct Xist RNA foci, closely adjacent to the nuclear matrix scaffold attachment factor-A (SAF-A) localize throughout Xi along the rudimentary ANC. In early differentiating ESCs initial Xist RNA spreading precedes Barr body formation, which occurs concurrent with the subsequent exclusion of RNA polymerase II (RNAP II). Induction of a transgenic autosomal Xist RNA in a male ESC triggers the formation of an 'autosomal Barr body' with less compacted chromatin and incomplete RNAP II exclusion. 3D-SIM provides experimental evidence for profound differences between the functional architecture of transcriptionally active CTs and the Barr body. Basic structural features of CT organization such as CDCs and IC channels are however still recognized, arguing against a uniform
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cheng-dong Piao
2015-01-01
Full Text Available In the repair of peripheral nerve injury using autologous or synthetic nerve grafting, the magnitude of tensile forces at the anastomosis affects its response to physiological stress and the ultimate success of the treatment. One-dimensional stretching is commonly used to measure changes in tensile stress and strain however, the accuracy of this simple method is limited. Therefore, in the present study, we established three-dimensional finite element models of sciatic nerve defects repaired by autologous nerve grafts. Using PRO E 5.0 finite element simulation software, we calculated the maximum stress and displacement of an anastomosis under a 5 N load in 10-, 20-, 30-, 40-mm long autologous nerve grafts. We found that maximum displacement increased with graft length, consistent with specimen force. These findings indicate that three-dimensional finite element simulation is a feasible method for analyzing stress and displacement at the anastomosis after autologous nerve grafting.
A comparison of two three-dimensional shell-element transient electromagnetics codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yugo, J.J.; Williamson, D.E.
1992-01-01
Electromagnetic forces due to eddy currents strongly influence the design of components for the next generation of fusion devices. An effort has been made to benchmark two computer programs used to generate transient electromagnetic loads: SPARK and EddyCuFF. Two simple transient field problems were analyzed, both of which had been previously analyzed by the SPARK code with results recorded in the literature. A third problem that uses an ITER inboard blanket benchmark model was analyzed as well. This problem was driven with a self-consistent, distributed multifilament plasma model generated by an axisymmetric physics code. The benchmark problems showed good agreement between the two shell-element codes. Variations in calculated eddy currents of 1--3% have been found for similar, finely meshed models. A difference of 8% was found in induced current and 20% in force for a coarse mesh and complex, multifilament field driver. Because comparisons were made to results obtained from literature, model preparation and code execution times were not evaluated
Ubaidillah; Permata, A. N. S.; Mazlan, S. A.; Tjahjana, D. D. D. P.; Widodo, P. J.
2017-10-01
This research delivers a finite element magnetic simulation of a novel disk type multi-coil magnetorheological brake (MR brake). The MR brake axial design had more than one coil located outside of the casing. This design could simplify the maintenance process of brakes. One pair of coils was used as the representative of the entire coil in the simulation process, and it could distribute magnetic flux in all parts of the electromagnetic. The objective of this simulation was to produce magnetic flux on the surface of the disc brake rotor. The value of the MR brake magnetic flux was higher than that of the current MR brake having one coil with a larger size. The result of the simulation would be used to identify the effect of different fluids on each variation. The Magneto-rheological fluid MRF-132DG and MRF-140CG were injected in each gap as much as 0.50, 1.00, and 1.50 mm, respectively. On the simulation process, the coils were energized at 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.00, 1.50, and 2.00 A, respectively. The magnetic flux produced by MRF-140CG was 336 m Tesla on the gap of 0.5 mm. The result of the simulation shows that the smaller the gap variation was, the higher the magnetic value was.
Sato, F R L; Asprino, L; Noritomi, P Y; da Silva, J V L; de Moraes, M
2012-08-01
The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical stress over hemimandible substrate and hardware after sagittal split ramus osteotomy (SSRO) fixed with five different techniques using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. A 3D finite element model of a hemimandible was created and a 5mm advancement SSRO was simulated on a computer model. The model was fixed with five different techniques: 3 linear 60° screw arrangement; 3 linear 90° screw arrangement; 3 inverted L screw arrangement; 1 conventional miniplate; and 1 locking miniplate with four monocortical screws. Load was applied until 3mm displacement was reached and the results were compared with previous mechanical and photoelastic tests, thus analysing the mechanical stresses developed in the proximity of miniplates and screws and within the fixation system itself. The maximum principal stress values demonstrate a lower mechanical stress rate in bone and in the fixation system with the inverted L arrangement, followed by the linear 90° and linear 60° arrangements. The locking miniplate/screw system presented lower maximum principal stress and better stress distribution compared with the conventional system. Under the conditions tested, the reversed L arrangement provided the most favourable stress dissipation behaviour. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Rezende, Carlos Eduardo Edwards; Chase-Diaz, Melody; Costa, Max Doria; Albarracin, Max Laurent; Paschoeto, Gabriela; Sousa, Edson Antonio Capello; Rubo, José Henrique; Borges, Ana Flávia Sanches
2015-10-01
This study aimed to analyze the stress distribution in single implant system and to evaluate the compatibility of an in vitro model with finite element (FE) model. The in vitro model consisted of Brånemark implant; multiunit set abutment of 5 mm height; metal-ceramic screw-retained crown, and polyurethane simulating the bone. Deformations were recorded in the peri-implant region in the mesial and distal aspects, after an axial 300 N load application at the center of the occlusal aspect of the crown, using strain gauges. This in vitro model was scanned with micro CT to design a three-dimensional FE model and the strains in the peri-implant bone region were registered to check the compatibility between both models. The FE model was used to evaluate stress distribution in different parts of the system. The values obtained from the in vitro model (20-587 με) and the finite element analysis (81-588 με) showed agreement among them. The highest stresses because of axial and oblique load, respectively were 5.83 and 40 MPa for the cortical bone, 55 and 1200 MPa for the implant, and 80 and 470 MPa for the abutment screw. The FE method proved to be effective for evaluating the deformation around single implant. Oblique loads lead to higher stress concentrations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heintze, E.
1993-01-01
The aim of this report is to present a method for solving the time-domain three-dimensional Maxwell equations. This method is based on a variational formulation and can be easily coupled with a particle solver for the Vlasov equation. The necessity to take into account complex three-dimensional geometries and to have a spatial resolution fitted to the various computation zones, leads to choose a finite element method built on tetrahedral unstructured meshes. 12 refs
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Castejón, L.
1997-12-01
Full Text Available Sandwich-type structures have proved to be alternatives of great success for several fields of application, and specially in the building sector. This is due to their outstanding properties of .specific rigidity and strength against bending loads and other range of advantages like fatigue and impact resistance, attainment of flat and smooth surfaces, high electric and thermal insulation, design versatility and some others. However, traditional sandwich structures present problems like their tendency towards delamination, stress concentrations in bores or screwed Joints, and pre resistance. These problems are alleviated thanks to the use of new sandwich structures built using three dimensional structures of advanced composite materials, maintaining the present advantages for more traditional sandwich structures. At this rate, these new structures can be applied in several areas where conventional sandwich structures used to be like walls, partitions, floor and ceiling structures, domes, vaults and dwellings, but with greater success.
Las estructuras tipo sándwich han demostrado ser alternativas de gran éxito para diversos campos de aplicación y, en concreto, en el sector de la construcción, listo es gracias a sus excelentes propiedades de rigidez y resistencia específica frente a cargas de flexión y otra larga lista de ventajas, a la que pertenecen, por ejemplo, su buena resistencia a fatiga, resistencia al impacto, obtención de superficies lisas y suaves, elevado aislamiento térmico y eléctrico, versatilidad de diseño y otras. Sin embargo, las estructuras sándwich, tradicionales presentan una problemática consistente en su tendencia a la delaminación, concentraciones de tensiones ¿aparecidas ante la existencia de agujeros o uniones atornilladas y resistencia al fuego. Estos problemas son pifiados gracias a la aplicación de estructuras novedosas tipo sándwich, construidas a partir de tejidos tridimensionales de materiales
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
NONE
1982-03-01
For the purpose of contributing to the efficient R and D of three-dimensional circuit element technologies (laminated high density integrated element technology, laminated high-speed multi-functional integrated element technology, and laminated large capacity multi-functional integrated element technology), conducted were the survey of domestic and overseas technological trend, investigation of progress status of R and D, and extraction and analysis of problems concerning R and D. In the technological trend survey, the technologies that could sprout in the future were investigated and examined. In addition, examined as much as possible at the present time were the appearance as a device imaginable at the time of the development of the three-dimensional circuit element technology, the point at issue, essential technologies for the development of the element, etc., with the results reported. A report was made on the technology of obtaining a silicon crystal layer on an insulating object. The status quo of a technology for forming an insulated film suitable for a silicon multi-layer structure and of a technology for forming an electrode material was explained, as was a layer forming technology for an insulating object and a metallic material concerning a compound semiconductor layer technology. With the present status summarized on an image sensor in two dimensions, the transmission electron microscope method was introduced. Last of all, investigation results were compiled on the state of progress of each research for the three-dimensional circuit element technology. (NEDO)
An investigation of dimensional scaling using cervical spine motion segment finite element models.
Singh, Dilaver; Cronin, Duane S
2017-11-01
The paucity of experimental data for validating computational models of different statures underscores the need for appropriate scaling methods so that models can be verified and validated using experimental data. Scaling was investigated using 50th percentile male (M50) and 5th percentile female (F05) cervical spine motion segment (C4-C5) finite element models subject to tension, flexion, and extension loading. Two approaches were undertaken: geometric scaling of the models to investigate size effects (volumetric scaling) and scaling of the force-displacement or moment-angle model results (data scaling). Three sets of scale factors were considered: global (body mass), regional (neck dimensions), and local (segment tissue dimensions). Volumetric scaling of the segment models from M50 to F05, and vice versa, produced correlations that were good or excellent in both tension and flexion (0.825-0.991); however, less agreement was found in extension (0.550-0.569). The reduced correlation in extension was attributed to variations in shape between the models leading to nonlinear effects such as different time to contact for the facet joints and posterior processes. Data scaling of the responses between the M50 and F05 models produced similar trends to volumetric scaling, with marginally greater correlations. Overall, the local tissue level and neck region level scale factors produced better correlations than the traditional global scaling. The scaling methods work well for a given subject, but are limited in applicability between subjects with different morphology, where nonlinear effects may dominate the response. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mojtaba Mahmoodi
2017-09-01
Full Text Available Introduction: In post-core crown restorations, the use of prefabricated composite posts concentrate stress at the cervical region and the use of metal posts (prefabricated and customized posts concentrates stress at the interfaces. Fiber reinforced composite posts (FRCs with oval cross-section (oval posts were proposed for post-core crown restorations to reduce the stress levels at the cervical region. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of oval cross-section composite posts on stress distribution of premolar with oval-shaped canal by using three-dimensional (3D finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: An extracted premolar tooth was mounted, sectioned, and photographed to create a 3D model. The surrounding tissues of the tooth, periodontal ligament, as well as cortical and trabecular bones were modeled. Seven taper posts with two different cross-section geometries (circular and oval shapes were modeled, as well. Then, the effect of post geometry, post material (carbon fiber and fiberglass, and cement material were investigated by 3D finite element analysis and the stress distribution results were compared. Results: In all the models, the highest stress levels of the dentin were accumulated at the coronal third of the root, and the highest stress levels at the bonding layers were accumulated at the cervical margin. Narrow circular posts induced the highest stress levels, whereas the stress levels were reduced by using thick oval posts. Application of elastic cement reduces the stress at the bonding layers but increases stress at the dentin. Conclusion: Finite element analysis showed that prefabricated oval posts are superior to traditional circular ones. The use of cement with low elastic modulus reduces the risk of debonding but raises the risk of root fracture.
Duan, Yang; Jin, Anmin; Zhang, Hui; Min, Shaoxiong; Hu, Konghe
2010-12-01
To establish sophisticated three-dimensional finite element model of the lower cervical spine and reconstruct lower cervical model by different fixation systems after three-column injury, and to research the stress distribution of the internal fixation reconstructed by different techniques. The CT scan deta were obtained from a 27-year-old normal male volunteer. Mimics 10.01, Geomagic Studio10.0, HyperMesh10.0, and Abaqus 6.9.1 softwares were used to obtain the intact model (C3-7), the model after three-column injury, and the models of reconstructing the lower cervical spine after three-column injury through different fixation systems, namely lateral mass screw fixation (LSF) and transarticular screw fixation (TSF). The skull load of 75 N and torsion preload of 1.0 N*m were simulated on the surface of C3. Under conditions of flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation, the Von Mises stress distribution regularity of internal fixation system was evaluated. The intact model of C3-7 was successfully established, which consisted of 177 944 elements and 35 668 nodes. The results of the biomechanic study agreed well with the available cadaveric experimental data, suggesting that they were accord with normal human body parameters and could be used in the experimental research. The finite element models of the lower cervical spine reconstruction after three-column injury were established. The stress concentrated on the connection between rod and screw in LSF and on the middle part of screw in TSF. The peak values of Von Mises stress in TSF were higher than those in LSF under all conditions. For the reconstruction of lower cervical spine, TSF has higher risk of screw breakage than LSF.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, H.; Ma, D.
1979-01-01
A simplified three dimensional finite element model of a pool type LMFBR in conjunction with the computer program ANSYS is developed and scoping results of seismic analysis are produced. Through this study various structural attachments of a pool type LMFBR like the reactor vessel skirt support, the pump support and reactor shell-support structure interfaces are studied. This study also provides some useful results on equivalent viscous damping approach and some improvements to the treatment of equivalent viscous damping are recommended. This study also sets forth pertinent guidelines for detailed three dimensional finite element seismic analysis of pool type LMFBR
Oishi, Y.; Piggott, M. D.; Maeda, T.; Nelson, R. B.; Gorman, G. J.; Kramer, S. C.; Collins, G. S.; Tsushima, H.; Furumura, T.
2011-12-01
Most present tsunami simulations are based on the two dimensional linear or non-linear long-wave equations which assume the wavelength of the disturbance is large in comparison to the ocean depth. On the other hand, a few recent studies have tried to solve the three dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations employing high-performance computers and finite difference methods with orthogonal meshes to achieve more accurate tsunami generation and propagation (e.g., Saito and Furumura, 2009). The goal of our current research is to develop highly accurate tsunami simulation models which will make full use of current and future high-performance supercomputers and appropriate numerical methods for the purpose of contributing to tsunami disaster mitigation. In the present study, we adopt high-resolution unstructured meshes and solve the 3D Navier-Stokes equations using finite element methods. In this simulation we employ the Fluidity-ICOM (http://amcg.ese.ic.ac.uk/fluidity) simulation code, which is a multi-purpose finite element / control volume based CFD and ocean dynamics code. Fluidity-ICOM is optimized to run in parallel on supercomputers. Our complete fluid dynamical equations in three dimensions will lead to more accurate results than the conventional two dimensional equations. The unstructured meshes make it possible to accurately and efficiently represent complex coastlines and bathymetry due to their flexibility and their multi-scale resolution capabilities. This is the key advantage of the present model over existing 3D models based upon the finite difference method with uniform orthogonal meshes. Using our tsunami simulation model together with high-performance computers, we expect an accurate representation of tsunami generation due to seafloor deformation caused by earthquakes, propagation of the tsunami in the deep ocean with accurate tsunami dispersion properties, and amplification of the tsunami onshore due to the irregular shape of coastlines. To validate
Chang, Chih-Ling; Chen, Chen-Sheng; Yeung, Tze Cheung; Hsu, Ming-Lun
2012-01-01
The objective of this study was to analyze and compare the stresses in two different bone-implant interface conditions in anisotropic three-dimensional finite element models (FEMs) of an osseointegrated implant of either commercially pure titanium or yttrium-partially stabilized zirconia (Y-PSZ) in combination with different superstructures (gold alloy or Y-PSZ crown) in the posterior maxilla. Three-dimensional FEMs were created of a first molar section of the maxilla into which was embedded an implant, connected to an abutment and superstructure, using commercial software. Two versions of the FEM were constructed; these allowed varying assignment of properties (either a bonded and or a contact interface), so that all experimental variables could be investigated in eight groups. Compact and cancellous bone were modeled as fully orthotropic and transversely isotropic, respectively. Oblique (200-N vertical and 40-N horizontal) occlusal loading was applied at the central and distal fossae of the crown. Maximum von Mises and compressive stresses in the compact bone in the two interfaces were lower in the zirconia implant groups than in the titanium implant groups. A similar pattern of stress distribution in cancellous bone was observed, not only on the palatal side of the platform but also in the apical area of both types of implants. The biomechanical parameters of the new zirconia implant generated a performance similar to that of the titanium implant in terms of displacement, stresses on the implant, and the bone-implant interface; therefore, it may be a viable alternative, especially for esthetic regions.
de Souza, Fernando Isquierdo; Poi, Wilson Roberto; da Silva, Vanessa Ferreira; Martini, Ana Paula; Melo, Regis Alexandre da Cunha; Panzarini, Sonia Regina; Rocha, Eduardo Passos
2015-06-01
The aim was to evaluate the biomechanical behavior of the supporting bony structures of replanted teeth and the periodontal ligament (PDL) of adjacent teeth when orthodontic wires with different mechanical properties are applied, with three-dimensional finite element analysis. Based on tomographic and microtomographic data, a three-dimensional model of the anterior maxilla with the corresponding teeth (tooth 13-tooth 23) was generated to simulate avulsion and replantation of the tooth 21. The teeth were splinted with orthodontic wire (Ø 0.8 mm) and composite resin. The elastic modulus of the three orthodontic wires used, that is, steel wire (FA), titanium-molybdenum wire (FTM), and nitinol wire (FN) were 200 GPa, 84 GPa, and 52 GPa, respectively. An oblique load (100 N) was applied at an angle of 45° on the incisal edge of the replanted tooth and was analyzed using Ansys Workbench software. The maximum (σmax) and minimum (σmin) principal stresses generated in the PDL, cortical and alveolar bones, and the modified von Mises (σvM) values for the orthodontic wires were obtained. With regard to the cortical bone and PDL, the highest σmin and σmax values for FTM, FN, and FA were checked. With regard to the alveolar bone, σmax and σmin values were highest for FA, followed by FTM and FN. The σvM values of the orthodontic wires followed the order of rigidity of the alloys, that is, FA > FTM > FN. The biomechanical behavior of the analyzed structures with regard to all the three patterns of flexibility was similar. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Zhao, Wen-Tao; Qin, Da-Ping; Zhang, Xiao-Gang; Wang, Zhi-Peng; Tong, Zun
2018-02-08
Clinical results have shown that different vertebral heights have been restored post-augmentation of osteoporotic vertebral compression fractures (OVCFs) and the treatment results are consistent. However, no significant results regarding biomechanical effects post-augmentation have been found with different types of vertebral deformity or vertebral heights by biomechanical analysis. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the biomechanical effects between different vertebral heights of OVCFs before and after augmentation using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Four patients with OVCFs of T12 underwent computed tomography (CT) of the T11-L1 levels. The CT images were reconstructed as simulated three-dimensional finite-element models of the T11-L1 levels (before and after the T12 vertebra was augmented with cement). Four different kinds of vertebral height models included Genant semi-quantitative grades 0, 1, 2, and 3, which simulated unilateral augmentation. These models were assumed to represent vertical compression and flexion, left flexion, and right flexion loads, and the von Mises stresses of the T12 vertebral body were assessed under different vertebral heights before and after bone cement augmentation. Data showed that the von Mises stresses significantly increased under four loads of OVCFs of the T12 vertebral body before the operation from grade 0 to grade 3 vertebral heights. The maximum stress of grade 3 vertebral height pre-augmentation was produced at approximately 200%, and at more than 200% for grade 0. The von Mises stresses were significantly different between different vertebral heights preoperatively. The von Mises stresses of the T12 vertebral body significantly decreased in four different loads and at different vertebral body heights (grades 0-3) after augmentation. There was no significant difference between the von Mises stresses of grade 0, 1, and 3 vertebral heights postoperatively. The von Mises stress significantly
Pascal Candas, C.
2002-01-01
Two decades after their birth, the validity of fault slip inversion methods is still strongly debated. These methods are based upon a very simplified mechanical background, the Wallace-Bott hypothesis. Following previous studies, the 3D Distinct Element Method (3DEC software) is used to explore the
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Mahasti Sahabi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: The purpose of this study was to determine the influence of platform switching on stress distribution of two different implant systems, using three-dimensional (3D finite element models.Methods: Six 3D finite element models were created to replicate two different implant systems with peri-implant bone tissue, in which six different implant-abutment configurations were represented: model XiVE-a: 3.8-mm-diameter implant and 3.8-mm-diameter abutment; model XiVE-b (platform-switching model: 4.5-mm-diameter implant and 3.8-mm-diameter abutment; model XiVE-c: 4.5-mm-diameter implant and 4.5-mm-diameter abutment; model 3i-a: 4.0-mm-diameter implant and 4.1-mm-diameter abutment; model 3i-b (platform-switching model: 5.0-mm-diameter implant and 4.1-mm-diameter abutment; model 3i-c: 5.0-mm-diameter implant and 5.0-mm-diameter abutment. Axial and oblique loads of 100 were applied to all models.Results: While the pattern of stress distribution was similar for both loading situations, oblique loading resulted in higher intensity and greater distribution of stress than axial loading in both cortical bone and abutment-implant interface. Stress distribution at peri-implant bone was almost identical with similar magnitudes for all six models. In both implant systems, platform switching models demonstrated lower maximum von Mises stress in cortical bone than conventional models. However, in both implant systems and under both loading situation, platform switching models showed higher stresses at the abutment-implant interface than conventional models.Conclusion: In both implant systems, platform switching design reduced the stress concentration in the crestal bone and shifted it towards the area of implant-abutment interface
Qian, Yunzhu; Zhou, Xuefeng; Yang, Jianxin
2013-06-01
This paper explored the correlation between cuspal inclination and tooth cracked syndrome by measuring and reconstructing the cuspal inclinations of cracked maxillary first molars through three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). The cuspal inclinations of 11 maxillary left first molars with cracked tooth syndrome and 22 intact controls were measured by 3D reconstruction. The mean values of each group were used to construct two 3D finite element models of maxillary first molar for comparing stress distribution under the loads of 200N at 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively, to the tooth axis. There was statistically significant difference in the cuspal inclination between the incompletely fractured group and the intact control group ( P < 0.001), which was 5.5-6.7 degrees steeper. The model from the mean cuspal inclinations of the incompletely fractured molars showed the maximum tensile stress of 5.83, 10.87, and 25.32 MPa, respectively, in comparison with 5.40, 8.49, and 22.76 MPa for the model of the control group. Besides, the tensile stress was mainly at the center groove and cervical region of the molar model. Steeper cuspal inclinations resulted in an increment in tensile stress that was mainly at the center groove and cervical region of the molar model under equivalent loads. Higher unfavorable tensile stress was generated with the increasing horizontal component load on the cuspal incline. This indicates an effective reduction of cuspal inclination to the compromised teeth for dentists. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Yan, Yongli; Zhang, Chuang; Yao, Jiannian; Zhao, Yong Sheng
2013-07-19
Many recent activities in the use of one-dimensional nanostructures as photonic elements for optical information processing are explained by huge advantages that photonic circuits possess over traditional silicon-based electronic ones in bandwidth, heat dissipation, and resistance to electromagnetic wave interference. Organic materials are a promising candidate to support these optical-related applications, as they combine the properties of plastics with broad spectral tunability, high optical cross-section, easy fabrication, as well as low cost. Their outstanding compatibility allows organic composite structures which are made of two or more kinds of materials combined together, showing great superiority to single-component materials due to the introduced interactions among multiple constituents, such as energy transfer, electron transfer, exciton coupling, etc. The easy processability of organic 1D crystalline heterostructures enables a fine topological control of both composition and geometry, which offsets the intrinsic deficiencies of individual material. At the same time, the strong exciton-photon coupling and exciton-exciton interaction impart the excellent confinement of photons in organic microstructures, thus light can be manipulated according to our intention to realize specific functions. These collective properties indicate a potential utility of organic heterogeneous material for miniaturized photonic circuitry. Herein, focus is given on recent advances of 1D organic crystalline heterostructures, with special emphasis on the novel design, controllable construction, diverse performance, as well as wide applications in isolated photonic elements for integration. It is proposed that the highly coupled, hybrid optical networks would be an important material basis towards the creation of on-chip optical information processing. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Jie, Lin; Shinya, Akikazu; Lassila, Lippo V J; Vallittu, Pekka K
2013-01-01
Pre-tensioned construction material is utilized in engineering applications of high strength demands. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the pre-tensioning fibers of fiber-reinforced composite (FRC) using three-dimensional finite element (FE) analysis. The 3D FE models of particulate composite resin (CR), FRC and composite resin reinforced with pre-tensioned fibers (PRE-T-FRC) were constructed. The uniaxial three-point bending test was simulated using FE analysis to calculate the principal stress distribution. In the FRC and PRE-T-FRC, stresses were higher than CR, and they were located in the fiber. However, the maximum principal stress value at the composite of PRE-T-FRC was lower than the FRC and CR. Composite resin reinforced with pre-tensioned fibers was advantageous for stress distribution and lowering the stress at the composite itself. Experimental studies on physical properties of pre-tensioned FRC are encouraged to be conducted.
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Junjie Zeng
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP jacketing/wrapping has become an attractive strengthening technique for concrete columns. Wrapping an existing concrete column with continuous FRP jackets with the fiber in the jacket being oriented in the hoop direction is referred to as FRP full wrapping strengthening technique. In practice, however, strengthening concrete columns with vertically discontinuous FRP strips is also favored and this technique is referred to as FRP partial wrapping strengthening technique. Existing research has demonstrated that FRP partial wrapping strengthening technique is a promising and economical alternative to the FRP full wrapping strengthening technique. Although extensive experimental investigations have hitherto been conducted on partially FRP-confined concrete columns, the confinement mechanics of confined concrete in partially FRP-confined circular columns remains unclear. In this paper, an experimental program consisting of fifteen column specimens was conducted and the test results were presented. A reliable three-dimensional (3D finite element (FE approach for modeling of partially FRP-confined circular columns was established. In the proposed FE approach, an accurate plastic-damage model for concrete under multiaxial compression is employed. The accuracy of the proposed FE approach was verified by comparisons between the numerical results and the test results. Numerical results from the verified FE approach were then presented to gain an improved understanding of the behavior of confined concrete in partially FRP-confined concrete columns.
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Helen Mary Abraham
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: Load transfer mechanisms from the implant to surrounding bone and failure of osseointegrated implants are affected by implant geometry and mechanical properties of the site of placement as well as crestal bone resorption. Estimation of such effects allows for a correct design of implant geometry to minimize crestal bone loss and implant failure. Objectives: To evaluate the effect of implant and abutment diameter on stress distribution in the peri-implant area. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models created to replicate completely osseointegrated endosseous titanium implants and were used for the purpose of stress analysis. Two study groups that consisting of a regular platform (RP group and narrow platform (NP group were used with a standard bone density and loaded using the ANSYS Workbench software to calculate the von Mises and Principal (maximum tensile and minimum compressive stress. Results: The von Mises, compressive, and tensile stresses in the peri-implant bone were lower in the RP model compared to the NP model. Conclusion: RP model yielded a positive result with regard to lowering of peri-implant bone stress levels, in healthy as well as compromised bone qualities when compared to NP designs.
Okamoto, Kazuhiko; Ino, Teruno; Iwase, Naoki; Shimizu, Eitaroh; Suzuki, Megumi; Satoh, Goh; Ohkawa, Shuji; Fujisawa, Masanori
2008-01-01
Using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA), stress distributions in the remaining radicular tooth structure were investigated under the condition of varying diameters of fiber post for fiber post-reinforced composite resin cores (fiber post and core) in maxillary central incisors. Four 3D-FEA models were constructed: (1) fiber post (ø1.2, ø1.4, and ø1.6 mm) and composite resin core; and (2) gold-cast post and core. Maximum stresses in the tooth structure for fiber post and core were higher than that for gold-cast post and core. In the former models, stresses in the tooth structure as well as in the composite resin were slightly reduced with increase in fiber post diameter. These results thus suggested that to reduce stress in the remaining radicular tooth with a large coronal defect, it is recommended to accompany a composite resin core with a fiber post of a large diameter.
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Ashish Handa
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Background and Objectives: This study aimed to evaluate stress in the surrounding jaw bone due to root proximity of orthodontic mini-implant, using three-dimensional finite element method (FEM. Materials and Methods: Three FEM models with different locations of mini-implants were designed and classified according to their proximity to the molar root: Category I: Screw was separate from the root (about 1 mm away, Category II: Part of the screw thread was embedded in the periodontal membrane, Category III: Part of the screw thread touches the root. Each screw was inserted at 30° mesial to mandibular molar and traction force of 2N was applied to it at 45°. Stresses in the cortical bone surrounding implant were determined. Results: Mini-implant which was separate from the root showed least amount of stresses within the bone as compared to the implants in the other two categories. The pattern of stress distribution was concentrated near the neck of the mini-implant (at the point of entry into the bone, away from the direction of force application. Interpretation and Conclusion: Stresses in the bone decrease as the distance of the orthodontic mini-implant relative to the root increases.
Miura, Shoko; Kasahara, Shin; Yamauchi, Shinobu; Egusa, Hiroshi
2017-06-01
The purpose of this study were: to perform stress analyses using three-dimensional finite element analysis methods; to analyze the mechanical stress of different framework designs; and to investigate framework designs that will provide for the long-term stability of both cantilevered fixed partial dentures (FPDs) and abutment teeth. An analysis model was prepared for three units of cantilevered FPDs that assume a missing mandibular first molar. Four types of framework design (Design 1, basic type; Design 2, framework width expanded buccolingually by 2 mm; Design 3, framework height expanded by 0.5 mm to the occlusal surface side from the end abutment to the connector area; and Design 4, a combination of Designs 2 and 3) were created. Two types of framework material (yttrium-oxide partially stabilized zirconia and a high precious noble metal gold alloy) and two types of abutment material (dentin and brass) were used. In the framework designs, Design 1 exhibited the highest maximum principal stress value for both zirconia and gold alloy. In the abutment tooth, Design 3 exhibited the highest maximum principal stress value for all abutment teeth. In the present study, Design 4 (the design with expanded framework height and framework width) could contribute to preventing the concentration of stress and protecting abutment teeth. © 2017 Eur J Oral Sci.
Zhao, Y.; Qin, R. S.; Chen, D. F.
2013-08-01
A three-dimensional (3D) cellular automata (CA) model has been developed for the simulation of microstructure evolution in alloy solidification. The governing rule for the CA model is associated with the phase transition driving force which is obtained via a thermodynamic database. This determines the migration rate of the non-equilibrium solid-liquid (SL) interface and is calculated according to the local temperature and chemical composition. The curvature of the interface and the anisotropic property of the surface energy are taken into consideration. A 3D finite element (FE) method is applied for the calculation of transient heat and mass transfer. Numerical calculations for the solidification of Fe-1.5 wt% C alloy have been performed. The morphological evolution of dendrites, carbon segregation and temperature distribution in both isothermal and non-isothermal conditions are studied. The parameters affecting the growth of equiaxed and columnar dendrites are discussed. The calculated results are verified using the analytical model and previous experiments. The method provides a sophisticated approach to the solidification of multi-phase and multi-component systems.
Three-Dimensional Finite Element Analysis of Phase Change Memory Cell with Thin TiO2 Film
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Liu; Zhi-Tang, Song; Yun, Ling; Song-Lin, Feng
2010-01-01
A thin TiO 2 layer inserted in a phase change memory (PCM) cell to form a deep sub-micro bottom electrode (DBE) is proposed and its electro-thermal characteristics are investigated with the three-dimensional finite element analysis. Compared with the conventional PCM cell with a SiN stop layer, the reset threshold current of the PCM cell with the TiO 2 layer is reduced from 1.8 mA to 1.2 mA and the ratio of the amorphous resistance and crystalline resistive increases from 65 to 100. The optimum thickness of the TiO 2 layer and the optimum height of DBE are 10 nm and 200 nm, respectively. Therefore, the PCM cell with the TiO 2 layer can decrease the programming power consumption and increase heating efficiency. The TiO 2 film is a better candidate for the SiN film in the PCM cell structure to prepare DBE and to reduce programming power in the reset operation. (cross-disciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)
Protopappas, Vasilios C; Kourtis, Iraklis C; Kourtis, Lampros C; Malizos, Konstantinos N; Massalas, Christos V; Fotiadis, Dimitrios I
2007-06-01
The use of guided waves has recently drawn significant interest in the ultrasonic characterization of bone aiming at supplementing the information provided by traditional velocity measurements. This work presents a three-dimensional finite element study of guided wave propagation in intact and healing bones. A model of the fracture callus was constructed and the healing course was simulated as a three-stage process. The dispersion of guided modes generated by a broadband 1-MHz excitation was represented in the time-frequency domain. Wave propagation in the intact bone model was first investigated and comparisons were then made with a simplified geometry using analytical dispersion curves of the tube modes. Then, the effect of callus consolidation on the propagation characteristics was examined. It was shown that the dispersion of guided waves was significantly influenced by the irregularity and anisotropy of the bone. Also, guided waves were sensitive to material and geometrical changes that take place during healing. Conversely, when the first-arriving signal at the receiver corresponded to a nondispersive lateral wave, its propagation velocity was almost unaffected by the elastic symmetry and geometry of the bone and also could not characterize the callus tissue throughout its thickness. In conclusion, guided waves can enhance the capabilities of ultrasonic evaluation.
Razzaq, Zia; Prasad, Venkatesh
1988-01-01
The results of a detailed investigation of the distribution of stresses in aluminum and composite panels subjected to uniform end shortening are presented. The focus problem is a rectangular panel with two longitudinal stiffeners, and an inner stiffener discontinuous at a central hole in the panel. The influence of the stiffeners on the stresses is evaluated through a two-dimensional global finite element analysis in the absence or presence of the hole. Contrary to the physical feel, it is found that the maximum stresses from the glocal analysis for both stiffened aluminum and composite panels are greater than the corresponding stresses for the unstiffened panels. The inner discontinuous stiffener causes a greater increase in stresses than the reduction provided by the two outer stiffeners. A detailed layer-by-layer study of stresses around the hole is also presented for both unstiffened and stiffened composite panels. A parallel equation solver is used for the global system of equations since the computational time is far less than that using a sequential scheme. A parallel Choleski method with up to 16 processors is used on Flex/32 Multicomputer at NASA Langley Research Center. The parallel computing results are summarized and include the computational times, speedups, bandwidths, and their inter-relationships for the panel problems. It is found that the computational time for the Choleski method decreases with a decrease in bandwidth, and better speedups result as the bandwidth increases.
Wu, B; Wiekenkamp, I; Sun, Y; Fisher, A S; Clough, R; Gottselig, N; Bogena, H; Pütz, T; Brüggemann, N; Vereecken, H; Bol, R
2017-11-01
Quantification and evaluation of elemental distribution in forested ecosystems are key requirements to understand element fluxes and their relationship with hydrological and biogeochemical processes in the system. However, datasets supporting such a study on the catchment scale are still limited. Here we provide a dataset comprising spatially highly resolved distributions of 39 elements in soil profiles of a small forested headwater catchment in western Germany () to gain a holistic picture of the state and fluxes of elements in the catchment. The elements include both plant nutrients and other metals and metalloids that were predominately derived from lithospheric or anthropogenic inputs, thereby allowing us to not only capture the nutrient status of the catchment but to also estimate the functional development of the ecosystem. Soil samples were collected at high lateral resolution (≤60 m), and element concentrations were determined vertically for four soil horizons (L/Of, Oh, A, B). From this, a three-dimensional view of the distribution of these elements could be established with high spatial resolution on the catchment scale in a temperate natural forested ecosystem. The dataset can be combined with other datasets and studies of the TERENO (Terrestrial Environmental Observatories) Data Discovery Portal () to reveal elemental fluxes, establish relations between elements and other soil properties, and/or as input for modeling elemental cycling in temperate forested ecosystems. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.
Raghu, Rashmi; Vignon-Clementel, Irene E; Figueroa, C Alberto; Taylor, Charles A
2011-08-01
It is well known that blood vessels exhibit viscoelastic properties, which are modeled in the literature with different mathematical forms and experimental bases. The wide range of existing viscoelastic wall models may produce significantly different blood flow, pressure, and vessel deformation solutions in cardiovascular simulations. In this paper, we present a novel comparative study of two different viscoelastic wall models in nonlinear one-dimensional (1D) simulations of blood flow. The viscoelastic models are from papers by Holenstein et al. in 1980 (model V1) and Valdez-Jasso et al. in 2009 (model V2). The static elastic or zero-frequency responses of both models are chosen to be identical. The nonlinear 1D blood flow equations incorporating wall viscoelasticity are solved using a space-time finite element method and the implementation is verified with the Method of Manufactured Solutions. Simulation results using models V1, V2 and the common static elastic model are compared in three application examples: (i) wave propagation study in an idealized vessel with reflection-free outflow boundary condition; (ii) carotid artery model with nonperiodic boundary conditions; and (iii) subject-specific abdominal aorta model under rest and simulated lower limb exercise conditions. In the wave propagation study the damping and wave speed were largest for model V2 and lowest for the elastic model. In the carotid and abdominal aorta studies the most significant differences between wall models were observed in the hysteresis (pressure-area) loops, which were larger for V2 than V1, indicating that V2 is a more dissipative model. The cross-sectional area oscillations over the cardiac cycle were smaller for the viscoelastic models compared to the elastic model. In the abdominal aorta study, differences between constitutive models were more pronounced under exercise conditions than at rest. Inlet pressure pulse for model V1 was larger than the pulse for V2 and the elastic model
Wang, Shuai; Wang, Yu; Zi, Yanyang; Li, Bing; He, Zhengjia
2015-10-01
A novel reduced-order modeling method is presented in this paper for dynamics analysis of rotating impeller-shaft-bearing assembly with cracked impellers. Based on three-dimensional finite element model, the complex component mode synthesis (CMS) method is employed to generate an efficient reduced-order model (ROM) for studying the effects of crack on the global vibration of the rotating assembly. First, a modeling framework for impeller-shaft-bearing systems in rotating frame is presented. Rotational effects, including Coriolis matrix and centrifugal softening, have been taken into account. Then, the governing equation of motion of the damped gyroscopic system is reduced by the complex CMS method. Finally, the obtained ROM is employed to study the effects of crack on assembly's vibration. During the steady-state response analysis, external excitations on the impeller due to rotor-stator interactions have been taken into account, which was however neglected in previous investigations on rotordynamics. Numerical results show that the lower-order eigenvalues and the unbalance response of the assembly are not sensitive to the local crack on impeller. Nevertheless, the flexible coupling between impeller and shaft becomes more complex when the air flow-induced excitations are considered. Under EO1 traveling wave excitations, a crack leads to slight changes in the assembly's response. In contrast, the effect of crack becomes significant when the assembly is excited by EO2 and higher EO excitations. Moreover, the nonlinear crack breathing effects affect the assembly's response obviously. Finally, a potential technique for detecting the crack on impeller during operation is discussed.
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Saraswati Acharya
2015-08-01
Full Text Available Objective: To deal the implication of metabolic reaction relying on dermal thicknesses of males and females for temperature distribution on the layers of dermal part at various atmospheric temperatures. Methods: The mathematical model involving bioheat equation has been solved using finite element method and Crank-Nicolson technique to numerically investigate two dimensional temperature distributions. Initially, human dermal region under consideration is divided into six parts: stratum corneum, stratum germinativum, papillary region, reticular region, fatty layer and muscle part of subcutaneous tissue. Pennes bioheat equation is used considering the suitable physical and physiological parameters that affect the heat regulation in the layers. Computer simulation has been used for numerical results and graph of the temperatures profiles. Results: Lower percentage of muscle mass and higher percentage of adipose tissue in subcutaneous part of females result lower metabolic rate compared to males. Metabolism is considered as a heat source within the body tissue. The study delineates that when the metabolic heat generation S increases, body temperature rises and when S decreases, it goes down. In higher ambient temperature T∞ effect of S is lower as compared to lower T∞. Conclusions: Males and females would differ in their physiological responses in temperature distribution due to differences in metabolic heat production between genders. The thinner layers of males lead to higher values of skin temperature than thicker layer of females. Thickness plays a significant role in temperature distributions in human males and females body. Current understanding of human thermoregulation is based on male patterns; studies on women are still relatively rare and involve only small number of subjects. So it is still necessary for micro level study for temperature distribution model on the dermal layers of males and females.
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A. Monzavi
2004-06-01
Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Currently there are three recognized theories about the diameter of prepared dowel space in endodontically treated teeth. Diameter of the dowel is commonly contributed to the root fracture.Purpose: This study used a 3 dimensional (3D finite element method to predict stress distribution in endodontically treated central maxillary tooth with cast post and core with various post diameter according to three philosophies about post diameter (Conservational,Proportional, Preservational.Materials and Methods: In this study three 3D models of central maxillary incisors with different post diameter were created and depend on the size of post called narrow, medium and thick model with post diameter of 1.1mm, 1.7 mm and 2.6 mm of in (CEJrespectively. A load of 100 N was applied to cingulum fossa from lingual direction with 45-degree angle to long axis of tooth and maximum tensile, compressive and Von Misses stresses and their distribution in dentin and post was studied.Results: The post in narrow, medium and thick models produced a similar magnitude of tensile, compressive and Von Misses stresses in dentin. Stress distribution was also similar in all models. Peak stresses in dentin were slightly decreased when post diameter increased from narrow to thick model. In all models peak tensile stresses in dentin occurred in the coronally one third of the lingual surface of the root, whereas peak compressive stresseswere evident in the coronal one third of the facial surface of the root.Conclusion: There were not significant differences stress distribution pattern and magnitude in dentin between the three theories of post diameter.
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M. Nawaz
Full Text Available In this article, we developed a computer code of Galerikan Finite Element method (GFEM for three dimensional flow equations of nano-plasma fluid (blood in the presence of uniform applied magnetic field when Hall and ion slip current are significant. Lorentz force is calculated through generalized Ohmâs law with Maxwell equations. A series of numerical simulations are carried out to search Î·max and algebraic equations are solved by Gauss-Seidel method with simulation tolerance 10-8. Simulated results for special case have an excellent agreement with the already published results. Velocity components and temperature of the nano-plasma (blood are influenced significantly by the inclusion of nano-particles of Copper (Cu and Silver (Ag. Heat enhancement is observed when copper and silver nonmagnetic nanoparticles are used instead of simple base fluid (conventional fluid. Radiative nature of nano-plasma in the presence of magnetic field causes a decrease in the temperature due to the transfer of heat by the electromagnetic waves. In contrast to this, due to heat dissipated by Joule heating and viscous dissipation phenomena, temperature of nano-plasmaincreases as thermal radiation parameter is increased. Thermal boundary layer thickness can be controlled by using radiative fluid instead of non-radiative fluid. Momentum boundary layer thickness can be reduced by increasing the intensity of the applied magnetic field. Temperature of plasma in the presence magnetic field is higher than the plasma in the absence of magnetic field. Keywords: Nanofluid, Grid independent study, Convergence, Error analysis, Skin friction, Joule heating, Viscous dissipation, Hall and ion currents
Ameis, Stephanie H; Lerch, Jason P; Taylor, Margot J; Lee, Wayne; Viviano, Joseph D; Pipitone, Jon; Nazeri, Arash; Croarkin, Paul E; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Crosbie, Jennifer; Brian, Jessica; Soreni, Noam; Schachar, Russell; Szatmari, Peter; Arnold, Paul D; Anagnostou, Evdokia
2016-12-01
Neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs) (attention deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], autism spectrum disorder [ASD], and obsessive-compulsive disorder [OCD]) share genetic vulnerability and symptom domains. The authors present direct comparison of structural brain circuitry in children and adolescents with NDDs and control subjects and examine brain circuit-behavior relationships across NDDs using dimensional measures related to each disorder. Diffusion imaging and behavioral measures were acquired in 200 children and adolescents (ADHD: N=31; OCD: N=36; ASD: N=71; controls: N=62; mean age range: 10.3-12.6 years). Following Tract-Based Spatial Statistics, multigroup comparison of white matter indices was conducted, followed by pairwise comparisons. Relationships of fractional anisotropy with dimensional measures of inattention, social deficits, obsessive-compulsive symptoms, and general adaptive functioning were conducted across the NDD sample. Lower fractional anisotropy within the splenium of the corpus callosum was found in each NDD group, compared with the control group. Lower fractional anisotropy in additional white matter tracts was found in the ASD and ADHD groups, compared with the control group, but not in the OCD group. Fractional anisotropy was lower in the ASD and ADHD groups compared with the OCD group but was not different in ADHD participants compared with ASD participants. A positive relation between fractional anisotropy (across much of the brain) and general adaptive functioning across NDDs was shown. This study identified disruption in interhemispheric circuitry (i.e., fractional anisotropy alterations in the corpus callosum) as a shared feature of ASD, ADHD, and OCD. However, fractional anisotropy alterations may be more widespread and severe in ASD and ADHD than in OCD. Higher fractional anisotropy throughout the brain appears to be related to better adaptive function across NDDs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hutula, D.N.; Wiancko, B.E.
1980-03-01
ACCEPT is a three-dimensional finite element computer program for analysis of large-deformation elastic-plastic-creep response of Zircaloy tubes subjected to temperature, surface pressures, and axial force. A twenty-mode, tri-quadratic, isoparametric element is used along with a Zircaloy materials model. A linear time-incremental procedure with residual force correction is used to solve for the time-dependent response. The program features an algorithm which automatically chooses the time step sizes to control the accuracy and numerical stability of the solution. A contact-separation capability allows modeling of interaction of reactor fuel rod cladding with fuel pellets or external supports
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fernandes, A.
1991-01-01
A method to solve three dimensional neutron transport equation and it is based on the original work suggested by J.K. Fletcher (42, 43). The angular dependence of the flux is approximated by associated Legendre functions and the finite element method is applied to the space components is presented. When the angular flux, the scattering cross section and the neutrons source are expanded in associated Legendre functions, the first order neutron transport equation is reduced to a coupled set of second order diffusion like equations. These equations are solved in an iterative way by the finite element method to the moments. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.
1994-05-01
JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biffle, J.H.
1993-02-01
JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawai, Kotaro; Sakamoto, Moritsugu; Noda, Kohei; Sasaki, Tomoyuki; Ono, Hiroshi; Kawatsuki, Nobuhiro
2016-01-01
A diffractive optical element with a three-dimensional liquid crystal (LC) alignment structure for advanced control of polarized beams was fabricated by a highly efficient one-step photoalignment method. This study is of great significance because different two-dimensional continuous and complex alignment patterns can be produced on two alignment films by simultaneously irradiating an empty glass cell composed of two unaligned photocrosslinkable polymer LC films with three-beam polarized interference beam. The polarization azimuth, ellipticity, and rotation direction of the diffracted beams from the resultant LC grating widely varied depending on the two-dimensional diffracted position and the polarization states of the incident beams. These polarization diffraction properties are well explained by theoretical analysis based on Jones calculus.
Xue, Ming-Feng; Kang, Young Mo; Arbabi, Amir; McKeown, Steven J; Goddard, Lynford L; Jin, Jian-Ming
2014-02-24
A fast and accurate full-wave technique based on the dual-primal finite element tearing and interconnecting method and the second-order transmission condition is presented for large-scale three-dimensional photonic device simulations. The technique decomposes a general three-dimensional electromagnetic problem into smaller subdomain problems so that parallel computing can be performed on distributed-memory computer clusters to reduce the simulation time significantly. With the electric fields computed everywhere, photonic device parameters such as transmission and reflection coefficients are extracted. Several photonic devices, with simulation volumes up to 1.9×10(4) (λ/n(avg))3 and modeled with over one hundred million unknowns, are simulated to demonstrate the application, efficiency, and capability of this technique. The simulations show good agreement with experimental results and in a special case with a simplified two-dimensional simulation.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Erik Østergaard; Marcker, Kjeld A; Schell, J
1988-01-01
Nuclear extracts from soybean nodules, leaves and roots were used to investigate protein-DNA interactions in the 5' upstream (promoter) region of the soybean leghaemoglobin lbc(3) gene. Two distinct regions were identified which strongly bind a nodule specific factor. A Bal31 deletion analysis...
岡, 克; 戸高, 孝; 榎園, 正人; 長屋, 幸助; Masaru, OKA; Takasi, TODAKA; Masato, ENOKIZONO; Kousuke, NAGAYA; 大分大学; 大分大学; 大分大学; 大分産業創造機構
2010-01-01
This paper presents results of two-dimensional magnetic field analysis of a planet-type magnetic gear by using the finite element method. The magnetic gear can transmit torque without contact, however a lot of complicate-shaped permanent magnets or multi-pole magnetizations are needed to achieve higher torque. in order to improve transmission torque, we applied the flux concentration permanent magnet array to the planet-type magnetic gear. In this paper, influence of the yoke material and the...
1978-01-01
A three-dimensional finite elements analysis is reported of the nonlinear behavior of PCRV subjected to internal pressure by comparing calculated results with test results. As the first stage, an analysis considering the nonlinearity of cracking in concrete was attempted. As a result, it is found possible to make an analysis up to three times the design pressure (50 kg/sqcm), and calculated results agree well with test results.
YAN, XU; ZHANG, XINWEN; CHI, WEICHAO; AI, HONGJUN; WU, LIN
2015-01-01
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the association between the implant apex and the sinus floor in posterior maxilla dental implantation by means of three-dimensional (3D) finite element (FE) analysis. Ten 3D FE models of a posterior maxillary region with a sinus membrane and different heights of alveolar ridge with different thicknesses of sinus floor cortical bone were constructed according to anatomical data of the sinus area. Six models were constructed with the same thickness of crestal cortical bone and a 1-mm thick sinus floor cortical bone, but differing heights of alveolar ridge (between 10 and 14 mm). The four models of the second group were similar (11-mm-high alveolar ridge and 1-mm-thick crestal cortical bone) but with a changing thickness of sinus floor cortical bone (between 0.5 and 2.0 mm). The standard implant model based on the Nobel Biocare® implant system was created by computer-aided design (CAD) software and assembled into the models. The materials were assumed to be isotropic and linearly elastic. An inclined force of 129 N was applied. The maximum von Mises stress, stress distribution, implant displacement and resonance frequencies were calculated using CAD software. The von Mises stress was concentrated on the surface of the crestal cortical bone around the implant neck with the exception of that for the bicortical implantation. For immediate loading, when the implant apex broke into or through the sinus cortical bone, the maximum displacements of the implant, particularly at the implant apex, were smaller than those in the other groups. With increasing depth of the implant apex in the sinus floor cortical bone, the maximum displacements decreased and the implant axial resonance frequencies presented a linear upward tendency, but buccolingual resonance frequencies were hardly affected. This FE study on the association between implant apex and sinus floor showed that having the implant apex in contact with, piercing
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Comet, Itys; Schuettengruber, Bernd; Sexton, Tom
2011-01-01
Regulation of gene expression involves long-distance communication between regulatory elements and target promoters, but how this is achieved remains unknown. Insulator elements have been proposed to modulate the communication between regulatory elements and promoters due to their ability to insu...... histone mark reflect this insulator-dependent chromatin conformation, suggesting that Polycomb action at a distance can be organized by local chromatin topology.......Regulation of gene expression involves long-distance communication between regulatory elements and target promoters, but how this is achieved remains unknown. Insulator elements have been proposed to modulate the communication between regulatory elements and promoters due to their ability...... to insulate genes from regulatory elements or to take part in long-distance interactions. Using a high-resolution chromatin conformation capture (H3C) method, we show that the Drosophila gypsy insulator behaves as a conformational chromatin border that is able to prohibit contacts between a Polycomb response...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Avinash Kumar
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Objectives: To analyze three-dimensional effects of stress distribution and displacement on the craniofacial structures, following the application of forces from Nitanium Palatal Expander 2 (NPE2 and Hyrax appliance in early mixed dentition period using finite element analysis. Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional finite element models of the young dried human skull, NPE2 and Hyrax were constructed, and the initial activation of the expanders was simulated to carry out the analysis and to evaluate the von misses stresses and displacement on the craniofacial structures. Results: Both the models demonstrated the highest stresses at the mid-palatal suture, with maximum posterior dislocation. The inferior nasal floor showed highest downward displacement and point A showed outward, backward, and upward displacement in both the models. The pattern of stress distribution was almost similar in both the groups, but NPE2 revealed lower magnitude stresses than Hyrax. The cusp of the erupting canine and the mesiobuccal cusp of the second molar showed outward, backward, and downward displacement signifying eruption pattern following maxillary expansion. Conclusions: Nickel titanium palatal expander-2 and Hyrax produced similar stress pattern in early mixed dentition period finite element model. We conclude from this finite element method study that NPE2 is equally effective as Hyrax when used in early mixed dentition period as it exhibits orthopedic nature of expansion with minimal residual stresses in the craniofacial structures.
Moore, Katie L; Chen, Yi; van de Meene, Allison M L; Hughes, Louise; Liu, Wenju; Geraki, Tina; Mosselmans, Fred; McGrath, Steve P; Grovenor, Chris; Zhao, Fang-Jie
2014-01-01
The cellular and subcellular distributions of trace elements can provide important clues to understanding how the elements are transported and stored in plant cells, but mapping their distributions is a challenging task. The distributions of arsenic, iron, zinc, manganese and copper, as well as physiologically related macro-elements, were mapped in the node, internode and leaf sheath of rice (Oryza sativa) using synchrotron X-ray fluorescence (S-XRF) and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS). Although copper and silicon generally showed cell wall localization, arsenic, iron and zinc were strongly localized in the vacuoles of specific cell types. Arsenic was highly localized in the companion cell vacuoles of the phloem in all vascular bundles, showing a strong co-localization with sulfur, consistent with As(III)-thiol complexation. Within the node, zinc was localized in the vacuoles of the parenchyma cell bridge bordering the enlarged and diffuse vascular bundles, whereas iron and manganese were localized in the fundamental parenchyma cells, with iron being strongly co-localized with phosphorus in the vacuoles. The highly heterogeneous and contrasting distribution patterns of these elements imply different transport activities and/or storage capacities among different cell types. Sequestration of arsenic in companion cell vacuoles may explain the limited phloem mobility of arsenite. © 2013 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2013 New Phytologist Trust.
Neve Ombra, M; Autiero, M; DeLerma Barbaro, A; Barretta, R; Del Pozzo, G; Guardiola, J
1993-01-01
The activity of MHC class II promoters depends upon conserved regulatory signals one of which, the extended X-box, contains in its X2 subregion a sequence related to the cAMP response element, CRE and to the TPA response element, TRE. Accordingly, X2 is recognized by the AP-1 factor and by other c-Jun or c-Fos containing heterodimers. We report that the X-box dependent promoter activity of the HLA-DQA1 gene is down-modulated by an array of DNA elements each of which represented twice either in an invertedly or directly repeated orientation. In this frame, we describe a nuclear binding factor, namely DBF, promiscuously interacting with two of these additional signals, delta and sigma, and with a portion of the X-box, namely the X-core, devoid of X2. The presence of a single factor recognizing divergent DNA sequences was indicated by the finding that these activities were co-eluted from a heparin-Sepharose column and from DNA affinity columns carrying different DNA binding sites as ligands. Competition experiments made with oligonucleotides representing wild type and mutant DNA elements showed that each DNA element specifically inhibited the binding of the others, supporting the contention that DBF is involved in recognition of different targets. Furthermore, we found that DBF also exhibits CRE/TRE binding activity and that this activity can be competed out by addition of an excess of sigma, delta and X-core oligonucleotides. Anti-Jun peptide and anti-Fos peptide antibodies blocked not only the binding activity of DBF, but also its X-core and sigma binding; this blockade was removed by the addition of the Jun or Fos peptides against which the antibodies had been raised. In vitro synthesized Jun/Fos was able to bind to all these boxes, albeit with seemingly different affinities. The cooperativity of DBF interactions may explain the modulation of the X-box dependent promoter activity mediated by the accessory DNA elements described here. Images PMID:8493100
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nazco, Julio
2009-01-01
The main objective of this work is presented through case studies discussed in our institution, which has brought several advantages to use Planning Three-dimensional beam and cobalt 60 Theraplan Plus System, showing thus qualitative and quantitative (clinical case of lung cancer) that have achieved by the use of this new tool. To illustrate the above 5 clinical cases are chosen belonging to 5 different sites (endometrium, prostate, lung, pineal gland and brainstem) and are presented in each case the advantages provided by using the Tridimensional Planning System. (Author)
Yucesoy, C.A.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Koopman, Hubertus F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.
2002-01-01
In previous applications of the finite element method in modeling mechanical behavior of skeletal muscle, the passive and active properties of muscle tissue were lumped in one finite element. Although this approach yields increased understanding of effects of force transmission, it does not support
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Parent, Kristin N., E-mail: kparent@msu.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Tang, Jinghua; Cardone, Giovanni [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Gilcrease, Eddie B. [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Janssen, Mandy E.; Olson, Norman H. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); Casjens, Sherwood R., E-mail: sherwood.casjens@path.utah.edu [University of Utah School of Medicine, Division of Microbiology and Immunology, Department of Pathology, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Baker, Timothy S., E-mail: tsb@ucsd.edu [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0378 (United States); University of California, San Diego, Division of Biological Sciences, La Jolla, CA, 92093 (United States)
2014-09-15
CUS-3 is a short-tailed, dsDNA bacteriophage that infects serotype K1 Escherichia coli. We report icosahedrally averaged and asymmetric, three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of the CUS-3 virion. Its coat protein structure adopts the “HK97-fold” shared by other tailed phages and is quite similar to that in phages P22 and Sf6 despite only weak amino acid sequence similarity. In addition, these coat proteins share a unique extra external domain (“I-domain”), suggesting that the group of P22-like phages has evolved over a very long time period without acquiring a new coat protein gene from another phage group. On the other hand, the morphology of the CUS-3 tailspike differs significantly from that of P22 or Sf6, but is similar to the tailspike of phage K1F, a member of the extremely distantly related T7 group of phages. We conclude that CUS-3 obtained its tailspike gene from a distantly related phage quite recently. - Highlights: • Asymmetric and symmetric three-dimensional reconstructions of phage CUS-3 are presented. • CUS-3 major capsid protein has a conserved I-domain, which is found in all three categories of “P22-like phage”. • CUS-3 has very different tailspike receptor binding domain from those of P22 and Sf6. • The CUS-3 tailspike likely was acquired by horizontal gene transfer.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Parent, Kristin N.; Tang, Jinghua; Cardone, Giovanni; Gilcrease, Eddie B.; Janssen, Mandy E.; Olson, Norman H.; Casjens, Sherwood R.; Baker, Timothy S.
2014-01-01
CUS-3 is a short-tailed, dsDNA bacteriophage that infects serotype K1 Escherichia coli. We report icosahedrally averaged and asymmetric, three-dimensional, cryo-electron microscopic reconstructions of the CUS-3 virion. Its coat protein structure adopts the “HK97-fold” shared by other tailed phages and is quite similar to that in phages P22 and Sf6 despite only weak amino acid sequence similarity. In addition, these coat proteins share a unique extra external domain (“I-domain”), suggesting that the group of P22-like phages has evolved over a very long time period without acquiring a new coat protein gene from another phage group. On the other hand, the morphology of the CUS-3 tailspike differs significantly from that of P22 or Sf6, but is similar to the tailspike of phage K1F, a member of the extremely distantly related T7 group of phages. We conclude that CUS-3 obtained its tailspike gene from a distantly related phage quite recently. - Highlights: • Asymmetric and symmetric three-dimensional reconstructions of phage CUS-3 are presented. • CUS-3 major capsid protein has a conserved I-domain, which is found in all three categories of “P22-like phage”. • CUS-3 has very different tailspike receptor binding domain from those of P22 and Sf6. • The CUS-3 tailspike likely was acquired by horizontal gene transfer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bulia, Isabella Longhi; Enzweiler, Jacinta, E-mail: isabellalonghi@ige.unicamp.br, E-mail: jacinta@ige.unicamp.br [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil). Instituto de Geociencias
2015-07-01
The composition of groundwaters results mainly from water-rock reactions within aquifers. Among the various constituents of water, the rare earth elements (REE) and uranium can serve as tracers of geochemical processes and hydrological flow paths. The main objective of this study was to associate the chemical composition of groundwaters extracted from three distinct aquifer systems (crystalline, diabase and sedimentary) with that of the respective hosts rocks. The area of the study is located at the campus of University of Campinas (Campinas, SP). Samples of groundwater collected from four tubular wells were used to determine physicochemical parameters, major ions and trace elements, including the REE. The results confirm that the water of two wells (IMECC and IB) is predominantly influenced by the crystalline and diabase aquifers, while the other two (GM and FEF) by the sedimentary aquifer. Both the individual and normalized REE values of the four wells are distinct from each other, pointing to the heterogeneity of the local geology. The uranium concentration in the water of one well (GM) exceeded the guideline value for this element in drinking water. The U probably results from the oxidative dissolution of U-bearing phases in the sedimentary aquifer. However, the hydrochemical modeling indicated Ca{sub 2}UO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 3} and CaUO{sub 2}(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}{sup 2-} as the major U dissolved species, which are considered non-toxic and non-bioavailable according to literature data. (author)
Araujo, Vitor; Viana, Marcelo
2010-01-01
In this book, the authors present the elements of a general theory for flows on three-dimensional compact boundaryless manifolds, encompassing flows with equilibria accumulated by regular orbits. The book aims to provide a global perspective of this theory and make it easier for the reader to digest the growing literature on this subject. This is not the first book on the subject of dynamical systems, but there are distinct aspects which together make this book unique. Firstly, this book treats mostly continuous time dynamical systems, instead of its discrete counterpart, exhaustively treated
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, Jong Chull; Shin, Won Ky [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)
1997-12-31
This paper presents an effective and simple procedure for the simulation of the motion of the solid-liquid interfacial boundary and the transient temperature field during phase change process. To accomplish this purpose, an iterative implicit solution algorithm has been developed by employing the dual reciprocity boundary element method. The dual reciprocity boundary element approach provided in this paper is much simpler than the usual boundary element method applying a reciprocity principle and an available technique for dealing with domain integral of boundary element formulation simultaneously. The effectiveness of the present analysis method have been illustrated through comparisons of the calculation results of an example with its semi-analytical or other numerical solutions where available. 22 refs., 3 figs. (Author)
Kang, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Byung-Gook; Kim, Eun-Soo
2011-06-01
In this paper, an approach to efficiently compress the time-multiplexed EIAs picked up from the MALT-based integral imaging system is proposed. In this method, the time-multiplexed EIAs are rearranged by collecting the elemental images occupied at the same position in each EIA to enhance the similarity among the elemental images. Then, MPEG-4 is applied to these rearranged elemental images for compression. From the experimental results, it is shown that the average correlation quality ( ACQ) value representing a degree of similarity between the elemental images, and the resultant compression efficiency have been enhanced by 11.50% and 9.97%, respectively on the average for three kinds of test scenarios in the proposed method, compared to those of the conventional method. Good experimental results finally confirmed the feasibility of the proposed scheme.
Kubrak, Elżbieta; Kubrak, Janusz; Rowiński, Paweł
2013-02-01
One-dimensional model for vertical profiles of longitudinal velocities in open-channel flows is verified against laboratory data obtained in an open channel with artificial plants. Those plants simulate Canadian waterweed which in nature usually forms dense stands that reach all the way to the water surface. The model works particularly well for densely spaced plants.
Fabrication of deep-profile Al-doped ZnO one- and two-dimensional lattices as plasmonic elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Flemming; Shkondin, Evgeniy; Takayama, Osamu
2016-01-01
In this work, we report on fabrication of deep-profile one- and two-dimensional lattices made from Al-doped ZnO (AZO). AZO is considered as an alternative plasmonic material having the real part of the permittivity negative in the near infrared range. The exact position of the plasma frequency of...
Rocha, Eduardo Passos; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; de Almeida, Erika Oliveira; Freitas, Amilcar Chagas; Martini, Ana Paula; Sotto-Maior, Bruno Sales; Luersen, Marco Antonio; Ko, Ching Chang
2015-01-01
Veneer fracture is the most common complication in zirconia-based restorations. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of a zirconia-based crown in a lower canine tooth supporting removable partial denture (RPD) prosthesis, varying the bond quality of the veneer/coping interface. Microtomography (μCT) data of an extracted left lower canine were used to build the finite element model (M) varying the core material (gold core - MAu; zirconia core - MZi) and the quality of the veneer/core interface (complete bonded - MZi; incomplete bonded - MZi-NL). The incomplete bonding condition was only applied for zirconia coping by using contact elements (Target/Contact) with 0.3 frictional coefficients. Stress fields were obtained using Ansys Workbench 10.0. The loading condition (L = 1 N) was vertically applied at the base of the RPD prosthesis metallic support towards the dental apex. Maximum principal (σmax) and von Mises equivalent (σvM) stresses were obtained. The σmax (MPa) for the bonded condition was similar between gold and zirconia cores (MAu, 0.42; MZi, 0.40). The incomplete bonded condition (MZi-NL) raised σmax in the veneer up to 800% (3.23 MPa) in contrast to the bonded condition. The peak of σvM increased up to 270% in the MZi-NL. The incomplete bond condition increasing the stress in the veneer/zirconia interface.
Nakamura, Yoshinori; Kanbara, Ryo; Ochiai, Kent T; Tanaka, Yoshinobu
2014-10-01
The mechanical evaluation of the function of partial removable dental prostheses with 3-dimensional finite element modeling requires the accurate assessment and incorporation of soft tissue behavior. The differential behaviors of the residual ridge mucosa and periodontal ligament tissues have been shown to exhibit nonlinear displacement. The mathematic incorporation of known values simulating nonlinear soft tissue behavior has not been investigated previously via 3-dimensional finite element modeling evaluation to demonstrate the effect of prosthesis design on the supporting tissues. The purpose of this comparative study was to evaluate the functional differences of 3 different partial removable dental prosthesis designs with 3-dimensional finite element analysis modeling and a simulated patient model incorporating known viscoelastic, nonlinear soft tissue properties. Three different designs of distal extension removable partial dental prostheses were analyzed. The stress distributions to the supporting abutments and soft tissue displacements of the designs tested were calculated and mechanically compared. Among the 3 dental designs evaluated, the RPI prosthesis demonstrated the lowest stress concentrations on the tissue supporting the tooth abutment and also provided wide mucosa-borne areas of support, thereby demonstrating a mechanical advantage and efficacy over the other designs evaluated. The data and results obtained from this study confirmed that the functional behavior of partial dental prostheses with supporting abutments and soft tissues are consistent with the conventional theories of design and clinical experience. The validity and usefulness of this testing method for future applications and testing protocols are shown. Copyright © 2014 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Anupama Aradya; U Krishna Kumar; Ramesh Chowdhary
2016-01-01
Purpose of the Study: The study was designed to evaluate and compare stress distribution in transcortical section of bone with normal abutment and platform switched abutment under vertical and oblique forces in posterior mandible region. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional finite element model was designed using ANSYS 13.0 software. The type of bone selection for the model was made of type II mandibular bone, having cortical bone thickness ranging from 0.595 mm to 1.515 mm with the...
Eberle, Franziska C.; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Wei, Lai; Hanson, Jeffrey C.; Killian, J. Keith; Sun, Hong-Wei; Adams, Lisa G.; Hewitt, Stephen M.; Wilson, Wyndham H.; Pittaluga, Stefania; Meltzer, Paul S.; Staudt, Louis M.; Emmert-Buck, Michael R.; Jaffe, Elaine S.
2011-01-01
Background Mediastinal gray zone lymphoma is a newly recognized entity with transitional morphological and immunophenotypic features between the nodular sclerosis subtype of Hodgkin’s lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Diagnostic criteria for mediastinal gray zone lymphoma are still challenging, and the optimal therapy is as yet undetermined. Epigenetic changes have been implicated in the loss of the B-cell program in classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, and might provide a basis for the immunophenotypic alterations seen in mediastinal gray zone lymphoma. Design and Methods We performed a large-scale DNA methylation analysis of microdissected tumor cells to investigate the biological underpinnings of mediastinal gray zone lymphoma and its association with the related entities classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, making comparisons with the presumptively less related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Results Principal component analysis demonstrated that mediastinal gray zone lymphoma has a distinct epigenetic profile intermediate between classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma but remarkably different from that of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Analysis of common hypo- and hypermethylated CpG targets in mediastinal gray zone lymphoma, classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was performed and confirmed the findings of the principal component analysis. Based on the epigenetic profiles we were able to establish class prediction models utilizing genes such as HOXA5, MMP9, EPHA7 and DAPK1 which could distinguish between mediastinal gray zone lymphoma, classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with a final combined prediction of 100%. Conclusions Our data confirm a close relationship between mediastinal gray zone lymphoma and both classical Hodgkin’s lymphoma and primary
Eberle, Franziska C; Rodriguez-Canales, Jaime; Wei, Lai; Hanson, Jeffrey C; Killian, J Keith; Sun, Hong-Wei; Adams, Lisa G; Hewitt, Stephen M; Wilson, Wyndham H; Pittaluga, Stefania; Meltzer, Paul S; Staudt, Louis M; Emmert-Buck, Michael R; Jaffe, Elaine S
2011-04-01
Mediastinal gray zone lymphoma is a newly recognized entity with transitional morphological and immunophenotypic features between the nodular sclerosis subtype of Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. Diagnostic criteria for mediastinal gray zone lymphoma are still challenging, and the optimal therapy is as yet undetermined. Epigenetic changes have been implicated in the loss of the B-cell program in classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, and might provide a basis for the immunophenotypic alterations seen in mediastinal gray zone lymphoma. We performed a large-scale DNA methylation analysis of microdissected tumor cells to investigate the biological underpinnings of mediastinal gray zone lymphoma and its association with the related entities classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, making comparisons with the presumptively less related diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Principal component analysis demonstrated that mediastinal gray zone lymphoma has a distinct epigenetic profile intermediate between classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma but remarkably different from that of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Analysis of common hypo- and hypermethylated CpG targets in mediastinal gray zone lymphoma, classical Hodgkin's lymphoma, primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma was performed and confirmed the findings of the principal component analysis. Based on the epigenetic profiles we were able to establish class prediction models utilizing genes such as HOXA5, MMP9, EPHA7 and DAPK1 which could distinguish between mediastinal gray zone lymphoma, classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma with a final combined prediction of 100%. Our data confirm a close relationship between mediastinal gray zone lymphoma and both classical Hodgkin's lymphoma and primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma. However, important differences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young Soo Kim
2013-05-01
Full Text Available Background To construct a sophisticated three-dimensionalframework, numerousmodifications have been reported in the literature. However, mostsurgeons have paid little attentionto the anatomical configuration of the concha and more to its deepness and hollowness,leading to unsatisfactory outcomes.Methods For a configuration ofthe concha thatis definitely anatomical,the authorfurtherdeveloped and employed the conchal bowl element,which has been used by severalsurgeonsalthough the results have not been published elsewhere. The author constructed the conchalbowl element in one of three patterns according to the amount of available cartilages: oneblock,two-pieces, or a cymba bowl element only. A total of 20 patients underwent auricularreconstruction using a costal cartilage framework between 2009 and 2012. The 8 earliestreconstructionswere performedwithout a conchal bowl element and the latter 12with a conchalbowl element. The patientswere followed up for more than 1 year. The aesthetic resultswerescored by evaluating characteristicsinvolving the stability ofthe crus helicis,the conchal definition, and the smoothness ofthe helical curve.Results The earsreconstructed earlywithout a conchal bowl elementshowed a shallowandone or two incompletely separated concha with an obliterated cymba conchal space. Theyalso did not have a realistic orsmooth curve ofthe helix because of an unstable crus helicis.However, earsreconstructed laterwith the concha bowl elementshowed a definite crus helicis,deep cymba conchalspace, and smooth helical curve.Conclusions The construction of the conchal bowl element is simple, not time-consumingprocedure. It is suggested that the conchal bowl element must be constructed and attachedto themain framework for natural configuration ofthe reconstructed ear.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goto, Akiko; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi
2008-01-01
The forensic discrimination of adhesive cloth tapes often used in crimes was developed using a high-energy energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer with 3-dimensional polarization optics. The best measurement condition for discrimination of the tape was as follows: secondary targets, Rh and Al 2 O 3 ; measurement time, 300 s for Rh and 600 s for Al 2 O 3 ; 14 elements (Ca, Ti, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Zn, Sr, Zr, Nb, Mo, Sb, Ba and Pb) were used for discrimination. It is found that the combined information of yarn density and the XRF peak intensity of the 14 elements successfully discriminated 29 out of 31 samples, of which 2 probably had the same origin. This technique is useful for forensic analysis, because it is nondestructive, rapid and easy. Therefore, it can be applied to actual forensic identification. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Igumnov Leonid
2015-01-01
Full Text Available The report presents the development of the time-boundary element methodology and a description of the related software based on a stepped method of numerical inversion of the integral Laplace transform in combination with a family of Runge-Kutta methods for analyzing 3-D mixed initial boundary-value problems of the dynamics of inhomogeneous elastic and poro-elastic bodies. The results of the numerical investigation are presented. The investigation methodology is based on direct-approach boundary integral equations of 3-D isotropic linear theories of elasticity and poroelasticity in Laplace transforms. Poroelastic media are described using Biot models with four and five base functions. With the help of the boundary-element method, solutions in time are obtained, using the stepped method of numerically inverting Laplace transform on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods. The boundary-element method is used in combination with the collocation method, local element-by-element approximation based on the matched interpolation model. The results of analyzing wave problems of the effect of a non-stationary force on elastic and poroelastic finite bodies, a poroelastic half-space (also with a fictitious boundary and a layered half-space weakened by a cavity, and a half-space with a trench are presented. Excitation of a slow wave in a poroelastic medium is studied, using the stepped BEM-scheme on the nodes of Runge-Kutta methods.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cutanda Henriquez, Vicente; Andersen, Peter Risby
2018-01-01
then be modeled with numerical methods that include losses. In recent years, versions of both the Finite Element Method (FEM) and the Boundary Element Method (BEM) including viscous and thermal losses have been developed. This paper deals with an improved formulation in three dimensions of the BEM with losses...... which avoids the calculation of tangential derivatives on the surface by finite differences used in a previous BEM implementation. Instead, the tangential derivatives are obtained from the element shape functions. The improved implementation is demonstrated using an oscillating sphere, where......Sound waves in fluids are subject to viscous and thermal losses, which are particularly relevant in the so-called viscous and thermal boundary layers at the boundaries, with thicknesses in the micrometer range at audible frequencies. Small devices such as acoustic transducers or hearing aids must...
Kang, Ho-Hyun; Lee, Jung-Woo; Shin, Dong-Hak; Kim, Eun-Soo
2010-02-01
This paper addresses the efficient compression scheme of elemental image array (EIA) generated from the moving array lenslet technique (MALT) based on MPEG-4. The EIAs are picked-up by MALT controlling the spatial ray sampling of ray and which produces few EIAs that the positions of the lenslet arrays are rapidly vibrated in the lateral directions within the retention time of the afterimage of human eye. To enhance the similarity in each EIA picked-up by MALT, several EIAs obtained from MALT are regenerated by the collection of an elemental image occupied at the same position in each EIA. The newly generated each EIA has high similarity among adjacent elemental images. To illustrate the feasibility of the proposed scheme, some experiments are carried out to show the increased compression efficiency and we obtained the improved compression ratio of 12% compared to the unhandled compression scheme.
A retrospective and prospective survey of three-dimensional transport calculations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nakahara, Yasuaki
1985-01-01
A retrospective survey is made on the three-dimensional radiation transport calculations. Introduction is given to computer codes based on the distinctive numerical methods such as the Monte Carlo, Direct Integration, Ssub(n) and Finite Element Methods to solve the three-dimensional transport equations. Prospective discussions are made on pros and cons of these methods. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kita, Toshihiro
2005-01-01
A simple system consisting of a second-order lag element (a damped linear pendulum) and two first-order lag elements with piecewise-linear static feedback that has been derived from a power system model is presented. It exhibits chaotic behavior for a wide range of parameter values. The analysis of the bifurcations and the chaotic behavior are presented with qualitative estimation of the parameter values for which the chaotic behavior is observed. Several characteristics like scalability of the attractor and globality of the attractor-basin are also discussed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Block, G I; Rubin, M B; Morris, J P; Berryman, J G
2006-08-23
Experimental data indicates that the limiting crack speed in brittle materials is less than the Rayleigh wave speed. One reason for this is that dynamic instabilities produce surface roughness and microcracks that branch from the main crack. These processes increase dissipation near the crack tip over a range of crack speeds. When the scale of observation (or mesh resolution) becomes much larger than the typical sizes of these features, effective-medium theories are required to predict the coarse-grained fracture dynamics. Two approaches to modeling these phenomena are described and used in numerical simulations. The first approach is based on cohesive elements that utilize a rate-dependent weakening law for the nodal cohesive forces. The second approach uses a continuum damage model which has a weakening effect that lowers the effective Rayleigh wave speed in the material surrounding the crack tip. Simulations in this paper show that while both models are capable of increasing the energy dissipated during fracture when the mesh size is larger than the process zone size, only the continuum damage model is able to limit the crack speed over a range of applied loads. Numerical simulations of straight-running cracks demonstrate good agreement between the theoretical predictions of the combined models and experimental data on dynamic crack propagation in brittle materials. Simulations that model crack branching are also presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gupta, S.K.; Cole, C.R.; Bond, F.W.
1979-12-01
The Assessment of Effectiveness of Geologic Isolation Systems (AEGIS) Program is developing and applying the methodology for assessing the far-field, long-term post-closure safety of deep geologic nuclear waste repositories. AEGIS is being performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) under contract with the Office of Nuclear Waste Isolation (OWNI) for the Department of Energy (DOE). One task within AEGIS is the development of methodology for analysis of the consequences (water pathway) from loss of repository containment as defined by various release scenarios. Analysis of the long-term, far-field consequences of release scenarios requires the application of numerical codes which simulate the hydrologic systems, model the transport of released radionuclides through the hydrologic systems to the biosphere, and, where applicable, assess the radiological dose to humans. Hydrologic and transport models are available at several levels of complexity or sophistication. Model selection and use are determined by the quantity and quality of input data. Model development under AEGIS and related programs provides three levels of hydrologic models, two levels of transport models, and one level of dose models (with several separate models). This document consists of the description of the FE3DGW (Finite Element, Three-Dimensional Groundwater) Hydrologic model third level (high complexity) three-dimensional, finite element approach (Galerkin formulation) for saturated groundwater flow.
He, Ling; Li, Deli; Zhang, Jiwu; Li, Xiucheng; Lu, Songhe; Tang, Zhihui
2016-12-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate cross-sectional area of the abutments, strain distribution in the periimplant bone, stress in the abutments and dental root-analog implant by different abutment design under different loading conditions, through three-dimensional finite element analysis. Two three-dimensional finite element models were established. Two types of abutments, oval cross section abutment (OCSA) and circular cross section abutment (CCSA) were designed, keeping the size of the thinnest implant wall 0.75 mm. Two types of load were applied to the abutment in each model: 100 N vertical load (V), 100 N vertical/50 N horizontal load (VH). The biomechanical behaviors of abutments, implants, and periimplant bone were recorded. The cross-section area of OCSA is 36.5% larger than that of CCSA. In implants, the maximum von Mises stress value in OCSA design was 24.6% lower than that in CCSA design under V and under VH. In abutments, the maximum von Mises stress value in OCSA design was 40.0% lower than that in CCSA design under V, the maximum von Mises stress value in OCSA design was 12.2% lower than that in CCSA design under VH. The irregular design offers advantages over regular design.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrew Robert Pitman
2016-03-01
Full Text Available Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs play a central role in the evolution of bacterial virulence, their transmission between bacteria often leading to the acquisition of virulence factors that alter host range or aggressiveness. Much is known about the functions of the virulence determinants that ICEs harbor, but little is understood about the cryptic effects of ICEs on their host cell. In this study, the importance of horizontally acquired island 2 (HAI2, an ICE in the genome of Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043, was studied using a strain in which the entire ICE had been removed by CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome targeting. HAI2 encodes coronafacic acid, a virulence factor that enhances blackleg disease of potato stems caused by P. atrosepticum SCRI1043. As expected, deletion of HAI2 resulted in reduced blackleg symptoms in potato stems. A subsequent screen for HAI2-related ICEs in other strains of the Pectobacterium genus revealed their ubiquitous nature in P. atrosepticum. Yet, HAI2-related ICEs were only detected in the genomes of a few P. carotovorum strains. These strains were notable as blackleg causing strains belonging to two different subspecies of P. carotovorum. Sequence analysis of the ICEs in different strains of both P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum confirmed that they were diverse and were present in different locations on the genomes of their bacterial host, suggesting that the cfa cluster was probably acquired independently on a number of occasions via chromosomal insertion of related ICEs. Excision assays also demonstrated that the ICEs in both P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum are mobilised from the host chromosome. Thus, the future spread of these ICEs via lateral gene transfer might contribute to an increase in the prevalence of blackleg-causing strains of P. carotovorum.
Panda, Preetinanda; Vanga, Bhanupratap R; Lu, Ashley; Fiers, Mark; Fineran, Peter C; Butler, Ruth; Armstrong, Karen; Ronson, Clive W; Pitman, Andrew R
2016-01-01
Integrative and conjugative elements (ICEs) play a central role in the evolution of bacterial virulence, their transmission between bacteria often leading to the acquisition of virulence factors that alter host range or aggressiveness. Much is known about the functions of the virulence determinants that ICEs harbor, but little is understood about the cryptic effects of ICEs on their host cell. In this study, the importance of horizontally acquired island 2 (HAI2), an ICE in the genome of Pectobacterium atrosepticum SCRI1043, was studied using a strain in which the entire ICE had been removed by CRISPR-Cas-mediated genome editing. HAI2 encodes coronafacic acid, a virulence factor that enhances blackleg disease of potato stems caused by P. atrosepticum SCRI1043. As expected, deletion of HAI2 resulted in reduced blackleg symptoms in potato stems. A subsequent screen for HAI2-related ICEs in other strains of the Pectobacterium genus revealed their ubiquitous nature in P. atrosepticum. Yet, HAI2-related ICEs were only detected in the genomes of a few P. carotovorum strains. These strains were notable as blackleg causing strains belonging to two different subspecies of P. carotovorum. Sequence analysis of the ICEs in different strains of both P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum confirmed that they were diverse and were present in different locations on the genomes of their bacterial host, suggesting that the cfa cluster was probably acquired independently on a number of occasions via chromosomal insertion of related ICEs. Excision assays also demonstrated that the ICEs in both P. atrosepticum and P. carotovorum are mobilized from the host chromosome. Thus, the future spread of these ICEs via lateral gene transfer might contribute to an increase in the prevalence of blackleg-causing strains of P. carotovorum.
Chang, Sin-Chung; Wang, Xiao-Yen; Chow, Chuen-Yen
1994-01-01
A new numerical discretization method for solving conservation laws is being developed. This new approach differs substantially in both concept and methodology from the well-established methods, i.e., finite difference, finite volume, finite element, and spectral methods. It is motivated by several important physical/numerical considerations and designed to avoid several key limitations of the above traditional methods. As a result of the above considerations, a set of key principles for the design of numerical schemes was put forth in a previous report. These principles were used to construct several numerical schemes that model a 1-D time-dependent convection-diffusion equation. These schemes were then extended to solve the time-dependent Euler and Navier-Stokes equations of a perfect gas. It was shown that the above schemes compared favorably with the traditional schemes in simplicity, generality, and accuracy. In this report, the 2-D versions of the above schemes, except the Navier-Stokes solver, are constructed using the same set of design principles. Their constructions are simplified greatly by the use of a nontraditional space-time mesh. Its use results in the simplest stencil possible, i.e., a tetrahedron in a 3-D space-time with a vertex at the upper time level and other three at the lower time level. Because of the similarity in their design, each of the present 2-D solvers virtually shares with its 1-D counterpart the same fundamental characteristics. Moreover, it is shown that the present Euler solver is capable of generating highly accurate solutions for a famous 2-D shock reflection problem. Specifically, both the incident and the reflected shocks can be resolved by a single data point without the presence of numerical oscillations near the discontinuity.
Ginzburg, Irina; Silva, Goncalo; Talon, Laurent
2015-02-01
This work focuses on the numerical solution of the Stokes-Brinkman equation for a voxel-type porous-media grid, resolved by one to eight spacings per permeability contrast of 1 to 10 orders in magnitude. It is first analytically demonstrated that the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) and the linear-finite-element method (FEM) both suffer from the viscosity correction induced by the linear variation of the resistance with the velocity. This numerical artefact may lead to an apparent negative viscosity in low-permeable blocks, inducing spurious velocity oscillations. The two-relaxation-times (TRT) LBM may control this effect thanks to free-tunable two-rates combination Λ. Moreover, the Brinkman-force-based BF-TRT schemes may maintain the nondimensional Darcy group and produce viscosity-independent permeability provided that the spatial distribution of Λ is fixed independently of the kinematic viscosity. Such a property is lost not only in the BF-BGK scheme but also by "partial bounce-back" TRT gray models, as shown in this work. Further, we propose a consistent and improved IBF-TRT model which vanishes viscosity correction via simple specific adjusting of the viscous-mode relaxation rate to local permeability value. This prevents the model from velocity fluctuations and, in parallel, improves for effective permeability measurements, from porous channel to multidimensions. The framework of our exact analysis employs a symbolic approach developed for both LBM and FEM in single and stratified, unconfined, and bounded channels. It shows that even with similar bulk discretization, BF, IBF, and FEM may manifest quite different velocity profiles on the coarse grids due to their intrinsic contrasts in the setting of interface continuity and no-slip conditions. While FEM enforces them on the grid vertexes, the LBM prescribes them implicitly. We derive effective LBM continuity conditions and show that the heterogeneous viscosity correction impacts them, a property also shared
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulak, R.F.; Kennedy, J.M.; Belytschko, T.B.; Schoeberle, D.F.
1977-01-01
This paper describes finite-element formulations for the thermal stress analysis of LMFBR structures. The first formulation is applicable to large displacement rotation problems in which the strains are small. For this formulation, a general temperature-dependent constituent relationship is derived from a Gibbs potential and a temperature dependent surface. A second formulation is presented for problems characterized by both large displacement-rotations and large strains. Here a set of large strain hypoelastic-plastic relationships are developed to linearly relate the rate of stress to the rate of deformation. These developments were incorporated into two ANL developed finite-element computer codes: the implicit version of STRAW and the 3D Implicit Structural Analaysis code. A set of problems is presented to validate both the 3D and 2D programs and to illustrate their applicability to a variety of problems. (Auth.)
Sotelo, Julio; Urbina, Jesús; Valverde, Israel; Mura, Joaquín; Tejos, Cristián; Irarrazaval, Pablo; Andia, Marcelo E; Hurtado, Daniel E; Uribe, Sergio
2018-01-01
We propose a 3D finite-element method for the quantification of vorticity and helicity density from 3D cine phase-contrast (PC) MRI. By using a 3D finite-element method, we seamlessly estimate velocity gradients in 3D. The robustness and convergence were analyzed using a combined Poiseuille and Lamb-Ossen equation. A computational fluid dynamics simulation was used to compared our method with others available in the literature. Additionally, we computed 3D maps for different 3D cine PC-MRI data sets: phantom without and with coarctation (18 healthy volunteers and 3 patients). We found a good agreement between our method and both the analytical solution of the combined Poiseuille and Lamb-Ossen. The computational fluid dynamics results showed that our method outperforms current approaches to estimate vorticity and helicity values. In the in silico model, we observed that for a tetrahedral element of 2 mm of characteristic length, we underestimated the vorticity in less than 5% with respect to the analytical solution. In patients, we found higher values of helicity density in comparison to healthy volunteers, associated with vortices in the lumen of the vessels. We proposed a novel method that provides entire 3D vorticity and helicity density maps, avoiding the used of reformatted 2D planes from 3D cine PC-MRI. Magn Reson Med 79:541-553, 2018. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2017 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Shariyat
Full Text Available Three-dimensional bending and stress analyses of the rotating two-directional functionally graded annular/circular plates or disks have not been accomplished so far. This task is performed in the present paper, employing a finite element formulation with a C¹-continuity. Therefore, both transversely graded and radiallygraded plates may be analyzed as special cases of the present research. Distribution of the transverse loads as well as coefficients of the elastic foundation may be non-uniform. Mixed stress-based and displacement-based edge conditions are considered to cover many practical applications. Compatible Hermitian elements are employed to develop a consistent formulation and avoid jumps in the stress components at the elements interfaces. In contrast to the very limited works presented for the rotating functionally graded circular plates so far, the transverse flexibility and the transverse stress components are also considered in the present research. Finally, influences of the material properties distribution, angular speed, geometric parameters, and the elastic foundation on distributions of the stress and displacement components are investigated for a variety of edge and boundary conditions and some design criteria are extracted.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nikhita Pekhale
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study is to evaluate stress and displacement effects of maxillary posterior intrusion mechanics with mini-implant anchorage by using finite element method. Materials and Methods: A computer stimulation of three-dimensional model maxilla with all teeth, PDL, bone, mini-implants, brackets, arch wire, force element, and transpalatal arch was constructed on the basis of average anatomic morphology. Finite element analysis was done to evaluate the amount of stress and its distribution during orthodontic intrusive force. Results: Increased Von Mises stress values were observed in mesio-cervical region of first molar. The middle third of second premolar and second molar and regions adjacent to force application sites also showed relatively high stress values. Minimum stress values were observed in apical region of first premolar as it is away from force application. Conclusion: Using three mini-implant and transpalatal arches, this study demonstrates that significant amount of true intrusion of maxillary molars could be obtained with lesser concentration of stresses in the apical area recorded.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ezoe, Masako; Sasaki, Miho; Hokura, Akiko; Nakai, Izumi; Terada, Yasuko; Yoshinaga, Tatsuki; Tukamoto, Katsumi; Hagiwara, Atsushi
2002-01-01
Two-dimensional imaging and a quantitative analysis of trace elements in rotifer, Brachionus plicatilis, belonging to zooplankton, were carried out by a synchrotron radiation X-ray fluorescence analysis (SR-XRF). The XRF imaging revealed that female rotifers accumulated Fe and Zn in the digestive organ and Fe, Zn, Cu, and Ca in the sexual organs, while the Mn level was high in the head. From a quantitative analysis by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), we found that rotifers eat the chlorella and accumulate the above elements in the body. The result of quantitative analyses of Mn, Cu, and Zn by SR-XRF in a single sample is in fair agreement with the average values determined by ICP-MS analyses, which were obtained by measuring a large number of rotifers, digested by nitric acid. The present study has demonstrated that SR-XRF is an effective tool for the trace element analysis of a single individual of rotifer. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pavel A. Akimov
2017-12-01
Full Text Available As is well known, the formulation of a multipoint boundary problem involves three main components: a description of the domain occupied by the structure and the corresponding subdomains; description of the conditions inside the domain and inside the corresponding subdomains, the description of the conditions on the boundary of the domain, conditions on the boundaries between subdomains. This paper is a continuation of another work published earlier, in which the formulation and general principles of the approximation of the multipoint boundary problem of a static analysis of deep beam on the basis of the joint application of the finite element method and the discrete-continual finite element method were considered. It should be noted that the approximation within the fragments of a domain that have regular physical-geometric parameters along one of the directions is expedient to be carried out on the basis of the discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM, and for the approximation of all other fragments it is necessary to use the standard finite element method (FEM. In the present publication, the formulas for the computing of displacements partial derivatives of displacements, strains and stresses within the finite element model (both within the finite element and the corresponding nodal values (with the use of averaging are presented. Boundary conditions between subdomains (respectively, discrete models and discrete-continual models and typical conditions such as “hinged support”, “free edge”, “perfect contact” (twelve basic (basic variants are available are under consideration as well. Governing formulas for computing of elements of the corresponding matrices of coefficients and vectors of the right-hand sides are given for each variant. All formulas are fully adapted for algorithmic implementation.
Dresvyannikov, A. F.; Kolpakov, M. E.
2018-05-01
X-ray fluorescence, X-ray phase analysis, and transmission Mössbauer and NGR spectrometry are used to study the formation, phase, and elemental composition of Fe-Ti particles. The interaction between Fe(III) ions and dispersed titanium in an aqueous solution containing chloride ions and HF is studied. It is shown that the resulting Fe-Ti samples are a set of core-shell microparticles with titanium cores coated with micro- and nanosized α-Fe nucleation centers with the thinness outer layer of iron(III) oxide characterized by a developed surface.
Kuloglu, Mustafa; Lee, Robert
2012-07-01
A new hybrid finite-element/rigorous coupled wave analysis formulation is presented for the modeling of electromagnetic wave interactions with doubly periodic structures. The structures under investigation are periodic in two dimensions and have a finite extent in the third dimension. The proposed model can handle structures that have material properties varying arbitrarily in any of the dimensions within the unit cell. Employment of Fourier series expansion and Floquet's theory in one of the periodic dimensions helps to reduce the dimension of the mesh. Results obtained from alternative methods are used to verify the proposed method's validity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter Schuller-Götzburg
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: the aim of the computational 3D-finite element study is to evaluate the influence of an augmented sinus lift with additional inserted bone grafting. The bone graft block stabilizes the implant in conjunction with conventional bone augmentation. Two finite element models were applied: the real geometry based bone models and the simplified geometry models. The bone graft block was placed in three different positions. The implants were loaded first with an axial force and then with forces simulating laterotrusion and protrusion. This study examines whether the calculated stress behavior is symmetrical for both models. Having established a symmetry between the primary axis, the laterotrusion and protrusion behavior reduces calculation efforts, by simplifying the model. Material and Methods: a simplified U-shaped 3D finite element model of the molar region of the upper jaw and a more complex anatomical model of the left maxilla with less cortical bone were created. The bone graft block was placed in the maxillary sinus. Then the von Mises stress distribution was calculated and analyzed at three block positions: at contact with the sinus floor, in the middle of the implant helix and in the upper third of the implant. The two finite element models were then compared to simplify the modelling. Results: the position of the bone graft block significantly influences the magnitude of stress distribution. A bone graft block positioned in the upper third or middle of the implant reduces the quantity of stress compared to the reference model without a bone graft block. The low bone graft block position is clearly associated with lower stress distribution in compact bone. We registered no significant differences in stress in compact bone with regard to laterotrusion or protrusion. Conclusions: maximum values of von Mises stresses in compact bone can be reduced significantly by using a bone graft block. The reduction of stress is nearly the same for
Zhou, Tuan-feng; Zhang, Xiang-hao; Wang, Xin-zhi
2015-02-18
To analyze the biomechanics trait of one-piece computer aided design and computer aided manufacture (CAD/CAM) zirconia post and core by the Three-dimensional finite element. The Three-dimensional finite element models of three upper central incisors restored with one-piece CAD/CAM zirconia post and core (group 1), refabricated zirconia post and hot-pressed porcelain core (group 2), and cast gold alloy post and core (group 3) were built by geometry method respectively. 100 N vertical loading through the central incisor models long axis and 100 N loading along directing at an angle of 45° with the models long axis were used to imitate the central incisor stress state in biting and mandible physiological protraction movement. Under vertical loading, the restored teeth without dentin ferrule, the maximum Von-Mises stress value of the tooth root in group 1 was the least(11.02 N), which was the largest (13.17 N)in group 2. The stress became weaker from the upper to the lower of the tooth root. The maximum Von-Mises stress value of the tooth root, post and core became smaller while the restored teeth with the 2.0 mm high dentin ferrule. Under directing at an angle of 45° loading, without the design of dentin ferrule in the restored teeth, the maximum Von-Mises stress value of the post and core in group 1 was the greatest(20.45 N), while that stress of post and core in group 3 was the smallest(13.61 N). With 2.0 mm high dentin ferrule design in the restored teeth, the tooth root stress became weaker. The maximum Von-Mises stress value of the tooth root was the greatest (14.10 N) in group 3, but which was the lowest (13.38 N) in group 1. The results of the Three-dimensional finite element analysis infers that one-piece zirconia post and core restoration is more beneficial to disperse the bite force than the prefabricated zirconia post and the cast gold alloy post and core. The one-piece of zirconia post and core is good to protect the teeth and keep the restoration intact.
Su, Fan; Zhao, Ying; Su, Qin
2013-08-01
To evaluate the stress distribution of the cervical-defected incisor with labial or lingual endodontic access with finite element analysis (FEA), and to explore the advantage of resistance in labial endodontic access. 3-D finite element models of upper cervical-defected incisor were established using cone-beam CT (CBCT), Mimics Catia, and Ansys software. The subjects were categorized according to the two endodontic accesses and three restorative ways, which were composite resin, glass fiber-reinforced composite resin and glass fiber-reinforced post-crown. All the models were loaded.The von Mises stress values and distribution were recorded and analyzed with Ansys 10.0 software. In this study, direct composite resin restoration showed no significant difference between the labial and lingual access. In glass fiber-reinforced composite resin, labial access could transfer the stress concentration area. It could reduce the incidence of fracture of the cervical lesion but increase the incidence of root fracture. Post-crown restoration could obviously reduce the incidence of fracture of the cervical lesion. When the cervical-defected incisor is restored with composite resin, labial and lingual accesses can be considered. Labial access with glass fiber-reinforced composite resin or post-crown restoration is a good choice.
Asemi, K.; Ashrafi, H.; Shariyat, M.
2016-07-01
Static and free vibration analyses of plates with circular holes are performed based on the three-dimensional theory of elasticity. The plates are made of a functionally graded material (FGM), and the volume fractions of the constituent materials vary continuously across the plate. The effective properties of the FGM plate are estimated by using the Mori-Tanaka homogenization method. A graded finite element method based on the Rayleigh-Ritz energy formulation is used to solve the problem. Effects of different volume fractions of the materials and hole sizes on the behavior of FGM plates under uniaxial tension are investigated. Natural frequencies of a fully clamped FGM plate with a circular cutout are derived. The results obtained are compared with available experimental data.
Jang, Jae-Young; Shin, Donghak; Kim, Eun-Soo
2014-01-27
We propose a novel approach to optically refocus three-dimensional (3-D) objects on their real depth from the captured elemental image array (EIA) by using a sifting property of the periodic δ-function array (PDFA) in integral-imaging. By convolving the PDFAs whose spatial periods correspond to each object's depth with the sub-image array (SIA) transformed from the EIA, a set of spatially filtered-SIAs (SF-SIAs) for each object's depth can be extracted. These SF-SIAs are then inverse-transformed into the corresponding versions of the EIAs, and from these, 3-D objects with their own perspectives can be reconstructed to be refocused on their depth in the space. The feasibility of the proposed method has been confirmed through optical experiments as well as ray-optical analysis.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Erdogan, E.
2007-01-01
In earth investigation done by using the direct current resistivity technique, impact of the change in the examined surface topography on determining the resistivity distrubition in the earth has been a frequently faced question. In order to get more fruitful results and make more correct interpretetions in earth surveying carried on the areas where topographical changes occur, modelling should be done by taking the change in surface topography into account and topography effect should be included into inversion. In this study impact of topography to the direct current resistivity method has been analysed. For this purpose, 2-D forward modeling algorithm has been developed by using finite element method. In this algorithm impact of topography can be incorporate into the model. Also the pseudo sections which is produced from the program can be imaged with topography. By using this algorithm response of models under different surface topography has been analysed and compared with the straight topography of same models
Degirmenci, Elif; Landais, Pascal
2013-10-20
Photonic band gap and transmission characteristics of 2D metallic photonic crystals at THz frequencies have been investigated using finite element method (FEM). Photonic crystals composed of metallic rods in air, in square and triangular lattice arrangements, are considered for transverse electric and transverse magnetic polarizations. The modes and band gap characteristics of metallic photonic crystal structure are investigated by solving the eigenvalue problem over a unit cell of the lattice using periodic boundary conditions. A photonic band gap diagram of dielectric photonic crystal in square lattice array is also considered and compared with well-known plane wave expansion results verifying our FEM approach. The photonic band gap designs for both dielectric and metallic photonic crystals are consistent with previous studies obtained by different methods. Perfect match is obtained between photonic band gap diagrams and transmission spectra of corresponding lattice structure.
Harris, William M.; Chiu, Wilson K. S.
2015-05-01
Improved microstructural imaging and characterization methods have recently opened the door for quantitative evaluation of microstructures of such functional materials as solid oxide fuel cell and battery electrodes and composite gas separation membranes. Accurate quantitative characterization of these structures relies on the concept of a representative volume element (RVE) to provide a sufficiently large sample to be statistically representative of the material. In Part 1 of this work, several models were described to determine the RVE size for several common microstructural properties: volume fraction, particle size, and network contiguity. In this work, extensive synchrotron X-ray nanotomography imaging of a multiphase composite gas separation membrane is used to provide an experimental comparison to the model predictions. Results suggest that the models provide a reasonable estimate of RVE size, and can serve as a starting point for researchers planning imaging and characterization experiments.
Barall, Michael
2009-01-01
We present a new finite-element technique for calculating dynamic 3-D spontaneous rupture on an earthquake fault, which can reduce the required computational resources by a factor of six or more, without loss of accuracy. The grid-doubling technique employs small cells in a thin layer surrounding the fault. The remainder of the modelling volume is filled with larger cells, typically two or four times as large as the small cells. In the resulting non-conforming mesh, an interpolation method is used to join the thin layer of smaller cells to the volume of larger cells. Grid-doubling is effective because spontaneous rupture calculations typically require higher spatial resolution on and near the fault than elsewhere in the model volume. The technique can be applied to non-planar faults by morphing, or smoothly distorting, the entire mesh to produce the desired 3-D fault geometry. Using our FaultMod finite-element software, we have tested grid-doubling with both slip-weakening and rate-and-state friction laws, by running the SCEC/USGS 3-D dynamic rupture benchmark problems. We have also applied it to a model of the Hayward fault, Northern California, which uses realistic fault geometry and rock properties. FaultMod implements fault slip using common nodes, which represent motion common to both sides of the fault, and differential nodes, which represent motion of one side of the fault relative to the other side. We describe how to modify the traction-at-split-nodes method to work with common and differential nodes, using an implicit time stepping algorithm.
Han, Yaohui; Mou, Lan; Xu, Gengchi; Yang, Yiqiang; Ge, Zhenlin
2015-03-01
To construct a three-dimensional finite element model comparing between one-step and two-step methods in torque control of anterior teeth during space closure. Dicom image data including maxilla and upper teeth were obtained though cone-beam CT. A three-dimensional model was set up and the maxilla, upper teeth and periodontium were separated using Mimics software. The models were instantiated using Pro/Engineer software, and Abaqus finite element analysis software was used to simulate the sliding mechanics by loading 1.47 Nforce on traction hooks with different heights (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 mm, respectively) in order to compare the initial displacement between six maxillary anterior teeth (one-step method) and four maxillary anterior teeth (two-step method). When moving anterior teeth bodily, initial displacements of central incisors in two-step method and in one-step method were 29.26 × 10⁻⁶ mm and 15.75 × 10⁻⁶ mm, respectively. The initial displacements of lateral incisors in two-step method and in one-step method were 46.76 × 10(-6) mm and 23.18 × 10(-6) mm, respectively. Under the same amount of light force, the initial displacement of anterior teeth in two-step method was doubled compared with that in one-step method. The root and crown of the canine couldn't obtain the same amount of displacement in one-step method. Two-step method could produce more initial displacement than one-step method. Therefore, two-step method was easier to achieve torque control of the anterior teeth during space closure.
Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Cheung, Gary Shun-Pan; Lee, Chan-Joo; Kim, Byung-Min; Park, Jeong-Kil; Kang, Soon-Il
2008-06-01
The study was aimed to compare the stress distribution during simulated root canal shaping and to estimate the residual stress thereafter for some nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Three brands of instruments (ProFile, ProTaper, and ProTaper Universal; Dentsply Maillefer) were scanned with micro-computed tomography to produce a real-size, 3-dimensional model for each. The stresses on the instrument during simulated shaping of a root canal were analyzed numerically by using a 3-dimensional finite-element package, taking into account the nonlinear mechanical behavior of the nickel-titanium material. From the simulation, the original ProTaper design showed the greatest pull in the apical direction and the highest reaction torque from the root canal wall, whereas ProFile showed the least. In ProTaper, stresses were concentrated at the cutting edge, and the residual stress reached a level close to the critical stress for phase transformation of the material. The residual stress was highest in ProTaper followed by ProTaper Universal and ProFile.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aurich, D.; Brocks, W.; Noack, D.; Veith, H.
1982-01-01
A three-dimensional elastic-plastic analysis for stresses and strains in a pressure vessel containing two semi-elliptical surface cracks was carried out by finite element (FE) method. Results for stress distribution, spreading of plastic zones and crack opening displacements are presented and discussed. The variation of the stress intensity factor along the crack front as gained from a linear elastic FE-analysis is compared with solutions of various authors. First, the FE results are discussed according to the stress intensity concept using a plastic zone correction for small scale yielding. A Ksub(Ic) of 6900 Nmm -3 / 2 for an operating temperature of 314 K, which was taken from the ASME code, resulted in a critical pressure of 280 bar. If the zone correction is done with plane stress approximations of IRWIN and DUGDALE, just slightly lower critical values are gained. Introducing the same two dimensional models in the COD concept gives far too conservative estimations for the critical pressure, whereas the plane strain solution agrees quite well with the FE computations. All together, the COD concept is very sensitive to different methods of determining delta. (orig.) [de
Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; de Morais, Dayana Campanelli; Alonso, Alexandre Abhdala; Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal; Borges, Alexandre Luis Souto
2017-01-01
The increase of requests for implant-supported prosthesis (ISP) with zirconia as infrastructure has attracted a lot of attention due to its esthetics, biocompatibility, and survival rate similar to metallic infrastructure. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of two different framework materials on stress distribution over a bone tissue-simulating material. Two ISP were modeled and divided into two infrastructure materials: titanium (Ti) and zirconia. Then, these bars were attached to a modeled jaw with polyurethane properties to simulate bone tissue. An axial load of 200 N was applied on a standardized area for both systems. Maximum principal stress (MPS) on solids and microstrain (MS) generated through the jaw were analyzed by finite element analysis. According to MS, both models showed strains on peri-implant region of the penultimate (same side of the load application) and central implants. For MPS, more stress concentration was slightly higher in the left posterior region for Ti's bar. In prosthetic fixation screws, the MPS prevailed strongly in Ti protocol, while for zirconia's bar, the cervical of the penultimate implant was the one that highlighted larger areas of possible damages. The stress generated in all constituents of the system was not significantly influenced by the framework's material. This allows suggesting that in cases without components, the use of a framework in zirconia has biomechanical behavior similar to that of a Ti bar.
Zarrati, Simindokht; Heidari, Fatemeh; Kashani, Jamal
2015-01-01
Objectives: This finite element method study aimed to compare the amount of stress on an isolated mandibular second premolar in two conventional reciprocal parallel interface designs of removable partial dentures (RPDs) and the same RPD abutment tooth (not isolated). Materials and Methods: A Kennedy Class 1, modification 1 RPD framework was simulated on a 3D model of mandible with three different designs: an isolated tooth with a mesial rest, an isolated tooth with mesial and distal rests and an abutment with a mesial rest (which was not isolated); 26 N occlusal forces were exerted bilaterally on the first molar sites. Stress on the abutment teeth was analyzed using Cosmos Works 2009 Software. Results: In all designs, the abutment tooth stress concentration was located in the buccal alveolar crest. In the first model, the von Mises stress distribution in the contact area of I-bar clasp and cervical portion of the tooth was 19 MPa and the maximum stress was 30 MPa. In the second model, the maximum von Mises stress distribution was 15 MPa in the cervical of the tooth. In the third model, the maximum von Mises stress was located in the cervical of the tooth and the distal proximal plate. Conclusion: We recommend using both mesial and distal rests on the distal abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs. The abutment of an extension base RPD, which is not isolated in presence of its neighboring more anterior tooth, may have a better biomechanical prognosis. PMID:26884772
Er, Ozgur; Kilic, Kerem; Esim, Emir; Aslan, Tugrul; Kilinc, Halil Ibrahim; Yildirim, Sahin
2013-11-01
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of posts with different morphologies on stress distribution in an endodontically treated mandibular premolar by using finite element models (FEMs). A mandibular premolar was modeled using the ANSYS software program. Two models were created to represent circular and oval fiber posts in this tooth model. An oblique force of 300 N was applied at an angle of 45° to the occlusal plane and oriented toward the buccal side. von Mises stress was measured in three regions each for oval and circular fiber posts. FEM analysis showed that the von Mises stress of the circular fiber post (426.81 MPa) was greater than that of the oval fiber post (346.34 MPa). The maximum distribution of von Mises stress was in the luting agent in both groups. Additionally, von Mises stresses accumulated in the coronal third of root dentin, close to the post space in both groups. Oval fiber posts are preferable to circular fiber posts in oval-shaped canals given the stress distribution at the post-dentin interface.
Franklin, A.; Marzo, A.; Malkin, R.; Drinkwater, B. W.
2017-08-01
We report a simple and compact piezoelectric transducer capable of stably trapping single and multiple micro-particles in water. A 3D-printed Fresnel lens is bonded to a two-element kerfless piezoceramic disk and actuated in a split-piston mode to produce an acoustic radiation force trap that is stable in three-dimensions. Polystyrene micro-particles in the Rayleigh regime (radius λ/14 to λ/7) are trapped at the focus of the lens (F# = 0.4) and manipulated in two-dimensions on an acoustically transparent membrane with a peak trap stiffness of 0.43 mN/m. Clusters of Rayleigh particles are also trapped and manipulated in three-dimensions, suspended in water against gravity. This transducer represents a significant simplification over previous acoustic devices used for micro-particle manipulation in liquids as it operates at relatively low frequency (688 kHz) and only requires a single electrical drive signal. This simplified device has potential for widespread use in applications such as micro-scale manufacturing and handling of cells or drug capsules in biomedical assays.
Sun, Yingying; Kong, Liang; Hu, Kaijin; Xie, Cheng; Zhou, Hongzhi; Liu, Yanpu; Liu, Baolin
2009-07-01
We evaluated the effects of the transgingival height of an implant on the maximum equivalent stress in jaw bones and the maximum displacement in implant-abutment complex by a finite element method. The transgingival height ranged from 1.0-4.0 mm. Under axial load, the maximum equivalent stress in the cortical bone could be reduced by up to 4.7%, and under a buccolingual load, the maximum equivalent stresses in the cortical and the cancellous bones could be reduced by 17.3% and 18.5%, respectively. The maximum displacement of the implant-abutment complex could be reduced by 4.1% and 48.9% under axial and buccolingual loads, respectively. When the transgingival height was in the range of 1.7-2.8 mm, there was minimum stress in the jaw bones and minimum displacement in the implant-abutment complex. Data indicated that transgingival height played a more important part in protecting a dental implant under a buccolingual load than under an axial load; and transgingival heights ranging from 1.7-2.8 mm were biomechanically optimal for a screwed implant.
Li, T; Kong, L; Wang, Y; Hu, K; Song, L; Liu, B; Li, D; Shao, J; Ding, Y
2009-10-01
This study aimed to create a 3D finite element model for continuous variation of implant diameter and length, thereby identifying their optimal range in type IV bone under biomechanical consideration. Implant diameter ranged from 3.0 to 5.0mm, and implant length ranged from 6.0 to 14.0mm. The results suggest that under axial load, the maximum Von Mises stresses in cortical and cancellous bones decrease by 50% and 27%, respectively; and under buccolingual load, by 52% and 60%, respectively. Under these two loads, the maximum displacements of implant-abutment complex decrease by 39% and 43%, respectively. These results indicate that in type IV bone, implant length is more crucial in reducing bone stress and enhancing the stability of implant-abutment complex than implant diameter. Biomechanically, implant diameter exceeding 4.0mm and implant length exceeding 9.0mm are the combination with optimal properties for a screwed implant in type IV bone.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mansi Manish Oswal
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Clinical success of implant prosthodontics is dependent in part upon the type of implant thread design. The selection of implant thread design plays an important role in the outcome of the treatment. This study was undertaken to evaluate the pattern of stress distribution using a finite element analysis; hence, the area which would be bearing maximum load for a given design would be arrived. Materials and Methods: Three implants with different thread designs, namely V-thread, buttress, and reverse buttress thread designs were considered and dimensions were standardized. The site considered was the mandibular molar region with cortical and trabecular bone assuming to be isotropic and homogeneous. The implant modeling was done with the CATIA software. Vertical loads of 100N were applied. The stresses were calculated as Von Mises stress criterion. Results: Maximum stresses were seen at the cortical bone and were transferred to the implant. Minimum Von Mises stresses were seen with reverse buttress thread design at the cortical bone. The stresses were observed least at the cancellous bone and maximum at the implant. Conclusion: Hence, within the limitations of this study the results obtained can be applied clinically for appropriate selection of implant thread design for a predictable success of implant therapy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maheshwari, B.K.; Truman, K.Z.; El Naggar, M.H.; Gould, P.L.
2004-01-01
The effects of material nonlinearity of soil and separation at the soil-pile interface on the dynamic behaviour of a single pile and pile groups are investigated. An advanced plasticity-based soil model, hierarchical single surface (HiSS), is incorporated in the finite element formulation. To simulate radiation effects, proper boundary conditions are used. The model and algorithm are verified with analytical results that are available for elastic and elastoplastic soil models. Analyses are performed for seismic excitation and for the load applied on the pile cap. For seismic analysis, both harmonic and transient excitations are considered. For loading on the pile cap, dynamic stiffness of the soil-pile system is derived and the effect of nonlinearity is investigated. The effects of spacing between piles are investigated, and it was found that the effect of soil nonlinearity on the seismic response is very much dependent on the frequency of excitation. For the loading on a pile cap, the nonlinearity increases the response for most of the frequencies of excitation while decreasing the dynamic stiffness of the soil-pile system. (author)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Daud
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Shielding interaction effects of two parallel edge cracks in finite thickness plates subjected to remote tension load is analyzed using a developed finite element analysis program. In the present study, the crack interaction limit is evaluated based on the fitness of service (FFS code, and focus is given to the weak crack interaction region as the crack interval exceeds the length of cracks (b > a. Crack interaction factors are evaluated based on stress intensity factors (SIFs for Mode I SIFs using a displacement extrapolation technique. Parametric studies involved a wide range of crack-to-width (0.05 ≤ a/W ≤ 0.5 and crack interval ratios (b/a > 1. For validation, crack interaction factors are compared with single edge crack SIFs as a state of zero interaction. Within the considered range of parameters, the proposed numerical evaluation used to predict the crack interaction factor reduces the error of existing analytical solution from 1.92% to 0.97% at higher a/W. In reference to FFS codes, the small discrepancy in the prediction of the crack interaction factor validates the reliability of the numerical model to predict crack interaction limits under shielding interaction effects. In conclusion, the numerical model gave a successful prediction in estimating the crack interaction limit, which can be used as a reference for the shielding orientation of other cracks.
Gomez, C. F.; Mireles, O. R.; Stewart, E.
2016-01-01
The Space Capable Cryogenic Thermal Engine (SCCTE) effort considers a nuclear thermal rocket design based around a Low-Enriched Uranium (LEU) design fission reactor. The reactor core is comprised of bundled hexagonal fuel elements that directly heat hydrogen for expansion in a thrust chamber and hexagonal tie-tubes that house zirconium hydride moderator mass for the purpose of thermalizing fast neutrons resulting from fission events. Created 3D steady state Hex fuel rod model with 1D flow channels. Hand Calculation were used to set up initial conditions for fluid flow. The Hex Fuel rod uses 1D flow paths to model the channels using empirical correlations for heat transfer in a pipe. Created a 2-D axisymmetric transient to steady state model using the CFD turbulent flow and Heat Transfer module in COMSOL. This model was developed to find and understand the hydrogen flow that might effect the thermal gradients axially and at the end of the tie tube where the flow turns and enters an annulus. The Hex fuel rod and Tie tube models were made based on requirements given to us by CSNR and the SCCTE team. The models helped simplify and understand the physics and assumptions. Using pipe correlations reduced the complexity of the 3-D fuel rod model and is numerically more stable and computationally more time-efficient compared to the CFD approach. The 2-D axisymmetric tie tube model can be used as a reference "Virtual test model" for comparing and improving 3-D Models.
Tabata, Lucas Fernando; Assunção, Wirley Gonçalves; Barão, Valentim Adelino Ricardo; Gomes, Erica Alves; Delben, Juliana Aparecida; de Sousa, Edson Antônio Capello; Rocha, Eduardo Passos
2010-05-01
This study aimed to compare the influence of single-standing or connected implants on stress distribution in bone of mandibular overdentures by means of two-dimensional finite element analysis. Two finite element models were designed using software (ANSYS) for 2 situations: bar-clip (BC) group-model of an edentulous mandible supporting an overdenture over 2 connected implants with BC system, and o'ring (OR) group-model of an edentulous mandible supporting an overdenture over 2 single-standing implants with OR abutments. Axial loads (100 N) were applied on either central (L1) or lateral (L2) regions of the models. Stress distribution was concentrated mostly in the cortical bone surrounding the implants. When comparing the groups, BC (L1, 52.0 MPa and L2, 74.2 MPa) showed lower first principal stress values on supporting tissue than OR (L1, 78.4 MPa and L2, 76.7 MPa). Connected implants with BC attachment were more favorable on stress distribution over peri-implant-supporting tissue for both loading conditions.
Dejak, Beata; Młotkowski, Andrzej; Langot, Cezary
2012-04-01
The aim of the study was to compare the strength of thin-walled molar crowns made of various materials under simulation of mastication. Five 3D FE models of the first lower molar with the use of contact elements were created: intact tooth; tooth with a zirconia crown; tooth with a porcelain crown; tooth with a gold alloy crown and tooth with a composite crown. The computer simulations of mastication were conducted. For the models, equivalent stresseswere calculated using the modified von Mises failure criterion (mvM). Contact stresses at the adhesive interface between the cement and tooth structure under the crowns were analyzed. Equivalent stresses in the crowns, did not exceed the tensile strength of their material. The mvM stresses in resin cement under the zirconia crown were 1.3 MPa, and under the composite crown they increased over 6 times. The tensile and shear contact stressesunder the stiff crowns (ceramics and gold alloy), were several times lower than those under the composite one. The maximum mvM stresses in the tooth structure for the zirconia crown were only 2.8 MPa, whereas for the composite crown were 6.4 MPa. The higher elastic modulus the crown was, the lower the equivalent stresses occurred in the composite luting cement and in the tooth structures. Also contact stresses decreased with the increasing stiffness of the crowns. Under physiological loads, the thin-walled crowns perfectly luted to molars, made of zirconia ceramic, gold alloys and composite resin are resistant to failure. Prosthetic crowns made of stiff materials are less prone to debonding than those made of composite resin. Prosthetic crowns made of a material with a higher elastic modulus than enamel will strengthen the dental structures of molar teeth. Copyright Â© 2011 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Simindokht Zarrati
2015-11-01
Full Text Available Objectives: This finite element method study aimed to compare the amount of stress on an isolated mandibular second premolar in two conventional reciprocal parallel interface designs of removable partial dentures (RPDs and the same RPD abutment tooth (not isolated.Materials and Methods: A Kennedy Class 1, modification 1 RPD framework was simulated on a 3D model of mandible with three different designs: an isolated tooth with a mesial rest, an isolated tooth with mesial and distal rests and an abutment with a mesial rest (which was not isolated; 26 N occlusal forces were exerted bilaterally on the first molar sites. Stress on the abutment teeth was analyzed using Cosmos Works 2009 Software.Results: In all designs, the abutment tooth stress concentration was located in the buccal alveolar crest. In the first model, the von Mises stress distribution in the contact area of I-bar clasp and cervical portion of the tooth was 19 MPa and the maximum stress was 30 MPa. In the second model, the maximum von Mises stress distribution was 15 MPa in the cervical of the tooth. In the third model, the maximum von Mises stress was located in the cervical of the tooth and the distal proximal plate.Conclusion: We recommend using both mesial and distal rests on the distal abutment teeth of distal extension RPDs. The abutment of an extension base RPD, which is not isolated in presence of its neighboring more anterior tooth, may have a better biomechanical prognosis.
Agata, R.; Ichimura, T.; Hirahara, K.; Hori, T.; Hyodo, M.; Hori, M.
2013-12-01
Many studies have focused on geodetic inversion analysis method of coseismic slip distribution with combination of observation data of coseismic crustal deformation on the ground and simplified crustal models such like analytical solution in elastic half-space (Okada, 1985). On the other hand, displacements on the seafloor or near trench axes due to actual earthquakes has been observed by seafloor observatories (e.g. the 2011 Tohoku-oki Earthquake (Tohoku Earthquake) (Sato et. al. 2011) (Kido et. al. 2011)). Also, some studies on tsunamis due to the Tohoku Earthquake indicate that large fault slips near the trench axis may have occurred. Those facts suggest that crustal models considering complex geometry and heterogeneity of the material property near the trench axis should be used for geodetic inversion analysis. Therefore, our group has developed a mesh generation method for finite element models of the Japanese Islands of higher fidelity and a fast crustal deformation analysis method for the models. Degree-of-freedom of the models generated by this method is about 150 million. In this research, the method is extended for inversion analyses of coseismic slip distribution. Since inversion analyses need computation of hundreds of slip response functions due to a unit fault slip assigned for respective divided cells on the fault, parallel computing environment is used. Plural crustal deformation analyses are simultaneously run in a Message Passing Interface (MPI) job. In the job, dynamic load balancing is implemented so that a better parallel efficiency is obtained. Submitting the necessary number of serial job of our previous method is also possible, but the proposed method needs less computation time, places less stress on file systems, and allows simpler job management. A method for considering the fault slip right near the trench axis is also developed. As the displacement distribution of unit fault slip for computing response function, 3rd order B
Li, Yong-Jiang; Zhang, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Mei-Chao; Yang, Guo-Jing; Lin, Rui-Xin; Cai, Chun-Yuan; Zhong, Shi-Zhen
2014-04-01
To discuss the primary stability of the fixed interface between the cementless prosthesis and femur, and its influence on bone ingrowth and secondary stability under the roughened surface and press fit of different prostheses by finite element analysis. :A three-dimensional finite element module of total hip arthroplasty (THA) was developed with Mimics software. There was a collection of data when simulating hip arthroplasty. The frictional coefficient between the fixed interface was 0,0.15,0.40 and 1.00 representing the roughness of prosthesis surface. The press fit was 0, 0.01,0.05 and 0.10 mm according to the operation. The Vion Mises stress distribution and the contact pressure,friction stress and relative sliding displacement between the interface were analysed and compared when simulating the maneuver of climbing stairs. At a fixed press fit of 0.05 mm,the contact pressure between the interface was 230 , 231, 222 and 275 MN under four different frictional coefficient (0,0. 15,0.40 and 1.00) with little change; the relative sliding displacement was 0.529, 0.129, 0.107 and 0.087 mm with a consistent and obvious decline. As the fixed frictional coefficient was 0.40,the contact pressure between the interface were 56.0,67.7 ,60.4 and 49.6 MN under four different press fit (0, 0.01, 0.05 and 0.10 mm) with a reduction; the relative sliding displacement was 0.064,0.062,0.043 and 0.042 mm with an obvious decline, and there was a maximal friction stress when press fit of 0.01 mm. There is a dynamic process of the bone remodeling and bone integration between the interface after hip replacement, determining the long-term outcome. The interface clearance and the frictional coefficient are the key factors of the bone integration.
Memon, Sarfaraz; Mehta, Sonal; Malik, Salim; Nirmal, Narendra; Sharma, Deeksha; Arora, Himanshu
2016-01-01
From the point of dental practice, the restoration of endodontically treated teeth has become an important aspect as it involves a range of treatment options of variable complexity. Restoring teeth with insufficient coronal tooth structure, it is always indicated to use the post to retain a core for definitive restoration. Fiber post has a modulus of elasticity in analogs to dentin structure, thus reducing the stress areas at the dowel dentin interface. However, the only material that can substantiate all these properties can be none other than dentin itself. Three-dimensional (3D) models of the maxillary central incisor were developed incorporating all the nonlinearities. Continuum 3D elements were used in three dimensions. Maxillary central incisor was laser scanned, duplicated with the help of reverse engineering into STL format, and it was converted into 3D model for finite element analysis (FEA). For the model, fixed boundary conditions were applied at the outer bone, while 100 N static vertical occlusal loads were prescribed at 135° on the loading component of the simulated tooth. The stress distribution was evaluated using dentin and fiber post with prescribed materials, loading and boundary conditions in endontically treated teeth by 3D FEA. The analysis for von Misses stress for dentin post showed that the stress in the dentin post at the cervical area was 127 MPa. The displacement in the dentin post was fiber post at the cervical area was approximately 182 MPa and the displacement was fiber post when compared to dentin post, and maximum displacement values were less for dentin post in comparison to fiber post.
Mathew, Anoop; Nagachandran, K S; Vijayalakshmi, Devaki
2016-12-01
In this finite element (FE) study, the stress distribution and displacement pattern was evaluated in the mid-palatal area and around circum-maxillary sutures exerted by bone-borne palatal expander (BBPE) in comparison with conventional HYRAX rapid palatal expander in unilateral cleft lip and palate. Computed tomography scan images of a patient with unilateral cleft palate was used to create a FE model of the maxillary bone along with circum-maxillary sutures. A three-dimensional model of the conventional HYRAX (Hygienic Rapid Expander) expander and custom-made BBPE was created by laser scanning and programmed into the FE model. With the BBPE, the maximum stress was observed at the implant insertion site, whereas with the conventional HYRAX expander, it was at the dentition level. Among the circum-maxillary sutures, the zygomaticomaxillary suture experienced maximum stress followed by the zygomaticotemporal and nasomaxillary sutures. Displacement in the X-axis (transverse) was highest on the cleft side, and in the Y-axis (antero-posterior), it was highest in the posterior region in the BBPE. The total displacement was observed maximum in the mid-palatal cleft area in the BBPE, and it produced true skeletal expansion at the alveolar level without any dental tipping when compared with the conventional HYRAX expander.
Shinya, Akikazu; Ballo, Ahmed M; Lassila, Lippo V J; Shinya, Akiyoshi; Närhi, Timo O; Vallittu, Pekka K
2011-03-01
This study analyzed stress and strain mediated by 2 different implant materials, titanium (Ti) and experimental fiber-reinforced composite (FRC), on the implant and on the bone tissue surrounding the implant. Three-dimensional finite element models constructed from a mandibular bone and an implant were subjected to a load of 50 N in vertical and horizontal directions. Postprocessing files allowed the calculation of stress and strain within the implant materials and stresses at the bone-to-implant interface (stress path). Maximum stress concentrations were located around the implant on the rim of the cortical bone in both implant materials; Ti and overall stresses decreased toward the Ti implant apex. In the FRC implant, a stress value of 0.6 to 2.0 MPa was detected not only on the screw threads but also on the implant surface between the threads. Clear differences were observed in the strain distribution between the materials. Based on the results, the vertical load stress range of the FRC implant was close to the stress level for optimal bone growth. Furthermore, the stress at the bone around the FRC implant was more evenly distributed than that with Ti implant.
Singh, S Vijay; Bhat, Manohar; Gupta, Saurabh; Sharma, Deepak; Satija, Harsha; Sharma, Sumeet
2015-01-01
A three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA) on the stress distribution of endodontically treated teeth with titanium alloy post and carbon fiber post with different alveolar bone height. The 3D model was fabricated using software to represent an endodontically treated mandibular second premolar with post and restored with a full ceramic crown restoration, which was then analyzed using FEA using FEA ANSYS Workbench V13.0 (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, U.S.A) software. The FEA showed the maximum stresses of 137.43 Mpa in dentin with alveolar bone height of 4 mm when the titanium post was used, 138.48 Mpa when carbon fiber post was used as compared to 105.91 Mpa in the model with alveolar bone height of 2 mm from the cement enamel junction (CEJ) when the titanium post was used and 107.37 Mpa when the carbon fiber post was used. Stress was observed more in alveolar bone height level of 4 mm from CEJ than 2 mm from CEJ. Stresses in the dentin were almost similar when the carbon fiber post was compared to titanium post. However, stresses in the post and the cement were much higher when titanium post was used as compared to carbon fiber post.
Kinugasa, Ryuta; Yamamura, Naoto; Sinha, Shantanu; Takagi, Shu
2016-10-03
Tendon curvature plays a key role in mechanical gain (amplifying the joint excursion relative to fiber length change) during joint motion, but the mechanism remains unresolved. A three-dimensional finite element (FE) model was used to investigate the influence of intramuscular fiber orientation upon the curvature pattern of the Achilles tendon during active muscular contraction. Two simulation models, with fiber pennation angles of θ = 25° and 47° were tested for the gastrocnemius and soleus muscles. A smaller pennation angle (25°) of the soleus muscle fibers was accompanied by a large change in curvature whereas a larger pennation angle (47°) of the soleus muscle was accompanied by small effects. These results suggest that the fiber pennation angle determines the curvature of the tendon, and the magnitude of the curvature varies along the length of the aponeurosis. Such FE modeling has the potential of determining changes in force output consequent to changes in intramuscular fiber orientation arising from resistance training or unloading, and provides mechanism for predicting the risk of Achilles tendon ruptures. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Aida, Nobuhisa; Shinya, Akikazu; Yokoyama, Daiichiro; Lassila, Lippo V J; Gomi, Harunori; Vallittu, Pekka K; Shinya, Akiyoshi
2011-01-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of connectors under two different loading conditions on displacement and stress distribution generated in isotropic hybrid composite fixed partial denture (C-FPD) and partially anisotropic fiber-reinforced hybrid composite fixed partial denture (FRC-FPD). To this end, two three-dimensional finite element (FE) models of three-unit FPD from mandibular second premolar to mandibular second molar - intended to replace the mandibular first molar - were developed. The two loading conditions employed were a vertical load of 629 N (applied to eight points on the occlusal surface) and a lateral load of 250 N (applied to three points of the pontic). The results suggested that the reinforcing fibers in FRC framework significantly improved the rigidity of the connectors against any twisting and bending moments induced by loading. Consequently, maximum principal stress and displacement generated in the connectors of FRC-FPD were significantly reduced because stresses generated by vertical and lateral loading were transferred to the reinforcing fibers.
Kumar, Pradeep; Rao, R Nageswar
2015-01-01
To compare stress distribution in a tooth restored with metal and fiber posts of varying diameters (1.2 and 1.4 mm) by means of three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA). Four 3D-FEA models were constructed: (1) fiber post (1.2 and 1.4 mm) and (2) metal post (1.2 and 1.4 mm). The material properties were assigned and a force of 100 N was applied at 45° angle to the longitudinal axis of the tooth onto the palatal surface incisal to the cingulum. Analysis was run and stress distribution pattern was studied. Maximum stresses in the radicular tooth structure for fiber post were higher than that for metal post. In the former models, stresses in the tooth structure were slightly reduced with increase in fiber post diameter. To reduce stress in the remaining radicular tooth structure, it is better to use a fiber post of a large diameter.
Verri, Fellippo Ramos; Okumura, Marlice Hayumi Theles; Lemos, Cleidiel Aparecido Araujo; Almeida, Daniel Augusto de Faria; de Souza Batista, Victor Eduardo; Cruz, Ronaldo Silva; Oliveira, Hiskell Francine Fernandes; Pellizzer, Eduardo Piza
2017-11-01
The aim of this study was to evaluate different materials for restoration of teeth without ferrule by three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis (FEA). Five models simulating the maxillary central incisor and surrounding bone were simulated according to the type of post: glass fibre post (GFP) or cast metal post (CMP) with different alloys such as gold (Au), silver-palladium (AgPd), copper-aluminum (CuAl) and nickel-chromium (NiCr). Models were designed using Invesalius and Rhinoceros. FEAs were made using FEMAP and NeiNastran, with an applied axial force of 100 N and oblique occlusal load at 45°. Stress distribution among groups was analysed by two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by post-hoc Tukey's test. The GFP showed the best stress distribution in the post, followed by CMP with Au, AgPd, CuAl and NiCr alloys, respectively (p .05). Under oblique load, the GFP generated the highest values of tension among the models, followed by the CMP with NiCr alloy than other models (p < .001). The use of GFP resulted in a lower stress concentration in the post, but increased stress in the tooth without ferrule. The CMP with NiCr alloy exhibited the highest stress distribution among other CMP. To avoid higher stress in teeth, alloys of Au, AgPd and CuAl, respectively, are recommended.
Chu, Chun-Ming; Huang, Heng-Li; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Fuh, Lih-Jyh
2012-01-01
The aim of this study is to determine the effects of various designs of internal tapered abutment joints on the stress induced in peri-implant crestal bone by using the three-dimensional finite element method and statistical analyses. Thirty-six models with various internal tapered abutment-implant interface designs including different abutment diameters (3.0, 3.5, and 4.0 mm), connection depths (4, 6, and 8 mm), and tapers (2°, 4°, 6°, and 8°) were constructed. A force of 170 N was applied to the top surface of the abutment either vertically or 45° obliquely. The maximum von Mises bone-stress values in the crestal bone surrounding the implant were statistically analyzed using analysis of variance. In addition, patterns of bone stress around the implant were examined. The results demonstrate that a smaller abutment diameter and a longer abutment connection significantly reduced the bone stresses (P implant interfaced connection was more parallel, bone stresses under vertical loading were less (P = 0.0002), whereas the abutment taper did not show significant effects on bone stresses under oblique loading (P = 0.83). Bone stresses were mainly influenced by the abutment diameter, followed by the abutment connection depth and the abutment taper. For an internal tapered abutment design, it was suggested that a narrower and deeper abutment-implant interface produced the biomechanical advantage of reducing the stress concentration in the crestal region around an implant.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-chuan Yang
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The slope stability problem is an important issue for the safety of human beings and structures. The stability analysis of the three-dimensional (3D slope is essential to prevent landslides, but the most important and difficult problem is how to determine the 3D critical slip surface with the minimum factor of safety in earth slopes. Basing on the slope stress field with the finite element method, a stability analysis method is proposed to determine the critical slip surface and the corresponding safety factor of 3D soil slopes. Spherical and ellipsoidal slip surfaces are considered through the analysis. The moment equilibrium is used to compute the safety factor combined with the Mohr-Coulomb criteria and the limit equilibrium principle. Some assumptions are introduced to reduce the search range of center points and the radius of spheres or ellipsoids. The proposed method is validated by a classical 3D benchmark soil slope. Simulated results indicate that the safety factor of the benchmark slope is 2.14 using the spherical slip surface and 2.19 using the ellipsoidal slip surface, which is close to the results of previous methods. The simulated results indicate that the proposed method can be used for the stability analysis of a 3D soil slope.
Kang, Ju-Man; Park, Jae Hyun; Bayome, Mohamed; Oh, Moonbee; Park, Chong Ook; Mo, Sung-Seo
2016-01-01
Objective This study aimed to (1) evaluate the effects of maxillary second and third molar eruption status on the distalization of first molars with a modified palatal anchorage plate (MPAP), and (2) compare the results to the outcomes of the use of a pendulum and that of a headgear using three-dimensional finite element analysis. Methods Three eruption stages were established: an erupting second molar at the cervical one-third of the first molar root (Stage 1), a fully erupted second molar (Stage 2), and an erupting third molar at the cervical one-third of the second molar root (Stage 3). Retraction forces were applied via three anchorage appliance models: an MPAP with bracket and archwire, a bone-anchored pendulum appliance, and cervical-pull headgear. Results An MPAP showed greater root movement of the first molar than crown movement, and this was more noticeable in Stages 2 and 3. With the other devices, the first molar showed distal tipping. Transversely, the first molar had mesial-out rotation with headgear and mesial-in rotation with the other devices. Vertically, the first molar was intruded with an MPAP, and extruded with the other appliances. Conclusions The second molar eruption stage had an effect on molar distalization, but the third molar follicle had no effect. The application of an MPAP may be an effective treatment option for maxillary molar distalization. PMID:27668192
Tominaga, Jun-ya; Ozaki, Hiroya; Chiang, Pao-Chang; Sumi, Mayumi; Tanaka, Motohiro; Koga, Yoshiyuki; Bourauel, Christoph; Yoshida, Noriaki
2014-08-01
It has been found that controlled movement of the anterior teeth can be obtained by attaching a certain length of power arm onto an archwire in sliding mechanics. However, the impact of the archwire/bracket play on anterior tooth movement has not been clarified. The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of the power arm on anterior tooth movements with different dimensions of bracket slots and archwires. A 3-dimensional finite element method was used to simulate en-masse anterior tooth retraction in sliding mechanics. Displacements of the maxillary central incisor and the archwire deformation were calculated when applying retraction forces from different lengths of power arms. When a 0.017 × 0.022-in archwire was engaged into the 0.018-in slot bracket, bodily movement of the incisor was obtained with 9.1-mm length of the power arm. When a 0.022-in slot system was coupled with a 0.019 × 0.025-in archwire, bodily movement was observed with a power arm length of 11.6 mm. Archwire/bracket play has a remarkable impact on anterior tooth movement. An effective torque application to the anterior teeth becomes clinically difficult in sliding mechanics combined with power arms when the archwire/bracket play is large. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Wei; Cao, Zhanyi; Sun, Xu; Liu, Haifeng
2015-12-01
High-pressure die-casting (HPDC) AZ91 tensile specimens were used to investigate characteristics of gas pores and their effects on mechanical properties of HPDC AZ91 magnesium (Mg) alloy. Combining the stereoscopic morphology of gas pores obtained from a three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction technique with the experimental data from uniaxial tensile testing, we worked on finite element simulation to find the relationship between gas pores and the mechanical properties of HPDC AZ91 Mg alloy. Results indicate that the 2D metallography images have one-sidedness. Moreover, gas pores >100 µm in the center region have a remarkable negative influence on the ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and elongation. With an increase in the size of large gas pores in the center region, the UTS and elongation of the material decreases. In addition, the distribution of gas pores in the specimens and the areal fraction of gas pores >100 µm on cross sections can also affect the UTS and elongation to some extent.
Runde, Wolfgang; Bean, Amanda C; Brodnax, Lia F; Scott, Brian L
2006-03-20
Two americium(III) iodates, beta-Am(IO3)3 (I) and alpha-Am(IO3)3 (II), have been prepared from the aqueous reactions of Am(III) with KIO(4) at 180 degrees C and have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, diffuse reflectance, and Raman spectroscopy. The alpha-form is consistent with the known structure type I of anhydrous lanthanide iodates. It consists of a three-dimensional network of pyramidal iodate groups bridging [AmO8] polyhedra where each of the americium ions are coordinated to eight iodate ligands. The beta-form reveals a novel architecture that is unknown within the f-element iodate series. beta-Am(IO3)3 exhibits a two-dimensional layered structure with nine-coordinate Am(III) atoms. Three crystallographically unique pyramidal iodate anions link the Am atoms into corrugated sheets that interact with one another through intermolecular IO3-...IO3- interactions forming dimeric I2O10 units. One of these anions utilizes all three O atoms to simultaneously bridge three Am atoms. The other two iodate ligands bridge only two Am atoms and have one terminal O atom. In contrast to alpha-Am(IO3)3, where the [IO3] ligands are solely corner-sharing with [AmO8] polyhedra, a complex arrangement of corner- and edge-sharing mu2- and mu3-[IO3] pyramids can be found in beta-Am(IO3)3. Crystallographic data: I, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/n, a = 8.871(3) A, b = 5.933(2) A, c = 15.315(4) A, beta = 96.948(4) degrees , V = 800.1(4) A(3), Z = 4; II, monoclinic, space group P2(1)/c, a = 7.243(2) A, b = 8.538(3) A, c = 13.513(5) A, beta = 100.123(6) degrees , V = 822.7(5) A(3), Z = 4.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sandesh S Pai
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Aims: This study aims to analyze the effects of intrusive force, retraction force, and torque control on the maxillary central incisors with varying degrees of collum angle in labial and lingual orthodontic treatment procedures using finite element analysis. Subjects and Methods: Four pairs of three-dimensional finite element models (FEMs representative of maxillary central incisor with periodontal ligament (PDL and alveolar bone were constructed using ANSYS software (version 5.4, ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA. The models with 0°, 5°, 10°, and 15° were created based on crown root angulation. Four models for labial and four models for lingual orthodontic procedure were constructed. Each model was subjected to three forces, i.e., retraction force of 1 N, lingual root torque of −5 × 10−3 N and intrusive force of 0.64 N on crown with labially and lingually positioned brackets. Principal stress and strain, center of rotation and root apex displacement were monitored. Statistical Analysis Used: Not required (FEM study. Results: With the increase in collum angle, the stress-strain distribution in PDL was increased in both labial orthodontics (LaO and lingual orthodontics (LiO. Stress-strain distribution in the PDL with LiO was more in all the models as compared to LaO. There was more of tipping movement as collum angle increased from 0° to 15° in both LaO and LiO. The amount of intrusion reduced as the collum angle increased in both the systems. However, more of intrusion was seen in LaO. With increase in collum angle, the center of rotation moved cervically in both the systems. Conclusions: From the present study, we conclude that as the collum angle increased, the stress-strain distribution increased in LaO and LiO. The center of rotation shifted cervically, and the intrusion decreased when collum angle increased. The values were more marked in LiO.
Kaleli, Necati; Sarac, Duygu; Külünk, Safak; Öztürk, Özgür
2018-03-01
In recent years, the use of resin-matrix ceramics and polyetheretherketone (PEEK) abutments has been suggested to absorb excessive stresses on dental implants. However, only a few studies have evaluated the effect of these materials on stress distribution in implants and peripheral bone structure. The purpose of this finite element analysis was to evaluate the biomechanical behaviors of resin-matrix ceramics and PEEK customized abutments in terms of stress distribution in implants and peripheral bone. Three-dimensional (3D) models of a bone-level implant system and a titanium base abutment were created by using the standard tessellation language (STL) data of original implant components. An anatomic customized abutment and a maxillary right second premolar crown were then modeled over the titanium base abutment. A bone block representing the maxillary right premolar area was created, and the implant was placed in the bone block with 100% osseointegration. Six different models were created according to combinations of restoration materials (translucent zirconia [TZI], lithium disilicate glass ceramic [IPS], polymer-infiltrated hybrid ceramic [VTE]), and customized abutment materials (PEEK and zirconia). In each model, the implants were loaded vertically (200 N) and obliquely (100 N). The stress distribution in the crown, implant, and abutments was evaluated through the von Mises stress analysis, and the stress distribution in the peripheral bone was examined through the maximum and minimum principal stress analyses. The oblique load resulted in high stress values in the implant components, restorative crown, and cortical bone. Low stress values were observed in the VTE crowns. Zirconia customized abutments exhibited higher stress values than PEEK customized abutments. The stress distributions in the implant and peripheral bone were similar in all models. Changes in restoration and customized abutment material did not affect stress distribution in the implant and
Wagner, Arne; Krach, Wolfgang; Schicho, Kurt; Undt, Gerhard; Ploder, Oliver; Ewers, Rolf
2002-12-01
The condylar region is one of the most frequent sites for mandibular fractures, with direct application of miniplates being the most commonly used open-fixation technique today. Yet, anatomic and biomechanical limitations continue to make this application technically challenging with a considerable complication rate. We sought to analyze such incongruencies with respect to the complex biomechanical behavior of the mandible. Individual human mandible geometry, the specific bone density distribution, and the position and orientation of the masticatory muscles were evaluated by performing computed tomography scans and a sequential dissection of the cadaver mandible. Three-dimensional finite-element analysis was performed for different fracture sites, osteosynthesis plates, and loading conditions. Osteosynthesis of fractures of the condylar neck with 1 or 2 miniplates of a diameter of 2.35 x 1.00 mm was found to be an insufficient fixation method. This also applies for plates (3.60 x 1.54 mm), according to Pape et al,(8) when used in singular fashion (high condylar neck fractures excepted). In cases of singular occlusal contacts in the molar region (particularly at the contralateral side of the fracture), the highest stress values inside the mandible and osteosynthetic devices could be observed. With even the static yield limit of titanium being exceeded in such cases, consecutive rapid failure of the miniplates becomes most likely when loading of the condylar region caused by bite forces cannot be prevented. We strongly recommend the use, whenever possible, of 2 plates in the manner described by Pape et al(8) for osteosynthesis of fractures of the condylar neck in combination with bicortically placed screws. The stiffness of a singular osteosynthesis plate made of titanium in a diametrical dimension of approximately 5.0 x 1.75 mm was found to be equivalent to the physiological bone stiffness in the investigated fracture sites. The actual stiffness of such a fixation
Wu, Aaron Yu-Jen; Hsu, Jui-Ting; Chee, Winston; Lin, Yun-Te; Fuh, Lih-Jyh; Huang, Heng-Li
2016-09-01
Small-diameter dental implants are associated with a higher risk of implant failure. This study used both three-dimensional finite-element (FE) simulations and in-vitro experimental tests to analyze the stresses and strains in both the implant and the surrounding bone when using one-piece (NobelDirect) and two-piece (NobelReplace) small-diameter implants, with the aim of understanding the underlying biomechanical mechanisms. Six experimental artificial jawbone models and two FE models were prepared for one-piece and two-piece 3.5-mm diameter implants. Rosette strain gauges were used for in-vitro tests, with peak values of the principal bone strain recorded with a data acquisition system. Implant stability as quantified by Periotest values (PTV) were also recorded for both types of implants. Experimental data were analyzed statistically using Wilcoxon's rank-sum test. In FE simulations, the peak value and distribution of von-Mises stresses in the implant and bone were selected for evaluation. In in-vitro tests, the peak bone strain was 42% lower for two-piece implants than for one-piece implants. The PTV was slightly lower for one-piece implants (PTV = -6) than for two-piece implants (PTV = -5). In FE simulations, the stresses in the bone and implant were about 23% higher and 12% lower, respectively, for one-piece implants than those for two-piece implants. Due to the higher peri-implant bone stresses and strains, one-piece implants (NobelDirect) might be not suitable for use as small-diameter implants. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.
Xiao, Jian-Rui; Kong, Liang; Chen, Yu-Xuan; Han, Xiao-Xian; Li, Yong-Feng
2013-01-01
To identify from a biomechanical point of view the optimal parameters for an expandable implant in the osteoporotic mandible, a three-dimensional finite element model (FEM) of an expandable implant was created with variations in expansion angle and expansion length. FEMs of osteoporotic posterior mandibular segments with an expandable implant were created. An axial load of 100 N and a buccolingual load of 30 N were applied to the implant. The expansion angle ranged from 0 to 4 degrees, and the expansion length ratio ranged from 1/6 to 5/6. The maximum equivalent stress (max EQV stress) in jawbone and the implant-abutment complex and the maximum displacement in the implant-abutment complex were evaluated. With changes in the expansion angle and expansion length ratio, the max EQV stress in cortical and cancellous bone increased by 12.4% and 73.9%, respectively, under axial loading, respectively, and by 38.6% and 69.1%, respectively, under buccolingual loading. The max EQV stress in the implant-abutment complex increased by 65.3% and 160% under axial and buccolingual loading, respectively. Maximum displacement in the implant-abutment complex increased by 3.66% and 19.73% under axial and buccolingual loading, respectively. Expansion angles and the expansion length ratio favored stress distribution in jawbone under axial and buccolingual loads, respectively. An expansion angle between 1.5 and 2.5 degrees and an expansion length ratio between 2/6 and 3/6 provided optimal biomechanical properties for an expandable implant in the osteoporotic mandible.
Aradya, Anupama; Kumar, U Krishna; Chowdhary, Ramesh
2016-01-01
The study was designed to evaluate and compare stress distribution in transcortical section of bone with normal abutment and platform switched abutment under vertical and oblique forces in posterior mandible region. A three-dimensional finite element model was designed using ANSYS 13.0 software. The type of bone selection for the model was made of type II mandibular bone, having cortical bone thickness ranging from 0.595 mm to 1.515 mm with the crestal region measuring 1.5 mm surrounding dense trabecular bone. The implant will be modulated at 5 mm restorative platform and tapering down to 4.5 mm wide at the threads, 13 mm long with an abutment 3 mm in height. The models will be designed for two situations: (1) An implant with a 5 mm diameter abutment representing a standard platform in the posterior mandible region. (2) An implant with a 4.5 mm diameter abutment representing platform switching in the posterior mandible region. Force application was performed in both oblique and vertical conditions using 100 N as a representative masticatory force. For oblique loading, a force of 100 N was applied at 15° from the vertical axis. von Mises stress analysis was evaluated. The results of the study showed cortical stress in the conventional and platform switching model under oblique forces were 59.329 MPa and 39.952 MPa, respectively. Cortical stress in the conventional and platform switching model under vertical forces was 13.914 MPa and 12.793 MPa, respectively. Results from this study showed the platform switched abutment led to relative decrease in von Mises stress in transcortical section of bone compared to normal abutment under vertical and oblique forces in posterior mandible region.
Yamanishi, Yasufumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Imazato, Satoshi; Nakano, Tamaki; Yatani, Hirofumi
2012-11-01
Occlusal overloading is one of the causes of peri-implant bone resorption, and many studies on stress distribution in the peri-implant bone by three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D FEA) have been performed. However, the FEA models previously reported were simplified and far from representing what occurs in clinical situations. In this study, 3D FEA was conducted with simulation of the complex structure of dental implants, and the influences of neck design and connections with an abutment on peri-implant bone stress and abutment micromovement were investigated. Three types of two-piece implant CAD models were designed: external joint with a conical tapered neck (EJ), internal joint with a straight neck (IJ), and conical joint with a reverse conical neck (CJ). 3D FEA was performed with the setting of a "contact" condition at the component interface, and stress distribution in the peri-implant bone and abutment micromovement were analyzed. The shear stress was concentrated on the mesiodistal side of the cortical bone for EJ. EJ had the largest amount of abutment micromovement. While the von Mises and shear stresses around the implant neck were concentrated on the labial bone for IJ, they were distributed on the mesiodistal side of the cortical bone for CJ. CJ had the least amount of abutment micromovement. Implants with a conical joint with an abutment and reverse conical neck design may effectively control occlusal overloading on the labial bone and abutment micromovement. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Yamanishi, Yasufumi; Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Imazato, Satoshi; Nakano, Tamaki; Yatani, Hirofumi
2014-09-01
Occlusal overloading causes peri-implant bone resorption. Previous studies examined stress distribution in alveolar bone around commercial implants using three-dimensional (3D) finite element analysis. However, the commercial implants contained some different designs. The purpose of this study is to reveal the effect of the target design on peri-implant bone stress and abutment micromovement. Six 3D implant models were created for different implant-abutment joints: 1) internal joint model (IM); 2) external joint model (EM); 3) straight abutment (SA) shape; 4) tapered abutment (TA) shapes; 5) platform switching (PS) in the IM; and 6) modified TA neck design (reverse conical neck [RN]). A static load of 100 N was applied to the basal ridge surface of the abutment at a 45-degree oblique angle to the long axis of the implant. Both stress distribution in peri-implant bone and abutment micromovement in the SA and TA models were analyzed. Compressive stress concentrated on labial cortical bone and tensile stress on the palatal side in the EM and on the labial side in the IM. There was no difference in maximum principal stress distribution for SA and TA models. Tensile stress concentration was not apparent on labial cortical bone in the PS model (versus IM). Maximum principal stress concentrated more on peri-implant bone in the RN than in the TA model. The TA model exhibited less abutment micromovement than the SA model. This study reveals the effects of the design of specific components on peri-implant bone stress and abutment displacement after implant-supported single restoration in the anterior maxilla.
Ikman Ishak, Muhammad; Shafi, Aisyah Ahmad; Mohamad, Su Natasha; Jizat, Noorlindawaty Md
2018-03-01
The design of dental implant body has a major influence on the stress dissipation over adjacent bone as numbers of implant failure cases reported in past clinical studies. Besides, the inappropriate implant features may cause excessive high or low stresses which could possibly contribute to pathologic bone resorption or atrophy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of different configurations of implant neck on stress dispersion within the adjacent bone via three-dimensional (3-D) finite element analysis (FEA). A set of computed tomography (CT) images of craniofacial was used to reconstruct a 3-D model of mandible using an image-processing software. The selected region of interest was the left side covering the second premolar, first molar and second molar regions. The bone model consisted of both compact (cortical) and porous (cancellous) structures. Three dental implant sets (crown, implant body, and abutment) with different designs of implant neck – straight, tapered with 15°, and tapered with 30° were modelled using a computer-aided design (CAD) software and all models were then analysed via 3-D FEA software. Top surface of first molar crown was subjected to occlusal forces of 114.6 N, 17.2 N, and 23.4 N in the axial, lingual, and mesio-distal directions, respectively. All planes of the mandible model were rigidly constrained in all directions. The result has demonstrated that the straight implant body neck is superior in attributing to high stress generation over adjacent bone as compared to others. This may associate with lower frictional resistance produced than those of tapered designs to withstand the applied loads.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohsen Dalband
2015-10-01
Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the displacement and stress distri- bution during surgically assisted rapid maxillary expansion under different surgical conditions with tooth- and bone-borne devices.Materials and Methods: Three-dimensional (3D finite element model of a maxilla was constructed and an expansion force of 100 N was applied to the left and right molars and premolars with tooth-borne devices and the left and right of mid-palatal sutures at the first molar level with bone-borne devices. Five CAD models were simulated as fol- lows and surgical procedures were used: G1: control group (without surgery; G2: Le Fort I osteotomy; G3: Le Fort I osteotomy and para-median osteotomy; G4: Le Fort I osteotomy and pterygomaxillary separation; and G5: Le Fort I osteotomy, para-median osteotomy, and pterygomaxillary separation.Results: Maxillary displacement showed a gradual increase from group 1 to group 5 in all three planes of space, indicating that Le Fort I osteotomy combined with para-me- dian osteotomy and pterygomaxillary separation produced the greatest displacement of the maxilla with both bone- and tooth-borne devices. Surgical relief and bone-borne devices resulted in significantly reduced stress on anchored teeth.Conclusion: Combination of Le Fort I and para-median osteotomy with pterygomaxil-lary separation seems to be an effective procedure for increasing maxillary expansion, and excessive stress side effects are lowered around the anchored teeth with the use of bone-borne devices.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tsuji, T.; Chiba, T.; Shibata, T.; Uemaki, O.; Ito, H. [Hokkaido University, Hokkaido (Japan)
1999-11-10
A flow regime map for a two-dimensional spouted bed is constructed from the experimental conditions that cause the fixed bed, spouted bed, bubbling fluidized bed and slugging bed. The map is compared to the one that is made from the simulations using P-TAK, a general-purpose simulation code of gas and particle flow by the discrete element method. Both maps coincide very well, indicating that the discrete element method has big potential for predicting critical flow conditions such as the minimum spouting velocity or the maximum spoutable bed height. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biffle, J.H.; Blanford, M.L.
1994-05-01
JAC2D is a two-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equations. The method is implemented in a two-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. A four-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic/plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Biffle, J.H.
1993-02-01
JAC3D is a three-dimensional finite element program designed to solve quasi-static nonlinear mechanics problems. A set of continuum equations describes the nonlinear mechanics involving large rotation and strain. A nonlinear conjugate gradient method is used to solve the equation. The method is implemented in a three-dimensional setting with various methods for accelerating convergence. Sliding interface logic is also implemented. An eight-node Lagrangian uniform strain element is used with hourglass stiffness to control the zero-energy modes. This report documents the elastic and isothermal elastic-plastic material model. Other material models, documented elsewhere, are also available. The program is vectorized for efficient performance on Cray computers. Sample problems described are the bending of a thin beam, the rotation of a unit cube, and the pressurization and thermal loading of a hollow sphere.
Baggi, Luigi; Cappelloni, Ilaria; Di Girolamo, Michele; Maceri, Franco; Vairo, Giuseppe
2008-12-01
Load transfer mechanisms and possible failure of osseointegrated implants are affected by implant shape, geometrical and mechanical properties of the site of placement, as well as crestal bone resorption. Suitable estimation of such effects allows for correct design of implant features. The purpose of this study was to analyze the influence of implant diameter and length on stress distribution and to analyze overload risk of clinically evidenced crestal bone loss at the implant neck in mandibular and maxillary molar periimplant regions. Stress-based performances of 5 commercially available implants (2 ITI, 2 Nobel Biocare, and 1 Ankylos implant; diameters of 3.3 mm to 4.5 mm, bone-implant interface lengths of 7.5 mm to 12 mm) were analyzed by linearly elastic 3-dimensional finite element simulations, under a static load (lateral component: 100 N; vertical intrusive component: 250 N). Numerical models of maxillary and mandibular molar bone segments were generated from computed tomography images, and local stress measures were introduced to allow for the assessment of bone overload risk. Different crestal bone geometries were also modelled. Type II bone quality was approximated, and complete osseous integration was assumed. Maximum stress areas were numerically located at the implant neck, and possible overloading could occur in compression in compact bone (due to lateral components of the occlusal load) and in tension at the interface between cortical and trabecular bone (due to vertical intrusive loading components). Stress values and concentration areas decreased for cortical bone when implant diameter increased, whereas more effective stress distributions for cancellous bone were experienced with increasing implant length. For implants with comparable diameter and length, compressive stress values at cortical bone were reduced when low crestal bone loss was considered. Finally, dissimilar stress-based performances were exhibited for mandibular and maxillary
Baggi, Luigi; Pastore, Simone; Di Girolamo, Michele; Vairo, Giuseppe
2013-01-01
Complete-arch restorations supported by fewer than 5 dental implants can induce unbalanced load transfer and tissue overloading, leading to excessive bone resorption and possible clinical failure. This is primarily affected by the cantilever length, the implant design and positioning, and the morphology and properties of the bone. The purpose of this study was to compare 2 different restorative techniques for complete-arch rehabilitations supported by 4 implants. The primary purpose was to highlight the possible risks of excessive stress and unbalanced load transfer mechanisms and to identify the main biomechanical factors affecting loading transmission. Three-dimensional (3D) numerical models of edentulous maxillae and mandibles restored with 2 techniques using 4 implants were generated from computed tomography (CT) images and analyzed with linear elastic finite-element simulations with 3 different static loads. The first technique used 2 vertical mesial implants and 2 tilted distal implants (at a 30 degree angle), and the second used vertical implants that fulfilled platform switching concepts. Bone-muscle interactions and temporomandibular joints were included in the mandibular model. Complete implant osseous integration was assumed and different posthealing crestal bone geometries were modeled. Stress measures (revealing risks of tissue overloading) and a performance index (highlighting the main features of the loading partition mechanisms) were introduced and computed to compare the 2 techniques. Dissimilar load transfer mechanisms of the 2 restorative approaches when applied in mandibular and maxillary models were modeled. Prostheses supported by distally tilted implants exhibited a more effective and uniform loading partition than all vertical implants, except in the simulated maxilla under a frontal load. Tilted distal implants reduced compressive states at distal bone-implant interfaces but, depending on bone morphology and loading type, could induce high
Yucesoy, C.; Huijing, P.A.J.B.M.; Koopman, H.F.J.M.; Grootenboer, H.J.
2002-01-01
In previous applications of the finite element method in modeling mechanical behavior of skeletal muscle, the passive and active properties of muscle tissue were lumped in one finite element. Although this approach yields increased understanding of effects of force transmission, it does not support
Group Frames With Few Distinct Inner Products and Low Coherence
Thill, Matthew
2015-10-01
Frame theory has been a popular subject in the design of structured signals and codes in recent years, with applications ranging from the design of measurement matrices in compressive sensing, to spherical codes for data compression and data transmission, to spacetime codes for MIMO communications, and to measurement operators in quantum sensing. High-performance codes usually arise from designing frames whose elements have mutually low coherence. Building off the original “group frame” design of Slepian which has since been elaborated in the works of Vale and Waldron, we present several new frame constructions based on cyclic and generalized dihedral groups. Slepian\\'s original construction was based on the premise that group structure allows one to reduce the number of distinct inner pairwise inner products in a frame with n elements from [(n(n-1))/2] to n-1. All of our constructions further utilize the group structure to produce tight frames with even fewer distinct inner product values between the frame elements. When n is prime, for example, we use cyclic groups to construct m-dimensional frame vectors with at most [(n-1)/m] distinct inner products. We use this behavior to bound the coherence of our frames via arguments based on the frame potential, and derive even tighter bounds from combinatorial and algebraic arguments using the group structure alone. In certain cases, we recover well-known Welch bound achieving frames. In cases where the Welch bound has not been achieved, and is not known to be achievable, we obtain frames with close to Welch bound performance.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haner, A.; Fremd, R.; Schmidt, F.
1979-12-01
The finite element method (FEM) is used for the solution of the twodimensional transient heat conduction equation. The time derivation is approximated by use of Saul'ev ADE method, which is modified for the FEM. This method will be improved in such way that the use of any triangular element is possible. The realisation of the method is based on a modified version of the program DIFGEN which solves the neutron diffusion equation. (orig.) 891 RW/orig. 892 MKO [de
Hellen, Christopher U T; de Breyne, Sylvain
2007-06-01
The 5' untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5' UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5' UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently.
Hellen, Christopher U. T.; de Breyne, Sylvain
2007-01-01
The 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of the RNA genomes of Flaviviridae of the Hepacivirus and Pestivirus genera contain internal ribosomal entry sites (IRESs) that are unrelated to the two principal classes of IRESs of Picornaviridae. The mechanism of translation initiation on hepacivirus/pestivirus (HP) IRESs, which involves factor-independent binding to ribosomal 40S subunits, also differs fundamentally from initiation on these picornavirus IRESs. Ribosomal binding to HP IRESs requires conserved sequences that form a pseudoknot and the adjacent IIId and IIIe domains; analogous elements do not occur in the two principal groups of picornavirus IRESs. Here, comparative sequence analysis was used to identify a subset of picornaviruses from multiple genera that contain 5′ UTR sequences with significant similarities to HP IRESs. They are avian encephalomyelitis virus, duck hepatitis virus 1, duck picornavirus, porcine teschovirus, porcine enterovirus 8, Seneca Valley virus, and simian picornavirus. Their 5′ UTRs are predicted to form several structures, in some of which the peripheral elements differ from the corresponding HP IRES elements but in which the core pseudoknot, domain IIId, and domain IIIe elements are all closely related. These findings suggest that HP-like IRESs have been exchanged between unrelated virus families by recombination and support the hypothesis that RNA viruses consist of modular coding and noncoding elements that can exchange and evolve independently. PMID:17392358
Computational visual distinctness metric
Martínez-Baena, J.; Toet, A.; Fdez-Vidal, X.R.; Garrido, A.; Rodríguez-Sánchez, R.
1998-01-01
A new computational visual distinctness metric based on principles of the early human visual system is presented. The metric is applied to quantify (1) the visual distinctness of targets in complex natural scenes and (2) the perceptual differences between compressed and uncompressed images. The new
Kordy, M. A.; Wannamaker, P. E.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G. J.
2014-12-01
We have developed an algorithm for 3D simulation and inversion of magnetotelluric (MT) responses using deformable hexahedral finite elements that permits incorporation of topography. Direct solvers parallelized on symmetric multiprocessor (SMP), single-chassis workstations with large RAM are used for the forward solution, parameter jacobians, and model update. The forward simulator, jacobians calculations, as well as synthetic and real data inversion are presented. We use first-order edge elements to represent the secondary electric field (E), yielding accuracy O(h) for E and its curl (magnetic field). For very low frequency or small material admittivity, the E-field requires divergence correction. Using Hodge decomposition, correction may be applied after the forward solution is calculated. It allows accurate E-field solutions in dielectric air. The system matrix factorization is computed using the MUMPS library, which shows moderately good scalability through 12 processor cores but limited gains beyond that. The factored matrix is used to calculate the forward response as well as the jacobians of field and MT responses using the reciprocity theorem. Comparison with other codes demonstrates accuracy of our forward calculations. We consider a popular conductive/resistive double brick structure and several topographic models. In particular, the ability of finite elements to represent smooth topographic slopes permits accurate simulation of refraction of electromagnetic waves normal to the slopes at high frequencies. Run time tests indicate that for meshes as large as 150x150x60 elements, MT forward response and jacobians can be calculated in ~2.5 hours per frequency. For inversion, we implemented data space Gauss-Newton method, which offers reduction in memory requirement and a significant speedup of the parameter step versus model space approach. For dense matrix operations we use tiling approach of PLASMA library, which shows very good scalability. In synthetic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hadi Asgharzadeh Shirazi
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Background and Aims: Hydroxyapatite coating has allocated a special place in dentistry due to its biocompatibility and bioactivity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relation between the hydroxyapatite thickness and stress distribution by using finite element method. Materials and Methods: In this paper, the effect of hydroxyapatite coating thickness on dental implants was studied using finite element method in the range between 0 to 200 microns. A 3D model including one section of mandible bone was modeled by a thick layer of cortical surrounding dense cancellous and a Nobel Biocare commercial brand dental implant was simulated and analyzed under static load in the Abaqus software. Results The diagram of maximum von Mises stress versus coating thickness was plotted for the cancellous and cortical bones in the range between 0 to 200 microns. The obtained results showed that the magnitude of maximum von Mises stress of bone decreased as the hydroxyapatite coating thickness increased. Also, the thickness of coating exhibited smoother stress distribution and milder variations of maximum von Mises stress in a range between 60 to 120 microns. Conclusion: In present study, the stress was decreased in the mandible bone where hydroxyapatite coating was used. This stress reduction leads to a faster stabilization and fixation of implant in the mandible bone. Using hydroxyapatite coating as a biocompatible and bioactive material could play an important role in bone formation of implant- bone interface.
Fermionic bound states in distinct kinklike backgrounds
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bazeia, D. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil); Mohammadi, A. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 10071, Campina Grande, Paraiba (Brazil)
2017-04-15
This work deals with fermions in the background of distinct localized structures in the two-dimensional spacetime. Although the structures have a similar topological character, which is responsible for the appearance of fractionally charged excitations, we want to investigate how the geometric deformations that appear in the localized structures contribute to the change in the physical properties of the fermionic bound states. We investigate the two-kink and compact kinklike backgrounds, and we consider two distinct boson-fermion interactions, one motivated by supersymmetry and the other described by the standard Yukawa coupling. (orig.)
Dal Piva, Amanda Maria de Oliveira; Tribst, João Paulo Mendes; Souza, Rodrigo Othávio de Assunção E; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto
2017-05-01
In order to understand the mechanical behavior of a weakened incisor, this study aimed to evaluate the stress distribution caused by different alveolar bone heights and cement layer thickness. A finite element analysis was conducted for this investigation. An intact maxillary central incisor was initially modeled, and the bone of the models was modified in order to simulate 4 levels of bone height: BL0 (no bone loss), BL1 (1/3 bone loss), BL2 (1/2 bone loss), and BL3 (2/3 bone loss). These teeth models were remodeled with a fiber post at 2 different cement thicknesses and restored with a ceramic crown; "A" refers to the well-adapted fiber post (0.3 mm) and "B" to the nonadapted fiber post (1 mm), resulting in 12 models. RelyX ARC (3M ESPE, St Paul, MN) cement was simulated for the cementation of the crowns and fiber posts for all groups. Numeric models received a load of 100 N on the lingual surface. All materials and structures were considered linear elastic, homogeneous, and isotropic. Numeric models were plotted and meshed with isoparametric elements, and results were expressed in maximum principal stress. For fiberglass posts, cement, and dentin, the highest stress concentration occurred in the groups with increased bone loss. For cortical bone, the highest values were for the groups with 1/3 bone loss. A greater thickness of cement layer concentrates more stress. More bone loss and greater CLT were the influential factors in concentrating the stress. Copyright © 2017 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Yan, Beichuan; Regueiro, Richard A.
2018-02-01
A three-dimensional (3D) DEM code for simulating complex-shaped granular particles is parallelized using message-passing interface (MPI). The concepts of link-block, ghost/border layer, and migration layer are put forward for design of the parallel algorithm, and theoretical scalability function of 3-D DEM scalability and memory usage is derived. Many performance-critical implementation details are managed optimally to achieve high performance and scalability, such as: minimizing communication overhead, maintaining dynamic load balance, handling particle migrations across block borders, transmitting C++ dynamic objects of particles between MPI processes efficiently, eliminating redundant contact information between adjacent MPI processes. The code executes on multiple US Department of Defense (DoD) supercomputers and tests up to 2048 compute nodes for simulating 10 million three-axis ellipsoidal particles. Performance analyses of the code including speedup, efficiency, scalability, and granularity across five orders of magnitude of simulation scale (number of particles) are provided, and they demonstrate high speedup and excellent scalability. It is also discovered that communication time is a decreasing function of the number of compute nodes in strong scaling measurements. The code's capability of simulating a large number of complex-shaped particles on modern supercomputers will be of value in both laboratory studies on micromechanical properties of granular materials and many realistic engineering applications involving granular materials.
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Jason Bourke
Full Text Available Models of the mammalian jaw have predicted that bite force is intimately linked to jaw gape and to tooth position. Despite widespread use, few empirical studies have provided evidence to validate these models in non-human mammals and none have considered the influence of gape angle on the distribution of stress. Here using a multi-property finite element (FE model of Canis lupus dingo, we examined the influence of gape angle and bite point on both bite force and cranial stress. Bite force data in relation to jaw gape and along the tooth row, are in broad agreement with previously reported results. However stress data showed that the skull of C. l. dingo is mechanically suited to withstand stresses at wide gapes; a result that agreed well with previously held views regarding carnivoran evolution. Stress data, combined with bite force information, suggested that there is an optimal bite angle of between 25 degrees and 35 degrees in C. l. dingo. The function of these rather small bite angles remains unclear.
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Akbar Haghinejada
Full Text Available Abstract This paper presents a nonlinear analysis of axially loaded steel tube-confined concrete (STCC stub columns with new confinement relationships. For this aim, a 3-D finite element model of STCC columns using ABAQUS program is developed and validated against the experimental data. Proper material constitutive models are proposed and the confinement parameters of confined concrete are determined by matching the numerical results via trial and error. The parameters considered for quantitative verification of the FE model include five different factors indicating the behavior of STCC columns: compressive strength corresponding to steel yielding point, initial peak strength and ultimate strength as well as longitudinal to circumferential stress ratio of steel tube at steel yielding point and initial peak point. For the qualitative verification, the axial and lateral stress-strain relationships of STCC columns are taken into account. The comparison results indicate that the model can accurately predict the compressive behavior of STCC stub columns. Finally, a parametric study is also performed to evaluate the effect of tube diameter-to-wall thickness ratio (D/t, concrete compressive strength (fc and steel yield strength (fy on the compressive behavior of STCC columns. According to the results of the parametric study, the interface shear stress and lateral confining pressure are not affected by fc while significantly increase with decreasing D/t.
Pacheco, Ariel Adriano Reyes; Saga, Armando Yukio; de Lima, Key Fonseca; Paese, Victor Nissen; Tanaka, Orlando M
2016-01-01
By using the finite element method (FEM), this study aimed to evaluate the effect of different corticotomy formats on the distribution and magnitude of stress on the periodontal ligament (PDL) during retraction of the maxillary canine. A geometric model of the left hemi-jaw was created from computed tomography scan images of a dry human skull and loads were administered during distalization movement of the canine. Three trials were performed: (1) without corticotomy, (2) box-shaped corticotomy and perforations in the cortical bone of the canine (CVC) and (3) CVC and circular-shaped corticotomy in the cortical bone of the edentulous space of the first premolar. There was no difference in stress distribution among the different corticotomy formats. Different corticotomy formats used to accelerate orthodontic tooth movement did not affect stress distribution in the PDL during canine retraction. From a mechanical perspective, the present study showed that the stress distribution on the PDL during canine retraction was similar in all the corticotomy formats. When using the Andrews T2 bracket, the PDL presented the highest levels of stress in the middle third of the PDL, suggesting that the force was near the center of resistance. Also, as bone weakening by corticotomies did not influence stress distribution, the surgical procedure could be simplified to a less aggressive one, focusing more on inflammatory cellular stimulation than on bone resistance. A simpler surgical act could also be performed by most orthodontists in their practices, enhancing postoperative response and reducing patient costs.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fujikubo, M.; Yao, T.; Oida, H. [Hiroshima University, Hiroshima (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1996-12-31
Formulation was made on a one-dimensional beam finite element which is effective in analyzing structural response of very large floating structures by modeling them on beams on an elastic foundation. This element allows strict solution of vibration response in the beams on the elastic foundation to be calculated efficiently for a case where mass and rigidity change in the longitudinal direction. This analysis method was used to analyze structural response of a large pontoon-type floating structure to investigate mass in the end part for the structural response and the effect of decay while passing the structure. With a pontoon-type floating structure, reduction in bends and bending stress in the end part of the floating structure is important in designing the structure. Reducing the mass in the end part is effective as a means to avoid resonance in these responses and reduce the responses. Increase in rigidity of a floating structure shifts the peak in quasi-static response to lower frequency side, and reduces response in resonance, hence it is advantageous for improving the response. Since incident waves decay while passing through the floating structure, response in the lower wave side decreases. The peak frequency in the quasi-static response also decreases at the end part of the structure in the upper wave side due to decay in wave force. 7 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Inui, Chie; Ozaki, Shinsuke; Kura, Hiroaki; Sato, Tetsuya
2011-01-01
Optical and magneto-optical properties of one-dimensional magneto-optical photonic crystal (1-D MPC) prepared by the sol-gel dip-coating method, including a magnetic defect layer composed of mixture of CoFe 2 O 4 and SiO 2 , are investigated from both the experimental and theoretical standpoints. The resonant transmission of light was observed around 570 nm in the photonic band gap. The Faraday rotation angle θ F showed two maxima at 490 and 640 nm, and the wavelength dependence of θ F above 760 nm was similar to that of the CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 single-layer film. The two maxima of θ F are attributed to the enhanced Faraday rotation of nonmagnetic TiO 2 layers in the cavity structure and that in magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 layer through the light localization in MPC. The maximum value of θ F due to the magnetic CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 layer in the MPC was 22-times larger than that in the single-layer film. The simulation study of MPC with CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 magnetic defect layer, based on the matrix approach method, showed that the resonant light transmission was accompanied by the localization of electric field, and large enhancement of θ F appeared at different wavelengths so as to agree with the experimental features. This can be explained in terms of the wavelength dependent off-diagonal components of the dielectric constant tensor in addition to the large extinction coefficient in the CoFe 2 O 4 +SiO 2 magnetic defect layer. - Highlights: → 1-D magnetic photonic crystal (MPC) prepared by sol-gel method. → Enhancement of Faraday rotation due to the magnetic defect layer of CoFe 2 O 4 . → Shift of wavelength of Faraday rotation maximum from resonant light transmission.
Kordy, M.; Wannamaker, P.; Maris, V.; Cherkaev, E.; Hill, G.
2016-01-01
Following the creation described in Part I of a deformable edge finite-element simulator for 3-D magnetotelluric (MT) responses using direct solvers, in Part II we develop an algorithm named HexMT for 3-D regularized inversion of MT data including topography. Direct solvers parallelized on large-RAM, symmetric multiprocessor (SMP) workstations are used also for the Gauss-Newton model update. By exploiting the data-space approach, the computational cost of the model update becomes much less in both time and computer memory than the cost of the forward simulation. In order to regularize using the second norm of the gradient, we factor the matrix related to the regularization term and apply its inverse to the Jacobian, which is done using the MKL PARDISO library. For dense matrix multiplication and factorization related to the model update, we use the PLASMA library which shows very good scalability across processor cores. A synthetic test inversion using a simple hill model shows that including topography can be important; in this case depression of the electric field by the hill can cause false conductors at depth or mask the presence of resistive structure. With a simple model of two buried bricks, a uniform spatial weighting for the norm of model smoothing recovered more accurate locations for the tomographic images compared to weightings which were a function of parameter Jacobians. We implement joint inversion for static distortion matrices tested using the Dublin secret model 2, for which we are able to reduce nRMS to ˜1.1 while avoiding oscillatory convergence. Finally we test the code on field data by inverting full impedance and tipper MT responses collected around Mount St Helens in the Cascade volcanic chain. Among several prominent structures, the north-south trending, eruption-controlling shear zone is clearly imaged in the inversion.
González-Lluch, Carmen; Rodríguez-Cervantes, Pablo-Jesús; Forner, Leopoldo; Barjau, Amaya
2016-03-01
Endodontically treated teeth are known to have reduced structural strength. Periodontal ligament may influence fracture resistance. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of including the periodontal ligament in biomechanical studies about endodontically treated and restored teeth. Forty human maxillary central incisors were treated endodontically and randomly divided into four groups: non-crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) and crowned (with and without an artificial ligament) with glass-ceramic crowns. All groups received prefabricated glass-fiber posts and a composite resin core. Specimens were tested, under a flexural-compressive load, until failure occurred. The failure mode was registered for all specimens. The failure loads were recorded and analyzed using an analysis of variance test (p finite element model. The analysis of variance did not show significant differences between the use of crown on the failure load (p = 0.331) and the use of periodontal ligament (p = 0.185). A cohesive mode in crown appeared in crowned teeth and in core in non-crowned groups. For non-crowned teeth, adhesive failure occurred along the cement-enamel junction with a slight tendency in specimens without periodontal ligament. Furthermore, an unfavorable failure mode affects partially the root with no differences regarding non-crown specimens. In crowned teeth, the tendency was an adhesive failure along the cement-enamel junction. The model predicted a distribution of the safety factor consistent with these results. This study showed that inclusion of periodontal ligament is not particularly important on biomechanical behavior of post-retained restorations. However, we recommend its inclusion in fatigue studies. © IMechE 2016.
Borie, Eduardo; Leal, Eduardo; Orsi, Iara Augusta; Salamanca, Carlos; Dias, Fernando José; Weber, Benjamin
2018-01-01
The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of three different transmucosal heights of the abutments in single and multiple implant-supported prostheses through the finite element method. External hexagon implants, MicroUnit, and EsthetiCone abutments were scanned and placed in an edentulous maxillary model obtained from a tomography database. The simulations were divided into two groups: (1) one implant with 3.75 × 10 mm placed in the upper central incisor, simulating a single implant-supported fixed prosthesis with an EsthetiCone abutment; and (2) two implants with 3.75 × 10 mm placed in the upper lateral incisors with MicroUnit abutments, simulating a multiple implant-supported prosthesis. Subsequently, each group was subdivided into three models according to the transmucosal height (1, 2, and 3 mm). A static oblique load at an angle of 45 degrees to the long axis of the implant in palatal-buccal direction of 150 and 75 N was applied for multiple and single implant-supported prosthesis, respectively. The implants and abutments were assessed according to the equivalent Von Mises stress analyses while the bone and ceramics were analyzed through maximum and minimum principal stresses. The total deformation values increased in all models, while the transmucosal height was augmented. The transmucosal height of the abutments influences the stress values at the bone, ceramics, implants, and abutments of both the single and multiple implant-supported prostheses, with the transmucosal height of 1 mm showing the lowest stress values.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Prakash Vijay
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Context: Bar overdentures are popular choices among clinicians worldwide but configurations that provide an optimal biomechanical distribution of stress are still debatable. Aims: To compare the stresses and elastic flexion between implant supported bar overdentures in various configurations using finite element analysis. Settings and Design: A CAT scan of a human mandible was used to generate an anatomically accurate mechanical model. Materials and Methods: Three models with bars and clips in three different configurations were constructed. Model 1 had a single bar connecting two implants, Model 2 had three bars connecting all the four implants, and Model 3 had two bars connecting the medial and distal implants on the sides only. The models were loaded under static conditions with 100N load distributed at the approximate position of the clip. The mandibular boundary conditions were modeled considering the real geometry of its muscle supporting system. Maximum von Mises stress at the level of the bar and at the bone implant interface were compared in all three models. The flexion of mandible and the bar was also compared qualitatively. Statistical Analysis Used: The analyses were accomplished using the ANSYS software program and were processed by a personal computer. Stress on these models was analyzed after loading conditions. Results: Qualitative comparisons showed that stress at the level of the bar and at the bone implant interface were in the following order: Model 1> Model 3> Model 2. The flexion of the mandible and the bar were in the following order: Model 2 > Model 1 > Model 3. Conclusions: Four implant bar systems connected by bars on the sides only is a better choice than two implant bar systems and four implant bar systems with bars connecting all four implants.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1983-04-01
VISCOT is a non-linear, transient, thermal-stress finite-element code designed to determine the viscoelastic, fiscoplastic, or elastoplastic deformation of a rock mass due to mechanical and thermal loading. The numerical solution of the nonlinear incremental equilibrium equations within VISCOT is performed by using an explicit Euler time-stepping scheme. The rock mass may be modeled as a viscoplastic or viscoelastic material. The viscoplastic material model can be described by a Tresca, von Mises, Drucker-Prager or Mohr-Coulomb yield criteria (with or without strain hardening) with an associated flow rule which can be a power or an exponential law. The viscoelastic material model within VISCOT is a temperature- and stress-dependent law which has been developed specifically for salt rock masses by Pfeifle, Mellegard and Senseny in ONWI-314 topical report (1981). Site specific parameters for this creep law at the Richton, Permian, Paradox and Vacherie salt sites have been calculated and are given in ONWI-314 topical report (1981). A major application of VISCOT (in conjunction with a SCEPTER heat transfer code such as DOT) is the thermomechanical analysis of a rock mass such as salt in which significant time-dependent nonlinear deformations are expected to occur. Such problems include room- and canister-scale studies during the excavation, operation, and long-term post-closure stages in a salt repository. In Section 1.5 of this document the code custodianship and control is described along with the status of verification, validation and peer review of this report
Liu, D W; Li, J; Guo, L; Rong, Q G; Zhou, Y H
2018-02-18
To analyze the stress distribution in the periodontal ligament (PDL) under different loading conditions at the stage of space closure by 3D finite element model of customized lingual appliances. The 3D finite element model was used in ANSYS 11.0 to analyze the stress distribution in the PDL under the following loading conditions: (1) buccal sliding mechanics (0.75 N,1.00 N,1.50 N), (2) palatal sliding mechanics (0.75 N,1.00 N,1.50 N), (3) palatal-buccal combined sliding mechanics (buccal 1.00 N + palatal 0.50 N, buccal 0.75 N + palatal 0.75 N, buccal 0.50 N+ palatal 1.00 N). The maximum principal stress, minimum principal stress and von Mises stress were evaluated. (1) buccal sliding mechanics(0.75 N,1.00 N,1.50 N): maximum principal stress: at the initial of loading, maximum principal stress, which was the compressed stress, distributed in labial PDL of cervix of lateral incisor, and palatal distal PDL of cervix of canine. With increasing loa-ding, the magnitude and range of the stress was increased. Minimum principal stress: at the initial of loading, minimum principal stress which was tonsil stress, distributed in palatal PDL of cervix of lateral incisor and mesial PDL of cervix of canine. With increasing loading, the magnitude and range of minimum principal stress was increased. The area of minimum principal stress appeared in distal and mesial PDL of cervix of central incisor. von Mises stress:it distributed in labial and palatal PDL of cervix of lateral incisor and distal PDL of cervix of canine initially. With increasing loading, the magnitude and range of stress was increased towards the direction of root. Finally, there was stress concentration area at mesial PDL of cervix of canine. (2) palatal sliding mechanics(0.75 N,1.00 N,1.50 N): maximum principal stress: at the initial of loading, maximum principal stress which was the compressed stress, distributed in palatal and distal PDL of cervix of canine, and distal-buccal and palatal PDL of cervix of lateral
Coordinating mecanisms in automotive distribution channel: distinctive elements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heloisa Sousa Ribeiro Ferreira
2011-09-01
Full Text Available Besides managing its internal activities, the supply chain management has the challenge of coordinating and managing its partners. The references indicate some organizational and management tools that can help in performing those activities, and in this paper, they are called Supply Chain Coordinating Practices. This paper identifies and evaluates the results obtained by applying some coordinating practices o in the Brazilian automotive channel distribution. This article is an exploratory study, using one case study as research method. The result shows that all of the related practices are presented in the Relationships analysed. However, regarding the benefits obtained, industry and distributors have different opinions.
Toniollo, Marcelo Bighetti; Macedo, Ana Paula; Rodrigues, Renata Cristina; Ribeiro, Ricardo Faria; de Mattos, Maria G
The aim of this study was to compare the biomechanical performance of splinted or nonsplinted prostheses over short- or regular-length Morse taper implants (5 mm and 11 mm, respectively) in the posterior area of the mandible using finite element analysis. Three-dimensional geometric models of regular implants (Ø 4 × 11 mm) and short implants (Ø 4 × 5 mm) were placed into a simulated model of the left posterior mandible that included the first premolar tooth; all teeth posterior to this tooth had been removed. The four experimental groups were as follows: regular group SP (three regular implants were rehabilitated with splinted prostheses), regular group NSP (three regular implants were rehabilitated with nonsplinted prostheses), short group SP (three short implants were rehabilitated with splinted prostheses), and short group NSP (three short implants were rehabilitated with nonsplinted prostheses). Oblique forces were simulated in molars (365 N) and premolars (200 N). Qualitative and quantitative analyses of the minimum principal stress in bone were performed using ANSYS Workbench software, version 10.0. The use of splinting in the short group reduced the stress to the bone surrounding the implants and tooth. The use of NSP or SP in the regular group resulted in similar stresses. The best indication when there are short implants is to use SP. Use of NSP is feasible only when regular implants are present.
ANSYS duplicate finite-element checker routine
Ortega, R.
1995-01-01
An ANSYS finite-element code routine to check for duplicated elements within the volume of a three-dimensional (3D) finite-element mesh was developed. The routine developed is used for checking floating elements within a mesh, identically duplicated elements, and intersecting elements with a common face. A space shuttle main engine alternate turbopump development high pressure oxidizer turbopump finite-element model check using the developed subroutine is discussed. Finally, recommendations are provided for duplicate element checking of 3D finite-element models.
Toniollo, Marcelo Bighetti; Macedo, Ana Paula; Pupim, Denise; Zaparolli, Danilo; de Mattos, Maria da Gloria Chiarello
2016-05-01
This study used finite element analysis to compare the biomechanical performance of splinted (SP) and nonsplinted (NSP) prostheses to regular and short length Morse taper implants in the posterior side of the mandible. The authors used 3-dimensional geometric models of regular implants (∅4 × 11 mm) and short implants (∅4 × 5 mm) housed in the corresponding bone edges of the posterior left mandibular hemiarch involving tooth 34. The 8 experimental groups were: the control group SP (3 regular implants rehabilitated with SP), group 1SP (2 regular and 1 short implants rehabilitated with SP), group 2SP (1 regular and 2 short implants rehabilitated with SP), group 3SP (3 short implants rehabilitated with SP), the control group NSP (3 regular implants rehabilitated with NSP), group 1NSP (2 and 1 short implants rehabilitated with NSP), group 2NSP (1 regular and 2 short implants rehabilitated with NSP), and group 3NSP (3 short implants rehabilitated with NSP). Oblique forces were simulated in the molars (365 N) and premolars (200 N). Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the distribution of Von Mises equivalent stress (implants, components, and infrastructure) was performed using the AnsysWorkbench10.0 software. The results showed that the use of SP provides several advantages and benefits, reducing the stresses placed on the implant surface, on the transmucosal abutment areas and on the interior region of the infrastructure. The use of NSP was advantageous in reducing the stresses on the abutments and in the distal interproximal area of connection between the crowns.
Divergent picornavirus IRES elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Belsham, Graham
2009-01-01
Internal ribosome entry site (IRES) elements were first identified about 20 years ago within the 5' untranslated region of picornavirus RNAs. They direct a cap-independent mechanism of translation initiation on the viral RNA. Within the picornavirus family it is now known that there are four...... classes of IRES element which vary in size (450-270nt), they also have different, complex, secondary structures and distinct requirements for cellular proteins to allow them to function. This review describes the features of each class of picornavirus IRES element but focuses on the characteristics...... of the most recently described group, initially identified within the porcine teschovirus-1 RNA, which has strong similarities to the IRES elements from within the genomes of hepatitis C virus and the pestiviruses which are members of the flavivirus family. The selection of the initiation codon...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen
2016-01-01
Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors...... to human exposure. The occurrence of each element in food classes from different regions is presented. Some of the current toxicological risk assessments on toxic elements, the human health effect of each toxic element, and their contents in the food legislations are presented. An overview of analytical...... techniques and challenges for determination of toxic elements in food is also given....
Amir-Moez, A R; Sneddon, I N
1962-01-01
Elements of Linear Space is a detailed treatment of the elements of linear spaces, including real spaces with no more than three dimensions and complex n-dimensional spaces. The geometry of conic sections and quadric surfaces is considered, along with algebraic structures, especially vector spaces and transformations. Problems drawn from various branches of geometry are given.Comprised of 12 chapters, this volume begins with an introduction to real Euclidean space, followed by a discussion on linear transformations and matrices. The addition and multiplication of transformations and matrices a
Transposable elements in mosquitoes.
Boulesteix, M; Biémont, C
2005-01-01
We describe the current state of knowledge about transposable elements (TEs) in different mosquito species. DNA-based elements (class II elements), non-LTR retrotransposons (class I elements), and MITEs (Miniature Inverted Repeat Transposable Elements) are found in the three genera, Anopheles, Aedes and Culex, whereas LTR retrotransposons (class I elements) are found only in Anopheles and Aedes. Mosquitoes were the first insects in which MITEs were reported; they have several LTR retrotransposons belonging to the Pao family, which is distinct from the Gypsy-Ty3 and Copia-Ty1 families. The number of TE copies shows huge variations between classes of TEs within a given species (from 1 to 1000), in sharp contrast to Drosophila, which shows only relatively minor differences in copy number between elements (from 1 to 100). The genomes of these insects therefore display major differences in the amount of TEs and therefore in their structure and global composition. We emphasize the need for more population genetic data about the activity of TEs, their distribution over chromosomes and their frequencies in natural populations of mosquitoes, to further the current attempts to develop a transgenic mosquito unable to transmit malaria that is intended to replace the natural populations.
Manda, Marianthi; Galanis, Christos; Georgiopoulos, Vasilis; Provatidis, Christofer; Koidis, Petros
2010-02-01
Inadequate dimensioning of the connectors in a cantilever cross-arch fixed dental prosthesis (FDP) in perioprosthetic patients jeopardizes the prognosis of the restoration. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of increasing the vertical dimension (VD) on the maximum stress developed within the connectors during the static loading of a cross-arch FDP extended as a 1- and 2-unit cantilever. Six digital models were developed, derived from a 3-dimensional (3-D) initial model. In the initial model, the teeth were prepared for metal ceramic restorations and splinted with a cross-arch FDP, extended as a 1- or 2-unit cantilever. The VDs of the connectors proximal to the retaining abutment were 3, 4, or 5 mm. A 3-D finite element analysis (FEA) was performed. The VD increase, from 3 to 4 mm and from 3 to 5 mm, of the connector distal to the retaining abutment, for each FDP, presented a maximum stress value decrease of approximately 25% and 48%, respectively. The similar VD increase of the connector mesial to the retaining abutment, for each FDP, resulted in relatively smaller stress changes. For the 2-unit cantilever restoration, the stress decreases were approximately 9% and 15%, respectively, whereas in the 1-unit cantilever restoration, the decrease was about 10% for the 4-mm connector. Further increase of the VD to 5 mm did not relieve the peak stress. The highest stress value was measured on the 3-mm connector distal to the retaining abutment in the 2-unit cantilever restoration. Despite the VD increase, the connectors proximal to the retaining abutment still developed the highest stress values of all the connectors for every model. The connector with the highest risk of failure is the 3-mm connector distal to the retaining abutment of the 2-unit cantilever restoration. Increasing the vertical dimension is beneficial for the connector distal to the retaining abutment, while the resultant stress changes are not substantial for the connectors mesial to
Counselor Identity: Conformity or Distinction?
McLaughlin, Jerry E.; Boettcher, Kathryn
2009-01-01
The authors explore 3 debates in other disciplines similar to counseling's identity debate in order to learn about common themes and outcomes. Conformity, distinction, and cohesion emerged as common themes. They conclude that counselors should retain their distinctive, humanistic approach rather than conforming to the dominant, medical approach.
On higher order pyramidal finite elements
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Liu, L.; Davies, K.B.; Křížek, Michal; Guan, L.
2011-01-01
Roč. 3, č. 2 (2011), s. 131-140 ISSN 2070-0733 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA100190803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10190503 Keywords : pyramidal polynomial basis functions * finite element method * composite elements * three-dimensional mortar elements Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.750, year: 2011
Radical behaviorism and the subjective—objective distinction
Moore, Jay
1995-01-01
The distinction between subjective and objective domains is central to traditional psychology, including the various forms of mediational stimulus—organism—response neobehaviorism that treat the elements of a subjective domain as hypothetical constructs. Radical behaviorism has its own unique perspective on the subjective—objective distinction. For radical behaviorism, dichotomies between subjective and objective, knower and known, or observer and agent imply at most unique access to a part o...
Tan, Qingming
2011-01-01
Dimensional analysis is an essential scientific method and a powerful tool for solving problems in physics and engineering. This book starts by introducing the Pi Theorem, which is the theoretical foundation of dimensional analysis. It also provides ample and detailed examples of how dimensional analysis is applied to solving problems in various branches of mechanics. The book covers the extensive findings on explosion mechanics and impact dynamics contributed by the author's research group over the past forty years at the Chinese Academy of Sciences. The book is intended for advanced undergra
Distinctiveness of Ugandapithecus from Proconsul
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gommery, D.
2009-12-01
Full Text Available The decision to create the genus Ugandapithecus by Senut et al., 2000 has been criticised, either directly and in detail by MacLatchy & Rossie (2005b who argued that it is a junior synonym of Proconsul, or indirectly without providing reasons, firstly by Harrison (2001 who wrote that he did not retain it as a genus distinct from Proconsul, and then by Suwa et al., (2007 who employed the name “Ugandapithecus” with inverted commas, implying some degree of doubt about its validity as a genus, but without providing details. More recently Harrison & Andrews (2009 have recognised the Meswa sample as a separate species but they argue that it should be maintained within Proconsul, despite the morphological differences that it has from other species of the genus. We here re-examine the question by comparing, on the one hand, the holotype maxilla of Proconsul africanus, the type species of the genus, with the upper dentition of Ugandapithecus major, and, on the other hand, the holotype mandible of Ugandapithecus major with the lower dentition and mandibles previously attributed to Proconsul africanus. We conclude that the differences between the known upper and lower dentitions of P. africanus and U. major are of such a degree that the two taxa warrant generic separation, and that the differences are not related to sexual dimorphism. Where Proconsul africanus differs from Ugandapithecus major, it approaches Proconsul nyanzae and Proconsul heseloni from Rusinga.Furthermore, the range of morphometric variation within the fossil samples previously attributed to Ugandapithecus major is so great that it far surpasses variation in any other hominoid, fossil or extant. Previously this great amount of variation was interpreted to mean that U. major was extremely dimorphic, with huge males and small females, but if this is true, then U. major would be unique among hominoids in having females in which the cheek teeth fall completely outside the range of
High convergence order finite elements with lumped mass matrix
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jensen, Morten skårup
1996-01-01
A method for deriving hexahedral finite elements with lumped mass matrices for three-dimensional problems is presented. These elements meet the theoretical conditions for high order convergence, and two numerical examples based on the three-dimensional scalar wave equation show that this is also...... the case in practice and that their accuracy is comparable to elements with consistent mass matrices....
Dimensional Approach in Psychiatry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Osman Ozdemir
2012-09-01
Full Text Available In psychiatry there is a traditional categorical conception stating that several disorders like schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have distinct etiologies. On the other hand, dimensional approach claims that these entities are actually the same disorder reflecting different clinical aspects of same mental disorder in the course of time. ICD and DSM classifications are based on separate categories of different mental disorders. Howewer, it is quite difficult to consider a mental disorder as a discrete entity that has absolute boundaries from other disorders. There are patients manifesting symptoms of two or more categories but do not fulfill all diagnostic criteria for any mental disorder. Dimensional approach handles the psychopathology as a continuing process and establish the patients to the different ongoing points. According to this view, in fact, multiple diagnosis reflect dimensions of the same disease.
Evaluating Information Loss from Phonological Dimensionality Reduction
Macklin-Cordes, Jayden L.; Moran, Steven; Round, Erich R.
2016-01-01
As in many sciences, cross-linguistic data is often complex and multi-dimensional. The PHOIBLE database of phonological inventories (Moran et al. 2014) is one example, containing 2160 distinct segments across 2155 phoneme inventories. Each segment type is defined by a unique vector of (mostly binary) distinctive phonetic and phonological features. This multivariate dataset can be modeled as a set of coordinates, where each variable (e.g. segment, its distinctive featur...
2010-01-01
Pr Serge Haroche La Médaille d’or 2009 du CNRS est décernée au Pr Serge Haroche, titulaire de la chaire de Physique quantique depuis 2001. Serge Haroche est spécialiste de physique atomique et d’optique quantique. Il est l’un des fondateurs de l’électrodynamique quantique en cavité, domaine qui permet, par des expériences conceptuellement simples, d’éclairer les fondements de la théorie quantique et de réaliser des prototypes de systèmes de traitement quantique de l’information. Serge Haroche...
Solid finite elements through three decades
Venkatesh, DN; Shrinivasa, U
1994-01-01
conventionally, solid finite elements have been looked upon as just generalizations of two-dimensional finite elements. In this article we trace their development starting from the days of their inception. Keeping in tune with our perceptions on developing finite elements, without taking recourse to any extra variational techniques, we discuss a few of the techniques which have been applied to solid finite elements. Finally we critically examine our own work on formulating solid finite elemen...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietrich, R.
1984-01-01
The basic concepts of the finite element method are explained. The results are compared to existing calibration curves for such test piece geometries derived using experimental procedures. (orig./HP) [de
ARRINDELL, WA; OEI, TPS; EVANS, L; VANDERENDE, J
1991-01-01
In a recent review article, Arrindell, Pickersgill, Merckelbach, Ardon, and Cornet (1991) (Advances in Behaviour Research and Therapy, 13, 73-130) proposed an a priori four-dimensional categorization system for the description of self-rated fears on the basis of suggestions from previous reviews and
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akimov Pavel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The distinctive paper is devoted to the two-dimensional semi-analytical solution of boundary problems of analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. This approach allows obtaining the exact analytical solution in one direction (so-called “basic” direction, also decrease the size of the problem to one-dimensional common finite element analysis. Two numerical examples of structural analysis with the use of DCFEM are considered, conventional finite element method (FEM is used for verification purposes. The presented examples show some of the advantages of the suggested approach to semianalytical analysis of the shear wall. Future development of DCFEM, particularly associated with multigrid approach, is under consideration as well.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Dimensional analysis is a useful tool which finds important applications in physics and engineering. It is most effective when there exist a maximal number of dimensionless quantities constructed out of the relevant physical variables. Though a complete theory of dimen- sional analysis was developed way back in 1914 in a.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
to understand and quite straightforward to use. Dimensional analysis is a topic which every student of 'science encounters in elementary physics courses. The basics of this topic are taught and learnt quite hurriedly (and forgotten fairly quickly thereafter!) It does not generally receive the attention and the respect it deserves ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carlsen, Bent Erik; Jensen, Bjarne Chr.; Olesen, Frits Bolonius
grundlag for at vurdere, om - og i givet fald hvordan - brandteknisk dimensionering af bærende konstruktioner vil kunne indføres i DIF's konstruktionsnormer, indeholder et skitseforslag til, efter hvilke principper dette vil kunne gøres. Men derudover har udvalget i fire dataoplæg (rapportens bilag 1...
Defining poverty as distinctively human
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H.P.P. Lötter
2007-05-01
Full Text Available While it is relatively easy for most people to identify human beings suffering from poverty, it is rather more difficult to come to a proper understanding of poverty. In this article the author wants to deepen our understanding of poverty by interpreting the conventional definitions of poverty in a new light. The article starts with a defence of a claim that poverty is a concept uniquely applicable to humans. It then present a critical discussion of the distinction between absolute and relative poverty and it is then argued that a revision of this distinction can provide general standards applicable to humans everywhere.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Akimov Pavel
2016-01-01
Full Text Available The distinctive paper is devoted to the two-dimensional semi-analytical solution of boundary problems of analysis of shear walls with the use of discrete-continual finite element method (DCFEM. This approach allows obtaining the exact analytical solution in one direction (so-called “basic” direction, also decrease the size of the problem to one-dimensional common finite element analysis. The resulting multipoint boundary problem for the first-order system of ordinary differential equations with piecewise constant coefficients is solved analytically. The proposed method is rather efficient for evaluation of the boundary effect (such as the stress field near the concentrated force. DCFEM also has a completely computer-oriented algorithm, computational stability, optimal conditionality of resultant system and it is applicable for the various loads at an arbitrary point or a region of the wall.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.
1985-01-01
Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de
Educational Psychology: The Distinctive Contribution
Cameron, R. J.
2006-01-01
This paper, written in the twenty-first anniversary year of the journal "Educational Psychology in Practice", attempts to uncover those distinctive aspects of the discipline and the practice of applied psychology in general and educational psychology in particular. After considering some of the reasons for attempting this task at this point in…
Tani, Laurits
2015-01-01
To control Peltier elements, temperature controller was used. I used TEC-1091 that was manufactured my Meerstetter Engineering. To gain control with the temperature controller, software had to be intalled on a controlling PC. There were different modes to control the Peltier: Tempererature controller to control temperature, Static current/voltage to control voltage and current and LIVE ON/OFF to auto-tune the controller respectively to the system. Also, since near the collision pipe there is much radiation, radiation-proof Peltier elements have to be used. To gain the best results, I had to find the most efficient Peltier elements and try to get their cold side to -40 degrees Celsius.
Bean, R.W.
1963-11-19
A ceramic fuel element for a nuclear reactor that has improved structural stability as well as improved cooling and fission product retention characteristics is presented. The fuel element includes a plurality of stacked hollow ceramic moderator blocks arranged along a tubular raetallic shroud that encloses a series of axially apertured moderator cylinders spaced inwardly of the shroud. A plurality of ceramic nuclear fuel rods are arranged in the annular space between the shroud and cylinders of moderator and appropriate support means and means for directing gas coolant through the annular space are also provided. (AEC)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.
1983-01-01
Radiographic elements are disclosed having first and second silver halide emulsion layers comprised of a dispersing medium and radiation-sensitive silver halide grains, and a support interposed between said silver halide emulsion layers capable of transmitting radiation to which said second silver halide emulsion layer is responsive. These elements are characterized in that at least said first silver halide emulsion layer contains tabular silver halide grains and spectral sensitizing dye adsorbed to the surface of the grains. Crossover can be improved in relation to the imaging characteristics. (author)
Implementation of mixed formulation elements in PC/NASTRAN
Schaeffer, Harry G.
1993-01-01
The purpose of this paper is to describe the implementation and use of a consistent family of two and three dimensional elements in NASTRAN. The elements which are based on a mixed formulation include a replacement of the original NASTRAN shear element and the addition of triangular quadrilateral shell elements and tetrahedral, pentahedral and hexahedral solid elements. These elements support all static loads including temperature gradient and pressure load. The mass matrix is also generated to support all dynamic rigid formats.
Finite-Element Software for Conceptual Design
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lindemann, J.; Sandberg, G.; Damkilde, Lars
2010-01-01
and research. Forcepad is an effort to provide a conceptual design and teaching tool in a finite-element software package. Forcepad is a two-dimensional finite-element application based on the same conceptual model as image editing applications such as Adobe Photoshop or Microsoft Paint. Instead of using...
Grima: A Distinct Emotion Concept?
Schweiger Gallo, Inge; Fernández-Dols, José-Miguel; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Keil, Andreas
2017-01-01
People experience an unpleasant sensation when hearing a scratch on a board or plate. The present research focuses on this aversive experience known in Spanish as 'grima' with no equivalent term in English and German. We hypothesized that this aversive experience constitutes a distinctive, separate emotional concept. In Study 1, we found that the affective meaning of 'grima' was closer to disgust than to other emotion concepts. Thus, in Study 2 we explored the features of grima and compared them with disgust . As grima was reported to be predominantly elicited by certain auditory stimuli and associated with a distinctive physiological pattern, Study 3 used direct measures of physiological arousal to test the assumption of a distinctive pattern of physiological responses elicited by auditory stimuli of grima and disgust, and found different effects on heart rate but not on skin conductance. In Study 4, we hypothesized that only participants with an implementation intention geared toward down-regulating grima would be able to successfully weaken the grima- but not disgust- experience. Importantly, this effect was specific as it held true for the grima-eliciting sounds only, but did not affect disgust-related sounds. Finally, Study 5 found that English and German speakers lack a single accessible linguistic label for the pattern of aversive reactions termed by Spanish speaking individuals as 'grima', whereas the elicitors of other emotions were accessible and accurately identified by German, English, as well as Spanish speakers.
Radical behaviorism and the subjective—objective distinction
Moore, Jay
1995-01-01
The distinction between subjective and objective domains is central to traditional psychology, including the various forms of mediational stimulus—organism—response neobehaviorism that treat the elements of a subjective domain as hypothetical constructs. Radical behaviorism has its own unique perspective on the subjective—objective distinction. For radical behaviorism, dichotomies between subjective and objective, knower and known, or observer and agent imply at most unique access to a part of the world, rather than dichotomous ontologies. This perspective leads to unique treatments of such important philosophical matters as (a) dispositions and (b) the difference between first- and third-person psychological sentences. PMID:22478203
Radical behaviorism and the subjective-objective distinction.
Moore, J
1995-01-01
The distinction between subjective and objective domains is central to traditional psychology, including the various forms of mediational stimulus-organism-response neobehaviorism that treat the elements of a subjective domain as hypothetical constructs. Radical behaviorism has its own unique perspective on the subjective-objective distinction. For radical behaviorism, dichotomies between subjective and objective, knower and known, or observer and agent imply at most unique access to a part of the world, rather than dichotomous ontologies. This perspective leads to unique treatments of such important philosophical matters as (a) dispositions and (b) the difference between first- and third-person psychological sentences.
Calculation of U-value for Concrete Element
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rose, Jørgen
1997-01-01
This report is a U-value calculation of a typical concrete element used in industrial buildings.The calculations are performed using a 2-dimensional finite difference calculation programme.......This report is a U-value calculation of a typical concrete element used in industrial buildings.The calculations are performed using a 2-dimensional finite difference calculation programme....
Joint Dimensionality Reduction for Two Feature Vectors
Li, Yanjun; Bresler, Yoram
2016-01-01
Many machine learning problems, especially multi-modal learning problems, have two sets of distinct features (e.g., image and text features in news story classification, or neuroimaging data and neurocognitive data in cognitive science research). This paper addresses the joint dimensionality reduction of two feature vectors in supervised learning problems. In particular, we assume a discriminative model where low-dimensional linear embeddings of the two feature vectors are sufficient statisti...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yilmaz, C.; Akkas, N.
1979-01-01
In previous studies a fluid element is incorporated in the widely used general purpose finite element program SAPIV. This type of problem is of interest in the design of nuclear components involving geometric complexities and nonlinearities. The elasticity matrix of a general-purpose finite element program is modified in such a way that it becomes possible to idealize fluid as a structural finite element with zero shear modulus and a given bulk modules. Using the modified version of SAPIV, several solid-fluid interactions problems are solved. The numerical solutions are compared with the available analytical solutions. They are shown to be in reasonable aggrement. It is also shown that by solving an exterior-fluid interaction problem, the pressure wave propagation in the acoustic medium can be solved with the same approach. In this study, two of the problem not studied in the previous work will be presented. These problems are namely the effects of the link elements used at solid-fluid interfaces and of the concentrated loads on the response of the fluid medium. Truss elements are used as the link elements. After these investigations, it is decided that general purpose finite element programs with slight modifications can be used in the safety analysis of nuclear reactor plants. By this procedure it is possible to handle two-dimensional plane strain and tridimensional axisymmetric problems of this type. (orig.)
Finite element methods for engineers
Fenner, Roger T
2013-01-01
This book is intended as a textbook providing a deliberately simple introduction to finite element methods in a way that should be readily understandable to engineers, both students and practising professionals. Only the very simplest elements are considered, mainly two dimensional three-noded “constant strain triangles”, with simple linear variation of the relevant variables. Chapters of the book deal with structural problems (beams), classification of a broad range of engineering into harmonic and biharmonic types, finite element analysis of harmonic problems, and finite element analysis of biharmonic problems (plane stress and plane strain). Full Fortran programs are listed and explained in detail, and a range of practical problems solved in the text. Despite being somewhat unfashionable for general programming purposes, the Fortran language remains very widely used in engineering. The programs listed, which were originally developed for use on mainframe computers, have been thoroughly updated for use ...
Dimensional reduction at a quantum critical point
Sebastian, S. E.; Harrison, N.; Batista, C. D.; Balicas, L.; Jaime, M.; Sharma, P. A.; Kawashima, N.; Fisher, I. R.
2006-06-01
Competition between electronic ground states near a quantum critical point (QCP)-the location of a zero-temperature phase transition driven solely by quantum-mechanical fluctuations-is expected to lead to unconventional behaviour in low-dimensional systems. New electronic phases of matter have been predicted to occur in the vicinity of a QCP by two-dimensional theories, and explanations based on these ideas have been proposed for significant unsolved problems in condensed-matter physics, such as non-Fermi-liquid behaviour and high-temperature superconductivity. But the real materials to which these ideas have been applied are usually rendered three-dimensional by a finite electronic coupling between their component layers; a two-dimensional QCP has not been experimentally observed in any bulk three-dimensional system, and mechanisms for dimensional reduction have remained the subject of theoretical conjecture. Here we show evidence that the Bose-Einstein condensate of spin triplets in the three-dimensional Mott insulator BaCuSi2O6 (refs 12-16) provides an experimentally verifiable example of dimensional reduction at a QCP. The interplay of correlations on a geometrically frustrated lattice causes the individual two-dimensional layers of spin-½ Cu2+ pairs (spin dimers) to become decoupled at the QCP, giving rise to a two-dimensional QCP characterized by linear power law scaling distinctly different from that of its three-dimensional counterpart. Thus the very notion of dimensionality can be said to acquire an `emergent' nature: although the individual particles move on a three-dimensional lattice, their collective behaviour occurs in lower-dimensional space.
Study of the Internal Mechanical response of an asphalt mixture by 3-D Discrete Element Modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Feng, Huan; Pettinari, Matteo; Hofko, Bernhard
2015-01-01
In this paper the viscoelastic behavior of asphalt mixture was investigated by employing a three-dimensional Discrete Element Method (DEM). The cylinder model was filled with cubic array of spheres with a specified radius, and was considered as a whole mixture with uniform contact properties...... for all the distinct elements. The dynamic modulus and phase angle from uniaxial complex modulus tests of the asphalt mixtures in the laboratory have been collected. A macro-scale Burger’s model was first established and the input parameters of Burger’s contact model were calibrated by fitting...... with the lab test data of the complex modulus of the asphalt mixture. The Burger’s contact model parameters are usually calibrated for each frequency. While in this research a constant set of Burger’s parameters has been calibrated and used for all the test frequencies, the calibration procedure...
Finite elements methods in mechanics
Eslami, M Reza
2014-01-01
This book covers all basic areas of mechanical engineering, such as fluid mechanics, heat conduction, beams, and elasticity with detailed derivations for the mass, stiffness, and force matrices. It is especially designed to give physical feeling to the reader for finite element approximation by the introduction of finite elements to the elevation of elastic membrane. A detailed treatment of computer methods with numerical examples are provided. In the fluid mechanics chapter, the conventional and vorticity transport formulations for viscous incompressible fluid flow with discussion on the method of solution are presented. The variational and Galerkin formulations of the heat conduction, beams, and elasticity problems are also discussed in detail. Three computer codes are provided to solve the elastic membrane problem. One of them solves the Poisson’s equation. The second computer program handles the two dimensional elasticity problems, and the third one presents the three dimensional transient heat conducti...
Versatile two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Canulescu, Stela; Affannoukoué, Kévin; Döbeli, Max
Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (2D-TMDCs), such as MoS2, have emerged as a new class of semiconducting materials with distinct optical and electrical properties. The availability of 2D-TMDCs with distinct band gaps allows for unlimited combinations of TMDC monolayers (MLs...... vacancies. We have found that the absorption spectra of the MoS2 films exhibit distinct excitonic peaks at ~1.8 and ~2 eV when grown in the presence of a sulfur evaporation beam as compared to those deposited in vacuum. The structure of the PLD-grown MoS2 films will be further discussed based Raman...
Symplectic and multisymplectic schemes with the simple finite element method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhen Liu; Bai Yongqiang; Li Qisheng; Wu Ke
2003-01-01
We study the numerical scheme of elliptic equations by the finite element method. With the special finite element domain, we can find that the scheme can keep a preserved symplectic structure in one-dimensional case and a preserved multisymplectic structure in two-dimensional case. Then we consider the discrete variational principle with the finite element method in the corresponding Lagrangian formalism for classical mechanics and field theory and get the symplectic or multisymplectic scheme of the Euler-Lagrangian equation
Finite Element Modeling of Burr Formation in Metal Cutting
Min, Sangkee; Dornfeld, David; Kim, J.; Shyu, B.
2007-01-01
In order to advance understanding of the burr formation process, a series of finite element models are introduced. First a finite element model of the burr formation of two-dimensional orthogonal cutting is introduced and validated with experimental observations. A detailed and thorough examination of the drilling burr forming process is undertaken. This information is then used in the construction of an analytical model and, leads to development of a three-dimensional finite element mode...
Partition of distinct chromosomal regions: negotiable border and fixed border.
Kimura, Akatsuki; Horikoshi, Masami
2004-06-01
Chromosomes are partitioned into distinct functional regions. For example, heterochromatin regions consist of condensed chromatin and contain few transcriptionally active genes, whereas euchromatin regions are less condensed and majority of active genes reside in the euchromatin regions. Because distinct regions reside in each chromosome, borders are accordingly established between these regions. A prevailing view of the borders is that they are 'walls' that actively inhibit communication between distinct regions on chromosomes. Although little is known about the molecular bases of these walls, specific DNA elements are considered to recruit these walls to define the positions of the borders. We call the borders established with this mechanism as 'fixed borders'. Past studies have identified various insulators (boundary DNA elements) that have been suggested to recruit fixed borders to them. Another mechanism, which we introduce and focus on in this review, does not require walls recruited by specific DNA elements at the chromosomal borders. Instead, the borders are defined by a balance of opposing enzymatic activities located at the opposite sides of the resultant borders. We name these borders 'negotiable borders'. Here we review some of the recent progress in the field that offer valuable insight into mechanisms of establishing structural and functional borders on chromosomes. Copyright Blackwell Publishing Limited
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sørensen, Jens Nørkær
2016-01-01
Although there exists a large variety of methods for predicting performance and loadings of wind turbines, the only approach used today by wind turbine manufacturers is based on the blade-element/momentum (BEM) theory by Glauert (Aerodynamic theory. Springer, Berlin, pp. 169-360, 1935). A basic...... assumption in the BEM theory is that the flow takes place in independent stream tubes and that the loading is determined from two-dimensional sectional airfoil characteristics....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hirose, Yasuo.
1982-01-01
Purpose: To increase the plenum space in a fuel element used for a liquid metal cooled reactor. Constitution: A fuel pellet is secured at one end with an end plug and at the other with a coil spring in a tubular container. A mechanism for fixing the coil spring composed of a tubular unit is mounted by friction with the inner surface of the tubular container. Accordingly, the recoiling force of the coil spring can be retained by fixing mechanism with a small volume, and since a large amount of plenum space can be obtained, the internal pressure rise in the cladding tube can be suppressed even if large quantities of fission products are discharged. (Kamimura, M.)
Robust linear dimensionality reduction.
Koren, Yehuda; Carmel, Liran
2004-01-01
We present a novel family of data-driven linear transformations, aimed at finding low-dimensional embeddings of multivariate data, in a way that optimally preserves the structure of the data. The well-studied PCA and Fisher's LDA are shown to be special members in this family of transformations, and we demonstrate how to generalize these two methods such as to enhance their performance. Furthermore, our technique is the only one, to the best of our knowledge, that reflects in the resulting embedding both the data coordinates and pairwise relationships between the data elements. Even more so, when information on the clustering (labeling) decomposition of the data is known, this information can also be integrated in the linear transformation, resulting in embeddings that clearly show the separation between the clusters, as well as their internal structure. All of this makes our technique very flexible and powerful, and lets us cope with kinds of data that other techniques fail to describe properly.
Distinctions among conifer exudates by proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Lambert, Joseph B; Kozminski, Michael A; Santiago-Blay, Jorge A
2007-08-01
Proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectra have been recorded of exudates harvested from 12 species from the family Araucariaceae, 40 from the Cupressaceae, and one from the Podocarpaceae. These spectra were compared with the spectra previously recorded of 82 species from the Pinaceae. These four families together represent all major groups of extant, resin-bearing conifers. A common set of 10 COSY two-dimensional cross-peaks generally define samples from the Pinaceae, a different set of six peaks define the Araucariaceae, and yet a third set of 10 peaks define the Cupressaceae, with a few exceptions. It is important that proton spectra can distinguish the Araucariaceae and the Cupressaceae, since carbon-13 spectra do not. The one-dimensional peaks not only confirm these familial distinctions but also often characterize genus and species uniquely.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Fong Kah Soon
2017-01-01
Full Text Available The vibration of damped pipeline conveying fluid with the effect of fluid-structure interaction is known to pose challenging problems in oil and gas industry. In this study, the natural frequency of fluid-structure interaction in pipeline conveying fluid set on viscoelastic foundation is investigated by using finite element method. The governing partial differential equation is modelled based on Euler-Bernoulli beam theory. By applying Galerkin weighted residual method, the stiffness, damping, and mass matrices are obtained. For a given boundary condition which is simply supported, two components of the foundation (foundation stiffness and damping which are influencing the damped natural frequency of the pipeline are studied for different fluid velocity. The results indicate that increasing the foundation stiffness from 10 kN/m3 to 30 kN/m3 increases the natural frequency of the pipeline, while increasing the foundation damping from 1 kN.s/m3 to 3 kN.s/m3 and fluid velocity decrease the natural frequency of the pipeline. The accuracy of the results obtained is validated against data from literature.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sasaki, Y. [Kyushu University, Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering
1997-05-27
To enhance the reliability of electromagnetic/magnetotelluric (MT) survey, calculation results of finite-element methods (FEMs) and finite difference methods (FDMs) were compared. Accuracy of individual methods and convergence of repitition solution were examined. As a result of the investigation, it was found that appropriate accuracy can be obtained from the edge FEM and FDM for the example of vertical magnetic dipole, and that the best accuracy can be obtained from the FDM among four methods for the example of MT survey. It was revealed that the ICBCG (incomplete Cholesky bi-conjugate gradient) method is an excellent method as a solution method of simultaneous equations from the viewpoint of accuracy and calculation time. For the joint FEM, solutions of SOR method converged for both the examples. It was concluded that the cause of error is not due to the error of numerical calculation, but due to the consideration without discontinuity of electric field. The conditions of coefficient matrix increased with decreasing the frequency, which resulted in the unstable numerical calculation. It would be required to incorporate the constraint in a certain form. 4 refs., 12 figs.
Guo, Xiasheng; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Di; Gong, Xiufen; Wu, Junru
2008-06-01
Protopappas et al. performed finite element (FE) studies on the propagation of guided ultrasound waves in intact and healing long bones, and found that the dispersion of guided modes was significantly influenced by the irregularity and anisotropy of the bone. A time-frequency (t-f) method was applied to the obtained signals and several wave modes were identified. However, this technique was unable to quantify their observations and provide monitoring capabilities. One possible reason of this shortcoming may come from the inherent disadvantage of the t-f method. The objective of this comment is to demonstrate that it is necessary to combine other techniques with FE simulations for the extraction of significant quantitative ultrasonic features. Individual guided modes in an isotropic pipe have been theoretically examined using the normal mode expansion (NME) method, and many modes that are missed by the t-f analysis have been identified. It is concluded that in order to extract quantitative ultrasonic features, FE simulations should be supplemented by other techniques such as the NME.
Banda, Srikanth; Cao, Nan; Tse-Dinh, Yuk-Ching
2017-09-15
We report here a distinct mechanism of interaction between topoisomerase I and RNA polymerase in Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium smegmatis that has evolved independently from the previously characterized interaction between bacterial topoisomerase I and RNA polymerase. Bacterial DNA topoisomerase I is responsible for preventing the hyper-negative supercoiling of genomic DNA. The association of topoisomerase I with RNA polymerase during transcription elongation could efficiently relieve transcription-driven negative supercoiling. Our results demonstrate a direct physical interaction between the C-terminal domains of topoisomerase I (TopoI-CTDs) and the β' subunit of RNA polymerase of M. smegmatis in the absence of DNA. The TopoI-CTDs in mycobacteria are evolutionarily unrelated in amino acid sequence and three-dimensional structure to the TopoI-CTD found in the majority of bacterial species outside Actinobacteria, including Escherichia coli. The functional interaction between topoisomerase I and RNA polymerase has evolved independently in mycobacteria and E. coli, with distinctively different structural elements of TopoI-CTD utilized for this protein-protein interaction. Zinc ribbon motifs in E. coli TopoI-CTD are involved in the interaction with RNA polymerase. For M. smegmatis TopoI-CTD, a 27-amino-acid tail that is rich in basic residues at the C-terminal end is responsible for the interaction with RNA polymerase. Overexpression of recombinant TopoI-CTD in M. smegmatis competed with the endogenous topoisomerase I for protein-protein interactions with RNA polymerase. The TopoI-CTD overexpression resulted in decreased survival following treatment with antibiotics and hydrogen peroxide, supporting the importance of the protein-protein interaction between topoisomerase I and RNA polymerase during stress response of mycobacteria. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
A comparative phylogenetic analysis of full-length mariner elements ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Unknown
nucleotide identity in parasitoid insect and its host wasp inferring that the element is possibly horizontally trans- ferred from one to another. The presence of different copy number of distinct mariner subfamily elements in the same genome suggests that they may be regulated differently, as presence of one element in the ...
Lazari, Priscilla Cardoso; Oliveira, Rodrigo Caldeira Nunes de; Anchieta, Rodolfo Bruniera; Almeida, Erika Oliveira de; Freitas Junior, Amilcar Chagas; Kina, Sidney; Rocha, Eduardo Passos
2013-01-01
The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of root canal and glass fiber post diameters on the biomechanical behavior of the dentin/cement/post interface of a root-filled tooth using 3D finite element analysis. Six models were built using micro-CT imaging data and SolidWorks 2007 software, varying the root canal (C) and the glass fiber post (P) diameters: C1P1-C=1 mm and P=1 mm; C2P1-C=2 mm and P=1 mm; C2P2-C=2 mm and P=2 mm; C3P1-C=3 mm and P=1 mm; C3P2-C=3 mm and P=2 mm; and C3P3-C=3 mm and P=3 mm. The numerical analysis was conducted with ANSYS Workbench 10.0. An oblique force (180 N at 45º) was applied to the palatal surface of the central incisor. The periodontal ligament surface was constrained on the three axes (x=y=z=0). Maximum principal stress (σ(max)) values were evaluated for the root dentin, cement layer, and glass fiber post. The most evident stress was observed in the glass fiber post at C3P1 (323 MPa), and the maximum stress in the cement layer occurred at C1P1 (43.2 MPa). The stress on the root dentin was almost constant in all models with a peak in tension at C2P1 (64.5 MPa). The greatest discrepancy between root canal and post diameters is favorable for stress concentration at the post surface. The dentin remaining after the various root canal preparations did not increase the stress levels on the root.
Non-commutative finite associative algebras of 2-dimensional vectors
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alexander Moldovyan
2017-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper properties of the non-commutative finite associative algebra of two-dimensional vectors are presented. Interesting features of algebra are mutual associativity of all modifications of the defined parameterized multiplication operation and existing of a large set of single-side unit elements. In the ordinary case one unique two-side unit element is connected with each element of the algebra, except the elements that are square roots from zero element. There are also presented four different variants of defining commutative associative algebras of 2-dimension vectors. For the case of commutativity the algebra has common unit element for all its elements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Orlita, M.; Faugeras, C.; Barra, A.-L.; Martinez, G.; Potemski, M.; Basko, D. M.; Zholudev, M. S.; Teppe, F.; Knap, W.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Dvoretskii, S. A.; Neugebauer, P.; Berger, C.; Heer, W. A. de
2015-01-01
Here, we report on a magneto-optical study of two distinct systems hosting massless fermions—two-dimensional graphene and three-dimensional HgCdTe tuned to the zero band gap condition at the point of the semiconductor-to-semimetal topological transition. Both materials exhibit, in the quantum regime, a fairly rich magneto-optical response, which is composed from a series of intra- and interband inter-Landau level resonances with for massless fermions typical √(B) dependence. The impact of the system's dimensionality and of the strength of the spin-orbit interaction on the optical response is also discussed
Finite Element Model of Gear Induction Hardening
Hodek, J; Zemko, M; Shykula, P
2015-01-01
International audience; This paper presents a finite element model of a gear induction hardening process. The gear was surface-heated by an induction coil and quickly cooled by spraying water. The finite element model was developed as a three-dimensional model. The electromagnetic field, temperature field, stress distribution and microstructure distribution were examined. Temperature and microstructural characteristics were measured and used. The gear material data was obtained in part by mea...
Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wahlquist, D.R.
1993-01-01
The Automated Fuel Element Closure Welding System is a robotic device that will load and weld top end plugs onto nuclear fuel elements in a highly radioactive and inert gas environment. The system was developed at Argonne National Laboratory-West as part of the Fuel Cycle Demonstration. The welding system performs four main functions, it (1) injects a small amount of a xenon/krypton gas mixture into specific fuel elements, and (2) loads tiny end plugs into the tops of fuel element jackets, and (3) welds the end plugs to the element jackets, and (4) performs a dimensional inspection of the pre- and post-welded fuel elements. The system components are modular to facilitate remote replacement of failed parts. The entire system can be operated remotely in manual, semi-automatic, or fully automatic modes using a computer control system. The welding system is currently undergoing software testing and functional checkout
Ablative Thermal Response Analysis Using the Finite Element Method
Dec John A.; Braun, Robert D.
2009-01-01
A review of the classic techniques used to solve ablative thermal response problems is presented. The advantages and disadvantages of both the finite element and finite difference methods are described. As a first step in developing a three dimensional finite element based ablative thermal response capability, a one dimensional computer tool has been developed. The finite element method is used to discretize the governing differential equations and Galerkin's method of weighted residuals is used to derive the element equations. A code to code comparison between the current 1-D tool and the 1-D Fully Implicit Ablation and Thermal Response Program (FIAT) has been performed.
Finite Element Analysis of the Hierarchical Structure of Human Bone
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Dolloff, Katherine
2003-01-01
.... Finally, the effective stiffness of the bone was estimated. In order to determine the stiffness of the collagen fiber, a three-dimensional finite element model was developed and a simple analytical model was derived...
Number of perceptually distinct surface colors in natural scenes.
Marín-Franch, Iván; Foster, David H
2010-09-30
The ability to perceptually identify distinct surfaces in natural scenes by virtue of their color depends not only on the relative frequency of surface colors but also on the probabilistic nature of observer judgments. Previous methods of estimating the number of discriminable surface colors, whether based on theoretical color gamuts or recorded from real scenes, have taken a deterministic approach. Thus, a three-dimensional representation of the gamut of colors is divided into elementary cells or points which are spaced at one discrimination-threshold unit intervals and which are then counted. In this study, information-theoretic methods were used to take into account both differing surface-color frequencies and observer response uncertainty. Spectral radiances were calculated from 50 hyperspectral images of natural scenes and were represented in a perceptually almost uniform color space. The average number of perceptually distinct surface colors was estimated as 7.3 × 10(3), much smaller than that based on counting methods. This number is also much smaller than the number of distinct points in a scene that are, in principle, available for reliable identification under illuminant changes, suggesting that color constancy, or the lack of it, does not generally determine the limit on the use of color for surface identification.
Postural Communication of Emotion: Perception of Distinct Poses of Five Discrete Emotions.
Lopez, Lukas D; Reschke, Peter J; Knothe, Jennifer M; Walle, Eric A
2017-01-01
Emotion can be communicated through multiple distinct modalities. However, an often-ignored channel of communication is posture. Recent research indicates that bodily posture plays an important role in the perception of emotion. However, research examining postural communication of emotion is limited by the variety of validated emotion poses and unknown cohesion of categorical and dimensional ratings. The present study addressed these limitations. Specifically, we examined individuals' (1) categorization of emotion postures depicting 5 discrete emotions (joy, sadness, fear, anger, and disgust), (2) categorization of different poses depicting the same discrete emotion, and (3) ratings of valence and arousal for each emotion pose. Findings revealed that participants successfully categorized each posture as the target emotion, including disgust. Moreover, participants accurately identified multiple distinct poses within each emotion category. In addition to the categorical responses, dimensional ratings of valence and arousal revealed interesting overlap and distinctions between and within emotion categories. These findings provide the first evidence of an identifiable posture for disgust and instantiate the principle of equifinality of emotional communication through the inclusion of distinct poses within emotion categories. Additionally, the dimensional ratings corroborated the categorical data and provide further granularity for future researchers to consider in examining how distinct emotion poses are perceived.
Microarray of programmable electrochemically active elements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
S. McCaskill, John; Maeke, Thomas; Straczek, Lukas
2016-01-01
This paper describes possible applications of a two dimensional array of programmable electrochemically active elements to Alife. The array has been developed as part of the MICREA-gents project, and after several design phases, is now a mature enough device for general use beyond the project. He...
Electrical machine analysis using finite elements
Bianchi, Nicola
2005-01-01
OUTLINE OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDSVector AnalysisElectromagnetic FieldsFundamental Equations SummaryReferencesBASIC PRINCIPLES OF FINITE ELEMENT METHODSIntroductionField Problems with Boundary ConditionsClassical Method for the Field Problem SolutionThe Classical Residual Method (Galerkin's Method)The Classical Variational Method (Rayleigh-Ritz's Method)The Finite Element MethodReferencesAPPLICATIONS OF THE FINITE ELEMENT METHOD TO TWO-DIMENSIONAL FIELDSIntroductionLinear Interpolation of the Function fApplication of the Variational MethodSimple Descriptions of Electromagnetic FieldsAppendix: I
Metal transport across biomembranes: emerging models for a distinct chemistry.
Argüello, José M; Raimunda, Daniel; González-Guerrero, Manuel
2012-04-20
Transition metals are essential components of important biomolecules, and their homeostasis is central to many life processes. Transmembrane transporters are key elements controlling the distribution of metals in various compartments. However, due to their chemical properties, transition elements require transporters with different structural-functional characteristics from those of alkali and alkali earth ions. Emerging structural information and functional studies have revealed distinctive features of metal transport. Among these are the relevance of multifaceted events involving metal transfer among participating proteins, the importance of coordination geometry at transmembrane transport sites, and the presence of the largely irreversible steps associated with vectorial transport. Here, we discuss how these characteristics shape novel transition metal ion transport models.
Multi-Dimensional Path Queries
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bækgaard, Lars
1998-01-01
that connects a pair of paths. A path expression is a function that maps a set of path sets into a path set. Path sets can be joined, filtering conditions can restrict the set of qualifying paths, and aggregation functions can be applied to path elements. In particular, the aggregation function SET can be used...... to create nested path structures. We present an SQL-like query language that is based on path expressions and we show how to use it to express multi-dimensional path queries that are suited for advanced data analysis in decision support environments like data warehousing environments...
Efficient Finite Element Models for Calculation of the No-load losses of the Transformer
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kamran Dawood
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Different transformer models are examined for the calculation of the no-load losses using finite element analysis. Two-dimensional and three-dimensional finite element analyses are used for the simulation of the transformer. Results of the finite element method are also compared with the experimental results. The Result shows that 3-dimensional provide high accuracy as compared to the 2 dimensional full and half model. However, the 2-dimensional half model is the less time-consuming method as compared to the 3 and 2-dimensional full model. Simulation time duration taken by the different models of the transformer is also compared. The difference between the 3-dimensional finite element method and experimental results are less than 3%. These numerical methods can help transformer designers to minimize the development of the prototype transformers.
Finite elements for partial differential equations: An introductory survey
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Succi, S.
1988-03-01
After presentation of the basic ideas behind the theory of the Finite Element Method, the application of the method to three equations of particular interest in Physics and Engineering is discussed in some detail, namely, a one-dimensional Sturm-Liouville problem, a two-dimensional linear Fokker-Planck equation and a two-dimensional nonlinear Navier-Stokes equation. 6 refs, 8 figs
Dimensionering af glas i klimaskærmen
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Munch-Andersen, Jørgen
Denne anvisning berhandler dimensionering af glas som udfyldende element i klimaskærmen, det vil sige vinduer, facader og tage. Den indeholder de informationer, man normalt vil finde i en norm, men også andre oplysninger, der kan være nyttige ved dimensionering af glas. Anvisningen er udarbejdet i...
Social conformity despite individual preferences for distinctiveness.
Smaldino, Paul E; Epstein, Joshua M
2015-03-01
We demonstrate that individual behaviours directed at the attainment of distinctiveness can in fact produce complete social conformity. We thus offer an unexpected generative mechanism for this central social phenomenon. Specifically, we establish that agents who have fixed needs to be distinct and adapt their positions to achieve distinctiveness goals, can nevertheless self-organize to a limiting state of absolute conformity. This seemingly paradoxical result is deduced formally from a small number of natural assumptions and is then explored at length computationally. Interesting departures from this conformity equilibrium are also possible, including divergence in positions. The effect of extremist minorities on these dynamics is discussed. A simple extension is then introduced, which allows the model to generate and maintain social diversity, including multimodal distinctiveness distributions. The paper contributes formal definitions, analytical deductions and counterintuitive findings to the literature on individual distinctiveness and social conformity.
Method for laser-based two-dimensional navigation system in a structured environment
Boultinghouse, Karlan D.; Schoeneman, J. Lee; Tise, Bertice L.
1989-01-01
A low power, narrow laser beam, generated by a laser carried by a mobile vehicle, is rotated about a vertical reference axis as the vehicle navigates within a structured environment. At least three stationary retroreflector elements are located at known positions, preferably at the periphery of the structured environment, with one of the elements having a distinctive retroreflection. The projected rotating beam traverses each retroreflector in succession, and the corresponding retroreflections are received at the vehicle and focussed on a photoelectric cell to generate corresponding electrical signals. The signal caused by the distinctive retroreflection serves as an angle-measurement datum. An angle encoder coupled to the apparatus rotating the projected laser beam provides the angular separation from this datum of the lines connecting the mobile reference axis to successive retroreflectors. This real-time angular data is utilized with the known locations of the retroreflectors to trigonometrically compute using three point resection, the exact real-time location of the mobile reference axis (hence the navigating vehicle) vis-a-vis the structured environment, e.g., in terms of two-dimensional Cartesian coordinates associated with the environment.
Supersymmetric dimensional regularization
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Egoryan, E.Sh.
1982-01-01
A generalized scheme of dimensional regularization which preserves supersymmetry is proposed. The scheme is applicable to all supersymmetric theories. Two models with extended supersymmetry are considered. The Slavnov naive supersymmetric identities are shown to hold at a dimensional regularized level
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bochev, Pavel Blagoveston
2011-06-01
We develop a new formulation of the Control Volume Finite Element Method (CVFEM) with a multidimensional Scharfetter-Gummel (SG) upwinding for the drift-diffusion equations. The formulation uses standard nodal elements for the concentrations and expands the flux in terms of the lowest-order Nedelec H(curl; {Omega})-compatible finite element basis. The SG formula is applied to the edges of the elements to express the Nedelec element degree of freedom on this edge in terms of the nodal degrees of freedom associated with the endpoints of the edge. The resulting upwind flux incorporates the upwind effects from all edges and is defined at the interior of the element. This allows for accurate evaluation of integrals on the boundaries of the control volumes for arbitrary quadrilateral elements. The new formulation admits efficient implementation through a standard loop over the elements in the mesh followed by loops over the element nodes (associated with control volume fractions in the element) and element edges (associated with flux degrees of freedom). The quantities required for the SG formula can be precomputed and stored for each edge in the mesh for additional efficiency gains. For clarity the details are presented for two-dimensional quadrilateral grids. Extension to other element shapes and three dimensions is straightforward.
Finite element model to study two dimensional unsteady state ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
The calcium signaling plays a crucial role in expansion and contraction of cardiac myocytes. This calcium signaling is achieved by calcium diffusion, buffering mechanisms and influx in cardiac myocytes. The various calcium distribution patterns required for achieving calcium signaling in myocytes are still not well ...
hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
exponential convergence. A method for obtaining a numerical solution to exponential accuracy for elliptic prob- lems on non-smooth domains in R2 was first .... The organization of this paper is as follows. In §2, we introduce the problem under.
h-p Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 2 ... Jaipur 302 031, India; TIFR Centre For Applicable Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore 560 065, India; Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India ...
h-p Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-08-26
Aug 26, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Proceedings – Mathematical Sciences; Volume 125; Issue 3 ... Jaipur 302 031, India; TIFR Centre For Applicable Mathematics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Bangalore 560 065, India; Department of Aerospace Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur 208 016, India ...
hp Spectral element methods for three dimensional elliptic problems
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
on non-smooth domains using parallel computers. In three .... parallel computers. The first paper deals with the regularity of the solution in the neigh- bourhoods of vertices, edges and vertex-edges and the stability theorem. The second ..... Let wv = w(v), denote the value of w at the vertex v and let ˜ v denote the image of.
Three dimensional illustrating - three-dimensional vision and deception of sensibility
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Anita Gánóczy
2009-03-01
Full Text Available The wide-spread digital photography and computer use gave the opportunity for everyone to make three-dimensional pictures and to make them public. The new opportunities with three-dimensional techniques give chance for the birth of new artistic photographs. We present in detail the biological roots of three-dimensional visualization, the phenomena of movement parallax, which can be used efficiently in making three-dimensional graphics, the Zöllner- and Corridor-illusion. There are present in this paper the visual elements, which contribute to define a plane two-dimensional image in three-dimension: coherent lines, the covering, the measurement changes, the relative altitude state, the abatement of detail profusion, the shadings and the perspective effects of colors.
Distinctiveness and the Attentional Boost Effect.
Smith, S Adam; Mulligan, Neil W
2018-02-01
The typical pattern of results in divided attention experiments is that subjects in a full attention (FA) condition perform markedly better on tests of memory than subjects in a divided attention (DA) condition which forces subjects to split their attention between studying to-be-remembered stimuli and completing some peripheral task. Nevertheless, recent research has revealed an exception wherein stimuli presented concurrently with targets in a detection task are better remembered than stimuli which co-occur with distractors. Research on this phenomenon-the Attentional Boost Effect (ABE)-has demonstrated that the ABE is reduced or eliminated for words made distinct by their word frequency or orthographic properties-forms of secondary distinctiveness. However, it is unclear how primary distinctiveness effects may interact with the ABE. The current study observed how perceptual and semantic manipulations of primary distinctiveness via the isolation paradigm interact with the ABE, and revealed these interactions to be fundamentally different than those of secondary distinctiveness. Specifically, whereas the effects of secondary distinctiveness in earlier studies were found to be redundant with the ABE, the current study demonstrated that items characterized by primary distinctiveness enhanced memory performance independently of the ABE. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Canio Hoffarth
2017-03-01
Full Text Available A three-dimensional constitutive model has been developed for modeling orthotropic composites subject to impact loads. It has three distinct components—a deformation model involving elastic and plastic deformations; a damage model; and a failure model. The model is driven by tabular data that is generated either using laboratory tests or via virtual testing. A unidirectional composite—T800/F3900, commonly used in the aerospace industry, is used in the verification and validation tests. While the failure model is under development, these tests indicate that the implementation of the deformation and damage models in a commercial finite element program, LS-DYNA, is efficient, robust and accurate.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
1991-01-01
This chapter addresses the extension of previous work in one-dimensional (linear) error theory to two-dimensional error analysis. The topics of the chapter include the definition of two-dimensional error, the probability ellipse, the probability circle, elliptical (circular) error evaluation, the application to position accuracy, and the use of control systems (points) in measurements
Dimensionality reduction methods:
Amenta, Pietro; D'Ambra, Luigi; Gallo, Michele
2005-01-01
In case one or more sets of variables are available, the use of dimensional reduction methods could be necessary. In this contest, after a review on the link between the Shrinkage Regression Methods and Dimensional Reduction Methods, authors provide a different multivariate extension of the Garthwaite's PLS approach (1994) where a simple linear regression coefficients framework could be given for several dimensional reduction methods.
INGEN: a general-purpose mesh generator for finite element codes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, W.A.
1979-05-01
INGEN is a general-purpose mesh generator for two- and three-dimensional finite element codes. The basic parts of the code are surface and three-dimensional region generators that use linear-blending interpolation formulas. These generators are based on an i, j, k index scheme that is used to number nodal points, construct elements, and develop displacement and traction boundary conditions. This code can generate truss elements (2 modal points); plane stress, plane strain, and axisymmetry two-dimensional continuum elements (4 to 8 nodal points); plate elements (4 to 8 nodal points); and three-dimensional continuum elements (8 to 21 nodal points). The traction loads generated are consistent with the element generated. The expansion--contraction option is of special interest. This option makes it possible to change an existing mesh such that some regions are refined and others are made coarser than the original mesh. 9 figures
Dimensional Enhancement via Supersymmetry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. G. Faux
2011-01-01
of supersymmetry in one time-like dimension. This is enabled by algebraic criteria, derived, exhibited, and utilized in this paper, which indicate which subset of one-dimensional supersymmetric models describes “shadows” of higher-dimensional models. This formalism delineates that minority of one-dimensional supersymmetric models which can “enhance” to accommodate extra dimensions. As a consistency test, we use our formalism to reproduce well-known conclusions about supersymmetric field theories using one-dimensional reasoning exclusively. And we introduce the notion of “phantoms” which usefully accommodate higher-dimensional gauge invariance in the context of shadow multiplets in supersymmetric quantum mechanics.
Dimensional cosmological principles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chi, L.K.
1985-01-01
The dimensional cosmological principles proposed by Wesson require that the density, pressure, and mass of cosmological models be functions of the dimensionless variables which are themselves combinations of the gravitational constant, the speed of light, and the spacetime coordinates. The space coordinate is not the comoving coordinate. In this paper, the dimensional cosmological principle and the dimensional perfect cosmological principle are reformulated by using the comoving coordinate. The dimensional perfect cosmological principle is further modified to allow the possibility that mass creation may occur. Self-similar spacetimes are found to be models obeying the new dimensional cosmological principle
Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms on High Dimensional Datasets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iwan Syarif
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Classification problem especially for high dimensional datasets have attracted many researchers in order to find efficient approaches to address them. However, the classification problem has become very complicatedespecially when the number of possible different combinations of variables is so high. In this research, we evaluate the performance of Genetic Algorithm (GA and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO as feature selection algorithms when applied to high dimensional datasets.Our experiments show that in terms of dimensionality reduction, PSO is much better than GA. PSO has successfully reduced the number of attributes of 8 datasets to 13.47% on average while GA is only 31.36% on average. In terms of classification performance, GA is slightly better than PSO. GA‐ reduced datasets have better performance than their original ones on 5 of 8 datasets while PSO is only 3 of 8 datasets. Keywords: feature selection, dimensionality reduction, Genetic Algorithm (GA, Particle Swarm Optmization (PSO.
A nonlinear dynamic corotational finite element model for submerged pipes
De Vries, F. H.; Geijselaers, H. J.M.; Van Den Boogaard, A. H.; Huisman, A.
2017-01-01
A three dimensional finite element model is built to compute the motions of a pipe that is being laid on the seabed. This process is geometrically nonlinear, therefore co-rotational beam elements are used. The pipe is subject to static and dynamic forces. Static forces are due to gravity, current
Neuroimaging distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders.
Crossley, Nicolas A; Scott, Jessica; Ellison-Wright, Ian; Mechelli, Andrea
2015-11-01
It is unclear to what extent the traditional distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders reflects biological differences. To examine neuroimaging evidence for the distinction between neurological and psychiatric disorders. We performed an activation likelihood estimation meta-analysis on voxel-based morphometry studies reporting decreased grey matter in 14 neurological and 10 psychiatric disorders, and compared the regional and network-level alterations for these two classes of disease. In addition, we estimated neuroanatomical heterogeneity within and between the two classes. Basal ganglia, insula, sensorimotor and temporal cortex showed greater impairment in neurological disorders; whereas cingulate, medial frontal, superior frontal and occipital cortex showed greater impairment in psychiatric disorders. The two classes of disorders affected distinct functional networks. Similarity within classes was higher than between classes; furthermore, similarity within class was higher for neurological than psychiatric disorders. From a neuroimaging perspective, neurological and psychiatric disorders represent two distinct classes of disorders. © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015.
Finite element modeling of piezoelectric elements with complex electrode configuration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paradies, R; Schläpfer, B
2009-01-01
realized for a commercial finite element program allowing for an automatic assignment of different material properties for two- and three-dimensional FEMs with arbitrary electrode configurations. Examples of piezoelectric transducers with complex electrode configurations are presented and the influence of the material description on the behavior of the modeled element is discussed. Furthermore, as an attempt at verification of the FEM simulation, a comparison of simulated stress concentrations with experimental investigations is presented
Dimensionality Reduction Algorithms on High Dimensional Datasets
Iwan Syarif
2014-01-01
Classification problem especially for high dimensional datasets have attracted many researchers in order to find efficient approaches to address them. However, the classification problem has become very complicatedespecially when the number of possible different combinations of variables is so high. In this research, we evaluate the performance of Genetic Algorithm (GA) and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) as feature selection algorithms when applied to high dimensional datasets.Our experime...
Frolov, V.; Sutton, P.; Zelnikov, A.
2000-01-01
In a wide class of D-dimensional spacetimes which are direct or semi-direct sums of a (D-n)-dimensional space and an n-dimensional homogeneous ``internal'' space, a field can be decomposed into modes. As a result of this mode decomposition, the main objects which characterize the free quantum field, such as Green functions and heat kernels, can effectively be reduced to objects in a (D-n)-dimensional spacetime with an external dilaton field. We study the problem of the dimensional reduction of the effective action for such spacetimes. While before renormalization the original D-dimensional effective action can be presented as a ``sum over modes'' of (D-n)-dimensional effective actions, this property is violated after renormalization. We calculate the corresponding anomalous terms explicitly, illustrating the effect with some simple examples.
Super integrable four-dimensional autonomous mappings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capel, H W; Sahadevan, R; Rajakumar, S
2007-01-01
A systematic investigation of the complete integrability of a fourth-order autonomous difference equation of the type w(n + 4) = w(n)F(w(n + 1), w(n + 2), w(n + 3)) is presented. We identify seven distinct families of four-dimensional mappings which are super integrable and have three (independent) integrals via a duality relation as introduced in a recent paper by Quispel, Capel and Roberts (2005 J. Phys. A: Math. Gen. 38 3965-80). It is observed that these seven families can be related to the four-dimensional symplectic mappings with two integrals including all the four-dimensional periodic reductions of the integrable double-discrete modified Korteweg-deVries and sine-Gordon equations treated in an earlier paper by two of us (Capel and Sahadevan 2001 Physica A 289 86-106)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noddack, W.; Tacke, I.; Berg, O.
1988-03-01
A recent study tends to revalidate the search for element 43 done in 1925. In ores with properties similar to the hypothetical chemical properties of the missing elements 43 and 75, the unknown elements were concentrated by chemical means. Roentgen-ray spectroscopy was applied in order to observe the characteristic Roentgen L lines for element 75 and K lines for element 43. Element 43 was observed in sperrylith, gadolinit, fergusonit and columbit. The name masurium was proposed. Similarly, element 75 was observed in tantalit, wolframit and platinit. The name rhenium was chosen. (MCB)
Three dimensional periodic foundations for base seismic isolation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yan, Y; Mo, Y L; Cheng, Z; Shi, Z; Menq, F; Tang, Y
2015-01-01
Based on the concept of phononic crystals, periodic foundations made of periodic materials are investigated in this paper. The periodic foundations can provide low frequency band gaps, which cover the main frequency ranges of seismic waves. Therefore, the periodic foundations are able to protect the upper structures during earthquake events. In this paper, the basic theory of three dimensional periodic foundations is studied and the finite element method was used to conduct the sensitivity study. A simplified three-dimensional periodic foundation with a superstructure was tested in the field and the feasibility of three dimensional periodic foundations was proved. The test results showed that the response of the upper structure with the three dimensional periodic foundation was reduced under excitation waves with the main frequency falling in the attenuation zones. The finite element analysis results are consistent with the experimental data, indicating that three dimensional periodic foundations are a feasible way of reducing seismic vibrations. (paper)
Densis. Densimetric representation of two-dimensional matrices
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Los Arcos Merino, J.M.
1978-01-01
Densis is a Fortran V program which allows off-line control of a Calcomp digital plotter, to represent a two-dimensional matrix of numerical elements in the form of a variable shading intensity map in two colours. Each matrix element is associated to a square of a grid which is traced over by lines whose number is a function of the element value according to a selected scale. Program features, subroutine structure and running instructions, are described. Some typical results, for gamma-gamma coincidence experimental data and a sampled two-dimensional function, are indicated. (author)
Predoi, Mihai Valentin
2014-09-01
The dispersion curves for hollow multilayered cylinders are prerequisites in any practical guided waves application on such structures. The equations for homogeneous isotropic materials have been established more than 120 years ago. The difficulties in finding numerical solutions to analytic expressions remain considerable, especially if the materials are orthotropic visco-elastic as in the composites used for pipes in the last decades. Among other numerical techniques, the semi-analytical finite elements method has proven its capability of solving this problem. Two possibilities exist to model a finite elements eigenvalue problem: a two-dimensional cross-section model of the pipe or a radial segment model, intersecting the layers between the inner and the outer radius of the pipe. The last possibility is here adopted and distinct differential problems are deduced for longitudinal L(0,n), torsional T(0,n) and flexural F(m,n) modes. Eigenvalue problems are deduced for the three modes classes, offering explicit forms of each coefficient for the matrices used in an available general purpose finite elements code. Comparisons with existing solutions for pipes filled with non-linear viscoelastic fluid or visco-elastic coatings as well as for a fully orthotropic hollow cylinder are all proving the reliability and ease of use of this method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The finite element method its basis and fundamentals
Zienkiewicz, Olek C; Zhu, JZ
2013-01-01
The Finite Element Method: Its Basis and Fundamentals offers a complete introduction to the basis of the finite element method, covering fundamental theory and worked examples in the detail required for readers to apply the knowledge to their own engineering problems and understand more advanced applications. This edition sees a significant rearrangement of the book's content to enable clearer development of the finite element method, with major new chapters and sections added to cover: Weak forms Variational forms Multi-dimensional field prob
Dimensional reduction of a generalized flux problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moroz, A.
1992-01-01
In this paper, a generalized flux problem with Abelian and non-Abelian fluxes is considered. In the Abelian case we shall show that the generalized flux problem for tight-binding models of noninteracting electrons on either 2n- or (2n + 1)-dimensional lattice can always be reduced to an n-dimensional hopping problem. A residual freedom in this reduction enables one to identify equivalence classes of hopping Hamiltonians which have the same spectrum. In the non-Abelian case, the reduction is not possible in general unless the flux tensor factorizes into an Abelian one times are element of the corresponding algebra
Noncoding Elements: Evolution and Epigenetic Regulation
Seridi, Loqmane
2016-03-09
When the human genome project was completed, it revealed a surprising result. 98% of the genome did not code for protein of which more than 50% are repeats— later known as ”Junk DNA”. However, comparative genomics unveiled that many noncoding elements are evolutionarily constrained; thus luckily to have a role in genome stability and regulation. Though, their exact functions remained largely unknown. Several large international consortia such as the Functional Annotation of Mammalian Genomes (FANTOM) and the Encyclopedia of DNA Elements (ENCODE) were set to understand the structure and the regulation of the genome. Specifically, these endeavors aim to measure and reveal the transcribed components and functional elements of the genome. One of the most the striking findings of these efforts is that most of the genome is transcribed, including non-conserved noncoding elements and repeat elements. Specifically, we investigated the evolution and epigenetic properties of noncoding elements. 1. We compared genomes of evolutionarily distant species and showed the ubiquity of constrained noncoding elements in metazoa. 2. By integrating multi-omic data (such as transcriptome, nucleosome profiling, histone modifications), I conducted a comprehensive analysis of epigenetic properties (chromatin states) of conserved noncoding elements in insects. We showed that those elements have distinct and protective sequence features, undergo dynamic epigenetic regulation, and appear to be associated with the structural components of the chromatin, replication origins, and nuclear matrix. 3. I focused on the relationship between enhancers and repetitive elements. Using Cap Analysis of Gene Expression (CAGE) and RNASeq, I compiled a full catalog of active enhancers (a class of noncoding elements) during myogenesis of human primary cells of healthy donors and donors affected by Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). Comparing the two time-courses, a significant change in the epigenetic
Mikromechanisches Element und Sensor zur Ueberwachung eines mikromechanischen Elements
Klose, T.; Conrad, H.; Grasshoff, T.
2008-01-01
DE 102008049647 A1 UPAB: 20100428 NOVELTY - The micromechanical element (100) has a mobile functional element (110) and a retaining element (120), where a retaining element and the functional element are connected at a junction (122). Another retaining element (130) and the functional element are connected at another junction (132). The former retaining element has a piezoelectric drive element (124) and the latter retaining element has another piezoelectric drive element (134). DETAILED DESC...
Distinctiveness of Saudi Arabian EFL Learners
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manssour Habbash
2016-04-01
Full Text Available In view of the increasing concern among English language teachers dealing with students from Saudi Arabia, as it manifests in TESOL community discussions, about the uniqueness of Saudi Arabian EFL learners, this paper attempts to document the outcome of a study of their distinctiveness from the perspective of expatriate teachers working for PYPs (Preparatory Year Programs in Saudi Arabia. This study examines the distinctiveness with regard to the learning attitudes of Saudi students that are often cultivated by the culture and academic environment in their homeland. Employing an emic approach for collecting the required data an analysis was carried out in light of the other studies on ‘education’ in Saudi Arabia that have particular reference to the factors that can positively influence student motivation, student success and the academic environment. The findings were used in constructing the rationale behind such distinctiveness. Assuming that the outcome of the discussion on the findings of this exploration can be helpful for teachers in adapting their teaching methodology and improving their teacher efficacy in dealing with students both from the kingdom and in the kingdom, some recommendations are made. Keywords: China Distinctiveness, Saudi Arabian University context, Expatriate teachers’ perspective, Distinctiveness Theory
Bayesian supervised dimensionality reduction.
Gönen, Mehmet
2013-12-01
Dimensionality reduction is commonly used as a preprocessing step before training a supervised learner. However, coupled training of dimensionality reduction and supervised learning steps may improve the prediction performance. In this paper, we introduce a simple and novel Bayesian supervised dimensionality reduction method that combines linear dimensionality reduction and linear supervised learning in a principled way. We present both Gibbs sampling and variational approximation approaches to learn the proposed probabilistic model for multiclass classification. We also extend our formulation toward model selection using automatic relevance determination in order to find the intrinsic dimensionality. Classification experiments on three benchmark data sets show that the new model significantly outperforms seven baseline linear dimensionality reduction algorithms on very low dimensions in terms of generalization performance on test data. The proposed model also obtains the best results on an image recognition task in terms of classification and retrieval performances.
Dimensionality Reduction Ensembles
Farrelly, Colleen M.
2017-01-01
Ensemble learning has had many successes in supervised learning, but it has been rare in unsupervised learning and dimensionality reduction. This study explores dimensionality reduction ensembles, using principal component analysis and manifold learning techniques to capture linear, nonlinear, local, and global features in the original dataset. Dimensionality reduction ensembles are tested first on simulation data and then on two real medical datasets using random forest classifiers; results ...
Distinctive Dynamic Capabilities for New Business Creation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Rosenø, Axel; Enkel, Ellen; Mezger, Florian
2013-01-01
This study examines the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation in established companies. We argue that these are very different from those for managing incremental innovation within a company's core business. We also propose that such capabilities are needed in both slow...... and fast-paced industries, and that similarities exist across industries. Hence, the study contributes to dynamic capabilities literature by: 1) identifying the distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation; 2) shifting focus away from dynamic capabilities in environments characterised by high...... clock-speed and uncertainty towards considering dynamic capabilities for the purpose of developing new businesses, which also implies a high degree of uncertainty. Based on interviews with 33 companies, we identify distinctive dynamic capabilities for new business creation, find that dynamic...
On Hobbes’s distinction of accidents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lupoli Agostino
2012-06-01
Full Text Available An interpolation introduced by K. Schuhmann in his critical edition of "De corpore" (chap. VI, § 13 diametrically overturns the meaning of Hobbes’s doctrine of distinction of accidents in comparison with all previous editions. The article focuses on the complexity of this crucial juncture in "De corpore" argument on which depends the interpretation of Hobbes’s whole conception of science. It discusses the reasons pro and contra Schuhmann’s interpolation and concludes against it, because it is not compatible with the rationale underlying the complex architecture of "De corpore", which involves a symmetry between the ‘logical’ distinction of accidents and the ‘metaphysical’ distinction of phantasms.
Common and distinct components in data fusion
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Smilde, Age Klaas; Mage, Ingrid; Næs, Tormod
2016-01-01
measurements are obtained. Data fusion is concerned with analyzing such sets of data simultaneously to arrive at a global view of the system under study. One of the upcoming areas of data fusion is exploring whether the data sets have something in common or not. This gives insight into common and distinct...... and understanding their relative merits. This paper provides a unifying framework for this subfield of data fusion by using rigorous arguments from linear algebra. The most frequently used methods for distinguishing common and distinct components are explained in this framework and some practical examples are given...
Hybrid natural element method for viscoelasticity problems
Zhou, Yan-Kai; Ma, Yong-Qi; Dong, Yi; Feng, Wei
2015-01-01
A hybrid natural element method (HNEM) for two-dimensional viscoelasticity problems under the creep condition is proposed. The natural neighbor interpolation is used as the test function, and the discrete equation system of the HNEM for viscoelasticity problems is obtained using the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. In contrast to the natural element method (NEM), the HNEM can directly obtain the nodal stresses, which have higher precisions than those obtained using the moving least-square (MLS) approximation. Some numerical examples are given to demonstrate the validity and superiority of this HNEM. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Shanghai, China (Grant No.13ZR1415900).
Kalinin, M. S.; Krainev, M. B.
2014-07-01
The axisymmetric transport equation for galactic cosmic rays (GCR) is offered as a consequence of the three-dimensional (in spatial coordinates) equation, where three-dimensionality is caused only by the presence of the current sheet of arbitrary shape in the heliosphere. A distinctive feature of the offered equation is that it takes into account a source connected with variations in the GCR three-dimensional intensity. The equation can be used for a description of GCL modulation processes in the heliosphere.
Chlebowicz, Monika A.; Bosch, Thijs; Sabat, Artur J.; Arends, Jan Paul; Grundmann, Hajo; van Dijl, Jan Maarten; Buist, Girbe
2013-01-01
Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) is a major threat for human health and well-being. In recent years, it has become clear that livestock is a potential reservoir for MRSA, most livestock-associated isolates belonging to the ST398 lineage. Importantly, ST398 strains were also reported as
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — There is a sustained effort to develop super-lightweight composites by using polymer impregnation of carbon nanotube (CNT) sheets. This promising area is still in...
Schamp, Homer W., Jr.
1989-01-01
Describes the historic development of the periodic table from the four-element theory to the Lavoisier's table. Presents a table listing the old and new names of chemicals and the Lavoisier's table of elements. Lists two references. (YP)
Data Element Registry Services
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data Element Registry Services (DERS) is a resource for information about value lists (aka code sets / pick lists), data dictionaries, data elements, and EPA data...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Byeong Hae
1992-02-01
This book gives descriptions of basic finite element method, which includes basic finite element method and data, black box, writing of data, definition of VECTOR, definition of matrix, matrix and multiplication of matrix, addition of matrix, and unit matrix, conception of hardness matrix like spring power and displacement, governed equation of an elastic body, finite element method, Fortran method and programming such as composition of computer, order of programming and data card and Fortran card, finite element program and application of nonelastic problem.
On Casimir elements of simple Lie algebras
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
El Houari, M.
1996-08-01
In this letter, we recall briefly the generalized Casimir elements of a finite dimensional Lie algebra. We specify those of orders two and three: when the Lie algebra is simple (even semisimple), we begin by normalizing the former (the quadratic), and then we study some actions of the latter (the cubic). In particular, we introduce a graphical formalism, translating rigorously the tensorial calculus. This allows us to prove the main theorem in a graphic theoretic manner. (author). 11 refs, 1 tab
Three dimensional reductions of four-dimensional quasilinear systems
Pavlov, Maxim V.; Stoilov, Nikola M.
2017-11-01
In this paper, we show that four-dimensional quasilinear systems of first order integrable by the method of two-dimensional hydrodynamic reductions possess infinitely many three-dimensional hydrodynamic reductions, which are also integrable systems. These three-dimensional multi-component integrable systems are irreducible to two-dimensional hydrodynamic reductions in a generic case.
The Distinctive Difficulties of Disagreeable Youth
Laursen, Brett; Hafen, Christopher A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Booth-LaForce, Cathryn; Rose-Krasnor, Linda
2010-01-01
This study examines whether disagreeable youth are distinct from aggressive youth, victimized youth, and withdrawn youth. Young adolescents (120 girls and 104 boys, M = 13.59 years old) completed personality and adjustment inventories. Aggression, withdrawal, and victimization scores were derived from peer nominations (N = 807). Cluster analyses…
Child Prodigies: A Distinctive Form of Giftedness.
Feldman, David Henry
1993-01-01
This discussion sees child prodigy as a distinct form of giftedness characterized by a more focused, specialized, and domain-specific form of giftedness than seen in other gifted children. The child prodigy phenomenon demonstrates the complex relationships between psychometric intelligence in the traditional sense and expression of talent within…
Simultaneous occurrence of distinct symmetries in nuclei
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leviatan, A.
2016-01-01
We show that distinct emergent symmetries, such as partial dynamical symmetry and quasi dynamical symmetry, can occur simultaneously in the same or different eigenstates of the Hamiltonian. Implications for nuclear spectroscopy in the rare-earth region and for first-order quantum phase transitions between spherical and deformed shapes, are considered. (paper)
Sequential Dimensionality Reduction for Extracting Localized Features
Casalino, Gabriella; Gillis, Nicolas
2015-01-01
Linear dimensionality reduction techniques are powerful tools for image analysis as they allow the identification of important features in a data set. In particular, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) has become very popular as it is able to extract sparse, localized and easily interpretable features by imposing an additive combination of nonnegative basis elements. Nonnegative matrix underapproximation (NMU) is a closely related technique that has the advantage to identify features seque...
Nonlinear dimensionality reduction
Lee, John A
2007-01-01
Methods of dimensionality reduction provide a way to understand and visualize the structure of complex data sets. This book describes the methods to reduce the dimensionality of numerical databases. For each method, the description starts from intuitive ideas, develops the mathematical details, and ends by outlining the algorithmic implementation.
Transposable elements as a molecular evolutionary force
Fedoroff, N. V.
1999-01-01
This essay addresses the paradoxes of the complex and highly redundant genomes. The central theses developed are that: (1) the distinctive feature of complex genomes is the existence of epigenetic mechanisms that permit extremely high levels of both tandem and dispersed redundancy; (2) the special contribution of transposable elements is to modularize the genome; and (3) the labilizing forces of recombination and transposition are just barely contained, giving a dynamic genetic system of ever increasing complexity that verges on the chaotic.
Thermionic fuel element technology status
Holland, J. W.; Horner, M. W.; Yang, L.
1985-01-01
The results of research, conducted between the mid-1960s and 1973, on the multiconverter thermionic fuel elements (TFEs) that comprise the reactor core of an SP-100 thermionic reactor system are presented. Fueled-emitter technology, insulator technology and cell and TFE assembly technology of the prototypical TFEs which were tested in-pile and out-of-pile during these years are described. The proto-TFEs have demonstrated reproducible performance within 5 percent and no premature failures within the 1.5 yr of operation (with projected 3-yr lifetimes). The two primary life-limiting factors had been identified as thermionic emitter dimensional increase due to interactions with the fuel and electrical insulator structural damage from fast neutrons. Multiple options for extending TFE lifetimes to 7 yr or longer are available and will be investigated in the 1984-1985 SP-100 program for resolution of critical technology issues. Design diagrams and test graphs are included.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Camilo Méndez
2014-12-01
Full Text Available Rare (Earth Elements is a cycle of works for solo piano. The cycle was inspired by James Dillon’s Book of Elements (Vol. I-V. The complete cycle will consist of 14 pieces; one for each selected rare (earth element. The chosen elements are Neodymium, Erbium, Tellurium, Hafnium, Tantalum, Technetium, Indium, Dysprosium, Lanthanium, Cerium, Europium, Terbium, Yttrium and Darmstadtium. These elements were selected due to their special atomic properties that in many cases make them extremely valuable for the development of new technologies, and also because of their scarcity. To date, only 4 works have been completed Yttrium, Technetium, Indium and Tellurium.