WorldWideScience

Sample records for dilute hydrofluoric acid

  1. Calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurbanov, A.R.; Sharipov, D.Sh.

    1993-01-01

    Present article is devoted to calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid. The calorimetric study of interaction of barium hydroxide with diluted solutions of hydrofluoric acid was carried out in order to determine the thermal effects of reactions. The results of interaction of Ba(OH) 4 ·8H 2 O with 5, 10, and 20% solution of hydrofluoric acid were considered.

  2. Hydrofluoric acid on dentin should be avoided.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loomans, B.A.C.; Mine, A.; Roeters, F.J.M.; Opdam, N.J.M.; Munck, J. De; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; Meerbeek, B. Van

    2010-01-01

    Hydrofluoric acid can be used for intra-oral repair of restorations. Contamination of tooth substrate with hydrofluoric acid cannot always be avoided. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the bonding effectiveness to hydrofluoric acid contaminated dentin by, micro-tensile bond strength testing, SEM and TEM.

  3. Neutralization method for a hydrofluoric acid release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, D.L.; Deacon, L.E.

    1976-01-01

    A laboratory investigation of methods for neutralizing a release at the hydrofluoric acid tank farm at the Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant has revealed that the best neutralization method incorporates the use of a lime/water slurry. In this method, settling of suspended solids in the liquid is enhanced by the application of sodium dodecyl sulfate, which causes immediate flocculation and settling. Dilution and expulsion of the supernatant liquid above the flocculated solids result in an effluent which meets the one part per million fluoride limit established by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. A fluoride specific ion electrode is used to determine fluoride concentration. This method presently is being adapted for use in the hydrofluoric acid tank farm and is being considered for use at the plant's fluorine generation facility. It could be adapted for use in any facility that contains fluoride in aqueous solution

  4. In hydrofluoric acid corrosion-resistant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauffe, K.

    1985-01-01

    Copper, red brass (Cu-15 Zn), special treated carbon steel and chromium-nickel-molybdenum steel represent materials of high resistivity against concentrated hydrofluoric acid ( 2 O 3 ) are employed for windows in the presence of hydrogen fluoride and/or hydrofluoric acid because of their superior optical properties and their excellent corrosion resistance. Polyethylen, polypropylene and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) belong to the cheapest corrosion resistant material for container and for coatings in the presence of hydrofluoric acid. Special polyester resins reinforced by glass or graphite fibers have been successfully employed as material for production units with hydrofluoric acid containing liquids up to 330 K. By carbon reinforced epoxy resin represents a corrosion resistant coating. Because of their excellent friction and corrosion resistance against concentrated hot hydrofluoric acid and HNO 3 -HF-solutions, PTFE and polyvinylidene fluoride are used as material for valves and axles in such environment. The expensive alloys, as for instance hastelloy and monel, are substituted more and more by fiber-reinfored polyolefins, PVC and fluorine containing polymers. (orig.) [de

  5. Characterization of the silicon/hydrofluoric acid interface: electrochemical processes under weak potential disturbance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagna, Valerie

    1996-01-01

    Within the frame of the increase of the density of integrated circuits, of simplification of cleaning processes and of improvement of control of surface reactions (for a better control of the elimination of defects and contamination risks), this research thesis first gives a large overview of previous works in the fields of silicon electrochemistry in hydrofluoric environment, of silicon chemical condition after treatment by a diluted hydrofluoric acid, of metallic contamination of silicon during cleaning with a diluted hydrofluoric acid, and of theoretical models of interpretation. Then, the author reports the development of a new electrochemical cell, and the detailed study of mono-crystalline silicon in a diluted hydrofluoric environment (electrochemical investigation, modelling of charge transfer at the interface, studies by atomic force microscopy, contamination of silicon by copper)

  6. Why is hydrofluoric acid a weak acid?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Patrick; Hébert, Martin; Marchand, Patrick

    2005-11-08

    The infrared vibrational spectra of amorphous solid water thin films doped with HF at 40 K reveal a strong continuous absorbance in the 1000-3275 cm(-1) range. This so-called Zundel continuum is the spectroscopic hallmark for aqueous protons. The extensive ionic dissociation of HF at such low temperature suggests that the reaction enthalpy remains negative down to 40 K. These observations support the interpretation that dilute HF aqueous solutions behave as weak acids largely due to the large positive reaction entropy resulting from the structure making character of the hydrated fluoride ion.

  7. Recovery of metal values and hydrofluoric acid from tantalum and columbium waste sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bielecki, E.; Romberger, K.; Bakke, B.; Hobin, M.A.; Clark, C.

    1992-01-01

    A metallurgical processing system for economically recovering metal values, such as columbium, tantalum, thorium, and uranium from dilute source solids, such as digestion sludges, by a series of steps including: (1) slurrying the source solids with dilute hydrofluoric acid to produce a solid phase and a liquid phase containing dissolved tantalum and columbium, then extracting tantalum and/or columbium from the liquid phase by means of a liquid ion-exchange process and then, additionally; (2) roasting the solid phase with sulfuric acid to recover and recycle hydrofluoric acid, leaching the roasted solids with dilute sulfuric acid to produce a disposable solid phase and a liquid phase containing thorium and uranium, and extracting thorium and uranium from the liquid phase by means of a liquid-liquid amine extraction process

  8. Evaluation of optimal reuse system for hydrofluoric acid wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Chan-Hee [Department of Environmental Engineering, Chonbuk National University, 567 Bakje-daero, Deokjin-Gu, Jeonju, Jeollabuk-Do, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeongyun [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Jinwook, E-mail: jin-wook.chung@samsung.com [R and D Center, Samsung Engineering Co. Ltd., 415-10 Woncheon-Dong, Youngtong-Gu, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do, 443-823 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Coagulation and ion exchange technologies were ineffective in removing fluoride. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Polyamide RO was more efficacious than cellulose RO due to its high flux and rejection. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Spiral wound RO system was more preferential to disc tube RO system for reusing raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Combined coagulation and RO technology can be applied to reuse raw hydrofluoric acid wastewater. - Abstract: The treatment of hydrofluoric acid (HF) wastewater has been an important environmental issue in recent years due to the extensive use of hydrofluoric acid in the chemical and electronics industries, such as semiconductor manufacturers. Coagulation/precipitation and ion exchange technologies have been used to treat HF wastewater, but these conventional methods are ineffective in removing organics, salts, and fluorides, limiting its reuse for water quality and economic feasibility. One promising alternative is reverse osmosis (RO) after lime treatment. Based on pilot-scale experiment using real HF wastewater discharged from semiconductor facility, the spiral wound module equipped with polyamide membranes has shown excellent flux and chemical cleaning cycles. Our results suggest that coagulation/precipitation and spiral wound RO constitute the optimal combination to reuse HF wastewater.

  9. Trapping proton transfer intermediates in the disordered hydrogen-bonded network of cryogenic hydrofluoric acid solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayotte, Patrick; Plessis, Sylvain; Marchand, Patrick

    2008-08-28

    A molecular-level description of the structural and dynamical aspects that are responsible for the weak acid behaviour of dilute hydrofluoric acid solutions and their unusual increased acidity at near equimolar concentrations continues to elude us. We address this problem by reporting reflection-absorption infrared spectra (RAIRS) of cryogenic HF-H(2)O binary mixtures at various compositions prepared as nanoscopic films using molecular beam techniques. Optical constants for these cryogenic solutions [n(omega) and k(omega)] are obtained by iteratively solving Fresnel equations for stratified media. Modeling of the experimental RAIRS spectra allow for a quantitative interpretation of the complex interplay between multiple reflections, optical interference and absorption effects. The evolution of the strong absorption features in the intermediate 1000-3000 cm(-1) range with increasing HF concentration reveals the presence of various ionic dissociation intermediates that are trapped in the disordered H-bonded network of cryogenic hydrofluoric acid solutions. Our findings are discussed in light of the conventional interpretation of why hydrofluoric acid is a weak acid revealing molecular-level details of the mechanism for HF ionization that may be relevant to analogous elementary processes involved in the ionization of weak acids in aqueous solutions.

  10. Fabrication of biconical tapered optical fibers using hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haddock, Hong S.; Shankar, P.M.; Mutharasan, R.

    2003-01-01

    An easy to implement procedure for etching silica fibers in biconical form useful in sensing applications is described. A simple etching reactor was developed to obtain reproducible tapers of desired diameter and length. An approach for on-line monitoring of etching using a commonly used fluorometer is demonstrated. A mathematical model describing the light power transmission is proposed, and is validated using experimental data. The data and the model indicate that the diameter of the silica fiber decreases linearly with time with hydrofluoric acid (HF, 49.5% w/w) used as etchant at room temperature. The observed etching rate was 0.0023±0.00019 s -1 , which was repeatable using the procedure developed in this study. Method to arrest etching and subsequent preservation of the small diameter taper in mildly alkaline solution was found to be successful

  11. Distillation Separation of Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric Acid from Acid Waste Using the Salt Effect on Vapor-Liquid Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Hideki; Sumoge, Iwao

    2011-03-01

    This study presents the distillation separation of hydrofluoric acid with use of the salt effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium for acid aqueous solutions and acid mixtures. The vapor-liquid equilibrium of hydrofluoric acid + salt systems (fluorite, potassium nitrate, cesium nitrate) was measured using an apparatus made of perfluoro alkylvinylether. Cesium nitrate showed a salting-out effect on the vapor-liquid equilibrium of the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Fluorite and potassium nitrate showed a salting-in effect on the hydrofluoric acid-water system. Separation of hydrofluoric acid from an acid mixture containing nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid was tested by the simple distillation treatment using the salt effect of cesium nitrate (45 mass%). An acid mixture of nitric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) and hydrofluoric acid (5.0 mol · dm-3) was prepared as a sample solution for distillation tests. The concentration of nitric acid in the first distillate decreased from 5.0 mol · dm-3 to 1.13 mol · dm-3, and the concentration of hydrofluoric acid increased to 5.41 mol · dm-3. This first distillate was further distilled without the addition of salt. The concentrations of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid in the second distillate were 7.21 mol · dm-3 and 0.46 mol · dm-3, respectively. It was thus found that the salt effect on vapor-liquid equilibrium of acid mixtures was effective for the recycling of acids from acid mixture wastes.

  12. Studies on the interference of hydrofluoric acid and phosphoric acid in the determination of uranium using Ti(III) reduction method-biamperometry end point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiny, T.S.; Rajalakshmi, A.; Phal, D.G.; Charyulu, M.M.; Ramakumar, K.L.

    2007-01-01

    Accurate and precise determination of uranium in nuclear materials is necessary for chemical quality control as well as for nuclear material accounting purposes. Different types of uranium samples are received for the measurements. Depending upon the nature of the sample dissolution procedure is selected. Mixed oxide samples of uranium and plutonium, for example, are dissolved in nitric acid containing hydrofluoric acid under IR lamp. The fluoride ions are removed by repeated evaporation of the solution. However, some fluoride ions are left in the solutions depending on the conditions of evaporation. Uranium samples and alloy samples are dissolved in dilute hydrochloric acid. The rate of dissolution depends on concentration of acid. Sometimes a mixture of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid is used for the dissolution metal alloy samples, which may contain silica. Another method of dissolution of these samples is using a mixture of phosphoric acid and 1% hydrofluoric acid. It is necessary to study the interference of hydrofluoric acid and phosphoric acid on the determination of uranium

  13. Development of a continuous process for adjusting nitrate, zirconium, and free hydrofluoric acid concentrations in zirconium fuel dissolver product

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cresap, D.A.; Halverson, D.S.

    1993-04-01

    In the Fluorinel Dissolution Process (FDP) upgrade, excess hydrofluoric acid in the dissolver product must be complexed with aluminum nitrate (ANN) to eliminate corrosion concerns, adjusted with nitrate to facilitate extraction, and diluted with water to ensure solution stability. This is currently accomplished via batch processing in large vessels. However, to accommodate increases in projected throughput and reduce water production in a cost-effective manner, a semi-continuous system (In-line Complexing (ILC)) has been developed. The major conclusions drawn from tests demonstrating the feasibility of this concept are given in this report

  14. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Study of High-Alloy Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-01-01

    A corrosion study involving high-alloy materials and concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF) was conducted in support of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Conversion Project (CP). The purpose of the test was to obtain a greater understanding of the corrosion rates of materials of construction currently used in the CP vs those of proposed replacement parts. Results of the study will help formulate a change-out schedule for CP parts. The CP will convert slightly less than 40 kg of 233 U from a gas (UF 6 ) sorbed on sodium fluoride pellets to a more stable oxide (U 3 O 8 ). One by-product of the conversion is the formation of concentrated HF. Six moles of highly corrosive HF are produced for each mole of UF 6 converted. This acid is particularly corrosive to most metals, elastomers, and silica-containing materials. A common impurity found in 233 U is 232 U. This impurity isotope has several daughters that make the handling of the 233 U difficult. Traps of 233 U may have radiation fields of up to 400 R at contact, a situation that makes the process of changing valves or working on the CP more challenging. It is also for this reason that a comprehensive part change-out schedule must be established. Laboratory experiments involving the repeated transfer of HF through 1/2-in. metal tubing and valves have proven difficult due to the corrosivity of the HF upon contact with all wetted parts. Each batch of HF is approximately 1.5 L of 33 wt% HF and is transferred most often as a vapor under vacuum and at temperatures of up to 250 C. Materials used in the HF side of the CP include Hastelloy C-276 and Monel 400 tubing, Haynes 230 and alloy C-276 vessels, and alloy 400 valve bodies with Inconel (alloy 600) bellows. The chemical compositions of the metals discussed in this report are displayed in Table 1. Of particular concern are the almost 30 vendor-supplied UG valves that have the potential for exposure to HF. These valves have been proven to have a finite life due to failure

  15. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Study of High-Alloy Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osborne, P.E.

    2002-09-11

    A corrosion study involving high-alloy materials and concentrated hydrofluoric acid (HF) was conducted in support of the Molten Salt Reactor Experiment Conversion Project (CP). The purpose of the test was to obtain a greater understanding of the corrosion rates of materials of construction currently used in the CP vs those of proposed replacement parts. Results of the study will help formulate a change-out schedule for CP parts. The CP will convert slightly less than 40 kg of {sup 233}U from a gas (UF{sub 6}) sorbed on sodium fluoride pellets to a more stable oxide (U{sub 3}O{sub 8}). One by-product of the conversion is the formation of concentrated HF. Six moles of highly corrosive HF are produced for each mole of UF{sub 6} converted. This acid is particularly corrosive to most metals, elastomers, and silica-containing materials. A common impurity found in {sup 233}U is {sup 232}U. This impurity isotope has several daughters that make the handling of the {sup 233}U difficult. Traps of {sup 233}U may have radiation fields of up to 400 R at contact, a situation that makes the process of changing valves or working on the CP more challenging. It is also for this reason that a comprehensive part change-out schedule must be established. Laboratory experiments involving the repeated transfer of HF through 1/2-in. metal tubing and valves have proven difficult due to the corrosivity of the HF upon contact with all wetted parts. Each batch of HF is approximately 1.5 L of 33 wt% HF and is transferred most often as a vapor under vacuum and at temperatures of up to 250 C. Materials used in the HF side of the CP include Hastelloy C-276 and Monel 400 tubing, Haynes 230 and alloy C-276 vessels, and alloy 400 valve bodies with Inconel (alloy 600) bellows. The chemical compositions of the metals discussed in this report are displayed in Table 1. Of particular concern are the almost 30 vendor-supplied UG valves that have the potential for exposure to HF. These valves have been

  16. Mass transfer modeling on the separation of tantalum and niobium from dilute hydrofluoric media through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buachuang, Duenphen; Ramakul, Prakorn; Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun; Pancharoen, Ura

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Simultaneous separation of tantalum and niobium from the mixture solution. → An extraction through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM). → The effect on tantalum removal found from Aliquat 336. → The mathematical model focusing on the extraction side of the liquid membrane system was presented. → The mass transfer coefficients of the aqueous feed (k i ) and the organic membrane phase (k m ) for the system were estimated as 1.19 x 10 -5 and 1.39 x 10 -7 cm/s, respectively. → Experimental data and theoretical values were found to be in good agreement when the concentration of Aliquat336 in the membrane phase was below 4% (v/v). - Abstract: The separation of a mixture of tantalum and niobium in dilute hydrofluoric media via hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was examined. Quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat336) diluted in kerosene was used as a carrier. The various effects on the transport and separation of tantalum and niobium were studied: concentration of hydrofluoric acid in the feed solution, concentration of the carrier (Aliquat336) in the membrane phase, types of stripping solutions (NaClO 4 , thiourea and HCl) and their concentration. The extraction of tantalum in the membrane phase from 0.3 M hydrofluoric acid (HF) by 3% (v/v) Aliquat336 was achieved by leaving niobium in the feed solution. Quantitative recovery of tantalum was achieved by 0.2 M NaClO 4 . Furthermore, a mathematical model focusing on the extraction side of the liquid membrane system was presented in order to predict the concentration of tantalum at different times. The mass transfer coefficients of the aqueous feed (k i ) and the organic membrane phase (k m ) were estimated as 1.19 x 10 -5 and 1.39 x 10 -7 cm/s, respectively. Therefore, the mass transfer limiting step is the diffusion of tantalum-Aliquat336 through the liquid membrane. Moreover, mass transfer modeling was performed and the validity of the developed model evaluated. Experimental

  17. Mass transfer modeling on the separation of tantalum and niobium from dilute hydrofluoric media through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buachuang, Duenphen [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Ramakul, Prakorn [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Leepipatpiboon, Natchanun [Chromatography and Separation Research Unit, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Patumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand); Pancharoen, Ura, E-mail: ura.p.@chula.ac.th [Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2011-09-29

    Highlights: > Simultaneous separation of tantalum and niobium from the mixture solution. > An extraction through a hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM). > The effect on tantalum removal found from Aliquat 336. > The mathematical model focusing on the extraction side of the liquid membrane system was presented. > The mass transfer coefficients of the aqueous feed (k{sub i}) and the organic membrane phase (k{sub m}) for the system were estimated as 1.19 x 10{sup -5} and 1.39 x 10{sup -7} cm/s, respectively. > Experimental data and theoretical values were found to be in good agreement when the concentration of Aliquat336 in the membrane phase was below 4% (v/v). - Abstract: The separation of a mixture of tantalum and niobium in dilute hydrofluoric media via hollow fiber supported liquid membrane (HFSLM) was examined. Quaternary ammonium salt (Aliquat336) diluted in kerosene was used as a carrier. The various effects on the transport and separation of tantalum and niobium were studied: concentration of hydrofluoric acid in the feed solution, concentration of the carrier (Aliquat336) in the membrane phase, types of stripping solutions (NaClO{sub 4}, thiourea and HCl) and their concentration. The extraction of tantalum in the membrane phase from 0.3 M hydrofluoric acid (HF) by 3% (v/v) Aliquat336 was achieved by leaving niobium in the feed solution. Quantitative recovery of tantalum was achieved by 0.2 M NaClO{sub 4}. Furthermore, a mathematical model focusing on the extraction side of the liquid membrane system was presented in order to predict the concentration of tantalum at different times. The mass transfer coefficients of the aqueous feed (k{sub i}) and the organic membrane phase (k{sub m}) were estimated as 1.19 x 10{sup -5} and 1.39 x 10{sup -7} cm/s, respectively. Therefore, the mass transfer limiting step is the diffusion of tantalum-Aliquat336 through the liquid membrane. Moreover, mass transfer modeling was performed and the validity of the

  18. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: No electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurosaki, Hiromu; Mueller, Rebecca J.; Lambert, Susan B.; Rao, Govind R.

    2016-01-01

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. Lastly, it provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily.

  19. Alternate method of source preparation for alpha spectrometry: no electrodeposition, no hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiromu Kurosaki; Lambert, S.B.; Rao, G.R.; Mueller, R.J.

    2017-01-01

    An alternate method of preparing actinide alpha counting sources was developed in place of electrodeposition or lanthanide fluoride micro-precipitation. The method uses lanthanide hydroxide micro-precipitation to avoid the use of hazardous hydrofluoric acid. It provides a quicker, simpler, and safer way of preparing actinide alpha counting sources in routine, production-type laboratories that process many samples daily. (author)

  20. Hydrofluoric Acid Corrosion Testing on Unplated and Electroless Gold-Plated Samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osborne, P.E.; Icenhour, A.S.; Del Cul, G.D.

    2000-01-01

    The Molten Salt Reactor Experiment (MSRE) remediation requires that almost 40 kg of uranium hexafluoride (UF6) be converted to uranium oxide (UO). In the process of this conversion, six moles of hydrofluoric acid (HP) are produced for each mole of UF6 converted

  1. Can 10% hydrofluoric acid be used for reconditioning of orthodontic brackets?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pompeo, Daniela D; Rosário, Henrique D; Lopes, Beatriz Mv; Cesar, Paulo F; Paranhos, Luiz Renato

    2016-01-01

    Bracket debonding is a common problem during orthodontic treatment. This type of failure is associated to masticatory forces, poor adhesion, and the need for repositioning the piece. The objective of this work was to compare the shear bond strength of debonded brackets that were reconditioned using different protocols (alumina blasting versus hydrofluoric etching). This was an in vitro experimental study with 45 stainless steel orthodontic brackets. They were randomly divided into three groups: (1) New brackets (n = 15), (2) brackets reconditioned using 10% hydrofluoric acid for 60 s (n = 15), and (3) brackets reconditioned by aluminum oxide blasting until complete removal of the remaining resin (n = 15). In Groups 2 and 3, the insertion of composite resin proceeded in two stages to simulate a type of bracket failure in which the bonding resin was left at the bracket base. For the shear test, the assembly composed by the metallic support, and specimen was taken to the Instron universal testing machine in which the specimens were loaded using a semicircle-shaped active tip in the region of the bonding interface parallel to the surface of the bracket at a speed of 0.5 mm/min. The data were subjected to D'Agostino's normality test to have their distribution checked. Analysis of variance and Tukey's test (P brackets) showed higher bond strength than that obtained for the group treated with hydrofluoric acid (Group 2, P brackets. Nevertheless, the reconditioning technique using 10% fluoridric acid for 60 s was not efficient for clinical use.

  2. Separation of metal ions by anion exchange in mixtures of hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, J.P.

    1978-12-01

    Distribution coefficients were determined for the adsorption of more than 40 elements on anion-exchange resins from mixtures of HCl (0.1 to 12M) and HF (0.1-8M). Two resins, Dowex 1 x 10, 200 to 400 mesh and Dowex 1 x 4, 100 to 200 mesh, were used. Distribution coefficients were also determined for the adsorption of many elements on both resins from 0.1 to 12M HCl and 0.1 to 12M HF. Anion exchange in the presence of HF was found useful for separating impurities from various materials for their subsequent determination, and specific procedures used in our spectrochemical laboratory for this purpose are outlined. The results of a literature search on the use of anion exchange in hydrofluoric acid and fluoride-containing media are presented in an extensive bibliography. 404 references, 9 tables

  3. Determination of traces of fluorine and hydrofluoric acid in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francois, H.; Grand-Clement, A.M.; Faltot, G.

    1963-01-01

    As some publications highlighted hazards related to the presence of dispersed fluorine and hydrofluoric acid in the atmosphere, the authors, after a brief recall of some measurement devices presented in some publications, present an experimental set-up which aims at measuring traces of these compounds in the atmosphere. They notably describe the preparation of a controlled fluorine atmosphere, discuss the efficiency of the absorption-based trap, report the study of the electrolytic analysis cell, discuss its calibration. They also report the study of the influence of temperature and of the presence of disturbing ions

  4. Liquid droplet sensing using twisted optical fiber couplers fabricated by hydrofluoric acid flow etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Gyeongho; Jung, Youngho; Yu, Kyoungsik

    2017-04-01

    We report a directional-coupler-based refractive index sensor and its cost-effective fabrication method using hydrofluoric acid droplet wet-etching and surface-tension-driven liquid flows. The proposed fiber sensor consists of a pair of twisted tapered optical fibers with low excess losses. The fiber cores in the etched microfiber region are exposed to the surrounding medium for efficient interaction with the guided light. We observe that the etching-based low-loss fiber-optic sensors can measure the water droplet volume by detecting the refractive index changes of the surrounding medium around the etched fiber core region.

  5. Self-etching ceramic primer versus hydrofluoric acid etching: Etching efficacy and bonding performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Damanhoury, Hatem M; Gaintantzopoulou, Maria D

    2018-01-01

    This study assessed the effect of pretreatment of hybrid and glass ceramics using a self-etching primer on the shear bond strength (SBS) and surface topography, in comparison to pretreatment with hydrofluoric acid and silane. 40 rectangular discs from each ceramic material (IPS e.max CAD;EM, Vita Mark II;VM, Vita Enamic;VE), were equally divided (n=10) and assigned to one of four surface pretreatment methods; etching with 4.8% hydrofluoric acid followed by Monobond plus (HFMP), Monobond etch & prime (Ivoclar Vivadent) (MEP), No treatment (NT) as negative control and Monobond plus (Ivoclar Vivadent) with no etching (MP) as positive control. SBS of resin cement (Multilink-N, Ivoclar Vivadent) to ceramic surfaces was tested following a standard protocol. Surface roughness was evaluated using an Atomic force microscope (AFM). Surface topography and elemental analysis were analyzed using SEM/EDX. Data were analyzed with two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Bonferroni test at a significance level of α=0.05. Pretreatment with HFMP resulted in higher SBS and increased surface roughness in comparison to MEP and MP. Regardless the method of surface pretreatment, the mean SBS values of EM ceramic was significantly higher (pceramics for resin-luting cementation. Copyright © 2017 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Correlation of film density and wet etch rate in hydrofluoric acid of plasma enhanced atomic layer deposited silicon nitride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Provine, J., E-mail: jprovine@stanford.edu; Schindler, Peter; Kim, Yongmin; Walch, Steve P.; Kim, Hyo Jin [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Kim, Ki-Hyun [Manufacturing Technology Center, Samsung Electronics, Suwon, Gyeonggi-Do (Korea, Republic of); Prinz, Fritz B. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    The continued scaling in transistors and memory elements has necessitated the development of atomic layer deposition (ALD) of silicon nitride (SiN{sub x}), particularly for use a low k dielectric spacer. One of the key material properties needed for SiN{sub x} films is a low wet etch rate (WER) in hydrofluoric (HF) acid. In this work, we report on the evaluation of multiple precursors for plasma enhanced atomic layer deposition (PEALD) of SiN{sub x} and evaluate the film’s WER in 100:1 dilutions of HF in H{sub 2}O. The remote plasma capability available in PEALD, enabled controlling the density of the SiN{sub x} film. Namely, prolonged plasma exposure made films denser which corresponded to lower WER in a systematic fashion. We determined that there is a strong correlation between WER and the density of the film that extends across multiple precursors, PEALD reactors, and a variety of process conditions. Limiting all steps in the deposition to a maximum temperature of 350 °C, it was shown to be possible to achieve a WER in PEALD SiN{sub x} of 6.1 Å/min, which is similar to WER of SiN{sub x} from LPCVD reactions at 850 °C.

  7. Hydrofluoric acid burn resulting from ignition of gas from a compressed air duster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Kevin N; Jones, LouAnn; Caruso, Daniel M

    2003-01-01

    A young female suffered burns to her hand after the ignition of gas from a compressed air duster. After debridement and dressing, the patient continued to have pain out of proportion to injury that was refractory to intravenous morphine. The material safety data sheet revealed that the chemical used was 1,1-difluoroethane. High temperatures can cause decompensation to form hydrofluoric acid. Calcium gluconate gel was applied topically to the patient's burns, which caused prompt and complete relief of her pain. A review of different compressed air duster products revealed that the main ingredient in each was a halogenated hydrocarbon. Although not considered flammable, all products have warnings regarding the possibility of ignition under various circumstances. Ignition of the gas in compressed air cleaners not only can cause flame burns, it can also cause chemical damage from exposure to hydrogen and fluoride ions. Prompt recognition and treatment is necessary to prevent severe injury.

  8. Rolled-Up Nanotech: Illumination-Controlled Hydrofluoric Acid Etching of AlAs Sacrificial Layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costescu Ruxandra

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The effect of illumination on the hydrofluoric acid etching of AlAs sacrificial layers with systematically varied thicknesses in order to release and roll up InGaAs/GaAs bilayers was studied. For thicknesses of AlAs below 10 nm, there were two etching regimes for the area under illumination: one at low illumination intensities, in which the etching and releasing proceeds as expected and one at higher intensities in which the etching and any releasing are completely suppressed. The “etch suppression” area is well defined by the illumination spot, a feature that can be used to create heterogeneously etched regions with a high degree of control, shown here on patterned samples. Together with the studied self-limitation effect, the technique offers a way to determine the position of rolled-up micro- and nanotubes independently from the predefined lithographic pattern.

  9. Kinetic of the COLUMBO-TANTALITE dissolution in aqueous solutions of hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodriguez, Mario; Quiroga, Oscar; Ruiz, Maria del Carmen

    2003-01-01

    The dissolution rate of a columbo-tantalite of the San Luis Province in aqueous solutions of hydrofluoric acid has been studied.Experiments at different temperatures were carried out in a pressure reactor.The experimental results show that the mineral dissolution increases with the reaction time.This effect is greater when the temperature increases from 348 up to 396 K, but it is little 493 K. The experimental data were treated with different models, which have been deduced for the kinetic study of solid-fluid non-catalytic heterogeneous reactions. As a result, the better model that fit the experimental data is a model based on the nucleation and growth theory.This model is physically according to the attack observed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDXS) on the mineral residues.These residues show an irregular located-type attack

  10. Occupational Hydrofluoric Acid Injury from Car and Truck Washing--Washington State, 2001-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeb-Whitaker, Carolyn K; Eckert, Carly M; Anderson, Naomi J; Bonauto, David K

    2015-08-21

    Exposure to hydrofluoric acid (HF) causes corrosive chemical burns and potentially fatal systemic toxicity. Car and truck wash cleaning products, rust removers, and aluminum brighteners often contain HF because it is efficient in breaking down roadway matter. The death of a truck wash worker from ingestion of an HF-based wash product and 48 occupational HF burn cases associated with car and truck washing in Washington State during 2001-2013 are summarized in this report. Among seven hospitalized workers, two required surgery, and all but one worker returned to the job. Among 48 injured workers, job titles were primarily auto detailer, car wash worker, truck wash worker, and truck driver. Because HF exposure can result in potentially severe health outcomes, efforts to identify less hazardous alternatives to HF-based industrial wash products are warranted.

  11. Investigation of Enhanced Leaching of Lithium from α-Spodumene Using Hydrofluoric and Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Guo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available An effective method using hydrofluoric and sulfuric acid was proposed to enhance the leaching of lithium from α-spodumene, without calcination that is subjected to 1000 °C for phase transformation. The thermodynamic feasibility of the reactions was firstly verified. Dissolution conditions were tested to maximize the leaching efficiency of lithium and with efficient utilization of hydrofluoric acid (HF served as evaluation criteria. The results showed that 96% of lithium could be transferred into lixivium with an ore/HF/H2SO4 ratio of 1:3:2 (g/mL/mL, at 100 °C for 3 h. Due to the fact that HF molecules were the main reaction form, the dissolution behaviors were theoretically represented and investigated by dissolution in HF/H2SO4. When combined with chemical elements analyses and characterizations, the results of the dissolution behaviors revealed that α-spodumene and albite were preferentially dissolved over quartz. Insoluble fluoroaluminates, such as AlF3, cryolite (Na3AlF6 and cryolithionite (Na3Li3Al2F12, were generated and might be further partially dissolved by H2SO4. Fluorosilicates, such as K2SiF6, Na2SiF6, or KNaSiF6, were also generated as a part of the insoluble residues. This work provides fundamental insight into the role of HF/H2SO4 played in the dissolution of α-spodumene, and sheds light on a novel and promising process to efficiently extract lithium.

  12. Determination of vanadium in stainless steel and Ni-base alloys by NBPHA spectrophotometric method combined with chloroform extraction separation in media of sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Fumiaki; Ohuchi, Yoshifusa; Ochiai, Kenichi; Motoyama, Sigeji; Tsutsumi, Ken-ichi

    1975-01-01

    A new method of rapid vanadium analysis was proposed. In this method, vanadium is directly extracted and determined from sample solutions in sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid. The interference of the coexisting elements can be ignored in this method. Take one gram of sample into a 200 ml beaker, and add 30 ml of aqua regia. Then heat and dissolve it, and add 14 ml of sulfuric acid (1+1) and 5 ml of phosphoric acid. After cooling, dissolve the salts with a small amount of water. Thereafter, transfer it with use of water into a polyethylene separatory funnel, add 10 ml of 46% hydrofluoric acid, and dilute to 50 ml. Then, add 4 ml iron (II) ammonium sulfate solution (10%) and mix it thoroughly. Allow to stand for two or three minutes, add 10 ml of 45% ammonium persulfate solution and mix it thoroughly again. Allow to stand for about five minutes. Then, add exactly 20 ml of BPHA-chloroform solution (0.1%) and shake and mix it vigorously for two minutes. After a while, transfer the chloroform complex into a 10 mm cell through a piece of absorbent cotton. Then, determine vanadium by measuring the absorbance at the wave length of 530 nm against a chloroform reference. This method can be applicable to the analysis of vanadium in other metals and alloys than stainless steel and Ni-base alloys. (Iwakiri, K.)

  13. Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Time on Titanium Topography, Chemistry, Wettability, and Cell Adhesion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Zahran

    Full Text Available Titanium implant surface etching has proven an effective method to enhance cell attachment. Despite the frequent use of hydrofluoric (HF acid, many questions remain unresolved, including the optimal etching time and its effect on surface and biological properties. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of HF acid etching time on Ti topography, surface chemistry, wettability, and cell adhesion. These data are useful to design improved acid treatment and obtain an improved cell response. The surface topography, chemistry, dynamic wetting, and cell adhesiveness of polished Ti surfaces were evaluated after treatment with HF acid solution for 0, 2; 3, 5, 7, or 10 min, revealing a time-dependent effect of HF acid on their topography, chemistry, and wetting. Roughness and wetting increased with longer etching time except at 10 min, when roughness increased but wetness decreased. Skewness became negative after etching and kurtosis tended to 3 with longer etching time. Highest cell adhesion was achieved after 5-7 min of etching time. Wetting and cell adhesion were reduced on the highly rough surfaces obtained after 10-min etching time.

  14. Light Enhanced Hydrofluoric Acid Passivation: A Sensitive Technique for Detecting Bulk Silicon Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Nicholas E.

    2016-01-01

    A procedure to measure the bulk lifetime (>100 µsec) of silicon wafers by temporarily attaining a very high level of surface passivation when immersing the wafers in hydrofluoric acid (HF) is presented. By this procedure three critical steps are required to attain the bulk lifetime. Firstly, prior to immersing silicon wafers into HF, they are chemically cleaned and subsequently etched in 25% tetramethylammonium hydroxide. Secondly, the chemically treated wafers are then placed into a large plastic container filled with a mixture of HF and hydrochloric acid, and then centered over an inductive coil for photoconductance (PC) measurements. Thirdly, to inhibit surface recombination and measure the bulk lifetime, the wafers are illuminated at 0.2 suns for 1 min using a halogen lamp, the illumination is switched off, and a PC measurement is immediately taken. By this procedure, the characteristics of bulk silicon defects can be accurately determined. Furthermore, it is anticipated that a sensitive RT surface passivation technique will be imperative for examining bulk silicon defects when their concentration is low (<1012 cm-3). PMID:26779939

  15. A review of treatment strategies for hydrofluoric acid burns: current status and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingang; Zhang, Yuanhai; Ni, Liangfang; You, Chuangang; Ye, Chunjiang; Jiang, Ruiming; Liu, Liping; Liu, Jia; Han, Chunmao

    2014-12-01

    Hydrofluoric acid (HF), a dangerous inorganic acid, can cause severe corrosive effects and systemic toxicity. HF enters the human body via where it contacts, such as skin and mucosa, alimentary and respiratory tracts, and ocular surfaces. In the recent years, the incidence of HF burn has tended to increase over time. The injury mechanism of HF is associated primarily with the massive absorption of HF and the release of hydrogen ions. Correct diagnosis and timely treatment are especially important for HF burns. The critical procedure to treat HF burn is to prevent on-going HF absorption, and block the progressive destruction caused by fluoride ions. Due to the distinct characteristics of HF burns, the topical treatment, as well as systemic support, has been emphasised. Whereas, management of patients with HF burns remains a great challenge in some situations. To date, there has been no widely accepted protocol for the rescue of HF burns, partly due to the diversity of HF burns. This paper overviews the current status and problems of treatment strategies for HF burns, for the purpose of promoting the future researches and improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Study of the Extraction Kinetics of Lithium by Leaching β-Spodumene with Hydrofluoric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo D. Rosales

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Parameters affecting the kinetics of the dissolution of β-spodumene with hydrofluoric acid have been investigated. The experimental tests were carried out in a closed vessel. The influence of several parameters, such as stirring speed, temperature, and reaction time were studied in order to deduce the kinetics of the dissolution reaction. The other parameters, particle size −45 μm; HF concentration 4% v/v, and the solid–liquid ratio 0.95% w/v were kept constant. The results indicate that the stirring speed does not have an important effect on the dissolution of the mineral above 330 rpm. The extent of the leaching of β-spodumene increases with temperature and reaction time augmentations. Scanning electron microscope (SEM analyses of some residues in which the conversion was lower than 30% indicated a selective attack on certain zones of the particle. The treatment of the experimental data was carried out using the Modelado software. The model that best represents the dissolution of the mineral is the following: ln(1 − X = −b1 [ln(1 + b2t − b2t/(1 + b2t]. This model is based on “nucleation and growth of nuclei” theory, and describes the style of attack physically observed by SEM on the residues.

  17. Osteogenic activity of titanium surfaces with hierarchical micro/nano-structures obtained by hydrofluoric acid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang J

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Jianfei Liang,1,* Shanshan Xu,1,* Mingming Shen,2,* Bingkun Cheng,3 Yongfeng Li,4 Xiangwei Liu,1 Dongze Qin,1 Anuj Bellare,5 Liang Kong1 1State Key Laboratory of Military Stomatology & National Clinical Research Center for Oral Disease & Shaanxi Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, The Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, 2Department of Stomatology, Xinhua Hospital of Beijing, Beijing, 3Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, The Second Hospital of Hebei Medical University, Shijiazhuang, 4Department of Stomatology, Chinese PLA 532 Hospital, Huangshan, People’s Republic of China; 5Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: An easier method for constructing the hierarchical micro-/nano-structures on the surface of dental implants in the clinic is needed. In this study, three different titanium surfaces with microscale grooves (width 0.5–1, 1–1.5, and 1.5–2 µm and nanoscale nanoparticles (diameter 20–30, 30–50, and 50–100 nm, respectively were obtained by treatment with different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid (HF and at different etching times (1%, 3 min; 0.5%, 12 min; and 1.5%, 12 min, respectively; denoted as groups HF1, HF2, and HF3. The biological response to the three different titanium surfaces was evaluated by in vitro human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (hBMMSC experiments and in vivo animal experiments. The results showed that cell adhesion, proliferation, alkaline phosphatase activity, and mineralization of hBMMSCs were increased in the HF3 group. After the different surface implants were inserted into the distal femurs of 40 rats, the bone–implant contact in groups HF1, HF2, and HF3 was 33.17%±2.2%, 33.82%±3.42%, and 41.04%±3.08%, respectively. Moreover, the maximal pullout

  18. Influence of hydrofluoric acid treatment on electroless deposition of Au clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachela G. Milazzo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The morphology of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs deposited on a (100 silicon wafer by simple immersion in a solution containing a metal salt and hydrofluoric acid (HF is altered by HF treatment both before and after deposition. The gold clusters are characterized by the presence of flat regions and quasispherical particles consistent with the layer-by-layer or island growth modes, respectively. The cleaning procedure, including HF immersion prior to deposition, affects the predominantly occurring gold structures. Flat regions, which are of a few tens of nanometers long, are present after immersion for 10 s. The three-dimensional (3D clusters are formed after a cleaning procedure of 4 min, which results in a large amount of spherical particles with a diameter of ≈15 nm and in a small percentage of residual square layers of a few nanometers in length. The samples were also treated with HF after the deposition and we found out a general thickening of flat regions, as revealed by TEM and AFM analysis. This result is in contrast to the coalescence observed in similar experiments performed with Ag. It is suggested that the HF dissolves the silicon oxide layer formed on top of the thin flat clusters and promotes the partial atomic rearrangement of the layered gold atoms, driven by a reduction of the surface energy. The X-ray diffraction investigation indicated changes in the crystalline orientation of the flat regions, which partially lose their initially heteroepitaxial relationship with the substrate. A postdeposition HF treatment for almost 70 s has nearly the same effect of long duration, high temperature annealing. The process presented herein could be beneficial to change the spectral response of nanoparticle arrays and to improve the conversion efficiency of hybrid photovoltaic devices.

  19. Corrosion of stainless steels and nickel-base alloys in solutions of nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horn, E.M.; Renner, M.

    1992-01-01

    Reactions involving nitric acid may always result in the contamination of this acid with fluorides. In highly concentrted nitric acid, the presence of small amounts of HF will substantially reduce the corrosion of metallic materials. Mixtures consisting of hydrofluoric acid and hypo-azeotropic nitric acid on the other hand will strongly attack: the metal loss will markedly increase with increasing HNO 3 and HF concentrations as well as with rising temperatures. The investigation covered 12 stainless steel grades and nickel-base alloys. With constant HNO 3 content, corrosion rates will rise linearly when increasing the HF concentration. With constant HF concentration (0,25 M), corrosion rates will increase rapidly with increasing nitric acid concentration (from 0.3 M to 14.8 M). This can best be described by superimposing a linear function and a hyperbolic function that is reflecting the change in the HNO 3 content. Alloys containing as much chromium as possible (up to 46 wt.%) will exhibit the best corrosion resistance. Alloy NiCr30FeMo (Hastelloy alloy G-30) proved to be well suitable in this investigation. (orig.) [de

  20. Spectrographic determination of lanthanides in high-purity uranium compounds, after chromatographic separation by alumina-hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lordello, A.R.; Abrao, A.

    1979-01-01

    A method is presented for the determination of fourteen rare earth elements in high-purity uranium compounds by emission spectrography. The rare earths are chromatographically separated from uranium by using alumina-hydrofluoric acid. Lanthanum is used both as collector and internal standard. The technique of excitation involves a total consumption of the sample in a 17 ampere direct current arc. The range of determination is about 0.005 to 0.5 μg/g uranium. The coefficient of variation for Pr, Ho, Dy, Er, Tm, Lu, Gd and Tb amounts to 10%. (Author) [pt

  1. Dissolution of thorium/uranium mixed oxide in nitric acid-hydrofluoric acid solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filgueiras, S.A.C.

    1984-01-01

    The dissolution process of thorium oxide and mixed uranium-thorium oxide is studied, as a step of the head-end of the fuel reprocessing. An extensive bibliography was analysed, concerning the main aspects of the system, specially the most important process variables. Proposed mechanisms and models for the thorium oxide dissolution are presented. The laboratory tests were performed in two phases: at first, powdered thoria was used as the material to be dissolved. The objective was to know how changes in he concentrations of the dissolvent solution components HNO 3 , HF and Al(NO 3 ) 3 affect the dissolution rate. The tests were planned according to the fractional factorial method. Thes results showed that it is advantageous to work with powdered material, since the reaction occurs rapidly. And, if the Thorex solution (HNO 3 13M, HF 0.05M and Al(NO 3 ) 3 0.10M) is a suitable dissolvent, it was verified that it is possible to reduce the concentration of either nitric or fluoridric acid, without reducing the reaction rate to an undesirable value. It was also observed significant interaction between the components of the dissolvent solution. In the second phase of the tests, (Th, 5%U)O 2 sintered pellets were used. The main goals were to know the pellets dissolution behaviour and to compare the results for different pellets among themselves. It was observed that the metallurgical history of the material strongly influences its dissolution, specially the density and the microstructure. It was also studied how the (Th,U)O 2 mass/Thorex solution volume ratio affects the time needed to obtain an 1 M Th/liter solution. The activation energy for the reaction was obtained. (Author) [pt

  2. Shear bond strength of metal brackets to feldspathic porcelain treated by Nd:YAG laser and hydrofluoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mohammad Hashem; Sobouti, Farhad; Etemadi, Ardavan; Chiniforush, Nasim; Shariati, Mahsa

    2015-02-01

    Adult orthodontic treatment requires bonding orthodontic attachment to dental restorations. Ceramics are commonly used as esthetic restorative materials for the crowns and bridges. The present study evaluated the shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets to the feldspathic porcelain surfaces following conditioning by different powers of neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser and hydrofluoric acid as a conventional method. Seventy-two glazed porcelain samples were prepared and randomly attributed to six equal groups of 12. In the conventional hydrofluoric (HF) group, the specimens were etched by 9.6% hydrofluoric acid for 4 min. In laser groups, samples were conditioned by 0.75-, 1-, 1.25-, 1.5-, and 2-W Nd:YAG laser for 10 s. Metal brackets were bonded to porcelain samples and after being stored in distilled water for 24 h, they were subjected to thermocycling for 500 cycles. The debonding was carried out by a Zwick testing machine. The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tamhane multiple comparisons tests. The mean ± SD of the shear bond strength in the laser group 0.75, 1, 1.25, 1.5, and 2 W and HF group was 2.2 ± 0.9, 4.2 ± 1.1, 4.9 ± 2.4, 7 ± 1.7, 9.6 ± 2.7, and 9.4 ± 2.5, respectively. Together with the increased power of laser, the mean shear bond strength was increased continuously and no significant differences were found between the HF group and the laser groups with power of 1.5 or 2 W. Also, there was no significant difference between all test groups in ARI scores. There was no significant difference between bond strength of laser groups with power of 1.5 and 2 W and HF-etched group. So, Nd:YAG laser with appropriate parameters can be used as an alternative method for porcelain etching.

  3. 1 Molar concentration hydrofluoric acid effect at 400 C in the corrosion resistance of alloys containing nickel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras P, H.

    1992-01-01

    Corrosion rate for pure nickel, Inconel 600 and Monel alloys in a 1 Molar hydrofluoric acid solution at a 40 0 C temperature were determined. For contrasting purposes both SAE 304 SS and SAE 316 SS were included. As expected these Stainless Steels do not show good corrosion performance in the solution used. Several expressions correlating the weight and thickness loss v/s time were obtained. In the particular case of Monel, up to 2.021 hours, two expressions for the weight loss and three expressions for the thickness loss were obtained with a close to 1,0 correlation coefficient value. The Monel showed the best overall corrosion performance among the tested alloys. (author)

  4. An improved method for the immunological detection of mineral bound protein using hydrofluoric acid and direct capture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, O E; Collins, M J

    2000-03-06

    Immunological detection of proteins adsorbed to mineral and ceramic surfaces has proved not only difficult but controversial. Unlike the immunological detection of proteins associated with carbonate or phosphate minerals (e.g. shells and bones) proteins adsorbed to siliceous minerals cannot readily be removed by dissolution of the mineral phase. We have previously examined alternative extraction methodologies which claim to bring the protein into solution, but found none of these to be effective. Here we report a novel strategy for immuno-detection of proteins adsorbed to siliceous minerals, the Digestion and Capture Immunoassay (DACIA). The method involves the use of cold, concentrated (4M) hydrofluoric acid (HF) with the simultaneous capture of liberated protein onto a solid phase. The combination of low temperatures and surface stabilisation enables us to detect epitopes from even partially degraded proteins. The method may have a wide application in forensic, archaeological, soil and earth sciences.

  5. Investigation of holmium(5) complexing in hydrofluoric acid solutions in the presence of alkali metal and ammonium fluorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsikaeva, D.V.; Agulyanskij, A.I.; Balabanov, Yu.I.; Kuznetsov, V.Ya.; Kalinnikov, V.T.

    1989-01-01

    Method of vibrational spectroscopy is used to study niobium-containing solutions of hydrofluoric acid in the presence of alkali metal and ammonium fluorides. It is shown that NbF 6 - and NbOF 5 2- ions co-exists in solutions, therewith, additions shift equilibrium to the second complex side. Methods of IR spectroscopy, roentgenometry, crystal optics and chemical analysis are used to identify precipitated from solutions solid phases. Three new phases, which composition by chemical analysis corresponds to M 3 Nb 2 OF 11 , where M=NH 4 , K, Rb, are detected. Their roentgenometric data displayed in tetragonal crystal system with a and c parameters equalling 15,710 and 7,744; 14,877 and 7,697; 15,511 and 7,785 A respectively, are presented

  6. Chemical resistivity of self-assembled monolayer covalently attached to silicon substrate to hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, N.; Youda, S.; Hayashi, K.; Sugimura, H.; Takai, O.

    2003-06-01

    Self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) were prepared on hydrogen-terminated silicon substrates through chemical vapor deposition using 1-hexadecene (HD) as a precursor. The HD-SAMs prepared in an atmosphere under a reduced pressure (≈50 Pa) showed better chemical resistivities to hydrofluoric acid and ammonium fluoride (NH 4F) solutions than that of an organosilane SAM formed on oxide-covered silicon substrates. The surface covered with the HD-SAM was micro-patterned by vacuum ultraviolet photolithography and consequently divided into two areas terminated with HD-SAM or silicon dioxide. This micro-patterned sample was immersed in a 40 vol.% NH 4F aqueous solution. Surface images obtained by an optical microscopy clearly show that the micro-patterns of HD-SAM/silicon dioxide were successfully transferred into the silicon substrate.

  7. Interaction Studies of Dilute Aqueous Oxalic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kandpal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular conductance λm, relative viscosity and density of oxalicacid at different concentration in dilute aqueous solution were measured at 293 K.The conductance data were used to calculate the value association constant.Viscosity and density data were used to calculate the A and B coefficient ofJone-Dole equation and apparent molar volume respectively. The viscosityresults were utilized for the applicability of Modified Jone-Dole equation andStaurdinger equations. Mono oxalate anion acts, as structure maker and thesolute-solvent interaction were present in the dilute aqueous oxalic acid.

  8. Effect of etching with distinct hydrofluoric acid concentrations on the flexural strength of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochnow, Catina; Venturini, Andressa B; Grasel, Rafaella; Bottino, Marco C; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effects of distinct hydrofluoric acid concentrations on the mechanical behavior of a lithium disilicate-based glass ceramic. Bar-shaped specimens were produced from ceramic blocks (e.max CAD, Ivoclar Vivadent). The specimens were polished, chamfered, and sonically cleaned in distilled water. The specimens were randomly divided into five groups (n = 23). The HF1, HF3, HF5, and HF10 specimens were etched for 20 s with acid concentrations of 1%, 3%, 5%, and 10%, respectively, while the SC (control) sample was untreated. The etched surfaces were evaluated using a scanning electron microscope and an atomic force microscope. Finally, the roughness was measured, and 3-point bending flexural tests were performed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey's test (α = 0.05). The Weibull modulus and characteristic strength were also determined. No statistical difference in the roughness and flexural strength was determined among the groups. The structural reliabilities (Weilbull moduli) were similar for the tested groups; however, the characteristic strength of the HF1 specimen was greater than that of the HF10 specimen. Compared with the untreated ceramic, the surface roughness and flexural strength of the ceramic were unaffected upon etching, regardless of the acid concentration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 105B: 885-891, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Hydrofluoric Acid-Based Derivatization Strategy To Profile PARP-1 ADP-Ribosylation by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagné, Jean-Philippe; Langelier, Marie-France; Pascal, John M; Poirier, Guy G

    2018-06-11

    Despite significant advances in the development of mass spectrometry-based methods for the identification of protein ADP-ribosylation, current protocols suffer from several drawbacks that preclude their widespread applicability. Given the intrinsic heterogeneous nature of poly(ADP-ribose), a number of strategies have been developed to generate simple derivatives for effective interrogation of protein databases and site-specific localization of the modified residues. Currently, the generation of spectral signatures indicative of ADP-ribosylation rely on chemical or enzymatic conversion of the modification to a single mass increment. Still, limitations arise from the lability of the poly(ADP-ribose) remnant during tandem mass spectrometry, the varying susceptibilities of different ADP-ribose-protein bonds to chemical hydrolysis, or the context dependence of enzyme-catalyzed reactions. Here, we present a chemical-based derivatization method applicable to the confident identification of site-specific ADP-ribosylation by conventional mass spectrometry on any targeted amino acid residue. Using PARP-1 as a model protein, we report that treatment of ADP-ribosylated peptides with hydrofluoric acid generates a specific +132 Da mass signature that corresponds to the decomposition of mono- and poly(ADP-ribosylated) peptides into ribose adducts as a consequence of the cleavage of the phosphorus-oxygen bonds.

  10. The Effect of Hydrofluoric Acid Etching Duration on the Surface Micromorphology, Roughness, and Wettability of Dental Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramakrishnaiah, Ravikumar; Alkheraif, Abdulaziz A.; Divakar, Darshan Devang; Matinlinna, Jukka P.; Vallittu, Pekka K.

    2016-01-01

    The current laboratory study is evaluating the effect of hydrofluoric acid etching duration on the surface characteristics of five silica-based glass ceramics. Changes in the pore pattern, crystal structure, roughness, and wettability were compared and evaluated. Seventy-five rectangularly shaped specimens were cut from each material (IPS e-max™, Dentsply Celtra™, Vita Suprinity™, Vita mark II™, and Vita Suprinity FC™); the sectioned samples were finished, polished, and ultrasonically cleaned. Specimens were randomly assigned into study groups: control (no etching) and four experimental groups (20, 40, 80 and 160 s of etching). The etched surfaces’ microstructure including crystal structure, pore pattern, pore depth, and pore width was studied under a scanning electron microscope, and the surface roughness and wettability were analyzed using a non-contact surface profilometer and a contact angle measuring device, respectively. The results were statistically analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and the post hoc Tukey’s test. The results showed a significant change in the pore number, pore pattern, crystal structure, surface roughness, and wettability with increased etching duration. Etching for a short time resulted in small pores, and etching for longer times resulted in wider, irregular grooves. A significant increase in the surface roughness and wettability was observed with an increase in the etching duration. The findings also suggested a strong association between the surface roughness and wettability. PMID:27240353

  11. Using hydrofluoric acid for morphological investigations of Zoanthids (Cnidaria: Anthozoa): a critical assessment of methodology and necessity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, James Davis; Nakachi, Shu; Hirose, Mamiko; Hirose, Euichi; Hashiguchi, Shinji

    2010-10-01

    Zoanthids comprise an order of benthic, generally colonial cnidarians, which can usually be distinguished from other hexacorallians by embedded sand and detritus in their mesoglea to help strengthen their structure. These animals are becoming increasingly important research subjects in biochemistry and other research fields. Their inclusion of both calcium and silica results in the need for both decalcification and desilification for internal morphological examinations. Since the methodology of hydrofluoric acid (HF) desilification has rarely been documented in zoanthids, histological surveys for zoanthid taxonomy have often been abandoned and their taxonomy is often problematic. Recent investigations utilizing molecular methods have brought a clearer understanding of zoanthid diversity, but standardization of HF treatments are still needed to provide a link between molecular and more traditional techniques, and to properly examine specimens for which molecular methods may not be an option (e.g., formalin-preserved specimens, etc.). Here, we use both "straight" HF and, for the first time with zoanthids, buffered HF (BHF) treatments at different treatment lengths (1-48 h) on polyps from three different species of zoanthids for histological examination. Section conditions were judged based on the presence/absence of embedded detritus, drag marks, and tissue condition. Results show that the BHF treatment resulted in slightly better tissue conditions for all specimens, and suggest that desilification works well regardless of treatment time for species with smaller (polyp diameter zoanthid specimens.

  12. Can 10% hydrofluoric acid be used for reconditioning of orthodontic brackets?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela D Pompeo

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The aluminum oxide blasting technique was effective for the reconditioning of orthodontic brackets. Nevertheless, the reconditioning technique using 10% fluoridric acid for 60 s was not efficient for clinical use.

  13. Study in the behavior of several heavy elements in solvents with hydrofluoric acid base

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarnero, M.

    1988-01-01

    Initial goal was the study of two nonaqueous solvents with an HF base, one with an oxidizing character, N 2 O 4 -HF, the other with an acid character, SbF 5 -HF. For the N 2 O 4 -HF mixtures, nitric acid and NO 2 + ions exist in these media, nitric acid is dissociated for concentrations of N 2 O 4 2 + ions. Results for the dissolution of metals agree with those of Brookhaven. For uranium, the speed did not increase in clear fashion from 60-70/degree/C, but that it obeyed Arrhenius' law between 40 and 115/degree/C. UF 4 was more soluble than ZrF 4 . U(IV) passed to U(V) after dissolution. The compound obtained from UF 4 was the same as that obtained from the metal uranium, i.e., NOUF 6 . U(VI)appeared to be poorly soluble, the uranium passes into solution particularly at valence 5. For SbF 5 -HF mixtures, the corrosion speeds were much lower than in N 2 O 4 -HF mixtures. For Zr, rates of dissolution are very low, while they are very high with N 2 O 4 -HF. Th is practically not corroded at all. Al was not corroded at all up to 90/degree/C. Only U was dissolved at higher rates than Th and Zr; however, the corrosion speeds at 90/degree/C are equal to those with the N 2 O 4 -HF mixtures at 50/degree/C. This shows that U passed into solution in the trivalent state, and that the product was U(SbF 6 ) 3 . The trivalent uranium compounds were more soluble than the others. Addition of N 2 O 4 to SbF 5 -HF induces acid-base reactions between the NO + and NO 2 /sup /minus// on the one hand, and SbF 6 /sup /minus// on the other hand, reactions accompanying the formation of a precipitate, probably a NOSbF 6 and NO 2 SbF 6 mixture. 66 refs., 34 figs., 23 tabs

  14. The impact of hydrofluoric acid etching followed by unfilled resin on the biaxial strength of a glass-ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posritong, Sumana; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel; Eckert, George J; Bottino, Marco A; Bottino, Marco C

    2013-11-01

    To evaluate the null hypotheses that hydrofluoric (HF) acid etching time would neither decrease the biaxial flexural strength of a glass-based veneering ceramic nor enhance it after silane and unfilled resin (UR) applications. Disc-shaped IPS e.max ZirPress specimens were allocated into 12 groups: G1-control (no-etching), G2-30 s, G3-60 s, G4-90 s, G5-120 s, G6-60 s+60 s. Groups (G7-G12) were treated in the same fashion as G1-G6, but followed by silane and UR applications. Surface morphology and roughness (Ra and Rq) of the ceramics were assessed by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and profilometry, respectively. Flexural strength was determined by biaxial testing. Data were analyzed by two-way ANOVA and the Sidak test (α=0.05). Weibull statistics were estimated and finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to verify the stress concentration end areas of fracture. The interaction (etching time vs. surface treatment) was significant for Ra (p=0.008) and Rq (0.0075). Resin-treated groups presented significantly lower Ra and Rq than non-treated groups, except for the 60s group (pceramic microstructure and that the UR was able to penetrate into the irregularities. A significant effect of etching time (p=0.029) on flexural strength was seen. G7-G12 presented higher strength than G1-G6 (pceramic flexural strength. Moreover, the flexural strength could be enhanced after UR treatment. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. [Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the surface morphology and bonding effectiveness of lithium disilicate glass ceramics to resin composites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailan, Qian; Lingyan, Ren; Rongrong, Nie; Xiangfeng, Meng

    2017-12-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of hydrofluoric acid (HF) in varied concentrations on the surface morphology of lithium disilicate glass ceramics and bond durability between resin composites and post-treated lithium disilicate glass ceramics. After being sintered, ground, and washed, 72 as-prepared specimens of lithium disilicate glass ceramics with dimensions of 11 mm×13 mm×2 mm were randomly divided into three groups. Each group was treated with acid solution [32% phosphoric acid (PA) or 4% or 9.5% HF] for 20 s. Then, four acidified specimens from each group were randomly selected. One of the specimens was used to observe the surface morphology using scanning electron microscopy, and the others were used to observe the surface roughness using a surface roughness meter (including Ra, Rz, and Rmax). After treatment with different acid solutions in each group, 20 samples were further treated with silane coupling agent/resin adhesive/resin cement (Monobond S/Multilink Primer A&B/Multilink N), followed by bonding to a composite resin column (Filtek™ Z350) with a diameter of 3 mm. A total of 20 specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups, which were used for measuring the microshear bond strength, with one of them subjected to cool-thermal cycle for 20 000 times. The surface roughness (Ra, Rz, and Rmax) of lithium disilicate glass ceramics treated with 4% or 9.5% HF was significantly higher than that of the ceramic treated with PA (Pglass ceramics treated with 9.5% HF also demonstrated better surface roughness (Rz and Rmax) than that of the ceramics treated with 4% HF. Cool-thermal cycle treatment reduced the bond strength of lithium disilicate glass ceramics in all groups (Pglass ceramics treated with HF had higher bond strength than that of the ceramics treated with PA. The lithium disilicate glass ceramics treated with 4% HF had higher bond strength than that of the ceramics treated with 9.5% HF (Pglass ceramics treated with 4

  16. Dilute acid/metal salt hydrolysis of lignocellulosics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quang A.; Tucker, Melvin P.

    2002-01-01

    A modified dilute acid method of hydrolyzing the cellulose and hemicellulose in lignocellulosic material under conditions to obtain higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable using dilute acid alone, comprising: impregnating a lignocellulosic feedstock with a mixture of an amount of aqueous solution of a dilute acid catalyst and a metal salt catalyst sufficient to provide higher overall fermentable sugar yields than is obtainable when hydrolyzing with dilute acid alone; loading the impregnated lignocellulosic feedstock into a reactor and heating for a sufficient period of time to hydrolyze substantially all of the hemicellulose and greater than 45% of the cellulose to water soluble sugars; and recovering the water soluble sugars.

  17. Frequent occurrence of Osteomalacia among grazing cattle caused by hydrofluoric acid contained in the flue gas discharged by a chemical plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupka, E; Luy, P

    1929-01-01

    In 1928 a number of animals grazing in the vicinity of a chemical plant fell ill to a disease which was diagnosed as fluorosis. But the symptoms shown by the diseased animals were in many respects different from those commonly associated with such cases. The two front legs became lame, toes and ankles were swollen. The pulse rate was higher, an increased body temperature was measured and pain was felt. In some cases the hind legs became stiff. Furthermore, an enormous loss of weight was observed and swellings appeared along the ribs. The milk production decreased. All these symptoms indicate osteomalacia. The grass on which these animals fed was examined but it was found lush and in no way lacking in Ca and phosphoric acid (osteomalacia is a deficiency of these two minerals). The toxicant was found to be the fluorine deposited on the grass and plants. Hydrofluoric acid attacks the calcium in the bones and dissolves it. The consequence is osteoporosis. The fluorine is discharged with the flue gas of the nearby chemical plant. The disease did not occur outside the range of the chemical plant. The condition of the animals visibly improved during winter time when they were fed with fodder coming from an unpolluted area. The chemical physiological examinations which were conducted showed that the calcium of the bones is used to neutralize the hydrofluoric acid. The by-product of this neutralizing process, phosphoric acid, is discharged with the urine. 12 references.

  18. The effect of Laser Shock Peening on Fatigue Life Using Pure Water and Hydrofluoric Acid As a Confining Layer of Al – Alloy 7075-T6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaker Sakran Hassan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Laser shock peening (LSP is deemed as a deep-rooted technology for stimulating compressive residual stresses below the surface of metallic elements. As a result, fatigue lifespan is improved, and the substance properties become further resistant to wear and corrosion. The LSP provides more unfailing surface treatment and a potential decrease in microstructural damage. Laser shock peening is a well-organized method measured up to the mechanical shoot peening. This kind of surface handling can be fulfilled via an intense laser pulse focused on a substantial surface in extremely shorter intervals. In this work, Hydrofluoric Acid (HF and pure water as a coating layer were utilized as a new technique to improve the properties and to harden the treated surface of the Al -alloy 7075-T6. Fatigue life by means of laser peened workpieces was improved to 154.3%, 9.78%, respectively, for Hydrofluoric (HF and pure water compared to un-peened specimens. And the outcomes of Vickers hardness test for laser shock peening with acid and pure water as well as un-peened specimens were 165.2HV30, 143.95HV30 and 134.7HV30, respectively showed a significant improvement in the hardness property.

  19. Effect of hydrofluoric acid on acid decomposition mixtures for determining iron and other metallic elements in green vegetables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dogbe, S.A.; Afful, S.; Debrah, C.

    2007-01-01

    The efficiency of acid mixtures, HNO 3 - HCI0 4 -HF, HNO 3 - HCI - HF, HNO 3 - HCIO 4 and HNO 3 - HCI in the decomposition of four edible green vegetables, Gboma (Solanum macrocarpon), Aleefu (Amaranttius hibiridus), Shoeley (Hibiscus sabdariffa) and Ademe (Corchorus olitorius), for flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometer analysis of Fe, Mn, Mg, Cu, Zn and Ca was studied. The concentrations of Fe were higher (120.61 -710.10 mg/kg), while the values of Cu were lower (2.31 - 4.84 mg/kg) in all the samples. The values of concentration for Fe were more reproducible when HF was included in the decomposition mixtures. There were no significant differences in the concentrations of the other elements when HF was included in the acid mixture as compared to the acid mixtures without HF. Therefore, the inclusion of HF in the acid decomposition mixtures would ensure total and precise estimation of Fe in plant materials, but not critical for analysis of Mn, Mg, Cu, Zn and Ca. Performance of the decomposition procedures was verified by applying the methods to analyse Standard Reference Material IAEA-V-10 Hay Powder. (au)

  20. An investigation of the pathophysiological mechanisms of hydrofluoric acid intoxication in rats and pigs. Interim report concerning the results of phase 2.1: The effect of sodium fluoride infusion on the plasma concentrations of lactate and magnesium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boink ABTJ; de Wildt DJ; de Jong Y; de Groot G; Vaessen HAMG; Meulenbelt J; van Dijk A; Vosmeer H

    1990-01-01

    From a previous study it was concluded that intravenous infusion of sodium fluoride (NaF) in rats is a suitable model to study the toxicity of hydrofluoric acid. In this supplementary study we investigated the effect of intravenous infusion of a high and low dose of NaF (120 and 25 mg.kg -1.hr

  1. Optimisation of Dilute Sulphuric Acid Hydrolysis of Waste ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis of waste paper was investigated in this study. The effects of acid concentration, time, temperature and liquid to solid ratio on the total reducing sugar concentration were studied over three levels using a four variable Box-Behnken design (BBD). A statistical model was developed for the ...

  2. Optimization of dilute acid hydrolysis of Enteromorpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Dawei; Liu, Haiyan; Li, Fuchao; Jiang, Peng; Qin, Song

    2011-11-01

    Acid hydrolysis is a simple and direct way to hydrolyze polysaccharides in biomass into fermentable sugars. To produce fermentable sugars effectively and economically for fuel ethanol, we have investigated the hydrolysis of Enteromorpha using acids that are typically used to hydrolyze biomass: H2SO4, HCl, H3PO4 and C4H4O4 (maleic acid). 5%(w/w) Enteromorpha biomass was treated for different times (30, 60, and 90 min) and with different acid concentrations (0.6, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, and 2.2%, w/w) at 121°C. H2SO4 was the most effective acid in this experiment. We then analyzed the hydrolysis process in H2SO4 in detail using high performance liquid chromatography. At a sulfuric acid concentration of 1.8% and treatment time of 60 min, the yield of ethanol fermentable sugars (glucose and xylose) was high, (230.5 mg/g dry biomass, comprising 175.2 mg/g glucose and 55.3 mg/g xylose), with 48.6% of total reducing sugars being ethanol fermentable. Therefore, Enteromorpha could be a good candidate for production of fuel ethanol. In future work, the effects of temperature and biomass concentration on hydrolysis, and also the fermentation of the hydrolysates to ethanol fuel should be focused on.

  3. Sugar yields from dilute oxalic acid pretreatment of maple wood compared to those with other dilute acids and hot water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Taiying; Kumar, Rajeev; Wyman, Charles E

    2013-01-30

    Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was applied to maple wood to improve compatibility with downstream operations, and its performance in pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was compared to results for hydrothermal and dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acid pretreatments. The highest total xylose yield of ∼84% of the theoretical maximum was for both 0.5% oxalic and sulfuric acid pretreatment at 160 °C, compared to ∼81% yield for hydrothermal pretreatment at 200 °C and for 0.5% hydrochloric acid pretreatment at 140 °C. The xylooligomer fraction from dilute oxalic acid pretreatment was only 6.3% of the total xylose in solution, similar to results with dilute hydrochloric and sulfuric acids but much lower than the ∼70% value for hydrothermal pretreatment. Combining any of the four pretreatments with enzymatic hydrolysis with 60 FPU cellulase/g of glucan plus xylan in the pretreated maple wood resulted in virtually the same total glucose plus xylose yields of ∼85% of the maximum possible. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel

    2012-01-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) fabricated using silver (Ag) ions assisted electroless etching method. Silicon nanocrystallites with sizes <5 nm embedded in amorphous silica have been observed from PSiNW samples etched using the optimum hydrofluoric acid (HF) concentration. The strongest photoluminescence (PL) signal has been measured from samples etched with 4.8 M of HF, beyond which a significant decreasing in PL emission intensity has been observed. A qualitative model is proposed for the formation of PSiNWs in the presence of Ag catalyst. This model affirms our observations in PL enhancement for samples etched using HF <4.8 M and the eventual PL reduction for samples etched beyond 4.8 M of HF concentration. The enhancement in PL signals has been associated to the formation of PSiNWs and the quantum confinement effect in the Si nanocrystallites. Compared to PSiNWs without Si-O x, the HF treated samples exhibited significant blue PL peak shift of 100 nm. This effect has been correlated to the formation of defect states in the surface oxide. PSiNWs fabricated using the electroless etching method can find useful applications in optical sensors and as anti-reflection layer in silicon-based solar cells. © 2012 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudy Agustriyanto

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coconut husk is classified as complex lignocellulosic material that contains cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, and some other extractive compounds. Cellulose from coconut husk can be used as fermentation substrate after enzymatic hydrolysis. In contrary, lignin content from the coconut husk will act as an inhibitor in this hydrolysis process. Therefore, a pretreatment process is needed to enhance the hydrolysis of cellulose. The objective of this research is to investigate the production of the glucose through dilute acid pretreatment and to obtain its optimum operating conditions. In this study, the pretreatment was done using dilute sulfuric acid in an autoclave reactor. The pretreatment condition were varied at 80°C, 100°C, 120°C and 0.9%, 1.2%, 1.5% for temperature and acid concentration respectively. The acid pretreated coconut husk was then hydrolyzed using commercial cellulase (celluclast and β-glucosidase (Novozyme 188. The hydrolysis time was 72 hours and the operating conditions were varied at several temperature and pH. From the experimental results it can be concluded that the delignification temperature variation has greater influence than the acid concentration. The optimum operating condition was obtained at pH 4 and 50°C which was pretreated at 100°C using 1.5% acid concentration. Copyright © 2012 by BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved. (Selected Paper from International Conference on Chemical and Material Engineering (ICCME 2012Received: 28th September 2012, Revised: 2nd October 2012, Accepted: 4th October 2012[How to Cite: R. Agustriyanto, A. Fatmawati, Y. Liasari. (2012. Study of Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Dilute Acid Pretreated Coconut Husk. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 7(2: 137-141. doi:10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141] [How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.7.2.4046.137-141 ] | View in 

  6. Characterization of Group V Dubnium Homologs on DGA Extraction Chromatography Resin from Nitric and Hydrofluoric Acid Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Despotopulos, J D; Sudowe, R

    2012-02-21

    somewhere between Nb and Pa. Much more recent studies have examined the properties of Db from HNO{sub 3}/HF matrices, and suggest Db forms complexes similar to those of Pa. Very little experimental work into the behavior of element 114 has been performed. Thermochromatography experiments of three atoms of element 114 indicate that the element 114 is at least as volatile as Hg, At, and element 112. Lead was shown to deposit on gold at temperatures about 1000 C higher than the atoms of element 114. Results indicate a substantially increased stability of element 114. No liquid phase studies of element 114 or its homologs (Pb, Sn, Ge) or pseudo-homologs (Hg, Cd) have been performed. Theoretical predictions indicate that element 114 is should have a much more stable +2 oxidation state and neutral state than Pb, which would result in element 114 being less reactive and less metallic than Pb. The relativistic effects on the 7p{sub 1/2} electrons are predicted to cause a diagonal relationship to be introduced into the periodic table. Therefore, 114{sup 2+} is expected to behave as if it were somewhere between Hg{sup 2+}, Cd{sup 2+}, and Pb{sup 2+}. In this work two commercially available extraction chromatography resins are evaluated, one for the separation of Db homologs and pseudo?homologs from each other as well as from potential interfering elements such as Group IV Rf homologs and actinides, and the other for separation of element 114 homologs. One resin, Eichrom's DGA resin, contains a N,N,N',N'-tetra-n-octyldiglycolamide extractant, which separates analytes based on both size and charge characteristics of the solvated metal species, coated on an inert support. The DGA resin was examined for Db chemical systems, and shows a high degree of selectivity for tri-, tetra-, and hexavalent metal ions in multiple acid matrices with fast kinetics. The other resin, Eichrom's Pb resin, contains a di-t-butylcyclohexano 18-crown-6 extractant with isodecanol solvent

  7. Distribution of Components in Ion Exchange Materials Taken from the K East Basin and Leaching of Ion Exchange Materials by Nitric/Hydrofluoric Acid and Nitric/Oxalic Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delegard, C.H.; Rinehart, D.E.; Hoopes, F.V.

    1998-01-01

    Laboratory tests were performed to examine the efficacy of mixed nitric/hydrofluoric acid followed by mixed nitric/oxalic acid leach treatments to decontaminate ion exchange materials that have been found in a number of samples retrieved from K East (KE)Basin sludge. The ion exchange materials contain organic ion exchange resins and zeolite inorganic ion exchange material. Based on process records, the ion exchange resins found in the K Basins is a mixed-bed, strong acid/strong base material marketed as Purolite NRW-037. The zeolite material is Zeolon-900, a granular material composed of the mineral mordenite. Radionuclides sorbed or associated with the ion exchange material can restrict its disposal to the Environmental Restoration Disposal Facility (ERDF). The need for testing to support development of a treatment process for K Basin sludge has been described in Section 4.2 of ''Testing Strategy to Support the Development of K Basins Sludge Treatment Process'' (Flament 1998). Elutriation and washing steps are designed to remove the organic resins from the K Basin sludge. To help understand the effects of the anticipated separation steps, tests were performed with well-rinsed ion exchange (IX) material from KE Basin floor sludge (sample H-08 BEAD G) and with well-rinsed IX having small quantities of added KE canister composite sludge (sample KECOMP). Tests also were performed to determine the relative quantities of organic and inorganic IX materials present in the H-08 K Basin sludge material. Based on chemical analyses of the separated fractions, the rinsed and dry IX material H-08 BEAD G was found to contain 36 weight percent inorganic material (primarily zeolite). The as-received (unrinsed) and dried H-08 material was estimated to contain 45 weight percent inorganic material

  8. Comparison of bile acid synthesis determined by isotope dilution versus fecal acidic sterol output in human subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duane, W.C.; Holloway, D.E.; Hutton, S.W.; Corcoran, P.J.; Haas, N.A.

    1982-01-01

    Fecal acidic sterol output has been found to be much lower than bile acid synthesis determined by isotope dilution. Because of this confusing discrepancy, we compared these 2 measurements done simultaneously on 13 occasions in 5 normal volunteers. In contrast to previous findings, bile acid synthesis by the Lindstedt isotope dilution method averaged 16.3% lower than synthesis simultaneously determined by fecal acidic sterol output (95% confidence limit for the difference - 22.2 to -10.4%). When one-sample determinations of bile acid pools were substituted for Lindstedt pools, bile acid synthesis by isotope dilution averaged 5.6% higher than synthesis by fecal acidic sterol output (95% confidence limits -4.9 to 16.1%). These data indicate that the 2 methods yield values in reasonably close agreement with one another. If anything, fecal acidic sterol outputs are slightly higher than synthesis by isotope dilution

  9. Oxic limestone drains for treatment of dilute, acidic mine drainage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cravotta, Charles A.

    1998-01-01

    Limestone treatment systems can be effective for remediation of acidic mine drainage (AMD) that contains moderate concentrations of dissolved O2 , Fe3+ , or A13+ (1‐5 mg‐L‐1 ). Samples of water and limestone were collected periodically for 1 year at inflow, outflow, and intermediate points within underground, oxic limestone drains (OLDs) in Pennsylvania to evaluate the transport of dissolved metals and the effect of pH and Fe‐ and Al‐hydrolysis products on the rate of limestone dissolution. The influent was acidic and relatively dilute (pH 1 mg‐L‐1 ) but was near neutral (pH = 6.2‐7.0); Fe and Al decreased to less than 5% of influent concentrations. As pH increased near the inflow, hydrous Fe and Al oxides precipitated in the OLDs. The hydrous oxides, nominally Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3, were visible as loosely bound, orange‐yellow coatings on limestone near the inflow. As time elapsed, Fe(OH)3 and AI(OH)3 particles were transported downflow. During the first 6 months of the experiment, Mn 2+ was transported conservatively through the OLDs; however, during the second 6 months, concentrations of Mn in effluent decreased by about 50% relative to influent. The accumulation of hydrous oxides and elevated pH (>5) in the downflow part of the OLDs promoted sorption and coprecipitation of Mn as indicated by its enrichment relative to Fe in hydrous‐oxide particles and coatings on limestone. Despite thick (~1 mm) hydrous‐oxide coatings on limestone near the inflow, CaCO3 dissolution was more rapid near the inflow than at downflow points within the OLD where the limestone was not coated. The rate of limestone dissolution decreased with increased residence time, pH, and concentrations of Ca2+ and HCO3‐ and decreased PCO2. The following overall reaction shows alkalinity as an ultimate product of the iron hydrolysis reaction in an OLD:Fe2+ + 0.25 O2 +CaCO3 + 2.5 H2O --> Fe(OH)3 + 2 Ca2+ + 2 HCO3-where 2 moles of CaCO3 dissolve for each mole of Fe(OH)3 produced

  10. Bioethanol productions from rice polish by optimization of dilute acid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lignocellulose materials are abundant renewable resource for the production of biofuel from fermentative organism (Sacchromyces cervesiae). Rice polish is cheapest and abundant lignocelluloses resource and has potential to produce bioethanol. The main steps for the conversion of biomass into glucose required dilute ...

  11. Nucleic acid-binding glycoproteins which solubilize nucleic acids in dilute acid: re-examination of the Ustilago maydis glycoproteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrau, P.; Champ, D.R.; Young, J.L.; Grant, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    Holloman reported the isolation from Ustilago maydis of a glycoprotein which prevented the precipitation of nucleic acids in cold 5% trichloroacetic acid. Two glycoprotein fractions from U. maydis with this nucleic acid-solubilizing activity were isolated in our laboratory using improved purification procedures. The activity was not due to nuclease contamination. The glycoproteins are distinguished by: their ability to bind to concanavalin A-Sepharose; their differential binding to double- and single-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid, and to ribonucleic acid; their molecular weights (46,000 and 69,000); and the relative amounts present in growing versus nongrowing cells. Both fractions required sulfhydryl-reducing conditions for optimal yields, specific activity, and stability. Nucleic acid binding was cooperative, the minimum number of glycoproteins required to make a native T7 DNA molecule soluble in dilute acid being estimated at 2 and 15, respectively.

  12. The separation and determination of fatty acids by isotopic dilution and radiogas-liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beardsley, D.A.

    1981-01-01

    A number of static phases have been evaluated for the GLC separation of fatty acids. Of those investigated, only AT 1200 was capable of resolving the isomeric forms of the acids. A radiogas-liquid chromatographic method incorporating isotopic dilution analysis has been developed for the determination of n-butyric acid. The proposed method has been applied to the determination of the acid in hydrolysed butter fat and milk chocolate extracts. (author)

  13. High-Yield Production of Levulinic Acid from Pretreated Cow Dung in Dilute Acid Aqueous Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jialei Su

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste cow dung was used as feedstock for the production of a high value–added chemical levulinic acid (LA in dilute acid aqueous solutions. A high LA yield of 338.9 g/kg was obtained from the pretreated cow dung, which was much higher than that obtained from the crude cow dung (135 g/kg, mainly attributed to the breakage of the lignin fraction in the lignocellulose structure of the cow dung by potassium hydroxide (KOH pretreatment, and thus enhanced the accessibility of cow dung to the acid sites in the catalytic reaction. Meanwhile, another value-added chemical formic acid could be obtained with a yield of ca. 160 g/kg in the process, implying a total production of ca. 500 g/kg yield for LA and formic acid from the pretreated cow dung with the proposed process. The developed process was shown to be tolerant to high initial substrate loading with a satisfied LA yield. This work provides a promising strategy for the value-increment utilization of liglocellulosic agricultural residues.

  14. Dilute oxalic acid pretreatment for biorefining giant reed (Arundo donax L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilo Scordia; Salvatore L. Cosentino; Jae-Won Lee; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    Biomass pretreatment is essential to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose for ethanol production. In the present study we pretreated giant reed (Arundo donax L.), a perennial, rhizomatous lignocellulosic grass with dilute oxalic acid. The effects of temperature (170-190 ºC), acid loading (2-10% w/w) and reaction time (15-40 min) were handled as a single...

  15. Dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production using Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Vrije, de G.J.; Claassen, P.A.M.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to use the fermentability test to investigate the feasibility of applying various dilute acids in the pretreatment of barley straw for biological hydrogen production. At a fixed acid loading of 1% (w/w dry matter) 28-32% of barley straw was converted to soluble

  16. Effect of temperature on the dilution enthalpies of α,ω-amino acids in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, C.M.; Cadena, J.C.; Lamprecht, I.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → The dilution of 3-amino propanoic acid, 4-amino butanoic acid, 5-amino pentanoic acid, and 6-amino hexanoic acid in water is an exothermic process at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K. → The limiting experimental slopes of the enthalpies of dilution with respect to the molality change Δm, are negative suggesting that the solutes interact with water primarily through their alkyl groups. → The value of the pairwise coefficient is positive at the temperatures considered, and the magnitude increases linearly with the number of methylene groups. → The comparison between the pairwise interaction coefficients for α,ω-amino acids and α-amino acids shows that the change in the enthalpic interaction coefficient is related to the relative position of the polar groups. - Abstract: Dilution enthalpies of aqueous solutions of 3-amino propanoic acid, 4-amino butanoic acid, 5-amino pentanoic acid, and 6-amino hexanoic acid were determined at T = (293.15, 298.15, 303.15, and 308.15) K using an LKB flow microcalorimeter. The homotactic interaction coefficients were obtained according to the McMillan-Mayer theory from the experimental data. For all the systems studied, the dilution of α,ω-amino acids in water is an exothermic process; the pair coefficients have positive values which increases with chain length. The obtained values of the interaction coefficients are interpreted in terms of solute-solvent and solute-solute interactions and are used as indicative of hydrophobic behavior of the amino acid studied.

  17. Thermal decomposition of dilute aqueous formic acid solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerre, A.B.; Sørensen, E.

    1992-01-01

    or a decarboxylation. In particular the second one is dependent on the reactor vessel used. It is shown to be catalyzed by a mixture of oxides of stainless steel components. The presence of CH3COOH or CH3CHO promotes the decomposition of HCOOH by way of both decarboxylation and oxidation. In any case formic acid...

  18. Redox buffered hydrofluoric acid etchant for the reduction of galvanic attack during release etching of MEMS devices having noble material films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hankins, Matthew G [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-10-06

    Etchant solutions comprising a redox buffer can be used during the release etch step to reduce damage to the structural layers of a MEMS device that has noble material films. A preferred redox buffer comprises a soluble thiophosphoric acid, ester, or salt that maintains the electrochemical potential of the etchant solution at a level that prevents oxidation of the structural material. Therefore, the redox buffer preferentially oxidizes in place of the structural material. The sacrificial redox buffer thereby protects the exposed structural layers while permitting the dissolution of sacrificial oxide layers during the release etch.

  19. Elucidating the role of ferrous ion cocatalyst in enhancing dilute acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Hui

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recently developed iron cocatalyst enhancement of dilute acid pretreatment of biomass is a promising approach for enhancing sugar release from recalcitrant lignocellulosic biomass. However, very little is known about the underlying mechanisms of this enhancement. In the current study, our aim was to identify several essential factors that contribute to ferrous ion-enhanced efficiency during dilute acid pretreatment of biomass and to initiate the investigation of the mechanisms that result in this enhancement. Results During dilute acid and ferrous ion cocatalyst pretreatments, we observed concomitant increases in solubilized sugars in the hydrolysate and reducing sugars in the (insoluble biomass residues. We also observed enhancements in sugar release during subsequent enzymatic saccharification of iron cocatalyst-pretreated biomass. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy showed that major peaks representing the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose are significantly attenuated by iron cocatalyst pretreatment. Imaging using Prussian blue staining indicated that Fe2+ ions associate with both cellulose/xylan and lignin in untreated as well as dilute acid/Fe2+ ion-pretreated corn stover samples. Analyses by scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy revealed structural details of biomass after dilute acid/Fe2+ ion pretreatment, in which delamination and fibrillation of the cell wall were observed. Conclusions By using this multimodal approach, we have revealed that (1 acid-ferrous ion-assisted pretreatment increases solubilization and enzymatic digestion of both cellulose and xylan to monomers and (2 this pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C-O-C and C-H bonds in cellulose.

  20. Xylanase supplementation on enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated poplars at different severities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao Zhang; Xinshu Zhuang; Zhao Jiang Wang; Fred Matt; Franz St. John; J.Y. Zhu

    2013-01-01

    Three pairs of solid substrates from dilute acid pretreatment of two poplar wood samples were enzymatically hydrolyzed by cellulase preparations supplemented with xylanase. Supplementation of xylanase improved cellulose saccharification perhaps due to improved cellulose accessibility by xylan hydrolysis. Total xylan removal directly affected enzymatic cellulose...

  1. Exploring orange peel treatment with deep eutectic solvents and diluted organic acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Bruinhorst, A.; Kouris, P.; Timmer, J.M.K.; de Croon, M.H.J.M.; Kroon, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    The disintegration of orange peel waste in deep eutectic solvents and diluted organic acids is presented in this work. The albedo and flavedo layers of the peel were studied separately, showing faster disintegration of the latter. Addition of water to the deep eutectic solvents lowered the amount of

  2. Comparison of Dilute Acid and Ionic Liquid Pretreatment of Switchgrass: Biomass Recalcitrance, Delignification and Enzymatic Saccharification

    Science.gov (United States)

    The efficiency of two biomass pretreatment technologies, dilute acid hydrolysis and dissolution in an ionic liquid, are compared in terms of delignification, saccharification efficiency and saccharide yields with switchgrass serving as a model bioenergy crop. When subject to ionic liquid pretreatme...

  3. High temperature dilute phosphoric acid pretreatment of corn stover for furfural and ethanol production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furfural was produced from corn stover by one stage pretreatment process using dilute H3PO4 and solid residues following furfural production were used for ethanol production by Saccharomyces cerevisiae NRRL- Y2034. A series of experiments were conducted at varied temperatures (140-200 oC) and acid ...

  4. Kinetic study of dilute nitric acid treatment of corn stover at relatively high temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, R.; Lu, X.; Liu, Y.; Wang, X.; Zhang, S. [Tianjin University, School of Environmental Science and Technology, Tianjin (China)

    2011-03-15

    Corn stover was hydrolyzed using dilute nitric acid at 150 C. Several concentrations of HNO{sub 3} (0.2, 0.4 and 0.6 wt-%) and reaction times (0-60 min) were evaluated. The kinetic parameters of mathematical models for predicting the concentrations of xylose, glucose, arabinose, acetic acid, and furfural in the hydrolysates were determined. The hydrolysates obtained from corn stover can be used to produce methane by an anaerobic fermentation process. Thus, the hydrolysis process of corn stover using dilute nitric acid can be conceived as the first stage of an integrated strategy for corn stover utilization. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  5. Hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose under mild hydrothermal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimentão, R J; Lorente, E; Gispert-Guirado, F; Medina, F; López, F

    2014-10-13

    The hydrolysis of dilute acid-pretreated cellulose was investigated in a conventional oven and under microwave heating. Two acids--sulfuric and oxalic--were studied. For both hydrothermal conditions (oven and microwave) the resultant total organic carbon (TOC) values obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with sulfuric acid were higher than those obtained by the hydrolysis of the cellulose pretreated with oxalic acid. However, the dicarboxylic acid exhibited higher hydrolytic efficiency towards glucose. The hydrolysis of cellulose was greatly promoted by microwave heating. The Rietveld method was applied to fit the X-ray patterns of the resultant cellulose after hydrolysis. Oxalic acid preferentially removed the amorphous region of the cellulose and left the crystalline region untouched. On the other hand, sulfuric acid treatment decreased the ordering of the cellulose by partially disrupting its crystalline structure. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Vacuum-jacketed hydrofluoric acid solution calorimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robie, R.A.

    1965-01-01

    A vacuum-jacketed metal calorimeter for determining heats of solution in aqueous HF was constructed. The reaction vessel was made of copper and was heavily gold plated. The calorimeter has a cooling constant of 0.6 cal-deg -1-min-1, approximately 1/4 that of the air-jacketed calorimeters most commonly used with HF. It reaches equilibrium within 10 min after turning off the heater current. Measurements of the heat of solution of reagent grade KCl(-100 mesh dried 2 h at 200??C) at a mole ratio of 1 KCl to 200 H2O gave ??H = 4198??11 cal at 25??C. ?? 1965 The American Institute of Physics.

  7. Enzymatic saccharification of dilute acid pretreated saline crops for fermentable sugar production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yi; Zhang, Ruihong [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Pan, Zhongli [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, University of California, Davis One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Processed Foods Research Unit, USDA-ARS-WRRC, 800 Buchanan Street, Albany, CA 94710 (United States); Wang, Donghai [Biological and Agricultural Engineering Department, Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    Four saline crops [athel (Tamarix aphylla L), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus camaldulensis), Jose Tall Wheatgrass (Agropyron elongatum), and Creeping Wild Ryegrass (Leymus triticoides)] that are used in farms for salt uptake from soil and drainage irrigation water have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they don't take a large number of arable lands. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were conducted to select the optimum pretreatment conditions and the best saline crop for further enzymatic hydrolysis research. The optimum dilute acid pretreatment conditions included T = 165 C, t = 8 min, and sulfuric acid concentration 1.4% (w/w). Creeping Wild Ryegrass was decided to be the best saline crop. Solid loading, cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase concentrations had significant effects on the enzymatic hydrolysis of dilute acid pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass. Glucose concentration increased by 36 mg/mL and enzymatic digestibility decreased by 20% when the solid loading increased from 4 to 12%. With 8% solid loading, enzymatic digestibility increased by over 30% with the increase of cellulase concentration from 5 to 15 FPU/g-cellulose. Under given cellulase concentration of 15 FPU/g-cellulose, 60% increase of enzymatic digestibility of pretreated Creeping Wild Ryegrass was obtained with the increase of {beta}-glucosidase concentration up to 15 CBU/g-cellulose. With a high solid loading of 10%, fed-batch operation generated 12% and 18% higher enzymatic digestibility and glucose concentration, respectively, than batch process. (author)

  8. Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetric determination of Cd, Pb, and Cu in a hydrofluoric acid solution of siliceous spicules of marine sponges (from the Ligurian Sea, Italy, and the Ross Sea, Antarctica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Truzzi, C.; Annibaldi, A.; Illuminati, S.; Bassotti, E.; Scarponi, G. [Polytechnic University of Marche, Ancona (Italy). Department of Marine Science

    2008-09-15

    Square-wave anodic-stripping voltammetry (SWASV) was set up and optimized for simultaneous determination of cadmium, lead, and copper in siliceous spicules of marine sponges, directly in the hydrofluoric acid solution ({proportional_to}0.55 mol L{sup -1} HF, pH {proportional_to}1.9). A thin mercury-film electrode (TMFE) plated on to an HF-resistant epoxy-impregnated graphite rotating-disc support was used. The optimum experimental conditions, evaluated also in terms of the signal-to-noise ratio, were as follows: deposition potential -1100 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, KCl 3 mol L{sup -1}, deposition time 3-10 min, electrode rotation 3000 rpm, SW scan from -1100 mV to +100 mV, SW pulse amplitude 25 mV, frequency 100 Hz, {delta}E{sub step} 8 mV, t{sub step} 100 ms, t{sub wait} 60 ms, t{sub delay} 2 ms, t{sub meas} 3 ms. Under these conditions the metal peak potentials were Cd -654{+-}1 mV, Pb -458 {+-} 1 mV, Cu -198{+-}1 mV. The electrochemical behaviour was reversible for Pb, quasi-reversible for Cd, and kinetically controlled (possibly following chemical reaction) for Cu. The linearity of the response with concentration was verified up to {proportional_to}4 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cd and Pb and {proportional_to}20 {mu}g L{sup -1} for Cu. The detection limits were 5.8 ng L{sup -1}, 3.6 ng L{sup -1}, and 4.3 ng L{sup -1} for Cd, Pb, and Cu, respectively, with t{sub d}=5 min. The method was applied for determination of the metals in spicules of two specimens of marine sponges (Demosponges) from the Portofino natural reserve (Ligurian Sea, Italy, Petrosia ficiformis) and Terra Nova Bay (Ross Sea, Antarctica, Sphaerotylus antarcticus). The metal contents varied from tens of ng g{sup -1} to {proportional_to}1 {mu}g g{sup -1}, depending on the metal considered and with significant differences between the two sponge species. (orig.)

  9. Laboratory studies of 2H evaporator scale dissolution in dilute nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oji, L.

    2014-01-01

    The rate of 2H evaporator scale solids dissolution in dilute nitric acid has been experimentally evaluated under laboratory conditions in the SRNL shielded cells. The 2H scale sample used for the dissolution study came from the bottom of the evaporator cone section and the wall section of the evaporator cone. The accumulation rate of aluminum and silicon, assumed to be the two principal elemental constituents of the 2H evaporator scale aluminosilicate mineral, were monitored in solution. Aluminum and silicon concentration changes, with heating time at a constant oven temperature of 90 deg C, were used to ascertain the extent of dissolution of the 2H evaporator scale mineral. The 2H evaporator scale solids, assumed to be composed of mostly aluminosilicate mineral, readily dissolves in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solutions yielding principal elemental components of aluminum and silicon in solution. The 2H scale dissolution rate constant, based on aluminum accumulation in 1.5 and 1.25 M dilute nitric acid solution are, respectively, 9.21E-04 ± 6.39E-04 min -1 and 1.07E-03 ± 7.51E-05 min -1 . Silicon accumulation rate in solution does track the aluminum accumulation profile during the first few minutes of scale dissolution. It however diverges towards the end of the scale dissolution. This divergence therefore means the aluminum-to-silicon ratio in the first phase of the scale dissolution (non-steady state conditions) is different from the ratio towards the end of the scale dissolution. Possible causes of this change in silicon accumulation in solution as the scale dissolution progresses may include silicon precipitation from solution or the 2H evaporator scale is a heterogeneous mixture of aluminosilicate minerals with several impurities. The average half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale mineral in 1.5 M nitric acid is 12.5 hours, while the half-life for the decomposition of the 2H evaporator scale in 1.25 M nitric acid is 10.8 hours

  10. Dissolution of magnetite in a dilute chemical decontaminant formulation containing gallic acid as a reductant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, Kamal; Rajesh, Puspalata; Dey, G.R.

    2000-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) was tried as a reductant in place of ascorbic acid in dilute chemical decontaminant (DCD) formulations. Dissolution of magnetite in GA based DCD formulations was studied at 50 deg as well as 80 degC. It was found to be a good substitute for ascorbic acid in EDTA/ascorbic acid/citric acid i.e. EAC formulation. The efficiency of EDTA/GA/CA formulation was as good as that of EAC formulation. 2.8 was found to be the optimum pH for this formulation and dissolution decreased at lower as well as higher pHs. The ion-exchange behaviour of GA is also appropriate for using it in a regenerating type of formulation. Being an aromatic compound, gallic acid has inherent stability against radiation degradation. (author)

  11. A dilute chemical decontaminant formulation containing gallic acid as a reductant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kishore, K.; Rajesh, P.; Kumbhar, A.G.

    2001-01-01

    Gallic acid (GA) was tried as a reductant in place of ascorbic acid in dilute chemical decontaminant (DCD) formulations. Dissolution of magnetite in GA based DCD formulations was studied at 50 C as well as 80 C. It was found to be a good substitute for ascorbic acid in EDTA/ascorbic acid/citric acid, i.e., EAC formulation. The efficiency of EDTA/GA/CA formulation was as good as that of EAC formulation. 2.8 was found to be the optimum pH for this formulation and dissolution decreased at lower as well as higher pHs. The ion exchange behaviour of GA is also appropriate for using it in a regenerating type of formulation. Being an aromatic compound, Gallic acid has inherent stability against radiation degradation. (orig.)

  12. Ethanol production from industrial hemp: effect of combined dilute acid/steam pretreatment and economic aspects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsson, Ingólfur Bragi; Svensson, Sven-Erik; Prade, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis and etha......In the present study, combined steam (140-180 °C) and dilute-acid pre-hydrolysis (0.0-2.0%) were applied to industrial hemp (Cannabis sativa L.), as pretreatment for lignocellulosic bioethanol production. The influence of the pretreatment conditions and cultivation type on the hydrolysis...... pretreated at the optimal conditions showed positive economic results. The type of hemp cultivation (organic or conventional) did not influence significantly the effectiveness of the pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation....

  13. The pitting resistance of AISI 316 stainless steel passivated in diluted nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, M.A.

    1983-01-01

    The pitting resistance of AISI 316 stainless steel after passivation in diluted nitric acid was studied in comparison with that of non-passivated specimens. The passivation treatment increased the pitting potential but decreased the resistance to crevice corrosion under open circuit conditions in aerated sea water. Immersion in the nitric acid solution was found to remove the sulphide inclusions from the metal surface, thus eliminating the most susceptible sites for attack. In the absence of sulphide particles pitting nucleated at aluminium-rich oxides. (author)

  14. Conversion of rice straw to sugars by dilute-acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karimi, Keikhosro; Kheradmandinia, Shauker; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

    2006-01-01

    Hydrolysis of rice straw by dilute sulfuric acid at high temperature and pressure was investigated in one and two stages. The hydrolyses were carried out in a 10-l reactor, where the hydrolysis retention time (3-10 min), pressure (10-35 bar) and acid concentration (0-1%) were examined. Optimization of first stage hydrolysis is desirable to achieve the highest yield of the sugars from hemicellulose and also as a pretreatment for enzymatic hydrolysis. The results show the ability of first stage hydrolysis to depolymerize xylan to xylose with a maximum yield of 80.8% at hydrolysis pressure of 15 bar, 10 min retention time and 0.5% acid concentration. However, the yield of glucose from glucan was relatively low in first stage hydrolysis at a maximum of 25.8%. The solid residuals were subjected to further dilute-acid hydrolysis in this study. This second-stage hydrolysis without addition of the acid could not increase the yield of glucose from glucan beyond 26.6%. On the other hand, the best results of the hydrolysis were achieved, when 0.5% sulfuric acid was added prior to each stage in two-stage hydrolysis. The best results of the second stage of the hydrolysis were achieved at the hydrolysis pressure and the retention time of 30 bar and 3 min in the second stage hydrolysis, where a total of 78.9% of xylan and 46.6% of glucan were converted to xylose and glucose, respectively in the two stages. Formation of furfural and HMF were functions of the hydrolysis pressure, acid concentration, and retention time, whereas the concentration of acetic acid was almost constant at pressure of higher than 10 bar and a total retention time of 10 min

  15. Optimisation of dilute acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls for ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez, Yoney; Martin, Carlos; Gullon, Beatriz; Parajo, Juan Carlos

    2011-01-01

    Rice hulls are potential low-cost feedstocks for fuel ethanol production in many countries. In this work, the dilute-acid pre-treatment of artisan rice hulls was investigated using a central composite rotatable experimental design. The experimental variables were temperature (140-210 C), biomass load (5-20%) and sulphuric acid concentration (0.5-1.5 g per 100 g of reaction mixture). A total of 16 experimental runs, including a 23-plan, two replicates at the central point and six star points, were carried out. Low temperatures were found to be favourable for the hydrolysis of xylan and of the easily hydrolyzable glucan fraction. High glucose formation (up to 15.3 g/100 g), attributable to starch hydrolysis, was detected in the hydrolysates obtained under the least severe pre-treatment conditions. Using the experimental results, several models for predicting the effect of the operational conditions on the yield of pretreated solids, xylan and glucan conversion upon pre-treatment, and on enzymatic convertibility of cellulose were developed. Optimum results were predicted for the conversion of easily-hydrolyzable glucan in the material pretreated at 140.7 C, and for the enzymatic saccharification of cellulose in the material pretreated at 169 C. These results suggested the use of two-step acid hydrolysis as future pre-treatment strategy for artisan rice hulls. Key words: Dilute acid hydrolysis, enzymatic hydrolysis, pre-treatment, rice hulls. (author)

  16. Hydrogen isotope exchange of organic compounds in dilute acid at elevated temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werstiuk, N.H.

    1987-01-01

    Introduction of one or more deuterium (or tritium) atoms into organic molecules can be accomplished in many ways depending on the nature of the substrate and the extent and sterochemistry of deuteriation or tritiation required. Some of the common methods include acid- and base-catalyzed exchange of carbonyl compounds, metal hydride reductions, dissolving metal reductions, catalytic reduction of double bonds, chromatographic exchange, homogeneous and heterogeneous metal-catalyzed exchange, base-catalyzed exchange of carbon acids other than carbonyl compounds and acid-catalyzed exchange via electrophilic substitution. Only the latter three methods have been used for perdeuteriation of organic compounds. A very useful compendium of labeling methods with examples has been available to chemists for some time. Although metal-catalyzed exchange has been used extensively, the method suffers from some deficiencies: irreproducibility of catalyst surfaces, catalyst poisoning, side reactions such as coupling and hydrogenolysis of labile groups and low deuterium incorporation. Usually a number of cycles are required with fresh catalyst and fresh deuterium source to achieve substantial isotope incorporation. Acid-catalyzed exchange of aromatics and alkenes, strongly acidic media such as liquid DBr, concentrated DBr, acetic acid/stannic chloride, concentrated D 3 PO 4 , concentrated DC1, D 3 PO 4 /BF 3 SO 2 , 50-80% D 2 SO 4 and DFSO 4 /SbF 5 at moderate temperatures (<100 degrees) have been used to effect exchange. The methods are not particularly suitable for large scale deuteriations because of the cost and the fact that the recovery and upgrading of the diluted deuterium pool is difficult. This paper describes the hydrogen isotope exchange of a variety of organic compounds in dilute aqueous acid (0.1-0.5 M) at elevated temperatures (150-300 degrees)

  17. EFFECTIVENESS OF USING DILUTE OXALIC ACID TO DISSOLVE HIGH LEVEL WASTE IRON BASED SLUDGE SIMULANT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ketusky, E

    2008-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), near Aiken South Carolina, there is a crucial need to remove residual quantities of highly radioactive iron-based sludge from large select underground storage tanks (e.g., 19,000 liters of sludge per tank), in order to support tank closure. The use of oxalic acid is planned to dissolve the residual sludge, hence, helping in the removal. Based on rigorous testing, primarily using 4 and 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions, it was concluded that the more concentrated the acid, the greater the amount of residual sludge that would be dissolved; hence, a baseline technology on using 8 wt% oxalic acid was developed. In stark contrast to the baseline technology, reports from other industries suggest that the dissolution will most effectively occur at 1 wt% oxalic acid (i.e., maintaining the pH near 2). The driver for using less oxalic acid is that less (i.e., moles) would decrease the severity of the downstream impacts (i.e., required oxalate solids removal efforts). To determine the initial feasibility of using 1 wt% acid to dissolve > 90% of the sludge solids, about 19,000 liters of representative sludge was modeled using about 530,000 liters of 0 to 8 wt% oxalic acid solutions. With the chemical thermodynamic equilibrium based software results showing that 1 wt% oxalic acid could theoretically work, simulant dissolution testing was initiated. For the dissolution testing, existing simulant was obtained, and an approximate 20 liter test rig was built. Multiple batch dissolutions of both wet and air-dried simulant were performed. Overall, the testing showed that dilute oxalic acid dissolved a greater fraction of the stimulant and resulted in a significantly larger acid effectiveness (i.e., grams of sludge dissolved/mole of acid) than the baseline technology. With the potential effectiveness confirmed via simulant testing, additional testing, including radioactive sludge testing, is planned

  18. In vivo synthesized 34S enriched amino acid standards for species specific isotope dilution of proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, Gerrit; Moller, Laura Hyrup; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2016-01-01

    (ICP-MS) combined to anion exchange showed that very high concentrated spike material could be produced with [small mu ]mol amounts of proteinogenic sulfur containing amino acids per g cell dry weight. An enrichment of 34S to 96.3 +/- 0.4% (n = 3) and 98.5 +/- 0.4% (n = 3) for cysteic acid...... with the concept of species specific isotope dilution analysis (IDA). The method relies on the determination of the two sulfur containing amino acids, cysteine and methionine by sulfur speciation analysis and is hence applicable to any protein containing sulfur. In vivo synthesis using 34S as sulfur source...... and methionine sulfone, respectively, was assessed. The established IDA method was validated for the absolute quantification of commercially available lysozyme and ceruloplasmin standards including the calculation of a total combined uncertainty budget....

  19. Bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated sorghum bagasse to ethanol by Neurospora crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Gkounta, Olga; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris [National Technical Univ. of Athens, Zografou (Greece). Biotechnology Lab.

    2012-07-15

    Bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SB), the lignocellulosic solid residue obtained after extraction of sugars from sorghum stalks, can further improve the energy yield of the crop. The aim of the present work was to evaluate a cost-efficient bioconversion of SB to ethanol at high solids loadings (16 % at pretreatment and 8 % at fermentation), low cellulase activities (1-7 FPU/g SB) and co-fermentation of hexoses and pentoses. The fungus Neurospora crassa DSM 1129 was used, which exhibits both depolymerase and co-fermentative ability, as well as mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2541. A dilute-acid pretreatment (sulfuric acid 2 g/100 g SB; 210 C; 10 min) was implemented, with high hemicellulose decomposition and low inhibitor formation. The bioconversion efficiency of N. crassa was superior to S. cerevisiae, while their mixed cultures had negative effect on ethanol production. Supplementing the in situ produced N. crassa cellulolytic system (1.0 FPU/g SB) with commercial cellulase and {beta}-glucosidase mixture at low activity (6.0 FPU/g SB) increased ethanol production to 27.6 g/l or 84.7 % of theoretical yield (based on SB cellulose and hemicellulose sugar content). The combined dilute-acid pretreatment and bioconversion led to maximum cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis 73.3 % and 89.6 %, respectively. (orig.)

  20. Bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated sorghum bagasse to ethanol by Neurospora crassa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaris, Ioannis; Gkounta, Olga; Mamma, Diomi; Kekos, Dimitris

    2012-07-01

    Bioethanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SB), the lignocellulosic solid residue obtained after extraction of sugars from sorghum stalks, can further improve the energy yield of the crop. The aim of the present work was to evaluate a cost-efficient bioconversion of SB to ethanol at high solids loadings (16 % at pretreatment and 8 % at fermentation), low cellulase activities (1-7 FPU/g SB) and co-fermentation of hexoses and pentoses. The fungus Neurospora crassa DSM 1129 was used, which exhibits both depolymerase and co-fermentative ability, as well as mixed cultures with Saccharomyces cerevisiae 2541. A dilute-acid pretreatment (sulfuric acid 2 g/100 g SB; 210 °C; 10 min) was implemented, with high hemicellulose decomposition and low inhibitor formation. The bioconversion efficiency of N. crassa was superior to S. cerevisiae, while their mixed cultures had negative effect on ethanol production. Supplementing the in situ produced N. crassa cellulolytic system (1.0 FPU/g SB) with commercial cellulase and β-glucosidase mixture at low activity (6.0 FPU/g SB) increased ethanol production to 27.6 g/l or 84.7 % of theoretical yield (based on SB cellulose and hemicellulose sugar content). The combined dilute-acid pretreatment and bioconversion led to maximum cellulose and hemicellulose hydrolysis 73.3 % and 89.6 %, respectively.

  1. The urinary excretion of orotic acid and orotidine, measured by an isotope dilution assay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tax, W.J.M.; Veerkamp, J.H.; Schretlen, E.D.A.M.

    1978-01-01

    Unknown concentrations of orotic acid can be measured by competition with a known amount of [carboxyl- 14 C]orotic acid for reaction with a limiting amount of phosphoribosylpyrophosphate in the presence of orotate phosphoribosyltransferase and orotidine monophosphate decarboxylase. The dilution of the specific radioactivity in the product 14 CO 2 is a sensitive and accurate measure of the amount of orotic acid present in the sample. Orotidine can also be determined after hydrolytic cleavage to orotic acid. The method was used to measure orotic acid and orotidine in urine samples from newborns, healthy controls and patients with gout or deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase receiving allopurinol. Urinary excretion of orotic acid and orotidine in newborns was similar whether the infants were breast-fed or received milk powder. The excretion of orotidine was increased in all patients receiving allopurinol. After allopurinol administration orotic acid excretion was increased in gouty patients but close to normal values in patients with deficiency of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase. The results are discussed in relation to the mechanism by which allopurinol inhibits pyrimidine metabolism. (Auth.)

  2. Selection of anion exchangers for detoxification of dilute-acid hydrolysates from spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horváth, Ilona Sárvári; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Zagorodni, Andrei; Jönsson, Leif J

    2004-01-01

    Six anion-exchange resins with different properties were compared with respect to detoxification of a dilute-acid hydrolysate of spruce prior to ethanolic fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The six resins encompassed strong and weak functional groups as well as styrene-, phenol-, and acrylic-based matrices. In an analytical experimental series, fractions from columns packed with the different resins were analyzed regarding pH, glucose, furfural, hydroxymethylfurfural, phenolic compounds, levulinic acid, acetic acid, formic acid, and sulfate. An initial adsorption of glucose occurred in the strong alkaline environment and led to glucose accumulation at a later stage. Acetic and levulinic acid passed through the column before formic acid, whereas sulfate had the strongest affinity. In a preparative experimental series, one fraction from each of six columns packed with the different resins was collected for assay of the fermentability and analysis of glucose, mannose, and fermentation inhibitors. The fractions collected from strong anion-exchange resins with styrene-based matrices displayed the best fermentability: a sevenfold enhancement of ethanol productivity compared with untreated hydrolysate. Fractions from a strong anion exchanger with acrylic-based matrix and a weak exchanger with phenol-based resin displayed an intermediate improvement in fermentability, a four- to fivefold increase in ethanol productivity. The fractions from two weak exchangers with styrene- and acrylic-based matrices displayed a twofold increase in ethanol productivity. Phenolic compounds were more efficiently removed by resins with styrene- and phenol-based matrices than by resins with acrylic-based matrices.

  3. Recovery of acids from dilute streams : A review of process technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talnikar, Vivek Digambar; Mahajan, Yogesh Shankar

    2014-01-01

    Chemical process industries convert raw materials into useful products. Acids, among other chemicals, are used in many industries as reactants, solvents and also as catalysts in a few instances as well. Resulting streams are dilute, from which the acids must be recovered. For recovery, many technologies can be used by which acids can be regained as such or can be converted into other value-added products like esters. Membrane processes and biological processes are being researched academically and practiced industrially. These have their own advantages and disadvantages in view of conversion, energy consumption etc. These are not always advantageous and hence an alternate process technology is necessary like reactive separation (RS). RS is advantageous especially when the acid is to be converted to other useful products by reaction, due to additional advantages or because no other technology is well suited or due to cost considerations alone. Conventional process technologies use the reactor configuration followed by the subsequent separation sequence. This approach can sometimes suffer from lesser conversion, difficulties in separation etc. To overcome these problems, RS has an edge over other processes in terms of the recovery of the useful compounds. Reactive distillation (RD), reactive extraction (RE) and reactive chromatography (RC) are the separation technologies that can be useful for acid recovery in an economically feasible way. This review covers the various processes of acid recovery along with the recent work in the field of reactive separations

  4. Dilute acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass for ethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Sun; Jay J Cheng [North Carolina State Univ., Dept. of Biological and Agricultural Engineering, Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2005-09-01

    Ethanol production from lignocellulosic materials provides an alternative energy production system. Rye and bermudagrass that are used in hog farms for nutrient uptake from swine wastewater have the potential for fuel ethanol production because they have a relative high cellulose and hemicellulose content. Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of rye straw and bermudagrass before enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was investigated in this study. The biomass at a solid loading rate of 10% was pretreated at 121 deg C with different sulfuric acid concentrations (0.6, 0.9, 1.2 and 1.5%, w/w) and residence times (30, 60, and 90 min). Total reducing sugars, arabinose, galactose, glucose, and xylose in the prehydrolyzate were analyzed. In addition, the solid residues were hydrolyzed by cellulases to investigate the enzymatic digestibility. With the increasing acid concentration and residence time, the amount of arabinose and galactose in the filtrates increased. The glucose concentration in the prehydrolyzate of rye straw was not significantly influenced by the sulfuric acid concentration and residence time, but it increased in the prehydrolyzate of bermudagrass with the increase of pretreatment severity. The xylose concentration in the filtrates increased with the increase of sulfuric acid concentration and residence time. Most of the arabinan, galactan and xylan in the biomass were hydrolyzed during the acid pretreatment. Cellulose remaining in the pretreated feedstock was highly digestible by cellulases from Trichoderma reesei. (Author)

  5. Impact of recycling stillage on conversion of dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohagheghi, Ali; Schell, Daniel J

    2010-04-01

    Both the current corn starch to ethanol industry and the emerging lignocellulosic biofuels industry view recycling of spent fermentation broth or stillage as a method to reduce fresh water use. The objective of this study was to understand the impact of recycling stillage on conversion of corn stover to ethanol. Sugars in a dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate were fermented to ethanol by the glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Three serial fermentations were performed at two different initial sugar concentrations using either 10% or 25% of the stillage as makeup water for the next fermentation in the series. Serial fermentations were performed to achieve near steady state concentration of inhibitors and other compounds in the corn stover hydrolysate. Little impact on ethanol yields was seen at sugar concentrations equivalent to pretreated corn stover slurry at 15% (w/w) with 10% recycle of the stillage. However, ethanol yields became progressively poorer as the sugar concentration increased and fraction of the stillage recycled increased. At an equivalent corn stover slurry concentration of 20% with 25% recycled stillage the ethanol yield was only 5%. For this microorganism with dilute-acid pretreated corn stover, recycling a large fraction of the stillage had a significant negative impact on fermentation performance. Although this finding is of concern for biochemical-based lignocellulose conversion processes, other microorganism/pretreatment technology combinations will likely perform differently. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Pretreatment of corn stover for sugar production using dilute hydrochloric acid followed by lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zu, Shuai; Li, Wen-zhi; Zhang, Mingjian; Li, Zihong; Wang, Ziyu; Jameel, Hasan; Chang, Hou-min

    2014-01-01

    In this study, a two stage process was evaluated to increase the sugar recovery. Firstly, corn stover was treated with diluted hydrochloric acid to maximize the xylose yield, and then the residue was treated with lime to alter the lignin structure and swell the cellulose surface. The optimal condition was 120 °C and 40 min for diluted hydrochloric acid pretreatment followed by lime pretreatment at 60 °C for 12h with lime loading at 0.1 g/g of substrate. The glucose and xylose yield was 78.0% and 97.0%, respectively, with cellulase dosage at 5 FPU/g of substrate. The total glucose yield increased to 85.9% when the cellulase loading was increased to 10 FPU/g of substrate. This two stage process was effective due to the swelling of the internal surface, an increase in the porosity and a decrease in the degree of polymerization. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Revealing the Molecular Structural Transformation of Hardwood and Softwood in Dilute Acid Flowthrough Pretreatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Libing; Pu, Yunqiao; Cort, John R.; Ragauskas, Arthur J.; Yang, Bin

    2016-12-05

    To better understand the intrinsic recalcitrance of lignocellulosic biomass, the main hurdle to its efficient deconstruction, the effects of dilute acid flowthrough pretreatment on the dissolution chemistry of hemicellulose, cellulose, and lignin for both hardwood (e.g. poplar wood) and softwood (e.g. lodgepole pine wood) were investigated at temperatures of 200 °C to 270 °C and a flow rate of 25 mL/minute with 0.05% (w/w) H2SO4. Results suggested that the softwood cellulose was more readily to be degraded into monomeric sugars than that of hardwood under same pretreatment conditions. However, while the hardwood lignin was completely removed into hydrolysate, ~30% of the softwood lignin remained as solid residues under identical conditions, which was plausibly caused by vigorous C5-active recondensation reactions (C-C5). Unique molecular structural features that pronounced the specific recalcitrance of hardwood and softwood to dilute acid pretreatment were identified for the first time in this study, providing important insights to establish the effective biomass pretreatment.

  8. Dilute Sulfuric Acid Pretreatment of Agricultural and Agro-Industrial Residues for Ethanol Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Carlos; Alriksson, Björn; Sjöde, Anders; Nilvebrant, Nils-Olof; Jönsson, Leif J.

    The potential of dilute-acid prehydrolysis as a pretreatment method for sugarcane bagasse, rice hulls, peanut shells, and cassava stalks was investigated. The prehydrolysis was performed at 122°C during 20, 40, or 60 min using 2% H2SO4 at a solid-to-liquid ratio of 1∶10. Sugar formation increased with increasing reaction time. Xylose, glucose, arabinose, and galactose were detected in all of the prehydrolysates, whereas mannose was found only in the prehydrolysates of peanut shells and cassava stalks. The hemicelluloses of bagasse were hydrolyzed to a high-extent yielding concentrations of xylose and arabinose of 19.1 and 2.2 g/L, respectively, and a xylan conversion of more than 80%. High-glucose concentrations (26-33.5 g/L) were found in the prehydrolysates of rice hulls, probably because of hydrolysis of starch of grain remains in the hulls. Peanut shells and cassava stalks rendered low amounts of sugars on prehydrolysis, indicating that the conditions were not severe enough to hydrolyze the hemicelluloses in these materials quantitatively. All prehydrolysates were readily fermentable by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The dilute-acid prehydrolysis resulted in a 2.7-to 3.7-fold increase of the enzymatic convertibility of bagasse, but was not efficient for improving the enzymatic hydrolysis of peanut shells, cassava stalks, or rice hulls.

  9. Changes in lignocellulosic supramolecular and ultrastructure during dilute acid pretreatment of Populus and switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foston, Marcus; Ragauskas, Art J.

    2010-01-01

    Dilute acid pretreatment (DAP) is commonly employed prior to enzymatic deconstruction of cellulose to increase overall sugar and subsequent ethanol yields from downstream bioconversion processes. Typically optimization of pretreatment is evaluated by determining hemicellulose removal, subsequent reactivity towards enzymatic deconstruction, and recoverable polysaccharide yields. In this study, the affect of DAP on the supramolecular and ultrastructure of lignocellulosic biomass was evaluated. A series of dilute acidic pretreatments, employing ∼0.10-0.20 mol/m 3 H 2 SO 4 at ∼160-180 o C, for varying residence times were conducted on both Populus and switchgrass samples. The untreated and pretreated biomass samples were characterized by carbohydrate and lignin analysis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and 13 C cross polarization magic angle spinning (CPMAS) NMR spectroscopy. GPC analysis shows a reduction in the molecular weight of cellulose and change in its polydispersity index (PDI) with increasing residence time, indicating that pretreatment is actually degrading the cellulose chains. 13 C CPMAS and non-linear line-fitting of the C 4 region in the carbon spectrum of the isolated cellulose not only showed that the crystallinity index increases with residence time, but that the lateral fibril dimension (LFD) and lateral fibril aggregate dimension (LFAD) increase as well.

  10. Application of a continuous twin screw-driven process for dilute acid pretreatment of rape straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Chang Ho; Oh, Kyeong Keun

    2012-04-01

    Rape straw, a processing residue generated from the bio-oil industry, was used as a model biomass for application of continuous twin screw-driven dilute acid pretreatment. The screw rotation speed and feeding rate were adjusted to 19.7rpm and 0.5g/min, respectively to maintain a residence time of 7.2min in the reaction zone, respectively. The sulfuric acid concentration was 3.5wt% and the reaction temperature was 165°C. The enzymatic digestibility of the glucan in the pretreated solids was 70.9%. The continuous process routinely gave around 28.8% higher yield for glucan digestibility than did the batch processing method. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Separation of glycols from dilute aqueous solutions via complexation with boronic acids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randel, L.A.; King, C.J.

    1991-07-01

    This work examines methods of separating low molecular weight glycols from dilute aqueous solution. Extraction into conventional solvents is generally not economical, since, in the literature reviewed, distribution ratios for the two- to four-carbon glycols are all less than one. Distribution ratios can be increased, however, by incorporating into the organic phase an extracting agent that will complex with the solute of interest. The extracting agent investigated in this work is 3-nitrophenylboronic acid (NPBA). NPBA, a boric acid derivative, reversibly complexes with many glycols. The literature on complexation of borate and related compounds with glycols, including mechanistic data, measurement techniques, and applications to separation processes, provides information valuable for designing experiments with NPBA and is reviewed herein. 88 refs., 15 figs., 24 tabs.

  12. Titanium leaching from red mud by diluted sulfuric acid at atmospheric pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agatzini-Leonardou, S.; Oustadakis, P.; Tsakiridis, P.E.; Markopoulos, Ch.

    2008-01-01

    Laboratory-scale research has focused on the recovery of titanium from red mud, which is obtained from bauxite during the Bayer process for alumina production. The leaching process is based on the extraction of this element with diluted sulfuric acid from red mud under atmospheric conditions and without using any preliminary treatment. Statistical design and analysis of experiments were used, in order to determine the main effects and interactions of the leaching process factors, which were: acid normality, temperature and solid to liquid ratio. The titanium recovery efficiency on the basis of red mud weight reached 64.5%. The characterization of the initial red mud, as well as this of the leached residues was carried out by X-ray diffraction, TG-DTA and scanning electron microscopy

  13. Repletion of branched chain amino acids reverses mTORC1 signaling but not improved metabolism during dietary protein dilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maida, Adriano; Chan, Jessica S K; Sjøberg, Kim Anker

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Dietary protein dilution (PD) has been associated with metabolic advantages such as improved glucose homeostasis and increased energy expenditure. This phenotype involves liver-induced release of FGF21 in response to amino acid insufficiency; however, it has remained unclear whether...... dietary dilution of specific amino acids (AAs) is also required. Circulating branched chain amino acids (BCAAs) are sensitive to protein intake, elevated in the serum of obese humans and mice and thought to promote insulin resistance. We tested whether replenishment of dietary BCAAs to an AA-diluted (AAD......) diet is sufficient to reverse the glucoregulatory benefits of dietary PD. METHODS: We conducted AA profiling of serum from healthy humans and lean and high fat-fed or New Zealand obese (NZO) mice following dietary PD. We fed wildtype and NZO mice one of three amino acid defined diets: control, total...

  14. The effect of dilute acid pre-treatment process in bioethanol production from durian (Durio zibethinus) seeds waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, K. A.; Salleh, S. F.; Riayatsyah, T. M. I.; Aditiya, H. B.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2016-03-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is one of the promising feedstocks for bioethanol production. The process starts from pre-treatment, hydrolysis, fermentation, distillation and finally obtaining the final product, ethanol. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass depends heavily on the effectiveness of the pre-treatment step which main function is to break the lignin structure of the biomass. This work aims to investigate the effects of dilute acid pre-treatment on the enzymatic hydrolysis of durian seeds waste to glucose and the subsequent bioethanol fermentation process. The yield of glucose from dilute acid pre-treated sample using 0.6% H2SO4 and 5% substrate concentration shows significant value of 23.4951 g/L. Combination of dilute acid pre-treatment and enzymatic hydrolysis using 150U of enzyme able to yield 50.0944 g/L of glucose content higher compared to normal pre-treated sample of 8.1093 g/L. Dilute acid pre-treatment sample also shows stable and efficient yeast activity during fermentation process with lowest glucose content at 2.9636 g/L compared to 14.7583g/L for normal pre-treated sample. Based on the result, it can be concluded that dilute acid pre-treatment increase the yield of ethanol from bioethanol production process.

  15. A whole cell biocatalyst for cellulosic ethanol production from dilute acid-pretreated corn stover hydrolyzates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Seunghyun; Karim, Muhammad Nazmul [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2011-08-15

    In this research, a recombinant whole cell biocatalyst was developed by expressing three cellulases from Clostridium cellulolyticum - endoglucanase (Cel5A), exoglucanase (Cel9E), and {beta}-glucosidase - on the surface of the Escherichia coli LY01. The modified strain is identified as LY01/pRE1H-AEB. The cellulases were displayed on the surface of the cell by fusing with an anchor protein, PgsA. The developed whole cell biocatalyst was used for single-step ethanol fermentation using the phosphoric acid-swollen cellulose (PASC) and the dilute acid-pretreated corn stover. Ethanol production was 3.59 {+-} 0.15 g/L using 10 g/L of PASC, which corresponds to a theoretical yield of 95.4 {+-} 0.15%. Ethanol production was 0.30 {+-} 0.02 g/L when 1 g/L equivalent of glucose in the cellulosic fraction of the dilute sulfuric acid-pretreated corn stover (PCS) was fermented for 84 h. A total of 0.71 {+-} 0.12 g/L ethanol was produced in 48 h when the PCS was fermented in the simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation mode using the hemicellulosic (1 g/L of total soluble sugar) and as well as the cellulosic (1 g/L of glucose equivalent) parts of PCS. In a control experiment, 0.48 g/L ethanol was obtained from 1 g/L of hemicellulosic PCS. It was concluded that the whole cell biocatalyst could convert both cellulosic and hemicellulosic substrates into ethanol in a single reactor. The developed C. cellulolyticum-E. coli whole cell biocatalyst also overcame the incompatible temperature problem of the frequently reported fungal-yeast systems. (orig.)

  16. Comparison of aqueous ammonia and dilute acid pretreatment of bamboo fractions: Structure properties and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Donglin; Yang, Zhong; Liu, Feng; Xu, Xueru; Zhang, Junhua

    2015-01-01

    The effect of two pretreatments methods, aqueous ammonia (SAA) and dilute acid (DA), on the chemical compositions, cellulose crystallinity, morphologic change, and enzymatic hydrolysis of bamboo fractions (bamboo yellow, timber, green, and knot) was compared. Bamboo fractions with SAA pretreatment had better hydrolysability than those with DA pretreatment. High crystallinity index resulted in low hydrolysis yield in the conversion of SAA pretreated bamboo fractions, not DA pretreated fractions. The increase of cellulase loading had modestly positive effect in the hydrolysis of both SAA and DA pretreated bamboo fractions, while supplement of xylanase significantly increased the hydrolysis of the pretreated bamboo fractions, especially after SAA pretreatment. The results indicated that SAA pretreatment was more effective than DA pretreatment in conversion of bamboo fractions, and supplementation of xylanase was necessary in effective conversion of the SAA pretreated fractions into fermentable sugars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. An evaluation of dilute acid and ammonia fiber explosion pretreatment for cellulosic ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Anil Kuruvilla; Parameshwaran, Binod; Sukumaran, Rajeev Kumar; Pandey, Ashok

    2016-01-01

    The challenge associated with cellulosic ethanol production is maximizing sugar yield at low cost. Current research is being focused to develop a pretreatment method to overcome biomass recalcitrance in an efficient way. This review is focused on two major pretreatments: dilute acid (DA) and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) pretreatment of corn stover and how these pretreatment cause morphological and chemical changes to corn stover in order to overcome the biomass recalcitrance. This review highlights the key differences of these two pretreatments based on compositional analysis, cellulose and its crystallinity, morphological changes, structural changes to lignin, enzymatic reactivity and enzyme adsorption onto pretreated solids and finally cellulosic ethanol production from the hydrolysate of DA and AFEX treated corn stover. Each stage of the process, AFEX pretreated corn stover was superior to DA treated corn stover. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Towards integrated biorefinery from dried distillers grains: Selective extraction of pentoses using dilute acid hydrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca, Dania A.; Lupitskyy, Robert; Timmons, David; Gupta, Mayank; Satyavolu, Jagannadh

    2014-01-01

    The abundant availability and high level of hemicellulose content make dried distillers grains (DDG) an attractive feedstock for production of pentoses (C5) and conversion of C5 to bioproducts. One target of this work was to produce a C5 extract (hydrolyzate) with high yield and purity with a low concentration of C5 degradation products. A high selectivity towards pentoses was achieved using dilute acid hydrolysis of DDG in a percolation reactor with liquid recirculation. Pretreatment of starting material using screening and ultrasonication resulted in fractional increase of the pentose yield by 42%. A 94% yield of pentoses on the DDG (280.9 g kg −1 ) was obtained. Selective extraction of individual pentoses has been achieved by using a 2-stage hydrolysis process, resulting in arabinose-rich (arabinose 81.5%) and xylose-rich (xylose 85.2%) streams. A broader impact of this work is towards an Integrated Bio-Refinery based on DDG – for production of biofuels, biochemical intermediates, and other bioproducts. - Highlights: • A process for selective extraction of pentoses from DDG was presented as a part of integrated biorefinery approach. • The selectivity for pentoses was high using dilute acid hydrolysis in a percolation reactor with liquid recirculation. • Pretreatment of DDG using screening and ultrasonication resulted in fractional increase of the pentose yield by 42 %. • A 94% yield in pentoses (280.9 g kg −1 of DDG) was obtained. • A 2-stage hydrolysis process, developed to extract individual pentoses, resulted in arabinose and xylose rich streams

  19. Mild-temperature dilute acid pretreatment for integration of first and second generation ethanol processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kalif, Mahdi; Ferreira, Jorge A; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Lennartsson, Patrik R

    2017-12-01

    The use of hot-water (100°C) from the 1st generation ethanol plants for mild-temperature lignocellulose pretreatment can possibly cut down the operational (energy) cost of 2nd generation ethanol process, in an integrated model. Dilute-sulfuric and -phosphoric acid pretreatment at 100°C was carried out for wheat bran and whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment time and acid type influenced the release of sugars from wheat bran, while acid-concentration was found significant for whole-stillage fibers. Pretreatment led up-to 300% improvement in the glucose yield compared to only-enzymatically treated substrates. The pretreated substrates were 191-344% and 115-300% richer in lignin and glucan, respectively. Fermentation using Neurospora intermedia, showed 81% and 91% ethanol yields from wheat bran and stillage-fibers, respectively. Sawdust proved to be a highly recalcitrant substrate for mild-temperature pretreatment with only 22% glucose yield. Both wheat bran and whole-stillage are potential substrates for pretreatment using waste heat from the 1st generation process for 2nd generation ethanol. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spectroscopic analysis of hot-water- and dilute-acid-extracted hardwood and softwood chips

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehto, Joni; Louhelainen, Jarmo; Huttunen, Marko; Alén, Raimo

    2017-09-01

    Hot-water and dilute sulfuric acid pretreatments were performed prior to chemical pulping for silver/white birch (Betula pendula/B. pubescens) and Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) chips to determine if varying pretreatment conditions on the original wood material were detectable via attenuated total reflectance (ATR) infrared spectroscopy. Pretreatment conditions varied with respect to temperature (130 °C and 150 °C) and treatment time (from 30 min to 120 min). The effects of the pretreatments on the composition of wood chips were determined by ATR infrared spectroscopy. The spectral data were compared to those determined by common wood chemistry analyses to evaluate the suitability of ATR spectroscopy method for rapid detection of changes in the wood chemical composition caused by different pretreatment conditions. In addition to determining wood species-dependent differences in the wood chemical composition, analytical results indicated that most essential lignin- and carbohydrates-related phenomena taking place during hot-water and acidic pretreatments could be described by applying this simple spectral method requiring only a small sample amount and sample preparation. Such information included, for example, the cleavage of essential lignin bonds (i.e., mainly β-O-4 linkages in guaiacyl and syringyl lignin) and formation of newly condensed lignin structures under different pretreatment conditions. Carbohydrate analyses indicated significant removal of hemicelluloses (especially hardwood xylan) and hemicelluloses-derived acetyl groups during the pretreatments, but they also confirmed the highly resistant nature of cellulose towards mild pretreatments.

  1. Understanding longitudinal wood fiber ultra-structure for producing cellulose nanofibrils using disk milling with diluted acid prehydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanlin Qin; Xueqing Qiu; Junyong Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Here we used dilute oxalic acid to pretreat a kraft bleached Eucalyptus pulp (BEP) fibers to facilitate mechanical fibrillation in producing cellulose nanofibrils using disk milling with substantial mechanical energy savings. We successfully applied a reaction kinetics based combined hydrolysis factor (CHFx) as a severity factor to quantitatively...

  2. Dilute-acid hydrolysis of apple, orange, apricot and peach pomaces as potential candidates for bioethanol production

    OpenAIRE

    Üçüncü, Can; Tarı, Canan; Demir, Hande; Büyükkileci, Ali Oğuz; Özen, Banu

    2013-01-01

    Chemical composition of four selected fruit pomaces (agro-industrial wastes) was evaluated. The effect of temperature, time, acid concentration and solid:liquid (S:L) ratio on dilute-acid hydrolysis of selected pomaces were investigated using 24 factorial and central composite design and optimum hydrolysis conditions were determined. A preliminary study was initiated using apple hydrolysate and the fungus Tricoderma harzianum in order to explore and demonstrate their potential uses in bioetha...

  3. Optimization of alkaline and dilute acid pretreatment of agave bagasse by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abimael I. Ávila-Lara

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA and alkaline (AL catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15% since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification which will be reflected in lower capital costs, however this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables such as catalyst loading, retention time and solids loading, were studied using Response Surface Methodology (RSM based on a factorial Central Composite Design (CCD of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS yield. Pretreated biomass

  4. Multistage dilute acid leaching of a medium grade iron ore to super-concentrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adeleke A.A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The phosphorous laden Koton Karfe iron ore is a medium grade iron ore deposit in Nigeria that can be upgraded as a super-concentrate for use at the Aladja Steel Midrex plant. The 75 μm size sample fraction of the ore was preconcentrated with shaking table and leached in the oven at atmospheric pressure with dilute hydrochloric acid in single and multistage leaching sequences of H2O-HCl-H2O and HCl-H2O-H2O. The as-received, as-tabled and asleached samples were then subjected to X-ray fluorescence and microscopic analyses. The results obtained showed that the H2O-HCl-H2O route produced a higher grade concentrate that assayed 68.54% Fe indicating about 58% upgrade in iron content; while the phosphorus and sulphur contents were reduced by about 77 and 99.6% respectively. In addition, the silicon, manganese, and titanium contents were drastically reduced, while potassium was completely eliminated. The upgrade of iron content in the ore to 68.54% and the drastic reduction in phosphorous and sulphur contents has thus rendered the Koton Karfe iron ore suitable for use as a super concentrate for the Aladja steel plant direct reduction iron making process.

  5. Overall process considerations for using dilute acid cellulose hydrolysis technology to produce ethanol from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elander, R.; Ibsen, K.; Hayward, T.; Nagle, N.; Torget, R.

    1997-01-01

    Recent advances in reactors, designed for the dilute acid thermochemical treatment of biomass, have resulted in the development of process alternatives in which both cellulose and hemicellulose are hydrolyzed to soluble sugars in high yields. The optimal extent of cellulose hydrolysis will depend on both the performance and economics of the thermochemical treatment operation, and on subsequent unit operations in the bioethanol production process. Examples of subsequent unit operation interactions include the extent to which cellulase enzymes are used to hydrolyze any remaining cellulose, kinetics and conditions of a largely soluble mixed sugar cofermentation, and the extent to which removal of compounds that inhabit fermenting microorganisms is required. In addition, a number of process operation and economic considerations affect the ultimate economic viability of this type of biomass hydrolysis process. These considerations include reactor design issues to accommodate the kinetic parameters of the various hydrolysis and sugar degradation reactions, liquid volume requirements to achieve acceptable sugar yields, sugar concentrations that result from such a process and their impact on subsequent fermentation volumes and ethanol recovery operations, potential co-product opportunities that result from solubilized lignin, and process steam requirements. Several potential whole-process configurations are presented and key process and economic issues for each are discussed. (author)

  6. Lower pressure heating steam is practical for the distributed dry dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Shuai; Zhang, Jian; Hou, Weiliang; Qureshi, Abdul Sattar; Bao, Jie

    2017-08-01

    Most studies paid more attention to the pretreatment temperature and the resulted pretreatment efficiency, while ignored the heating media and their scalability to an industry scale. This study aimed to use a relative low pressure heating steam easily provided by steam boiler to meet the requirement of distributed dry dilute acid pretreatment. The results showed that the physical properties of the pretreated corn stover were maintained stable using the steam pressure varying from 1.5, 1.7, 1.9 to 2.1MPa. Enzymatic hydrolysis and high solids loading simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) results were also satisfying. CFD simulation indicated that the high injection velocity of the low pressure steam resulted in a high steam holdup and made the mixing time of steam and solid corn stover during pretreatment much shorter in comparison with the higher pressure steam. This study provides a design basis for the boiler requirement in distributed pretreatment concept. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Optimization of Alkaline and Dilute Acid Pretreatment of Agave Bagasse by Response Surface Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Lara, Abimael I.; Camberos-Flores, Jesus N.; Mendoza-Pérez, Jorge A.; Messina-Fernández, Sarah R.; Saldaña-Duran, Claudia E.; Jimenez-Ruiz, Edgar I.; Sánchez-Herrera, Leticia M.; Pérez-Pimienta, Jose A.

    2015-01-01

    Utilization of lignocellulosic materials for the production of value-added chemicals or biofuels generally requires a pretreatment process to overcome the recalcitrance of the plant biomass for further enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation stages. Two of the most employed pretreatment processes are the ones that used dilute acid (DA) and alkaline (AL) catalyst providing specific effects on the physicochemical structure of the biomass, such as high xylan and lignin removal for DA and AL, respectively. Another important effect that need to be studied is the use of a high solids pretreatment (≥15%) since offers many advantaged over lower solids loadings, including increased sugar and ethanol concentrations (in combination with a high solids saccharification), which will be reflected in lower capital costs; however, this data is currently limited. In this study, several variables, such as catalyst loading, retention time, and solids loading, were studied using response surface methodology (RSM) based on a factorial central composite design of DA and AL pretreatment on agave bagasse using a range of solids from 3 to 30% (w/w) to obtain optimal process conditions for each pretreatment. Subsequently enzymatic hydrolysis was performed using Novozymes Cellic CTec2 and HTec2 presented as total reducing sugar (TRS) yield. Pretreated biomass was characterized by wet-chemistry techniques and selected samples were analyzed by calorimetric techniques, and scanning electron/confocal fluorescent microscopy. RSM was also used to optimize the pretreatment conditions for maximum TRS yield. The optimum conditions were determined for AL pretreatment: 1.87% NaOH concentration, 50.3 min and 13.1% solids loading, whereas DA pretreatment: 2.1% acid concentration, 33.8 min and 8.5% solids loading. PMID:26442260

  8. Production of spent mushroom substrate hydrolysates useful for cultivation of Lactococcus lactis by dilute sulfuric acid, cellulase and xylanase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Jian-Jun; Zhang, Yan-Fei; Sun, Li-Fan; Liu, Wei-Wei; Zhu, Hong-Ji; Zhang, Zhijun

    2011-09-01

    Spent mushroom substrate (SMS) was treated with dilute sulfuric acid followed by cellulase and xylanase treatment to produce hydrolysates that could be used as the basis for media for the production of value added products. A L9 (3(4)) orthogonal experiment was performed to optimize the acid treatment process. Pretreatment with 6% (w/w) dilute sulfuric acid at 120°C for 120 min provided the highest reducing sugar yield of 267.57 g/kg SMS. No furfural was detected in the hydrolysates. Exposure to 20PFU of cellulase and 200 XU of xylanase per gram of pretreated SMS at 40°C resulted in the release of 79.85 g/kg or reducing sugars per kg acid pretreated SMS. The dilute sulfuric acid could be recycled to process fresh SMS four times. SMS hydrolysates neutralized with ammonium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, or calcium hydroxide could be used as the carbon source for cultivation of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis W28 and a cell density of 2.9×10(11)CFU/mL could be obtained. The results provide a foundation for the development of value-added products based on SMS. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...... of hemicellulose C5 sugars was found for WEx pretreatment condition O2-A (160°C, 15 min, and 6 bar O2) which means that the highest potential ethanol yield was found at this moderate pretreatment condition with oxygen added. Increasing the pretreatment temperature to 180–190°C with addition of oxygen or dilute...... was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion...

  10. Converting Eucalyptus biomass into ethanol: Financial and sensitivity analysis in a co-current dilute acid process. Part II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, R.; Treasure, T.; Phillips, R.; Jameel, H.; Saloni, D.; Wright, J.; Abt, R.

    2011-01-01

    The technical and financial performance of high yield Eucalyptus biomass in a co-current dilute acid pretreatment followed by enzymatic hydrolysis process was simulated using WinGEMS registered and Excel registered . Average ethanol yield per dry Mg of Eucalyptus biomass was approximately 347.6 L of ethanol (with average carbohydrate content in the biomass around 66.1%) at a cost of 0.49 L -1 of ethanol, cash cost of ∝0.46 L -1 and CAPEX of 1.03 L -1 of ethanol. The main cost drivers are: biomass, enzyme, tax, fuel (gasoline), depreciation and labor. Profitability of the process is very sensitive to biomass cost, carbohydrate content (%) in biomass and enzyme cost. Biomass delivered cost was simulated and financially evaluated in Part I; here in Part II the conversion of this raw material into cellulosic ethanol using the dilute acid process is evaluated. (author)

  11. Structural features of dilute acid, steam exploded, and alkali pretreated mustard stalk and their impact on enzymatic hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Manali; Raj, Tirath; Vijayaraj, M; Chopra, Anju; Gupta, Ravi P; Tuli, Deepak K; Kumar, Ravindra

    2015-06-25

    To overcome the recalcitrant nature of biomass several pretreatment methodologies have been explored to make it amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. These methodologies alter cell wall structure primarily by removing/altering hemicelluloses and lignin. In this work, alkali, dilute acid, steam explosion pretreatment are systematically studied for mustard stalk. To assess the structural variability after pretreatment, chemical analysis, surface area, crystallinity index, accessibility of cellulose, FT-IR and thermal analysis are conducted. Although the extent of enzymatic hydrolysis varies upon the methodologies used, nevertheless, cellulose conversion increases from adsorption capacity. However, no such relationship is observed for xylose yield. Mass balance of the process is also studied. Dilute acid pretreatment is the best methodology in terms of maximum sugar yield at lower enzyme loading. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A structured understanding of cellobiohydrolase I binding to poplar lignin fractions after dilute acid pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lan; Yoo, Chang Geun; Meng, Xianzhi; Li, Mi; Pu, Yunqiao; Ragauskas, Arthur J; Yang, Haitao

    2018-01-01

    Cellulase adsorption to lignin is considered a cost barrier for bioethanol production; however, its detailed association mechanism is still not fully understood. In this study, two natural poplar variants with high and low sugar release performance were selected as the low and high recalcitrant raw materials (named L and H , respectively). Three different lignin fractions were extracted using ethanol, followed by p -dioxane and then cellulase treatment from the dilute acid pretreated poplar solids (fraction 1, 2, and 3, respectively). Each lignin fraction had different physicochemical properties. Ethanol-extracted lignin had the lowest weight average molecular weight, while the molecular weights for the other two lignin fractions were similar. 31 P NMR analysis revealed that lignin fraction with higher molecular weight contained more aliphatic hydroxyl groups and less phenolic hydroxyl groups. Semi-quantitative analysis by 2D HSQC NMR indicated that the lignin fractions isolated from the natural variants had different contents of syringyl (S), guaiacyl (G) and interunit linkages. Lignin extracted by ethanol contained the largest amount of S units, the smallest amounts of G and p -hydroxybenzoate (PB) subunits, while the contents of these lignin subunits in the other two lignin fractions were similar. The lignin fraction obtained after cellulase treatment was primarily comprised of β- O -4 linkages with small amounts of β-5 and β-β linkages. The binding strength of these three lignin fractions obtained by Langmuir equations were in the order of L 1  >  L 3  >  L 2 for the low recalcitrance poplar and H 1  >  H 2  >  H 3 for the high recalcitrance poplar. Overall, adsorption ability of lignin was correlated with the sugar release of poplar. Structural features of lignin were associated with its binding to CBH. For natural poplar variants, lignin fractions with lower molecular weight and polydispersity index (PDI) exhibited more CBH adsorption

  13. Evaluation of continuous ethanol fermentation of dilute-acid corn stover hydrolysate using thermophilic anaerobic bacterium Thermoanaerobacter BG1L1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, Tania I.; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2007-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreated corn stover is potential feedstock of industrial interest for second generation fuel ethanol production. However, the toxicity of corn stover hydrolysate (PCS) has been a challenge for fermentation by recombinant xylose fermenting organisms. In this work...

  14. Nicotinic acid as a nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings on steels in diluted hydrochloric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ju Hong [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China); Graduate School, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li Yan [Institute of Oceanology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Qingdao 266071 (China)], E-mail: yanlee@ms.qdio.ac.cn

    2007-11-15

    The inhibition effect of nicotinic acid for corrosion of hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings in diluted hydrochloric acid was investigated using quantum chemistry analysis, weight loss test, electrochemical measurement, and scanning electronic microscope (SEM) analysis. Quantum chemistry calculation results showed that nicotinic acid possessed planar structure with a number of active centers, and the populations of the Mulliken charge, the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO), and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were found mainly focused around oxygen and nitrogen atoms, and the cyclic of the benzene as well. The results of weight loss test and electrochemical measurement indicated that inhibition efficiency (IE%) increased with inhibitor concentration, and the highest inhibition efficiency was up to 96.7%. The corrosion inhibition of these coatings was discussed in terms of blocking the electrode reaction by adsorption of the molecules at the active centers on the electrode surface. It was found that the adsorption of nicotinic acid on coating surface followed Langmuir adsorption isotherm with single molecular layer, and nicotinic acid adsorbed on the coating surface probably by chemisorption. Nicotinic acid, therefore, can act as a good nontoxic corrosion inhibitor for hot dipped Zn and Zn-Al alloy coatings in diluted hydrochloric acid solution.

  15. Degradation of chitosan hydrogel dispersed in dilute carboxylic acids by solution plasma and evaluation of anticancer activity of degraded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokradjaroen, Chayanaphat; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Theeramunkong, Sewan; Saito, Nagahiro

    2018-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide that has been extensively studied in the field of biomedicine, especially its water-soluble degraded products called chitooligosaccharides (COS). In this study, COS were produced by the degradation of chitosan hydrogel dispersed in a dilute solution (i.e., 1.55 mM) of various kinds of carboxylic acids using a non-thermal plasma technology called solution plasma (SP). The degradation rates of chitosan were influenced by the type of carboxylic acids, depending on the interaction between chitosan and each carboxylic acid. After SP treatment, the water-soluble degraded products containing COS could be easily separated from the water-insoluble residue of chitosan hydrogel by centrifugation. The production yields of the COS were mostly higher than 55%. Furthermore, the obtained COS products were evaluated for their inhibitory effect as well as their selectivity against human lung cancer cells (H460) and human lung normal cells (MRC-5).

  16. Facile preparation of super-hydrophilic poly(ethylene terephthalate) fabric using dilute sulfuric acid under microwave irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Fang [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Guangxian, E-mail: zgx656472@sina.com.cn [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Fengxiu [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Zhang, Yuansong [College of Textiles and Garments, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • A durable super-hydrophilic PET fabric was prepared using dilute H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} under microwave irradiation. • Dilute sulfuric acid was gradually concentrated enough to sulfonate PET fabric. • Microwave irradiation made PET fabric modification highly efficient. • The mechanical properties of modified PET fibers were kept well. • The method was novel, rapid, and eco-friendly. - Abstract: The hydrophilicity of a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fabric was greatly modified by using dilute sulfuric acid, which gradually became concentrated enough to sulfonate the fabric when microwave irradiation (MW) was applied. The modified PET fabric was super-hydrophilic. Modifying the fabric caused the water contact angle to decrease from 132.46 (for the unmodified fabric) to 0°, the water absorption rate to increase from 36.45 to 119.78%, and the capillary rise height to increase from 0.4 to 14.4 cm. The hydrophilicity of the modified PET fabric was not affected by washing it many times. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses showed that there were sulfonic acid groups on the modified fibers. Almost no difference between the surfaces of the unmodified and modified PET fibers was found using scanning electron microscopy. Analysis by differential scanning calorimetry showed that the unmodified and modified fabrics had similar thermostabilities. X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystalline structures of the unmodified and modified fibers showed that they were almost the same. The strength, elasticity, and rigidity of the unmodified fabric were retained by the modified fabric. The modified fabric had better dyeing properties than the unmodified fabric.

  17. Direct determination of mercury in cosmetic samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry after dissolution with formic acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Ying; Shi, Zeming; Zong, Qinxia; Wu, Peng; Su, Jing [Sichuan Provincial Key Laboratory of Nuclear Technology in Geology, College of Nuclear Technology and Automation Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China); Liu, Rui, E-mail: liur.ray@gmail.com [Mineral Resources Chemistry Key Laboratory of Sichuan Higher Education Institutions, College of Materials and Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu 610059 (China)

    2014-02-17

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Simple, sensitive, and accurate method is established for mercury determination in cosmetics. •The sample preparation procedure is highly simplified. •Isotope dilution efficiently eliminates matrix effect. •First report of using formic acid based method in combination with PVG-ID-ICP MS for mercury quantitation in cosmetics. -- Abstract: A new method was proposed for the accurate determination of mercury in cosmetic samples based on isotopic dilution (ID)-photochemical vapor generation (PVG)-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) measurement. Cosmetic samples were directly dissolved in formic acid solution and subsequently subjected to PVG for the reduction of mercury into vapor species following by ICP MS detection. Therefore, the risks of analyte contamination and loss were avoided. Highly enriched {sup 201}Hg isotopic spike is added to cosmetics and the isotope ratios of {sup 201}Hg/{sup 202}Hg were measured for the quantitation of mercury. With ID calibration, the influences originating from sample matrixes for the determination of mercury in cosmetic samples have been efficiently eliminated. The effects of several experimental parameters, such as the concentration of the formic acid, and the flow rates of carrier gas and sample were investigated. The method provided good reproducibility and the detection limits were found to be 0.6 pg mL{sup −1}. Finally, the developed method was successfully applied for the determination of mercury in six cosmetic samples and a spike test was performed to verify the accuracy of the method.

  18. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kopp

    Full Text Available Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs, we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs and dried plasma spots (DPSs as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  19. Selection of suitable mineral acid and its concentration for biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis of the sodium dithionite delignified Prosopis juliflora to hydrolyze maximum holocellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naseeruddin, Shaik; Desai, Suseelendra; Venkateswar Rao, L

    2016-02-01

    Two grams of delignified substrate at 10% (w/v) level was subjected to biphasic dilute acid hydrolysis using phosphoric acid, hydrochloric acid and sulfuric acid separately at 110 °C for 10 min in phase-I and 121 °C for 15 min in phase-II. Combinations of acid concentrations in two phases were varied for maximum holocellulose hydrolysis with release of fewer inhibitors, to select the suitable acid and its concentration. Among three acids, sulfuric acid in combination of 1 & 2% (v/v) hydrolyzed maximum holocellulose of 25.44±0.44% releasing 0.51±0.02 g/L of phenolics and 0.12±0.002 g/L of furans, respectively. Further, hydrolysis of delignified substrate using selected acid by varying reaction time and temperature hydrolyzed 55.58±1.78% of holocellulose releasing 2.11±0.07 g/L and 1.37±0.03 g/L of phenolics and furans, respectively at conditions of 110 °C for 45 min in phase-I & 121 °C for 60 min in phase-II. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Interaction Between Some Monosaccharides and Aspartic Acid in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Galina A.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2007-01-01

    Interaction between aspartic acid and d-glucose, d-galactose, and d-fructose has been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry, calorimetry of dissolution, and densimetry. It has been found that d-glucose and d-fructose form thermodynamically stable associates with aspartic acid, in contrast to d-galactose. The selectivity in the interaction of aspartic acid with monosaccharides is affected by their stereochemical structures.

  1. Prehydrolysis of aspen wood with water and with dilute aqueous sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward L. Springer; John F. Harris

    1982-01-01

    Water prehydrolysis of aspen wood was compared with 0.40% sulfuric acid prehydrolysis at a reaction temperature of 170°C. Acid prehydrolysis gave much higher yields of total anhydroxylose units in the prehydrolyzate and removed significantly less anhydroglucose from the wood than did the water treatment. At maximum yields of total anhydroxylose units in the...

  2. Effects of SPORL and dilute acid pretreatment on substrate morphology, cell physical and chemical wall structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of lodgepole pine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinping; Luo, Xiaolin; Li, Kecheng; Zhu, J Y; Fougere, J Dennis; Clarke, Kimberley

    2012-11-01

    The effects of pretreatment by dilute acid and sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) on substrate morphology, cell wall physical and chemical structures, along with the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of lodgepole pine substrate were investigated. FE-SEM and TEM images of substrate structural morphological changes showed that SPORL pretreatment resulted in fiber separation, where SPORL high pH (4.2) pretreatment exhibited better fiber separation than SPORL low pH (1.9) pretreatment. Dilute acid pretreatment produced very poor fiber separation, consisting mostly of fiber bundles. The removal of almost all hemicelluloses in the dilute acid pretreated substrate did not overcome recalcitrance to achieve a high cellulose conversion when lignin removal was limited. SPORL high pH pretreatment removed more lignin but less hemicellulose, while SPORL low pH pretreatment removed about the same amount of lignin and hemicelluloses in lodgepole pine substrates when compared with dilute acid pretreatment. Substrates pretreated with either SPORL process had a much higher cellulose conversion than those produced with dilute acid pretreatment. Lignin removal in addition to removal of hemicellulose in SPORL pretreatment plays an important role in improving the cellulose hydrolysis of the substrate.

  3. Comparison of isotope dilution and excretion methods for determining the half-life of ascorbic acid in the guinea pig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipp, D.E.; Rivers, J.M.

    1984-01-01

    The half-life of ascorbic acid (AA) in guinea pigs was investigated by the isotope dilution and excretion methods. The dilution method measures [1-14C]AA disappearance from the plasma, whereas the excretion method measures the elimination of [1-14C]AA and the metabolites from the body. Two groups of animals underwent both isotope studies in reverse order. Animals were conditioned to the experimental procedures and fed 2.5 mg AA/100 g body weight orally to maintain a daily intake of the vitamin independent of food consumption. The two isotope procedures imposed similar stress on the animals, as determined by plasma cortisol levels and body weight changes. The AA half-life calculations of the rapidly exchangeable pool by the isotope dilution method yielded values of 1.23 and 0.34 hours for the two groups, respectively. The half-life of the slowly exchangeable pool for the two groups was 60.2 and 65.8 hours, respectively. The half-life of AA in the rapidly exchangeable pool, as measured by the excretion studies, was 4.57-8.75 hours. For the slowly exchangeable pool, it was 146-149 hours. The longer half-life of both pools obtained with the excretion method indicates that the isotope is disappearing from the plasma more rapidly than it is being excreted. This suggests that a portion of the [1-14C]AA leaving the plasma is removed to a body pool that is not sampled by the isotope excretion method

  4. An AFM and XPS study of corrosion caused by micro-liquid of dilute sulfuric acid on stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Rongguang

    2004-01-01

    Micro-liquid of dilute sulfuric acid deposited on SUS304 steel surface were observed with the ac non-contact mode of an atomic force microscopy (AFM), and the detail of the corrosion process caused by them was investigated with the contact mode of the AFM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (WDXS). As a result, even not applying bias voltages between the tip of the cantilever and the specimen, micro-liquid of sulfuric acid can be successfully imaged using the ac non-contact mode of AFM. Two shapes of micro-acid, i.e., micro-droplets and micro-films, were found to co-exist on the specimen surface. On areas covered by micro-films of acid, only small corrosion product particles appeared and no corrosion pits were found. Beneath micro-droplets, corrosion reaction continue to produce pits until they were all consumed to form a corrosion product (mainly iron oxides) with almost the same shape with the droplet. The total corrosion reaction time was speculated to be between 690 and 1500 ks. The corrosion product formed from micro-droplets was believed to be a process of accumulating small corrosion product particles from the liquid/substrate interface to the surface of the formerly produced corrosion product. The XPS and WDXS analysis also supports the above results

  5. Beech wood Fagus sylvatica dilute-acid hydrolysate as a feedstock to support Chlorella sorokiniana biomass, fatty acid and pigment production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miazek, Krystian; Remacle, Claire; Richel, Aurore; Goffin, Dorothee

    2017-04-01

    This work evaluates the possibility of using beech wood (Fagus sylvatica) dilute-acid (H 2 SO 4 ) hydrolysate as a feedstock for Chlorella sorokiniana growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Neutralized wood acid hydrolysate, containing organic and mineral compounds, was tested on Chlorella growth at different concentrations and compared to growth under phototrophic conditions. Chlorella growth was improved at lower loadings and inhibited at higher loadings. Based on these results, a 12% neutralized wood acid hydrolysate (Hyd12%) loading was selected to investigate its impact on Chlorella growth, fatty acid and pigment production. Hyd12% improved microalgal biomass, fatty acid and pigment productivities both in light and in dark, when compared to photoautotrophic control. Light intensity had substantial influence on fatty acid and pigment composition in Chlorella culture during Hyd12%-based growth. Moreover, heterotrophic Chlorella cultivation with Hyd12% also showed that wood hydrolysate can constitute an attractive feedstock for microalgae cultivation in case of lack of light. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Simultaneous Recovery of Hydrogen and Chlorine from Industrial Waste Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Paidimarri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of chlorine from byproduct HCl has inevitable commercial importance in industries lately because of insufficient purity or too low concentration to recycle it. Instead it is being neutralized in industries before disposing to meet stringent environmental conditions. Although recovery through catalytic oxidation processes is studied since the 19th century, their high operating conditions combined with sluggish reaction kinetics and low single pass conversions make electrolysis a better alternative. The present motive of this work is to develop a novel electrolysis process which in contrast to traditional processes effectively recovers both hydrogen and chlorine from dilute HCl. For this, an electrolytic cell with an Anionic Exchange Membrane has been designed which only allows the passage of chlorine anions from catholyte to anolyte separating the gasses in a single step. The catholyte can be as low as 3.59 wt% because of fixed anolyte concentration of 1.99 wt% which minimizes oxygen formation. Preliminary results show that the simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and chlorine is possible with high conversion up to 98%. The maximum current density value for 4.96 cm2 membrane surface area (70% active surface area is 2.54 kAm−2, which is comparable with reported commercial processes. This study is expected to be useful for process intensification of the same in a continuous process environment.

  7. Plutonium determination in solution with excess hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtil, J.; Kuvik, V.; Spevackova, V.

    1975-01-01

    The determination is described of plutonium in solutions in the presence of fluoride ions resulting from the hydrolysis of PuF 6 . The method is based on reduction of Pu(VI) by excess of Fe(II) and on re-titration of Fe(II) with ceric salt. The effect of fluoride ions on plutonium determination was studied. It was found that a 3 mole excess of HF with respect to Pu decreased the results of Pu determination. The interference of fluoride ions was eliminated by a two-fold evaporation of the solution to be titrated with HNO 3 to dryness or by complex formation with boric arid. The amount of 20.50 mg Pu in the presence of a 10 mole excess of fluoride ions (17 mg HF) was determined with an error of +- 0.09 mg ). (author)

  8. Performance studies on hydrofluoric acid fumes scrubbing systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarkar, S; Bhowmik, A; Bera, T K; Sridhar, H; Shanmugavelu, P; Muralidhara, H R [Rare Materials Project, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mysore (India)

    1994-06-01

    Uranium hexafluoride gas is a major process medium for the production of nuclear fuels. Different types of scrubbers suitable for disposal of exhaust gases containing low concentration of HF/UF{sub 6} contaminants, treatment of contaminated air from the working environment of a plant and bulk quantity of HF/UF{sub 6} from storage vessels are described. 8 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Determination of gamma-aminobutyric acid in food matrices by isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazzeroni, Raniero; Homan, Andrew; Thain, Emma

    2009-08-01

    The estimation of the dietary intake of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is dependent upon the knowledge of its concentration values in food matrices. To this end, an isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method has been developed employing the hydrophilic interaction chromatography technique for analyte separation. This approach enabled accurate quantification of GABA in apple, potato, soybeans, and orange juice without the need of a pre- or post-column derivatization reaction. A selective and precise analytical measurement has been obtained with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in multiple reaction monitoring using the method of standard additions and GABA-d(6) as an internal standard. The concentrations of GABA found in the matrices tested are 7 microg/g of apple, 342 microg/g of potatoes, 211 microg/g of soybeans, and 344 microg/mL of orange juice.

  10. Enzymatic saccharification of liquid hot water and dilute sulfuric acid pretreated oil palm empty fruit bunch and sugarcane bagasse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risanto, L.; Fitria; Fajriutami, T.; Hermiati, E.

    2018-03-01

    Oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) and sugarcane bagasse (SB) are potential feedstocks for the production of bioethanol. In this study OPEFB and SB were pretreated by liquid hot water and dilute sulfuric acid (3% H2SO4), and continued with enzymatic saccharification. Heating treatment for both methods was conducted in an autoclave at 121 °C for 1 hr. The saccharification was performed up to 72 hours with cellulase enzyme loading of 10, 20, and 30 FPU per g biomass. Results showed that OPEFB and SB pretreated with H2SO4 produced higher reducing sugars than those pretreated by liquid hot water. Higher enzyme loading also resulted in higher reducing sugars. Reducing sugars obtained from enzymatic saccharification of OPEFB were higher than those obtained from SB. The highest total reducing sugars (50.48 g/100 g biomass) was obtained from OPEFB pretreated with 3% H2SO4 at enzyme loading of 30 FPU per g biomass.

  11. Pretreatment of Sugar Beet Pulp with Dilute Sulfurous Acid is Effective for Multipurpose Usage of Carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharina, M; Emelyanov, V; Mokshina, N; Ibragimova, N; Gorshkova, T

    2016-05-01

    Sulfurous acid was used for pretreatment of sugar beet pulp (SBP) in order to achieve high efficiency of both extraction of carbohydrates and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of the remaining solids. The main advantage of sulfurous acid usage as pretreatment agent is the possibility of its regeneration. Application of sulfurous acid as hydrolyzing agent in relatively low concentrations (0.6-1.0 %) during a short period of time (10-20 min) and low solid to liquid ratio (1:3, 1:6) allowed effective extraction of carbohydrates from SBP and provided positive effect on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis. The highest obtained concentration of reducing substances (RS) in hydrolysates was 8.5 %; up to 33.6 % of all carbohydrates present in SBP could be extracted. The major obtained monosaccharides were arabinose and glucose (9.4 and 7.3 g/l, respectively). Pretreatment of SBP with sulfurous acid increased 4.6 times the yield of glucose during subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of remaining solids with cellulase cocktail, as compared to the untreated SBP. Total yield of glucose during SBP pretreatment and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis amounted to 89.4 % of the theoretical yield. The approach can be applied directly to the wet SBP. Hydrolysis of sugar beet pulp with sulfurous acid is recommended for obtaining of individual monosaccharides, as well as nutritional media.

  12. Effect of Hot water and dilute acid pretreatment on the chemical properties of liquorice root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra takzare

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In this study, the liquorice root (Glycyrrhiza glabra that was extracted in the factory in Kerman province, pre-hydrolyzed and then chemical compositions (Extractives, Lignin content, Holocellulose percent, the hydrolysis process yield and weight loss of the waste was measured. Pre-hydrolysis process was done on the above mentioned waste by hot water, hot water followed by 0.5 percent sulfuric acid and also alone sulfuric acid with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 percent The samples were pre-hydrolyzed in hot water at 150 °C and 30, 60 and 90 minutes as well as in the mixture of hot water and 0.5 % sulfuric acid at 150 °C and 60 minutes and also in pure sulfuric acid, at 130 °C and at 60 minutes. The results showed that the pre-hydrolyzed treatment with hot water in 60 minutes had been favorable performance in the respect of weight loss, lignin content and holocellulose percent. Also, in the case of pre-treatment including sulfuric acid, 2% dose can be good selected option in term of maximum holocellulose percent and minimum lignin content so that it can be suggested to produce higher value-added products such as bioethanol from licorice root bid.

  13. Disruption of sugarcane bagasse lignocellulosic structure by means of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment with microwave-assisted heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Wei-Hsin; Tu, Yi-Jian; Sheen, Herng-Kuang

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Pretreatment of dilute sulfuric acid on bagasse using microwave heating. → An increase in reaction temperature destroyed bagasse significantly. → Pretreated bagasse particles were characterized by fragmentation and swelling. → When the temperature was 190 o C, the fragmentation of particles became pronounced. → The influence of heating time on bagasse structure was not significant. - Abstract: Disruption of lignocellulosic structure of biomass plays a key role in producing bioethanol from lignocelluloses. This study investigated the impact of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment on bagasse structure using microwave heating. Three reaction temperatures of 130, 160 and 190 o C with two heating times of 5 and 10 min were considered and a number of instruments were employed to analyze the properties of the bagasse particles. On account of microwave irradiation into the solution with dielectric heating, the experiments indicated that an increase in reaction temperature destroyed the lignocellulosic structure of bagasse in a significant way. The pretreated bagasse particles were simultaneously characterized by fragmentation and swelling. When the reaction temperature was as high as 190 o C, the fragmentation of particles became fairly pronounced so that the specific surface area of the pretreated material grew substantially. Meanwhile, almost all hemicellulose was removed from bagasse and the crystalline structure of cellulose disappeared. In contrast, the feature of lignin was remained clearly. However, a comparison between the heating times of 5 and 10 min revealed that the influence of the heating time on the lignocellulosic structure was not significant, indicating that the pretreatment with 5 min was sufficiently long.

  14. Rheology of dilute acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrhardt, M R; Monz, T O; Root, T W; Connelly, R K; Scott, C T; Klingenberg, D J

    2010-02-01

    The rheological properties of acid hydrolyzed corn stover at high solids concentration (20-35 wt.%) were investigated using torque rheometry. These materials are yield stress fluids whose rheological properties can be well represented by the Bingham model. Yield stresses increase with increasing solids concentration and decrease with increasing hydrolysis reaction temperature, acid concentration, and rheometer temperature. Plastic viscosities increase with increasing solids concentration and tend to decrease with increasing reaction temperature and acid concentration. The solids concentration dependence of the yield stress is consistent with that reported for other fibrous systems. The changes in yield stress with reaction conditions are consistent with observed changes in particle size. This study illustrates that torque rheometry can be used effectively to measure rheological properties of concentrated biomass.

  15. Characteristics of Lignin Fractions from Dilute Acid Pretreated Switchgrass and Their Effect on Cellobiohydrolase from Trichoderma longibrachiatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lan Yao

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the interactions between acid pretreated switchgrass lignin and cellobiohydrolase (CBH, three different lignin fractions were isolated from dilute acid pretreated switchgrass by (i ethanol extraction, followed by (ii dioxane/H2O extraction, and (iii cellulase treatment, respectively. Structural properties of each lignin fraction were elucidated by GPC, 13C-NMR, and 2D-HSQC NMR analyses. The adsorptions of CBH to the isolated lignin fractions were also studied by Langmuir adsorption isotherms. Ethanol-extractable lignin fraction, mainly composed of syringyl (S and guaiacyl (G units, had the lowest molecular weight, while dioxane/H2O-extracted lignin fraction had the lowest S/G ratio with higher content of p-coumaric acid (pCA unit. The residual lignin fraction after enzymatic treatment had the highest S/G ratio without hydroxyphenyl (H unit. Strong associations were found between lignin properties such as lignin composition and S/G ratio and its non-productive enzyme adsorption factors including the maximum adsorption capacity and binding strength.

  16. Formic acid hydrolysis/liquid chromatography isotope dilution mass spectrometry: An accurate method for large DNA quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibayama, Sachie; Fujii, Shin-Ichiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Yamazaki, Taichi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2016-10-14

    Liquid chromatography-isotope dilution mass spectrometry (LC-IDMS) with formic acid hydrolysis was established for the accurate quantification of λDNA. The over-decomposition of nucleobases in formic acid hydrolysis was restricted by optimizing the reaction temperature and the reaction time, and accurately corrected by using deoxynucleotides (dNMPs) and isotope-labeled dNMPs as the calibrator and the internal standard, respectively. The present method could quantify λDNA with an expanded uncertainty of 4.6% using 10fmol of λDNA. The analytical results obtained with the present method were validated by comparing with the results of phosphate-base quantification by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The results showed good agreement with each other. We conclude that the formic acid hydrolysis/LC-IDMS method can quantify λDNA accurately and is promising as the primary method for the certification of DNA as reference material. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of ion exchange behaviour of some elements at phosphonic-acid cationite in diluted solutions of nitric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Razbash, A.A.; Sevast'yanov, Yu.G.

    1985-01-01

    Ce(3, 4), Eu(3), Gd(3), Sm(3), Sc(3) distribution coefficients are determined in the macroporic phosphonic acid cationite KRF-20T-60 in nitric acid solutions in 0.1-2.0 M concentration interval using statistical method. A simple method of cerium-139 radionuclide extraction from the industrial lanthanum target is developed. The product yield made up more than 99%, specific activity - 2.37x10 9 Bq/mg, radiochemical purity - no less than 99.9%

  18. Behaviours of trinitratonitrosyl complexes of ruthenium in dilute nitric acid solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, S [Radia Industry Co. Ltd., Takasaki (Japan)

    1979-07-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the protolysis and condensation processes of the Ru complexes in relation to the concentration of nitric acid. The compositions of the dissociated and undissociated complexes were determined by the extraction with tributyl phosphate (TBP) and absorption spectroscopy in order to follow the rather rapid protolysis reaction of the complexes. The test solutions were prepared by dissolving the freshly obtained complexes into 0.50 - 0.001 M nitric acid solutions. The amounts of the undissociated complexes were determined at different elapses of time in the test solutions. The protolysis became significant when the concentration was below 0.15 M, and the dissociation rate suddenly increased at this concentration. At the concentrations above 0.2 M, the absorption peak of the complexes at 480 nm survived even after 144 hours. But below 0.15 M, the formation of dissociation products by protolysis was observed after the disappearance of the absorption peak. The amount of dissociation products rapidly increased after the preparation of the test solution as the concentration decreased below 0.15 M.

  19. Corrosion control of carbon steel using inhibitor of banana peel extract in acid diluted solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komalasari; Utami, S. P.; Fermi, M. I.; Aziz, Y.; Irianti, R. S.

    2018-04-01

    Issues of corrosion happened in pipes, it was used as fluid transportation in the chemical industry. Corrosion cannot be preventing, however it could be controlled or blocked. Inhibitor addition is one of the method to control the corrosion inside the pipe. Corrosion inhibitors consisted of inorganic and organic compound inhibitors. Organic inhibitor is composed from synthetic and natural material. This study focused to evaluate the inhibition’s efficiency from banana peel to carbon steel in different concentration of inhibitor and immersing time in acid solution variation. The research employed inhibitor concentration of 0 gram/liter, 2 gram/liter, 4 gram/liter and 6 gram/liter, immersed time of carbon steel for 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 hours. It was immersed in chloride acid solution of 0.5 M and 1.5 M. Carbon Steel AISI 4041 was used as specimen steel. Results were analyzed using corrosion rate evaluation for each specimens and inhibitor efficiencies determination. It was found that the specimen without inhibitor yielded fast corrosion rate in long immersing time and high concentration of HCl. However, the specimens with inhibitor gave lowest corrosion rate which was 78.59% for 6 gram/litre and 10 hours in 0.5 M HCl.

  20. Isolation and structural characterization of sugarcane bagasse lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment and its effect on cellulose hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jijiao Zeng; Zhaohui Tong; Letian Wang; J.Y. Zhu; Lonnie Ingram

    2014-01-01

    The structure of lignin after dilute phosphoric acid plus steam explosion pretreatment process of sugarcane bagasse in a pilot scale and the effect of the lignin extracted by ethanol on subsequent cellulose hydrolysis were investigated. The lignin structural changes caused by pretreatment were identified using advanced nondestructive techniques such as gel permeation...

  1. Effects of SPORL and dilute acid pretreatment on substrate morphology, cell physical and chemical wall structures, and subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of lodgepole pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xinping Li; Xiaolin Luo; Kecheng Li; J.Y. Zhu; J. Dennis Fougere; Kimberley Clarke

    2012-01-01

    The effects of pretreatment by dilute acid and sulfite pretreatment to overcome recalcitrance of lignocellulose (SPORL) on substrate morphology, cell wall physical and chemical structures, along with the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis of lodgepole pine substrate were investigated. FE-SEM and TEM images of substrate structural morphological changes showed that SPORL...

  2. 3-D Topo Surface Visualization of Acid-Base Species Distributions: Corner Buttes, Corner Pits, Curving Ridge Crests, and Dilution Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul

    2017-01-01

    Species TOPOS is a free software package for generating three-dimensional (3-D) topographic surfaces ("topos") for acid-base equilibrium studies. This upgrade adds 3-D species distribution topos to earlier surfaces that showed pH and buffer capacity behavior during titration and dilution procedures. It constructs topos by plotting…

  3. Effect of low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis on the production of fermentable substrates and the release of inhibitory compounds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Panagiotopoulos, I.A.; Lignos, G.D.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Koukios, E.G.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the feasibility of combining low severity dilute-acid pretreatment of barley straw and decreased enzyme loading hydrolysis for the high production of fermentable substrates and the low release of inhibitory compounds. For most of the pretreatments at 160

  4. Direct hydrogen production from dilute-acid pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate using the newly isolated Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum MJ1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bin-Bin; Zhu, Ming-Jun

    2017-05-03

    Energy shortage and environmental pollution are two severe global problems, and biological hydrogen production from lignocellulose shows great potential as a promising alternative biofuel to replace the fossil fuels. Currently, most studies on hydrogen production from lignocellulose concentrate on cellulolytic microbe, pretreatment method, process optimization and development of new raw materials. Due to no effective approaches to relieve the inhibiting effect of inhibitors, the acid pretreated lignocellulose hydrolysate was directly discarded and caused environmental problems, suggesting that isolation of inhibitor-tolerant strains may facilitate the utilization of acid pretreated lignocellulose hydrolysate. Thermophilic bacteria for producing hydrogen from various kinds of sugars were screened, and the new strain named MJ1 was isolated from paper sludge, with 99% identity to Thermoanaerobacterium thermosaccharolyticum by 16S rRNA gene analysis. The hydrogen yields of 11.18, 4.25 and 2.15 mol-H 2 /mol sugar can be reached at an initial concentration of 5 g/L cellobiose, glucose and xylose, respectively. The main metabolites were acetate and butyrate. More important, MJ1 had an excellent tolerance to inhibitors of dilute-acid (1%, g/v) pretreated sugarcane bagasse hydrolysate (DAPSBH) and could efficiently utilize DAPSBH for hydrogen production without detoxication, with a production higher than that of pure sugars. The hydrogen could be quickly produced with the maximum hydrogen production reached at 24 h. The hydrogen production reached 39.64, 105.42, 111.75 and 110.44 mM at 20, 40, 60 and 80% of DAPSBH, respectively. Supplementation of CaCO 3 enhanced the hydrogen production by 21.32% versus the control. These results demonstrate that MJ1 could directly utilize DAPSBH for biohydrogen production without detoxication and can serve as an excellent candidate for industrialization of hydrogen production from DAPSBH. The results also suggest that isolating unique

  5. Rapid and Precise Measurement of Serum Branched-Chain and Aromatic Amino Acids by Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Ruiyue; Dong, Jun; Guo, Hanbang; Li, Hongxia; Wang, Shu; Zhao, Haijian; Zhou, Weiyan; Yu, Songlin; Wang, Mo; Chen, Wenxiang

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs) have emerged as predictors for the future development of diabetes and may aid in diabetes risk assessment. However, the current methods for the analysis of such amino acids in biological samples are time consuming. METHODS: An isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS) method for serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed. The serum was mixed with isotope-labeled BCAA and AAA internal standar...

  6. Effect of pelleting on the recalcitrance and bioconversion of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allison E Ray; Amber Hoover; Gary Gresham

    2012-07-01

    Background: Knowledge regarding the performance of densified biomass in biochemical processes is limited. The effects of densification on biochemical conversion are explored here. Methods: Pelleted corn stover samples were generated from bales that were milled to 6.35 mm. Low-solids acid pretreatment and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation were performed to evaluate pretreatment efficacy and ethanol yields achieved for pelleted and ground stover (6.35 mm and 2 mm) samples. Both pelleted and 6.35-mm ground stover were evaluated using a ZipperClave® reactor under high-solids, process-relevant conditions for multiple pretreatment severities (Ro), followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of the washed, pretreated solids. Results: Monomeric xylose yields were significantly higher for pellets (approximately 60%) than for ground formats (approximately 38%). Pellets achieved approximately 84% of theoretical ethanol yield (TEY); ground stover formats had similar profiles, reaching approximately 68% TEY. Pelleting corn stover was not detrimental to pretreatment efficacy for both low- and high-solids conditions, and even enhanced ethanol yields.

  7. A comparative evaluation of a dipicolinic acid based dilute chemical decontaminant formulation with respect to its efficacy for dissolution of iron oxides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal Kishore; Dey, G.R.; Naik, D.B.; Moorthy, P.N. [Applied Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    1998-12-31

    A dilute chemical decontamination formulation containing dipicolinic acid (2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid PDCA) and ascorbic acid (AA) has been found to be effective in dissolving magnetite, nickel ferrite and haemetite. Its main advantages arise because of (i) good solubility of the two constituents (ii) lack of absorption on the cation exchanger from acidic media during regenerative decontamination process (iii) stability to ionizing radiation and (iv) low corrosion rate for carbon steel. Dissolution rates of iron oxides in this formulation are as good as or better than in other well known formulations. (author)

  8. Effect of Aging Temperature on Corrosion Behavior of Sintered 17-4 PH Stainless Steel in Dilute Sulfuric Acid Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szewczyk-Nykiel, Aneta; Kazior, Jan

    2017-07-01

    The general corrosion behavior of sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel processed under different processing conditions in dilute sulfuric acid solution at 25 °C was studied by open-circuit potential measurement and potentiodynamic polarization technique. The corrosion resistance was evaluated based on electrochemical parameters, such as polarization resistance, corrosion potential, corrosion current density as well as corrosion rate. The results showed that the precipitation-hardening treatment could significantly improve the corrosion resistance of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel in studied environment. As far as the influence of aging temperature on corrosion behavior of the sintered 17-4 PH stainless steel is concerned, polarization resistance and corrosion rate are reduced with increasing aging temperature from 480 up to 500 °C regardless of the temperature of solution treatment. It can be concluded that the highest corrosion resistance in 0.5 M H2SO4 solution exhibits 17-4 PH after solution treatment at 1040 °C followed by aging at 480 °C.

  9. Optimization of dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment to maximize combined sugar yield from sugarcane bagasse for ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Y; Cheng, H; Görgens, J F

    2014-01-01

    Increasing fermentable sugar yields per gram of biomass depends strongly on optimal selection of varieties and optimization of pretreatment conditions. In this study, dilute acid pretreatment of bagasse from six varieties of sugarcane was investigated in connection with enzymatic hydrolysis for maximum combined sugar yield (CSY). The CSY from the varieties were also compared with the results from industrial bagasse. The results revealed considerable differences in CSY between the varieties. Up to 22.7 % differences in CSY at the optimal conditions was observed. The combined sugar yield difference between the best performing variety and the industrial bagasse was 34.1 %. High ratio of carbohydrates to lignin and low ash content favored the release of sugar from the substrates. At mild pretreatment conditions, the differences in bioconversion efficiency between varieties were greater than at severe condition. This observation suggests that under less severe conditions the glucose recovery was largely determined by chemical composition of biomass. The results from this study support the possibility of increasing sugar yields or improving the conversion efficiency when pretreatment optimization is performed on varieties with improved properties.

  10. Evaluation of xylitol production using corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate by combining tetrabutylammonium hydroxide extraction with dilute acid hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Honghua; Shao, Tingting; Zhong, Chao; Li, Hengxiang; Jiang, Min; Zhou, Hua; Wei, Ping

    2016-10-20

    In this paper, we produced hemicellulosic hydrolysate from corncob by tetrabutylammonium hydroxide (TBAH) extraction and dilute acid hydrolysis combined, further evaluating the feasibility of the resultant corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate used in xylitol production by Candida tropicalis. Optimized conditions for corncob hemicellulose extraction by TBAH was obtained via response surface methodology: time of 90min, temperature of 60°C, liquid/solid ratio of 12 (v/w), and TBAH concentration of 55%, resulting in a hemicellulose extraction of 80.07% under these conditions. The FT-IR spectrum of the extracted corncob hemicellulose is consistent with that of birchwood hemicellulose and exhibits specific absorbance of hemicelluloses at 1380, 1168, 1050, and 900cm(-1). In addition, we found that C. tropicalis can ferment the resulting corncob hemicellulosic hydrolysate with pH adjustment and activated charcoal treatment leading to a high xylitol yield and productivity of 0.77g/g and 2.45g/(Lh), respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Improvement of microwave-assisted digestion of milk powder with diluted nitric acid using oxygen as auxiliary reagent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciencia dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Garcia, Edivaldo E. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, 87100-900, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Nobrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Sao Carlos, 13565-905, Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil); Dressler, Valderi L. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.com [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, 97105-900, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Ciencia e Tecnologia de Bioanalitica, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2011-05-15

    The feasibility of using diluted HNO{sub 3} solutions under oxygen pressure for decomposition of whole and non-fat milk powders and whey powder samples has been evaluated. Digestion efficiency was evaluated by determining the carbon content in solution (digests) and the determination of Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Pb and Zn was performed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry and Hg by chemical vapor generation coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Samples (up to 500 mg) were digested using HNO{sub 3} solutions (1 to 14 mol L{sup -1}) and the effect of oxygen pressure was evaluated between 2.5 and 20 bar. It was possible to perform the digestion of 500 mg of milk powder using 2 mol L{sup -1} HNO{sub 3} with oxygen pressure ranging from 7.5 to 20 bar with resultant carbon content in digests lower than 1700 mg L{sup -1}. Using optimized conditions, less than 0.86 mL of concentrated nitric acid (14 mol L{sup -1}) was enough to digest 500 mg of sample. The accuracy was evaluated by determination of metal concentrations in certified reference materials, which presented an agreement better than 95% (Student's t test, P < 0.05) for all the analytes.

  12. The molecular properties of biochar carbon released in dilute acidic solution and its effects on maize seed germination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jingling; Drosos, Marios; Mazzei, Pierluigi; Savy, Davide; Todisco, Daniele; Vinci, Giovanni; Pan, Genxing; Piccolo, Alessandro

    2017-01-15

    It is not yet clear whether the carbon released from biochar in the soil solution stimulates biological activities. Soluble fractions (AQU) from wheat and maize biochars, whose molecular content was thoroughly characterized by FTIR, 13 C and 1 H NMR, and high-resolution ESI-IT-TOF-MS, were separated in dilute acidic solution to simulate soil rhizospheric conditions and their effects evaluated on maize seeds germination activity. Elongation of maize-seeds coleoptile was significantly promoted by maize biochar AQU, whereas it was inhibited by wheat biochar AQU. Both AQU fractions contained relatively small heterocyclic nitrogen compounds, whose structures were accounted by their spectroscopic properties. Point-of-Zero-Charge (PZC) values and van Krevelen plots of identified masses of soluble components suggested that the dissolved carbon from maize biochar behaved as humic-like supramolecular material capable to adhere to seedlings and deliver bioactive molecules. These findings contribute to understand the biostimulation potential of biochars from crop biomasses when applied in agricultural production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Enhanced enzymatic hydrolysis and acetone-butanol-ethanol fermentation of sugarcane bagasse by combined diluted acid with oxidate ammonolysis pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Xiong, Lian; Chen, Xuefang; Wang, Can; Qi, Gaoxiang; Huang, Chao; Luo, Mutan; Chen, Xinde

    2017-03-01

    This study aims to propose a biorefinery pretreatment technology for the bioconversion of sugarcane bagasse (SB) into biofuels and N-fertilizers. Performance of diluted acid (DA), aqueous ammonia (AA), oxidate ammonolysis (OA) and the combined DA with AA or OA were compared in SB pretreatment by enzymatic hydrolysis, structural characterization and acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fermentation. Results indicated that DA-OA pretreatment improves the digestibility of SB by sufficiently hydrolyzing hemicellulose into fermentable monosaccharides and oxidating lignin into soluble N-fertilizer with high nitrogen content (11.25%) and low C/N ratio (3.39). The enzymatic hydrolysates from DA-OA pretreated SB mainly composed of glucose was more suitable for the production of ABE solvents than the enzymatic hydrolysates from OA pretreated SB containing high ratio of xylose. The fermentation of enzymatic hydrolysates from DA-OA pretreated SB produced 12.12g/L ABE in 120h. These results suggested that SB could be utilized efficient, economic, and environmental by DA-OA pretreatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Stable isotope dilution HILIC-MS/MS method for accurate quantification of glutamic acid, glutamine, pyroglutamic acid, GABA and theanine in mouse brain tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Koichi; Miyazaki, Yasuto; Unno, Keiko; Min, Jun Zhe; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we developed the stable isotope dilution hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-MS/MS) technique for the accurate, reasonable and simultaneous quantification of glutamic acid (Glu), glutamine (Gln), pyroglutamic acid (pGlu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) and theanine in mouse brain tissues. The quantification of these analytes was accomplished using stable isotope internal standards and the HILIC separating mode to fully correct the intramolecular cyclization during the electrospray ionization. It was shown that linear calibrations were available with high coefficients of correlation (r(2)  > 0.999, range from 10 pmol/mL to 50 mol/mL). For application of the theanine intake, the determination of Glu, Gln, pGlu, GABA and theanine in the hippocampus and central cortex tissues was performed based on our developed method. In the region of the hippocampus, the concentration levels of Glu and pGlu were significantly reduced during reality-based theanine intake. Conversely, the concentration level of GABA increased. This result showed that transited theanine has an effect on the metabolic balance of Glu analogs in the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Effect of dilution and L-malic acid addition on bio-hydrogen production with Rhodopseudomonas palustris from effluent of an acidogenic anaerobic reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azbar, N.; Tuba, F.; Dokgoz, C.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, H 2 was produced in a two-stage biological process: I) first stage; the dark fermentation of cheese whey wastewater, which is rich in lactose, by mixed anaerobic culture grown at thermophilic temperature in a continuously running fermentor and ii) second stage; the photo-fermentation of the residual medium by R. palustris strain (DSM 127) at 31 o C under illumination of 150 W in batch mode, respectively. In the first part of the study, the effluent from the dark fermentation reactor was used either as it is (no dilution) or after dilution with distilled water at varying ratios such as 1/2 , 1/5, 1/10 (1 volume effluent/5 volume distilled water) before used in photo-fermentation experiments. In the second part of the study, L-malic acid at varying amounts was added into the hydrogen production medium in order to have L-malic acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 g/l. Non-diluted and pre-diluted mediums with or without L-malic acid addition were also tested for comparison purpose (as controls). Prior to the hydrogen production experiments, all samples were subjected to pH adjustment, (pH 6.7) and sterilized by autoclave at 121 o C for 15 min. In regards to the experiments in which the effect of dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation was studied, it was observed that dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation resulted in much better hydrogen productions. Among the dilution rates used, the experiments operated with 1/5 dilution ratio produced the best hydrogen production (241 ml H 2 / g COD fed ). On the other hand, it was seen that the mixing the effluent with L-malic acid (0 - 4 g/l) at increasing ratios (studied from 0% L-malic acid up to 100% by volume in the mixture) had further positive effect and improved the hydrogen production. The bioreactors containing only L-malic acid media resulted in the best hydrogen production (438 ml H 2 / g COD fed ). It was found that, undiluted raw cheese whey wastewater effluent from dark hydrogen

  16. Effect of dilution and L-malic acid addition on bio-hydrogen production with Rhodopseudomonas palustris from effluent of an acidogenic anaerobic reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azbar, N.; Tuba, F.; Dokgoz, C. [Bioengineering Dept., Faculty of Engineering, Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey)], E-mail: nuri.azbar@ege.edu.tr

    2009-07-01

    In this study, H{sub 2} was produced in a two-stage biological process: I) first stage; the dark fermentation of cheese whey wastewater, which is rich in lactose, by mixed anaerobic culture grown at thermophilic temperature in a continuously running fermentor and ii) second stage; the photo-fermentation of the residual medium by R. palustris strain (DSM 127) at 31{sup o}C under illumination of 150 W in batch mode, respectively. In the first part of the study, the effluent from the dark fermentation reactor was used either as it is (no dilution) or after dilution with distilled water at varying ratios such as 1/2 , 1/5, 1/10 (1 volume effluent/5 volume distilled water) before used in photo-fermentation experiments. In the second part of the study, L-malic acid at varying amounts was added into the hydrogen production medium in order to have L-malic acid concentrations ranging from 0 to 4 g/l. Non-diluted and pre-diluted mediums with or without L-malic acid addition were also tested for comparison purpose (as controls). Prior to the hydrogen production experiments, all samples were subjected to pH adjustment, (pH 6.7) and sterilized by autoclave at 121{sup o}C for 15 min. In regards to the experiments in which the effect of dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation was studied, it was observed that dilution of the effluent from dark fermentation resulted in much better hydrogen productions. Among the dilution rates used, the experiments operated with 1/5 dilution ratio produced the best hydrogen production (241 ml H{sub 2}/ g COD{sub fed}). On the other hand, it was seen that the mixing the effluent with L-malic acid (0 - 4 g/l) at increasing ratios (studied from 0% L-malic acid up to 100% by volume in the mixture) had further positive effect and improved the hydrogen production. The bioreactors containing only L-malic acid media resulted in the best hydrogen production (438 ml H{sub 2} / g COD{sub fed}). It was found that, undiluted raw cheese whey wastewater

  17. The impacts of pretreatment on the fermentability of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass: a comparative evaluation between ammonia fiber expansion and dilute acid pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dale Bruce E

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pretreatment chemistry is of central importance due to its impacts on cellulosic biomass processing and biofuels conversion. Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX and dilute acid are two promising pretreatments using alkaline and acidic pH that have distinctive differences in pretreatment chemistries. Results Comparative evaluation on these two pretreatments reveal that (i AFEX-pretreated corn stover is significantly more fermentable with respect to cell growth and sugar consumption, (ii both pretreatments can achieve more than 80% of total sugar yield in the enzymatic hydrolysis of washed pretreated solids, and (iii while AFEX completely preserves plant carbohydrates, dilute acid pretreatment at 5% solids loading degrades 13% of xylose to byproducts. Conclusion The selection of pretreatment will determine the biomass-processing configuration, requirements for hydrolysate conditioning (if any and fermentation strategy. Through dilute acid pretreatment, the need for hemicellulase in biomass processing is negligible. AFEX-centered cellulosic technology can alleviate fermentation costs through reducing inoculum size and practically eliminating nutrient costs during bioconversion. However, AFEX requires supplemental xylanases as well as cellulase activity. As for long-term sustainability, AFEX has greater potential to diversify products from a cellulosic biorefinery due to lower levels of inhibitor generation and lignin loss.

  18. Influence of solid loading on D-xylose production through dilute sulphuric acid hydrolysis of olive stones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cuevas, M.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The selective hydrolysis of hemicellulose from olive stones was attempted in order to achieve a maximum D-xylose yield. For this aim, batch hydrolysis was conducted under different operating conditions of temperature, acid concentration and solid loading. Firstly, distilled water, sulphuric acid and nitric acid were assessed as hydrolytic agents at different temperatures (200, 205, 210 and 220 °C and at a fixed acid concentration (0.025 M. Sulphuric acid and 200 °C were selected for the subsequent dilute acid hydrolysis optimization based on the obtained D-xylose yields. The combined influence of solid loading (from 29.3 to 170.7 g olive stones into 300 mL acid solution and sulphuric acid concentration (0.006–0.034 M on the release of D-xylose was then estimated by response surface methodology. According to a statistical analysis, both parameters had significant interaction effects on D-xylose production. The results illustrated that the higher the solid loading, the higher the required acid concentration. The decrease in the solid/liquid ratio in the reactor had a positive effect on D-xylose extraction and on the amount of acid used. The optimum solid loading and sulphuric acid concentration were determined to be 50 g (solid/liquid ratio 1/6 and 0.016 M, respectively. Under these conditions, the predicted D-xylose yield (expressed as g of sugar per 100 g of dry matter fed was 20.4 (87.2% of maximum attainable.Se ha desarrollado una hidrólisis selectiva de la fracción hemicelulósica del hueso de aceituna con el fin de obtener el máximo rendimiento de D-xilosa. Para ello las hidrólisis se llevaron a cabo en un reactor discontinuo a distintas condiciones de temperatura, concentración de ácido y carga de sólidos. En primer lugar se evaluó la capacidad hidrolítica del agua destilada y de los ácidos nítrico y sulfúrico a distintas temperaturas (200, 205, 210 y 220°C manteniendo fija la concentración de ácido (0,025 M. A partir de

  19. Process Design Report for Wood Feedstock: Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Desing and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis Current and Futuristic Scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wooley, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ruth, Mark [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Sheehan, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ibsen, Kelly [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Majdeski, Henry [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States); Galves, Adrian [Delta-T Corporation, Lexington, KY (United States)

    1999-07-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has undertaken a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process based on co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis, along with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design includes the core technologies being researched by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE): prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production.

  20. Determination of the Thermodynamic Properties of Poly [2-(3-phenyl-3-methylcyclobutyl)-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid] at Infinite Dilution by Inverse Gas Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    KAYA, İsmet

    2014-01-01

    Some thermodynamic quantities were obtained for the interactions of poly [2-(3-phenyl -3- methylcyclobutyl)-2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-methacrylic acid] Poly (PCHEMA-co-MA) with alcohols, ketones, acetates, aromatics and n-alkanes by inverse gas chromatography in the temperature range of 150-180oC. The specific retention volumes, Vgo, weight fraction activity coefficients of solute probes at infinite dilution, W1\\infty and Flory-Huggins thermodynamic interaction parameters, c12...

  1. Diglycolic acid modified zirconium phosphate and studies on the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from dilute nitric acid medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selvan, B. Robert; Suneesh, A.S.; Venkatesan, K.A.; Antony, M.P. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Fuel Chemistry Division; Dasthaiah, K.; Gardas, R.L. [Indian Institute of Technology - Madras, Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2017-06-01

    Diglycolic acid modified zirconium phosphate (ZrP-DGA) was prepared and studied for the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) from dilute nitric acid medium. The distribution coefficient (K{sub d}, mL.g{sup -1}) of Am(III) and Eu(III) was measured as a function of time, pH and concentration of Eu(III) ion etc. The K{sub d} of Am(III) and Eu(III) increased with increase of pH, reached a maximum value of distribution coefficient at pH 1.5 - 2, followed by decrease in K{sub d} values. Rapid extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) in ZrP-DGA was observed followed by the establishment of equilibrium occurred in 100 min. Kinetics of extraction was fitted in to pseudo second order rate equation. The amount of Eu(III) loaded in ZrP-DGA increased with increase in the concentration of Eu(III) ion in aqueous phase and the isotherm was fitted in to Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption models. The extraction of Am(III) in ZrP-DGA was higher as compared to Eu(III) and the interference of Eu(III) on the extraction of Am(III) was studied. The distribution coefficient of some lanthanides in ZrP-DGA was measured and the K{sub d} of lanthanides increased across the lanthanide series. The extracted trivalent metal ions were recovered in three contacts of loaded ZrP-DGA with 0.5 M nitric acid.

  2. Kinetic characterization for hemicellulose hydrolysis of corn stover in a dilute acid cycle spray flow-through reactor at moderate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Qiang; Zhang, Hongman; Yan, Lishi; Qu, Liang; Huang, He

    2011-01-01

    The kinetic characterization of hemicellulose hydrolysis of corn stover was investigated using a new reactor of dilute acid cycle spray flow-through (DCF) pretreatment. The primary purpose was to obtain kinetic data for hemicellulose hydrolysis with sulfuric acid concentrations (10-30 kg m -3 ) at relatively low temperatures (90-100 o C). A simplified kinetic model was used to describe its performance at moderate conditions. The results indicate that the rates of xylose formation and degradation are sensitive to flow rate, temperature and acid concentration. Moreover, the kinetic data of hemicellulose hydrolysis fit a first-order reaction model and the experimental data with actual acid concentration after accounting for the neutralization effect of the substrates at different temperatures. Over 90% of the xylose monomer yield and below 5.5% of degradation product (furfural) yield were observed in this reactor. Kinetic constants for hemicellulose hydrolysis models were analyzed by an Arrhenius-type equation, and the activation energy of xylose formation were 111.6 kJ mol -1 , and 95.7 kJ mol -1 for xylose degradation, respectively. -- Highlights: → Investigating a novel pretreatment reactor of dilute acid cycle spray flow-through. → Xylose yield is sensitive to flow rate, temperature and acid concentration. → Obtaining relatively higher xylose monomer yield and lower fermentation inhibitor. → Lumping hemicellulose and xylan oligmers together in the model is a valid way. → The kinetic model as a guide for reactor design, and operation strategy optimization.

  3. Introducing AAA-MS, a rapid and sensitive method for amino acid analysis using isotope dilution and high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louwagie, Mathilde; Kieffer-Jaquinod, Sylvie; Dupierris, Véronique; Couté, Yohann; Bruley, Christophe; Garin, Jérôme; Dupuis, Alain; Jaquinod, Michel; Brun, Virginie

    2012-07-06

    Accurate quantification of pure peptides and proteins is essential for biotechnology, clinical chemistry, proteomics, and systems biology. The reference method to quantify peptides and proteins is amino acid analysis (AAA). This consists of an acidic hydrolysis followed by chromatographic separation and spectrophotometric detection of amino acids. Although widely used, this method displays some limitations, in particular the need for large amounts of starting material. Driven by the need to quantify isotope-dilution standards used for absolute quantitative proteomics, particularly stable isotope-labeled (SIL) peptides and PSAQ proteins, we developed a new AAA assay (AAA-MS). This method requires neither derivatization nor chromatographic separation of amino acids. It is based on rapid microwave-assisted acidic hydrolysis followed by high-resolution mass spectrometry analysis of amino acids. Quantification is performed by comparing MS signals from labeled amino acids (SIL peptide- and PSAQ-derived) with those of unlabeled amino acids originating from co-hydrolyzed NIST standard reference materials. For both SIL peptides and PSAQ standards, AAA-MS quantification results were consistent with classical AAA measurements. Compared to AAA assay, AAA-MS was much faster and was 100-fold more sensitive for peptide and protein quantification. Finally, thanks to the development of a labeled protein standard, we also extended AAA-MS analysis to the quantification of unlabeled proteins.

  4. Morphological study of fluorescent carbon Nanoparticles (F-CNPs) from ground coffee waste soot oxidation by diluted acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gea, S.; Tjandra, S.; Joshua, J.; Wirjosentono, B.

    2018-02-01

    Coffee ground waste utilization for fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (F-CNPs) through soot oxidation with diluted HNO3 has been conducted. Soot was obtained through three different treatments to coffee ground waste; which was burned in furnaceat 550°C and 650°C and directly burned in a heat-proofcontainer. Then they were analyzed morphologically with Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) instrument. Soot from direct burning indicated the optimum result where it has denser pores compared to other two soots. Soot obtained from direct burning was refluxed in diluted HNO3 for 12 hours to perform the oxidation. Yellowish brown supernatant was later observed which lead to green fluorescent under the UV light. F-CNPs characterization was done in Transmission Electron Microscopy, which showed that 7.4-23.4 nm of particle size were distributed.

  5. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  6. Kinetic and Modeling Investigation to Provide Design Guidelines for the NREL Dilute-Acid Process Aimed at Total Hydrolysis/Fractionation of Lignocellulosic Biomass: July 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Iyer, P.; Xiang, Q.; Hayes, J.

    2004-08-01

    Following up on previous work, subcontractor investigated three aspects of using NREL ''pretreatment'' technology for total hydrolysis (cellulose as well as hemicellulose) of biomass. Whereas historic hydrolysis of biomass used either dilute acid or concentrated acid technology for hydrolysis of both hemicellulose and cellulose, NREL has been pursuing very dilute acid hydrolysis of hemicellulose followed by enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. NREL's countercurrent shrinking-bed reactor design for hemicellulose hydrolysis (pretreatment) has, however, shown promise for total hydrolysis. For the first task, subcontractor developed a mathematical model of the countercurrent shrinking bed reactor operation and, using yellow poplar sawdust as a feedstock, analyzed the effect of: initial solid feeding rate, temperature, acid concentration, acid flow rate, Peclet number (a measure of backmixing in liquid flow), and bed shrinking. For the second task, subcontractor used laboratory trials, with yellow poplar sawdust and 0.07 wt% sulfuric acid at various temperatures, to verify the hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose (desired) and decomposition of glucose (undesired) and determine appropriate parameters for use in kinetic models. Unlike cellulose and hemicellulose, lignins, the third major component of biomass, are not carbohydrates that can be broken down into component sugars. They are, however, aromatic complex amorphous phenolic polymers that can likely be converted into low-molecular weight compounds suitable for production of fuels and chemicals. Oxidative degradation is one pathway for such conversion and hydrogen peroxide would be an attractive reagent for this, as it would leave no residuals. For the third task, subcontractor reacted lignin with hydrogen peroxide under various conditions and analyzed the resulting product mix.

  7. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed.

  8. Incorporation of Mg and Ca into nanostructured Fe2O3 improves Fe solubility in dilute acid and sensory characteristics in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilty, Florentine M; Knijnenburg, Jesper T N; Teleki, Alexandra; Krumeich, Frank; Hurrell, Richard F; Pratsinis, Sotiris E; Zimmermann, Michael B

    2011-01-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the most common micronutrient deficiencies worldwide. Food fortification can be an effective and sustainable strategy to reduce Fe deficiency but selection of iron fortificants remains a challenge. Water-soluble compounds, for example, FeSO(4), usually demonstrate high bioavailability but they often cause unacceptable sensory changes in foods. On the other hand, poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds, for example FePO(4), may cause fewer adverse sensory changes in foods but are usually not well bioavailable since they need to be dissolved in the stomach prior to absorption. The solubility and the bioavailability of poorly acid-soluble Fe compounds can be improved by decreasing their primary particle size and thereby increasing their specific surface area. Here, Fe oxide-based nanostructured compounds with added Mg or Ca were produced by scalable flame aerosol technology. The compounds were characterized by nitrogen adsorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and Fe solubility in dilute acid. Sensory properties of the Fe-based compounds were tested in 2 highly reactive, polyphenol-rich food matrices: chocolate milk and fruit yoghurt. The Fe solubility of nanostructured Fe(2)O(3) doped with Mg or Ca was higher than that of pure Fe(2)O(3). Since good solubility in dilute acid was obtained despite the inhomogeneity of the powders, inexpensive precursors, for example Fe- and Ca-nitrates, can be used for their manufacture. Adding Mg or Ca lightened powder color, while sensory changes when added to foods were less pronounced than for FeSO(4). The combination of high Fe solubility and low reactivity in foods makes these flame-made nanostructured compounds promising for food fortification. Practical Application: The nanostructured iron-containing compounds presented here may prove useful for iron fortification of certain foods; they are highly soluble in dilute acid and likely to be well absorbed in the gut but cause less severe

  9. Effect of pretreatment severity on accumulation of major degradation products from dilute acid pretreated corn stover and subsequent inhibition of enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Um, Byung-Hwan; van Walsum, G Peter

    2012-09-01

    The concept of reaction severity, which combines residence time and temperature, is often used in the pulp and paper and biorefining industries. The influence of corn stover pretreatment severity on yield of sugar and major degradation products and subsequent effects on enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis was investigated. The pretreatment residence time and temperature, combined into the severity factor (Log R(o)), were varied with constant acid concentration. With increasing severity, increasing concentrations of furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) coincided with decreasing yields of oligosaccharides. With further increase in severity factor, the concentrations of furans decreased, while the formation of formic acid and lactic acid increased. For example, from severity 3.87 to 4.32, xylose decreased from 6.39 to 5.26 mg/mL, while furfural increased from 1.04 to 1.33 mg/mL; as the severity was further increased to 4.42, furfural diminished to 1.23 mg/mL as formate rose from 0.62 to 1.83 mg/mL. The effects of dilute acid hydrolyzate, acetic acid, and lignin, in particular, on enzymatic hydrolysis were investigated with a rapid microassay method. The microplate method gave considerable time and cost savings compared to the traditional assay protocol, and it is applicable to a broad range of lignocellulosic substrates.

  10. Rapid and precise measurement of serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acids by isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiyue Yang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum branched-chain and aromatic amino acids (BCAAs and AAAs have emerged as predictors for the future development of diabetes and may aid in diabetes risk assessment. However, the current methods for the analysis of such amino acids in biological samples are time consuming. METHODS: An isotope dilution liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (ID-LC/MS/MS method for serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed. The serum was mixed with isotope-labeled BCAA and AAA internal standards and the amino acids were extracted with acetonitrile, followed by analysis using LC/MS/MS. The LC separation was performed on a reversed-phase C18 column, and the MS/MS detection was performed via the positive electronic spray ionization in multiple reaction monitoring mode. RESULTS: Specific analysis of the amino acids was achieved within 2 min. Intra-run and total CVs for the amino acids were less than 2% and 4%, respectively, and the analytical recoveries ranged from 99.6 to 103.6%. CONCLUSION: A rapid and precise method for the measurement of serum BCAAs and AAAs was developed and may serve as a quick tool for screening serum BCAAs and AAAs in studies assessing diabetes risk.

  11. pH effect on the enthalpy of dilution and volumetric properties of protocatechuic acid at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Yan; Liu, Min; Wang, Yong; Wang, Chunmei; Sun, Dezhi; Wang, Bingquan

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: The dilution thermal power of PCA in potassium phosphate buffer solutions at different pHs and apparent molar volumes were determined in order to investigate the interactions of PCA with the coexistent spicies. - Highlights: • Enthalpies of dilution and apparent molar volumes of PCA in PBS at different pHs were measured. • Enthalpic interaction coefficients, limiting partial molar volumes and experimental slopes of PCA were determined. • The pH dependence of the weak interactions in the investigated system was obtained. • (Solute + solvent) interactions and structure making/breaking ability of solutes in the given system were discussed. - Abstract: The enthalpies of dilution of protocatechuic acid, a natural anti-cancer substance, in sodium phosphate and potassium phosphate buffer solutions with different pH values were measured by using a mixing-flow microcalorimeter at T = 298.15 K. Densities of the pseudo binary system (phosphate buffer + protocatechuic acid) were also measured with a quartz vibrating-tube densimeter. The enthalpic interaction coefficients (h 2 , h 3 and h 4 ) were computed according to the McMillan–Mayer model. Apparent molar volumes of the system were calculated from the data of densities, which have been used to deduce limiting partial molar volumes (V ϕ 0 ) of protocatechuic acid at different pH values. The aim of the experiments and data process is to investigate the interaction between the molecules of the important drug and that of the drug molecule with coexistent species in aqueous solutions as well as the influences on these interactions of such factors as pH and ion strength. Change trends of the enthalpic pair wise interaction coefficient h 2 and V ϕ 0 of protocatechuic acid with pH increasing in the both phosphate buffer solutions were obtained. The thermodynamic properties, h 2 and V ϕ 0 in potassium phosphate buffer solutions were compared with those in sodium phosphate buffer solutions at

  12. Technical note: Measurement of mammary plasma flow in sows by downstream dilution of mammary vein infused para-aminohippuric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Uffe Krogh; Storm, Adam Christian; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2016-01-01

    catheter was surgically implanted in the femoral artery, and another 2 were inserted in the right cranial mammary vein of 8 second- and third-parity sows on d 76 ± 2 SEM of gestation. On the 3rd and 17th days in milk, arterial and venous blood samples were drawn in hourly intervals from 0.5 h before until...... 6.5 h after feeding. The MPF in the right cranial mammary vein was measured by downstream dilution of infused pAH (3.0 mmol/h). Total MPF-pAH was calculated assuming that the measured flow constituted the flow from 5 out of 14 suckled glands on the basis of the anatomical structure of the mammary...

  13. A Cumulative Spore Killing Approach: Synergistic Sporicidal Activity of Dilute Peracetic Acid and Ethanol at Low pH Against Clostridium difficile and Bacillus subtilis Spores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerandzic, Michelle M; Sankar C, Thriveen; Setlow, Peter; Donskey, Curtis J

    2016-01-01

    Background.  Alcohol-based hand sanitizers are the primary method of hand hygiene in healthcare settings, but they lack activity against bacterial spores produced by pathogens such as Clostridium difficile and Bacillus anthracis. We previously demonstrated that acidification of ethanol induced rapid sporicidal activity, resulting in ethanol formulations with pH 1.5-2 that were as effective as soap and water washing in reducing levels of C difficile spores on hands. We hypothesized that the addition of dilute peracetic acid (PAA) to acidified ethanol would enhance sporicidal activity while allowing elevation of the pH to a level likely to be well tolerated on skin (ie, >3). Methods.  We tested the efficacy of acidified ethanol solutions alone or in combination with PAA against C difficile and Bacillus subtilis spores in vitro and against nontoxigenic C difficile spores on hands of volunteers. Results.  Acidification of ethanol induced rapid sporicidal activity against C difficile and to a lesser extent B subtilis. The addition of dilute PAA to acidified ethanol resulted in synergistic enhancement of sporicidal activity in a dose-dependent fashion in vitro. On hands, the addition of 1200-2000 ppm PAA enhanced the effectiveness of acidified ethanol formulations, resulting in formulations with pH >3 that were as effective as soap and water washing. Conclusions.  Acidification and the addition of dilute PAA induced rapid sporicidal activity in ethanol. Our findings suggest that it may be feasible to develop effective sporicidal ethanol formulations that are safe and tolerable on skin.

  14. Third phase formation in organic solutions in the extraction of mono-acids by tertiary trialcoyl-amines diluted in very slightly polar organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robaglia, Michele

    1973-01-01

    The phenomena of third phase formation which can occur during the extraction of an acid with a tertiary amine diluted in a low polarity diluent are studied. In the first part a system including water (TnOA - C 6 H 12 - HCl - H 2 O) is compared with an anhydrous system (TnOA - C 6 H 12 - HCl - N 2 ). There are two kinds of gaps. One during amine salification, another one during the extraction of excess acid. The important part of the water content of the organic phase is demonstrated. The presence of water enhances the gaps. The polar water molecules are dissolved inside the tri-octylamine salt micelles. The heavy phase is formed by aggregates, the light phase represents the solubility of the non soluble species in the medium. In the second part are studied the influence of some parameters (like nature of diluent, acid, amine and temperature) on the gaps formation and on the extraction of excess acid and water. In every cases the part played by water remains the same. Finally some comparisons are made between tertiary systems and binary systems which formed them. The binary systems were studied by the mean of crystallization curves. (author) [fr

  15. Determination of Glyphosate, its Degradation Product Aminomethylphosphonic Acid, and Glufosinate, in Water by Isotope Dilution and Online Solid-Phase Extraction and Liquid Chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Michael T.; Loftin, Keith A.; Lee, Edward A.; Hinshaw, Gary H.; Dietze, Julie E.; Scribner, Elisabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey method (0-2141-09) presented is approved for the determination of glyphosate, its degradation product aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), and glufosinate in water. It was was validated to demonstrate the method detection levels (MDL), compare isotope dilution to standard addition, and evaluate method and compound stability. The original method USGS analytical method 0-2136-01 was developed using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry and quantitation by standard addition. Lower method detection levels and increased specificity were achieved in the modified method, 0-2141-09, by using liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The use of isotope dilution for glyphosate and AMPA and pseudo isotope dilution of glufosinate in place of standard addition was evaluated. Stable-isotope labeled AMPA and glyphosate were used as the isotope dilution standards. In addition, the stability of glyphosate and AMPA was studied in raw filtered and derivatized water samples. The stable-isotope labeled glyphosate and AMPA standards were added to each water sample and the samples then derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethylchloroformate. After derivatization, samples were concentrated using automated online solid-phase extraction (SPE) followed by elution in-line with the LC mobile phase; the compounds separated and then were analyzed by LC/MS/MS using electrospray ionization in negative-ion mode with multiple-reaction monitoring. The deprotonated derivatized parent molecule and two daughter-ion transition pairs were identified and optimized for glyphosate, AMPA, glufosinate, and the glyphosate and AMPA stable-isotope labeled internal standards. Quantitative comparison between standard addition and isotope dilution was conducted using 473 samples analyzed between April 2004 and June 2006. The mean percent difference and relative standard deviation between the two quantitation methods was 7.6 plus or minus 6.30 (n = 179), AMPA 9.6 plus or minus 8

  16. Use of Gelidium amansii as a promising resource for bioethanol: a practical approach for continuous dilute-acid hydrolysis and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jeong-Hoon; Hong, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Hyun Chul; Oh, Seung Geun; Kim, Sang-Hyoun; Yoon, Jeong-Jun; Kim, Yong Jin

    2012-03-01

    A facile continuous method for dilute-acid hydrolysis of the representative red seaweed species, Gelidium amansii was developed and its hydrolysate was subsequently evaluated for fermentability. In the hydrolysis step, the hydrolysates obtained from a batch reactor and a continuous reactor were systematically compared based on fermentable sugar yield and inhibitor formation. There are many advantages to the continuous hydrolysis process. For example, the low melting point of the agar component in G. amansii facilitates improved raw material fluidity in the continuous reactor. In addition, the hydrolysate obtained from the continuous process delivered a high sugar and low inhibitor concentration, thereby leading to both high yield and high final ethanol titer in the fermentation process. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Study of corrosion susceptibility of stainless steel-304 and stainless steel-316 under mechanical stress in diluted boiling nitric acid with chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desjardins, D.; Puiggali, M.; El Kheloui, A.; Petit, M.C.; Clement, C.; Berge, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    A detailed study of corrosion of stressed 304 and 316 stainless steels in boiling solutions of diluted nitric acid in presence of chloride is presented. After a chemical study of the electrolyte, the different kinds of corrosion observed are represented on HNO 3 concentration - Cl - concentration diagrams. A more fundamental study based on several electrochemical techniques (forward scan and return potentiodynamic curves, potentiokinetic curves with different scan rates, sample depassivation by rapid straining under potentiostatic control) is carried out. The results allow to confirm the observations and to explain them in terms of competition between anodic dissolution, depassivation, repassivation processes with a precise analyze of the role of the solution and of the mechanical stress [fr

  18. Performance and techno-economic assessment of several solid-liquid separation technologies for processing dilute-acid pretreated corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sievers, David A; Tao, Ling; Schell, Daniel J

    2014-09-01

    Solid-liquid separation of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass slurries is a critical unit operation employed in several different processes for production of fuels and chemicals. An effective separation process achieves good recovery of solute (sugars) and efficient dewatering of the biomass slurry. Dilute acid pretreated corn stover slurries were subjected to pressure and vacuum filtration and basket centrifugation to evaluate the technical and economic merits of these technologies. Experimental performance results were used to perform detailed process simulations and economic analysis using a 2000 tonne/day biorefinery model to determine differences between the various filtration methods and their process settings. The filtration processes were able to successfully separate pretreated slurries into liquor and solid fractions with estimated sugar recoveries of at least 95% using a cake washing process. A continuous vacuum belt filter produced the most favorable process economics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Hydrolysis of Miscanthus for bioethanol production using dilute acid presoaking combined with wet explosion pre-treatment and enzymatic treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Annette; Teller, Philip Johan; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    xylose prior to wet explosion. The acid presoaking extracted 63.2% xylose and 5.2% glucose. Direct enzymatic hydrolysis of the presoaked biomass was found to give only low sugar yields of 24-26% glucose. Wet explosion is a pre-treatment method that combines wet-oxidation and steam explosion. The effect...... of wet explosion on non-presoaked and presoaked Miscanthus was investigated using both atmospheric air and hydrogen peroxide as the oxidizing agent. All wet explosion pre-treatments showed to have a disrupting effect on the lignocellulosic biomass, making the sugars accessible for enzymatic hydrolysis......Miscanthus is a high yielding bioenergy crop. In this study we used acid presoaking, wet explosion, and enzymatic hydrolysis to evaluate the combination of the different pre-treatment methods for bioethanol production with Miscanthus. Acid presoaking is primarily carried out in order to remove...

  20. Aspartic acid interaction with cobalt(II) in dilute aqueous solution: A {sup 57}Co emission Moessbauer spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V. [Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Plants and Microorganisms, Russian Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Kovacs, Krisztina; Homonnay, Zoltan, E-mail: homonnay@ludens.elte.hu; Kuzmann, Erno; Vertes, Attila [Eoetvoes Lorand University, Institute of Chemistry (Hungary)

    2012-03-15

    Emission ({sup 57}Co) Moessbauer spectra of the aspartic acid-{sup 57}CoCl{sub 2} system were measured at T = 80 K in frozen aqueous solution and in the form of a dried residue of this solution. The Moessbauer spectra, besides a weak contribution from after-effects, showed two Fe{sup 2 + }/Co{sup 2 + } components which were ascribed to octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated {sup 57}Co{sup II} microenvironments in the Asp-cobalt(II) complex. This dual coordination mode may be due to the involvement of the second terminal carboxylic group of aspartic acid in the coordination sphere of Co.

  1. Differential Mobility-Mass Spectrometry Double Spike Isotope Dilution Study of Release of β-Methylaminoalanine and Proteinogenic Amino Acids during Biological Sample Hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beach, Daniel G; Kerrin, Elliott S; Giddings, Sabrina D; Quilliam, Michael A; McCarron, Pearse

    2018-01-08

    The non-protein amino acid β-methylamino-L-alanine (BMAA) has been linked to neurodegenerative disease and reported throughout the environment. Proposed mechanisms of bioaccumulation, trophic transfer and chronic toxicity of BMAA rely on the hypothesis of protein misincorporation. Poorly selective methods for BMAA analysis have led to controversy. Here, a recently reported highly selective method for BMAA quantitation using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography-differential mobility spectrometry-tandem mass spectrometry (HILIC-DMS-MS/MS) is expanded to include proteinogenic amino acids from hydrolyzed biological samples. For BMAA quantitation, we present a double spiking isotope dilution approach using D 3 -BMAA and 13 C 15 N 2 -BMAA. These methods were applied to study release of BMAA during acid hydrolysis under a variety of conditions, revealing that the majority of BMAA can be extracted along with only a small proportion of protein. A time course hydrolysis of BMAA from mussel tissue was carried out to assess the recovery of BMAA during sample preparation. The majority of BMAA measured by typical methods was released before a significant proportion of protein was hydrolyzed. Little change was observed in protein hydrolysis beyond typical hydrolysis times but the concentration of BMAA increased linearly. These findings demonstrate protein misincorporation is not the predominant form of BMAA in cycad and shellfish.

  2. Pretreatment of wheat straw by nonionic surfactant-assisted dilute acid for enhancing enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Benkun; Chen, Xiangrong; Wan, Yinhua

    2010-07-01

    Pretreating wheat straw (WS) with combined use of varied sulfuric acid concentration (0-3%, w/v) and Tween 20 concentration (0-1%) was investigated in an attempt to enhance the hydrolysis and fermentability of pretreated WS. Enzymatic hydrolysis yield of glucan and xylan and ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of water-insoluble solids (WIS) were significantly affected by the amount of Tween 20 added during acid pretreatment. Any further addition of Tween 20 in either hydrolysis stage or fermentation stage only led to small increase in glucan conversion and ethanol production. Determination of adsorption of cellulases during hydrolysis showed that Tween 20-assisted acid treated straw solution contained more free cellulases than individual acid treated straw solution, indicating that modification of lignin surface by Tween 20 added during pretreatment likely occurred. In addition, the effects of pretreatment conditions on overall recovery of glucose and xylose after pretreatment and enzymatic hydrolysis were also investigated. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Development of SI-traceable C-peptide certified reference material NMIJ CRM 6901-a using isotope-dilution mass spectrometry-based amino acid analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinumi, Tomoya; Goto, Mari; Eyama, Sakae; Kato, Megumi; Kasama, Takeshi; Takatsu, Akiko

    2012-07-01

    A certified reference material (CRM) is a higher-order calibration material used to enable a traceable analysis. This paper describes the development of a C-peptide CRM (NMIJ CRM 6901-a) by the National Metrology Institute of Japan using two independent methods for amino acid analysis based on isotope-dilution mass spectrometry. C-peptide is a 31-mer peptide that is utilized for the evaluation of β-cell function in the pancreas in clinical testing. This CRM is a lyophilized synthetic peptide having the human C-peptide sequence, and contains deamidated and pyroglutamylated forms of C-peptide. By adding water (1.00 ± 0.01) g into the vial containing the CRM, the C-peptide solution in 10 mM phosphate buffer saline (pH 6.6) is reconstituted. We assigned two certified values that represent the concentrations of total C-peptide (mixture of C-peptide, deamidated C-peptide, and pyroglutamylated C-peptide) and C-peptide. The certified concentration of total C-peptide was determined by two amino acid analyses using pre-column derivatization liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and hydrophilic chromatography-mass spectrometry following acid hydrolysis. The certified concentration of C-peptide was determined by multiplying the concentration of total C-peptide by the ratio of the relative area of C-peptide to that of the total C-peptide measured by liquid chromatography. The certified value of C-peptide (80.7 ± 5.0) mg/L represents the concentration of the specific entity of C-peptide; on the other hand, the certified value of total C-peptide, (81.7 ± 5.1) mg/L can be used for analyses that does not differentiate deamidated and pyroglutamylated C-peptide from C-peptide itself, such as amino acid analyses and immunochemical assays.

  4. Simple and rapid analytical method for detection of amino acids in blood using blood spot on filter paper, fast-GC/MS and isotope dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawana, Shuichi; Nakagawa, Katsuhiro; Hasegawa, Yuki; Yamaguchi, Seiji

    2010-11-15

    A simple and rapid method for quantitative analysis of amino acids, including valine (Val), leucine (Leu), isoleucine (Ile), methionine (Met) and phenylalanine (Phe), in whole blood has been developed using GC/MS. In this method, whole blood was collected using a filter paper technique, and a 1/8 in. blood spot punch was used for sample preparation. Amino acids were extracted from the sample, and the extracts were purified using cation-exchange resins. The isotope dilution method using ²H₈-Val, ²H₃-Leu, ²H₃-Met and ²H₅-Phe as internal standards was applied. Following propyl chloroformate derivatization, the derivatives were analyzed using fast-GC/MS. The extraction recoveries using these techniques ranged from 69.8% to 87.9%, and analysis time for each sample was approximately 26 min. Calibration curves at concentrations from 0.0 to 1666.7 μmol/l for Val, Leu, Ile and Phe and from 0.0 to 333.3 μmol/l for Met showed good linearity with regression coefficients=1. The method detection limits for Val, Leu, Ile, Met and Phe were 24.2, 16.7, 8.7, 1.5 and 12.9 μmol/l, respectively. This method was applied to blood spot samples obtained from patients with phenylketonuria (PKU), maple syrup urine disease (MSUD), hypermethionine and neonatal intrahepatic cholestasis caused by citrin deficiency (NICCD), and the analysis results showed that the concentrations of amino acids that characterize these diseases were increased. These results indicate that this method provides a simple and rapid procedure for precise determination of amino acids in whole blood. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Aspartic acid interaction with cobalt(II) in dilute aqueous solution: A 57Co emission Mössbauer spectroscopic study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamnev, Alexander A.; Tugarova, Anna V.; Kovács, Krisztina; Homonnay, Zoltan; Kuzmann, Erno; Vértes, Attila

    2012-01-01

    Emission ( 57 Co) Mössbauer spectra of the aspartic acid— 57 CoCl 2 system were measured at T = 80 K in frozen aqueous solution and in the form of a dried residue of this solution. The Mössbauer spectra, besides a weak contribution from after-effects, showed two Fe 2 +  /Co 2 +  components which were ascribed to octahedrally and tetrahedrally coordinated 57 Co II microenvironments in the Asp–cobalt(II) complex. This dual coordination mode may be due to the involvement of the second terminal carboxylic group of aspartic acid in the coordination sphere of Co.

  6. Deposition of lignin droplets produced during dilute acid pretreatment of maize stems retards enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selig, Michael J; Viamajala, Sridhar; Decker, Stephen R; Tucker, Melvin P; Himmel, Michael E; Vinzant, Todd B

    2007-01-01

    Electron microscopy of lignocellulosic biomass following high-temperature pretreatment revealed the presence of spherical formations on the surface of the residual biomass. The hypothesis that these droplet formations are composed of lignins and possible lignin carbohydrate complexes is being explored. Experiments were conducted to better understand the formation of these "lignin" droplets and the possible implications they might have on the enzymatic saccharification of pretreated biomass. It was demonstrated that these droplets are produced from corn stover during pretreatment under neutral and acidic pH at and above 130 degrees C, and that they can deposit back onto the surface of residual biomass. The deposition of droplets produced under certain pretreatment conditions (acidic pH; T > 150 degrees C) and captured onto pure cellulose was shown to have a negative effect (5-20%) on the enzymatic saccharification of this substrate. It was noted that droplet density (per unit area) was greater and droplet size more variable under conditions where the greatest impact on enzymatic cellulose conversion was observed. These results indicate that this phenomenon has the potential to adversely affect the efficiency of enzymatic conversion in a lignocellulosic biorefinery.

  7. Influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of uraninite from a low grade ore in dilute sulfuric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madakkaruppan, V.; Pius, Anitha; Sreenivas, T.; Giri, Nitai; Sarbajna, Chanchal

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • U leaching from a low-grade Si-rich ore studied in H_2SO_4 medium with (MW) irradiation. • MW heating is more efficient in terms of U recovery, kinetics and purity of liquor. • U leachability of 84% obtained in 90 min at 95 °C with 0.38 M H_2SO_4 at 450 mVwith MW heating • Conventional conductive heating gave about 74% leachability with less purity liquor. • U leaching was found follow product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes a study on microwave assisted leaching of uranium from a low-grade ore of Indian origin. The host rock for uranium mineralization is chlorite-biotite-muscovite-quartzo-feldspathic schist. The dominant presence of siliceous minerals determined leaching of uranium values in sulfuric acid medium under oxidizing conditions. Process parametric studies like the effect of sulfuric acid concentration (0.12–0.50 M), redox potential (400–500 mV), particle size (600–300 μm) and temperature (35°–95 °C) indicated that microwave assisted leaching is more efficient in terms of overall uranium dissolution, kinetics and provide relatively less impurities (Si, Al, Mg and Fe) in the leach liquor compared to conventional conductive leaching. The kinetics of leaching followed shrinking core model with product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism.

  8. Influence of microwaves on the leaching kinetics of uraninite from a low grade ore in dilute sulfuric acid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madakkaruppan, V. [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Begumpet, Hyderabad 500016 (India); Pius, Anitha, E-mail: dranithapius@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Gandhigram, Dindigul District, Tamil Nadu 624302 (India); Sreenivas, T.; Giri, Nitai [Mineral Processing Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Center, AMD Complex, Begumpet, Hyderabad 500016 (India); Sarbajna, Chanchal [Atomic Minerals Directorate for Exploration and Research, Begumpet, Hyderabad 500016 (India)

    2016-08-05

    Highlights: • U leaching from a low-grade Si-rich ore studied in H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} medium with (MW) irradiation. • MW heating is more efficient in terms of U recovery, kinetics and purity of liquor. • U leachability of 84% obtained in 90 min at 95 °C with 0.38 M H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} at 450 mVwith MW heating • Conventional conductive heating gave about 74% leachability with less purity liquor. • U leaching was found follow product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism. - Abstract: This paper describes a study on microwave assisted leaching of uranium from a low-grade ore of Indian origin. The host rock for uranium mineralization is chlorite-biotite-muscovite-quartzo-feldspathic schist. The dominant presence of siliceous minerals determined leaching of uranium values in sulfuric acid medium under oxidizing conditions. Process parametric studies like the effect of sulfuric acid concentration (0.12–0.50 M), redox potential (400–500 mV), particle size (600–300 μm) and temperature (35°–95 °C) indicated that microwave assisted leaching is more efficient in terms of overall uranium dissolution, kinetics and provide relatively less impurities (Si, Al, Mg and Fe) in the leach liquor compared to conventional conductive leaching. The kinetics of leaching followed shrinking core model with product layer diffusion as controlling mechanism.

  9. Study on Corrosion of Materials by Fluoric Acid and Silicofluoric Acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Kun You; Kwon, Yeong Soo; Kuk, Myung Ho; Kim, Myun Sup

    1986-01-01

    The corrosion properties of 304 Stainless steel, Cupro-nickel, NiCrMo alloy in hydrofluoric acid and silicofluoric acid has been studied. The corrosion resistance of NiCrMo alloy and Cupro-nickel in hydrofluoric acid or mixed acid of hydrofluoric and sulfuric acid is excellent. Because of lower corrosion resistance of 304 Stainless steel, it would not be used for these corrosion resistant materials. The corrosion activation energy of 304 Stainless steel, Cupro-nickel and NiCrMo alloy in 40% HF solution are 42.7, 58.9 and 89.7 kJ/mol, respectively. By these values, it is assumed that the corrosion rate determining step is the chemical reaction on surface of metals. In the plastics, Teflon and polychloro tetrafluoroethylene are most excellent for corrosion resistance in hydrofluoric acid

  10. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1 Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen

    2012-08-01

    and mechanical refining. The new process shows improved overall ethanol yields compared to traditional dilute acid pretreatment. The experimental results from this work support the techno-economic analysis and calculation of Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP detailed in our companion paper.

  11. Dilute chemical decontamination program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstine, L.D.; Blomgren, J.C.; Pettit, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Dilute Chemical Decontamination Program is to develop and evaluate a process which utilizes reagents in dilute concentrations for the decontamination of BWR primary systems and for the maintenance of dose rates on the out-of-core surfaces at acceptable levels. A discussion is presented of the process concept, solvent development, advantages and disadvantages of reagent systems, and VNC loop tests. Based on the work completed to date it is concluded that (1) rapid decontamination of BWRs using dilute reagents is feasible; (2) reasonable reagent conditions for rapid chemical decontamination are: 0.01M oxalic acid + 0.005M citric acid, pH3.0, 90/degree/C, 0.5 to 1.0 ppm dissolved oxygen; (3) control of dissolved oxygen concentration is important, since high levels suppress the rate of decontamination and low levels allow precipitation of ferrous oxalate. 4 refs

  12. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Biological Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Tan, E. C. D.; Biddy, M. J.; Beckham, G. T.; Scarlata, C.; Jacobson, J.; Cafferty, K.; Ross, J.; Lukas, J.; Knorr, D.; Schoen, P.

    2013-10-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of biological conversion of lingnocellulosic-dervied sugars. The process design converts biomass to a hydrocarbon intermediate, a free fatty acid, using dilute-acid pretreatement, enzymatic saccharification, and bioconversion. Ancillary areas--feed handling, hydrolysate conditioning, product recovery and upgrading (hydrotreating) to a final blendstock material, wastewater treatment, lignin combusion, and utilities--are also included in the design.

  13. Quantification of abscisic acid in grapevine leaf (Vitis vinifera) by isotope-dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaró, Francisca; Canela-Xandri, Anna; Canela, Ramon

    2006-09-01

    A specific, sensitive, precise, and accurate method for the determination of abscisic acid (ABA) in grapevine leaf tissues is described. The method employs high-performance liquid chromatography and electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) in selected ion monitoring mode (SIM) to analyze ABA using a stable isotope-labeled ABA as an internal standard. Absolute recoveries ranged from 72% to 79% using methanol/water pH 5.5 (50:50 v/v) as an extraction solvent. The best efficiency was obtained when the chromatographic separation was carried out by using a porous graphitic carbon (PGC) column. The statistical evaluation of the method was satisfactory in the work range. A relative standard deviation (RDS) of < 5.5% and < 6.0% was obtained for intra-batch and inter-batch comparisons, respectively. As for accuracy, the relative error (%Er) was between -2.7 and 4.3%, and the relative recovery ranged from 95% to 107%.

  14. Evaluation of soluble fraction and enzymatic residual fraction of dilute dry acid, ethylenediamine, and steam explosion pretreated corn stover on the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lei; Liu, Li; Li, Wen-Chao; Zhu, Jia-Qing; Li, Bing-Zhi; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-06-01

    This study is aimed to examine the inhibition of soluble fraction (SF) and enzymatic residual fraction (ERF) in dry dilute acid (DDA), ethylenediamine (EDA) and steam explosion (SE) pretreated corn stover (CS) on the enzymatic digestibility of cellulose. SF of DDA, EDA and SE pretreated CS has high xylose, soluble lignin and xylo-oligomer content, respectively. SF of EDA pretreated CS leads to the highest inhibition, followed by SE and DDA pretreated CS. Inhibition of ERF of DDA and SE pretreated CS is higher than that of EDA pretreated CS. The inhibition degree (A0/A) of SF is 1.76 and 1.21 times to that of ERF for EDA and SE pretreated CS, respectively. The inhibition degree of ERF is 1.05 times to that of SF in DDA pretreated CS. The quantitative analysis shows that SF of EDA pretreated CS, SF and ERF of SE pretreated CS cause significant inhibition during enzymatic hydrolysis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Integrated Process for Ethanol, Biogas, and Edible Filamentous Fungi-Based Animal Feed Production from Dilute Phosphoric Acid-Pretreated Wheat Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Ramkumar B; Kabir, Maryam M; Lennartsson, Patrik R; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J; Horváth, Ilona Sárvári

    2018-01-01

    Integration of wheat straw for a biorefinery-based energy generation process by producing ethanol and biogas together with the production of high-protein fungal biomass (suitable for feed application) was the main focus of the present study. An edible ascomycete fungal strain Neurospora intermedia was used for the ethanol fermentation and subsequent biomass production from dilute phosphoric acid (0.7 to 1.2% w/v) pretreated wheat straw. At optimum pretreatment conditions, an ethanol yield of 84 to 90% of the theoretical maximum, based on glucan content of substrate straw, was observed from fungal fermentation post the enzymatic hydrolysis process. The biogas production from the pretreated straw slurry showed an improved methane yield potential up to 162% increase, as compared to that of the untreated straw. Additional biogas production, using the syrup, a waste stream obtained post the ethanol fermentation, resulted in a combined total energy output of 15.8 MJ/kg wheat straw. Moreover, using thin stillage (a waste stream from the first-generation wheat-based ethanol process) as a co-substrate to the biogas process resulted in an additional increase by about 14 to 27% in the total energy output as compared to using only wheat straw-based substrates. ᅟ.

  16. Conditioning of dilute-acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate liquors by treatment with lime or ammonium hydroxide to improve conversion of sugars to ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jennings, Edward W; Schell, Daniel J

    2011-01-01

    Dilute-acid pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass enhances the ability of enzymes to hydrolyze cellulose to glucose, but produces many toxic compounds that inhibit fermentation of sugars to ethanol. The objective of this study was to compare the effectiveness of treating hydrolysate liquor with Ca(OH)2 and NH4OH for improving ethanol yields. Corn stover was pretreated in a pilot-scale reactor and then the liquor fraction (hydrolysate) was extracted and treated with various amounts of Ca(OH)2 or NH4OH at several temperatures. Glucose and xylose in the treated liquor were fermented to ethanol using a glucose-xylose fermenting bacteria, Zymomonas mobilis 8b. Sugar losses up to 10% occurred during treatment with Ca(OH)2, but these losses were two to fourfold lower with NH4OH treatment. Ethanol yields for NH4OH-treated hydrolysate were 33% greater than those achieved in Ca(OH)2-treated hydrolysate and pH adjustment to either 6.0 or 8.5 with NH4OH prior to fermentation produced equivalent ethanol yields. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Process Design and Economics for Biochemical Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol: Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humbird, D.; Davis, R.; Tao, L.; Kinchin, C.; Hsu, D.; Aden, A.; Schoen, P.; Lukas, J.; Olthof, B.; Worley, M.; Sexton, D.; Dudgeon, D.

    2011-03-01

    This report describes one potential biochemical ethanol conversion process, conceptually based upon core conversion and process integration research at NREL. The overarching process design converts corn stover to ethanol by dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and co-fermentation. Building on design reports published in 2002 and 1999, NREL, together with the subcontractor Harris Group Inc., performed a complete review of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process. This update reflects NREL's current vision of the biochemical ethanol process and includes the latest research in the conversion areas (pretreatment, conditioning, saccharification, and fermentation), optimizations in product recovery, and our latest understanding of the ethanol plant's back end (wastewater and utilities). The conceptual design presented here reports ethanol production economics as determined by 2012 conversion targets and 'nth-plant' project costs and financing. For the biorefinery described here, processing 2,205 dry ton/day at 76% theoretical ethanol yield (79 gal/dry ton), the ethanol selling price is $2.15/gal in 2007$.

  18. Direct determination of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1, 2-propanediol in edible vegetable oils by isotope dilution - ultra high performance liquid chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Heli; Chen, Dawei; Miao, Hong; Zhao, Yunfeng; Shen, Jianzhong; Wu, Yongning

    2015-09-04

    A selective and sensitive ultra-high performance liquid chromatography - triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method coupled with matrix solid phase dispersion (MSPD) extraction was developed for the direct determination of fatty acid esters of 3-chloro-1,2-propanediol (3-MCPD esters) in edible vegetable oils. The method integrated the isotope dilution technique, MSPD extraction and UHPLC - MS/MS analysis with multi-reaction monitoring mode (MRM). Matrix-matched calibration curves showed good linearity within the range of 0.01-10mgL(-1) with the correlation coefficient not less than 0.999. Limits of detection (LODs) and limit of quantification (LOQs) of the 3-MCPD esters fell into the range of 0.0001-0.02mgkg(-1) and 0.0004-0.05mgkg(-1), respectively. The recoveries for the spiked extra virgin olive oils ranged from 94.4% to 108.3%, with the relative standard deviations (RSD) ranging from 0.6% to 10.5%. The method was applied for the oil sample (T2642) of the official Food Analysis Performance Assessment Scheme (FAPAS) in 2014 and other real samples from supermarket, and the results showed that the present method was comparative to the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) method based on the improved German Society for Fat Science (DGF) standard method C-III 18 (09) except for palm oil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Removal of rhodamine B (a basic dye) and thoron (an acidic dye) from dilute aqueous solutions and wastewater simulants by ion flotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Kamal; Elkafrawy, Ahmed Faouzy; Ghoneimy, Hussein Fouad; Elrab Beheir, Shokry Gad; Refaat, Mamdoh

    2010-03-01

    The present work deals with removal, by ion flotation, of two dyes: a basic dye (rhodamine B (RB)) and an acidic one (thoron (TH)) from dilute aqueous solutions and simulated wastewaters. These dyes are widely used for analytical and biological staining purposes. Besides, RB is commonly used in dyeing of various industrial products. Therefore, wastewaters emanating from chemical and radiochemical laboratories, and biomedical and biological research laboratories may be contaminated with RB and TH. Ion flotation of these dyes has been investigated over a wide range of pH using the anionic surfactant, sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS) and the cationic surfactant, cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) as collectors. Successful removals could be achieved for RB and TH with the anionic collector, NaLS, and the cationic collector, CTAB, respectively. In addition to the effects of pH and type of collector on the efficiency of removal of each dye, the effects of collector and dye concentrations, frother dosage, ionic strength, bubbling time period and presence of foreign salts were investigated and the optimal removal conditions have been established. Removals exceeding 99.5 % and 99.9% could be achieved for RB and TH, respectively. The results obtained are discussed with respect to dissociation of dye, type of collector, ionic strength and sign and magnitude of charge of added foreign ions. Kinetics of flotation were also studied. Further studies demonstrate that under optimum conditions the developed flotation processes can be applied for the treatment of dye-contaminated wastewaters simulated to those generated at dyeing industries and radiochemical laboratories. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Process Design and Economics for the Conversion of Lignocellulosic Biomass to Hydrocarbons: Dilute-Acid and Enzymatic Deconstruction of Biomass to Sugars and Catalytic Conversion of Sugars to Hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tao, L. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Scarlata, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tan, E. C. D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ross, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Lukas, J. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States); Sexton, D. [Harris Group Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    2015-03-01

    This report describes one potential conversion process to hydrocarbon products by way of catalytic conversion of lignocellulosic-derived hydrolysate. This model leverages expertise established over time in biomass deconstruction and process integration research at NREL, while adding in new technology areas for sugar purification and catalysis. The overarching process design converts biomass to die die diesel- and naphtha-range fuels using dilute-acid pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, purifications, and catalytic conversion focused on deoxygenating and oligomerizing biomass hydrolysates.

  1. A Study of ext ration equilibrium in the system:phosphoric acid produced in Aqaba-uranium-0.5 M de pa-0.125M TOPO diluted in kerosene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Matar, K.A.; Rawajfeh, M.K.

    1995-01-01

    The extraction of uranium from purified wet process Jordanian phosphoric acid by synergistic solvent 0.5 M de pa and 0.125 M TOPO diluted in kerosene has been studied as a function of temperature and electro-motive force. The uranium distribution coefficient was found to be directly proportional to the electro-motive force up to a limiting point. The uranium distribution coefficient was found to decrease with temperature.Distribution coefficients for the Jordanian acid were found to be higher than those for similar acids from elsewhere.An Aqueous to Organic phase ratio (A/O) recommended for use with the Jordanian acid is 2.5. 11 refs., 6 figs., 2 tab.(Author)

  2. Butanol production from sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) with high solids content: part I – comparison of liquid hot water pretreatment with dilute sulfuric acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    In these studies we pretreated sweet sorghum bagasse (SSB) using liquid hot water (LHW) or dilute H2SO4 (2 g·L-1) at 190 deg C for zero min (as soon as temperature reached 190 deg C, cooling was started) to reduce generation of sugar degradation fermentation inhibiting products such as furfural and ...

  3. Contribution to the study of the molecular interactions of gaseous hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ostorero, Jean

    1972-01-01

    The experimental study is based on measurements of gaseous viscosity coefficients and on the pure rotational spectrum of HF perturbed by F 2 at pressures up to 200 Bar. The study of viscosity is made with two apparatuses: a capillary viscometer (data on monomeric HF) and a rotating cylinder viscometer (data on mono and polymeric HF, and seven binary gaseous mixtures HF-X (X = He, Ar, N 2 , F 2 , CO 2 , ClF 3 , HCl). The experimental results are used as a criterion of validity for the different interaction models for polar gases found in the literature. The two remaining models are: 1) DANON and AMDUR; 2) MONCHICK and MASON. The viscosity data of mixtures give the values of the intermolecular parameters (ε 0 , σ 0 ) of the potential isotropic part. A semi quantum calculus improves slightly the correlation in the case of the model proposed by MONCHICK and MASON. The interpretation of the pressure viscosity data of HF gives the parameters values (e, o) for the dimer and the cyclic hexamer in the vapor phase. The vanishing of the R 0 rotation line of the HF spectrum perturbed by F 2 is qualitatively interpreted as the influence of the anisotropic part of the intermolecular potential. (author) [fr

  4. A study of the anomalous behaviour of the glass electrode in solutions containing hydrofluoric acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Emil; Lundgaard, T.

    1965-01-01

    A defined surface hydration of the glass electrode is secured by pre-treatment with 0.1 N HF followed by rinsing with pure 0.1 N HCl for a few minutes. On subsequent contact with 0.1 N HCl containing HF, the electrode potential shows a change which is determined by the [HF]. The immediate reaction...... is an adsorption of HF by the glass surface. This is followed, at [HF] higher than 0.01 N, by the substitution of two F− for OH− per Si atom. With increasing HF the attack on the Si-O-Si bonds becomes severe, but it can be tolerated to a considerable degree because the newly formed surface is identical...

  5. Improving Corrosion Resistance and Biocompatibility of Magnesium Alloy by Sodium Hydroxide and Hydrofluoric Acid Treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Jiang Pan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Owing to excellent mechanical property and biodegradation, magnesium-based alloys have been widely investigated for temporary implants such as cardiovascular stent and bone graft; however, the fast biodegradation in physiological environment and the limited surface biocompatibility hinder their clinical applications. In the present study, magnesium alloy was treated by sodium hydroxide (NaOH and hydrogen fluoride (HF solutions, respectively, to produce the chemical conversion layers with the aim of improving the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. The results of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS indicated that the chemical conversion layers of magnesium hydroxide or magnesium fluoride were obtained successfully. Sodium hydroxide treatment can significantly enhance the surface hydrophilicity while hydrogen fluoride treatment improved the surface hydrophobicity. Both the chemical conversion layers can obviously improve the corrosion resistance of the pristine magnesium alloy. Due to the hydrophobicity of magnesium fluoride, HF-treated magnesium alloy showed the relative better corrosion resistance than that of NaOH-treated substrate. According to the results of hemolysis assay and platelet adhesion, the chemical surface modified samples exhibited improved blood compatibility as compared to the pristine magnesium alloy. Furthermore, the chemical surface modified samples improved cytocompatibility to endothelial cells, the cells had better cell adhesion and proliferative profiles on the modified surfaces. Due to the excellent hydrophilicity, the NaOH-treated substrate displayed better blood compatibility and cytocompatibility to endothelial cells than that of HF-treated sample. It was considered that the method of the present study can be used for the surface modification of the magnesium alloy to enhance the corrosion resistance and biocompatibility.

  6. Hydrofluoric acid burn in a child from a compressed air duster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Claudia; Beierle, Elizabeth A

    2007-01-01

    Abuse of fluorinated hydrocarbons is on the rise, especially among the adolescent population. These products are potentially hazardous and pose substantial risks when abused. The psychosocial aspects related to inhalant abuse, and the treatment of adolescents with inhalant injuries is unique. We retrospectively reviewed our experience with burns from these products. We present a case of a 12-year-old girl who suffered first- and second-degree burns to her face, neck, shoulder, and chest during an episode of recreational inhalant abuse with 1,1-difluoroethane from an aerosolized computer cleaner. This is one of the youngest cases reported in literature with such burns from questionable fluorinated hydrocarbon abuse. Because of the accessible nature of these compounds around homes, schools, and offices, it is critical for health care providers to have an awareness of the potential hazards and devastating consequences of their abuse. We propose an approach to the care of these patients that provides a focus on both prevention and attention to mental health.

  7. High-quality fiber fabrication in buffered hydrofluoric acid solution with ultrasonic agitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Nianbing; Liao, Qiang; Zhu, Xun; Wang, Yongzhong; Chen, Rong

    2013-03-01

    An etching method for preparing high-quality fiber-optic sensors using a buffered etchant with ultrasonic agitation is proposed. The effects of etching conditions on the etch rate and surface morphology of the etched fibers are investigated. The effect of surface roughness is discussed on the fibers' optical properties. Linear etching behavior and a smooth fiber surface can be repeatedly obtained by adjusting the ultrasonic power and etchant pH. The fibers' spectral quality is improved as the ratio of the pit depth to size decreases, and the fibers with smooth surfaces are more sensitive to a bacterial suspension than those with rough surfaces.

  8. Vinyl ether hydrolysis. VII. Isotope effects on catalysis by aqueous hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kresge, A.J.; Chen, H.J.; Chiang, Y.

    1977-01-01

    Comparison of rates of hydrolysis of three vinyl ethers catalyzed by HF in H 2 O and DF in D 2 O at 25 0 C gives primary isotope effects in the range k/sub H//k/sub D/ = 3.3 to 3.5. The unexpectedly small size of these effects may be attributed to strong, ω = 1325 to 1450 cm -1 , hydrogenic bending vibrations in the proton transfer transition states of these reactions along with the lack of compensatory bending vibrations in the diatomic proton donor

  9. Chemical exchange between UF6 and UF6- ion in anhydrous hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatelet, J.; Luce, M.; Plurien, P.; Rigny, P.

    1975-01-01

    The chemical exchange between UF 6 and the UF 6 - ion is of potential interest for the separation of U isotopes. In this paper, results concerning the value of the separation factor and the kinetics of the homogeneous exchange are given [fr

  10. Lignocellulosic Biomass to Ethanol Process Design and Economics Utilizing Co-Current Dilute Acid Prehydrolysis and Enzymatic Hydrolysis for Corn Stover

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aden, A.; Ruth, M.; Ibsen, K.; Jechura, J.; Neeves, K.; Sheehan, J.; Wallace, B.; Montague, L.; Slayton, A.; Lukas, J.

    2002-06-01

    This report is an update of NREL's ongoing process design and economic analyses of processes related to developing ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is promoting the development of ethanol from lignocellulosic feedstocks as an alternative to conventional petroleum-based transportation fuels. DOE funds both fundamental and applied research in this area and needs a method for predicting cost benefits of many research proposals. To that end, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has modeled many potential process designs and estimated the economics of each process during the last 20 years. This report is an update of the ongoing process design and economic analyses at NREL. We envision updating this process design report at regular intervals; the purpose being to ensure that the process design incorporates all new data from NREL research, DOE funded research and other sources, and that the equipment costs are reasonable and consistent with good engineering practice for plants of this type. For the non-research areas this means using equipment and process approaches as they are currently used in industrial applications. For the last report, published in 1999, NREL performed a complete review and update of the process design and economic model for the biomass-to-ethanol process utilizing co-current dilute acid prehydrolysis with simultaneous saccharification (enzymatic) and co-fermentation. The process design included the core technologies being researched by the DOE: prehydrolysis, simultaneous saccharification and co-fermentation, and cellulase enzyme production. In addition, all ancillary areas--feed handling, product recovery and purification, wastewater treatment (WWT), lignin combustor and boiler-turbogenerator, and utilities--were included. NREL engaged Delta-T Corporation (Delta-T) to assist in the process design evaluation, the process equipment costing, and overall plant integration. The process design

  11. Method development for the determination of cadmium, copper, lead, selenium and thallium in sediments by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotopic dilution calibration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, Lucia Felicidade; Miranda, Gilson R.; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana D.; Maia, Sandra M.; Frescura, Vera L.A.; Curtius, Adilson J.

    2005-01-01

    A procedure for the determination of Cd, Cu, Pb, Se and Tl by slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ETV-ICP-MS) with calibration by isotopic dilution is proposed. The slurry is prepared by mixing the sample with diluted nitric and hydrofluoric acids in an ultrasonic bath and then in a water bath at 60 deg C for 120 min. The slurries were let to stand at least for 12 h, manually shaken before poured into the autosampler cups and homogenized by passing through an argon flow, just before pipetting it into the furnace. The analytes were determined in two groups, according to their thermal behaviors. The furnace temperature program was optimized and the selected compromised pyrolysis temperatures were: 400 deg C for Cd, Se and Tl and 700 deg C for Cu and Pb. The vaporization temperature was 2300 deg C. The analyses were carried out without modifier as no significant effect was observed for different tested modifiers. Different sample particle sizes did not affect the sensitivity significantly, then a particle size ≤50 μm was adopted. The accuracy was checked by analyzing five certified reference sediments, with analytes concentrations from sub-μg g -1 to a few hundreds μg g -1 . The great majority of the obtained concentrations were in agreement with the certified values. The detection limits, determined for the MESS-2 certified sediment, were, in μg g -1 : 0.01 for Cd; 0.8 for Cu; 0.4 for Pb; 0.4 for Se and 0.06 for Tl. The precision was adequate with relative standard deviations lower than 12%. Isotopic dilution showed to be an efficient calibration technique for slurry, as the extraction of the analyte to the liquid phase of the slurry and the reactions in the vaporizer must help the equilibration between the added isotope and the isotope in the sample

  12. Isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry in connection with a chromatographic separation for ultra trace determinations of platinum group elements (Pt, Pd, Ru, Ir) in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, M; Heumann, K G

    2000-09-01

    An isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometric (ID-ICP-QMS) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of the platinum group elements Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir in environmental samples. Spike solutions, enriched with the isotopes 194Pt, 108Pd, 99Ru, and 191Ir, were used for the isotope dilution step. Interfering elements were eliminated by chromatographic separation using an anion-exchange resin. Samples were dissolved with aqua regia in a high pressure asher. Additional dissolution of possible silicate portions by hydrofluoric acid was usually not necessary. Detection limits of 0.15 ng x g(-1), 0.075 ng x g(-1), and 0.015 ng x g(-1) were achieved for Pt, Pd, Ru, and Ir, respectively, using sample weights of only 0.2 g. The reliability of the ID-ICP-QMS method was demonstrated by analyzing a Canadian geological reference material and by participating in an interlaboratory study for the determination of platinum and palladium in a homogenized road dust sample. Surface soil, sampled at different distances from a highway, showed concentrations in the range of 0.1-87 ng x g(-1). An exponential decrease of the platinum and palladium concentration with increasing distance and a small anthropogenic contribution to the natural background concentration of ruthenium and iridium was found in these samples.

  13. Volumetric properties of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B1) in dilute HCl and in aqueous NaCl solutions at (283.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayranci, Guler; Sahin, Melike; Ayranci, Erol

    2007-01-01

    Apparent molar volumes and apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and thiamine hydrochloride (vitamin B 1 ) were determined from accurately measured density and sound velocity data in water and in aqueous NaCl solutions at (283.15, 293.15, 298.15, 303.15, 308.15, and 313.15) K. These volume and compressibility data were extrapolated to zero concentration using suitable empirical or theoretical equations to determine the corresponding infinite dilution values. Apparent molar expansibilities at infinite dilution were determined from slopes of apparent molar volume vs. temperature plots. Ionization of both ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride were suppressed using sufficiently acidic solutions. Apparent molar volumes at infinite dilution for ascorbic acid and thiamine hydrochloride were found to increase with temperature in acidic solutions and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl. Apparent molar expansibility at infinite dilution were found to be constant over the temperature range studied and were all positive, indicating the hydrophilic character of the two vitamins studied in water and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl. Apparent molar isentropic compressibilities of ascorbic acid at infinite dilution were positive in water and in the presence of co-solute, NaCl, at low molalities. Those of thiamine hydrochloride at infinitive dilution were all negative, consistent with its ionic nature. Transfer apparent molar volumes of vitamins at infinite dilution from water solutions to NaCl solutions at various temperatures were determined. The results were interpreted in terms of complex vitamin-water-co-solute (NaCl) interactions

  14. Hybridizing pines with diluted pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1967-01-01

    Diluted pollens would have many uses by the tree breeder. Dilutions would be particularly advantageous in making many controlled pollinations with a limited amount of pollen. They also would be useful in artificial mass pollinations of orchards or single trees. Diluted pollens might help overcome troublesome genetic barriers to crossing. Feasibility o,f using diluted...

  15. Containment of Nitric Acid Solutions of Plutonium-238

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, M.A.H.; Silver, G.L.; Pansoy-Hjelvik, L.; Ramsey, K.

    1999-01-01

    The corrosion of various metals that could be used to contain nitric acid solutions of Pu-238 has been studied. Tantalum and tantalum/2.5% tungsten resisted the test solvent better than 304L stainless steel and several INCONEL alloys. The solvent used to imitate nitric acid solutions of Pu-238 contained 70% nitric acid, hydrofluoric acid, and ammonium hexanitratocerate

  16. Changes in Lignin and Polysaccharide Components in 13 Cultivars of Rice Straw following Dilute Acid Pretreatment as Studied by Solution-State 2D 1H-13C NMR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramura, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Kengo; Oshima, Tomoko; Aikawa, Shimpei; Matsuda, Fumio; Okamoto, Mami; Shirai, Tomokazu; Kawaguchi, Hideo; Ogino, Chiaki; Yamasaki, Masanori; Kikuchi, Jun; Kondo, Akihiko

    2015-01-01

    A renewable raw material, rice straw is pretreated for biorefinery usage. Solution-state two-dimensional (2D) 1H-13 C hetero-nuclear single quantum coherence (HSQC) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was used to analyze 13 cultivars of rice straw before and after dilute acid pretreatment, to characterize general changes in the lignin and polysaccharide components. Intensities of most (15 of 16) peaks related to lignin aromatic regions, such as p-coumarate, guaiacyl, syringyl, p-hydroxyphenyl, and cinnamyl alcohol, and methoxyl, increased or remained unchanged after pretreatment. In contrast, intensities of most (11 of 13) peaks related to lignin aliphatic linkages or ferulate decreased. Decreased heterogeneity in the intensities of three peaks related to cellulose components in acid-insoluble residues resulted in similar glucose yield (0.45–0.59 g/g-dry biomass). Starch-derived components showed positive correlations (r = 0.71 to 0.96) with glucose, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF), and formate concentrations in the liquid hydrolysates, and negative correlations (r = –0.95 to –0.97) with xylose concentration and acid-insoluble residue yield. These results showed the fate of lignin and polysaccharide components by pretreatment, suggesting that lignin aromatic regions and cellulose components were retained in the acid insoluble residues and starch-derived components were transformed into glucose, 5-HMF, and formate in the liquid hydrolysate. PMID:26083431

  17. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA

  18. Gangue minerals reactivity in oxidative leaching of uraninite with dilute sulfuric acid from low-grade ores. An approach for better leach liquor purity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madakkaruppan, V.; Chanchal Sarbajna; Pius, Anitha; Sreenivas, T.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents results of sulfuric acid leaching studies carried out on a low-grade uranium ore with emphasis on attaining maximum uranium leachability with minimum content of detrimental ions like Si, Al, Fe, Mg and P, which originate from reactive gangue minerals like chlorite, biotite and apatite. A 'two-stage leaching' scheme was developed wherein the total reaction time and the pH of the slurry were split such that the initial phase consists of higher acidity with shorter reaction period and the later phase involves reduced acidity and longer reaction time. This modification gives leach liquor of higher purity with good uranium leachability at relatively lower acid consumption. (author)

  19. Quantification of N-acetyl- and N-glycolylneuraminic acids by a stable isotope dilution assay using high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevi, Pietro; Femia, Eti Alessandra; Costa, Maria Letizia; Cazzola, Roberta; Anastasia, Mario

    2008-11-28

    The present report describes a method for the quantification of N-acetyl- and N-glycolylneuraminic acids without any derivatization, using their (13)C(3)-isotopologues as internal standards and a C(18) reversed-phase column modified by decylboronic acid which allows for the first time a complete chromatographic separation between the two analytes. The method is based on high-performance liquid chromatographic coupled with electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry. The limit of quantification of the method is 0.1mg/L (2.0ng on column) for both analytes. The calibration curves are linear for both sialic acids over the range of 0.1-80mg/L (2.0-1600ng on column) with a correlation coefficient greater than 0.997. The proposed method was applied to the quantitative determination of sialic acids released from fetuin as a model of glycoproteins.

  20. Effect of simultaneous cooling on microwave-assisted wet digestion of biological samples with diluted nitric acid and O{sub 2} pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bizzi, Cezar A. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105-900 (Brazil); Nóbrega, Joaquim A. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de São Carlos, São Carlos, São Paulo 13565-905 (Brazil); Barin, Juliano S. [Departamento de Tecnologia e Ciência dos Alimentos, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105-900 (Brazil); Oliveira, Jussiane S.S.; Schmidt, Lucas; Mello, Paola A. [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105-900 (Brazil); Flores, Erico M.M., E-mail: ericommf@gmail.br [Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, Santa Maria, Rio Grande do Sul 97105-900 (Brazil)

    2014-07-21

    Highlights: • Simultaneously cooling during microwave heating for improving digestion efficiency. • Maximum MW power delivered into cavity, improving the temperature in liquid phase. • Temperature gradient increases regeneration reaction of HNO{sub 3} in O{sub 2} rich atmosphere. • Digestion of several matrices using diluted HNO{sub 3} combined with O{sub 2} pressure. - Abstract: The present work evaluates the influence of vessel cooling simultaneously to microwave-assisted digestion performed in a closed system with diluted HNO{sub 3} under O{sub 2} pressure. The effect of outside air flow-rates (60–190 m{sup 3} h{sup −1}) used for cooling of digestion vessels was evaluated. An improvement in digestion efficiency caused by the reduction of HNO{sub 3} partial pressure was observed when using higher air flow-rate (190 m{sup 3} h{sup −1}), decreasing the residual carbon content for whole milk powder from 21.7 to 9.3% (lowest and highest air flow-rate, respectively). The use of high air flow-rate outside the digestion vessel resulted in a higher temperature gradient between liquid and gas phases inside the digestion vessel and improved the efficiency of sample digestion. Since a more pronounced temperature gradient was obtained, it contributed for increasing the condensation rate and thus allowed a reduction in the HNO{sub 3} partial pressure of the digestion vessel, which improved the regeneration of HNO{sub 3}. An air flow-rate of 190 m{sup 3} h{sup −1} was selected for digestion of animal fat, bovine liver, ground soybean, non fat milk powder, oregano leaves, potato starch and whole milk powder samples, and a standard reference material of apple leaves (NIST 1515), bovine liver (NIST 1577) and whole milk powder (NIST 8435) for further metals determination by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Results were in agreement with certified values and no interferences caused by matrix effects during the determination step

  1. Helium dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  2. Isotope dilution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudge, A.

    1978-12-15

    The following aspects of isotope dilution analysis are covered in this report: fundamental aspects of the technique; elements of interest in the nuclear field, choice and standardization of spike nuclide; pre-treatment to achieve isotopic exchange and chemical separation; sensitivity; selectivity; and accuracy.

  3. Bioethanol production by cashew apple bagasse (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparison of acid diluted and alkali pre-treatments; Producao de bioetanol a partir da fibra do caju (Anacardium occidentale L.): comparacao entre o pre-tratamento acido e alcalino

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, Tigressa H.S.; Pinheiro, Alvaro D.T.; Goncalves, Luciana R.B. [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil); Rocha, Maria V.P.; Macedo, Gorete R. de [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Due to the growing environmental awareness on the negative impact resulting from utilization of fossil fuels, and in the search for renewable energy sources, biofuels' interest as Bioethanol has rapidly expanded recently. In this context, lignocellulosic compounds have become center of attention as an abundant and economic alternative source of carbohydrates for ethanol production. In this study, cashew's bagasse acid hydrolysis was initially studied for glucose synthesis and its fermentation towards ethanol production. Sulfuric acid concentration, solids concentration and time were some of the factors evaluated. The highest glucose productivity value (162,9 mg.g de bagaco{sup -1}) , was obtained for 0,6 mol.L{sup -1} of sulfuric acid in an autoclave at 121 deg C for 15 min. For the fermentation of the hydrolyzed material by S. cerevisiae containing 16 {+-} 2,0 g.L{sup -1} of glucose metabolic, the yield and productivity obtained were 0,63 g-g glucose{sup -1} and 1,43 g.L{sup -1}h{sup -1} respectively. Ethanol concentration after 6 h of fermentation of this hydrolyzed was 11 g.L{sup -1}. In the best conditions of acid hydrolysis, a second pre-treatment with diluted sulfuric acid was performed to evaluate availability of hemicelluloses at 160 deg C and 180 deg C. For comparative purposes, alkali pre-treatment was evaluated under the conditions of 0,6 mol.L{sup -1}, 30% p/v of bagasse thermically treated at 121 deg C for 15 minutes. However, concentration of sugars was not sufficient for fermentation. Also, nitrogen supplementation of the hydrolyzed fraction did not influence significantly ethanol production. The results demonstrate that the hydrolyzed fraction from the acid pre-treatment of cashew's bagasse could be utilized for ethanol production. (author)

  4. Nitrogen oxide absorption into water and dilute nitric acid in an engineering-scale sieve-plate column: description of a mathematical model and comparison with experimental data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Counce, R M

    1978-09-01

    The study reported here is concerned with the absorption of gaseous NO/sub x/ compounds into water and dilute HNO/sub 3/ in a three-stage sieve-plate column with plates designed for high gas-liquid interfacial area. The performance of the column was measured while several operating parameters were varied. A mechanistic model was developed and presented to explain the observed phenomena. The results of the study indicate the importance of three mechanisms in the absorption of gaseous NO/sub x/ compounds: (a) the absorption of NO/sub 2/*, which results in the production of liquid HNO/sub 3/ and HNO/sub 2/; (b) the dissociation of the liquid HNO/sub 2/ into HNO/sub 3/ and gaseous NO; and (c) the gas-phase oxidation of NO to NO/sub 2/. A useful model was developed to explain the absorption of NO/sub x/ compounds based on the above mechanisms. This model is presented and discussed.

  5. New Data on Joint Extraction of Nitric Acid, Uranium(VI) and Tetravalent Elements by Diluted TBP and New Approach to Modeling of their Distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilberman, B.Ya.; Fedorov, Yu.S.; Puzikov, E.A.; Blazheva, I.V.

    2008-01-01

    HNO 3 and U(IV) extraction by diluted TBP (tributyl phosphate) appeared significantly higher than believed earlier, requiring correction of mathematical model for extraction of all the species. The proposed model of HNO 3 extraction includes its dissolving in the extracted water, as well as its abduction to UO 2 (NO 3 ) 2 (TBP) 2 . Extraction of U(VI) and tetravalent elements is considered as reaction of their hydrated or partially hydrolyzed forms, the latter could be extracted themselves or as neutral forms with water liberation. The equation of element chemical reaction for modeling is determined by the slope of the linear part of the S-shaped curve representing D/S 2 function as a plot of HNO 3 concentration, where D is a distribution coefficient of the micro-component and S is a TBP concentration free of HNO 3 . The description of tetravalent element extraction in U(VI) presence needs the assumption of cation-cation interaction of element hydrolyzed forms with U(VI) in aqueous phase. Zr distribution is affected by micellar effects. (authors)

  6. Quantification of transformation rates of soil amino sugars and amino acids by a novel isotope pool dilution approach via liquid chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (LC/HRMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuntao; Zheng, Qing; Noll, Lisa; Zhang, Shasha; Wanek, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Organic nitrogen transformation processes are the key driver of soil nitrogen availability, strongly affecting the nitrogen turnover and carbon cycling of terrestrial ecosystems. Low molecular weight organic nitrogen compounds (e.g. amino acids and amino sugars) that can be directly utilized by plants or microorganisms are released by the extracellular cleavage of high molecular weight organic nitrogen compounds (e.g. proteins, peptidoglycan, and chitin) by hydrolytic enzymes. This decomposition process is believed to be the rate-limiting step in the soil N cycle. Direct measurements of the in situ transformation rates of these small N compounds is highly challenging but can be realized by applying the isotope pool dilution (IPD) technique, in which the target compound pool is labeled with isotopic tracers and subsequently the dilution of the tracers is measured. We have recently pioneered the development of IPD assays to investigate the in situ flux of proteinaceous amino acids and glucose due to decomposition of organic matter and microbial utilization, but the roles of fluxes of amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers in soil nitrogen transformation processes are still unknown due to the lack of feasible extraction, purification, separation and detection methods. Here we developed a 15N IPD assay by utilizing a novel LC/HRMS (Orbitrap) platform, with the aim to measure transformation rates of amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers. After the tracer experiments soil extracts were purified by solid phase extraction prior to the analysis by MS. The utilization of Orbitrap-HRMS allowed us to resolve the mass signals of unlabeled analytes, and their 15N labeled (tracers) and 13C labeled (internal standards) analogues. The commercially unavailable 15N and 13C labeled amino sugars and amino acid enantiomers were produced from bacterial cell walls after batch culture in labeled growth media. This workflow was validated with soils from two sampling sites, allowing us to

  7. Density and viscosity study of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide in dilute aqueous solutions at and around the temperature of the maximum density of water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dhondge, Sudhakar S.; Dahasahasra, Prachi N.; Paliwal, Lalitmohan J.; Deshmukh, Dinesh W.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Volumetric and transport behaviour of aqueous solutions of important vitamins are reported. • Various interactions of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide with water have been reported. • The temperature dependence of interactions between solute and solvent is discussed. • The study indicates that nicotinamide is more hydrated as compared to nicotinic acid. - Abstract: In the present study, we report experimental densities (ρ) and viscosities (η) of aqueous solutions of nicotinic acid and nicotinamide within the concentration range (0 to 0.1) mol · kg −1 at T = (275.15, 277.15 and 279.15) K. These parameters are then used to obtain thermodynamic and transport functions such as apparent molar volume of solute (V ϕ ), limiting apparent molar volume of solute (V ϕ 0 ), limiting apparent molar expansivity of solute (E ϕ 0 ), coefficient of thermal expansion (α ∗ ), Jones–Dole equation viscosity A, B and D coefficients, temperature derivative of B coefficient i.e. (dB/dT) and hydration number (n H ), etc. The activation parameters of viscous flow for the binary mixtures have been determined and discussed in terms of Eyring’s transition state theory. These significant parameters are helpful to study the structure promoting or destroying tendency of solute and various interactions present in (nicotinic acid + water) and (nicotinamide + water) binary mixtures

  8. Surface coverage and corrosion inhibition effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and zinc oxide on the electrochemical performance of low carbon steel in dilute acid solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roland Tolulope Loto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Electrochemical analysis of the corrosion inhibition and surface protection properties of the combined admixture of Rosmarinus officinalis and zinc oxide on low carbon steel in 1 M HCl and H2SO4 solution was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential measurement, optical microscopy and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results obtained confirmed the compound to be more effective in HCl solution, with optimal inhibition efficiencies of 93.26% in HCl and 87.7% in H2SO4 acid solutions with mixed type inhibition behavior in both acids. The compound shifts the corrosion potential values of the steel cathodically in HCl and anodically in H2SO4 signifying specific corrosion inhibition behavior without applied potential. Identified functional groups of alcohols, phenols, 1°, 2° amines, amides, carbonyls (general, esters, saturated aliphatic, carboxylic acids, ethers, aliphatic amines, alkenes, aromatics, alkyl halides and alkynes within the compound completely adsorbed onto the steel forming a protective covering. Thermodynamic calculations showed physisorption molecular interaction with the steel’s surface according to Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherms. Optical microscopy images of the inhibited and uninhibited steels contrast each other with steel specimens from HCl solution showing a better morphology. Keywords: Corrosion, Inhibitor, Adsorption, Steel, Acid

  9. Performance of Different Acids on Sandstone Formations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Zaman

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Stimulation of sandstone formations is a challenging task, which involves several chemicals and physical interactions of the acid with the formation. Some of these reactions may result in formation damage. Mud acid has been successfully used to stimulate sandstone reservoirs for a number of years. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric (HF and hydrochloric (HCl acids designed to dissolve clays and siliceous fines accumulated in the near-wellbore region. Matrix acidizing may also be used to increase formation permeability in undamaged wells. The change may be up to 50% to 100% with the mud acid. For any acidizing process, the selection of acid (Formulation and Concentration and the design (Pre-flush, Main Acid, After-flush is very important. Different researchers are using different combinations of acids with different concentrations to get the best results for acidization. Mainly the common practice is combination of Hydrochloric AcidHydrofluoric with Concentration (3% HF – 12% HCl. This paper presents the results of a laboratory investigation of Orthophosphoric acid instead of hydrochloric acid in one combination and the second combination is Fluoboric and formic acid and the third one is formic and hydrofluoric acid. The results are compared with the mud acid and the results calculated are porosity, permeability, and FESEM Analysis and Strength tests. All of these new combinations shows that these have the potential to be used as acidizing acids on sandstone formations.

  10. Defects in dilute nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.M.; Buyanova, I.A.; Tu, C.W.; Yonezu, H.

    2005-01-01

    We provide a brief review our recent results from optically detected magnetic resonance studies of grown-in non-radiative defects in dilute nitrides, i.e. Ga(In)NAs and Ga(Al,In)NP. Defect complexes involving intrinsic defects such as As Ga antisites and Ga i self interstitials were positively identified.Effects of growth conditions, chemical compositions and post-growth treatments on formation of the defects are closely examined. These grown-in defects are shown to play an important role in non-radiative carrier recombination and thus in degrading optical quality of the alloys, harmful to performance of potential optoelectronic and photonic devices based on these dilute nitrides. (author)

  11. Surface coverage and corrosion inhibition effect of Rosmarinus officinalis and zinc oxide on the electrochemical performance of low carbon steel in dilute acid solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loto, Roland Tolulope

    2018-03-01

    Electrochemical analysis of the corrosion inhibition and surface protection properties of the combined admixture of Rosmarinus officinalis and zinc oxide on low carbon steel in 1 M HCl and H2SO4 solution was studied by potentiodynamic polarization, open circuit potential measurement, optical microscopy and ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Results obtained confirmed the compound to be more effective in HCl solution, with optimal inhibition efficiencies of 93.26% in HCl and 87.7% in H2SO4 acid solutions with mixed type inhibition behavior in both acids. The compound shifts the corrosion potential values of the steel cathodically in HCl and anodically in H2SO4 signifying specific corrosion inhibition behavior without applied potential. Identified functional groups of alcohols, phenols, 1°, 2° amines, amides, carbonyls (general), esters, saturated aliphatic, carboxylic acids, ethers, aliphatic amines, alkenes, aromatics, alkyl halides and alkynes within the compound completely adsorbed onto the steel forming a protective covering. Thermodynamic calculations showed physisorption molecular interaction with the steel's surface according to Langmuir and Frumkin adsorption isotherms. Optical microscopy images of the inhibited and uninhibited steels contrast each other with steel specimens from HCl solution showing a better morphology.

  12. Kinetic Modelling and Experimental Studies for the Effects of Fe2+ Ions on Xylan Hydrolysis with Dilute-Acid Pretreatment and Subsequent Enzymatic Hydrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Wei

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available High-temperature (150–170 °C pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass with mineral acids is well established for xylan breakdown. Fe2+ is known to be a cocatalyst of this process although kinetics of its action remains unknown. The present work addresses the effect of ferrous ion concentration on sugar yield and degradation product formation from corn stover for the entire two-step treatment, including the subsequent enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis. The feedstock was impregnated with 0.5% acid and 0.75 mM iron cocatalyst, which was found to be optimal in preliminary experiments. The detailed kinetic data of acid pretreatment, with and without iron, was satisfactorily modelled with a four-step linear sequence of first-order irreversible reactions accounting for the formation of xylooligomers, xylose and furfural as intermediates to provide the values of Arrhenius activation energy. Based on this kinetic modelling, Fe2+ turned out to accelerate all four reactions, with a significant alteration of the last two steps, that is, xylose degradation. Consistent with this model, the greatest xylan conversion occurred at the highest severity tested under 170 °C/30 min with 0.75 mM Fe2+, with a total of 8% xylan remaining in the pretreated solids, whereas the operational conditions leading to the highest xylose monomer yield, 63%, were milder, 150 °C with 0.75 mM Fe2+ for 20 min. Furthermore, the subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis with the prior addition of 0.75 mM of iron(II increased the glucose production to 56.3% from 46.3% in the control (iron-free acid. The detailed analysis indicated that conducting the process at lower temperatures yet long residence times benefits the yield of sugars. The above kinetic modelling results of Fe2+ accelerating all four reactions are in line with our previous mechanistic research showing that the pretreatment likely targets multiple chemistries in plant cell wall polymer networks, including those represented by the C

  13. The Effects of Dilute Sulfuric Acid on Sheet Resistance and Transmittance in Poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene: Poly(styrenesulfonate Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teen-Hang Meen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The conductivity of poly(3,4-thylenedioxythiophene: poly(styrenesulfonate (PEDOT: PSS films by adding various molar concentrations of sulfuric acid (H2SO4 was improved and studied in this paper. The sheet resistance of the doped PEDOT: PSS film was enhanced with increasing the ratio of H2SO4, but it drops after the maximum sheet resistance. The reason for this phenomenon is resulting from the fact that the H2SO4 preferentially react with the sorbitol which is so-called the pinacol rearrangement. The nonconductive anions of some PSS− were substituted by the conductive anions of hydrogen sulfate (HSO4- when the residual H2SO4 reacted with PSS. In addition to the substitution reaction, PEDOT chains were increasingly aggregated with increasing the ratio of H2SO4. After doped H2SO4, the sheet resistance of H2SO4-doped PEDOT: PSS film is improved nearly 36%; the surface roughness is reduced from 1.268 nm to 0.822 nm and the transmittance is up to 91.9% in the visible wavelength range from 400 to 700 nm.

  14. UTILIZATION OF OIL PALM EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (OPEFB FOR BIOETHANOL PRODUCTION THROUGH ALKALI AND DILUTE ACID PRETREATMENT AND SIMULTANEOUS SACCHARIFICATION AND FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanni Sudiyani

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Lignocellulosic biomass is a potential alternative source of bioethanol for energy. The lignocellulosics are abundantly available in Indonesia. Most of them are wastes of agriculture, plantation and forestry. Among those wastes, oil palm empty fruit bunch (OP EFB is one of a potential lignocellulosics to be converted to bioethanol. This EFB, which is wastes in oil palm factories, is quite abundant (around 25 million tons/year and also has high content of cellulose (41-47%. The conversion of OPEFB to ethanol basically consists of three steps which are pretreatment, hydrolysis of cellulose and hemicellulose to simple sugars (hexoses and pentoses, and fermentation of simple sugars to ethanol. Acid and alkali pretreatments are considered the simplest methods and are potentially could be applied in the next couple of years. However, there are still some problems that have to be overcome to make the methods economically feasible. The high price of cellulose enzyme that is needed in the hydrolysis step is one of factors that cause the cost of EFB conversion is still high. Thus, the search of potential local microbes that could produce cellulase is crucial. Besides that, it is also important to explore fermenting microbes that could ferment six carbon sugars from cellulose as well as five carbon sugars from hemicellulose, so that the conversion of lignocellulosics, particularly EFB, would be more efficient. Keywords: OPEFB, lignocellulosics, pretreatment, fermentation, ethanol

  15. A quantitative study of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) production by Nannochloropsis gaditana for aquaculture as a function of dilution rate, temperature and average irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho-Rodríguez, J; González-Céspedes, A M; Cerón-García, M C; Fernández-Sevilla, J M; Acién-Fernández, F G; Molina-Grima, E

    2014-03-01

    Different pilot-scale outdoor photobioreactors using medium recycling were operated in a greenhouse under different environmental conditions and the growth rates (0.1 to 0.5 day(-1)) obtained evaluated in order to compare them with traditional systems used in aquaculture. The annualized volumetric growth rate for Nannochloropsis gaditana was 0.26 g l(-1) day(-1) (peak 0.4 g l(-1) day(-1)) at 0.4 day(-1) in a 5-cm wide flat-panel bioreactor (FP-PBR). The biomass productivity achieved in this reactor was 10-fold higher than in traditional reactors, reaching values of 28 % and 45 % dry weight (d.w.) of lipids and proteins, respectively, with a 4.3 % (d.w.) content of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA). A model for predicting EPA productivity from N. gaditana cultures that takes into account the existence of photolimitation and photoinhibition of growth under outdoor conditions is presented. The effect of temperature and average irradiance on EPA content is also studied. The maximum EPA productivity attained is 30 mg l(-1) day(-1).

  16. The liquid-liquid extraction of chloro-(trichlorostannato)-rhodium(I/III) and -ruthenium (II) complexes from dilute hydrochloric acid into 4-methylpentan-2-one

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyrley-Birch, J.M.

    1984-10-01

    The effect of stannous chloride on the liquid-liquid extraction of rhodium and ruthenium from hydrochloric acid solutions into 4-methyl-pentan-2-one (MIBK)/hexane mixtures was studied in detail. Stannous chloride concentrations were found to considerably increase the efficiency of the extraction of rhodium and ruthenium into the organic phase. Chloro-(trichlorostannato)-rhodium (I/III) complexes were formed at room temperature. The rate of chloro-(trichlorostannato)-ruthenium (II) complex formation was extremely slow at room temperature, but increased on heating of the aqueous solutions. The amount of rhodium and ruthenium extracted into the organic phase depend on the Sn(II):M molar ratio, the HCl, H sup(+) and Cl sup(-) concentrations, as well as the equilibration time. A 119 Sn NMR study of the MIBK extracts, showed that the stoichiometry of the chloro-(trichlorostannato)-rhodium (I/III) complexes extracted into the organic phase was dependent on the Sn(II):Rh(III) molar ratio as well as the HCl, H sup(+) and Cl sup(-) concentrations in the aqueous phase. The predominant species observed in the organic phase from HCl solutions containing Sn(II):Rh(III) ratios >= 5:1, was shown to be an hydrido complex having the form [RhH(SnCl 3 ) 4 Cl] 3 sup(-) or [RhH(SnCl 3 ) 4 ]2 sup(-). An essentially quantitative separation of rhodium and ruthenium was achieved utilising the variation in the rates of rhodium-tin and ruthenium-tin complex formation

  17. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yu [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Zhejiang Key Laboratory for Agro-Food Processing, Zhejiang R & D Center for Food Technology and Equipment, Fuli Institute of Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun [Department of Food Science and Nutrition, College of Biosystems Engineering and Food Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058, Zhejiang (China); Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, Zhejiang (China); Ren, Yiping, E-mail: renyiping@263.net [Zhejiang Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Hangzhou 310051, Zhejiang (China)

    2015-09-24

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1–0.3 ng/mL and 0.4–1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%–105.4%, 98.2%–114.0% and 92.2%–108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD < 7.0%) substantially supported the use of current method for robust analysis. Rapid pretreatment procedures and short run time (8 min per sample) ensured good efficiency of metabolism profiling, indicating a wide application for investigating short-term internal exposure of dietary acrylamide. Our proposed UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of acrylamide in rats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive

  18. Comprehensive profiling of mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide as short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluation of toxicokinetics in rats and daily internal exposure in humans using isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yu; Wang, Qiao; Cheng, Jun; Zhang, Jingshun; Xu, Jiaojiao; Ren, Yiping

    2015-01-01

    Mercapturic acid metabolites from dietary acrylamide are important short-term exposure biomarkers for evaluating the in vivo toxicity of acrylamide. Most of studies have focused on the measurement of two metabolites, N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine (AAMA) and N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (GAMA). Thus, the comprehensive profile of acrylamide urinary metabolites cannot be fully understood. We developed an isotope dilution ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method for the simultaneous determination of all four mercapturic acid adducts of acrylamide and its primary metabolite glycidamide under the electroscopy ionization negative (ESI-) mode in the present study. The limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) of the analytes ranged 0.1–0.3 ng/mL and 0.4–1.0 ng/mL, respectively. The recovery rates with low, intermediate and high spiking levels were calculated as 95.5%–105.4%, 98.2%–114.0% and 92.2%–108.9%, respectively. Acceptable within-laboratory reproducibility (RSD < 7.0%) substantially supported the use of current method for robust analysis. Rapid pretreatment procedures and short run time (8 min per sample) ensured good efficiency of metabolism profiling, indicating a wide application for investigating short-term internal exposure of dietary acrylamide. Our proposed UHPLC-MS/MS method was successfully applied to the toxicokinetic study of acrylamide in rats. Meanwhile, results of human urine analysis indicated that the levels of N-acetyl-S-(2-carbamoylethyl)-L-cysteine-sulfoxide (AAMA-sul), which did not appear in the mercapturic acid metabolites in rodents, were more than the sum of GAMA and N-acetyl-S-(1-carbamoyl-2-hydroxyethyl)-L-cysteine (iso-GAMA). Thus, AAMA-sul may alternatively become a specific biomarker for investigating the acrylamide exposure in humans. Current proposed method provides a substantial methodology support for comprehensive

  19. Certification measurement of the cadmium, copper and lead contents in rice using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassileva, Emilia; Quetel, Christophe R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the certification of the Cd, Cu and Pb amount contents in a rice material, that were used as reference values for round 19 of the international measurement evaluation programme (IMEP). The protocol developed in this study was based on isotope dilution associated to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS). A multiple spiking approach was applied to reduce significantly the number of analytical steps. For the decomposition of the sample, three different microwave assisted digestion procedures were tested and compared. The use of hydrofluoric acid was found necessary to ensure full solubilisation and complete isotopic equilibration. Estimation of the combined uncertainty attached to the measurement results was performed according to the ISO guidelines. Contributions from the correction for moisture content, sample homogeneity, procedural blank, spike impurities, spectral interferences, instrumental background and dead-time effects were evaluated. SI-traceable values with less than 2% combined uncertainty (k = 2) were obtained for Cd, Cu and Pb, respectively, (14.39 ± 0.21) x 10 -6 mol kg -1 , (44.31 ± 0.42) x 10 -6 mol kg -1 and (2.034 ± 0.034) x 10 -6 mol kg -1 . The rice powder was observed to be highly hygroscopic and a second series of isotope dilution mass spectrometry measurements was carried out on samples in equilibrium with the ambient moisture conditions ('saturated' samples). The Comite Consultatif pour la Quantite de Matiere (CCQM) requested this approach for the participation to the key comparison 24 on the same rice test material. The excellent agreement for Cd between the IMEP-19 reference value, the value submitted by the institute for reference materials and measurements (IRMM) to CCQM-K24 and the corresponding reference value obtained as the arithmetic mean from the results of the 11 participating National Measurement Institutes (less than 0.27% difference) further validated this work. Eventually, this series

  20. Determination of niobium in rocks by an isotope dilution spectrophotometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenland, L.P.; Campbell, E.Y.

    1970-01-01

    Rocks and minerals are fused with sodium peroxide in the presence of carrierfree 95Nb. The fusion cake is leached with water and the precipitate dissolved in hydrofluoric-sulfuric acid mixture. Niobium is extracted into methyl isobutyl ketone and further purified by ion exchange. The amount of niobium is determined spectrophotometrically with 4-(2-pyridylazo)-resorcinol, and the chemical yield of the separations determined by counting 95Nb. This procedure is faster and less sensitive to interferences than previously proposed methods for determining niobium in rocks.The high purity of the separated niobium makes the method applicable to nearly all matrices. ?? 1970.

  1. An overview the boron dilution issue in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyvaerinen, J.

    1994-01-01

    The presentation is an overview of boron (boric acid) dilution in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). Boric acid has been widely used in PWRs as a dissolved poison, as one of the main reactivity controlling means, for a long time, from nearly but not quite from the beginning of the design, construction and operation of PWRs in the present-day sense. The specific safety issue, namely the risk of uncontrolled reactivity insertion due to inadvertent boron dilution, is discussed first, followed by a brief look on the history of boron usage in PWRs. A discussion of boron dilution phenomenology is presented next in general terms. Some particular concerns that boron dilution phenomena arouse in the minds of a regulator will also be presented before concluding with a brief look on the future of dissolved poisons. (11 refs.)

  2. Inhibition Effect of Deanol on Mild Steel Corrosion in Dilute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICOLAAS

    2014-06-23

    Jun 23, 2014 ... The influence of deanol on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in dilute sulphuric acid with sodium ... the formation of a complex precipitate of protective film, which ... silicon carbide abrasive papers of 80, 120, 220, 800 and 1000 grit ...... ions in sulphuric acid on the corrosion behaviour of stainless steel,.

  3. Synthesis of nanocrystalline LaF3 doped silica glasses by hydrofluoric acid catalyzed sol–gel process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagayama, Shuhei; Kajihara, Koichi; Kanamura, Kiyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Silica glasses doped by LaF 3 nanocrystals are obtained by HF-catalyzed sol–gel method. ► The processing time (∼1 week) is much shorter than that of previous studies. ► The uptake of SiF groups in the glass matrix greatly reduces the SiOH concentration. ► Effects of sintering conditions and properties of Er 3+ -doped samples are presented. - Abstract: Silica glasses doped with LaF 3 nanocrystals were prepared by HF-catalyzed sol–gel method. HF was used both as fluorine source and as catalyst of the sol–gel reaction, making it possible to shorten the processing time with reducing the concentration of SiOH groups to ∼10 18 cm −3 . The resultant glasses are transparent at visible spectral range, and the optical loss at the ultraviolet absorption edge is dominated by the Rayleigh scattering from LaF 3 crystallites. The size of LaF 3 crystallites increases with an increase in the sintering temperature and time, and is smaller than ∼40 nm in samples showing good visible transparency. Green upconversion photoluminescence is observed in an Er 3+ -doped sample under excitation at 980 nm.

  4. Corrosion in the presence of a complexing agent - application to the continuous determination of hydrofluoric acid in the atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chapron, J.

    1966-10-01

    After a presentation of the thermodynamics and kinetics involved during corrosion in the presence of a complexing agent, the first part of this report deals with the electrochemical properties of an aluminium electrode in the presence of fluoride solutions. Various physical and chemical parameters have been studied together with their influence on the aforementioned properties. From this first part are deduced the medium and the various parameters which lead to the maximum efficiency for the detection of fluorides by amperometry. The second part is an application of the results of the above work, which has made it possible to develop a cell having an original design. Its performances are described. They show that the cell has a greater sensitivity and a shorter response time than existing equipment. (author) [fr

  5. Determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl in coal and coal fly ash slurries using electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotopic dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maia, S.M.; Pozebon, D.; Curtius, A.J. [Univ. Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2003-07-01

    A method has been investigated for the determination of Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl in coal and in coal fly ash, using slurry sampling electrothermal vaporization inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and isotope dilution. The slurry, 25 mg ml{sup -1}, was prepared by mixing the powdered sample (less than or equal to 36 - 45 mm) with acid solutions (nitric acid for coal and nitric and hydrofluoric acids for coal fly ash) and submitting the mixture to an ultrasonic agitation, letting it stand afterwards in a water bath at 60{sup o}C for 2 h. An ultrasonic probe was used to homogenize the slurry in the autosampler cup just before its introduction into the graphite tube. The best conditions were determined regarding analyte sensitivity, furnace temperature program, amount of modifier, acid concentration, gas flow rate and particle size. For Hg, the pyrolysis stage was omitted and a low vaporization temperature was used (450 - 1000{sup o}C); the residual matrix was eliminated in the first step of the following cycle. The modifiers used were: Pd for Cd and Tl; Au, Ir or Pd for Hg; Ir or Pd for Pb. The accuracy of the method was checked by analyzing six certified coal reference materials (SARM 20, SARM 19, BCR No. 40, BCR No. 180, BCR No. 181 and NIST 1630a) and one certified coal fly ash (NIST 1633b). With one exception (Hg in BCR No. 180), the found concentrations were typically within 95% confidence interval of the certified values, or close enough to the recommended values, as long as the samples were ground to a small enough particle size. The limits of detection were typically around 0.08 {mu}g g{sup -1}, 0.03 {mu}g g{sup -1}, 1 {mu}g g{sup -1} and 0.02 {mu}g g{sup -1} for Cd, Hg, Pb and Tl, respectively. The precision was also adequate with relative standard deviations of usually < 5%.

  6. Inhibition Effect of Deanol on Mild Steel Corrosion in Dilute ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of deanol on the corrosion behaviour of mild steel in dilute sulphuric acid with sodium chloride addition was studied by means of mass-loss, potentiodynamic polarization, electrode potential monitoring, scanning electron microscopy and statistical analysis. Results show that deanol performed excellently with ...

  7. Acid dip for dosemeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, J.C.; McWhan, A.F.

    1982-01-01

    Background signal in a PTFE based dosemeter caused by impurities in the PTFE and in the active component such as lithium fluoride is substantially reduced by treating the dosemeter with acid. The optimum treatment involves use of hydrofluoric acid at room temperature for approximately one minute, followed by thorough washing with methanol, and finally drying. This treatment is best applied after the original manufacture of the dosemeters. It may also be applied to existing dosemeters after they have been in use for some time. The treatment produces a permanent effect in reducing both the light induced signal and the non-light induced signal. The process may be applied to all types of dosemeter manufactured from PTFE or other plastics or resins which are able to resist brief exposure to acid. The treatment works particularly well with dosemeters based on PTFE and lithium fluoride. It is also applicable to dosemeters based on calcium sulphate, lithium borate and magnesium borate. Acids which may be used include hydrofluoric, hydrochloric, nitric, phosphoric and sulphuric. (author)

  8. Primary system boron dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, R.J.; Naretto, C.J.; Borgen, R.A.; Rockhold, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented for an analysis conducted to determine the potential paths through which nonborated water or water with insufficient boron concentration might enter the LOFT primary coolant piping system or reactor vessel to cause dilution of the borated primary coolant water. No attempt was made in the course of this analysis to identify possible design modifications nor to suggest changes in administrative procedures or controls

  9. Metodologia AGOA: a modelagem de clusters de hidratação no complexo aziridina···ácido fluorídrico AGOA methodology: modeling the hydration clusters for the aziridine···hydrofluoric complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boaz G. Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a theoretical study of solvent effect on C2H5N···HF hydrogen-bonded complex through the application of the AGOA methodology. By using the TIP4P model to orientate the configuration of water molecules, the hydration clusters generated by AGOA were obtained through the analysis of the molecular electrostatic potential (MEP of solute (C2H5N···HF. Thereby, it was calculated the hydration energies on positive and negative MEP fields, which are maxima (PEMmax and minima (PEMmin when represent the -CH2- methylene groups and hydrofluoric acid, respectively. By taking into account the higher and lower hydration energy values of -370.6 kJ mol-1 and -74.3 kJ mol-1 for PEMmax and PEMmin of the C2H5N···HF, our analysis shows that these results corroborate the open ring reaction of aziridine, in which the preferential attack of water molecules occurs at the methylene groups of this heterocyclic.

  10. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, K

    2012-01-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4 He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4 He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  11. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  12. Plutonium determination by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle is to add to a known amount of the analysed solution a known amount of a spike solution consisting of plutonium 242. The isotopic composition of the resulting mixture is then determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry, and the plutonium concentration in the solution is deduced, from this measurement. For irradiated fuels neutronic studies or for fissile materials balance measurements, requiring the knowledge of the ratio U/Pu or of concentration both uranium and plutonium, it is better to use the double spike isotope dilution method, with a spike solution of known 233 U- 242 Pu ratio. Using this method, the ratio of uranium to plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution can be determined without any accurate measurement of the mixed amounts of sample and spike solutions. For fissile material balance measurements, the uranium concentration is determined by using single isotope dilution, and the plutonium concentration is deduced from the ratio Pu/U and U concentration. The main advantages of isotope dilution are its selectivity, accuracy and very high sensitivity. The recent improvements made to surface ionization mass spectrometers have considerably increased the precision of the measurements; a relative precision of about 0.2% to 0.3% is obtained currently, but it could be reduced to 0.1%, in the future, with a careful control of the experimental procedures. The detection limite is around 0.1 ppb [fr

  13. Role reductants in dilute chemical decontamination formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ranganathan, S. [Univ. of New Brunswick (Canada). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Srinivasan, M.P.; Narasimhan, S.V. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre (BARC), Trombay, Mumbai (India). Water and Steam Chemistry Lab.; Raghavan, P.S. [Madras Christian Coll., Chennai (India); Gopalan, R. [Madras Christian Coll., Chennai (India). Dept. of Chemistry

    2004-10-01

    Iron(III) oxides are the major corrosion products formed in boiling water reactors. The iron(III) oxides are of two types, namely hematite ({alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) and maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}). The dissolution of these oxides is in no way simple because of the labile nature of the Fe(III)-O bond towards the chelants. The leaching of metal ions is partially controlled by reductive dissolution. In order to understand the role of the reductant, it is essential to study the dissolution behaviour of a system like Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}, which does not contain any Fe{sup 2+} in the crystal lattice. The present study was carried out with {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} and dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) formulations containing ascorbic acid and citric acid with the addition of Fe(II)-L as a reductant. The chelants used for the dissolution process were nitrilotriacetic acid, 2,6-pyridinedicorboxylic acid and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} was chosen since the earlier studies revealed that the dissolution kinetics of {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} is slow and it is difficult to dissolve even by strong complexing agents, whereas {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} dissolution is comparatively easier. This is due to the structural difference between these two oxides. The studies also revealed that the dissolution was partly influenced by the nature of the chelating agents but mainly controlled by the power of the reductants used in the formulation. The dissolution behaviour of {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} under various experimental conditions is discussed and compared with that of magnetite in order to arrive at a suitable mechanism for the dissolution of iron oxides and emphasize the role of reductants in DCD formulations. (orig.)

  14. A miniaturized plastic dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindilatti, V.; Oliveira, N.F.Jr.; Martin, R.V.; Frossati, G.

    1996-01-01

    We have built and tested a miniaturized dilution refrigerator, completely contained (still, heat exchanger and mixing chamber) inside a plastic (PVC) tube of 10 mm diameter and 170 mm length. With a 25 cm 2 CuNi heat exchanger, it reached temperatures below 50 mK, for circulation rates below 70 μmol/s. The cooling power at 100 mK and 63 μmol/s was 45 μW. The experimental space could accommodate samples up to 6 mm in diameter. (author)

  15. An Effective Acid Combination for Enhanced Properties and Corrosion Control of Acidizing Sandstone Formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben

    2016-01-01

    To fulfill the demand of the world energy, more technologies to enhance the recovery of oil production are being developed. Sandstone acidizing has been introduced and it acts as one of the important means to increase oil and gas production. Sandstone acidizing operation generally uses acids, which create or enlarge the flow channels of formation around the wellbore. In sandstone matrix acidizing, acids are injected into the formation at a pressure below the formation fracturing pressure, in which the injected acids react with mineral particles that may restrict the flow of hydrocarbons. Most common combination is Hydrofluoric Acid - Hydrochloric with concentration (3% HF - 12% HCl) known as mud acid. But there are some problems associated with the use of mud acid i.e., corrosion, precipitation. In this paper several new combinations of acids were experimentally screened to identify the most effective combination. The combinations used consist of fluoboric, phosphoric, formic and hydrofluoric acids. Cores were allowed to react with these combinations and results are compared with the mud acid. The parameters, which are analyzed, are Improved Permeability Ratio, strength and mineralogy. The analysis showed that the new acid combination has the potential to be used in sandstone acidizing. (paper)

  16. Polymorph-dependent titanium dioxide nanoparticle dissolution in acidic and alkali digestions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Multiple polymorphs (anatase, brookite and rutile) of titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) with variable structures were quantified in environmental matrices via microwave-based hydrofluoric (HF) and nitric (HNO3) mixed acid digestion and muffle furnace (MF)-based potassium ...

  17. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, T.; Kanerva, N.; Martikainen, J.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  18. Desynchronization in diluted neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillmer, Ruediger; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of 'stable chaos', i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is 'limited' to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary

  19. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Chorlton, D. A.; Zmeev, D. E.; Gillott, S. J.; Sellers, M. C.; Richardson, P. P.; Agrawal, H.; Batey, G.; Golov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10-3 rad s-1 up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s-1. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

  20. Bias due to Preanalytical Dilution of Rodent Serum for Biochemical Analysis on the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer L. Johns

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Clinical pathology testing of rodents is often challenging due to insufficient sample volume. One solution in clinical veterinary and exploratory research environments is dilution of samples prior to analysis. However, published information on the impact of preanalytical sample dilution on rodent biochemical data is incomplete. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of preanalytical sample dilution on biochemical analysis of mouse and rat serum samples utilizing the Siemens Dimension Xpand Plus. Rats were obtained from end of study research projects. Mice were obtained from sentinel testing programs. For both, whole blood was collected via terminal cardiocentesis into empty tubes and serum was harvested. Biochemical parameters were measured on fresh and thawed frozen samples run straight and at dilution factors 2–10. Dilutions were performed manually, utilizing either ultrapure water or enzyme diluent per manufacturer recommendations. All diluted samples were generated directly from the undiluted sample. Preanalytical dilution caused clinically unacceptable bias in most analytes at dilution factors four and above. Dilution-induced bias in total calcium, creatinine, total bilirubin, and uric acid was considered unacceptable with any degree of dilution, based on the more conservative of two definitions of acceptability. Dilution often caused electrolyte values to fall below assay range precluding evaluation of bias. Dilution-induced bias occurred in most biochemical parameters to varying degrees and may render dilution unacceptable in the exploratory research and clinical veterinary environments. Additionally, differences between results obtained at different dilution factors may confound statistical comparisons in research settings. Comparison of data obtained at a single dilution factor is highly recommended.

  1. On inhibition of dental erosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rölla, Gunnar; Jonski, Grazyna; Saxegaard, Erik

    2013-11-01

    To examine the erosion-inhibiting effect of different concentrations of hydrofluoric acid. Thirty-six human molars were individually treated with 10 ml of 0.1 M citric acid for 30 min (Etch 1), acid was collected and stored until analysis. The teeth were randomly divided into six groups and then individually treated with 10 ml of one of six dilutions (from 0.1-1%) of hydrofluoric acid. The teeth were then again treated with citric acid (Etch 2). The individual acid samples from Etch 1 and 2 were analyzed for calcium by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy and difference in calcium loss was calculated. The highest erosion inhibiting effect was obtained in groups with the highest concentrations of hydrofluoric acid, where the pH was lowest, below pKa of 3.17, thus the hydrofluoric acids being mainly in an undissociated state. Diluted hydrofluoric acid is present in aqueous solution of SnF2 and TiF4 (which are known to inhibit dental erosion): SnF2 + 3H2O = Sn(OH)2 + 2HF + H2O and TiF4 + 5H2O = Ti(OH)4 + 4HF + H2O. It is also known that pure, diluted hydrofluoric acid can inhibit dental erosion. Teeth treated with hydrofluoric acid are covered by a layer of CaF2-like mineral. This mineral is acid resistant at pH acid resistant mineral, initiated by tooth enamel treatment with hydrofluoric acid. Hydrofluoric acid is different in having fluoride as a conjugated base, which provides this acid with unique properties.

  2. Dynamics of dilute polymer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, L.K.; Higgins, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrons scattered by nuclei undergoing slow motion e.g. the internal motion within polymer chains, lose or gain very small amounts of energy. It is therefore the quasi-elastic region of the neutron scattering spectrum which is of interest and in particular the time correlation function (or intermediate scattering law S(Q,t)) which is ideally required to define the motion. The neutron spin echo spectrometer (IN11) at the ILL facilitates the measurement of very small energy changes (down to 10 neV) on scattering from a sample, by changing and keeping track of neutron beam polarization non-parallel to the magnetic guide-field (1). The resultant neutron beam polarization, when normalized against a standard (totally elastic) scatterer is directly proportional to the cosine Fourier Transform of the scattering law S(Q,ω), which is to say the time correlation function is measured directly. Dilute solutions of deuterated polystyrene (PSD) and deuterated polytetrahydrofuran (PTDF) in carbon disulphide, and of their hydrogeneous counterparts (PSH and PTHF respectively) in deuterated benzene were investigated in the range 0.027 A -1 -1 , at 30 0 C. (orig./FKS)

  3. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  4. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.; Weyman, G.D.

    The basic principles of dilute chemical decontamination are described, as well as the method of application. Methods of computing savings in radiation dose and costs are presented, with results from actual experience and illustrative examples. It is concluded that dilute chemical decontamination is beneficial in many cases. It reduces radiation exposure of workers, saves money, and simplifies maintenance work

  5. Radiation degradation and the consequent decrease in the efficacy of some dilute chemical decontaminant formulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamal Kishore; Dey, G.R.; Naik, D.B.; Moorthy, P.N. [Applied Chemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai-400 085 (India)

    1998-12-31

    Constituents of dilute chemical decontaminant formulations such as ascorbic acid, EDTA, picolinic acid (PA) and 2,6-pyridine dicarboxylic acid (PDCA), also known as dipicolinic acid, are highly reactive with primary species produced from water radiolysis. Picolinic acid and PDCA however, are less sensitive to radiation dose due to their aromatic nature. They also help in protecting ascorbic acid when in a mixture. The efficacy for dissolution of magnetite was found to reduce drastically on irradiation in the case of EDTA/oxalic acid/citric acid while it was unaffected in the case of picolinic acid/ascorbic acid. In the case of EDTA/ascorbic acid/citric acid or PDCA/ascorbic acid formulations, there was only a marginal effect of radiation on the efficacy of the formulations. (author)

  6. Theoretical modeling of diluted antiferromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo, J; Elgueta, R; Acevedo, R

    2000-01-01

    Some magnetic properties of a Diluted Antiferromagnetic System (DAFS) are studied. The model of the two sub-networks for antiferromagnetism is used and a Heisenberg Hamiltonian type is proposed, where the square operators are expressed in terms of boson operators with the approach of spin waves. The behavior of the diluted system's fundamental state depends basically on the competition effect between the anisotropy field and the Weiss molecular field. The approach used allows the diluted system to be worked for strong anisotropies as well as when these are very weak

  7. Recovery of Platinum from Dilute Chloride Media Using Biosorbents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeytuncu, B.; Morcali, M. H.; Yucel, O.

    Pistachio nut shells and Rice husk, a biomass residue, were investigated as adsorbents for the platinum uptake from synthetically prepared dilute chloroplatinic acid solutions. The effects of the different uptake parameters on platinum uptake (%) were studied in detail on a batch sorption. Before the pistachio nut shell material was activated, platinum uptake (%) was poor compared with rice husk. However, after the pistachio nut shell material was activated at 1000°C under an argon atmosphere, the platinum uptake (%) increased two-fold. The pistachio nut shell (inactivated and activated) and rice husk were characterized by Attenuated Total Reflection-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR).

  8. Comparison of Buffer Effect of Different Acids During Sandstone Acidizing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafiq, Mian Umer; Mahmud, Hisham Khaled Ben; Hamid, Mohamed Ali

    2015-01-01

    The most important concern of sandstone matrix acidizing is to increase the formation permeability by removing the silica particles. To accomplish this, the mud acid (HF: HCl) has been utilized successfully for many years to stimulate the sandstone formations, but still it has many complexities. This paper presents the results of laboratory investigations of different acid combinations (HF: HCl, HF: H 3 PO 4 and HF: HCOOH). Hydrofluoric acid and fluoboric acid are used to dissolve clays and feldspar. Phosphoric and formic acids are added as a buffer to maintain the pH of the solution; also it allows the maximum penetration of acid into the core sample. Different tests have been performed on the core samples before and after the acidizing to do the comparative study on the buffer effect of these acids. The analysis consists of permeability, porosity, color change and pH value tests. There is more increase in permeability and porosity while less change in pH when phosphoric and formic acids were used compared to mud acid. From these results it has been found that the buffer effect of phosphoric acid and formic acid is better than hydrochloric acid. (paper)

  9. Cross-validated stable-isotope dilution GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays for monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) activity by measuring arachidonic acid released from the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoyl glycerol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kayacelebi, Arslan Arinc; Schauerte, Celina; Kling, Katharina; Herbers, Jan; Beckmann, Bibiana; Engeli, Stefan; Jordan, Jens; Zoerner, Alexander A; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2017-03-15

    2-Arachidonoyl glycerol (2AG) is an endocannabinoid that activates cannabinoid (CB) receptors CB1 and CB2. Monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL) inactivates 2AG through hydrolysis to arachidonic acid (AA) and glycerol, thus modulating the activity at CB receptors. In the brain, AA released from 2AG by the action of MAGL serves as a substrate for cyclooxygenases which produce pro-inflammatory prostaglandins. Here we report stable-isotope GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays for the reliable measurement of MAGL activity. The assays utilize deuterium-labeled 2AG (d 8 -2AG; 10μM) as the MAGL substrate and measure deuterium-labeled AA (d 8 -AA; range 0-1μM) as the MAGL product. Unlabelled AA (d 0 -AA, 1μM) serves as the internal standard. d 8 -AA and d 0 -AA are extracted from the aqueous buffered incubation mixtures by ethyl acetate. Upon solvent evaporation the residue is reconstituted in the mobile phase prior to LC-MS/MS analysis or in anhydrous acetonitrile for GC-MS analysis. LC-MS/MS analysis is performed in the negative electrospray ionization mode by selected-reaction monitoring the mass transitions [M-H] - →[M-H - CO 2 ] - , i.e., m/z 311→m/z 267 for d 8 -AA and m/z 303→m/z 259 for d 0 -AA. Prior to GC-MS analysis d 8 -AA and d 0 -AA were converted to their pentafluorobenzyl (PFB) esters by means of PFB-Br. GC-MS analysis is performed in the electron-capture negative-ion chemical ionization mode by selected-ion monitoring the ions [M-PFB] - , i.e., m/z 311 for d 8 -AA and m/z 303 for d 0 -AA. The GC-MS and LC-MS/MS assays were cross-validated. Linear regression analysis between the concentration (range, 0-1μM) of d 8 -AA measured by LC-MS/MS (y) and that by GC-MS (x) revealed a straight line (r 2 =0.9848) with the regression equation y=0.003+0.898x, indicating a good agreement. In dog liver, we detected MAGL activity that was inhibitable by the MAGL inhibitor JZL-184. Exogenous eicosatetraynoic acid is suitable as internal standard for the quantitative determination

  10. Composite systems of dilute and dense couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J R; Saad, D

    2008-01-01

    Composite systems, where couplings are of two types, a combination of strong dilute and weak dense couplings of Ising spins, are examined through the replica method. The dilute and dense parts are considered to have independent canonical disordered or uniform bond distributions; mixing the models by variation of a parameter γ alongside inverse temperature β we analyse the respective thermodynamic solutions. We describe the variation in high temperature transitions as mixing occurs; in the vicinity of these transitions we exactly analyse the competing effects of the dense and sparse models. By using the replica symmetric ansatz and population dynamics we described the low temperature behaviour of mixed systems

  11. Computer automation of a dilution cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, C.

    1992-09-01

    This study has been realized in the framework of studies on developing new technic for low temperature detectors for neutrinos and dark matter. The principles of low temperature physics and helium 4 and dilution cryostats, are first reviewed. The cryogenic system used and the technic for low temperature thermometry and regulation systems are then described. The computer automation of the dilution cryogenic system involves: numerical measurement of the parameter set (pressure, temperature, flow rate); computer assisted operating of the cryostat and the pump bench; numerical regulation of pressure and temperature; operation sequence full automation allowing the system to evolve from a state to another (temperature descent for example)

  12. Dilution refrigeration with multiple mixing chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    A dilution refrigerator is an instrument to reach temperatures in the mK region in a continuous way. The temperature range can be extended and the cooling power can be enlarged by adding an extra mixing chamber. In this way we obtain a double mixing chamber system. In this thesis the theory of the multiple mixing chamber is presented and tested on its validity by comparison with the measurements. Measurements on a dilution refrigerator with a circulation rate up to 2.5 mmol/s are also reported. (Auth.)

  13. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  14. Effect of hydrofluoric acid concentration on the evolution of photoluminescence characteristics in porous silicon nanowires prepared by Ag-assisted electroless etching method

    KAUST Repository

    Najar, Adel; Anjum, Dalaver H.; Hedhili, Mohamed N.; Ng, Tien Khee; Ooi, Boon S.; Ben Slimane, Ahmed; Sougrat, Rachid

    2012-01-01

    We report on the structural and optical properties of porous silicon nanowires (PSiNWs) fabricated using silver (Ag) ions assisted electroless etching method. Silicon nanocrystallites with sizes <5 nm embedded in amorphous silica have been

  15. Passivation of the surfaces of single crystal gadolinium molybdate (Gd2(MoO4)3) against attack by hydrofluoric acid by inert ion beam irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhalla, A.; Cross, L.E.; Tongson, L.

    1978-01-01

    The passivation effect from inert ion beam bombardment has been studied on a ferroelectric surface. The mechanism in these materials may have some additional contributions because of the polarization charges of the domains and the dipole effect (ion beam and surface species) on the surfaces. For these studies Gd 2 (MoO 4 ) 3 (GMO) crystals were selected. Two possible mechanisms of passivation of GMO surfaces when bombarded with ion beams are discussed

  16. Selective etching of n-type silicon in pn junction structure in hydrofluoric acid and its application in silicon nanowire fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Huiquan; Jin Zhonghe; Zheng Yangming; Ma Huilian; Wang Yuelin; Li Tie

    2008-01-01

    Boron is selectively implanted on the surface of an n-type silicon wafer to form a p-type area surrounded by an n-type area. The wafer is then put into a buffered oxide etch solution. It is found that the n-type area can be selectively etched without illumination, with an etching rate lower than 1 nm min -1 , while the p-type area can be selectively etched under illumination with a much higher etching rate. The possible mechanism of the etching phenomenon is discussed. A simple fabrication process of silicon nanowires is proposed according to the above phenomenon. In this process only traditional micro-electromechanical system technology is used. Dimensions of the fabricated nanowire can be controlled well. A 50 nm wide and 50 nm thick silicon nanowire has been formed using this method

  17. Quantifying dilution caused by execution efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Renata Câmara

    Full Text Available Abstract In open pit mining, dilution is not always a factor systematically analyzed and calculated. Often it is only an adjusted number, for example, calculated or even empirically determined for a certain operational condition perpetuating along time in the form of a constant applied to calculating reserves or mine planning in attendance of audit requirements. Dilution and loss are factors that should be always considered for tonnage and grade estimates. These factors are always associated and can be determined considering several particularities of the deposit and the operation itself. In this study, a methodology was determined to identify blocks adjacent to the blocks previously planned to be mined. Thus, it is possible to estimate the dilution caused by poor operating efficiency, taking into account the inability of the equipment to perfectly remove each block, respecting its limits. Mining dilution is defined as the incorporation of waste material to ore due to the operational incapacity to efficiently separate the materials during the mining process, considering the physical processes, and the operating and geometric configurations of the mining with the equipment available.

  18. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be attributed to the reliability of the measured distances which fall off quickly with each shell. Therefore, in ... field and electrical field gradients due to impurities in vanadium [13]. The effective .... Expanding ∆φ(| Rn' |) in power series of u(R0 n), one gets ... The results of each dilute alloy system are presented separately and ...

  19. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...

  20. Liquid volumes measurements by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera M, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    By the nuclear technique, isotopic dilution industrial liquid volumes may be measured in large size recipients of irregular shapes using radiotracers. In the present work laboratory and pilot test are made with 2 radiotracers for optimizing the technique and later done on an industrial scale, obtaining a maximum deviation of +-2%, some recommendations are given to improve the performance of the technique. (author)

  1. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  2. Continuous deionization of a dilute nickel solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Koene, L.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the continuous removal of nickel ions from a dilute solution using a hybrid ion-exchange/electrodialysis process. Emphasis was placed on the ionic state of the bed during the process, and the mass balance of ions in the system. Much of this information was obtained by analysing

  3. Dilution kicker for the SPS beam dump

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    In order to reduce thermal stress on the SPS dump material, the fast-ejected beam was swept horizontally across the dump. This was done with the "dilution kicker" MKDH, still in use at the time of writing. The person on the left is Manfred Mayer. See also 7404072X.

  4. Magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de W.J.M.; Swagten, H.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A review will be given of the magnetic characteristics of diluted magnetic semiconductors and the relation with the driving exchange mechanisms. II–VI as well as IV–VI compounds will be considered. The relevance of the long-range interaction and the role of the carrier concentration will be

  5. Investigation of virgin coals and coals subjected to a mild acid treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, T.M.; Evans, B.J.; Wynter, C.; Pollak, H.; Taole, S.; Radcliffe, D. [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1998-06-01

    A quantitative determination of the relative marcasite/pyrite contents in virgin coals is possible by means of {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectroscopy. Complications arise however, when iron-containing silicates, carbonates, or other salts are present. The application of a mild chemical treatment involving hydrofluoric acid has been employed to remove these Fe-containing phases while leaving the iron-disulfide phases unaffected. Several South African coal samples with non-iron disulfide, Fe-containing phases ranging from 18 to 30 weight percent were subjected to a hydrofluoric acid leaching at room temperature. The loss of mineral matter with HF leaching correlates well with the mineral matter residue following low temperature ashing. The {sup 57}Fe Moessbauer spectra of the resulting coal samples indicate that only FeS{sub 2} phases are present and the absence of appreciable quantities of marcasite in the coals.

  6. An on-line dilution system for spectrometry using an inductively coupled plasma source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.L.; Watson, A.E.; Humphries-Cuff, P.J.

    1982-01-01

    An on-line dilution system that uses a two-channel peristaltic pump to feed a GMK Babington type of nebulizer is described. By the use of a diluent containing the appropriate concentrations of acid, sodium, and internal standard element, which was fed at a constant rate to the nebulizer, the system produced analytical results that are not significantly different (less than 3 per cent relative) from those obtained with the normal dilution technique. However, a considerable saving in time is achieved, as well as a saving in the use of expensive reagents

  7. EXAFS of dilute systems: fluorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hastings, J.B.

    1979-01-01

    Since the first observations of the variation of the absorption coefficient for x-rays above the energy thresholds in the thirties until the early seventies, measurements and analysis of these variations were merely intended for the understanding of the underlying physics. Recently, with the understanding of the information available about the local atomic structure in the neighborhood of the absorbing species and the availability of high intensity synchrotron radiation sources, EXAFS has become a powerful structural tool. In these discussions, the details of the measurements for very dilute species are presented. It is shown that for the more dilute systems the measurement of the emission rather than the direct absorption is a more favorable technique

  8. Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Ainane, A., E-mail: ainane@pks.mpg.de [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Saber, M. [Laboratoire de Physique des Matériaux et Modélisation, des Systèmes, (LP2MS), Unité Associée au CNRST-URAC 08, University of Moulay Ismail, Physics Department, Faculty of Sciences, B.P. 11201 Meknes (Morocco); Max-Planck-Institut für Physik Complexer Systeme, Nöthnitzer Str. 38 D-01187 Dresden (Germany); Ahuja, R. [Condensed Matter Theory Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala University, 75120 Uppsala (Sweden); Dujardin, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie et Physique des Milieux Complexes (LCPMC), Institut de Chimie, Physique et Matériaux (ICPM), 1 Bd. Arago, 57070 Metz (France)

    2013-06-15

    In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J{sub cs} exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given.

  9. Phase diagrams of diluted transverse Ising nanowire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouhou, S.; Essaoudi, I.; Ainane, A.; Saber, M.; Ahuja, R.; Dujardin, F.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the phase diagrams of diluted Ising nanowire consisting of core and surface shell coupling by J cs exchange interaction are studied using the effective field theory with a probability distribution technique, in the presence of transverse fields in the core and in the surface shell. We find a number of characteristic phenomena. In particular, the effect of concentration c of magnetic atoms, the exchange interaction core/shell, the exchange in surface and the transverse fields in core and in surface shell of phase diagrams are investigated. - Highlights: ► We use the EFT to investigate the phase diagrams of Ising transverse nanowire. ► Ferrimagnetic and ferromagnetic cases are investigated. ► The effects of the dilution and the transverse fields in core and shell are studied. ► Behavior of the transition temperature with the exchange interaction is given

  10. Isotope dilution analysis of environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolgyessy, J.; Lesny, J.; Korenova, Z.; Klas, J.; Klehr, E.H.

    1986-01-01

    Isotope dilution analysis has been used for the determination of several trace elements - especially metals - in a variety of environmental samples, including aerosols, water, soils, biological materials and geological materials. Variations of the basic concept include classical IDA, substoichiometric IDA, and more recently, sub-superequivalence IDA. Each variation has its advantages and limitations. A periodic chart has been used to identify those elements which have been measured in environmental samples using one or more of these methods. (author)

  11. Fractal effects on excitations in diluted ferromagnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, D.

    1981-08-01

    The low energy spin-wave like excitations in diluted ferromagnets near percolation threshold are studied. For this purpose an explicit use of the fractal model for the backbone of the infinite percolating cluster due to Kirkpatrick is made. Three physical effects are identified, which cause the softening of spin-waves as the percolation point is approached. The importance of fractal effects in the calculation of density of states and the low temperature thermodynamics is pointed out. (author)

  12. Dilution physics modeling: Dissolution/precipitation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onishi, Y.; Reid, H.C.; Trent, D.S.

    1995-09-01

    This report documents progress made to date on integrating dilution/precipitation chemistry and new physical models into the TEMPEST thermal-hydraulics computer code. Implementation of dissolution/precipitation chemistry models is necessary for predicting nonhomogeneous, time-dependent, physical/chemical behavior of tank wastes with and without a variety of possible engineered remediation and mitigation activities. Such behavior includes chemical reactions, gas retention, solids resuspension, solids dissolution and generation, solids settling/rising, and convective motion of physical and chemical species. Thus this model development is important from the standpoint of predicting the consequences of various engineered activities, such as mitigation by dilution, retrieval, or pretreatment, that can affect safe operations. The integration of a dissolution/precipitation chemistry module allows the various phase species concentrations to enter into the physical calculations that affect the TEMPEST hydrodynamic flow calculations. The yield strength model of non-Newtonian sludge correlates yield to a power function of solids concentration. Likewise, shear stress is concentration-dependent, and the dissolution/precipitation chemistry calculations develop the species concentration evolution that produces fluid flow resistance changes. Dilution of waste with pure water, molar concentrations of sodium hydroxide, and other chemical streams can be analyzed for the reactive species changes and hydrodynamic flow characteristics

  13. Molecular analysis of two mouse dilute locus deletion mutations: Spontaneous dilute lethal20J and radiation-induced dilute prenatal lethal Aa2 alleles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strobel, M.C.; Seperack, P.K.; Copeland, N.G.; Jenkins, N.A.

    1990-01-01

    The dilute (d) coat color locus of mouse chromosome 9 has been identified by more than 200 spontaneous and mutagen-induced recessive mutations. With the advent of molecular probes for this locus, the molecular lesion associated with different dilute alleles can be recognized and precisely defined. In this study, two dilute mutations, dilute-lethal20J (dl20J) and dilute prenatal lethal Aa2, have been examined. Using a dilute locus genomic probe in Southern blot analysis, we detected unique restriction fragments in dl20J and Aa2 DNA. Subsequent analysis of these fragments showed that they represented deletion breakpoint fusion fragments. DNA sequence analysis of each mutation-associated deletion breakpoint fusion fragment suggests that both genomic deletions were generated by nonhomologous recombination events. The spontaneous dl20J mutation is caused by an interstitial deletion that removes a single coding exon of the dilute gene. The correlation between this discrete deletion and the expression of all dilute-associated phenotypes in dl20J homozygotes defines the dl20J mutation as a functional null allele of the dilute gene. The radiation-induced Aa2 allele is a multilocus deletion that, by complementation analysis, affects both the dilute locus and the proximal prenatal lethal-3 (pl-3) functional unit. Molecular analysis of the Aa2 deletion breakpoint fusion fragment has provided access to a previously undefined gene proximal to d. Initial characterization of this new gene suggests that it may represent the genetically defined pl-3 functional unit

  14. Relative volatility of dilute solutions of Rb-Cs system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, P.B.; Izotov, V.P.; Nisel'son, L.A.

    1984-01-01

    Relative volatility of diluted solutions Rb-Cs in the temperature range 650-820 K and pressures 13-200 gPa has been studied. The system Rb-Cs in the range of diluted solutions obeys the Henry law. It is shown, that liquid-vapour equilibrium in diluted solutions of cesium in rubidium is characterized by negative deviation from perfection

  15. The effects of acid treatment and sample preparation on 40Ar/39Ar ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, L. E.; Davidheiser, B.; Kuiper, K.; Wijbrans, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    Practitioners of K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar geochronology regularly use dilute acids (typically 5-10% hydrofluoric acid (HF)) to clean mineral grains prior to irradiation (in the case of 40Ar/39Ar), and analysis (e.g. Evernden and Curtis, 1965; Dalrymple, 1967). This treatment has been shown to reduce contamination from atmospheric Ar, which consists largely of 40Ar and thus must be differentiated from radiogenic 40Ar* (Evernden and Curtis, 1965). Acid treatments can also remove fine grained material attached to mineral grains, such as glass shards or devitrified glass, which can affect analyses and is difficult to remove by other means (Evernden and Curtis, 1965). Such treatments were originally examined for their efficacy in reducing atmospheric argon contamination (Dalrymple, 1967) but were not assessed for the possibility of leaching Ar* or K differentially, which would affect both K-Ar and 40Ar/39Ar ages. Indeed, Evernden and Curtis (1965) state that they are simply removing the "outer portions of the crystals" and apparently do not account for the potential for leaching of 40Ar* or K from the mass of their host mineral. Moreover, the capabilities of the K-Ar system in the 1960s was limited to a precision of ca. 3-4% on samples of 1-3 Ma (Cox and Dalrymple, 1967). Effects of smaller magnitude could not have been detected at the time. As the developments of the 40Ar/39Ar system and modern mass spectrometer technology have allowed for precision to approach 0.1%, the potential effects of acid treatment during sample preparation warrant revisiting. Additionally, the use of Calgon for sample disintegration has not previously been quantitatively assessed but is used extensively in some laboratories. Here we present a series of experiments from co-irradiated Fish Canyon sanidine (FCs) and Mes-4 (Kuiper et al., 2008). FCs is used as the mineral standard following standard procedures. Mes-4 splits were treated with H2O (10 minutes, ultrasonic), Calgon (10%, overnight at 50

  16. Solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Deng

    Full Text Available Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.. The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase ( 45% water along the dilution line.

  17. Polaron in the dilute critical Bose condensate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastukhov, Volodymyr

    2018-05-01

    The properties of an impurity immersed in a dilute D-dimensional Bose gas at temperatures close to its second-order phase transition point are considered. Particularly by means of the 1/N-expansion, we calculate the leading-order polaron energy and the damping rate in the limit of vanishing boson–boson interaction. It is shown that the perturbative effective mass and the quasiparticle residue diverge logarithmically in the long-length limit, signalling the non-analytic behavior of the impurity spectrum and pole-free structure of the polaron Green’s function in the infrared region, respectively.

  18. Confluence Model or Resource Dilution Hypothesis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Mads

    have a negative effect on educational attainment most studies cannot distinguish empirically between the CM and the RDH. In this paper, I use the different theoretical predictions in the CM and the RDH on the role of cognitive ability as a partial or complete mediator of the sibship size effect......Studies on family background often explain the negative effect of sibship size on educational attainment by one of two theories: the Confluence Model (CM) or the Resource Dilution Hypothesis (RDH). However, as both theories – for substantively different reasons – predict that sibship size should...

  19. Acetic acid extraction from aqueous solutions using fatty acids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    IJmker, H.M.; Gramblicka, M.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van der Ham, Aloysius G.J.; Schuur, Boelo

    2014-01-01

    A major challenge for production of acetic acid via bio-based routes is cost-effective concentration and purification of the acetic acid from the aqueous solutions, for which liquid–liquid extraction is a possible method. A main challenge in extraction of acetic acid from dilute aqueous solutions is

  20. Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aines Roger

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO2 storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 103 to 2 × 106 t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m2/yr to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. Results For the scenarios we studied, our simulations show pH and carbonate chemistry are good indicators for leakage of stored CO2 into an overlying aquifer because elevated CO2 yields a more acid pH than the ambient groundwater. CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. pH breakthrough curves demonstrate that CO2 leaks can be easily detected for CO2 flux ≥ 104 t/yr within a 15-month time period at a monitoring well screened within a permeable layer 500 m downstream from the vertical gas trace. At lower flux rates, the CO2 dissolves in the aqueous phase

  1. Geochemical detection of carbon dioxide in dilute aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Susan; Hao, Yue; Aines, Roger

    2009-03-26

    Carbon storage in deep saline reservoirs has the potential to lower the amount of CO2 emitted to the atmosphere and to mitigate global warming. Leakage back to the atmosphere through abandoned wells and along faults would reduce the efficiency of carbon storage, possibly leading to health and ecological hazards at the ground surface, and possibly impacting water quality of near-surface dilute aquifers. We use static equilibrium and reactive transport simulations to test the hypothesis that perturbations in water chemistry associated with a CO2 gas leak into dilute groundwater are important measures for the potential release of CO2 to the atmosphere. Simulation parameters are constrained by groundwater chemistry, flow, and lithology from the High Plains aquifer. The High Plains aquifer is used to represent a typical sedimentary aquifer overlying a deep CO2 storage reservoir. Specifically, we address the relationships between CO2 flux, groundwater flow, detection time and distance. The CO2 flux ranges from 10(3) to 2 x 10(6) t/yr (0.63 to 1250 t/m2/yr) to assess chemical perturbations resulting from relatively small leaks that may compromise long-term storage, water quality, and surface ecology, and larger leaks characteristic of short-term well failure. For the scenarios we studied, our simulations show pH and carbonate chemistry are good indicators for leakage of stored CO2 into an overlying aquifer because elevated CO2 yields a more acid pH than the ambient groundwater. CO2 leakage into a dilute groundwater creates a slightly acid plume that can be detected at some distance from the leak source due to groundwater flow and CO2 buoyancy. pH breakthrough curves demonstrate that CO2 leaks can be easily detected for CO2 flux >or= 10(4) t/yr within a 15-month time period at a monitoring well screened within a permeable layer 500 m downstream from the vertical gas trace. At lower flux rates, the CO2 dissolves in the aqueous phase in the lower most permeable unit and does

  2. Neutron scattering study of dilute supercritical solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cochran, H.D.; Wignall, G.D.; Shah, V.M.; Londono, J.D.; Bienkowski, P.R.

    1994-01-01

    Dilute solutions in supercritical solvents exhibit interesting microstructures that are related to their dramatic macroscopic behavior. In typical attractive solutions, solutes are believed to be surrounded by clusters of solvent molecules, and solute molecules are believed to congregate in the vicinity of one another. Repulsive solutions, on the other hand, exhibit a local region of reduced solvent density around the solute with solute-solute congregation. Such microstructures influence solubility, partial molar volume, reaction kinetics, and many other properties. We have undertaken to observe these interesting microstructures directly by neutron scattering experiments on dilute noble gas systems including Ar. The three partial structure factors for such systems and the corresponding pair correlation functions can be determined by using the isotope substitution technique. The systems studied are uniquely suited for our objectives because of the large coherent neutron scattering length of the isotope 36 Ar and because of the accurate potential energy functions that are available for use in molecular simulations and theoretical calculations to be compared with the scattering results. We will describe our experiment, the unique apparatus we have built for it, and the neutron scattering results from our initial allocations of beam time. We will also describe planned scattering experiments to follow those with noble gases, including study of long-chain molecules in supercritical solvents. Such studies will involve hydrocarbon mixtures with and without deuteration to provide contrast

  3. The Statistical Mechanics of Dilute, Disordered Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, Roger Michael

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. A graph partitioning problem with variable inter -partition costs is studied by exploiting its mapping on to the Ashkin-Teller spin glass. The cavity method is used to derive the TAP equations and free energy for both extensively connected and dilute systems. Unlike Ising and Potts spin glasses, the self-consistent equation for the distribution of effective fields does not have a solution solely made up of delta functions. Numerical integration is used to find the stable solution, from which the ground state energy is calculated. Simulated annealing is used to test the results. The retrieving activity distribution for networks of boolean functions trained as associative memories for optimal capacity is derived. For infinite networks, outputs are shown to be frozen, in contrast to dilute asymmetric networks trained with the Hebb rule. For finite networks, a steady leaking to the non-retrieving attractor is demonstrated. Simulations of quenched networks are reported which show a departure from this picture: some configurations remain frozen for all time, while others follow cycles of small periods. An estimate of the critical capacity from the simulations is found to be in broad agreement with recent analytical results. The existing theory is extended to include noise on recall, and the behaviour is found to be robust to noise up to order 1/c^2 for networks with connectivity c.

  4. Universal water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamtseva, M.V.; Kardash, N.V.; Latynina, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the interest of environmental protection, improvement of working conditions, and reduced fire hazard in production operations, water-based protective lubricants are now available in a wide assortment, and the production volume has increased greatly. The term water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants (WDIPL) means water-soluble, water-emulsifiable, or water-dispersible products with the dual function of reducing friction and wear and protecting metal surfaces against corrosion for specified periods of time. According to the standard Unified System of Protection Against Corrosion and Aging (COST 9.103-78), WDIPLs are classed as products for the temporary corrosion protection of metals and end-items. In the general class of WDIPLs one can identify water-dilutable combination corrosion inhibitors, film-forming inhibited petroleum compositions (FIPC-d), detergent-preservative fluids, operational-preservative lubricating-cooling process compounds (ICPC), and, finally, universal multifunctional products. Combined corrosion inhibitors may consist of water-soluble organic and inorganic compounds; water/oil and oil-soluble surfactants - corrosion inhibitors of the chemisorption type or donor and/or acceptor types; shielding inhibitors of the adsorption type; and fast-acting water-displacing components. 23 refs

  5. Capsize of polarization in dilute photonic crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gevorkian, Zhyrair; Hakhoumian, Arsen; Gasparian, Vladimir; Cuevas, Emilio

    2017-11-29

    We investigate, experimentally and theoretically, polarization rotation effects in dilute photonic crystals with transverse permittivity inhomogeneity perpendicular to the traveling direction of waves. A capsize, namely a drastic change of polarization to the perpendicular direction is observed in a one-dimensional photonic crystal in the frequency range 10 ÷ 140 GHz. To gain more insights into the rotational mechanism, we have developed a theoretical model of dilute photonic crystal, based on Maxwell's equations with a spatially dependent two dimensional inhomogeneous dielectric permittivity. We show that the polarization's rotation can be explained by an optical splitting parameter appearing naturally in Maxwell's equations for magnetic or electric fields components. This parameter is an optical analogous of Rashba like spin-orbit interaction parameter present in quantum waves, introduces a correction to the band structure of the two-dimensional Bloch states, creates the dynamical phase shift between the waves propagating in the orthogonal directions and finally leads to capsizing of the initial polarization. Excellent agreement between theory and experiment is found.

  6. Optical measurement for the concentrations of the pickling acid with near infrared spectroscopy in steel making industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gumin; Lee, Kwangchil; Park, Haesung; Lee, Jinho; Jung, Youngjean; Kim, Kyoungsik

    2010-08-01

    In the manufacturing process of stainless steel, it is essential to pickle the oxide layer of steel surface for high corrosion resistance and fine surface quality. Pickling liquor of stainless steel is commonly composed of mixed hydrofluoric and nitric acid. Real time monitoring of concentrations of each acid is crucial to optimize pickling process. It also reduces cost of production and decreases the generation of waste acid. We used non-contact near infrared spectroscopy technique and rapid analysis method, for the quantification of each acid in an on-line manner. Multivariate calibration such as partial least square regression method is employed for the better prediction results.

  7. Soil microbial community responses to acid exposure and neutralization treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Doyun; Lee, Yunho; Park, Jeonghyun; Moon, Hee Sun; Hyun, Sung Pil

    2017-12-15

    Changes in microbial community induced by acid shock were studied in the context of potential release of acids to the environment due to chemical accidents. The responses of microbial communities in three different soils to the exposure to sulfuric or hydrofluoric acid and to the subsequent neutralization treatment were investigated as functions of acid concentration and exposure time by using 16S-rRNA gene based pyrosequencing and DGGE (Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis). Measurements of soil pH and dissolved ion concentrations revealed that the added acids were neutralized to different degrees, depending on the mineral composition and soil texture. Hydrofluoric acid was more effectively neutralized by the soils, compared with sulfuric acid at the same normality. Gram-negative ß-Proteobacteria were shown to be the most acid-sensitive bacterial strains, while spore-forming Gram-positive Bacilli were the most acid-tolerant. The results of this study suggest that the Gram-positive to Gram-negative bacterial ratio may serve as an effective bio-indicator in assessing the impact of the acid shock on the microbial community. Neutralization treatments helped recover the ratio closer to their original values. The findings of this study show that microbial community changes as well as geochemical changes such as pH and dissolved ion concentrations need to be considered in estimating the impact of an acid spill, in selecting an optimal remediation strategy, and in deciding when to end remedial actions at the acid spill impacted site. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Accurate determination and certification of bromine in plastic by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohata, Masaki, E-mail: m-oohata@aist.go.jp; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-07-21

    Highlights: • Accurate analytical method of Br in plastic was studied by isotope dilution ICPMS. • A microwave acid digestion using quartz vessel was suitable for Br analysis. • Sample dilution by NH{sub 3} solution could remove memory effect for ICPMS measurement. • The analytical result of the ID-ICPMS showed consistency with that of INAA. • The ID-ICPMS developed could apply to certification of Br in candidate plastic CRM. - Abstract: The accurate analytical method of bromine (Br) in plastic was developed by an isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICPMS). The figures of merit of microwave acid digestion procedures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or quartz vessels were studied and the latter one was suitable for Br analysis since its material was free from Br contamination. The sample dilution procedures using Milli-Q water or ammonium (NH{sub 3}) solution were also studied to remove memory effect for ICPMS measurement. Although severe memory effect was observed on Milli-Q water dilution, NH{sub 3} solution could remove it successfully. The accuracy of the ID-ICPMS was validated by a certified reference material (CRM) as well as the comparison with the analytical result obtained by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as different analytical method. From these results, the ID-ICPMS developed in the present study could be evaluated as accurate analytical method of Br in plastic materials and it could apply to certification of Br in candidate plastic CRM with respect to such regulations related to RoHS (restriction of the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronics equipment) directive.

  9. Accurate determination and certification of bromine in plastic by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohata, Masaki; Miura, Tsutomu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Accurate analytical method of Br in plastic was studied by isotope dilution ICPMS. • A microwave acid digestion using quartz vessel was suitable for Br analysis. • Sample dilution by NH 3 solution could remove memory effect for ICPMS measurement. • The analytical result of the ID-ICPMS showed consistency with that of INAA. • The ID-ICPMS developed could apply to certification of Br in candidate plastic CRM. - Abstract: The accurate analytical method of bromine (Br) in plastic was developed by an isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICPMS). The figures of merit of microwave acid digestion procedures using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or quartz vessels were studied and the latter one was suitable for Br analysis since its material was free from Br contamination. The sample dilution procedures using Milli-Q water or ammonium (NH 3 ) solution were also studied to remove memory effect for ICPMS measurement. Although severe memory effect was observed on Milli-Q water dilution, NH 3 solution could remove it successfully. The accuracy of the ID-ICPMS was validated by a certified reference material (CRM) as well as the comparison with the analytical result obtained by an instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) as different analytical method. From these results, the ID-ICPMS developed in the present study could be evaluated as accurate analytical method of Br in plastic materials and it could apply to certification of Br in candidate plastic CRM with respect to such regulations related to RoHS (restriction of the use of hazardous substances in electrical and electronics equipment) directive

  10. Justification for Selecting Level A vs. Level B Personal Protective Equipment to Remediate a Room Containing Concentrated Acids, Bases and Radiological Constituents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylko, J. M.; Thompson, A. L.; Walter, J. F.; Deecke, T. A.

    2002-01-01

    Selecting the appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) is based on providing an adequate level of employee protection relative to the task-specific conditions and hazards. PPE is categorized into four ensembles, based on the degree of protection afforded; e.g., Levels A (most restrictive), B, C, and D (least restrictive). What is often overlooked in preparing an ensemble is that the PPE itself can create significant worker hazards; i.e., the greater the level of PPE, the greater the associated risks. Furthermore, there is confusion as to whether a more ''conservative approach'' should always be taken since Level B provides the same level of respiratory protection as Level A but less skin protection. This paper summarizes the Occupational Safety and Health Administration regulations addressing Level A versus Level B, and provides justification for selecting Level B over Level A without under-protecting the employee during a particular remediation scenario. The scenario consisted of an entry team performing (1) an initial entry into a room containing concentrated acids (e.g., hydrofluoric acid), bases, and radiological constituents; (2) sampling and characterizing container contents; and (3) retrieving characterized containers. The invasive nature of the hydrofluoric acid sampling and characterization scenario created a high potential for splash, immersion, and exposure to hazardous vapors, requiring additional skin protection. The hazards associated with this scenario and the chemical nature of hydrofluoric acid provided qualitative evidence to justify Level A. Once the hydrofluoric acid was removed from the room, PPE performance was evaluated against the remaining chemical inventory. If chemical breakthrough from direct contact was not expected to occur and instrument readings confirmed the absence of any hazardous vapors, additional skin protection afforded by wearing a vapor-tight, totally-encapsulated suit was not required. Therefore, PPE performance and

  11. Alpha-clustering in dilute nucleonic sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tohsaki, Akihiro

    1999-01-01

    α-clusters are expected to come out here and there in nucleonic sea owing to energetic benefit as its density is diluted. We propose a precise treatment to elucidate α-clusterized process in nucleonic sea after the breakdown of the uniformness. In order to do this, an infinite number of nucleons are considered by taking account of both the Pauli exclusion principle and effective internucleon forces. This method is called a microscopic approach, which has been successful in an α-cluster structure in light nuclei. In particular, we shed light on overcoming difficulties in a static model within the microscopic framework. This improvement is verified by using the empirical value in Weizaecker's mass formula. (author)

  12. Water Metabolism of Walruses by Isotope Dilution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Acquarone, M.; Born, E. W.; Chwalibog, A.

    was sampled via an epidural catheter, at regular intervals, for up to seven hours after the initial enrichment to assess isotope equilibration in the body water pools. Five individuals returned to the haul-out after feeding trips of varying duration (158±86 hr, 44-287 hr) where they were immobilized again......In August 2000, the hydrogen isotope dilution method was used on 7 adult male Atlantic walruses (Odobenus rosmarus rosmarus) (weight: 1197±148 kg, mean±SD, range 1013-1508 kg) at a terrestrial haul-out in Northeastern Greenland to determine their body water pool sizes and body water turnover rates....... During immobilization by use of etorphine HCl (reversed with diprenorphine HCl), a first blood sample was taken to measure background isotope levels. The animals were then enriched with deuterium oxide by infusion into the epidural vein. During recovery, while the animals were still on the beach, blood...

  13. Tunnel backfill erosion by dilute water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olin, M. [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo (Finland)

    2014-03-15

    The goal was to estimate smectite release from tunnel backfill due to dilute groundwater pulse during post glacial conditions. The plan was to apply VTT's two different implementations (BESW{sub D} and BESW{sub S}) of well-known model of Neretnieks et al. (2009). It appeared difficult to produce repeatable results using this model in COMSOL 4.2 environment, therefore a semi-analytical approximate approach was applied, which enabled to take into account both different geometry and smectite content in tunnel backfill as compared to buffer case. The results are quite similar to buffer results due to the decreasing effect of smaller smectite content and the increasing effect of larger radius. (orig.)

  14. Ultrafast magnetization dynamics in diluted magnetic semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morandi, O [INRIA Nancy Grand-Est and Institut de Recherche en Mathematiques Avancees, 7 rue Rene Descartes, F-67084 Strasbourg (France); Hervieux, P-A; Manfredi, G [Institut de Physique et Chimie des Materiaux de Strasbourg, 23 rue du Loess, F-67037 Strasbourg (France)], E-mail: morandi@dipmat.univpm.it

    2009-07-15

    We present a dynamical model that successfully explains the observed time evolution of the magnetization in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum wells after weak laser excitation. Based on the pseudo-fermion formalism and a second-order many-particle expansion of the exact p-d exchange interaction, our approach goes beyond the usual mean-field approximation. It includes both the sub-picosecond demagnetization dynamics and the slower relaxation processes that restore the initial ferromagnetic order in a nanosecond timescale. In agreement with experimental results, our numerical simulations show that, depending on the value of the initial lattice temperature, a subsequent enhancement of the total magnetization may be observed within the timescale of a few hundred picoseconds.

  15. Mechanisms of urine concentration and dilution (1961)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, F.; Guinnebault, M.

    1961-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the analysis of a problem in the field of renal physiology which has shown many new developments during the course of the last few years. The following are treated successively: a) the data obtained from measurements of free water clearance and their interpretation; b) the data provided by nephron morphology and the comparative anatomy of the kidney ; c) the data relative to the existence of an intrarenal osmotic gradient; d) the principle of concentration multiplication by a counter current technique; e) the present day theory of counter current concentration of urine, and f) the physiological check on dilution and concentration mechanisms in urine. Lastly, the advantages of the modern theory and the unknown factors which remain are discussed. (authors) [fr

  16. Tunnel backfill erosion by dilute water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, M.

    2014-03-01

    The goal was to estimate smectite release from tunnel backfill due to dilute groundwater pulse during post glacial conditions. The plan was to apply VTT's two different implementations (BESW D and BESW S ) of well-known model of Neretnieks et al. (2009). It appeared difficult to produce repeatable results using this model in COMSOL 4.2 environment, therefore a semi-analytical approximate approach was applied, which enabled to take into account both different geometry and smectite content in tunnel backfill as compared to buffer case. The results are quite similar to buffer results due to the decreasing effect of smaller smectite content and the increasing effect of larger radius. (orig.)

  17. Critical exponents for diluted resistor networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenull, O; Janssen, H K; Oerding, K

    1999-05-01

    An approach by Stephen [Phys. Rev. B 17, 4444 (1978)] is used to investigate the critical properties of randomly diluted resistor networks near the percolation threshold by means of renormalized field theory. We reformulate an existing field theory by Harris and Lubensky [Phys. Rev. B 35, 6964 (1987)]. By a decomposition of the principal Feynman diagrams, we obtain diagrams which again can be interpreted as resistor networks. This interpretation provides for an alternative way of evaluating the Feynman diagrams for random resistor networks. We calculate the resistance crossover exponent phi up to second order in epsilon=6-d, where d is the spatial dimension. Our result phi=1+epsilon/42+4epsilon(2)/3087 verifies a previous calculation by Lubensky and Wang, which itself was based on the Potts-model formulation of the random resistor network.

  18. A horizontal dilution refrigerator for polarized target

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isagawa, S.; Ishimoto, S.; Masaike, A.; Morimoto, K.

    1978-01-01

    A horizontal dilution refrigerator was constructed with a view to the spin frozen target and the deuteron polarized target. High cooling power at high temperature such as 3.7 mW at 400 mK serves for overcoming a heat load of microwave to polarize the nuclear spins in the target material. The cooling power at 50 mK was 50 μW, which is sufficient to hold the high nuclear polarization for long time. The lowest temperature reached was 26 mK. The refrigerator has rather simple heat exchangers, a long stainless steel double tube heat exchanger and two coaxial type heat exchangers with sintered copper. The mixing chamber is made of polytetrafluoroethylene (TFE) and demountable so that the target material can be easily put into it. (Auth.)

  19. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Surf, J.E.; Weyman, G.D.

    1983-01-01

    The origin and basic principles of the dilute chemical decontamination (DCD) concept are described and illustrated by reference to the CAN-DECON process. The estimated dose savings from the actual application of the process at several reactors are presented and discussed. Two methods of performing a cost/benefit appraisal are described and discussed. This methodology requires more study by the nuclear industry, including collection by station staff of relevant data on which future cost/benefit appraisals may be based. Finally, three illustrative cases are examinated to show the breakeven point and potential savings achievable by DCD with different initial radiation fields and different amounts of work to be done. The overall conclusion is that there are many situations in which DCD is desirable to reduce radiation exposure of workers, to save costs to the station, and to ease the performance of maintenance and repair work on reactor systems

  20. Guideline on Isotope Dilution Mass Spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaffney, Amy [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-05-19

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry is used to determine the concentration of an element of interest in a bulk sample. It is a destructive analysis technique that is applicable to a wide range of analytes and bulk sample types. With this method, a known amount of a rare isotope, or ‘spike’, of the element of interest is added to a known amount of sample. The element of interest is chemically purified from the bulk sample, the isotope ratio of the spiked sample is measured by mass spectrometry, and the concentration of the element of interest is calculated from this result. This method is widely used, although a mass spectrometer required for this analysis may be fairly expensive.

  1. Brewing Bokashi: Strengthening Student Skills in Dilution Theory through Fermentation Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert E. Zdor

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the basic microbiological techniques that students should master is that of using dilution theory to calculate the levels of bacteria in a fluid. This tip reports on using a rice water-milk fermentation mixture termed Bokashi as an easily implemented exercise in the basic microbiological lab to give students multiple opportunities to use dilution theory. Due to the shifts in bacterial community composition over time, a variety of microbes can be cultured using selective and nonselective media. Microscopic observation and the use of GEN III microplates to determine the collective phenotypic pattern of the mixture both give additional opportunities for students to hone their skills in bacterial analysis. Due to the decrease in the pH of the mixture over time, the notion of acid tolerance in bacteria can be explored and assessed using the microplate. By performing multiple rounds of serial dilutions and spread plating, students can practice their skill at using dilution theory several times over the course of the exercise.

  2. Asymptotic Distribution of Eigenvalues of Weakly Dilute Wishart Matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khorunzhy, A. [Institute for Low Temperature Physics (Ukraine)], E-mail: khorunjy@ilt.kharkov.ua; Rodgers, G. J. [Brunel University, Uxbridge, Department of Mathematics and Statistics (United Kingdom)], E-mail: g.j.rodgers@brunel.ac.uk

    2000-03-15

    We study the eigenvalue distribution of large random matrices that are randomly diluted. We consider two random matrix ensembles that in the pure (nondilute) case have a limiting eigenvalue distribution with a singular component at the origin. These include the Wishart random matrix ensemble and Gaussian random matrices with correlated entries. Our results show that the singularity in the eigenvalue distribution is rather unstable under dilution and that even weak dilution destroys it.

  3. 21 CFR 866.2500 - Microtiter diluting and dispensing device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Microbiology Devices § 866.2500... a mechanical device intended for medical purposes to dispense or serially dilute very small...

  4. Dilute H2SO4-catalyzed hydrothermal pretreatment to enhance enzymatic digestibility of Jatropha curcas fruit hull for ethanol fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marasabessy, Ahmad; Kootstra, Maarten; Sanders, Johan P.M.; Weusthuis, Ruud A.

    2012-01-01

    Dilute sulfuric acid pretreatment of the Jatropha curcas fruit hull at high temperatures (140°C to 180°C) performed in a 110-mL stainless steel reactor was investigated to enhance the enzymatic digestibility of its lignocellulosic components. Carbohydrates accounted for 43% of the dry matter of

  5. Visualization of Buffer Capacity with 3-D "Topo" Surfaces: Buffer Ridges, Equivalence Point Canyons and Dilution Ramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Garon C.; Hossain, Md Mainul

    2016-01-01

    BufCap TOPOS is free software that generates 3-D topographical surfaces ("topos") for acid-base equilibrium studies. It portrays pH and buffer capacity behavior during titration and dilution procedures. Topo surfaces are created by plotting computed pH and buffer capacity values above a composition grid with volume of NaOH as the x axis…

  6. Missense mutation in exon 2 of SLC36A1 responsible for champagne dilution in horses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Cook

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Champagne coat color in horses is controlled by a single, autosomal-dominant gene (CH. The phenotype produced by this gene is valued by many horse breeders, but can be difficult to distinguish from the effect produced by the Cream coat color dilution gene (CR. Three sires and their families segregating for CH were tested by genome scanning with microsatellite markers. The CH gene was mapped within a 6 cM region on horse chromosome 14 (LOD = 11.74 for theta = 0.00. Four candidate genes were identified within the region, namely SPARC [Secreted protein, acidic, cysteine-rich (osteonectin], SLC36A1 (Solute Carrier 36 family A1, SLC36A2 (Solute Carrier 36 family A2, and SLC36A3 (Solute Carrier 36 family A3. SLC36A3 was not expressed in skin tissue and therefore not considered further. The other three genes were sequenced in homozygotes for CH and homozygotes for the absence of the dilution allele (ch. SLC36A1 had a nucleotide substitution in exon 2 for horses with the champagne phenotype, which resulted in a transition from a threonine amino acid to an arginine amino acid (T63R. The association of the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP with the champagne dilution phenotype was complete, as determined by the presence of the nucleotide variant among all 85 horses with the champagne dilution phenotype and its absence among all 97 horses without the champagne phenotype. This is the first description of a phenotype associated with the SLC36A1 gene.

  7. Dilute Surfactant Methods for Carbonate Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishore K. Mohanty

    2006-02-01

    There are many fractured carbonate reservoirs in US (and the world) with light oil. Waterflooding is effective in fractured reservoirs, if the formation is water-wet. Many fractured carbonate reservoirs, however, are mixed-wet and recoveries with conventional methods are low (less than 10%). The process of using dilute anionic surfactants in alkaline solutions has been investigated in this work for oil recovery from fractured oil-wet carbonate reservoirs both experimentally and numerically. This process is a surfactant-aided gravity drainage where surfactant diffuses into the matrix, lowers IFT and contact angle, which decrease capillary pressure and increase oil relative permeability enabling gravity to drain the oil up. Anionic surfactants have been identified which at dilute concentration of 0.05 wt% and optimal salinity can lower the interfacial tension and change the wettability of the calcite surface to intermediate/water-wet condition as well or better than the cationic surfactant DTAB with a West Texas crude oil. The force of adhesion in AFM of oil-wet regions changes after anionic surfactant treatment to values similar to those of water-wet regions. The AFM topography images showed that the oil-wetting material was removed from the surface by the anionic surfactant treatment. Adsorption studies indicate that the extent of adsorption for anionic surfactants on calcite minerals decreases with increase in pH and with decrease in salinity. Surfactant adsorption can be minimized in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. Laboratory-scale surfactant brine imbibition experiments give high oil recovery (20-42% OOIP in 50 days; up to 60% in 200 days) for initially oil-wet cores through wettability alteration and IFT reduction. Small (<10%) initial gas saturation does not affect significantly the rate of oil recovery in the imbibition process, but larger gas saturation decreases the oil recovery rate. As the core permeability decreases, the rate of oil recovery reduces

  8. Removal of actinides from dilute waste waters using polymer filtration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, B.F.; Robison, T.W.; Gibson, R.R.

    1995-01-01

    More stringent US Department of Energy discharge regulations for waste waters containing radionuclides (30 pCi/L total alpha) require the development of new processes to meet the new discharge limits for actinide metal ions, particularly americium and plutonium, while minimizing waste. We have been investigating a new technology, polymer filtration, that has the potential for effectively meeting these new limits. Traditional technology uses basic iron precipitation which produces large amounts of waste sludge. The new technology is based on using water-soluble chelating polymers with ultrafiltration for physical separation. The actinide metal ions are selectively bound to the polymer and can not pass through the membrane. Small molecules and nonbinding metals pass through the membrane. Advantages of polymer filtration technology compared to ion, exchange include rapid kinetics because the binding is occurring in a homogenous solution and no mechanical strength requirement on the polymer. We will present our results on the systematic development of a new class of water-soluble chelating polymers and their binding ability from dilute acid to near neutral waters

  9. Gamma-radiolysis of some glycoproteins in dilute aqueous solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagrani, S

    1981-01-01

    A study has been made of the radiation-induced damage of some glycoproteins in dilute aqueous solutions. By use of specific radical scavengers, the roles of the individual free radicals, formed by ..gamma..-radiolysis, in causing damage has been assessed. The most effective radical in causing damage to human and porcine glycopolypeptide is the OH radical. The structure of the different blood group glycopolypeptides determines the sensitivity towards the free radical attack. The glycopolypeptide shows depolymerization and a characteristic absorption at approximately 270 nm due to the formation of additional products on irradiation. Chemical changes of the irradiated glycopolypeptide solutions revealed significant damage to the oligosaccharide chain and the polypeptide core of the glycopolypeptide. The radiation-induced inactivation of another glycoprotein, external yeast invertase, due to different radical species at pH 7.0 decreases in the following order: ea-barq > OH radical > (SCN) radical/sub 2//sup -/ > Br radical/sub 2//sup -/. The structure of this enzyme, accounts for the mechanism of enzyme inactivation and the relative damage of carbohydrate and amino acid residues. The irradiated enzyme solutions show significant changes in their electrophoretic behaviour on cellogel electrophoresis due to the formation of radiolysis products, which also show characteristic absorption maxima at approximately 275 nm. (author).

  10. Process for recovery and purification of lithium from dilute sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunugita, Eiichi; Kim, Jong-Hwa; Komasawa, Isao

    1990-01-01

    A process was studied for recovery and purification of lithium from hot spring water and leachate of coal fly ash in which lithium is present at very low concentration in a mixture of high concentration of less desirable species such as alkali metals, alkaline earth metals and others. Lithium is, as a first step, adsorbed selectively by an ion-sieve type adsorbent, λ-MnO 2 , which can effect separation by adsorbing lithium alone in its intraparticle spaces while adsorbing most metals on its surface. Stagewise elutions are performed, employing two elutrients: NH 4 NO 3 and then HNO 3 solution. The concentration ratio of lithium and sodium is 1/70∼1/120 in the original feed stream, and this is upgraded to 300/1 in the pregnant elutrient. Some impurities in the pregnant elutrient is removed by a solvent extraction technique, employing a mixed extractant of a β-diketone (LIX51) and tri-n-octyl-phosphine oxide in kerosene. A lithium solution with an undetectable amount of impurities is obtained by single extraction followed by single scrubbing with dilute hydrochloric acid of carefully controlled concentration. (author)

  11. Dilute antiferromagnetism in magnetically doped phosphorene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Allerdt

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We study the competition between Kondo physics and indirect exchange on monolayer black phos-phorous using a realistic description of the band structure in combination with the density matrixrenormalization group (DMRG method. The Hamiltonian is reduced to a one-dimensional problemvia an exact canonical transformation that makes it amenable to DMRG calculations, yielding exactresults that fully incorporate the many-body physics. We find that a perturbative description of theproblem is not appropriate and cannot account for the slow decay of the correlations and the completelack of ferromagnetism. In addition, at some particular distances, the impurities decouple formingtheir own independent Kondo states. This can be predicted from the nodes of the Lindhard function.Our results indicate a possible route toward realizing dilute anti-ferromagnetism in phosphorene. Received: 19 September 2017, Accepted: 12 October 2017; Edited by: K. Hallberg; DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4279/PIP.090008 Cite as: A Allerdt, A E Feiguin, Papers in Physics 9, 090008 (2017

  12. Behaviour of humic-bentonite aggregates in diluted suspensions ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Formation and disaggregation of micron-size aggregates in a diluted suspension made up of HSs and bentonite (B) were studied by tracing distribution of aggregate sizes and their counts in freshly prepared and aged suspensions, and at high (10 000) and low (1.0) [HS]/[B] ratios. Diluted HSB suspensions are unstable ...

  13. Dilution in Transition Zone between Rising Plumes and Surface Plumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben

    2004-01-01

    The papers presents some physical experiments with the dilution of sea outfall plumes with emphasize on the transition zone where the relative fast flowing vertical plume turns to a horizontal surface plume following the slow sea surface currents. The experiments show that a considerable dilution...

  14. Magnetic ordering in dilute YTb and YEr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rainford, B.D.; Kilcoyne, S.H.; Mohammed, K.A.; Lanchester, P.C.; Stanley, H.B.; Caudron, R.

    1988-01-01

    Dilute YEr alloys (Er concentration between 3% and 10%) show the existence of sinusoidally modulated antiferromagnetism down to the lowest impurity concentrations studied. Extrapolation of the Neel temperatures for both YEr and YTb suggests a critical concentration is ≅ 0.8% Tb, Er. Ordering in such dilute alloys may result from exchange enhancement in the yttrium host

  15. Magnetic ordering in dilute YTb and YEr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rainford, B.D.; Kilcoyne, S.H.; Mohammed, K.A.; Lanchester, P.C.; Stanley, H.B.; Caudron, R.

    1988-12-01

    Dilute YEr alloys (Er concentration between 3% and 10%) show the existence of sinusoidally modulated antiferromagnetism down to the lowest impurity concentrations studied. Extrapolation of the Neel temperatures for both YEr and YTb suggests a critical concentration is /approx equal/ 0.8% Tb, Er. Ordering in such dilute alloys may result from exchange enhancement in the yttrium host.

  16. The Melt-Dilute Treatment Technology Offgas Development Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, T. M.

    1999-01-01

    The melt-dilute treatment technology is being developed to facilitate the ultimate disposition of highly enriched Al-Base DOE spent nuclear fuels in a geologic repository such as that proposed for Yucca Mountain. The melt-dilute process is a method of preparing DOE spent nuclear fuel for long term storage

  17. Near-wall molecular ordering of dilute ionic liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jitvisate, Monchai; Seddon, James Richard Thorley

    2017-01-01

    The interfacial behavior of ionic liquids promises tunable lubrication as well as playing an integral role in ion diffusion for electron transfer. Diluting the ionic liquids optimizes bulk parameters, such as electric conductivity, and one would expect dilution to disrupt the near-wall molecular

  18. Effect of dietary dilution of energy and nutrients during different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A completely randomized design was conducted to evaluate the effect of dietary dilution of energy and nutrients during different growing periods on compensatory growth of Ross broilers. Four replicant pens were assigned per seven treatments. Chicks in each treatment received concentrated and diluted diets in different ...

  19. The dilute random field Ising model by finite cluster approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benyoussef, A.; Saber, M.

    1987-09-01

    Using the finite cluster approximation, phase diagrams of bond and site diluted three-dimensional simple cubic Ising models with a random field have been determined. The resulting phase diagrams have the same general features for both bond and site dilution. (author). 7 refs, 4 figs

  20. Enhancement of surface magnetism due to bulk bond dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsallis, C.; Sarmento, E.F.; Albuquerque, E.L. de

    1985-01-01

    Within a renormalization group scheme, the phase diagram of a semi-infinite simple cubic Ising ferromagnet is discussed, with arbitrary surface and bulk coupling constants, and including possible dilution of the bulk bonds. It is obtained that dilution makes easier the appearance of surface magnetism in the absence of bulk magnetism. (Author) [pt

  1. Dynamic dilution exponent in monodisperse entangled polymer solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahid, T.; Huang, Qian; Oosterlinck, F.

    2017-01-01

    of concentration but also depends on the molar mass of the chains. While the proposed approach successfully explains the viscoelastic properties of a large number of semi-dilute solutions of polymers in their own oligomers, important discrepancies are found for semi-dilute entangled polymers in small-molecule......We study and model the linear viscoelastic properties of several entangled semi-dilute and concentrated solutions of linear chains of different molar masses and at different concentrations dissolved in their oligomers. We discuss the dilution effect of the oligomers on the entangled long chains....... In particular, we investigate the influence of both concentration and molar mass on the value of the effective dynamic dilution exponent determined from the level of the storage plateau at low and intermediate frequencies. We show that the experimental results can be quantitatively explained by considering...

  2. The dilution effect on the extinction of wall diffusion flame

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghiti Nadjib

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic process of the interaction between a turbulent jet diffusion methane flame and a lateral wall was experimentally studied. The evolution of the flame temperature field with the Nitrogen dilution of the methane jet flame was examined. The interaction between the diffusion flame and the lateral wall was investigated for different distance between the wall and the central axes of the jet flame. The dilution is found to play the central role in the flame extinction process. The flame response as the lateral wall approaches from infinity and the increasing of the dilution rate make the flame extinction more rapid than the flame without dilution, when the nitrogen dilution rate increase the flame temperature decrease.

  3. Choice of corrosion-resistant metal for fluotitanic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reingeverts, M.D.; Lapchenko, E.P.; Semenyuk, E.Y.

    1986-01-01

    The authors investigate the corrosion and anodic behavior of steels 12Kh18N10T, 08Kh21N6M2T, and 06KhN28MDT, nickel, and molybdenum in 10-40% naturally aerated solutions of H 2 TiF 6 at 20 and 50 degrees C. The authors found that in solutions of fluotitanic acid, as also in tetrafluoroboric and hydrofluoric acids, the most stable alloys are chromium-nickel-molybdenum alloy of type 06KhN28MDT and (for acid concentrations above 20%) copper-nickel-alloys of the monel metal type. Steels 12Kh18N10T and 08Kh21N6M2T can be used in acid concentrations of less than 10% and temperatures up to 20 degrees C with anodic protection

  4. PRODUCTION OF TRIFLUOROACETIC ACID COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haworth, W.N.; Stacey, M.

    1949-08-30

    A process is described for the preparation of trifluoroacetic acid. Acetone vapor diluted wlth nitrogen and fluorine also diluted with nltrogen are fed separately at a temperature of about 210 deg C into a reaction vessel containing a catalyst mass selected from-the group consisting of silver and gold. The temperature in the reaction vessel is maintained in the range of 200 deg to 250 deg C. The reaction product, trifluoroacetyl fluoride, is absorbed in aqueous alkali solution. Trifluoroacetic acid is recovered from the solution by acidification wlth an acid such as sulfuric followed by steam distillation.

  5. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase I Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, H.M.; Riley, M.F.; Kobayashi, H.

    1997-10-31

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NOx) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NOx through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NOx production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature (~1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O2 vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d+ scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d+ scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW (~0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric arrangement, firing rate, and fuel injection velocity. NOx emissions

  6. Dilute oxygen combustion. Phase I report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-10-01

    A novel burner, in which fuel (natural gas) and oxidant (oxygen or air) are separately injected into a furnace, shows promise for achieving very low nitrogen oxide(s) (NO{sub x}) emissions for commercial furnace applications. The dilute oxygen combustion (DOC) burner achieves very low NO{sub x} through in-furnace dilution of the oxidant stream prior to combustion, resulting in low flame temperatures, thus inhibiting thermal NO{sub x} production. The results of a fundamental and applied research effort on the development of the DOC burner are presented. In addition, the results of a market survey detailing the potential commercial impact of the DOC system are disclosed. The fundamental aspects of the burner development project involved examining the flame characteristics of a natural gas turbulent jet in a high-temperature ({approximately}1366 K) oxidant (7-27% O{sub 2} vol. wet). Specifically, the mass entrainment rate, the flame lift-off height, the velocity field and major species field of the jet were evaluated as a function of surrounding-gas temperature and composition. The measured entrainment rate of the fuel jet decreased with increasing oxygen content in the surrounding high-temperature oxidant, and was well represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation found in the literature. The measured flame lift-off height decreased with increasing oxygen content and increasing temperature of the surrounding gas. An increase in surrounding-gas oxygen content and/or temperature inhibited the velocity decay within the jet periphery as a function of axial distance as compared to isothermal turbulent jets. However, the velocity measurements were only broadly represented by the d{sup +} scaling correlation. Several DOC burner configurations were tested in a laboratory-scale furnace at a nominal firing rate of 185 kW ({approximately}0.63 MMBtu/h). The flue gas composition was recorded as a function of furnace nitrogen content, furnace temperature, burner geometric

  7. Ionic liquids behave as dilute electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbie, Matthew A.; Valtiner, Markus; Banquy, Xavier; Fox, Eric T.; Henderson, Wesley A.; Israelachvili, Jacob N.

    2013-01-01

    We combine direct surface force measurements with thermodynamic arguments to demonstrate that pure ionic liquids are expected to behave as dilute weak electrolyte solutions, with typical effective dissociated ion concentrations of less than 0.1% at room temperature. We performed equilibrium force–distance measurements across the common ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide ([C4mim][NTf2]) using a surface forces apparatus with in situ electrochemical control and quantitatively modeled these measurements using the van der Waals and electrostatic double-layer forces of the Derjaguin–Landau–Verwey–Overbeek theory with an additive repulsive steric (entropic) ion–surface binding force. Our results indicate that ionic liquids screen charged surfaces through the formation of both bound (Stern) and diffuse electric double layers, where the diffuse double layer is comprised of effectively dissociated ionic liquid ions. Additionally, we used the energetics of thermally dissociating ions in a dielectric medium to quantitatively predict the equilibrium for the effective dissociation reaction of [C4mim][NTf2] ions, in excellent agreement with the measured Debye length. Our results clearly demonstrate that, outside of the bound double layer, most of the ions in [C4mim][NTf2] are not effectively dissociated and thus do not contribute to electrostatic screening. We also provide a general, molecular-scale framework for designing ionic liquids with significantly increased dissociated charge densities via judiciously balancing ion pair interactions with bulk dielectric properties. Our results clear up several inconsistencies that have hampered scientific progress in this important area and guide the rational design of unique, high–free-ion density ionic liquids and ionic liquid blends. PMID:23716690

  8. A single point-mutation within the melanophilin gene causes the lavender plumage colour dilution phenotype in the chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tixier-Boichard Michèle

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The lavender phenotype in the chicken causes the dilution of both black (eumelanin and red/brown (phaeomelanin pigments. Defects in three genes involved in intracellular melanosomal transport, previously described in mammals, give rise to similar diluted pigmentation phenotypes as those seen in lavender chickens. Results We have used a candidate-gene approach based on an expectation of homology with mammals to isolate a gene involved in pigmentation in chicken. Comparative sequence analysis of candidate genes in the chicken identified a strong association between a mutation in the MLPH gene and the diluted pigmentation phenotype. This mutation results in the amino acid change R35W, at a site also associated with similar phenotypes in mice, humans and cats. Conclusion This is the first time that an avian species with a mutation in the MLPH gene has been reported.

  9. Use of diluted urine for cultivation of Chlorella vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaatinen, Sanna; Lakaniemi, Aino-Maija; Rintala, Jukka

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to study the biomass growth of microalga Chlorella vulgaris using diluted human urine as a sole nutrient source. Batch cultivations (21 days) were conducted in five different urine dilutions (1:25-1:300), in 1:100-diluted urine as such and with added trace elements, and as a reference, in artificial growth medium. The highest biomass density was obtained in 1:100-diluted urine with and without additional trace elements (0.73 and 0.60 g L(-1), respectively). Similar biomass growth trends and densities were obtained with 1:25- and 1:300-diluted urine (0.52 vs. 0.48 gVSS L(-1)) indicating that urine at dilution 1:25 can be used to cultivate microalgal based biomass. Interestingly, even 1:300-diluted urine contained sufficiently nutrients and trace elements to support biomass growth. Biomass production was similar despite pH-variation from < 5 to 9 in different incubations indicating robustness of the biomass growth. Ammonium formation did not inhibit overall biomass growth. At the beginning of cultivation, the majority of the biomass consisted of living algal cells, while towards the end, their share decreased and the estimated share of bacteria and cell debris increased.

  10. Influence of extragent dilution upon light rare earths separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korpusova, R.D.; Smirnova, N.N.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of diluting the extragent on separation of REE in the presence of 6 g-equiv. of LiNO 3 has been studied. For experiments use was made of TBP diluted with kerosene or butylbenzene (40,50,70 vol.%). The separation coefficients have been determined under conditions of saturation. The content of trace amounts of the components has been determined by the weight method; the content of macroimpurities - by the radiometric method. It has been established that the coefficient of Ce-La, Pr-La separation is not affected by the dilution of the extragent. The only exception is the Pr 142 -La pair; in the presence of trace amounts of better extracted element and two-fold dilution the separation coefficient increases almost by 150%. For the Pr-Ce pair the effect of dilution is better noticeable in that case when more extracted element is present in trace amounts. However, a comparison of the effect of dilution on separation coefficients of all REE pairs under study has shown that this effect is the strongest for the samarium-neodymium pair. The data obtained allow an assumption to be made that kerosene, as a diluent, affects the steric factor and coordination. Therefore, upon dilution the coefficient of the samarium-neodymium pair separation is affected most of all

  11. Dilution thermodynamics of the biologically relevant cation mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaczyński, Marek; Borowik, Tomasz; Przybyło, Magda; Langner, Marek

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Dilution energetics of Ca 2+ can be altered by the aqueous phase ionic composition. • Dissipated heat upon Ca 2+ dilution is drastically reduced in the K + presence. • Reduction of the enthalpy change upon Ca 2+ dilution is K + concentration dependent. • The cooperativity of Ca 2+ hydration might be of great biological relevance providing a thermodynamic argument for the specific ionic composition of the intracellular environment. - Abstract: The ionic composition of intracellular space is rigorously controlled by a variety of processes consuming large quantities of energy. Since the energetic efficiency is an important evolutional criterion, therefore the ion fluxes within the cell should be optimized with respect to the accompanying energy consumption. In the paper we present the experimental evidence that the dilution enthalpies of the biologically relevant ions; i.e. calcium and magnesium depend on the presence of monovalent cations; i.e. sodium and potassium. The heat flow generated during the dilution of ionic mixtures was measured with the isothermal titration calorimetry. When calcium was diluted together with potassium the dilution enthalpy was drastically reduced as the function of the potassium concentration present in the solution. No such effect was observed when the potassium ions were substituted with sodium ones. When the dilution of magnesium was investigated the dependence of the dilution enthalpy on the accompanying monovalent cation was much weaker. In order to interpret experimental evidences the ionic cluster formation is postulated. The specific organization of such cluster should depend on ions charges, sizes and organization of the hydration layers

  12. Specific heat in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babanlı, A. M.; Ibragimov, B. G.

    2017-11-01

    In the present paper, we have calculated the specific heat and magnetization of a quantum ring of a diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) material in the presence of magnetic field. We take into account the effect of Rashba spin-orbital interaction, the exchange interaction and the Zeeman term on the specific heat. We have calculated the energy spectrum of the electrons in diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring. Moreover we have calculated the specific heat dependency on the magnetic field and Mn concentration at finite temperature of a diluted magnetic semiconductor quantum ring.

  13. On the Wigner law in dilute random matrices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorunzhy, A.; Rodgers, G. J.

    1998-12-01

    We consider ensembles of N × N symmetric matrices whose entries are weakly dependent random variables. We show that random dilution can change the limiting eigenvalue distribution of such matrices. We prove that under general and natural conditions the normalised eigenvalue counting function coincides with the semicircle (Wigner) distribution in the limit N → ∞. This can be explained by the observation that dilution (or more generally, random modulation) eliminates the weak dependence (or correlations) between random matrix entries. It also supports our earlier conjecture that the Wigner distribution is stable to random dilution and modulation.

  14. Dilute Oxygen Combustion Phase IV Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, M.F.

    2003-04-30

    Novel furnace designs based on Dilute Oxygen Combustion (DOC) technology were developed under subcontract by Techint Technologies, Coraopolis, PA, to fully exploit the energy and environmental capabilities of DOC technology and to provide a competitive offering for new furnace construction opportunities. Capital cost, fuel, oxygen and utility costs, NOx emissions, oxide scaling performance, and maintenance requirements were compared for five DOC-based designs and three conventional air5-fired designs using a 10-year net present value calculation. A furnace direct completely with DOC burners offers low capital cost, low fuel rate, and minimal NOx emissions. However, these benefits do not offset the cost of oxygen and a full DOC-fired furnace is projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is roughly $6/lb NOx, compared with an estimated $3/lb. NOx for equ8pping a conventional furnace with selective catalytic reduction (SCCR) technology. A furnace fired with DOC burners in the heating zone and ambient temperature (cold) air-fired burners in the soak zone offers low capital cost with less oxygen consumption. However, the improvement in fuel rate is not as great as the full DOC-fired design, and the DOC-cold soak design is also projected to cost $1.30 per ton more to operate than a conventional air-fired furnace. The NOx improvement with the DOC-cold soak design is also not as great as the full DOC fired design, and the incremental cost of the improved NOx performance is nearly $9/lb NOx. These results indicate that a DOC-based furnace design will not be generally competitive with conventional technology for new furnace construction under current market conditions. Fuel prices of $7/MMBtu or oxygen prices of $23/ton are needed to make the DOC furnace economics favorable. Niche applications may exist, particularly where access to capital is limited or floor space limitations

  15. Corrosion in the presence of a complexing agent - application to the continuous determination of hydrofluoric acid in the atmosphere; Corrosion en presence de complexant. - Application a la determination en continu de l'acide fluorhydrique dans l'atmosphere

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapron, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92 (France)

    1966-10-01

    After a presentation of the thermodynamics and kinetics involved during corrosion in the presence of a complexing agent, the first part of this report deals with the electrochemical properties of an aluminium electrode in the presence of fluoride solutions. Various physical and chemical parameters have been studied together with their influence on the aforementioned properties. From this first part are deduced the medium and the various parameters which lead to the maximum efficiency for the detection of fluorides by amperometry. The second part is an application of the results of the above work, which has made it possible to develop a cell having an original design. Its performances are described. They show that the cell has a greater sensitivity and a shorter response time than existing equipment. (author) [French] Apres un rappel sur la thermodynamique et la cinetique de la corrosion en presence de complexant, la premiere partie du memoire est consacree a l'etude des proprietes electrochimiques de l'electrode d'aluminium, en presence de solutions de fluorure. Differents parametres physiques et chimiques ont ete etudies ainsi que leurs influences sur les dites proprietes. De cette premiere partie on en a deduit le milieu et les divers parametres a fixer de facon a obtenir un rendement optimum au vue de la detection des fluorures par amperometrie. La deuxieme partie, qui est l'application des renseignements tires du travail deja cite, a permis de mettre au point une cellule de conception nouvelle. Ses performances sont decrites. Elles indiquent une sensibilite plus grande, un temps de reponse plus court que les appareils existants. (auteur)

  16. Integrated production of cellulosic bioethanol and succinic acid from rapeseed straw after dilute-acid pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuglarz, Mariusz; Alvarado-Morales, Merlin; Dąbkowska, Katarzyna

    2018-01-01

    in high glucose yield (80%) and ethanol output (122-125 kg of EtOH/Mg of rapeseed straw). Supplementation the enzymatic process with 10% dosage of endoxylanases (Cellic® HTec2) reduced the hydrolysis time required to achieve the maximum glucan conversion by 44-46% and increased the xylose yield by 10...

  17. Evaluation of a dilute chemical decontaminant for pressurized heavy water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velmurugan, S.; Narasimhan, S.V.; Mathur, P.K.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper a dilute chemical decontamination formulation based on ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid, oxalic acid, and citric acid is evaluated for its efficacy in removing oxide layers in a pressurized heavy water reactor (PHWR). An ion exchange system that is specifically suited for fission product-dominated contamination in a PHWR is suggested for the reagent regeneration stage of the decontamination process. An attempt has been made to understand the redeposition behavior of various isotopes during the decontamination process. The polarographic method of identifying the species formed in the dissolution process is explained. Electrochemical measurements are employed to follow the course of oxide removal during the dissolution process. Scanning electron micrographs of metal coupons before and after the dissolution process exemplify the involvement of base metal in the formation of a ferrous oxalate layer. Material compatibility tests between the decontaminant and carbon steel, Monel-400, and Zircaloy-2 are reported

  18. Dilute-solution Structure of Charged Arborescent Graft Polymer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Seok; Briber, R.M.; Kee, R. Andrew; Gauthier, Mario

    2006-01-01

    The solutions of charged G1 arborescent polystyrene-graft-poly(2-vinylpyridine) copolymers in methanol-d4 and D 2 O were investigated over a dilute concentration range φ = 0.005-0.05 (φ: mass fraction) using small-angle neutron scattering (SANS). Upon addition of acid (HCl) arborescent graft polymers became charged and a peak appeared in SANS data. The interparticle distance (d exp ) calculated from a peak position corresponded to the expected value (d uni ) for a uniform particle distribution. This indicates the formation of liquid-like ordering due to long-range Coulombic repulsions. The smaller dielectric constant of methanol-d4 resulted in long-range electrostatic repulsions persisting to lower polymer concentration than in D 2 O. The slow mode scattering was observed by dynamic light scattering measurements for the same polymer solutions, indicating the presence of structural inhomogeneity in the solutions. Both the peak and slow mode disappeared by addition of NaCl or excess HCl into the solutions due to the screening of electrostatic interactions. The G1 polymer grafted with longer P2VP chains (M w ∼ 30,000 versus 5000 g mol) formed a gel on addition of HCl. This result reveals that molecular expansion is more significant for arborescent polymers with longer (M w ∼ 30,000) linear polyelectrolyte branches, resulting in gelation for φ > 0.01. Upon addition of NaCl or excess HCl a gel transformed back to a liquid resulted from the screening of electrostatic interactions.

  19. Mixotrophic growth and biochemical analysis of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Li, Xiuqing; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming; Pei, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) is a potential medium for microbial cultivation because of containing abundant organic nutrient. This paper seeks to evaluate the feasibility of growing Chlorella vulgaris with MSGW and assess the influence of MSGW concentration on the biomass productivity and biochemical compositions. The MSGW diluted in different concentrations was prepared for microalga cultivation. C. vulgaris growth was greatly promoted with MSGW compared with the inorganic BG11 medium. C. vulgaris obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.02 g/L) and biomass productivity (61.47 mg/Ld) with 100-time diluted MSGW. The harvested biomass was rich in protein (36.01-50.64%) and low in lipid (13.47-25.4%) and carbohydrate (8.94-20.1%). The protein nutritional quality and unsaturated fatty acids content of algal increased significantly with diluted MSGW. These results indicated that the MSGW is a feasible alternative for mass cultivation of C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. What infusion flow should be used for mid-dilution hemodiafiltration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maduell, Francisco; Arias, Marta; Fontseré, Néstor; Vera, Manel; Masso, Elisabeth; Garro, Julia; Barros, Xoana; Martina, Maria N; Elena, Montserrat; Bergadá, Eduardo; Cases, Aleix; Bedini, Jose Luis; Campistol, Josep M

    2010-01-01

    There is still no consensus on the optimal infusion flow (Qi) in mid-dilution hemodiafiltration. The aim of this study was to compare mid-dilution with varying Qi. Prospective study in 25 patients who underwent seven hemodialysis sessions with a Qi of 0, 50, 100, 150, 200, 250 and 300 ml/min. All sessions were well tolerated except Qi 300 ml/min. No significant differences in urea, creatinine, alpha(1)-microglobulin or alpha(1)-acid glycoprotein reduction ratios were observed. beta(2)-Microglobulin, myoglobin and prolactin reduction ratios were higher with Qi 150, 200, 250 and 300 ml/min in comparison with Qi of 0, 50 and 100 ml/min. There were no differences in the removal of small or larger molecules when Qi was 150 ml/min or higher. Optimal Qi in mid-dilution appears to be in the range of 150-250 ml/min since good clinical outcomes, similar efficiency and no technical complications up to a Qi of 250 ml/min were observed.

  1. Effect of diluting starch mixtures with bacterial amylase on the heat treatment of the grain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ustinikov, B A; Gromov, S I; Poluyanova, M T

    1971-01-01

    A higher yield of alcohol can be obtained from finely ground grain by diluting the mixtures prior to boiling down with amylolyic enzymes or acids, using thermophilic bacteria. Bacterium diastaticus can withstand temperature as high as 90 to 95/sup 0/C. Experiments are described for studying the effect of time and temperature of boiling on ground grain of different particle size, and of preliminary dilution of the mashes with bacterial amylase. The particle sizes used in the experiment were 0.7 to 1, 1.5 to 2 and 2.5 to 3 mm. The 40 g samples were diluted with 140 ml water and 2 vol % liquid bacterial diastaticus culture with an activity of 160 units/100 ml. 40 minutes on a water bath caused gelation of the starch. Following this treatment, the samples were autoclaved for 10 to 120 minutes at 133, 141, 151 and 158/sup 0/C. Results, expressed in graph form, show that addition of bacterial amylase enabled the grain mash boiling period to be shortened.

  2. A theory of stable-isotope dilution mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickup, J.F.; McPherson, C.K.

    1977-01-01

    In order to perform quantitative analysis using stable isotope dilution with mass spectrometry, an equation is derived which describes the relationship between the relative proportions of natural and labelled material and measured isotope ratios

  3. Paradigms in isotope dilution mass spectrometry for elemental speciation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meija, Juris; Mester, Zoltan

    2008-01-01

    Isotope dilution mass spectrometry currently stands out as the method providing results with unchallenged precision and accuracy in elemental speciation. However, recent history of isotope dilution mass spectrometry has shown that the extent to which this primary ratio measurement method can deliver accurate results is still subject of active research. In this review, we will summarize the fundamental prerequisites behind isotope dilution mass spectrometry and discuss their practical limits of validity and effects on the accuracy of the obtained results. This review is not to be viewed as a critique of isotope dilution; rather its purpose is to highlight the lesser studied aspects that will ensure and elevate current supremacy of the results obtained from this method

  4. A Cold Cycle Dilution Refrigerator for Space Applications, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The cold cycle dilution refrigerator is a continuous refrigerator capable of cooling to temperatures below 100 mK that makes use of a novel thermal magnetic pump....

  5. Reduction of trace quantities of chromium(VI by strong acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pezzin Sérgio H

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical behavior of Cr(VI at low concentrations (10-4 to 10-7 mol L-1 in several strong acids was studied using high specific activity 51Cr(VI as a tracer. The speciation of the products from these systems was carried out by ion exchange chromatography with stepwise elution. The results show that trace quantities of Cr(VI, monitored by means of radiochromium (51Cr, are reduced in the presence of mineral acids such as perchloric, hydrochloric, hydrofluoric, sulfuric, nitric and trifluoromethanesulfonic acids, even in the absence of conventional reducing agents, producing different measureable Cr(III species, depending on the acid anion. Detailed studies of the reduction of low concentrations of Cr(VI with nitric acid have shown that the relative rate of reduction increases as the concentration of the acid increases or as the concentration of the Cr(VI decreases.

  6. Study of oxygen diluted silane plasmas applied for the deposition of silicium oxyde

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magni, D.

    2001-09-01

    Plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition of thin films such as silicon dioxide is used in many applications such as the insulator production in semiconductor technology or anticorrosion coating in packaging industry as a substitute for aluminium which is less ecological. Oxygen diluted silane plasmas are often utilized to produce SiO 2 film, but the tendency is to work with organosilicon precursors such as HMDSO (hexamethyldisiloxane ) described as non-toxic and requiring less stringent safety and costly installation. In this study, the species in gaseous phase and the powder produced in oxygen-diluted HMDSO plasmas were experimentally characterized in a radiofrequency (RF) capacitively-coupled reactor at 13.56 MHz. Some aspects of plasma enhanced deposition of SiO 2 were studied in a RF magnetron reactor . The gaseous phase of the oxygen-diluted plasmas were studied by infrared absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry .The complementarity of these diagnostics allowed to show that the dominant species in gaseous phase come from the homogeneous reaction between oxygen and the radical CH x (with x 1,2 and 3), abundantly produced in the plasma. Two principal pathways were shown to occur. A first way leads to hydrocarbon formation such as methane (CH 4 ) and acetylene (C 2 H 2 ), whose partial pressures are close to 2 %. A second way leads to the formation of molecules from the combustion of CH x , such as formaldehyde (CH 2 O), formic acid (CH 2 O 2 ), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and water. Moreover it is shown that the CO 2 results from a heterogeneous reaction between the carbon on the surfaces and the oxygen coming from the plasma. At low dilution conditions, the partial pressures of CO and CO 2 were estimated at 25 and 10 % of the total pressure respectively. In argon or helium diluted HMDSO plasmas, methane, acetylene and hydrogen are the main stable molecules produced in the gaseous phase. Particle formation in oxygen-diluted HMDSO

  7. Influence Of Dilution Factor For Activity Measurement Of 60CO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermawan-Candra; Nazaroh; Ermi-Juita

    2003-01-01

    Influence of dilution factor for activity measurement of 60 Co has been studied. The aim of this research is to determine influence between activity measurement result of 60 Co before and after diluted. Measurement were done by using ionization chamber detectors system and gamma spectrometry system with NaI(TI) detector. Discrepancy within three ionization chambers measurements were 0.2% - 2.1% and NaI(Tl) were 3.5% - 6%. (author)

  8. Attentional sets influence perceptual load effects, but not dilution effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benoni, Hanna; Zivony, Alon; Tsal, Yehoshua

    2014-01-01

    Perceptual load theory [Lavie, N. (1995). Perceptual load as a necessary condition for selective attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 21, 451-468.; Lavie, N., & Tsal, Y. (1994) Perceptual load as a major determinant of the locus of selection in visual attention. Perception & Psychophysics, 56, 183-197.] proposes that interference from distractors can only be avoided in situations of high perceptual load. This theory has been supported by blocked design manipulations separating low load (when the target appears alone) and high load (when the target is embedded among neutral letters). Tsal and Benoni [(2010a). Diluting the burden of load: Perceptual load effects are simply dilution effects. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 36, 1645-1656.; Benoni, H., & Tsal, Y. (2010). Where have we gone wrong? Perceptual load does not affect selective attention. Vision Research, 50, 1292-1298.] have recently shown that these manipulations confound perceptual load with "dilution" (the mere presence of additional heterogeneous items in high-load situations). Theeuwes, Kramer, and Belopolsky [(2004). Attentional set interacts with perceptual load in visual search. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 11, 697-702.] independently questioned load theory by suggesting that attentional sets might also affect distractor interference. When high load and low load were intermixed, and participants could not prepare for the presentation that followed, both the low-load and high-load trials showed distractor interference. This result may also challenge the dilution account, which proposes a stimulus-driven mechanism. In the current study, we presented subjects with both fixed and mixed blocks, including a mix of dilution trials with low-load trials and with high-load trials. We thus separated the effect of dilution from load and tested the influence of attentional sets on each component. The results revealed that whereas

  9. The analysis of uranium in environmental sample by mass spectrometer combined with isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu Zhonghua; Jia Baoting; Han Jun

    2003-01-01

    Uranium in the environmental sample was analyzed by mass spectrometer combined with isotopic dilution. Before mass spectrometer analysis, samples were dissolved in a concentrated acidic solution containing HNO 3 , HF and HClO 4 and chemically processed to suit the analysis requirement. Analysis results indicated that the uranium content was 0.08 μg/g in river water, 0.1 μg/g in evergreen foliage, and 5-11 μg/g in surface soil respectively. (authors)

  10. Growing Chlorella vulgaris in Photobioreactor by Continuous Process Using Concentrated Desalination: Effect of Dilution Rate on Biochemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Paggi Matos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Desalination wastewater, which contains large amount of salt waste, might lead to severely environmental pollution. This study evaluated the effect of dilution rate (0.1≤D≤0.3 day−1 on microalgal biomass productivity, lipid content, and fatty acid profile under steady-state condition of Chlorella vulgaris supplemented with concentrated desalination. Continuous culture was conducted for 55 days. Results show that the biomass productivity (Px varied from 57 to 126 mg L−1 d−1 (dry mass when the dilution rate ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 day−1. At lowest dilution rate (D=0.1 day−1, the continuous culture regime ensured the highest values of maximum biomass concentration (Xm=570±20 mL−1 and protein content (52%. Biomass lipid content was an increasing function of D. The most abundant fatty acids were the palmitic (25.3±0.6% at D=0.1 day−1 and the gamma-linolenic acid (23.5±0.1% at D=0.3 day−1 ones. These fatty acids present 14 to 18 carbons in the carbon chain, being mainly saturated and polyunsaturated, respectively. Overall, the results show that continuous culture is a powerful tool to investigate the cell growth kinetics and physiological behaviors of the algae growing on desalination wastewater.

  11. Effects of dissolved species on radiolysis of diluted seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hata, Kuniki; Hanawa, Satoshi; Kasahara, Shigeki; Motooka, Takafumi; Tsukada, Takashi; Muroya, Yusa; Yamashita, Shinichi; Katsumura, Yosuke

    2014-01-01

    Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) experienced seawater injection into the cores and fuel pools as an emergent measure after the accident. After the accident, retained water has been continuously desalinized, and subsequently the concentration of chloride ion (Cl"-) has been kept at a lower level these days. These ions in seawater are known to affect water radiolysis, which causes the production of radiolytic products, such as hydrogen peroxide (H_2O_2), molecular hydrogen (H_2) and molecular oxygen (O_2). However, the effects of dissolved ions relating seawater on the production of the stable radiolytic products are not well understood in the diluted seawater. To understand of the production behavior in diluted seawater under radiation, radiolysis calculations were carried out. Production of H_2 is effectively suppressed by diluting by up to vol10%. The concentrations of oxidants (H_2O_2 and O_2) are also suppressed by dilution of dissolved species. The effect of oxidants on corrosion of materials is thought to be low when the seawater was diluted by less than 1 vol% by water. It is also shown that deaeration is one of the effective measure to suppress the concentrations of oxidants at a lower level for any dilution conditions. (author)

  12. Dilution Refrigeration of Multi-Ton Cold Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Wikus, P; CERN. Geneva

    2007-01-01

    Dilution refrigeration is the only means to provide continuous cooling at temperatures below 250 mK. Future experiments featuring multi-ton cold masses require a new generation of dilution refrigeration systems, capable of providing a heat sink below 10 mK at cooling powers which exceed the performance of present systems considerably. This thesis presents some advances towards dilution refrigeration of multi-ton masses in this temperature range. A new method using numerical simulation to predict the cooling power of a dilution refrigerator of a given design has been developed in the framework of this thesis project. This method does not only allow to take into account the differences between an actual and an ideal continuous heat exchanger, but also to quantify the impact of an additional heat load on an intermediate section of the dilute stream. In addition, transient behavior can be simulated. The numerical model has been experimentally verified with a dilution refrigeration system which has been designed, ...

  13. Phytanic acid alpha-oxidation: accumulation of 2-hydroxyphytanic acid and absence of 2-oxophytanic acid in plasma from patients with peroxisomal disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brink, H. J.; Schor, D. S.; Kok, R. M.; Poll-The, B. T.; Wanders, R. J.; Jakobs, C.

    1992-01-01

    A stable isotope dilution method was developed for the measurement of 2-hydroxyphytanic acid and 2-oxophytanic acid in plasma. In plasma from healthy individuals and from patients with Refsum's disease, 2-hydroxyphytanic acid was found at levels less than 0.2 mumol/l, whereas the acid accumulated in

  14. Modeling syngas-fired gas turbine engines with two dilutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawk, Mitchell E.

    2011-12-01

    Prior gas turbine engine modeling work at the University of Wyoming studied cycle performance and turbine design with air and CO2-diluted GTE cycles fired with methane and syngas fuels. Two of the cycles examined were unconventional and innovative. The work presented herein reexamines prior results and expands the modeling by including the impacts of turbine cooling and CO2 sequestration on GTE cycle performance. The simple, conventional regeneration and two alternative regeneration cycle configurations were examined. In contrast to air dilution, CO2 -diluted cycle efficiencies increased by approximately 1.0 percentage point for the three regeneration configurations examined, while the efficiency of the CO2-diluted simple cycle decreased by approximately 5.0 percentage points. For CO2-diluted cycles with a closed-exhaust recycling path, an optimum CO2-recycle pressure was determined for each configuration that was significantly lower than atmospheric pressure. Un-cooled alternative regeneration configurations with CO2 recycling achieved efficiencies near 50%, which was approximately 3.0 percentage points higher than the conventional regeneration cycle and simple cycle configurations that utilized CO2 recycling. Accounting for cooling of the first two turbine stages resulted in a 2--3 percentage point reduction in un-cooled efficiency, with air dilution corresponding to the upper extreme. Additionally, when the work required to sequester CO2 was accounted for, cooled cycle efficiency decreased by 4--6 percentage points, and was more negatively impacted when syngas fuels were used. Finally, turbine design models showed that turbine blades are shorter with CO2 dilution, resulting in fewer design restrictions.

  15. Dilution Ratios for HB Line Phase I Eductor System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steimke, J.L.

    2002-01-01

    HB Line Phase I product transfer includes an eductor which transfers liquid from Product Hold Tank (PHT) RT-33 or RT-34 to Tank 11.1. The eductor also dilutes the liquid from the PHT with eductant. Dilution must be reliably controlled because of criticality concerns with H Canyon Tanks. The eductor system, which contains a 1 inch Model 264 Schutte and Koerting eductor, was previously modeled [1] in 1998 and dilution ratios were calculated for different flow restrictors, eductant pressures and densities for the eductant and the contents of the PHT. The previous calculation was performed using spreadsheet software no longer supported at SRS. For the previous work dilution ratio was defined as the volume of eductant consumed divided by volume of PHT contents transferred. Since 1998 HB Line Engineering has changed the definition of dilution ratio to the total volume of liquid, eductant consumed plus the volume of PHT liquid transferred, divided by the volume of PHT liquid transferred. The 1998 base case calculation was for a restrictor diameter of 0.334 inches, an eductant supply pressure of 15 psig, full PHT, an eductant specific gravity of 1.385 and a PHT density of 1.015. The base case dilution ratio calculated in 1998 using the current definition was 3.52. After accounting for uncertainty the minimum dilution ratio decreased to 3.23. In 2001 HB Line Engineering requested that the calculation be repeated for a manganous nitrate solution eductant and also a process water eductant. The other conditions were the same as for the 1998 calculation. The objective of this report is to document the calculations and the results

  16. Mobile Melt-Dilute Treatment for Russian Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peacock, H.

    2002-01-01

    Treatment of spent Russian fuel using a Melt-Dilute (MD) process is proposed to consolidate fuel assemblies into a form that is proliferation resistant and provides critically safety under storage and disposal configurations. Russian fuel elements contain a variety of fuel meat and cladding materials. The Melt-Dilute treatment process was initially developed for aluminum-based fuels so additional development is needed for several cladding and fuel meat combinations in the Russian fuel inventory (e.g. zirconium-clad, uranium-zirconium alloy fuel). A Mobile Melt-Dilute facility (MMD) is being proposed for treatment of spent fuels at reactor site storage locations in Russia; thereby, avoiding the costs of building separate treatment facilities at each site and avoiding shipment of enriched fuel assemblies over the road. The MMD facility concept is based on laboratory tests conducted at the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC), and modular pilot-scale facilities constructed at the Savannah River Site for treatment of US spent fuel. SRTC laboratory tests have shown the feasibility of operating a Melt-Dilute treatment process with either a closed system or a filtered off-gas system. The proposed Mobile Melt-Dilute process is presented in this paper

  17. Quantifying the dilution effect for models in ecological epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, M G; Heesterbeek, J A P

    2018-03-01

    The dilution effect , where an increase in biodiversity results in a reduction in the prevalence of an infectious disease, has been the subject of speculation and controversy. Conversely, an amplification effect occurs when increased biodiversity is related to an increase in prevalence. We explore the conditions under which these effects arise, using multi species compartmental models that integrate ecological and epidemiological interactions. We introduce three potential metrics for quantifying dilution and amplification, one based on infection prevalence in a focal host species, one based on the size of the infected subpopulation of that species and one based on the basic reproduction number. We introduce our approach in the simplest epidemiological setting with two species, and show that the existence and strength of a dilution effect is influenced strongly by the choices made to describe the system and the metric used to gauge the effect. We show that our method can be generalized to any number of species and to more complicated ecological and epidemiological dynamics. Our method allows a rigorous analysis of ecological systems where dilution effects have been postulated, and contributes to future progress in understanding the phenomenon of dilution in the context of infectious disease dynamics and infection risk. © 2018 The Author(s).

  18. A Study on the Stability of Diluted Bee Venom Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mi-Suk Kang

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the stability of bee venom according to the keeping method and period. Method : The author observed microbial contamination of bee venom in nutrient agar, broth, YPD agar and YPD media and antibacterial activity for S. aureus, E. coli manufactured 12, 6 and 3 months ago as the two type of room temperature and 4℃ cold storage. Result : 1. 1:3,000 and 1:4,000 diluted bee venom solution did not show microbial contamination both room temperature and cold storage within twelve months. 2. There was antibacterial activity of diluted bee venom for S. aureus in cold storage within twelve months and there was no antibacterial activity of diluted bee venom for S. aureus in twelve months, room temperature storage. 3. We could not observe the zone of inhibition around paper disc of all for E.coli. in 1:3,000, 1:30,000 and 1:3,000,000 diluted bee venom solution, respectively. According to results, we expect that diluted bee venom solution is stable both cold and room temperature storage within twelve months.

  19. Initial magnetic susceptibility of the diluted magnetopolymer elastic composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borin, D.Yu.; Odenbach, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work diluted magnetopolymer elastic composites based on magnetic microparticles are experimentally studied. Considered samples have varied concentration of the magnetic powder and different structural anisotropy. Experimental data on magnetic properties are accomplished by microstructural observations performed using X-Ray tomography. Influence of the particles amount and structuring effects on the initial magnetic susceptibility of the composites as well as the applicability of the Maxwell-Garnett approximation, which is widely used in considerations of magnetopolymer elastic composites, are evaluated. It is demonstrated that the approximation works well for diluted samples containing randomly distributed magnetic particles and for the diluted samples with chain-like structures oriented perpendicular to an externally applied field, while it fails to predict the susceptibility of the samples with structures oriented parallel to the field. Moreover, it is shown, that variation of the chains morphology does not significantly change the composite initial magnetic susceptibility. - Highlights: • The Maxwell-Garnet prediction works well for the diluted isotropic composites. • The Maxwell-Garnet prediction can be used for composites with structures oriented perpendicular to an applied field. • Chains oriented parallel to an applied field significantly increase the composite initial magnetic susceptibility. • The number and thickness of chains is not of the highest importance for the diluted composites. • The crucial reason of the observed effect is expected to be the demagnetisation factor of the chains.

  20. A probabilistic analysis of rapid boron dilution scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohut, P.; Diamond, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A probabilistic and deterministic analysis of a rapid boron dilution scenario related to reactor restart was performed. The event is initiated by a loss of off-site power during the startup dilution process. The automatic restart of the charging pump in such cases may lead to the accumulation of a diluted slug of water in the lower plenum. The restart of the reactor coolant pumps may send the diluted slug through the core, adding sufficient reactivity to overcome the shutdown margin and cause a power excursion. The concern is that the power excursion is sufficient in certain circumstances to cause fuel damage. The estimated core damage frequency based on the scoping analysis is 1.0--3.0E-05/yr for the plants analyzed. These are relatively significant values when compared to desirable goals. The analysis contained assumptions related to plant specific design characteristics which may lead to non-conservative estimates. The most important conservative assumptions were that mixing of the injected diluted water is insignificant and that fuel damage occurs when the slug passes through the core

  1. Recycled concrete aggregate as road base: Leaching constituents and neutralization by soil Interactions and dilution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Nautasha; Kluge, Matt; Chadik, Paul A; Townsend, Timothy G

    2018-02-01

    Recycled Concrete Aggregate (RCA) is often used as a replacement for natural aggregate in road construction activities because of its excellent mechanical properties, and this trend should increase as more transportation departments include RCA in specifications and design manuals. Concerns raised by some engineers and contractors include impacts from leachate generated by RCA, both from transport of metals to water sources and the impact of a high pH leachate on corrosion of underlying metal drainage pipes. In this study, RCA collected from various regions of Florida exhibited pH ranging from 10.5 to 12.3. Concentrations of Al, Ba, Cr, Fe, Mo, Na, Ni, Sb, and Sr measured using batch leaching tests exceeded applicable risk-based thresholds on at least some occasions, but the concentrations measured suggest that risk to water supplies should be controlled because of dilution and attenuation. Two mechanisms of pH neutralization were evaluated. Soil acidity plays a role, but laboratory testing and chemical modeling found that at higher liquid-to-solid ratios the acidity is exhausted. If high pH leachate did reach groundwater, chemical modeling indicated that groundwater dilution and carbonation would mitigate groundwater pH effects. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental study of asymmetric boron dilution at VVER-1000 of Kudankulam NPP and its simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsyganov, Sergey V.; Kotsarev, Alexander V.; Baykov, Alexander V. [National Research Centre ' ' Kurchatov Institute' ' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-15

    The Kudankulam NPP units contain additional and unique for VVER Quick Boron Injection System (QBIS) for beyond-design-basis accident management without scram. During the physical start-up stage at hot zero power of both Kudankulam units, special tests were performed to assess the efficiency of the system. In the course of test three out of four QBIS tanks had been promptly opened and it led to the asymmetrical injection of boric acid into the core. The scenario of the tests may address to the inhomogeneous boron dilution process that is now an essential part of safety analysis of pressurised water reactors. The simulation of the process, including ex-core ion chambers readings, has been accomplished using ATHLET/BIPR-VVER code. Behaviour of some reactor parameters in the course of the test and some results of the simulation are discussing in the paper. Authors believe the process of the asymmetrical injection of boric acid may be useful for verification and validation of coupled neutronic and thermo-hydraulic codes widely used for safety analysis, including analysis of boron dilution accident.

  3. Non‐diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle

    2016-01-01

    Background The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non‐diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. Methods For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non‐diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Results Non‐diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Conclusion Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non‐diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. PMID:27101776

  4. Non-diluted seawater enhances nasal ciliary beat frequency and wound repair speed compared to diluted seawater and normal saline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnomet, Arnaud; Luczka, Emilie; Coraux, Christelle; de Gabory, Ludovic

    2016-10-01

    The regulation of mucociliary clearance is a key part of the defense mechanisms developed by the airway epithelium. If a high aggregate quality of evidence shows the clinical effectiveness of nasal irrigation, there is a lack of studies showing the intrinsic role of the different irrigation solutions allowing such results. This study investigated the impact of solutions with different pH and ionic compositions, eg, normal saline, non-diluted seawater and diluted seawater, on nasal mucosa functional parameters. For this randomized, controlled, blinded, in vitro study, we used airway epithelial cells obtained from 13 nasal polyps explants to measure ciliary beat frequency (CBF) and epithelial wound repair speed (WRS) in response to 3 isotonic nasal irrigation solutions: (1) normal saline 0.9%; (2) non-diluted seawater (Physiomer®); and (3) 30% diluted seawater (Stérimar). The results were compared to control (cell culture medium). Non-diluted seawater enhanced the CBF and the WRS when compared to diluted seawater and to normal saline. When compared to the control, it significantly enhanced CBF and slightly, though nonsignificantly, improved the WRS. Interestingly, normal saline markedly reduced the number of epithelial cells and ciliated cells when compared to the control condition. Our results suggest that the physicochemical features of the nasal wash solution is important because it determines the optimal conditions to enhance CBF and epithelial WRS thus preserving the respiratory mucosa in pathological conditions. Non-diluted seawater obtains the best results on CBF and WRS vs normal saline showing a deleterious effect on epithelial cell function. © 2016 The Authors International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology, published by ARSAAOA, LLC.

  5. Hazard Response Modeling Uncertainty (A Quantitative Method). Volume 2. Evaluation of Commonly Used Hazardous Gas Dispersion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-03-01

    the HDA . The model will 89 explicitly account for initial dilution, aerosol evaporation, and entrainment for turbulent jets, which simplifies...D.N., Yohn, J.F., Koopman R.P. and Brown T.C., "Conduct of Anhydrous Hydrofluoric Acid Spill Experiments," Proc. Int. Cqnf. On Vapor Cloud Modeling

  6. ERM booster vaccination of Rainbow trout using diluted bacterin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Jacob Günther; Henriksen, Niels H.; Buchmann, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    under laboratory conditions extend the protection period. The present field study investigated the applicability of the method under practical farming conditions (freshwater earth ponds supplied by stream water). Primary immersion vaccination of trout (3–4 g) for 30 s in Y. ruckeri bacterin (diluted 1......Enteric Red Mouth Disease ERM caused by Yersinia ruckeri infection is associated with morbidity and mortality in salmonid farming but immersion vaccination of fry may confer some protection for a number of months. Revaccination of rainbow trout, even by use of diluted ERM immersion vaccine, can......:10) in April 2015 was followed 3 months later (July 2015) by 1 h bathing of rainbow trout in bacterin (diluted 1:650 or 1:1700) in order to evaluate if this time saving vaccination methodology can improve immunity and protection. Trout were subjected in farms to natural Y. ruckeri exposure in June and July...

  7. Moderate Dilution of Copper Slag by Natural Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bao-jing; Zhang, Ting-an; Niu, Li-ping; Liu, Nan-song; Dou, Zhi-he; Li, Zhi-qiang

    2018-01-01

    To enable use of copper slag and extract the maximum value from the contained copper, an innovative method of reducing moderately diluted slag to smelt copper-containing antibacterial stainless steel is proposed. This work focused on moderate dilution of copper slag using natural gas. The thermodynamics of copper slag dilution and ternary phase diagrams of the slag system were calculated. The effects of blowing time, temperature, matte settling time, and calcium oxide addition were investigated. The optimum reaction conditions were identified to be blowing time of 20 min, reaction temperature of 1250°C, settling time of 60 min, CaO addition of 4% of mass of slag, natural gas flow rate of 80 mL/min, and outlet pressure of 0.1 MPa. Under these conditions, the Fe3O4 and copper contents of the residue were 7.36% and 0.50%, respectively.

  8. Thermal diffusion in dilute nanofluids investigated by photothermal interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, J; Nisha, M R

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a theoretical analysis of the dependence of the particle mass fraction on the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids (dilute nanofluids). The analysis takes in to account adsorption of an ordered layer of solvent molecules around the nanoparticles. It is found that thermal diffusivity decreases with mass fraction for sufficiently small particle sizes. Beyond a critical particle size thermal diffusivity begins to increase with mass fraction for the same system. The results have been verified experimentally by measuring the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of TiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. The effect is attributed to Kapitza resistance of thermal waves in the medium.

  9. Multi-element isotope dilution analyses using ICP-MS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, A.M.

    1996-01-01

    Presently, 37 elements ranging from light (Li,B) through transition metals, noble, rare earth and heavy elements, to actinides and transuranics (Pu, Am, Cm) are measured by isotope dilution at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Projects range from geological and hydrological to biological. The research goal is to measure accurately many elements present in diverse matrices at trace (ppb) levels using isotope dilution methods. Major advantages of isotope dilution methods are accuracy, elimination of ion intensity calibration, and quantitation for samples that require chemical separation. Accuracy depends on tracer isotope calibration, tracer-sample isotopic equilibration, and appropriate background, isobaric and mass bias corrections. Propagation of isotope ratio error due to improper tracer isotope addition is a major concern with multi-element analyses when abundances vary widely. 11 refs., 3 figs

  10. How Consumers’ Styles of Thinking Can Control Brand Dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monga Alokparna Basu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Understanding consumers’ ways of thinking can help identify strategies to limit brand damage and elicit more favorable reactions from disapproving consumers. Analytic thinkers’ beliefs about a brand are diluted when they see negative information; those of holistic thinkers remain unaffected. While both analytic and holistic thinkers blame the brand equally for quality and manufacturing problems, holistic thinkers are more likely to blame contextual factors outside of the brand than analytic thinkers. This ability of holistic thinkers to focus on the outside context is the reason why their brand beliefs are not diluted.

  11. Computer registration of radioactive indicator-dilution curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, A P; Perry, M A; Alexander, G M; Granger, D N; Riedel, G L; Kvietys, P R; Franke, C P

    1983-12-01

    A system is described for recording indicator-dilution curves produced by gamma radiation-emitting tracers. The system consists of a flow-through cuvette in a well counter, appropriate commercially available gamma radiation-detecting equipment, an Apple II computer, and a two-channel pulse-counting interface of our own design. With the counting interface and the software described here, an investigator can simultaneously record two indicator-dilution curves produced by gamma emitters. Instead of having to wait hours or days for results, the investigator can watch the data being recorded and display the results in graphic form almost immediately after each injection.

  12. GRAIN-BOUNDARY PRECIPITATION UNDER IRRADIATION IN DILUTE BINARY ALLOYS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.H. Song; Z.X. Yuan; J. Liu; R.G.Faulkner

    2003-01-01

    Irradiation-induced grain boundary segregation of solute atoms frequently bring about grain boundary precipitation of a second phase because of its making the solubility limit of the solute surpassed at grain boundaries. Until now the kinetic models for irradiation-induced grain boundary precipitation have been sparse. For this reason, we have theoretically treated grain boundary precipitation under irradiation in dilute binary alloys. Predictions ofγ'-Ni3Si precipitation at grain boundaries ave made for a dilute Ni-Si alloy subjected to irradiation. It is demonstrated that grain boundary silicon segregation under irradiation may lead to grain boundaryγ'-Ni3 Si precipitation over a certain temperature range.

  13. Dilution and volatilization of groundwater contaminant discharges in streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aisopou, Angeliki; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Sonne, Anne Thobo

    2015-01-01

    measurement. The solution was successfully applied to published field data obtained in a large and a small Danish stream and provided valuable information on the risk posed by the groundwater contaminant plumes. The results provided by the dilution and volatilization model are very different to those obtained......An analytical solution to describe dilution and volatilization of a continuous groundwater contaminant plume into streams is developed for risk assessment. The location of groundwater plume discharge into the stream (discharge through the side versus bottom of the stream) and different...

  14. Test plan for tank 241-AN-104 dilution studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herting, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    Tank 241-AN-104 (104-AN) has been identified as the one of the first tanks to be retrieved for low level waste pretreatment and immobilization. Retrieval of the tank waste will require dilution. Laboratory tests are needed to determine the amount and type of dilution required for safe retrieval and transfer of feed and to re-dissolve major soluble sodium salts while not precipitating out other salts. The proposed laboratory tests are described in this document. Tank 241-AN-104 is on the Hydrogen Watch List

  15. Dynamics of dilute disordered models: A solvable case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semerjian, Guilhem; Cugliandolo, Leticia F.

    2003-09-01

    We study the dynamics of a dilute spherical model with two body interactions and random exchanges. We analyze the Langevin equations and we introduce a functional variational method to study generic dilute disordered models. A crossover temperature replaces the dynamic transition of the fully-connected limit. There are two asymptotic regimes, one determined by the central band of the spectral density of the interactions and a slower one determined by localized configurations on sites with high connectivity. We confront the behavior of this model to the one of real glasses. (author)

  16. High field Moessbauer study of dilute Ir-(Fe) alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takabatake, Toshiro; Mazaki, Hiromasa; Shinjo, Teruya.

    1981-01-01

    The magnetic behavior of very dilute Fe impurities in Ir has been studied by means of Moessbauer measurement in external fields up to 80 kOe at 4.2 K. The saturation hyperfine field increases in proportion to the external field up to the maximum magnetic field available. This means that for a localized spin fluctuation system IrFe, the effective magnetic moment associated with Fe impurities is induced in proportion to the external field. No anomalous spectrum was observed with a very dilute sample (--10 ppm 57 Co), indicating that the interaction between impurities is responsible for the anomalous spectrum previously observed with a less homogeneous sample. (author)

  17. Introduction to the Physics of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Gaj, Jan A

    2010-01-01

    The book deals with diluted magnetic semiconductors, a class of materials important to the emerging field of spintronics. In these materials semiconducting properties, both transport and optical, are influenced by the presence of magnetic ions. It concentrates on basic physical mechanisms (e.g. carrier-ion and ion-ion interactions) and resulting phenomena (e.g. magnetic polaron formation and spin relaxation). Introduction to the Physics of Diluted Magnetic Semiconductors is addressed to graduate-level and doctoral students and young researchers entering the field. The authors have been actively involved in the creation of this branch of semiconductor physics.

  18. Determination of sulfur in steels by isotope dilution mass spectrometry after dissolution with sealed tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Kazuo

    1981-01-01

    The scaled tube dissolution technique was studied for the complete conversion of sulfur in steels to sulfate. Isotope dilution mass spectrometry was used for the determination of sulfur in the sulfate. Sample (0.5 g) was dissolved in nitric acid (7 ml) and hydrochloric acid (3 ml) in a scaled borosilicate glass tube on being heated above 180 0 C overnight. Nitrate ions were removed by repeated evaporation with hydrochloric acid. The residue was dissolved in hydrochloric acid. Sulfate was reduced with a mixture of hydrochloric, hydroiodic and hypophosphorous acids; hydrogen sulfide evolved was absorbed in cadmium acetate solution, then converted to silver sulfide, which was burned to sulfur dioxide in pure oxygen at low pressure, for isotopic analysis. Analytical blank in whole procedure was 0.8 μg of sulfur. This technique was applied to the determination of sulfur in NBS low alloy steels. The principal cause of low values obtained by the open beaker dissolution technique was evaporation losses of sulfur as sulfur dioxide during the dissolution. (author)

  19. Effects of organic acid and probiotic on performance and gut ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2015-12-02

    Dec 2, 2015 ... The effects of organic acid, probiotic and a combination of the two on performance and gut .... −3 dilution level. One mL of the dilution was pipetted and inoculated on .... animal by stimulating synthesis of vitamins of the B-group, improving .... Cowan and Steel's Manual for Identification of Medical Bacteria.

  20. Uniform nano-ripples on the sidewall of silicon carbide micro-hole fabricated by femtosecond laser irradiation and acid etching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khuat, Vanthanh [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China); Le Quy Don Technical University, No. 100, Hoang Quoc Viet Street, Hanoi 7EN-248 (Viet Nam); Chen, Tao; Gao, Bo; Si, Jinhai, E-mail: jinhaisi@mail.xjtu.edu.cn; Ma, Yuncan; Hou, Xun [Key Laboratory for Physical Electronics and Devices of the Ministry of Education and Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, School of Electronics and Information Engineering, Xi' an Jiaotong University, No. 28, Xianning West Road, Xi' an 710049 (China)

    2014-06-16

    Uniform nano-ripples were observed on the sidewall of micro-holes in silicon carbide fabricated by 800-nm femtosecond laser and chemical selective etching. The morphology of the ripple was analyzed using scanning electronic microscopy. The formation mechanism of the micro-holes was attributed to the chemical reaction of the laser affected zone with mixed solution of hydrofluoric acid and nitric acid. The formation of nano-ripples on the sidewall of the holes could be attributed to the standing wave generated in z direction due to the interference between the incident wave and the reflected wave.

  1. EDITORIAL: Focus on Dilute Magnetic Semiconductors FOCUS ON DILUTE MAGNETIC SEMICONDUCTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Scott A.; Gallagher, Bryan

    2008-05-01

    This focus issue of New Journal of Physics is devoted to the materials science of dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS). A DMS is traditionally defined as a diamagnetic semiconductor doped with a few to several atomic per cent of some transition metal with unpaired d electrons. Several kinds of dopant-dopant interactions can in principle couple the dopant spins leading to a ferromagnetic ground state in a dilute magnetic system. These include superexchange, which occurs principally in oxides and only between dopants with one intervening oxygen, and double exchange, in which dopants of different formal charges exchange an electron. In both of these mechanisms, the ferromagnetic alignment is not critically dependent on free carriers in the host semiconductor because exchange occurs via bonds. A third mechanism, discovered in the last few years, involves electrons associated with lattice defects that can apparently couple dopant spins. This mechanism is not well understood. Finally, the most desirable mechanism is carrier-mediated exchange interaction in which the dopant spins are coupled by itinerant electrons or holes in the host semiconductor. This mechanism introduces a fundamental link between magnetic and electrical transport properties and offers the possibility of new spintronic functionalities. In particular electrical gate control of ferromagnetism and the use of spin polarized currents to carry signals for analog and digital applications. The spin light emitting diode is a prototypical device of this kind that has been extensively used to characterize the extent of spin polarization in the active light emitting semiconductor heterostructure. The prototypical carrier mediated ferromagnetic DMS is Mn-doped GaAs. This and closely related narrow gap III-V materials have been very extensively studied. Their properties are generally quite well understood and they have led to important insights into fundamental properties of ferromagnetic systems with strong spin

  2. post-jomtien policy dilutions: infrastructural & quality norms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Operation Blackboard norms diluted – from 3 teachers-3 rooms per primary school to 2 teachers-2 rooms per primary school. Regular teacher replaced by under-qualified, untrained, under-paid Para-teachers appointed on short-term contracts. EGS – No provision for school buildings or teaching aids. Multi-grade Teaching ...

  3. Coherence and stiffness of spin waves in diluted ferromagnets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Turek, Ilja; Kudrnovský, Josef; Drchal, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 94, č. 17 (2016), č. článku 174447. ISSN 2469-9950 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA15-13436S Institutional support: RVO:68081723 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : spin wave s * diluted ferromagnets * disordered systems Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 3.836, year: 2016

  4. Procedures for accurately diluting and dispensing radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    The technique currently used by various laboratories participating in international comparisons of radioactivity measurements are surveyed and recommendations for good laboratory practice established. Thus one describes, for instance, the preparation of solutions, dilution techniques, the use of 'pycnometers', weighing procedures (including buyoancy correction), etc. It should be possible to keep random and systematic uncertainties below 0.1% of the final result

  5. A simple approximation method for dilute Ising systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saber, M.

    1996-10-01

    We describe a simple approximate method to analyze dilute Ising systems. The method takes into consideration the fluctuations of the effective field, and is based on a probability distribution of random variables which correctly accounts for all the single site kinematic relations. It is shown that the simplest approximation gives satisfactory results when compared with other methods. (author). 12 refs, 2 tabs

  6. Determination of dilution and quality control of total and anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To determine the correct dilution and Quality control commercial ELISA of total and anti-measles antibodies for HIV infected pregnant women. Design: A laboratory based study. Setting: The University of Nairobi, Department of Paediatrics laboratory. Subjects: HIV infected pregnant women enrolled and exposed to ...

  7. Quality of potential harmonics expansion method for dilute Bose ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. We present and examine an approximate but ab initio many-body approach, viz., potential harmonics expansion method (PHEM), which includes two-body correla- tions for dilute Bose–Einstein condensates. Comparing the total ground state energy for three trapped interacting bosons calculated in PHEM with the ...

  8. Kinetic-sound propagation in dilute gas mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campa, A.; Cohen, E.G.D.

    1989-01-01

    Kinetic sound is predicted in dilute disparate-mass binary gas mixtures, propagating exclusively in the light compound and much faster than ordinary sound. It should be detectable by light-scattering experiments, as an extended shoulder in the scattering cross section for large frequencies. As an example, H 2 -Ar mixtures are discussed

  9. Thermodynamics of a dilute XX chain in a field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timonin, P. N., E-mail: pntim@live.ru [Southern Federal University, Physics Research Institute (Russian Federation)

    2016-06-15

    Gapless phases in ground states of low-dimensional quantum spin systems are rather ubiquitous. Their peculiarity is a remarkable sensitivity to external perturbations due to permanent criticality of such phases manifested by a slow (power-low) decay of pair correlations and the divergence of the corresponding susceptibility. A strong influence of various defects on the properties of the system in such a phase can then be expected. Here, we consider the influence of vacancies on the thermodynamics of the simplest quantum model with a gapless phase, the isotropic spin-1/2 XX chain. The existence of the exact solution of this model gives a unique opportunity to describe in detail the dramatic effect of dilution on the gapless phase—the appearance of an infinite series of quantum phase transitions resulting from level crossing under the variation of a longitudinal magnetic field. We calculate the jumps in the field dependences of the ground-state longitudinal magnetization, susceptibility, entropy, and specific heat appearing at these transitions and show that they result in a highly nonlinear temperature dependence of these parameters at low T. Also, the effect of enhancement of the magnetization and longitudinal correlations in the dilute chain is established. The changes of the pair spin correlators under dilution are also analyzed. The universality of the mechanism of the quantum transition generation suggests that similar effects of dilution can also be expected in gapless phases of other low-dimensional quantum spin systems.

  10. 21 CFR 172.710 - Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Section 172.710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Other Specific Usage Additives § 172.710 Adjuvants for pesticide use dilutions. The...

  11. Electrochemical reduction of metal ions in dilute solution using hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Portegies Zwart, I.; Wijnbelt, E.C.W.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Reduction of metal ions in dilute solutions is of great interest for purification of waste waters and process liquids. A new electrochemical cell has been introduced. This cell - a GBC-cell - is a combination of a gasdiffusion electrode in direct contact with a packed bed of carbon particles.

  12. Electrochemical reduction of dilute chromate solutions on carbon felt electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frenzel, Ines; Frenzel, I.; Holdik, Hans; Barmashenko, Vladimir; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias

    2006-01-01

    Carbon felt is a potential material for electrochemical reduction of chromates. Very dilute solutions may be efficiently treated due to its large specific surface area and high porosity. In this work, the up-scaling of this technology is investigated using a new type of separated cell and

  13. Electrochemical reduction of nickel ions from dilute solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Njau, K.N.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    1995-01-01

    Electrochemical reduction of nickel ions in dilute solution using a divided GBC-cell is of interest for purification of waste waters. A typical solution to be treated is the effluent from steel etching processes which contain low quantities of nickel, chromate and chromium ions. Reduction of

  14. 21 CFR 864.5240 - Automated blood cell diluting apparatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood cell diluting apparatus. 864.5240 Section 864.5240 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Automated and Semi-Automated Hematology Devices...

  15. Phase diagrams of site diluted ferromagnetic thin film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamedoun, M.; Bouslykhane, K.; Bakrim, H.; Hourmatallah, A.; Benzakour, N.; Masrour, R.

    2006-01-01

    The phase transition properties of Ising, classical XY and Heisenberg of diluted ferromagnetic thin film are studied by the method of exact high-temperature series expansions extrapolated with the Pade approximants method. The reduced critical temperature τ c of the diluted ferromagnetic thin films is studied as a function of film thickness L and the exchange interactions in the bulk J b , in the surface J s and between surface and nearest-neighbour layer J - bar . It is found that τ c increases with the exchange interactions of surface and L. The magnetic phase diagram (τ c versus dilution x) is obtained. A critical value of the surface exchange interaction above which the surface magnetism appears is obtained. The dependence of the critical parameter of surface reduced coupling R 2 c as a function of the dilution x and the ratio of the exchange interaction between the surface and nearest-neighbour layer to the bulk one R 1 for the three studied models has been investigated. The percolation threshold is defined as the concentration x p at which τ c =0. The obtained values are x p ∼0.2 in the bulk and x p ∼0.4 at the surface

  16. Determination of photooxygenation products of rotenone with isotope dilution method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chubachi, Mitsuo; Hamada, Masayuki

    1975-01-01

    When rotenone dissolved in certain solvent was photochemically oxidized, rotenolones, dehydrorotenone and rotenonone were obtained as main products. In order to determine the quantitative yields of these compounds in photooxygenation products, four compounds mentioned above were labeled with carbon-14 and the isotope dilution method by these labeled compounds was applied to the product analysis. (auth.)

  17. Analysis of boron dilution in a four-loop PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, J.G.; Sha, W.T.

    1995-03-01

    Thermal mixing and boron dilution in a pressurized water reactor were analyzed with COMMIX codes. The reactor system was the four-loop Zion reactor. Two boron dilution scenarios were analyzed. In the first scenario, the plant is in cold shutdown and the reactor coolant system has just been filled after maintenance on the steam generators. To flush the air out of the steam generator tubes, a reactor coolant pump (RCP) is started, with the water in the pump suction line devoid of boron and at the same temperature as the coolant in the system. In the second scenario, the plant is at hot standby and the reactor coolant system has been heated to operating temperature after a long outage. It is assumed that an RCP is started, with the pump suction line filled with cold unborated water, forcing a slug of diluted coolant down the downcomer and subsequently through the reactor core. The subsequent transient thermal mixing and boron dilution that would occur in the reactor system is simulated for these two scenarios. The reactivity insertion rate and the total reactivity are evaluated and a sensitivity study is performed to assess the accuracy of the numerical modeling of the geometry of the reactor coolant system

  18. Simplified Method for Groundwater Treatment Using Dilution and Ceramic Filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musa, S.; Ariff, N. A.; Kadir, M. N. Abdul; Denan, F.

    2016-07-01

    Groundwater is one of the natural resources that is not susceptible to pollutants. However, increasing activities of municipal, industrial, agricultural or extreme land use activities have resulted in groundwater contamination as occured at the Research Centre for Soft Soil Malaysia (RECESS), Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM). Thus, aims of this study is to treat groundwater by using rainwater and simple ceramic filter as a treatment agent. The treatment uses rain water dilution, ceramic filters and combined method of dilute and filtering as an alternate treatment which are simple and more practical compared to modern or chemical methods. The water went through dilution treatment processes able to get rid of 57% reduction compared to initial condition. Meanwhile, the water that passes through the filtering process successfully get rid of as much as 86% groundwater parameters where only chloride does not pass the standard. Favorable results for the combination methods of dilution and filtration methods that can succesfully eliminate 100% parameters that donot pass the standards of the Ministry of Health and the Interim National Drinking Water Quality Standard such as those found in groundwater in RECESS, UTHM especially sulfate and chloride. As a result, it allows the raw water that will use clean drinking water and safe. It also proves that the method used in this study is very effective in improving the quality of groundwater.

  19. In vitro dilutions of thioridaxine with potential to enhance antibiotic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Gram staining, catalase test and coagulase test were done on the resulting colonies to further confirm the strains as S. aureus. Antibiotic susceptibility test was done by agar disc diffusion method using sterile Mueller- Hinton agar plates before and after treatment with laboratory dilutions of thioridaxine. S. aureus strains 1, ...

  20. Time correlation functions and transport coefficients in a dilute superfluid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkpatrick, T.R.; Dorfman, J.R.

    1985-01-01

    Time correlation functions for the transport coefficients in the linear Landau-Khalatnikov equations are derived on the basis of a formal theory. These Green--Kubo expressions are then explicitly evaluated for a dilute superfluid and the resulting transport coefficiencts are shown to be identical to those obtained previously by using a distribution function method

  1. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 497–514. Atomic displacements in dilute alloys of Cr, Nb and Mo ... used to calculate dynamical matrix and the impurity-induced forces up to second nearest ... origin, the lattice is strained, and the host atoms get displaced to new ...

  2. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed

    OpenAIRE

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-01-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success.

  3. Color dilution alopecia in a blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perego, Roberta; Proverbio, Daniela; Roccabianca, Paola; Spada, Eva

    2009-05-01

    A 6-year-old male, blue Doberman pinscher crossbreed was presented with coat abnormalities; in particular, flank alopecia and pruritus. Based on medical the history, clinical evidence, and histopathological examination, color dilution alopecia was diagnosed. The dog was with oral melatonin treated for 3 months without success.

  4. Does the dilution effect generally occur in animal diseases?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, Zheng Y.X.; Yu, Yang; Langevelde, Van Frank; Boer, De Willem F.

    2017-01-01

    The dilution effect (DE) has been reported in many diseases, but its generality is still highly disputed. Most current criticisms of DE are related to animal diseases. Particularly, some critical studies argued that DE is less likely to occur in complex environments. Here our meta-analyses

  5. Novel understanding of calcium silicate hydrate from dilute hydration

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Lina; Yamauchi, Kazuo; Li, Zongjin; Zhang, Xixiang; Ma, Hongyan; Ge, Shenguang

    2017-01-01

    The perspective of calcium silicate hydrate (C-S-H) is still confronting various debates due to its intrinsic complicated structure and properties after decades of studies. In this study, hydration at dilute suspension of w/s equaling to 10

  6. Development of fluoric compound treatment system in conversion for recycle in metal industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, P.O.; Cho, N.C.

    1998-01-01

    Korea Nuclear Fuel Company (KNFC) has been operating AUC conversion process from UF 6 to UO 2 from 1990. In 1997, KNFC constructed another conversion line called dry conversion to meet the increasing demand for nuclear fuel fabrication. In the dry conversion, two kinds of hydrofluoric acid (HF) are produced as a by-product. The first one is 50% concentration HF and the other one is diluted HF ranging from 10% to 49%. The high concentration HF can be used in metal industry, but there is no use for diluted one. The diluted HF should be disposed of as liquid waste after some treatment. To solve this problem we have developed the process to convert the diluted hydrofluoric acid to the sodium fluoride, which is readily used in the metal industry. By developing the process we could make a contribution to the environment as well as cost reduction in manufacturing nuclear fuel. (author)

  7. Corrosion inhibition of magnesium heated in wet air, by surface fluoridation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caillat, R.; Darras, R.; Leclercq, D.

    1960-01-01

    The maximum temperature (350 deg. C) of magnesium corrosion resistance in wet air may be raised to 490-500 deg. C by the formation of a superficial fluoride film. This can be obtained by two different ways: either by addition of hydrofluoric acid to the corroding medium in a very small proportion such as 0,003 mg/litre; at atmospheric pressure, or by dipping the magnesium in a dilute aqueous solution of nitric and hydrofluoric acids at room temperature before exposing it to the corroding atmosphere. In both cases the corrosion inhibition is effective over a very long time, even several thousand hours. (author) [fr

  8. Dilution testing using rapid diagnostic tests in a HIV diagnostic algorithm: a novel alternative for confirmation testing in resource limited settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Leslie; Siddiqui, M Ruby; Abebe, Almaz; Piriou, Erwan; Pearce, Neil; Ariti, Cono; Masiga, Johnson; Muluneh, Libsework; Wazome, Joseph; Ritmeijer, Koert; Klarkowski, Derryck

    2015-05-14

    Current WHO testing guidelines for resource limited settings diagnose HIV on the basis of screening tests without a confirmation test due to cost constraints. This leads to a potential risk of false positive HIV diagnosis. In this paper, we evaluate the dilution test, a novel method for confirmation testing, which is simple, rapid, and low cost. The principle of the dilution test is to alter the sensitivity of a rapid diagnostic test (RDT) by dilution of the sample, in order to screen out the cross reacting antibodies responsible for falsely positive RDT results. Participants were recruited from two testing centres in Ethiopia where a tiebreaker algorithm using 3 different RDTs in series is used to diagnose HIV. All samples positive on the initial screening RDT and every 10th negative sample underwent testing with the gold standard and dilution test. Dilution testing was performed using Determine™ rapid diagnostic test at 6 different dilutions. Results were compared to the gold standard of Western Blot; where Western Blot was indeterminate, PCR testing determined the final result. 2895 samples were recruited to the study. 247 were positive for a prevalence of 8.5 % (247/2895). A total of 495 samples underwent dilution testing. The RDT diagnostic algorithm misclassified 18 samples as positive. Dilution at the level of 1/160 was able to correctly identify all these 18 false positives, but at a cost of a single false negative result (sensitivity 99.6 %, 95 % CI 97.8-100; specificity 100 %, 95 % CI: 98.5-100). Concordance between the gold standard and the 1/160 dilution strength was 99.8 %. This study provides proof of concept for a new, low cost method of confirming HIV diagnosis in resource-limited settings. It has potential for use as a supplementary test in a confirmatory algorithm, whereby double positive RDT results undergo dilution testing, with positive results confirming HIV infection. Negative results require nucleic acid testing to rule out false

  9. SBR treatment of olive mill wastewaters: dilution or pre-treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabegoli, G; Chiavola, A; Rolle, E

    2012-01-01

    The olive-oil extraction industry is an economically important activity for many countries of the Mediterranean Sea area, with Spain, Greece and Italy being the major producers. This activity, however, may represent a serious environmental problem due to the discharge of highly polluted effluents, usually referred to as 'olive mill wastewaters' (OMWs). They are characterized by high values of chemical oxygen demand (COD) (80-300 g/L), lipids, total polyphenols (TPP), tannins and other substances difficult to degrade. An adequate treatment before discharging is therefore required to reduce the pollutant load. The aim of the present paper was to evaluate performances of a biological process in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) fed with pre-treated OMWs. Pre-treatment consisted of a combined acid cracking (AC) and granular activated carbon (GAC) adsorption process. The efficiency of the system was compared with that of an identical SBR fed with the raw wastewater only diluted. Combined AC and GAC adsorption was chosen to be used prior to the following biological process due to its capability of providing high removal efficiencies of COD and TPP and also appreciable improvement of biodegradability. Comparing results obtained with different influents showed that best performances of the SBR were obtained by feeding it with raw diluted OMWs (dOMWs) and at the lowest dilution ratio (1:25): in this case, the removal efficiencies were 90 and 76%, as average, for COD and TPP, respectively. Feeding the SBR with either the pre-treated or the raw dOMWs at 1:50 gave very similar values of COD reduction (74%); however, an improvement of the TPP removal was observed in the former case.

  10. Amine-oxide hybrid materials for acid gas separations

    KAUST Repository

    Bollini, Praveen; Didas, Stephanie A.; Jones, Christopher W.

    2011-01-01

    Organic-inorganic hybrid materials based on porous silica materials functionalized with amine-containing organic species are emerging as an important class of materials for the adsorptive separation of acid gases from dilute gas streams

  11. Application of the mass spectrometry-isotope dilution technique for the determination of uranium contents in rocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakazu, M.H.; Iyer, S.S.

    1980-01-01

    Application of the spectrometric isotope dilution technique for the accurate determination of parts per million range of uranium in rock samples is described. The various aspects of the method like sample dissolution, ion exchange separation, mass spectrometric procedures are discussed. A single filament ionization source was employed for the isotope analysis. A carbon reduction method was used to reduce uranium oxide ions to uranium metal ions. The tracer solution for isotope dilution was prepared from National Bureau of Standards uranium isotopic Standard NBS U-970. Uranium contents are meassured for nine rock samples and the values obtained are compared with the uranium values measured by others workers. Errors caused in the uranium determination due to sample splitting problems as well as the incomplete acid digestion of the samples are discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Determination of Cd and Pb in human blood by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry : International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Joon; Suh, Jeong Ki; Lee, Sang Hwa

    1996-01-01

    Inorganic analytical laboratory of Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science participated in an interlaboratory comparison program operated by Quebec Toxicology Centre of Canada in 1994 and again in 1995. The objective of this program is to enable participating laboratories to assess reproducibility and accuracy of their analytical results for trace toxic elements in human biological fluids. This laboratory determined Cd and Pb concentrations in 3 levels of human blood samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 0.5 mL of blood sample is added to the digestion bomb together with 2 mL of nitric acid and enriched spike isotopes and then decomposed in the microwave digestion system. The decomposed sample is diluted to 10 mL and nebulized into ICP-MS. The Cd and Pb values reported by all participating laboratories are presented and compared. The values reported by this laboratory are within the acceptable range of target values. (author)

  13. Isotope Dilution - Thermal Ionisation Mass Spectrometric Analysis for Tin in a Fly Ash Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez, C.; Fernandez, M.; Quejido, A. L.

    2006-01-01

    Isotope dilution-thermal ionisation mass spectrometry (ID-TIMS) analysis has been applied to the determination of tin in a fly ash sample supplied by the EC Joint Research Centre (Ispra, Italy). The proposed procedure includes the silica gel/phosphoric acid technique for tin thermal ionisation activation and a strict heating protocol for isotope ratio measurements. Instrumental mass discrimination factor has been previously determined measuring a natural tin standard solution. Spike solutions has been prepared from 112Sn-enriched metal and quantified by reverse isotope dilution analysis. Two sample aliquots were spiked and tin was extracted with 4,5 M HCI during 25 min ultrasound esposure time. Due to the complex matrix of this fly ash material, a two-steps purification stage using ion-exchange chromatography was required prior TIMS analysis. Obtained results for the two sample-spike blends (10,10 + - 0,55 y 10,50 + - 0,64 imolg-1) are comprarable, both value and uncertainty. Also a good reproducibility is observed between measurements. The proposed ID-TIMS procedure, as a primary method and due to the lack of fly ash reference material certified for tin content, can be used to validate more routine methodologies applied to tin determination in this kind of materials. (Author) 75 refs

  14. A review on methods of recovery of acid(s) from spent pickle liquor of steel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghare, N Y; Wani, K S; Patil, V S

    2013-04-01

    Pickling is the process of removal of oxide layer and rust formed on metal surface. It also removes sand and corrosion products from the surface of metal. Acids such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid are used for pickling. Hydrofluoric acid-Nitric acid mixture is used for stainless steel pickling. Pickling solutions are spent when acid concentration in pickling solutions decreases by 75-85%, which also has metal content up to 150-250 g/ dm3. Spent pickling liquor (SPL) should be dumped because the efficiency of pickling decreases with increasing content of dissolved metal in the bath. The SPL content depends on the plant of origin and the pickling method applied there. SPL from steel pickling in hot-dip galvanizing plants contains zinc(II), iron, traces of lead, chromium. and other heavy metals (max. 500 mg/dm3) and hydrochloric acid. Zinc(II) passes tothe spent solution after dissolution of this metal from zinc(II)-covered racks, chains and baskets used for transportation of galvanized elements. Unevenly covered zinc layers are usually removed in another pickling bath. Due to this, zinc(II) concentration increases even up to 110 g/dm3, while iron content may reach or exceed even 80 g/dm3 in the same solution. This review presents an overview on different aspects of generation and treatment of SPL with recourse to recovery of acid for recycling. Different processes are described in this review and higher weightage is given to membrane processes.

  15. Microwave Acid Extraction to Analyze K and Mg Reserves in the Clay Fraction of Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Araína Hulmann Batista

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Extraction of K and Mg with boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system for predicting K and Mg uptake by plants is a method of low reproducibility. The aim of this study was to compare the extraction capacity of different acid methods relative to hydrofluoric acid extraction for K and Mg. A further objective was to develop a chemical extraction method using a closed system (microwave for nonexchangeable and structural forms of these nutrients in order to replace the traditional method of extraction with boiling HNO3 on a hot plate (open system. The EPA 3051A method can be used to estimate the total content of K in the clay fraction of soils developed from carbonate and phyllite/mica schist rocks. In the clay fraction of soils developed from basalt, recoveries of K by the EPA 3051A (pseudo-total method were higher than for the EPA 3052 (total hydrofluoric extraction method. The relative abundance of K and Mg for soils in carbonate rocks, phyllite/mica schist, granite/gneiss, and basalt determined by aqua regia digestion is unreliable. The method using 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an closed system (microwave showed potential for replacing the classical method of extraction of nonexchangeable forms of K (boiling 1 mol L-1 HNO3 in an open system - hot plate and reduced the loss of Si by volatilization.

  16. Cellular Lipid Extraction for Targeted Stable Isotope Dilution Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelhaus, Stacy L.; Mesaros, A. Clementina; Blair, Ian A.

    2011-01-01

    The metabolism of fatty acids, such as arachidonic acid (AA) and linoleic acid (LA), results in the formation of oxidized bioactive lipids, including numerous stereoisomers1,2. These metabolites can be formed from free or esterified fatty acids. Many of these oxidized metabolites have biological activity and have been implicated in various diseases including cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases, asthma, and cancer3-7. Oxidized bioactive lipids can be formed enzymatically or by reactive oxygen species (ROS). Enzymes that metabolize fatty acids include cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LO), and cytochromes P450 (CYPs)1,8. Enzymatic metabolism results in enantioselective formation whereas ROS oxidation results in the racemic formation of products. While this protocol focuses primarily on the analysis of AA- and some LA-derived bioactive metabolites; it could be easily applied to metabolites of other fatty acids. Bioactive lipids are extracted from cell lysate or media using liquid-liquid (l-l) extraction. At the beginning of the l-l extraction process, stable isotope internal standards are added to account for errors during sample preparation. Stable isotope dilution (SID) also accounts for any differences, such as ion suppression, that metabolites may experience during the mass spectrometry (MS) analysis9. After the extraction, derivatization with an electron capture (EC) reagent, pentafluorylbenzyl bromide (PFB) is employed to increase detection sensitivity10,11. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) is used to increase the selectivity of the MS analysis. Before MS analysis, lipids are separated using chiral normal phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The HPLC conditions are optimized to separate the enantiomers and various stereoisomers of the monitored lipids12. This specific LC-MS method monitors prostaglandins (PGs), isoprostanes (isoPs), hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acids (HETEs), hydroxyoctadecadienoic acids (HODEs), oxoeicosatetraenoic

  17. Individual Tracer Atoms in an Ultracold Dilute Gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hohmann, Michael; Kindermann, Farina; Lausch, Tobias; Mayer, Daniel; Schmidt, Felix; Lutz, Eric; Widera, Artur

    2017-06-01

    We report on the experimental investigation of individual Cs atoms impinging on a dilute cloud of ultracold Rb atoms with variable density. We study the relaxation of the initial nonthermal state and detect the effect of single collisions which has so far eluded observation. We show that, after few collisions, the measured spatial distribution of the tracer atoms is correctly described by a Langevin equation with a velocity-dependent friction coefficient, over a large range of Knudsen numbers. Our results extend the simple and effective Langevin treatment to the realm of light particles in dilute gases. The experimental technique developed opens up the microscopic exploration of a novel regime of diffusion at the level of individual collisions.

  18. Husimi-cactus approximation study on the diluted spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otsuka, Hiromi; Okabe, Yutaka; Nefedev, Konstantin

    2018-04-01

    We investigate dilution effects on the classical spin-ice materials such as Ho2Ti2O7 and Dy2Ti2O7 . In particular, we derive a formula of the thermodynamic quantities as functions of the temperature and a nonmagnetic ion concentration based on a Husimi-cactus approximation. We find that the formula predicts a dilution-induced crossover from the cooperative to the conventional paramagnets in a ground state, and that it also reproduces the "generalized Pauling's entropy" given by Ke et al. To verify the formula from a numerical viewpoint, we compare these results with Monte Carlo simulation calculation data, and then find good agreement for all parameter values.

  19. Mössbauer Studies of dilute Magnetic Semiconductors

    CERN Multimedia

    Gislason, H P; Debernardi, A; Dlamini, W B

    2002-01-01

    The recent discovery of (dilute) magnetic semiconductors with wide band gaps, e.g. GaN, ZnO and other oxides, having Curie temperatures, T$_{\\textrm{c}}$, well above room temperature, has prompted extraordinary experimental and theoretical efforts to understand, control and exploit this unexpected finding not least in view of the obvious potential of such materials for the fabrication of "spin-(elec)tronic" or magneto-optic devices. Ferromagnetism (FM) was achieved mostly by doping with dilute 3d transition metal impurities, notably Mn, Fe, and Co (in \\% concentrations), during growth or by subsequent ion implantation. However, it is fair to state that experimentally the conditions for the occurrence of ferro-, antiferro- or paramagnetism with these impurities are not yet controlled as generally at least two conflicting forms of magnetism or none have been reported for each system - albeit often produced by different techniques. Theory is challenged as "conventional" models seem to fail and no generally accep...

  20. Further development of IDGS: Isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.K.; Parker, J.L.; Kuno, Y.; Sato, S.; Kamata, M.; Akiyama, T.

    1991-01-01

    The isotope dilution gamma-ray spectrometry (IDGS) technique for determining the plutonium concentration and isotopic composition of highly radioactive spent-fuel dissolver solutions has been further developed. Both the sample preparation and the analysis have been improved. The plutonium isotopic analysis is based on high-resolution, low-energy gamma-ray spectrometry. The plutonium concentration in the dissolver solutions then is calculated from the measured isotopic differences among the spike, the dissolver solution, and the spiked dissolver solution. Plutonium concentrations and isotopic compositions of dissolver solutions analyzed from this study agree well with those obtained by traditional isotope dilution mass spectrometry (IDMS) and are consistent with the first IDGS experimental result. With the current detector efficiency, sample size, and a 100-min count time, the estimated precision is ∼0.5% for 239 Pu and 240 Pu isotopic analyses and ∼1% for the plutonium concentration analysis. 5 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs

  1. Properties of magnetically diluted nanocrystals prepared by mechanochemical route

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaz, P.; Skorvanek, I.; Fabian, M.; Kovac, J.; Steinbach, F.; Feldhoff, A.; Sepelak, V.; Jiang, J.; Satka, A.; Kovac, J.

    2010-01-01

    The bulk and surface properties of magnetically diluted Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 S nanocrystals synthesized by solid state route in a planetary mill were studied. XRD, SEM, TEM (HRTEM), low-temperature N 2 sorption, nanoparticle size distribution as well as SQUID magnetometry methods have been applied. The measurements identified the aggregates of small nanocrystals, 5-10 nm in size. The homogeneity of produced particles with well developed specific surface area (15-66 m 2 g -1 ) was documented. The transition from the paramagnetic to the spin-glass-like phase has been observed below ∼40 K. The changes in the magnetic behaviour at low temperatures seem to be correlated with the formation of the new surface area as a consequence of milling. The magnetically diluted Cd 0.6 Mn 0.4 S nanocrystals are obtained in the simple synthesis step, making the process attractive for industrial applications.

  2. Sibship Size and Gendered Resource Dilution in Different Societal Contexts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthijs Kalmijn

    Full Text Available Resource dilution theory hypothesizes that children's educational attainment suffers from being raised with many siblings, as the parental resources have to be shared with more children. Based on economic and cultural theories, we hypothesize that resource dilution is gendered: especially a larger number of brothers is harmful to a person's educational attainment. Using the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe, covering 18 European countries, we show that the number of brothers is more negatively related with the odds of obtaining a college degree than the number of sisters. This holds particularly for women. However, this pattern is weaker in countries that are known to have a more gender-egalitarian climate.

  3. The development and site investigation of fume diluter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Bok Youn; Kang, Chang Hee; Jo, Young Do; Lim, Sang Taek [Korea Institute of Geology Mining and Materials, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-01

    It is third project year on `Application of mobile diesel equipment in underground mines` for providing appropriate measures to improve underground working environment contaminated by the diesel exhaust pollutants. For reducing the exhaust temperature bellow 70 deg. C to prevent production of the governing pollutant (NO{sub 2}), the fume diluter is verified the most effective device through the site investigation. Therefore, the fume diluter is strongly recommended instead of catalytic converter which is employed presently. The performances derived from the tests are as follows; 1) This device increased air flow to 6.7-8.4 times of the original exhaust, 2) Exhaust temperature can be reduced to 66 deg. C from 161 deg. C, 3) All the pollutants can be reduced to bellow than 30 % of exhaust concentration, 4) This device requires less cost and no maintenance. (author). 4 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. Critical mass variation of 239Pu with water dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearlstein, S.

    1996-01-01

    The critical mass of an unreflected solid sphere of 239 Pu is ∼ 10 kg. The increase in critical mass observed for small water dilutions of unreflected 239 Pu spheres is paradoxical. Introducing small amounts of water uniformly throughout the sphere increases the spherical volume containing the same amount of 239 Pu as the critical solid sphere. The increase in radius decreases the surface-to-volume ratio of the sphere, which has the effect to first order of decreasing the neutron leakage, which is proportional to the surface, relative to the fissions, which are proportional to the volume. The reduction in neutron leakage is expected to reduce the critical mass, but instead, the critical mass is observed to increase. It is discussed how changes in the fast neutron spectrum with corresponding changes in the nuclear parameters result in an increase in critical mass for small water dilutions

  5. Percolation of polyatomic species on site diluted lattices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cornette, V.; Ramirez-Pastor, A.J.; Nieto, F.

    2006-01-01

    In this Letter, the percolation of (a) linear segments of size k and (b) k-mers (particles occupying k adjacent sites) of different structures and forms deposited on a diluted square lattice have been studied. The diluted lattice is built by randomly selecting a fraction of sites which are considered forbidden for deposition. The analysis of the obtained results is made in the framework of the finite size scaling theory. The characteristic parameters of the percolation problem are dependent not only on the form and structure of the k-mers but also on the properties of the lattice where they are deposited. A phase diagram separating a percolating from a non-percolating region is determined and discussed

  6. Exchange bias in diluted-antiferromagnet/antiferromagnet bilayers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mao, Zhongquan; Zhan, Xiaozhi; Chen, Xi

    2015-01-01

    The hysteresis-loop properties of a diluted-antiferromagnetic (DAF) layer exchange coupling to an antiferromagnetic (AF) layer are investigated by means of numerical simulations. Remarkable loop shift and coercivity enhancement are observed in such DAF/AF bilayers, while they are absent in the uncoupled DAF single layer. The influences of pinned domains, dilution, cooling field and DAF layer thickness on the loop shift are investigated systematically. The result unambiguously confirms an exchange bias (EB) effect in the DAF/AF bilayers. It also reveals that the EB effect originates from the pinned AF domains within the DAF layer. In contrast to conventional EB systems, frozen uncompensated spins are not found at the interface of the AF pinning layer. (paper)

  7. A model for the viscosity of dilute smectite gels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, L.

    2011-01-01

    A simple yet accurate model describing the viscosity of dilute suspensions of sodium montmorillonite in dilute homo-ionic solutions is presented. Taking the clay particle and the surrounding clouds of ions as a whole as an uncharged but soft, coin-like particle, the Huggins' equation for a suspension of uncharged particles is extended in the model to account for not only the primary and the secondary electro-viscous effects, but also the multi-particle interaction. The agreements between the predicted and measured results are excellent. The Huggins' coefficient obtained compares favorably with available data, while the intrinsic viscosity reduces to the Simha's equation in the large limit of ionic strength, suggesting that the model is robust. (authors)

  8. Passivation of the surfaces of single crystal gadolinium molybdate (Gd/sub 2/(MoO/sub 4/)/sub 3/) against attack by hydrofluoric acid by inert ion beam irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhalla, A; Cross, L E; Tongson, L [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park (USA). Materials Research Lab.

    1978-01-01

    The passivation effect from inert ion beam bombardment has been studied on a ferroelectric surface. The mechanism in these materials may have some additional contributions because of the polarization charges of the domains and the dipole effect (ion beam and surface species) on the surfaces. For these studies Gd/sub 2/(MoO/sub 4/)/sub 3/ (GMO) crystals were selected. Two possible mechanisms of passivation of GMO surfaces when bombarded with ion beams are discussed.

  9. Mass spectrometic isotope dilution analysis of Am and Cm in spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wantschik, M.; Koch, L.; Commission of the European Communities, Karlsruhe; Ganser, B.

    1983-01-01

    Spent nuclear fuels contain Am and Cm in the 10 ppb to 100 ppm range. Because of this low abundance and the necessity of handling small samples of the highly toxic fuel material only a mass-spectrometric isotope dilution analysis can give sufficiently accurate results. Since suitable spikes and/or standards have been lacking, this method has not been applied. Using known masses (+- 0.1%) of Am-241 and Cm-244 metal, Am-243 and Cm-248 spikes were calibrated to an accuracy of better than 0.2%. The standards were reanalysed by chemical titration and several radiometric techniques. The chemical conditioning is based on ionexchange chromatography with alpha-hydroxyisobutyric acid. A sample size of 10 -7 g is sufficient. For the mass-spectrometric measurement 10 -9 g of the elements are required. The accuracy for the determination of the main isotope is 0.5%. (orig./BRB)

  10. 1H NMR quantification in very dilute toxin solutions: application to anatoxin-a analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagnino, Denise; Schripsema, Jan

    2005-08-01

    A complete procedure is described for the extraction, detection and quantification of anatoxin-a in biological samples. Anatoxin-a is extracted from biomass by a routine acid base extraction. The extract is analysed by GC-MS, without the need of derivatization, with a detection limit of 0.5 ng. A method was developed for the accurate quantification of anatoxin-a in the standard solution to be used for the calibration of the GC analysis. 1H NMR allowed the accurate quantification of microgram quantities of anatoxin-a. The accurate quantification of compounds in standard solutions is rarely discussed, but for compounds like anatoxin-a (toxins with prices in the range of a million dollar a gram), of which generally only milligram quantities or less are available, this factor in the quantitative analysis is certainly not trivial. The method that was developed can easily be adapted for the accurate quantification of other toxins in very dilute solutions.

  11. Novel Dilute Bismide, Epitaxy, Physical Properties and Device Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lijuan Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Dilute bismide in which a small amount of bismuth is incorporated to host III-Vs is the least studied III-V compound semiconductor and has received steadily increasing attention since 2000. In this paper, we review theoretical predictions of physical properties of bismide alloys, epitaxial growth of bismide thin films and nanostructures, surface, structural, electric, transport and optic properties of various binaries and bismide alloys, and device applications.

  12. Electron pairing in dilute liquid metal-metal halide solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Selloni, A.; Car, R.; Parrinello, M.; Carnevali, P.

    1987-09-10

    Spin density functional theory is used to describe the interaction between solvated electrons in KCl in the high dilution limit. In agreement with recent calculations based on the path integral method our results for antiparallel spin predict a strong tendency to form localized bielectronic complexes. At variance with numerical path integral, our method can efficiently treat the case of parallel spins. For this case we find that electrons repel each other and localize into separate F-center-like states.

  13. Electron paramagnetic resonance studies of defects in dilute magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suss, J.T.; Raizman, A.

    1980-01-01

    The EPR spectrum of erbium was used to study the effects of cold-working (rolling and mechanical polishing) in dilute gold-erbium alloys. Variation in the EPR linewidth, intensity and asymmetry parameter (A/B ratio) were investigated. Most of the results could be interpreted in terms of segregation of erbium ions to subgrain boundaries (dislocations) in a surface layer of a few thousand Angstroms. (author)

  14. Water Stress Scatters Nitrogen Dilution Curves in Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianne Hoogmoed

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen dilution curves relate a crop’s critical nitrogen concentration (%Nc to biomass (W according to the allometric model %Nc = a W-b. This model has a strong theoretical foundation, and parameters a and b show little variation for well-watered crops. Here we explore the robustness of this model for water stressed crops. We established experiments to examine the combined effects of water stress, phenology, partitioning of biomass, and water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC, as driven by environment and variety, on the %Nc of wheat crops. We compared models where %Nc was plotted against biomass, growth stage and thermal time. The models were similarly scattered. Residuals of the %Nc - biomass model at anthesis were positively related to biomass, stem:biomass ratio, Δ13C and water supply, and negatively related to ear:biomass ratio and concentration of WSC. These are physiologically meaningful associations explaining the scatter of biomass-based dilution curves. Residuals of the thermal time model showed less consistent associations with these variables. The biomass dilution model developed for well-watered crops overestimates nitrogen deficiency of water-stressed crops, and a biomass-based model is conceptually more justified than developmental models. This has implications for diagnostic and modeling. As theory is lagging, a greater degree of empiricism might be useful to capture environmental, chiefly water, and genotype-dependent traits in the determination of critical nitrogen for diagnostic purposes. Sensitivity analysis would help to decide if scaling nitrogen dilution curves for crop water status, and genotype-dependent parameters are needed.

  15. Determination of microquantities of silver in platinum by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yedinakova, V.; Sladkovska, Y.

    1980-01-01

    A method is described for determining microquantities of silver in platinum. It is based on isotope dilution by means of substoichiometric extraction of dithizonates with carbon tetrachloride. The determination of silver according to this technique is not interfered by zinc or gold in quantities exceeding the silver content by one order of magnitude nor by a great excess of platinum. In the presence of copper the addition of complexon is necessary. (author)

  16. Thermomechanical Processing of Structural Steels with Dilute Niobium Additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Z.; Patel, J.; Palmiere, E. J.

    The recrystallisation behaviour of medium carbon steels with dilute Nb addition was investigated by means of plane strain compression tests and the observation of prior austenite microstructures during different deformation conditions. It was found that complete suppression of recrystallisation did not occur in the deformation temperature range investigated. At lower deformation temperatures, partial recrystallisation occurred in the higher Nb sample. This gives the potential to obtain a full suppression of recrystallisation at lower deformation temperatures.

  17. Removal of sulfite liquor from digesters with partially diluted liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshchenko, I G; Sykol, V P

    1957-01-01

    The yield of reducing sugars was raised from 189 to 224 kg/ton of pulp by displacing the cooking liquor with diluted liquor. As the pressure during blow-off dropped to 3.5-3.0 atmosphere, weak sulfite liquor was added at the rate 120 cu m/hr. After 5-10 minutes the liquor was pumped from the digester to the ethanol plant.

  18. Learning and forgetting on asymmetric, diluted neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrida, B.; Nadal, J.P.

    1987-01-01

    It is possible to construct diluted asymmetric models of neural networks for which the dynamics can be calculated exactly. The authors test several learning schemes, in particular, models for which the values of the synapses remain bounded and depend on the history. Our analytical results on the relative efficiencies of the various learning schemes are qualitatively similar to the corresponding ones obtained numerically on fully connected symmetric networks

  19. Regional lung deposition of aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, W; Winkler-Heil, R; McAughey, J

    2009-01-01

    Since aged and diluted smoke particles are in general smaller and more stable than mainstream tobacco smoke, it should be possible to model their deposition on the basis of their measured particle diameters. However in practice, measured deposition values are consistently greater than those predicted by deposition models. Thus the primary objective of this study was to compare theoretical predictions obtained by the Monte Carlo code IDEAL with two human deposition studies to attempt to reconcile these differences. In the first study, male and female volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream tobacco smoke at two steady-state concentrations under normal tidal breathing conditions. In the second study, male volunteers inhaled aged and diluted sidestream smoke labelled with 212 Pb to fixed inhalation patterns. Median particle diameters in the two studies were 125 nm (CMD) and 210 nm (AMD), respectively. Experimental data on total deposition were consistently higher than the corresponding theoretical predictions, exhibiting significant inter-subject variations. However, measured and calculated regional deposition data are quite similar to each other, except for the extra-thoracic region. This discrepancy suggests that either the initial particle diameter decreases upon inspiration and/or additional deposition mechanisms are operating in the case of tobacco smoke particles.

  20. Novel aspects of diluted and digital magnetic heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonanni, A.

    1999-04-01

    In the present work novel aspects of diluted and digital II-VI-based heterostructures containing Mn ions are investigated. All the structures under study were fabricated by means of molecular beam epitaxy. Digital magnetic heterostructures have been prepared by incorporating discrete (sub)monolayers of the purely magnetic semiconductor MnTe into otherwise non magnetic CdTe quantum wells embedded in CdMgTe barriers. Formation and binding energy of magnetic polarons have been investigated in these structures and compared with the diluted case. Reflectance difference spectroscopy (RDS) performed ex-situ allowed to distinguish between signals due to the crystal anisotropy solely and those induced by the presence a magnetic elements. The problem of p-type doping of bulk diluted magnetic semiconductors II-VI-based is tackled. During and upon growth of ZnMnTe highly doped with N, in-situ RDS was carried out in order to investigate intra-ion transitions within the half filled 3d shell of Mn. Transport measurements and magnetometry at low temperature were performed to study, on the tracks of recent theoretical works, the influence of free carriers on the interaction between magnetic ions. As expected, indications of ferromagnetic ordering were found for the DMS with the highest concentration of carriers. Special attention was given to the formation of Mn islands on a II-VI substrate and to their change in morphology upon overgrowth with a mismatched material. A rich zoology of regularly shaped nanostructures could be produced. (author)

  1. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  2. The issue of risk dilution in risk assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilmot, R.; Robinson, P.

    2004-01-01

    This paper explores an issue that was first highlighted more than 20 years ago during an inquiry concerning the Sizeweli B nuclear power station in the UK. In the probabilistic safety assessment for this plant, the proponent had apparently reduced its estimates of risk by admitting to increased uncertainty about the timing of certain events. This situation is counter-intuitive, since an increase in uncertainty about the factors contributing to safety would be expected to lead to less confidence and hence to greater risk. This paradoxical situation was termed 'risk dilution' and it has been a topic of interest to reviewers of safety cases since. The recent international peer review of the Yucca Mountain performance assessments concluded that there was a potential for risk dilution in the assumptions and calculations presented. The next section describes how assumptions about the timing of events and other aspects of an assessment may lead to risk dilution, and this is followed by two examples based on recent performance assessments. The final section discusses how potential problems can be identified in safety cases, and the types of response that a regulator might adopt as a result. (authors)

  3. Physical modelling of a rapid boron dilution transient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, N.G.; Hemstroem, B.; Karlsson, R. [Vattenfall Utveckling AB, Aelvkarleby (Sweden); Jacobson, S. [Vattenfall AB, Ringhals, Vaeroebacka (Sweden)

    1995-09-01

    The analysis of boron dilution accidents in pressurised water reactors has traditionally assumed that mixing is instantaneous and complete everywhere, eliminating in this way the possibility of concentration inhomogeneities. Situations can nevertheless arise where a volume of coolant with a low boron concentration may eventually enter the core and generate a severe reactivity transient. The work presented in this paper deals with a category of Rapid Boron Dilution Events characterised by a rapid start of a Reactor Coolant Pump (RCP) with a plug of relatively unborated water present in the RCS pipe. Model tests have been made at Vattenfall Utveckling AB in a simplified 1:5 scale model of a Westinghouse PWR. Conductivity measurements are used to determine dimensionless boron concentration. The main purpose of this experimental work is to define an experimental benchmark against which a mathematical model can be tested. The final goal is to be able to numerically predict Boron Dilution Transients. This work has been performed as a part of a Co-operative Agreement with Electricite` de France (EDF).

  4. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jared M Hotaling

    Full Text Available In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies, may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  5. The Dilution Effect and Information Integration in Perceptual Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotaling, Jared M; Cohen, Andrew L; Shiffrin, Richard M; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2015-01-01

    In cognitive science there is a seeming paradox: On the one hand, studies of human judgment and decision making have repeatedly shown that people systematically violate optimal behavior when integrating information from multiple sources. On the other hand, optimal models, often Bayesian, have been successful at accounting for information integration in fields such as categorization, memory, and perception. This apparent conflict could be due, in part, to different materials and designs that lead to differences in the nature of processing. Stimuli that require controlled integration of information, such as the quantitative or linguistic information (commonly found in judgment studies), may lead to suboptimal performance. In contrast, perceptual stimuli may lend themselves to automatic processing, resulting in integration that is closer to optimal. We tested this hypothesis with an experiment in which participants categorized faces based on resemblance to a family patriarch. The amount of evidence contained in the top and bottom halves of each test face was independently manipulated. These data allow us to investigate a canonical example of sub-optimal information integration from the judgment and decision making literature, the dilution effect. Splitting the top and bottom halves of a face, a manipulation meant to encourage controlled integration of information, produced farther from optimal behavior and larger dilution effects. The Multi-component Information Accumulation model, a hybrid optimal/averaging model of information integration, successfully accounts for key accuracy, response time, and dilution effects.

  6. Infinitely dilute partial molar properties of proteins from computer simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploetz, Elizabeth A; Smith, Paul E

    2014-11-13

    A detailed understanding of temperature and pressure effects on an infinitely dilute protein's conformational equilibrium requires knowledge of the corresponding infinitely dilute partial molar properties. Established molecular dynamics methodologies generally have not provided a way to calculate these properties without either a loss of thermodynamic rigor, the introduction of nonunique parameters, or a loss of information about which solute conformations specifically contributed to the output values. Here we implement a simple method that is thermodynamically rigorous and possesses none of the above disadvantages, and we report on the method's feasibility and computational demands. We calculate infinitely dilute partial molar properties for two proteins and attempt to distinguish the thermodynamic differences between a native and a denatured conformation of a designed miniprotein. We conclude that simple ensemble average properties can be calculated with very reasonable amounts of computational power. In contrast, properties corresponding to fluctuating quantities are computationally demanding to calculate precisely, although they can be obtained more easily by following the temperature and/or pressure dependence of the corresponding ensemble averages.

  7. Evaluation of online carbon isotope dilution mass spectrometry for the purity assessment of synthetic peptide standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz, Sergio Cueto; Ruiz Encinar, Jorge, E-mail: ruizjorge@uniovi.es; García Alonso, J. Ignacio, E-mail: jiga@uniovi.es

    2014-09-24

    Highlights: • Purity assessment of peptide standards applicable to any water soluble peptide. • Online {sup 13}C isotope dilution mass spectrometry. • Mass flow chromatogram from measured 44/45 isotope ratios. • Validation by the analysis of NIST 8327. - Abstract: We present a novel method for the purity assessment of peptide standards which is applicable to any water soluble peptide. The method is based on the online {sup 13}C isotope dilution approach in which the peptide is separated from its related impurities by liquid chromatography (LC) and the eluent is mixed post-column with a continuous flow of {sup 13}C-enriched sodium bicarbonate. An online oxidation step using sodium persulfate in acidic media at 99 °C provides quantitative oxidation to {sup 12}CO{sub 2} and {sup 13}CO{sub 2} respectively which is extracted to a gaseous phase with the help of a gas permeable membrane. The measurement of the isotope ratio 44/45 in the mass spectrometer allows the construction of the mass flow chromatogram. As the only species that is finally measured in the mass spectrometer is CO{sub 2}, the peptide content in the standard can be quantified, on the base of its carbon content, using a generic primary standard such as potassium hydrogen phthalate. The approach was validated by the analysis of a reference material (NIST 8327), and applied to the quantification of two commercial synthetic peptide standards. In that case, the results obtained were compared with those obtained using alternative methods, such as amino acid analysis and ICP-MS. The results obtained proved the value of the method for the fast, accurate and precise mass purity assignment of synthetic peptide standards.

  8. Density Functional Theory Study of Leaching Performance of Different Acids on Pyrochlore (100) Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiuli; Fang, Qing; Ouyang, Hui

    2018-06-01

    Pyrochlore leaching using hydrofluoric, sulfuric, and hydrochloric acids has been studied via experimental methods for years, but the interactions between niobium atoms on the pyrochlore surface and different acids have not been investigated. In this work, first-principles calculations based on density functional theory were used to elucidate the leaching performance of these three acids from the viewpoint of geometrical and electronic structures. The calculation results indicate that sulfate, chloride, and fluoride anions influence the geometric structure of pyrochlore (100) to different extents, decreasing in the order: sulfate, fluoride, chloride. Orbitals of O1 and O2 atoms of sulfate hybridized with those of surface niobium atom. Fluorine orbitals hybridized with those of surface niobium atoms. However, no obvious overlap exists between any orbitals of chlorine and surface niobium, revealing that chlorine does not interact chemically with surface niobium atoms.

  9. Dilution and slow injection reduces the incidence of rocuronium-induced withdrawal movements in children

    OpenAIRE

    Shin, Young Hee; Kim, Chung Su; Lee, Jong-Hwan; Sim, Woo Seog; Ko, Justin Sangwook; Cho, Hyun Sung; Jeong, Hui Yeon; Lee, Hye Won; Kim, Sang Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to evaluate whether slow injection of diluted rocuronium could reduce rocuronium-induced withdrawal movements effectively in children. Methods After loss of consciousness, rocuronium 0.6 mg/kg was administered into 171 children according to the pre-assigned groups as follows: Group CF, injection of non-diluted rocuronium over 5 seconds; Group CS, injection of non-diluted rocuronium over 1 minute; Group DF, injection of diluted rocuronium (10 times) over 5 ...

  10. Crystal Fields in Dilute Rare-Earth Metals Obtained from Magnetization Measurements on Dilute Rare-Earth Alloys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Touborg, P.; Høg, J.

    1974-01-01

    Crystal field parameters of Tb, Dy, and Er in Sc, Y, and Lu are summarized. These parameters are obtained from magnetization measurements on dilute single crystals, and successfully checked by a number of different methods. The crystal field parameters vary unpredictably with the rare-earth solute....... B40, B60, and B66 are similar in Y and Lu. Crystal field parameters for the pure metals Tb, Dy, and Er are estimated from the crystal fields in Y and Lu....

  11. Comparison of dilution factors for German wastewater treatment plant effluents in receiving streams to the fixed dilution factor from chemical risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Moritz; von der Ohe, Peter C; Voß, Katharina; Schäfer, Ralf B

    2017-11-15

    Incomplete removal during wastewater treatment leads to frequent detection of compounds such as pharmaceuticals and personal care products in municipal effluents. A fixed standard dilution factor of 10 for effluents entering receiving water bodies is used during the exposure assessment of several chemical risk assessments. However, the dilution potential of German receiving waters under low flow conditions is largely unknown and information is sparse for other European countries. We calculated dilution factors for two datasets differing in spatial extent and wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) size: a national dataset comprising 1225 large WWTPs in Central and Northern Germany and a federal dataset for 678 WWTPs of a single state in Southwest Germany. We found that the fixed factor approach overestimates the dilution potential of 60% and 40% of receiving waters in the national and the federal dataset, with median dilution factors of 5 and 14.5, respectively. Under mean flow conditions, 8% of calculated dilution factors were below 10, with a median dilution factor of 106. We also calculated regional dilution factors that accounted for effluent inputs from upstream WWTPs. For the national and the federal dataset, 70% and 60% of calculated regional dilution factors fell below 10 under mean low flow conditions, respectively. Decrease of regional dilution potential in small receiving streams was mainly driven by the next WWTP upstream with a 2.5 fold drop of median regional dilution factors. Our results show that using the standard dilution factor of 10 would result in the underestimation of environmental concentrations for authorised chemicals by a factor of 3-5 for about 10% of WWTPs, especially during low flow conditions. Consequently, measured environmental concentrations might exceed predicted environmental concentrations and ecological risks posed by effluents could be much higher, suggesting that a revision of current risk assessment practices may be required

  12. Waste acid recycling via diffusion dialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steffani, C.

    1995-05-26

    Inorganic acids are commonly used for surface cleaning and finishing of metals. The acids become unuseable due to contamination with metals or diluted and weakened. Diffusion dialysis has become a way to recover the useable acid and allow separation of the metals for recovery and sale to refineries. This technique is made possible by the use of membranes that are strong enough to withstand low ph and have long service life.

  13. Comparison of Dilution, Filtration, and Microwave Digestion Sample Pretreatments in Elemental Profiling of Wine by ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godshaw, Joshua; Hopfer, Helene; Nelson, Jenny; Ebeler, Susan E

    2017-09-25

    Wine elemental composition varies by cultivar, geographic origin, viticultural and enological practices, and is often used for authenticity validation. Elemental analysis of wine by Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS) is challenging due to the potential for non-spectral interferences and plasma instability arising from organic matrix components. Sample preparation mitigates these interferences, however, conflicting recommendations of best practices in ICP-MS analysis of wine have been reported. This study compared direct dilution, microwave-assisted acid digestion, and two filtration sample pretreatments, acidification prior to filtration and filtration followed by acidification, in elemental profiling of one white and three red table wines by ICP-MS. Of 43 monitored isotopes, 37 varied by sample preparation method, with significantly higher results of 17 isotopes in the microwave-digested samples. Both filtration treatments resulted in lower results for 11 isotopes compared to the other methods. Finally, isotope dilution determination of copper based on natural abundances and the 63 Cu: 65 Cu instrument response ratio agreed with external calibration and confirmed a significant sample preparation effect. Overall, microwave digestion did not compare favorably, and direct dilution was found to provide the best compromise between ease of use and result accuracy and precision, although all preparation strategies were able to differentiate the wines.

  14. On the nitrogen isotope dilution analysis by means of the automated NA-5A type 15N-analyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, H.; Mueller, G.; Stoerl, H.J.

    1976-01-01

    The analytical conditions are investigated under which quantitative nitrogen determination through isotope dilution analysis is possible using the NA-5A type 15 N-analyzer. Calculation of the nitrogen quantity, estimation of the maximum error and the evaluation technique are considered in detail. Test analyses performed on ammonia, urea, and amino acid nitrogen model solutions labelled in different ways yielded good correspondence with preset values. This technique was applied to determine the nitrogen content of biomedical materials. A working scheme for direct quantitative determination of ammonia-N, urea-N, and total-N in urine is presented. (author)

  15. Microstructure Related Characterization of a-Si:H Thin Films PECVD Deposited under Varied Hydrogen Dilution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Vavrunkova

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report on the structure and optical properties of hydrogenated silicon thin films deposited by plasma - enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD from silane diluted with hydrogen in a wide dilution range. The samples deposited with dilutions below 30 were detected as amorphous hydrogenated silicon (a-Si:H with crystalline grains of several nanometers in size which represent the medium-range order of a-Si:H. The optical characterization confirmed increasing ordering with the increasing dilution. The optical band gap was observed to be increasing function of the dilution.

  16. Experimentally evaluating the origin of dilute magnetism in nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, L M C

    2017-01-01

    Reports of room-temperature ferromagnetism continue to emerge for an ever-growing range of nanomaterials with a small or even vanishing concentration of magnetic atoms. Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are the most representative class of such materials, but similar magnetic properties have been reported in many others. Challenging our understanding of magnetic order in solids, as well as our ability to experimentally assess it, these remarkable magnetic phenomena have become one of the most controversial topics in magnetism. Various non-intrinsic sources of ferromagnetism (e.g. instrumental artifacts and magnetic contamination) are becoming well documented, and rarely are all of them taken into account when room-temperature ferromagnetism is reported. This topical review is intended to serve as a guide when evaluating to what extent a given data set supports the claim of intrinsic ferromagnetism in dilute nanomaterials. It compiles the most relevant sources of non-intrinsic ferromagnetism which have been reported, as well as guidelines for how to minimize them. It also provides an overview of complementary structural and magnetic characterization techniques which can be combined to provide different levels of scrutiny of the intrinsic nature of experimentally observed ferromagnetism. In particular, it gives some notable examples of how comprehensive studies based on those techniques have led to a remarkably detailed understanding of model DMS materials, with strong evidence of absence of room-temperature ferromagnetism. Although mostly based on DMS research, this review provides a set of guidelines and cautionary notes of broader relevance, including some emerging new fields of dilute nanomagnetism such as magnetically doped 3D topological insulators, 3D Dirac semimetals, and 2D materials. (topical review)

  17. Dilution-Induced Formation of Hybrid Perovskite Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu; Ehrat, Florian; Vanderlinden, Willem; Cardenas-Daw, Carlos; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Urban, Alexander S

    2016-12-27

    Perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are an important extension to the fascinating field of hybrid halide perovskites. Showing significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and emission wavelengths tunable through halide content and size, they hold great promise for light-emitting applications. Despite the rapid advancement in this field, the physical nature and size-dependent excitonic properties have not been well investigated due to the challenges associated with their preparation. Herein we report the spontaneous formation of highly luminescent, quasi-2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoplatelets (NPls) upon dilution of a dispersion of bulk-like NCs. The fragmentation of the large NCs is attributed to osmotic swelling induced by the added solvent. An excess of organic ligands in the solvent quickly passivates the newly formed surfaces, stabilizing the NPls in the process. The thickness of the NPls can be controlled both by the dilution level and by the ligand concentration. Such colloidal NPls and their thin films were found to be extremely stable under continuous UV light irradiation. Full tunability of the NPl emission wavelength is achieved by varying the halide ion used (bromide, iodide). Additionally, time-resolved PL measurements reveal an increasing radiative decay rate with decreasing thickness of the NPls, likely due to an increasing exciton binding energy. Similarly, measurements on iodide-containing NPls show a transformation from biexponential to monoexponential PL decay with decreasing thickness, likely due to an increasing fraction of excitonic recombination. This interesting phenomenon of change in fluorescence upon dilution is a result of the intricate nature of the perovskite material itself and is uncommon in inorganic materials. Our findings enable the synthesis of halide perovskite NCs with high quantum efficiency and good stability as well as a tuning of both their optical and morphological properties.

  18. Experimentally evaluating the origin of dilute magnetism in nanomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, L. M. C.

    2017-10-01

    Reports of room-temperature ferromagnetism continue to emerge for an ever-growing range of nanomaterials with a small or even vanishing concentration of magnetic atoms. Dilute magnetic semiconductors (DMS) are the most representative class of such materials, but similar magnetic properties have been reported in many others. Challenging our understanding of magnetic order in solids, as well as our ability to experimentally assess it, these remarkable magnetic phenomena have become one of the most controversial topics in magnetism. Various non-intrinsic sources of ferromagnetism (e.g. instrumental artifacts and magnetic contamination) are becoming well documented, and rarely are all of them taken into account when room-temperature ferromagnetism is reported. This topical review is intended to serve as a guide when evaluating to what extent a given data set supports the claim of intrinsic ferromagnetism in dilute nanomaterials. It compiles the most relevant sources of non-intrinsic ferromagnetism which have been reported, as well as guidelines for how to minimize them. It also provides an overview of complementary structural and magnetic characterization techniques which can be combined to provide different levels of scrutiny of the intrinsic nature of experimentally observed ferromagnetism. In particular, it gives some notable examples of how comprehensive studies based on those techniques have led to a remarkably detailed understanding of model DMS materials, with strong evidence of absence of room-temperature ferromagnetism. Although mostly based on DMS research, this review provides a set of guidelines and cautionary notes of broader relevance, including some emerging new fields of dilute nanomagnetism such as magnetically doped 3D topological insulators, 3D Dirac semimetals, and 2D materials.

  19. Analyses of PWR boron dilution consequences with the Arrotta code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johanson, E.; Cheng, H.W.; Sehgal, B.R.

    1998-03-01

    During the past few years, major attention has been paid to analyzing the issue of reactivity initiated accidents (RIAs), of which the boron dilution event is of very special interest to the countries having pressurized water reactors (PWRs) in their nuclear power delivery systems. The scenario considered is that if an inadvertent accumulation of boron free water in one loop during reactor startup operations of a PWR and the inadvertent startup of the reactor coolant pump (RCP) in the loop. This could then lead to a rapid boron dilution in the core, which can in turn give rise to a power excursion. This report is devoted to studying the potential physical and thermal hydraulic consequences of a slug of diluted coolant entering the core after one RCP start under a couple of postulated cases. The severity of the consequences of such a scenario is primarily determined by the amount of positive reactivity insertion, and they are also related to the reactivity insertion rate. Therefore, in the report, detailed calculations and analyses have been carried out from case to case by using the well-known space-time kinetics code, ARROTTA. As a result, the spatial distribution for nodal power, fuel enthalpy, fuel temperature and clad outside temperature as well as the change in core reactivity, total core power and peak fuel temperature can be provided. In general, the maximum fuel enthalpy, peak fuel temperature, and clad outside temperature, for all the cases considered in the report, do not exceed their respective routine safety limitations because of the strong Doppler effect and moderator temperature feedback, except if the safety limitations on fuel enthalpy addition for high burnup fuel are drastically reduced

  20. Practical design of a heat exchanger for dilution refrigeration. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y; Fujii, G; Nagano, H [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Inst. for Solid State Physics

    1978-02-01

    A compact heat exchanger for a dilution refrigerator with a high thermal efficiency is presented. Discrete heat exchangers with by-pass channels were used to decrease the flow impedance. This heat exchanger was designed so that the thermal conductance of liquid along the stream was greatly reduced. The effective thickness of the sponge material in the heat exchanger and mixer is also discussed. The obtained minimum temperatures of 12 mK was very close to the designed value of 10.8 mK. Moreover a rapid response was obtained. This is attributed to the small liquid volume of the heat exchanger.