WorldWideScience

Sample records for dilute colloidal dispersions

  1. Statistical Physics of Colloidal Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, E.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. This thesis is concerned with the equilibrium statistical mechanics of colloidal dispersions which represent useful model systems for the study of condensed matter physics; namely, charge stabilized colloidal dispersions and polymer stabilized colloidal dispersions. A one-component macroparticle approach is adopted in order to treat the macroscopic and microscopic properties of these systems in a simple and comprehensive manner. The thesis opens with the description of the nature of the colloidal state before reviewing some basic definitions and theory in Chapter II. In Chapter III a variational theory of phase equilibria based on the Gibbs-Bogolyobov inequality is applied to sterically stabilized colloidal dispersions. Hard spheres are chosen as the reference system for the disordered phases while an Einstein model is used for the ordered phases. The new choice of pair potential, taken for mathematical convenience, is a superposition of two Yukawa functions. By matching a double Yukawa potential to the van der Waals attractive potential at different temperatures and introducing a purely temperature dependent coefficient to the repulsive part, a rich variety of observed phase separation phenomena is qualitatively described. The behaviour of the potential is found to be consistent with a small decrease of the polymer layer thickness with increasing temperature. Using the same concept of a collapse transition the non-monotonic second virial coefficient is also explained and quantified. It is shown that a reduction of the effective macroparticle diameter with increasing temperature can only be partially examined from the point of view of a (binary-) polymer solution theory. This chapter concludes with the description of the observed, reversible, depletion flocculation behaviour. This is accomplished by using the variational formalism and by invoking the double Yukawa potential to allow

  2. Transport coefficients and orientational distributions of dilute colloidal dispersions composed of hematite particles (for an external magnetic field parallel to the angular velocity vector of simple shear flow)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Satoh, Akira; Hayasaka, Ryo; Majima, Tamotsu

    2008-01-01

    We have treated a dilute dispersion composed of ferromagnetic rodlike particles with a magnetic moment normal to the particle axis, such as hematites, to investigate the influences of the magnetic field strength, shear rate, and random forces on the orientational distribution of rodlike particles and also on transport coefficients, such as viscosity and diffusion coefficient. In the present analysis, these rodlike particles are assumed to conduct the rotational Brownian motion in a simple shear flow as well as an external magnetic field. The results obtained here are summarized as follows. In the case of a strong magnetic field and a smaller shear rate, the rodlike particle can freely rotate in the xy-plane with the magnetic moment continuing to point the magnetic field direction. On the other hand, for a strong shear flow, the particle has a tendency to incline in the flow direction with the magnetic moment pointing to the magnetic field direction. In the case of the magnetic field applied normal to the direction of the sedimentation, the diffusion coefficient gives rise to smaller values than expected, since the rodlike particle sediments with the particle axis inclining toward directions normal to the movement direction and, of course, toward the direction along that direction

  3. EDITORIAL: Colloidal dispersions in external fields Colloidal dispersions in external fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, Hartmut

    2012-11-01

    , Ojeda-Lopez M A and Arauz-Lara J L 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464126 [31]Leferink op Reinink A B G M, van den Pol E, Byelov D V, Petukhov A V and Vroege G J 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464127 [32]Taylor S L, Evans R and Royall C P 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464128 [33]Toner J, Tu Y H and Ramaswamy S 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464110 [34]Schmitz R and Dünweg B 2005 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 318 170 [35]Cates M E 2012 Rep. Prog. Phys. 75 042601 [36]Tarama M and Ohta T 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464129 [37]Wensink H H and Löwen H 2012 J. Phys. Condens. Matter 24 464130 Colloidal dispersions in external fields contents Colloidal dispersions in external fieldsHartmut Löwen Depletion induced clustering in mixtures of colloidal spheres and fd-virusD Guu, J K G Dhont, G A Vliegenthart and M P Lettinga Advanced rheological characterization of soft colloidal model systemsS Gupta, S K Kundu, J Stellbrink, L Willner, J Allgaier and D Richter Conformational and dynamical properties of ultra-soft colloids in semi-dilute solutions under shear flowSunil P Singh, Dmitry A Fedosov, Apratim Chatterji, Roland G Winkler and Gerhard Gompper Transient dynamics in dense colloidal suspensions under shear: shear rate dependenceM Laurati, K J Mutch, N Koumakis, J Zausch, C P Amann, A B Schofield, G Petekidis, J F Brady, J Horbach, M Fuchs and S U Egelhaaf Force-induced diffusion in microrheologyCh J Harrer, D Winter, J Horbach, M Fuchs and Th Voigtmann Micro-macro-discrepancies in nonlinear microrheology: I. Quantifying mechanisms in a suspension of Brownian ellipsoidsRyan J DePuit and Todd M Squires Micro-macro discrepancies in nonlinear microrheology: II. Effect of probe shapeRyan J DePuit and Todd M Squires Viscosity of electrolyte solutions: a mode-coupling theoryClaudio Contreras-Aburto and Gerhard Nägele Electro-kinetics of charged-sphere suspensions explored by integral low-angle super-heterodyne laser Doppler velocimetryThomas Palberg, Tetyana K

  4. Small-angle neutron scattering from colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ottewill, R.H.

    1991-01-01

    A survey is given of recent work on the use of small-angle neutron scattering to examine colloidal dispersions. Particular attention is given to the determination of particle size and polydispersity, the determination of particle morphology and the behaviour of concentrated colloidal dispersions, both at rest and under the influence of an applied shear field. (orig.)

  5. Probing Interfacial Water on Nanodiamonds in Colloidal Dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Yuzawa, Hayato; Nagasaka, Masanari; Yamanoi, Ryoko; Osawa, Eiji; Kosugi, Nobuhiro; Aziz, Emad F

    2015-08-06

    The structure of interfacial water layers around nanoparticles dispersed in an aqueous environment may have a significant impact on their reactivity and on their interaction with biological species. Using transmission soft X-ray absorption spectroscopy in liquid, we demonstrate that the unoccupied electronic states of oxygen atoms from water molecules in aqueous colloidal dispersions of nanodiamonds have a different signature than bulk water. X-ray absorption spectroscopy can thus probe interfacial water molecules in colloidal dispersions. The impacts of nanodiamond surface chemistry and concentration on interfacial water electronic signature are discussed.

  6. Overview of the phase diagram of ionic magnetic colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, F.; Dubois, E.; Cabuil, V.; Boue, F.; Perzynski, R.

    2001-01-01

    We study ionic magnetic colloidal dispersions, which are constituted of γ-Fe 2 O 3 nanoparticles dispersed in water, and stabilized with electrostatic interparticle repulsion. The phase diagram PV versus Φ (P: osmotic pressure, V: particle volume, Φ: particle volume fraction) is explored, especially in the range of high Π and high Φ. The osmotic pressure P of the colloidal dispersion is known either by a measurement either because it is imposed during the sample preparation by osmotic compression. The structure of the colloidal dispersion is determined from Small Angle Neutron Scattering. Two regimes can be distinguished. At high pressure, fluid and solid phases can exist. Their structure is governed by strong electrostatic repulsion, the range of which is here evaluated. At low pressure, gas, liquid and glassy solids can exist. Their structure results from a sticky hard sphere potential. (author)

  7. Field-scale variation in colloid dispersibility and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Trine; Møldrup, Per; Ferré, T. P. A.

    2014-01-01

    comparison parameters including textural, chemical, and structural (e.g. air permeability) 8 soil properties. The soil dispersibility was determined (i) using a laser diffraction method on 1-2 mm aggregates equilibrated to an initial matric potential of -100 cm H2O, (ii) using an end-over-end shaking on 6......Colloids are potential carriers for strongly sorbing chemicals in macroporous soils, but predicting the amount of colloids readily available for facilitated chemical transport is an unsolved challenge. This study addresses potential key parameters and predictive indicators when assessing colloid....... Predictions of soil dispersibility and the risk of colloid-facilitated chemical transport will therefore need to be highly scale- and area-specific....

  8. Rheology modification in mixed shape colloidal dispersions. Part I: pure components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brinke, A.J.W.; Bailey, L.; Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Matiland, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The flow behaviour and rheology of colloidal dispersions are of considerable interest in many applications, for example colloidal clay particles find applications in oilfield and constructiondrilling fluids. The rheological properties of such fluids can be enhanced significantly by adding colloidal

  9. Polymers at interfaces and in colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleer, Gerard J

    2010-09-15

    This review is an extended version of the Overbeek lecture 2009, given at the occasion of the 23rd Conference of ECIS (European Colloid and Interface Society) in Antalya, where I received the fifth Overbeek Gold Medal awarded by ECIS. I first summarize the basics of numerical SF-SCF: the Scheutjens-Fleer version of Self-Consistent-Field theory for inhomogeneous systems, including polymer adsorption and depletion. The conformational statistics are taken from the (non-SCF) DiMarzio-Rubin lattice model for homopolymer adsorption, which enumerates the conformational details exactly by a discrete propagator for the endpoint distribution but does not account for polymer-solvent interaction and for the volume-filling constraint. SF-SCF corrects for this by adjusting the field such that it becomes self-consistent. The model can be generalized to more complex systems: polydispersity, brushes, random and block copolymers, polyelectrolytes, branching, surfactants, micelles, membranes, vesicles, wetting, etc. On a mean-field level the results are exact; the disadvantage is that only numerical data are obtained. Extensions to excluded-volume polymers are in progress. Analytical approximations for simple systems are based upon solving the Edwards diffusion equation. This equation is the continuum variant of the lattice propagator, but ignores the finite segment size (analogous to the Poisson-Boltzmann equation without a Stern layer). By using the discrete propagator for segments next to the surface as the boundary condition in the continuum model, the finite segment size can be introduced into the continuum description, like the ion size in the Stern-Poisson-Boltzmann model. In most cases a ground-state approximation is needed to find analytical solutions. In this way realistic analytical approximations for simple cases can be found, including depletion effects that occur in mixtures of colloids plus non-adsorbing polymers. In the final part of this review I discuss a

  10. Axial dispersion via shear-enhanced diffusion in colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Griffiths, I. M.

    2012-03-01

    The familiar example of Taylor dispersion of molecular solutes is extended to describe colloidal suspensions, where the fluctuations that contribute to dispersion arise from hydrodynamic interactions. The generic scheme is illustrated for a suspension of particles in a pressure-driven pipe flow, with a concentration-dependent diffusivity that captures both the shear-induced and Brownian contributions. The effect of the cross-stream migration via shear-induced diffusion is shown to dramatically reduce the axial dispersion predicted by classical Taylor dispersion for a molecular solute. Analytic and numerical solutions are presented that illustrate the effect of the concentration dependence of this nonlinear hydrodynamic mechanism. Copyright © EPLA, 2012.

  11. Taylor dispersion of colloidal particles in narrow channels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sane, J.; Padding, J.T.; Louis, A.A.

    2015-01-01

    Special issue in Honor of Jean-Pierre Hansen We use a mesoscopic particle-based simulation technique to study the classic convection-diffusion problem of Taylor dispersion for colloidal discs in confined flow. When the disc diameter becomes non-negligible compared to the diameter of the pipe, there

  12. Dispersion of Sound in Dilute Suspensions with Nonlinear Particle Relaxation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandula, Max

    2010-01-01

    The theory accounting for nonlinear particle relaxation (viscous and thermal) has been applied to the prediction of dispersion of sound in dilute suspensions. The results suggest that significant deviations exist for sound dispersion between the linear and nonlinear theories at large values of Omega(Tau)(sub d), where Omega is the circular frequency, and Tau(sub d) is the Stokesian particle relaxation time. It is revealed that the nonlinear effect on the dispersion coefficient due to viscous contribution is larger relative to that of thermal conduction

  13. Magneto-optical characterization of colloidal dispersions. Application to nickel nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascu, Oana; Caicedo, José Manuel; Fontcuberta, Josep; Herranz, Gervasi; Roig, Anna

    2010-08-03

    We report here on a fast magneto-optical characterization method for colloidal liquid dispersions of magnetic nanoparticles. We have applied our methodology to Ni nanoparticles with size equal or below 15 nm synthesized by a ligand stabilized solution-phase synthesis. We have measured the magnetic circular dichroism (MCD) of colloidal dispersions and found that we can probe the intrinsic magnetic properties within a wide concentration range, from 10(-5) up to 10(-2) M, with sensitivity to concentrations below 1 microg/mL of magnetic Ni particles. We found that the measured MCD signal scales up with the concentration thus providing a means of determining the concentration values of highly diluted dispersions. The methodology presented here exhibits large flexibility and versatility and might be suitable to study either fundamental problems related to properties of nanosize particles including surface related effects which are highly relevant for magnetic colloids in biomedical applications or to be applied to in situ testing and integration in production lines.

  14. Viscoelasticity and diffusional properties of colloidal model dispersions

    CERN Document Server

    Naegele, G

    2003-01-01

    We examine linear viscoelastic, and translational and rotational diffusion properties of colloidal model dispersions. Theoretical results are discussed, in comparison with experiments, for monodisperse suspensions of charged and neutral colloidal spheres, and for binary dispersions of differently sized tracer and host particles. The theoretical methods employed comprise a mode-coupling scheme for Brownian particles, and a rooted cluster expansion scheme of tracer diffusion with two- and three-body hydrodynamic interactions included. We analyse in particular the validity of various empirical generalized Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations between the (dynamic) shear viscosity and translational/rotational diffusion coefficients. Some of these generalized SED relations are basic to microrheological measurements aimed at characterizing the viscoelasticity of complex fluids on the basis of the diffusional properties of immersed tracer particles.

  15. Viscoelasticity and diffusional properties of colloidal model dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naegele, Gerhard

    2003-01-01

    We examine linear viscoelastic, and translational and rotational diffusion properties of colloidal model dispersions. Theoretical results are discussed, in comparison with experiments, for monodisperse suspensions of charged and neutral colloidal spheres, and for binary dispersions of differently sized tracer and host particles. The theoretical methods employed comprise a mode-coupling scheme for Brownian particles, and a rooted cluster expansion scheme of tracer diffusion with two- and three-body hydrodynamic interactions included. We analyse in particular the validity of various empirical generalized Stokes-Einstein-Debye (SED) relations between the (dynamic) shear viscosity and translational/rotational diffusion coefficients. Some of these generalized SED relations are basic to microrheological measurements aimed at characterizing the viscoelasticity of complex fluids on the basis of the diffusional properties of immersed tracer particles

  16. Hierarchical opal grating films prepared by slide coating of colloidal dispersions in binary liquid media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Wonmok; Kim, Seulgi; Kim, Seulki; Kim, Jin-Ho; Lee, Hyunjung

    2015-02-15

    There are active researches on well ordered opal films due to their possible applications to various photonic devices. A recently developed slide coating method is capable of rapid fabrication of large area opal films from aqueous colloidal dispersion. In the current study, the slide coating of polystyrene colloidal dispersions in water/i-propanol (IPA) binary media is investigated. Under high IPA content in a dispersing medium, resulting opal film showed a deterioration of long range order, as well as a decreased film thickness due to dilution effect. From the binary liquid, the dried opal films exhibited the unprecedented topological groove patterns with varying periodic distances as a function of alcohol contents in the media. The groove patterns were consisted of the hierarchical structures of the terraced opal layers with periodic thickness variations. The origin of the groove patterns was attributed to a shear-induced periodic instability of colloidal concentration within a thin channel during the coating process which was directly converted to a groove patterns in a resulting opal film due to rapid evaporation of liquid. The groove periods of opal films were in the range of 50-500 μm, and the thickness differences between peak and valley of the groove were significantly large enough to be optically distinguishable, such that the coated films can be utilized as the optical grating film to disperse infra-red light. Utilizing a lowered hydrophilicity of water/IPA dispersant, an opal film could be successfully coated on a flexible Mylar film without significant dewetting problem. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Stereolithographic processing of ceramics: Photon diffusion in colloidal dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Rajeev

    The technique of ceramic stereolithography (CSL) has been developed for fabricating near net shape ceramic objects. In stereolithography, the three-dimensional computer design file of the object is sliced into thin layers. Each layer is physically fabricated by photocuring the surface of a liquid photo-polymerizable resin bath by raster scanning an ultra-violet laser across the surface of the resin. In CSL, the liquid resin is a high concentration colloidal dispersion in a solution of ultraviolet curable polymers. The ceramic green body fabricated by ceramic stereolithography technique is subjected to the post processing steps of drying, binder burnout and sintering to form a dense ceramic object. An aqueous alumina dispersion in photocuring polymers with particle volume fraction greater than 0.5 was formulated for CSL process. Low molecular weight solution polymers were found to be best suited for formulating ceramic resins due to their inherently low viscosity and favorable interactions with the ceramic dispersant. A hydroxyapatite ceramic resin was also developed for the use in the CSL technique. A model is developed to describe the photocuring process in concentrated ceramic dispersion. The curing profile in ceramic dispersion is governed by multiple scattering from the ceramic particles and absorption by the photocuring polymers. Diffusion theory of light transport is used to model the multiple scattering and absorption phenomena. It is found that diffusive transport adequately describes the phenomena of laser pulse propagation in highly concentrated colloidal dispersions. A model was developed to describe the absorption in highly concentrated ceramic dispersion. Various complex-shaped monolithic alumina and hydroxyapatite objects were fabricated by CSL and shown to possess uniform microstructure. The mechanical properties and sintering behavior of the parts fabricated by CSL are shown to be comparable to those fabricated by other ceramic processing technique

  18. Antimicrobial polyethyleneimine-silver nanoparticles in a stable colloidal dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Ju; Lee, Se Guen; Oh, Eun Jung; Chung, Ho Yun; Han, Sang Ik; Kim, Eun Jung; Seo, Song Yi; Ghim, Han Do; Yeum, Jeong Hyun; Choi, Jin Hyun

    2011-11-01

    Excellent colloidal stability and antimicrobial activity are important parameters for silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in a range of biomedical applications. In this study, polyethyleneimine (PEI)-capped silver nanoparticles (PEI-AgNPs) were synthesized in the presence of sodium borohydride (NaBH(4)) and PEI at room temperature. The PEI-AgNPs had a positive zeta potential of approximately +49 mV, and formed a stable nanocolloid against agglomeration due to electrostatic repulsion. The particle size and hydrodynamic cluster size showed significant correlations with the amount of PEI and NaBH(4). PEI-AgNPs and even PEI showed excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococus aureus and Klebsiella pneumoniae. The cytotoxic effects of PEI and PEI-AgNPs were confirmed by an evaluation of the cell viability. The results suggest that the amount of PEI should be minimized to the level that maintains the stability of PEI-AgNPs in a colloidal dispersion. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Stability studies of colloidal silica dispersions in binary solvent mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bean, Keith Howard

    1997-01-01

    A series of monodispersed colloidal silica dispersions, of varying radii, has been prepared. These particles are hydrophilic in nature due to the presence of surface silanol groups. Some of the particles have been rendered hydrophobic by terminally grafting n-alkyl (C 18 ) chains to the surface. The stability of dispersions of these various particles has been studied in binary mixtures of liquids, namely (i) ethanol and cyclohexane, and (ii) benzene and n-heptane. The ethanol - cyclohexane systems have been studied using a variety of techniques. Adsorption excess isotherms have been established and electrophoretic mobility measurements have been made. The predicted stability of the dispersions from D.V.L.O. calculations is compared to the observed stability. The hydrophilic silica particles behave as predicted by the calculations, with the zeta potential decreasing and the van der Waals attraction increasing with increasing cyclohexane concentration. The hydrophobic particles behave differently than expected, and the stability as a function of solvent mixture composition does not show a uniform trend. The effect of varying the coverage of C 18 chains on the surface and the effect of trace water in the systems has also been investigated. Organophilic silica dispersions in benzene - n-heptane solvent mixtures show weak aggregation and phase separation into a diffuse 'gas-like' phase and a more concentrated 'liquid-like' phase, analogous to molecular condensation processes. Calculations of the van der Waals potential as a function of solvent mixture composition show good agreement with the observed stability. Determination of the number of particles in each phase at equilibrium allows the energy of flocculation to be determined using a simple thermodynamic relationship. Finally, the addition of an AB block copolymer to organophilic silica particles in benzene n-heptane solvent mixtures has been shown to have a marked effect on the dispersion stability. This stability

  20. Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laux, Harald

    1998-08-01

    A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a

  1. Modeling of dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laux, Harald

    1998-08-01

    A general two-fluid model is derived and applied in CFD computations to various test cases of important industrial multiphase flows. It is general in the sense of its applicability to dilute and dense dispersed fluid-particle flows. The model is limited to isothermal flow without mass transfer and only one particle phase is described. The instantaneous fluid phase equations, including the phase interaction terms, are derived from a volume averaging technique, and the instantaneous particle phase equations are derived from the kinetic theory of granular material. Whereas the averaging procedure, the treatment of the interaction terms, and the kinetic theory approach have been reported in literature prior to this work the combination of the approaches is new. The resulting equations are derived without ambiguity in the interpretation of the particle phase pressure (equation-of-state of particle phase). The basic modeling for the particle phase is improved in two steps. Because in the basic modeling only stresses due to kinetic and collisional interactions are included, a simple model for an effective viscosity is developed in order to allow also frictional stresses within the particle phase. Moreover, turbulent stresses and turbulent dispersion of particles play often an important role for the transport processes. Therefore in a second step, a two-equation turbulence model for both fluid and particle phase turbulence is derived by applying the phasic average to the instantaneous equations. The resulting k-{epsilon}-k{sup d}-{epsilon}{sup d} model is new. Mathematical closure is attempted such that the resulting set of equations is valid for both dilute arid dense flows. During the development of the closure relations a clear distinction is made between granular or ''viscous'' microscale fluctuations and turbulent macro scale fluctuations (true particle turbulence) within the particle phase. The set of governing equations is discretized by using a finite volume method

  2. Charge transport and contact resistance in coplanar devices based on colloidal polyaniline dispersion

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Masillamani, A. M.; Peřinka, N.; Hajná, Milena; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Tondelier, D.; Bonnassieux, Y.; Vanel, J.-C.; Geffroy, B.; Mencaraglia, D.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 54, č. 17 (2016), s. 1710-1716 ISSN 0887-6266 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : charge transport * colloidal dispersion * colloids Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials Impact factor: 2.838, year: 2016

  3. Stress modeling in colloidal dispersions undergoing non-viscometric flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, Benjamin; Zia, Roseanna

    2017-11-01

    We present a theoretical study of the stress tensor for a colloidal dispersion undergoing non-viscometric flow. In such flows, the non-homogeneous suspension stress depends on not only the local average total stresslet-the sum of symmetric first moments of both the hydrodynamic traction and the interparticle force-but also on the average quadrupole, octupole, and higher-order moments. To compute the average moments, we formulate a six dimensional Smoluchowski equation governing the microstructural evolution of a suspension in an arbitrary fluid velocity field. Under the conditions of rheologically slow flow, where the Brownian relaxation of the particles is much faster than the spatiotemporal evolution of the flow, the Smoluchowski equation permits asymptotic solution, revealing a suspension stress that follows a second-order fluid constitutive model. We obtain a reciprocal theorem and utilize it to show that all constitutive parameters of the second-order fluid model may be obtained from two simpler linear-response problems: a suspension undergoing simple shear and a suspension undergoing isotropic expansion. The consequences of relaxing the assumption of rheologically slow flow, including the appearance of memory and microcontinuum behaviors, are discussed.

  4. Synthesis of colloids based on gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, E. C. da; Silva, M. G. A. da; Meneghetti, S. M. P.; Machado, G.; Alencar, M. A. R. C.; Hickmann, J. M.; Meneghetti, M. R.

    2008-01-01

    New colloidal solutions of gold nanoparticles (AuNP), using castor oil as a nontoxic organic dispersant agent, were prepared via three different methods. In all three cases, tetrachloroauric(III) acid was employed as the gold source. The colloids were characterized by UV-Vis spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The AuNP produced by the three methods were quasispherical in shape, however with different average sizes. The individual characteristics of the nanoparticles presented in each colloidal system were also confirmed by observation of absorption maxima at different wavelengths of visible light. Each method of synthesis leads to colloids with different grades of stability with respect to particle agglomeration.

  5. Real-time observation of template-assisted colloidal aggregation and colloidal dispersion under an alternating electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao-Rong, Li; Shu-Wen, Li; Jie, Mei; Qing, Xu; Ying-Ying, Zheng; Wen-Jun, Dong

    2011-01-01

    A fascinating colloid phenomenon was observed in a specially designed template-assisted cell under an alternating electrical field. Most colloidal particles experienced the processes of aggregation, dispersion and climbing up to the plateaus of the patterns pre-lithographed on the indium tin oxide glass as the frequency of the alternating electrical field increased. Two critical frequencies f crit1 ≈ 15 kHz and f crit2 ≈ 40 kHz, corresponding to the transitions of the colloid behaviour were observed. When f < 15 kHz, the particles were forced to aggregate along the grooves of the negative photoresist patterned template. When 15 kHz < f < 40 kHz, the particle clusters became unstable and most particles started to disperse and were blocked by the fringes of the negative photoresist patterns. As the frequency increased to above 40 kHz, the majority of particles started to climb up to the plateaus of the patterns. Furthermore, the dynamics analysis for the behaviour of the colloids was given and we found out that positive or negative dielectrophoresis force, electrohydrodynamic force, particle—particle interactions and Brownian motion change with the frequency of the alternating electric field. Thus, changes of the related forces affect or control the behaviour of the colloids. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  6. Viscothermal Coupling Effects on Sound Attenuation in Concentrated Colloidal Dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Wei

    1995-11-01

    spheroids, is developed and applied to estimate the viscous attenuation coefficients. With incorporation of particle size and shape distributions (PSSD), predictions agree quantitatively with observed attenuation coefficients. The effects of particle aspect ratio and orientation become more evident as particle concentrations and frequencies are increased. The UCPC model combined with the ultrasonic spectroscopy techniques can provide for theoretical and experimental frameworks in characterization of concentrated colloidal dispersions.

  7. Radiotracer study to investigate the dilution and dispersion of sewage off Worli coast

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yelgaonkar, V.N.; Pendharkar, A.S.; Agashe, S.M.; Kumar, U.S.; Kulkarni, U.P.; Mendhekar, G.N.; Navada, S.V.

    1998-01-01

    Radiotracer experiments were carried out off Worli Coast, Mumbai to study the dilution and dispersion of sewage from the proposed out fall at 3000 m and existing out fall at 500 m from the shore. Dilutions observed were 2.3 x 10 7 at 3.3 km from the injection point for the disposal at 3,000 m and 6.9 x 10 5 at 5 km for the disposal at 500 m. Dispersion coefficients obtained from two dimensional advection dispersion model for the experiment off 500 m are Dx 15-18 m 2 /s and Dy = 0.5-2 m 2 /s. (author)

  8. Pair mobility functions for rigid spheres in concentrated colloidal dispersions: Force, torque, translation, and rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, Roseanna N; Swan, James W; Su, Yu

    2015-12-14

    The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261-290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16-29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375-400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1-29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle translation

  9. Pair mobility functions for rigid spheres in concentrated colloidal dispersions: Force, torque, translation, and rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, Roseanna N.; Su, Yu; Swan, James W.

    2015-01-01

    The formulation of detailed models for the dynamics of condensed soft matter including colloidal suspensions and other complex fluids requires accurate description of the physical forces between microstructural constituents. In dilute suspensions, pair-level interactions are sufficient to capture hydrodynamic, interparticle, and thermodynamic forces. In dense suspensions, many-body interactions must be considered. Prior analytical approaches to capturing such interactions such as mean-field approaches replace detailed interactions with averaged approximations. However, long-range coupling and effects of concentration on local structure, which may play an important role in, e.g., phase transitions, are smeared out in such approaches. An alternative to such approximations is the detailed modeling of hydrodynamic interactions utilizing precise couplings between moments of the hydrodynamic traction on a suspended particle and the motion of that or other suspended particles. For two isolated spheres, a set of these functions was calculated by Jeffrey and Onishi [J. Fluid Mech. 139, 261–290 (1984)] and Jeffrey [J. Phys. Fluids 4, 16–29 (1992)]. Along with pioneering work by Batchelor, these are the touchstone for low-Reynolds-number hydrodynamic interactions and have been applied directly in the solution of many important problems related to the dynamics of dilute colloidal dispersions [G. K. Batchelor and J. T. Green, J. Fluid Mech. 56, 375–400 (1972) and G. K. Batchelor, J. Fluid Mech. 74, 1–29 (1976)]. Toward extension of these functions to concentrated systems, here we present a new stochastic sampling technique to rapidly calculate an analogous set of mobility functions describing the hydrodynamic interactions between two hard spheres immersed in a suspension of arbitrary concentration, utilizing accelerated Stokesian dynamics simulations. These mobility functions provide precise, radially dependent couplings of hydrodynamic force and torque to particle

  10. Cell-compatible conducting polyaniline films prepared in colloidal dispersion mode

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kašpárková, V.; Humpolíček, P.; Capáková, Z.; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Rejmontová, P.; Junkar, I.; Lehocký, M.; Mozetič, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 157, 1 September (2017), s. 309-316 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05095S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyaniline * conducting films * colloidal dispersions Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 3.887, year: 2016

  11. Organic-inorganic nanocomposite films made from polyurethane dispersions and colloidal silica particles

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Serkis, Magdalena; Špírková, Milena; Kredatusová, Jana; Hodan, Jiří; Bureš, R.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 23, č. 2 (2016), s. 157-173 ISSN 0927-6440 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-06700S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : polyurethane dispersion * colloidal silica * composites Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.083, year: 2016

  12. Preparation of silver colloid and enhancement of dispersion stability in organic solvent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Young; Choi, Young Tai; Seo, Dae Jong; Park, Seung Bin

    2004-01-01

    Silver colloid of nanometer size was prepared in liquid phase by a reduction method. AgNO 3 , FeSO 4 .7H 2 O, and Na 3 C 6 H 5 O 7 .2H 2 O were used as silver precursor, reducing agent and dispersing agent, respectively. As precursor concentration was decreased or the concentration of dispersing agent was increased, the prepared particle size was decreased from 180 nm to 20 nm. Apparently, the particle size seemed to be decreased with the increase of stirring rate, but it was confirmed by TEM that the size of primary particle remained the same. This result indicates that the uniformity of precursor concentration in the reactor affects the particle size and the stirring rate should be kept higher than the critical value to prevent the agglomeration of particles. In order to make the dispersion stability of the prepared silver colloid maintained even in non-polar organic solvent, electrodialysis technique was applied. As ionic species in colloidal solution were removed by electrodialysis, the dispersability of the colloid in the organic solvent of long carbon chain was confirmed to be increased

  13. Liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase separation and flocculation for a charged colloidal dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lai, S.K.; Wu, K.L.

    2002-01-01

    We model the intercolloidal interaction by a hard-sphere Yukawa repulsion to which is added the long-range van der Waals attraction. In comparison with the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek repulsion, the Yukawa repulsion explicitly incorporates the spatial correlations between colloids and small ions. As a result, the repulsive part can be expressed analytically and has a coupling strength depending on the colloidal volume fraction. By use of this two-body potential of mean force and in conjunction with a second-order thermodynamic perturbation theory, we construct the colloidal Helmholtz free energy and use it to calculate the thermodynamic quantities, pressure and chemical potential, needed in the determination of the liquid-liquid and liquid-solid phase diagrams. We examine, in an aqueous charged colloidal dispersion, the effects of the Hamaker constant and particle size on the conformation of a stable liquid-liquid phase transition calculated with respect to the liquid-solid coexistence phases. We find that there exists a threshold Hamaker constant or particle size whose value demarcates the stable liquid-liquid coexistence phases from their metastable counterparts. Applying the same technique and using the energetic criterion, we extend our calculations to study the flocculation phenomenon in aqueous charged colloids. Here, we pay due attention to determining the loci of a stability curve stipulated for a given temperature T 0 , and obtain the parametric phase diagram of the Hamaker constant vs the coupling strength or, at given surface potential, the particle size. By imposing T 0 to be the critical temperature T c , i.e., setting k B T 0 (=k B T c ) equal to a reasonable potential barrier, we arrive at the stability curve that marks the irreversible reversible phase transition. The interesting result is that there occurs a minimum size for the colloidal particles below (above) which the colloidal dispersion is driven to an irreversible (reversible) phase

  14. Magnetorheology of colloidal dispersion containing Fe nanoparticles synthesized by the arc-plasma method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noma, Junichi; Abe, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Naito, Makio

    2010-01-01

    Spherical crystalline Fe nanoparticles, ∼100 nm in diameter, were synthesized under Ar-50% H 2 arc-plasma. These nanoparticles were dispersed in silicone oil after silane treatment on as-grown thin oxide layer (∼2 nm) to make their surfaces hydrophobic. The resulting Fe nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization of ∼190 emu/g at room temperature. The static magnetorheological behavior was measured for the colloidal dispersion (solid concentration: 15 vol%) at room temperature under magnetic flux densities of 0-0.3 T, using a parallel-plate-type commercial rheometer. The yield stress continuously increased with magnetic flux density, demonstrating the Bingham plastic behavior. Moreover, subjecting the sample to a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T increased the yield stress by ∼10 2 . Additionally, the colloidal dispersion exhibited good stability against sedimentation.

  15. Magnetorheology of colloidal dispersion containing Fe nanoparticles synthesized by the arc-plasma method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Junichi; Abe, Hiroya; Kikuchi, Takehito; Furusho, Junji; Naito, Makio

    2010-07-01

    Spherical crystalline Fe nanoparticles, ˜100 nm in diameter, were synthesized under Ar-50% H 2 arc-plasma. These nanoparticles were dispersed in silicone oil after silane treatment on as-grown thin oxide layer (˜2 nm) to make their surfaces hydrophobic. The resulting Fe nanoparticles exhibited a high saturation magnetization of ˜190 emu/g at room temperature. The static magnetorheological behavior was measured for the colloidal dispersion (solid concentration: 15 vol%) at room temperature under magnetic flux densities of 0-0.3 T, using a parallel-plate-type commercial rheometer. The yield stress continuously increased with magnetic flux density, demonstrating the Bingham plastic behavior. Moreover, subjecting the sample to a magnetic flux density of 0.3 T increased the yield stress by ˜10 2. Additionally, the colloidal dispersion exhibited good stability against sedimentation.

  16. Effective charge versus bare charge: an analytical estimate for colloids in the infinite dilution limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aubouy, Miguel; Trizac, Emmanuel; Bocquet, Lyderic

    2003-01-01

    We propose an analytical approximation for the dependence of the effective charge on the bare charge for spherical and cylindrical macro-ions as a function of the size of the colloid and salt content, for the situation of a unique colloid immersed in a sea of electrolyte (where the definition of an effective charge is non-ambiguous). Our approach is based on the Poisson-Boltzmann (PB) mean-field theory. Mathematically speaking, our estimate is asymptotically exact in the limit κa >> 1, where a is the radius of the colloid and κ is the inverse screening length. In practice, a careful comparison with effective charge parameters, obtained by numerically solving the full nonlinear PB theory, proves that our estimate is good down to κa ∼ 1. This is precisely the limit appropriate to treat colloidal suspensions. A particular emphasis is put on the range of parameters suitable to describe both single and double strand DNA molecules under physiological conditions

  17. Phase behaviour of charged colloidal sphere dispersions with added polymer chains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fortini, Andrea; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Tuinier, Remco

    2005-01-01

    We study the stability of mixtures of highly screened repulsive charged spheres and non-adsorbing ideal polymer chains in a common solvent using free volume theory. The effective interaction between charged colloids in an aqueous salt solution is described by a screened Coulomb pair potential, which supplements the pure hard-sphere interaction. The ideal polymer chains are treated as spheres that are excluded from the colloids by a hard-core interaction, whereas the interaction between two ideal chains is set to zero. In addition, we investigate the phase behaviour of charged colloid-polymer mixtures in computer simulations, using the two-body (Asakura-Oosawa pair potential) approximation to the effective one-component Hamiltonian of the charged colloids. Both our results obtained from simulations and from free volume theory show similar trends. We find that the screened Coulomb repulsion counteracts the effect of the effective polymer-mediated attraction. For mixtures of small polymers and relatively large charged colloidal spheres, the fluid-crystal transition shifts to significantly larger polymer concentrations with increasing range of the screened Coulomb repulsion. For relatively large polymers, the effect of the screened Coulomb repulsion is weaker. The resulting fluid-fluid binodal is only slightly shifted towards larger polymer concentrations upon increasing the range of the screened Coulomb repulsion. In conclusion, our results show that the miscibility of dispersions containing charged colloids and neutral non-adsorbing polymers increases upon increasing the range of the screened Coulomb repulsion, or upon lowering the salt concentration, especially when the polymers are small compared to the colloids

  18. Arsenic speciation in the dispersible colloidal fraction of soils from a mine-impacted creek

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serrano, Susana; Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; O’Day, Peggy A.; Laborda, Francisco; Bolea, Eduardo; Garrido, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Nanoparticle scorodite may dissolve from mine wastes and release As down-gradient. • Large fractions of total As in soils may be associated with dispersible colloids. • Up to one third of total As in soils was associated with the colloid fraction. • AsFlFFF-ICP-MS and XAS provides information on the partitioning of contaminants in colloids. - Abstract: Arsenic and iron speciation in the dispersible colloid fraction (DCF; 10–1000 nm) from an As-rich mine waste pile, sediments of a streambed that collects runoff from waste pile, the streambed subsoil, and the sediments of a downstream pond were investigated by combining asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF)/inductively-coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Calcium, Fe and As (Fe/As molar ratio ∼ 1) were the main components of the DCF from waste pile. TEM/EDS and As and Fe XAS analysis revealed the presence of nanoparticle scorodite in this same DCF, as well as Fe nanoparticles in all samples downstream of the waste pile. Arsenic and Fe XAS showed As(V) adsorbed onto nanoparticulate ferrihydrite in the DCF of downstream samples. Micro-X-ray fluorescence indicated a strong correlation between Fe and As in phyllosilicate/Fe 3+ (oxi) hydroxide aggregates from the sediment pond. Fractionation analysis showed the mean particle size of the DCF from the streambed sample to be smaller than that of the streambed subsoil and sediment ponds samples. These results show that an important and variable fraction of As may be bound to dispersible colloids that can be released from contaminated soils and transported downstream in natural systems

  19. Arsenic speciation in the dispersible colloidal fraction of soils from a mine-impacted creek

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serrano, Susana [Institute of Agrochemistry and Food Technology, CSIC, Agustín Escardino 7, 46980 Paterna, Valencia (Spain); Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain); O’Day, Peggy A. [School of Natural Sciences,University of California, Merced, CA 95343 (United States); Laborda, Francisco; Bolea, Eduardo [Group of Analytical Spectroscopy and Sensors (GEAS), Institute of Environmental Sciences (IUCA), University of Zaragoza, Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Garrido, Fernando, E-mail: fernando.garrido@mncn.csic.es [National Museum of Natural Sciences, CSIC, José Gutiérrez Abascal 2, 28006 Madrid (Spain)

    2015-04-09

    Highlights: • Nanoparticle scorodite may dissolve from mine wastes and release As down-gradient. • Large fractions of total As in soils may be associated with dispersible colloids. • Up to one third of total As in soils was associated with the colloid fraction. • AsFlFFF-ICP-MS and XAS provides information on the partitioning of contaminants in colloids. - Abstract: Arsenic and iron speciation in the dispersible colloid fraction (DCF; 10–1000 nm) from an As-rich mine waste pile, sediments of a streambed that collects runoff from waste pile, the streambed subsoil, and the sediments of a downstream pond were investigated by combining asymmetrical-flow field-flow fractionation (AsFlFFF)/inductively-coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP–MS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopy. Calcium, Fe and As (Fe/As molar ratio ∼ 1) were the main components of the DCF from waste pile. TEM/EDS and As and Fe XAS analysis revealed the presence of nanoparticle scorodite in this same DCF, as well as Fe nanoparticles in all samples downstream of the waste pile. Arsenic and Fe XAS showed As(V) adsorbed onto nanoparticulate ferrihydrite in the DCF of downstream samples. Micro-X-ray fluorescence indicated a strong correlation between Fe and As in phyllosilicate/Fe{sup 3+} (oxi) hydroxide aggregates from the sediment pond. Fractionation analysis showed the mean particle size of the DCF from the streambed sample to be smaller than that of the streambed subsoil and sediment ponds samples. These results show that an important and variable fraction of As may be bound to dispersible colloids that can be released from contaminated soils and transported downstream in natural systems.

  20. Low molecular weight compounds as effective dispersing agents in the formation of colloidal silver nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Natsuki, Jun; Natsuki, Toshiaki, E-mail: natsuki@shinshu-u.ac.jp; Abe, Takao [Shinshu University, Faculty of Textile Science and Technology (Japan)

    2013-03-15

    A convenient method to synthesize uniform, well-dispersed colloidal silver nanoparticles is described. Aldonic acid or {alpha}-hydroxy acid compounds of low molecular weight are used instead of polymeric compounds as dispersing agents to prepare silver nanoparticles. The size, conformation, and electrical conductivity of the silver nanoparticles, and the effect and function of the dispersing agents are investigated in detail. Using these low molecular weight compounds as dispersing agents, silver nanoparticles with a diameter of 10 nm or less and high electrical conductivity can be obtained. In addition, this procedure allows silver nanoparticles to be sintered at 150 Degree-Sign C, which is lower than that required for silver nanoparticle formulation using polymeric compounds (200 Degree-Sign C). The silver nanoparticles produced by this process can be used to prepare various inks and to manufacture electronic circuits. It is found that low molecular weight compounds are more effective dispersing agents than polymeric compounds in the formation of silver nanoparticles.

  1. Separation of Co(II) from dilute aqueous solutions by precipitate and adsorbing colloid flotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, M.; Benyamin, K.; Shakir, K.; Atomic Energy Establishment, Cairo

    1993-01-01

    Ion, precipitate and adsorbing colloid flotation of cobalt(II) have been investigated at different pH values, using N-dodecylpyridinium chloride (DPCl). A strong cationic surfactant, and sodium lauryl sulfate (NaLS), a strong anionic surfactant, as collectors. In case of adsorbing colloid flotation, hydrous manganese dioxide was used as an adsorbent. The precipitate flotation curves experimentally obtained with the two tested collectors were compared with the corresponding theoretical one calculated from the data published for Co(II) hydrolysis. The effects of the collector concentration, ageing of the water-MnO 2 -Co(II) system, bubbling time period, cobalt(II) concentration and foreign salts on the percent removal of Co(II) by adsorbing colloid flotation using DPCl as collector were determined. Removals approaching 100% could be achieved under the optimum conditions. (author) 44 refs.; 6 figs

  2. Dynamics of polyelectrolyte adsorption and colloidal flocculation upon mixing studied using mono-dispersed polystyrene latex particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feng, Lili; Cohen Stuart, Martien; Adachi, Yasuhisa

    2015-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of polyelectrolytes just after their encounter with the surface of bare colloidal particles is analyzed, using the flocculation properties of mono-dispersed polystyrene latex (PSL) particles. Applying a Standardized Colloid Mixing (SCM) approach, effects of ionic strength and

  3. Biological properties of printable polyaniline and polyaniline-silver colloidal dispersions stabilized by gelatin

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bober, Patrycja; Humpolíček, P.; Syrový, T.; Capáková, Z.; Syrová, L.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 232, October (2017), s. 52-59 ISSN 0379-6779 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-05568P; GA ČR(CZ) GA17-05095S; GA TA ČR(CZ) TE01020022 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * colloidal dispersion * hybrid composite Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 2.435, year: 2016

  4. Dispersions of attractive semiflexible fiberlike colloidal particles from bacterial cellulose microfibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuijk, Anke; Koppert, Remco; Versluis, Peter; van Dalen, Gerard; Remijn, Caroline; Hazekamp, Johan; Nijsse, Jaap; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2013-11-26

    We prepared dispersions from bacterial cellulose microfibrils (CMF) of a commercial Nata de Coco source. We used an ultra-high-energy mechanical deagglomeration process that is able to disperse the CMFs from the pellicle in which they are organized in an irregular network. Because of the strong attractions between the CMFs, the dispersion remained highly heterogeneous, consisting of fiber bundles, flocs, and voids spanning tens to hundreds of micrometers depending on concentration. The size of these flocs increased with CMF concentration, the size of the bundles stayed constant, and the size of the voids decreased. The observed percolation threshold in MFC dispersions is lower than the theoretical prediction, which is accounted for by the attractive interactions in the system. Because bacterial cellulose is chemically very pure, it can be used to study the interaction of attractive and highly shape-anisotropic, semiflexible fiberlike colloidal particles.

  5. Tracer diffusion in colloidal suspensions under dilute and crowded conditions with hydrodynamic interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomilov, A.; Videcoq, A.; Chartier, T.

    2012-01-01

    We consider tracer diffusion in colloidal suspensions under solid loading conditions, where hydrodynamic interactions play an important role. To this end, we carry out computer simulations based on the hybrid stochastic rotation dynamics-molecular dynamics (SRD-MD) technique. Many details of the ...... that hydrodynamic interactions are correctly included within the SRD-MD technique. (C) 2012 American Institute of Physics. [http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4731661]...

  6. Glass-liquid-glass reentrance in mono-component colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramirez-Gonzalez, P E; Medina-Noyola, M; Vizcarra-Rendon, A; Guevara-Rodriguez, F de J

    2008-01-01

    The self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics is employed to describe the ergodic-non-ergodic transition in model mono-disperse colloidal dispersions whose particles interact through hard-sphere plus short-ranged attractive forces. The ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram in the temperature-concentration state space is determined for the hard-sphere plus attractive Yukawa model within the mean spherical approximation for the static structure factor by solving a remarkably simple equation for the localization length of the colloidal particles. Finite real values of this property signals non-ergodicity and determines the non-ergodic parameters f(k) and f s (k). The resulting phase diagram for this system, which involves the existence of reentrant (repulsive and attractive) glass states, is compared with the corresponding prediction of mode coupling theory. Although both theories coincide in the general features of this phase diagram, there are also clear qualitative differences. One of the most relevant is the SCGLE prediction that the ergodic-attractive glass transition does not preempt the gas-liquid phase transition, but always intersects the corresponding spinodal curve on its high-concentration side. We also calculate the ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram for the sticky hard-sphere model to illustrate the dependence of the predicted SCGLE dynamic phase diagram on the choice of one important constituent element of the SCGLE theory

  7. Glass-liquid-glass reentrance in mono-component colloidal dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez-Gonzalez, P E; Medina-Noyola, M [Instituto de Fisica ' Manuel Sandoval Vallarta' , Universidad Autonoma de San Luis Potosi, Alvaro Obregon 64, 78000 San Luis Potosi, SLP (Mexico); Vizcarra-Rendon, A [Unidad Academica de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma de Zacatecas, Paseo la Bufa y Calzada Solidaridad, 98600, Zacatecas, Zac. (Mexico); Guevara-Rodriguez, F de J [Coordinacion de IngenierIa Molecular, Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas 152, 07730 Mexico, DF (Mexico)

    2008-05-21

    The self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics is employed to describe the ergodic-non-ergodic transition in model mono-disperse colloidal dispersions whose particles interact through hard-sphere plus short-ranged attractive forces. The ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram in the temperature-concentration state space is determined for the hard-sphere plus attractive Yukawa model within the mean spherical approximation for the static structure factor by solving a remarkably simple equation for the localization length of the colloidal particles. Finite real values of this property signals non-ergodicity and determines the non-ergodic parameters f(k) and f{sub s}(k). The resulting phase diagram for this system, which involves the existence of reentrant (repulsive and attractive) glass states, is compared with the corresponding prediction of mode coupling theory. Although both theories coincide in the general features of this phase diagram, there are also clear qualitative differences. One of the most relevant is the SCGLE prediction that the ergodic-attractive glass transition does not preempt the gas-liquid phase transition, but always intersects the corresponding spinodal curve on its high-concentration side. We also calculate the ergodic-non-ergodic phase diagram for the sticky hard-sphere model to illustrate the dependence of the predicted SCGLE dynamic phase diagram on the choice of one important constituent element of the SCGLE theory.

  8. On the calculation of the structure of charge-stabilized colloidal dispersions using density-dependent potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castañeda-Priego, R; Lobaskin, V; Mixteco-Sánchez, J C; Rojas-Ochoa, L F; Linse, P

    2012-01-01

    The structure of charge-stabilized colloidal dispersions has been studied through a one-component model using a Yukawa potential with density-dependent parameters examined with integral equation theory and Monte Carlo simulations. Partial thermodynamic consistency was guaranteed by considering the osmotic pressure of the dispersion from the approximate mean-field renormalized jellium and Poisson-Boltzmann cell models. The colloidal structures could be accurately described by the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the Rogers-Young closure by using the osmotic pressure from the renormalized jellium model. Although we explicitly show that the correct effective pair-potential obtained from the inverse Monte Carlo method deviates from the Yukawa shape, the osmotic pressure constraint allows us to have a good description of the colloidal structure without losing information on the system thermodynamics. Our findings are corroborated by primitive model simulations of salt-free colloidal dispersions. (paper)

  9. Clearly Transparent Nanopaper from Highly Concentrated Cellulose Nanofiber Dispersion Using Dilution and Sonication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kasuga

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nanopaper prepared from holocellulose pulp is one of the best substrates for flexible electronics because of its high thermal resistance and high clear transparency. However, the clearness of nanopaper decreases with increasing concentration of the starting cellulose nanofiber dispersion—with the use of a 2.2 wt % dispersion, for example—resulting in translucent nanopaper with a high haze of 44%. To overcome this problem, we show that the dilution of this high-concentration dispersion with water followed by sonication for 10 s reduces the haze to less than 10% while maintaining the high thermal resistance of the nanopaper. Furthermore, the combination of water dilution and a short sonication treatment improves the clearness of the nanopaper, which would translate into cost savings for the transportation and storage of this highly concentrated cellulose nanofiber dispersion. Finally, we demonstrate the improvement of the electrical conductivity of clear transparent nanopaper prepared from an initially high-concentration dispersion by dropping and heating silver nanowire ink on the nanopaper. These achievements will pave the way toward the realization of the mass production of nanofiber-based flexible devices.

  10. Colloidal dispersions of maghemite nanoparticles produced by laser pyrolysis with application as NMR contrast agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Veintemillas-Verdaguer, Sabino [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Morales, Maria del Puerto [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bomati-Miguel, Oscar [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bautista, Carmen [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Zhao, Xinqing [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Madrid, CSIC, Cantoblanco, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bonville, Pierre [CEA, CE Saclay, DSM/DRECAM/SPEC, 91191 Gif-Sur-Yvette (France); Alejo, Rigoberto Perez de [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Unidad de RMN, Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Ruiz-Cabello, Jesus [Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Unidad de RMN, Paseo Juan XXIII, 1, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Santos, Martin [Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. C/San Martin de Porres 4, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Tendillo-Cortijo, Francisco J [Hospital Universitario Puerta de Hierro, Servicio de Cirugia Experimental. C/San Martin de Porres 4, 28035 Madrid (Spain); Ferreiros, Joaquin [Hospital Clinico de Madrid ' San Carlos' , Ciudad Universitaria, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2004-08-07

    Biocompatible magnetic dispersions have been prepared from {gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles (5 nm) synthesized by continuous laser pyrolysis of Fe(CO){sub 5} vapours. The feasibility of using these dispersions as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents has been analysed in terms of chemical structure, magnetic properties, {sup 1}H NMR relaxation times and biokinetics. The magnetic nanoparticles were dispersed in a strong alkaline solution in the presence of dextran, yielding stable colloids in a single step. The dispersions consist of particle-aggregates 25 nm in diameter measured using transmission electron microscope and a hydrodynamic diameter of 42 nm measured using photon correlation spectroscopy. The magnetic and relaxometric properties of the dispersions were of the same order of magnitude as those of commercial contrast agents produced using coprecipitation. However, these dispersions, when injected intravenously in rats at standard doses showed a mono-exponential blood clearance instead of a biexponential one, with a blood half-life of 7 {+-} 1 min. Furthermore, an important enhancement of the image contrast was observed after the injection, mainly located at the liver and the spleen of the rat. In conclusion, the laser pyrolysis technique seems to be a good alternative to the coprecipitation method for producing MRI contrast agents, with the advantage of being a continuous synthesis method that leads to very uniform particles capable of being dispersed and therefore transformed in a biocompatible magnetic liquid.

  11. Stability of nano-metric colloidal dispersions of titanium: effect of surface complexation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyre, Veronique

    1996-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the adsorption of small organic molecules at the surface of nano-particles of mineral oxides (zirconia), and of its effects on the stability of the colloidal dispersion. Adsorption has been quantified by adsorption isotherms and surface titrations. Processes and mechanisms are thus discussed with respect to pH. The influence of various protecting molecules (acetyl acetone, but also acetic acid, citric acid and diethanolamine) has been studied, and notably highlighted the role of the outer face of the complexing agent in the assessment of reactions between particles which govern the compression and re-dispersability properties of protected dispersions. This study is performed by osmotic pressure measurements and by X-ray diffusion at small angles, completed by statistical mechanics calculations [fr

  12. Mesoscopic dispersion of colloidal agglomerate in a complex fluid modelled by a hybrid fluid-particle model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzwinel, Witold; Yuen, David A

    2002-03-15

    The dispersion of the agglomerating fluid process involving colloids has been investigated at the mesoscale level by a discrete particle approach--the hybrid fluid-particle model (FPM). Dynamical processes occurring in the granulation of colloidal agglomerate in solvents are severely influenced by coupling between the dispersed microstructures and the global flow. On the mesoscale this coupling is further exacerbated by thermal fluctuations, particle-particle interactions between colloidal beds, and hydrodynamic interactions between colloidal beds and the solvent. Using the method of FPM, we have tackled the problem of dispersion of a colloidal slab being accelerated in a long box filled with a fluid. Our results show that the average size of the agglomerated fragments decreases with increasing shearing rate gamma, according to the power law A x gamma(k), where k is around 2. For larger values of gamma, the mean size of the agglomerate S(avg) increases slowly with gamma from the collisions between the aggregates and the longitudinal stretching induced by the flow. The proportionality constant A increases exponentially with the scaling factor of the attractive forces acting between the colloidal particles. The value of A shows a rather weak dependence on the solvent viscosity. But A increases proportionally with the scaling factor of the colloid-solvent dissipative interactions. Similar type of dependence can be found for the mixing induced by Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities involving the colloidal agglomerate and the solvent. Three types of fragmentation structures can be identified, which are called rupture, erosion, and shatter. They generate very complex structures with multiresolution character. The aggregation of colloidal beds is formed by the collisions between aggregates, which are influenced by the flow or by the cohesive forces for small dispersion energies. These results may be applied to enhance our understanding concerning the nonlinear complex

  13. Colloidal dispersions in external fields: from equilibrium to non-equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, Hartmut

    2010-03-01

    Dispersions of colloidal particles are excellent model systems of classical statistical mechanics in order to understand the principles of self-organization processes. Using an external field (e.g. electric or magnetic field) the effective interaction between the colloidal particles can be tailored and the system can be brought into non-equilibrium in a controlled way. Glass formation after an ultrafast quench in a two-dimensional superparamagnetic binary colloidal mixture [1,2] will be discussed as well as lane [3,4,5,6,7] and band [8] formation in mixtures of charged suspensions and dusty plasmas driven by an electric field. [4pt] References:[0pt] [1] L. Assoud, F. Ebert, P. Keim, R. Messina, G. Maret, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Letters 102, 238301 (2009). [0pt] [2] L. Assoud, F. Ebert, P. Keim, R. Messina, G. Maret, H. Lowen, J. Phys.: Condensed Matter 21, 464114 (2009). [0pt] [3] J. Dzubiella, G. P. Hoffmann, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 65, 021402 (1-8) (2002). [0pt] [4] M. E. Leunissen, C. G. Christova, A. P. Hynninen, C. P. Royall, A. I. Campbell, A. Imhof, M. Dijkstra, R. van Roij, A. van Blaaderen, Nature 437, 235 (2005). [0pt] [5] M. Rex, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 75, 051402 (2007). [0pt] [6] M. Rex, C. P. Royall, A. van Blaaderen, H. Lowen, Lane formation in driven colloidal mixtures: is it continuous or discontinuous?, http://arxiv.org/abs/0812.0908 [0pt] [7] K. R. Sutterlin, A. Wysocki, A. V. Ivlev, C. Rath, H. M. Thomas, M. Rubin-Zuzic, W. J. Goedheer, V. E. Fortov, A. M. Lipaev, V. I. Molotkov, O. F. Petrov, G. E. Morfill, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. Letters 102, 085003 (2009). [0pt] [8] A. Wysocki, H. Lowen, Phys. Rev. E 79, 041408 (2009).

  14. Design, synthesis, and film formation of stimuli-responsive colloidal dispersions containing phospholipids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestage, David Jackson

    These studies were undertaken to further understand the design of colloidal dispersions containing bio-active phospholipids (PL) as stabilizing agents and their stimuli-responsive behaviors during film formation. Methyl methacrylate (MMA) and n-butyl acrylate (nBA) dispersions were synthesized using anionic surfactants and PL, and the surface-responsiveness of coalesced films was monitored at the film-air (F-A) and film-substrate (F-S) interfaces after exposure to temperature, UV, pH, ionic strength, and enzymatic stimuli. Using spectroscopic molecular-level probes such as attenuated total reflectance (ATR) and internal reflection IR imaging (IRIRI), these studies show that structural features of PL and surfactants significantly affect stimuli-responsiveness of polymeric films. MMA/nBA homopolymer, blend, copolymer, and core-shell particle coalescence studies indicated that controlled permeability is influenced by particle composition and sodium dioctyl sulfosuccinate (SDOSS) mobility to the F-A interface is enhanced in response to temperature. Utilization of hydrogenated soybean phosphocholine (HSPC) as a co-surfactant with SDOSS resulted in bimodal p-MMA/nBA colloidal particles, and experiments showed that ionic interactions with HSPC inhibit SDOSS mobility. However, the controlled release of individual species is detected in the presence of Ca2+ ionic strength stimuli. Utilizing 1,2-bis(10,12-tricosadiynoyl)- sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DCPC), cocklebur-shape particle morphologies were obtained and using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), self-assembled tubules were detected at particle interfaces, but not in the presence of Ca 2+. At altered concentration levels of DCPC, surface localized ionic clusters (SLICs) composed of SDOSS and DCPC form at the F-A and F-S interfaces in response to temperature and ionic strength stimuli. Micelle formation of 1-myristoyl-2-hydroxy-sn-glycero-phosphocholine (MHPC) stabilizes unimodal p-MMA/nBA colloidal particles

  15. Lanthanide Phytanates: Liquid-Crystalline Phase Behavior, Colloidal Particle Dispersions, and Potential as Medical Imaging Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Weerawardena, Asoka; Waddington, Lynne J.; Kennedy, Danielle F.; Drummond, Calum J. (CSIRO/MHT); (CSIRO/MSE)

    2010-08-23

    Lanthanide salts of phytanic acid, an isoprenoid-type amphiphile, have been synthesized and characterized. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were used to confirm the formed product and showed that three phytanate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation. The physicochemical properties of the lanthanide phytanates were investigated using DSC, XRD, SAXS, and cross-polarized optical microscopy. Several of the hydrated salts form a liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar mesophase at room temperature, and samarium(III) phytanate forms this phase even in the absence of water. Select lanthanide phytanates were dispersed in water, and cryo-TEM images indicate that some structure has been retained in the dispersed phase. NMR relaxivity measurements were conducted on these systems. It has been shown that a particulate dispersion of gadolinium(III) phytanate displays proton relaxivity values comparable to those of a commercial contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and a colloidal dispersion of europium(III) phytanate exhibits the characteristics of a fluorescence imaging agent.

  16. Lanthanide Phytanates: Liquid-Crystalline Phase Behavior, Colloidal Particle Dispersions, and Potential as Medical Imaging Agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conn, Charlotte E.; Panchagnula, Venkateswarlu; Weerawardena, Asoka; Waddington, Lynne J.; Kennedy, Danielle F.; Drummond, Calum J.

    2010-01-01

    Lanthanide salts of phytanic acid, an isoprenoid-type amphiphile, have been synthesized and characterized. Elemental analysis and FTIR spectroscopy were used to confirm the formed product and showed that three phytanate anions are complexed with one lanthanide cation. The physicochemical properties of the lanthanide phytanates were investigated using DSC, XRD, SAXS, and cross-polarized optical microscopy. Several of the hydrated salts form a liquid-crystalline hexagonal columnar mesophase at room temperature, and samarium(III) phytanate forms this phase even in the absence of water. Select lanthanide phytanates were dispersed in water, and cryo-TEM images indicate that some structure has been retained in the dispersed phase. NMR relaxivity measurements were conducted on these systems. It has been shown that a particulate dispersion of gadolinium(III) phytanate displays proton relaxivity values comparable to those of a commercial contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging and a colloidal dispersion of europium(III) phytanate exhibits the characteristics of a fluorescence imaging agent.

  17. Evaluation of the organization of the homoionic smectite layers (Na(+) or Ca(2+)) in diluted dispersions using granulometry, microscopy and rheometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paumier, S; Pantet, A; Monnet, P

    2008-09-01

    Smectites are swelling clay materials with pronounced colloidal properties that are widely used in industry. These properties originate in the electrokinetic properties of the smectite layers and their linkage capacities. Thin layers may be dispersed or aggregated according to many parameters, such as concentration, particle size and morphology, exchangeable cation nature and chemical environment (pH, ionic strength). The literature usually provides general rules, like the sodium dispersion contains a lot of small units whereas the calcium dispersion contains a few large units. A volume of water molecules bound to the clay surface is considered as the immobile water phase that behaves like the solid phase obstructing the flow. The water immobilized around layers and trapped inside aggregates cannot participate to the flow. In this study, we evaluated the volume occupied by calcium and sodium units inside the dispersion containing the immobile water phase. First, the smectite was cautiously extracted from a raw bentonite and its physicochemical properties were determined. A large quantity of extracted and saturated smectite (Na-smectite and Ca-smectite) was obtained. Second, the unit size and a shape factor for each sample were evaluated using granulometry and scanning transmission electron microscopy on wet samples (Wet STEM) and some flow curves. Na-smectite dispersions contain 0.13 microm(2) surface units with a shape factor of 50. Ca-smectite dispersions contain 0.32 microm(2) surface units with a shape factor of 3.3. Finally, rheometry allowed us to evaluate the unit occupancy using an adaptation of the Krieger-Dougherty law. We used shape factors and evaluated the concentration from which the entire immobile volume was connected (6.4% for Na-smectite and 11.9% for Ca-smectite). This study explains the evolution of flow properties with increasing concentrations by the evolution of layer interactions at the microscopic scale for homoionic smectite particles in

  18. Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids by electrochemical exfoliation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yueh-Feng [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China); Chen, Shih-Ming; Lai, Wei-Hao [Materials and Chemical Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Chutung, Hsinchu, 31040 Taiwan (China); Sheng, Yu-Jane [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei, 106 Taiwan (China); Tsao, Heng-Kwong [Department of Chemical and Materials Engineering, Department of Physics, National Central University, Jhongli, 320 Taiwan (China)

    2013-08-14

    Superhydrophilic graphite surfaces and water-dispersible graphite colloids are obtained by electrochemical exfoliation with hydrophobic graphite electrodes. Such counterintuitive characteristics are caused by partial oxidation and investigated by examining both graphite electrodes and exfoliated particles after electrolysis. The extent of surface oxidation can be explored through contact angle measurement, scanning electron microscope, electrical sheet resistance, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, zeta-potential analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis, UV-visible, and Raman spectroscopy. The degree of wettability of the graphite anode can be altered by the electrolytic current and time. The water contact angle declines generally with increasing the electrolytic current or time. After a sufficient time, the graphite anode becomes superhydrophilic and its hydrophobicity can be recovered by peeling with adhesive tape. This consequence reveals that the anodic graphite is oxidized by oxygen bubbles but the oxidation just occurs at the outer layers of the graphite sheet. Moreover, the characteristics of oxidation revealed by UV peak shift, peak ratio between D and G bands, and negative zeta-potential indicate the presence of graphite oxide on the outer shell of the exfoliated colloids. However, thermogravimetric analysis for the extent of decomposition of oxygen functional groups verifies that the amount of oxygen groups is significantly less than that of graphite oxide prepared via Hummer method. The structure of this partially oxidized graphite may consist of a graphite core covered with an oxidized shell. The properties of the exfoliated colloids are also influenced by pH of the electrolytic solution. As pH is increased, the extent of oxidation descends and the thickness of oxidized shell decreases. Those results reveal that the degree of oxidation of exfoliated nanoparticles can be manipulated simply by controlling pH.

  19. Colloidal approach to dispersion and enhanced deaggregation of aqueous ferrite suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandanas, Michael Patrick M.

    The role of solution and surface chemistry on deaggregation of calcined ferrites during attrition (stirred-media) milling of aqueous suspensions were investigated. Suspensions of commercially calcined Fe2O 3 powder (d50 ˜ 5.0 mum) were milled at different solid loadings and suspension pH. The drift of suspension pH, from pH 2.5 to pH 7.0, during solid loading experiments accounted for the observed reagglomeration with milling time. The observed deaggregation rates during pH stat milling, in the acidic region, can be related to (i) elevated solubility and (ii) enhanced dispersion via surface charge. Proton adsorption density during pH stat milling at different pH values is also comparable to existing potentiometric titration plots and can be related to deaggregation rates. A passivation-dispersion approach for dispersing manganese zinc ferrite (MnxZn(1 - x)Fe2O4) powder is presented. Addition of oxalic acid can help control dissolution reactions from particle surfaces and is subsequently dispersed with polyethyleneimine (PEI). Fully dissociated oxalic acid (pK1 = 1.2, pK2 = 4.3) solutions reacted with MnxZn(1 - x)Fe 2O4 leads to the formation of a uniform negative charge on the particle surface, resulting from the sparingly soluble salt formed on the surface. The resulting rheological data for passivation/dispersion of relatively high solid MnxZn(1 - x)Fe2O 4 suspensions (˜80 w/o, (˜40 v/o)) demonstrate improved colloid stability with improved rheological properties. Using the passivation dispersion scheme developed, deaggregation of commercially calcined MnxZn(1 - x)Fe2O4 powders during attrition milling was investigated. Reagglomeration is apparent when using a typical treatment, 2 w/w of a sulfonated based naphthalene condensate, during deaggregation of the calcined MnxZn(1 - x)Fe 2O4. However, is not observed for select oxalate/PEI treatments. The determined ideal treatment is 2 w/w oxalate and 3 w/w PEI based on the particle size and rheological

  20. Hydrothermal synthesis of highly water-dispersible anatase nanocrystals from transparent aqueous sols of titanate colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ban, Takayuki; Tanaka, Yusuke; Ohya, Yutaka

    2011-01-01

    Transparent colloidal aqueous solutions of anatase nanocrystals were hydrothermally synthesized from aqueous transparent sols with tetramethylammonium titanate colloids, the surfaces of which were modified with citric acid, by structural conversion of the titanate to anatase. This modification hindered coalescence of the titanate colloids during the hydrothermal synthesis. Although the amount of citric acid adsorbed on the colloids was reduced during hydrothermal treatment, a small amount of citric acid was adsorbed on the resulting anatase nanocrystals. Moreover, the use of the titanate colloids as a precursor was compared with the use of a citrato Ti complex, tetramethylammonium citratotitanate. The hydrothermal treatment of the transparent aqueous solutions of the Ti complex yielded opaque solutions with large anatase colloids, suggesting that the titanate colloids were useful for preparing transparent anatase colloidal solutions. Because the shape and size of resulting colloids may be dependent on the size and shape of starting colloids, the use of titanate colloids as a precursor may make it easy to control size and shape of anatase colloids.

  1. Electro-elastoviscous response of polyaniline functionalized nano-porous zeolite based colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Ankur; Rani, Poonam; Srivastava, Rajendra; Dhar, Purbarun

    2018-06-01

    The present article discusses the typical influence of grafted conducting polymers in the mesoscale pores of dielectric particles on the static and dynamic electrorheology and electro-viscoelastic behavior of corresponding colloids. Nanocrystalline meso-nanoporous zeolite has been prepared by chemical synthesis and subsequently polyaniline (PANI) coating has been implemented. Electrorheological (ER) suspensions have been formed by dispersing the nanoparticles in silicone oil and their viscoelastic behaviors are examined to understand the nature of such complex colloidal systems under electric fields. PANI-Zeolite ER fluids demonstrate higher static electroviscous effects and yield stress potential than untreated Zeolite, typically studied in literature. Transient electro-viscous characterizations show a stable and negligible hysteresis behavior when both the fluids are exposed to constant as well as time varying electric field intensities. Further oscillatory shear experiments of frequency and strain sweeps exhibit predominant elastic behavior in case of Zeolite based ER suspensions as compared to PANI systems. Detailed investigations reveal Zeolite based ER suspensions display enhanced relative yielding as well as electro-viscoelastic stability than the PANI-Zeolite. The steady state viscous behaviors are scaled against the non-dimensional Mason number to model the system behavior for both fluids. Experimental data of flow behaviors of both the ER fluids are compared with semi-classical models and it is found that the CCJ model possesses a closer proximity than traditional Bingham model, thereby revealing the fluids to be generic pseudo-linear fluids. The present article reveals that while the PANI based fluids are typically hailed superior in literature, it is only restricted to steady shear utilities. In case of dynamic and oscillatory systems, the traditional Zeolite based fluids exhibit superior ER caliber. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Surface self-assembly of fluorosurfactants during film formation of MMA/nBA colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreher, W R; Urban, M W

    2004-11-23

    These studies focus on the behavior of fluorosurfactants (FS) containing hydrophobic and ionic entities in the presence of methyl methacrylate/n-butyl acrylate (MMA/nBA) colloidal dispersions stabilized by sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS). The presence of FS significantly not only alters the mobility of SDS in MMA/nBA films, but their hydrophobic and ionic nature results in self-assembly near the film-air (F-A) interface leading to different surface morphologies. Spherical islands and rodlike morphologies are formed which diminish the kinetic coefficient of friction of films by at least 3 orders of magnitude, and the presence of dual hydrophobic tails and an anionic head appears to have the largest effect on the surface friction. Using internal reflection IR imaging, these studies show that structural and chemical features of FS are directly related to their ability to migrate to the F-A interface and self-assemble to form specific morphological features. While the anionic nature of FS allows for SDS migration to the F-A interface and the formation of stable domains across the surface, intermolecular cohesion of nonionic FS allows for the formation of rodlike structures due to inability to form mixed micelles with SDS. These studies also establish the relationship between surface morphologies, kinetic coefficient of friction, and structural features of surfactants in the complex environments.

  3. Deposition of bi-dispersed particles in inkjet-printed evaporating colloidal drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ying; Joshi, Abhijit; Chhasatia, Viral

    2010-11-01

    In this study, the deposition behaviors of inkjet-printed evaporating colloidal drops consisting of bi-dispersed micro and nano-sized particles are investigated by fluorescence microscopy and SEM. The results on hydrophilic glass substrates show that, evaporatively-driven outward flow drives the nanoparticles to deposit close to the pinned contact line while an inner ring deposition is formed by microparticles. This size-induced particle separation is consistent with the existence of a wedge-shaped drop edge near the contact line region of an evaporating drop on a hydrophilic substrate. The replenishing evaporatively-driven flow assembles nanoparticles closer to the pinned contact line forming an outer ring of nanoparticles and this particle jamming further enhances the contact line pinning. Microparticles are observed to form an inner ring inside the nano-sized deposits. This size-induced particle separation presents a new challenge to the uniformity of functional materials in bioprinting applications where nanoparticles and micro-sized cells are mixed together. On the other hand, particle self-assembly based on their sizes provides enables easy and well-controlled pattern formation. The effects of particle size contrast, particle volume fraction, substrate surface energy, and relative humidity of the printing environment on particle separation are examined in detail.

  4. Cell-compatible conducting polyaniline films prepared in colloidal dispersion mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kašpárková, Věra; Humpolíček, Petr; Capáková, Zdenka; Bober, Patrycja; Stejskal, Jaroslav; Trchová, Miroslava; Rejmontová, Petra; Junkar, Ita; Lehocký, Marián; Mozetič, Miran

    2017-09-01

    Conducting polyaniline can be prepared and modified using several procedures, all of which can significantly influence its applicability in different fields of biomedicine or biotechnology. The modifications of surface properties are crucial with respect to the possible applications of this polymer in tissue engineering or as biosensors. Innovative technique for preparing polyaniline films via in-situ polymerization in colloidal dispersion mode using four stabilizers (poly-N-vinylpyrrolidone; sodium dodecylsulfate; Tween 20 and Pluronic F108) was developed. The surface energy, conductivity, spectroscopic features, and cell compatibility of thin polyaniline films were determined using contact-angle measurement, the van der Pauw method, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and assay conducted on mouse fibroblasts, respectively. The stabilizers significantly influenced not only the surface and electrical properties of the films but also their cell compatibility. Sodium dodecylsulfate seems preferentially to combine both the high conductivity and good cell compatibility. Moreover, the films with sodium dodecylsulfate were non-irritant for skin, which was confirmed by their in-vitro exposure to the 3D-reconstructed human tissue model. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Preparation and dispersive properties of Ag colloid by electrical explosion of wire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, G.S.; Bac, L.H.; Kim, J.S.; Kwon, Y.S.; Choi, H.S.; Kim, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Wire diameter and synthetic temperature affect on properties of Ag colloid by EEW. → The lower temperature and smaller diameter make smaller size and narrower size distribution. → Ag colloid are more stable at lower synthetic temperature and smaller size. - Abstract: In this work, Ag colloid was prepared by electrical explosion of wire in deionized water with 0.2 mm and 0.3 mm wire diameter. The temperature of water used for medium of explosion process was change from 20 deg. C to 80 deg. C. Morphology and particle size of nanoparticles was observed by transmission electron microscope. The particle size and size distribution of nanoparticles was found to shift to a smaller size with a decrease of temperature and smaller wire diameter. Surface plasmon resonance of the silver colloids was studied by UV-vis spectroscopy. Stability of silver colloids was investigated by zeta-potential and Turbiscan techniques. The results indicated that temperature of medium during explosion affects much on the stability of Ag colloid. The silver colloidal stability prepared at lower temperature and smaller wire diameter was more stable.

  6. Recovery of Cu(II from diluted aqueous solutions by non-dispersive solvent extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alguacil, E. J.

    2002-08-01

    Full Text Available The removal of copper from diluted aqueous solutions with ACORGA M5640 extractant using non-dispersive solvent extraction technology was studied. It was possible to remove Cu(II below the international standars from solutions having initially as low concentration as 0,01 g/l under various experimental conditions, i.e aqueous pH 4.0, 10 % v/v ACORGA M5640 in Exxol D100, an organic flow of 100 ml/min, and an aqueous flow 50ml/min. Since the removal occurs by chelating ion exchange between copper from solution and protons from the extractant, the former was stripped by using a 180 g/l sulphuric acid solution which flowed (50 ml/min through the tube side organic was passed (400 ml/min through the shell side of the fibers of the module

    Se estudia la eliminación del cobre presente en disoluciones acuosas diluidas empleando el agente de extracción ACORGA M5640 y la tecnología de extracción con disolventes no dispersiva. Bajo las condiciones experimentales estudiadas, pH de la fase acuosa 4,0 ±0,1, 10 % v/v ACORGA M5640 en Exxsol D100, flujo de la fase orgánica 100 ml/min, flujo de la fase acuosa 50 ml/min, es posible eliminar el Cu(II, por debajo de los límites marcados internacionalmente, en disoluciones con un contenido tan bajo como 0,01 g/1 del metal. Debido a que la extracción transcurre mediante un intercambio catiónico (y formación de un compuesto tipo quelato entre el cobre presente en el medio acuoso y los protones del agente de extracción, el metal se puede reextraer mediante la utilización de una disolución de 180 g/1 de ácido sulfúrico que fluye (50 ml/min a través de la parte interior de las fibras del módulo, mientras que la fase orgánica fluye (400 ml/min por la parte exterior de las mismas fibras.

  7. Non-equilibrium magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces: dynamic patterns, magnetic order and self-assembled swimmers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snezhko, Alexey

    2011-01-01

    Colloidal dispersions of interacting particles subjected to an external periodic forcing often develop nontrivial self-assembled patterns and complex collective behavior. A fundamental issue is how collective ordering in such non-equilibrium systems arises from the dynamics of discrete interacting components. In addition, from a practical viewpoint, by working in regimes far from equilibrium new self-organized structures which are generally not available through equilibrium thermodynamics can be created. In this review spontaneous self-assembly phenomena in magnetic colloidal dispersions suspended at liquid-air interfaces and driven out of equilibrium by an alternating magnetic field are presented. Experiments reveal a new type of nontrivially ordered self-assembled structures emerging in such systems in a certain range of excitation parameters. These dynamic structures emerge as a result of the competition between magnetic and hydrodynamic forces and have complex unconventional magnetic ordering. Nontrivial self-induced hydrodynamic fields accompany each out-of-equilibrium pattern. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of the self-induced surface flows leading to a formation of self-propelled microstructures has been discovered. Some features of the self-localized structures can be understood in the framework of the amplitude equation (Ginzburg-Landau type equation) for parametric waves coupled to the conservation law equation describing the evolution of the magnetic particle density and the Navier-Stokes equation for hydrodynamic flows. To understand the fundamental microscopic mechanisms governing self-assembly processes in magnetic colloidal dispersions at liquid-air interfaces a first-principle model for a non-equilibrium self-assembly is presented. The latter model allows us to capture in detail the entire process of out-of-equilibrium self-assembly in the system and reproduces most of the observed phenomenology. (topical review)

  8. Structure of magnetic particles studied by small angle neutron scattering. [Magnetic colloid particles in stable liquid dispersion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cebula, D J; Charles, S W; Popplewell, J

    1981-03-01

    The purpose of this note is to show how the use of small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can provide fundamental information on the structure of magnetic colloid particles in stable liquid dispersion. A more detailed account elaborating the use of the technique to provide fundamental information on interactions will appear later. This contribution contains some principal results on particle structure. The technique of SANS provides a very sensitive means of measuring particle size by measuring the scattered neutron intensity, I(Q), as a function of scattered wave vector, Q.

  9. Density fluctuation in a screened Coulombic colloid dispersion: comparison of the liquid and cubic phases of lipid A-diphosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Helen; Ross, D. Keith; Paradies, Henrich H.

    2004-01-01

    Light-, small-angle X-ray and neutron scattering measurements of the dynamic structure factor S(Q,t) of strong interacting dispersions of lipid A-diphosphate were recorded and analysed applying existing models of liquid state theory. Lipid A-diphosphate ordering was observed at low volume fractions (phi=2.2x10 -4 ) and at very low ionic strength (I=10 -5 M). Upon increasing the particle number density of lipid A-diphosphate a transformation of the lattices of the colloidal crystals from a BCC lattice (a=36.20 nm) to a FCC lattice (a=57.30 nm) occurred. This strongly suggests a similarity in the preformed liquid structure and the cubic colloidal phase. The fit of both S eff (Q) and the principle peak I p (Q) with the effective particle charge supports of the main conclusions drawn from the SANS experiments and the liquid state theory indicating the presence of long-range order for the dispersions of lipid A-diphosphate

  10. Transition edge sensor-energy-dispersive spectrometer (TES-EDS) using a cryogen-free dilution refrigerator for material analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Keiichi; Odawara, Akikazu; Nagata, Atsushi; Ikeda, Masanori; Baba, Yukari; Nakayama, Satoshi; Chinone, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    A cryogen-free energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) using a transition edge sensor (TES) was developed for material analysis. This system can maintain a temperature at 130 mK within 30 μK, and has good energy resolution (19 eV for Mn-Kα) for long-time measurement with a drift in the DC level of less than 0.02 eV/min. This system utilizes a dilution refrigerator (φ 272 mmxheight 572 mm) and has a snout (370 mm long and φ25 mm) similar to that in a conventional EDS system. The dilution refrigerator is pre-cooled by a GM refrigerator. A flexible tube between the dilution refrigerator and GM refrigerator damps the mechanical vibration of the GM refrigerator. Two shields (4 and 80 K) thermally protect the Cu rod (φ8 mm) cooled to be 100 mK. Windows composed of polyimide+Al film allow X-ray detection above the C-Kα line. A TES (6 mmx6 mm) and array SQUID amplifier (1.5 mmx3 mm) are mounted on top of the Cu rod. For Mn-Kα, the pulse height is 5.5 μA and decay time (τ eff ) is 90 μs. The maximum count rate (1/20 τ eff ) is estimated at about 500 cps

  11. Modeling compressible multiphase flows with dispersed particles in both dense and dilute regimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, T.; St. Clair, J.; Balachandar, S.

    2018-05-01

    Many important explosives and energetics applications involve multiphase formulations employing dispersed particles. While considerable progress has been made toward developing mathematical models and computational methodologies for these flows, significant challenges remain. In this work, we apply a mathematical model for compressible multiphase flows with dispersed particles to existing shock and explosive dispersal problems from the literature. The model is cast in an Eulerian framework, treats all phases as compressible, is hyperbolic, and satisfies the second law of thermodynamics. It directly applies the continuous-phase pressure gradient as a forcing function for particle acceleration and thereby retains relaxed characteristics for the dispersed particle phase that remove the constituent material sound velocity from the eigenvalues. This is consistent with the expected characteristics of dispersed particle phases and can significantly improve the stable time-step size for explicit methods. The model is applied to test cases involving the shock and explosive dispersal of solid particles and compared to data from the literature. Computed results compare well with experimental measurements, providing confidence in the model and computational methods applied.

  12. THE STUDYING OF COLLOIDAL-CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF CLAY MINERALS DISPERSIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. Tymchuk

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The element structure is studied, the microscopic analysis of fine-dispersed min­eral systems (ground sediments of a mouth of the river Danube is carried out. The sedimentation process of clay minerals dispersions in solutions of surfactants and macromolecular substances is studied. Concentration intervals of stabilization of investigating dispersions were defined.

  13. Uranium facilitated transport by water-dispersible colloids in field and soil columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crancon, P.; Pili, E. [CEA Bruyeres-le-Chatel, DIF, 91 (France); Charlet, L. [Univ Grenoble 1, Lab Geophys Interne and Tectonophys LGIT OSUG, CNRS, UJF, UMR5559, F-38041 Grenoble 9 (France)

    2010-07-01

    The transport of uranium through a sandy podsolic soil has been investigated in the field and in column experiments. Field monitoring, numerous years after surface contamination by depleted uranium deposits, revealed a 20 cm deep uranium migration in soil. Uranium retention in soil is controlled by the {<=} 50 {mu}m mixed humic and clayey coatings in the first 40 cm i.e. in the E horizon. Column experiments of uranium transport under various conditions were run using isotopic spiking. After 100 pore volumes elution, 60% of the total input uranium is retained in the first 2 cm of the column. Retardation factor of uranium on E horizon material ranges from 1300 (column) to 3000 (batch). In parallel to this slow uranium migration, we experimentally observed a fast elution related to humic colloids of about 1-5% of the total-uranium input, transferred at the mean pore-water velocity through the soil column. In order to understand the effect of rain events, ionic strength of the input solution was sharply changed. Humic colloids are retarded when ionic strength increases, while a major mobilization of humic colloids and colloid-borne uranium occurs as ionic strength decreases. Isotopic spiking shows that both {sup 238}U initially present in the soil column and {sup 233}U brought by input solution are desorbed. The mobilization process observed experimentally after a drop of ionic strength may account for a rapid uranium migration in the field after a rainfall event, and for the significant uranium concentrations found in deep soil horizons and in groundwater, 1 km downstream from the pollution source. (authors)

  14. Uranium facilitated transport by water-dispersible colloids in field and soil columns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crancon, P., E-mail: pierre.crancon@cea.fr [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Pili, E. [CEA, DAM, DIF, F-91297 Arpajon (France); Charlet, L. [Laboratoire de Geophysique Interne et Tectonophysique (LGIT-OSUG), University of Grenoble-I, UMR5559-CNRS-UJF, BP53, 38041 Grenoble cedex 9 (France)

    2010-04-01

    The transport of uranium through a sandy podzolic soil has been investigated in the field and in column experiments. Field monitoring, numerous years after surface contamination by depleted uranium deposits, revealed a 20 cm deep uranium migration in soil. Uranium retention in soil is controlled by the < 50 {mu}m mixed humic and clayey coatings in the first 40 cm i.e. in the E horizon. Column experiments of uranium transport under various conditions were run using isotopic spiking. After 100 pore volumes elution, 60% of the total input uranium is retained in the first 2 cm of the column. Retardation factor of uranium on E horizon material ranges from 1300 (column) to 3000 (batch). In parallel to this slow uranium migration, we experimentally observed a fast elution related to humic colloids of about 1-5% of the total-uranium input, transferred at the mean porewater velocity through the soil column. In order to understand the effect of rain events, ionic strength of the input solution was sharply changed. Humic colloids are retarded when ionic strength increases, while a major mobilization of humic colloids and colloid-borne uranium occurs as ionic strength decreases. Isotopic spiking shows that both {sup 238}U initially present in the soil column and {sup 233}U brought by input solution are desorbed. The mobilization process observed experimentally after a drop of ionic strength may account for a rapid uranium migration in the field after a rainfall event, and for the significant uranium concentrations found in deep soil horizons and in groundwater, 1 km downstream from the pollution source.

  15. Measurements of dispersion forces between colloidal latex particles with the atomic force microscope and comparison with Lifshitz theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzbieciak-Wodka, Magdalena; Ruiz-Cabello, F. Javier Montes; Trefalt, Gregor; Maroni, Plinio; Borkovec, Michal, E-mail: michal.borkovec@unige.ch [Department of Inorganic and Analytical Chemistry, University of Geneva, Sciences II, 30, Quai Ernest-Ansermet, 1205 Geneva (Switzerland); Popescu, Mihail N. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2014-03-14

    Interaction forces between carboxylate colloidal latex particles of about 2 μm in diameter immersed in aqueous solutions of monovalent salts were measured with the colloidal probe technique, which is based on the atomic force microscope. We have systematically varied the ionic strength, the type of salt, and also the surface charge densities of the particles through changes in the solution pH. Based on these measurements, we have accurately measured the dispersion forces acting between the particles and estimated the apparent Hamaker constant to be (2.0 ± 0.5) × 10{sup −21} J at a separation distance of about 10 nm. This value is basically independent of the salt concentration and the type of salt. Good agreement with Lifshitz theory is found when roughness effects are taken into account. The combination of retardation and roughness effects reduces the value of the apparent Hamaker constant and its ionic strength dependence with respect to the case of ideally smooth surfaces.

  16. Magnetic field dependence observed by 27 Al NMR of species contained in alumina colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgado Junior, Edisson; Menezes, Sonia M.C.; San Gil, Rosane

    1995-01-01

    The behaviour of some aluminium species front a magnetic field have been investigated by 27 Al NMR analysis, this method was used for characterization of an octahedric aluminium specie from sols prepared by bohemite acid peptization. X-ray diffraction data have identified the mineral structure. The results have been shown and discussed, and NMR spectra were also presented and studied. Concluding this work, the nature of a colloidal specie of alumina was clarified through the dependence research of magnetic field by 27 Al NMR

  17. Effects of confinement and external fields on structure and transport in colloidal dispersions in reduced dimensionality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilms, D; Virnau, P; Binder, K; Deutschländer, S; Siems, U; Franzrahe, K; Henseler, P; Keim, P; Schwierz, N; Maret, G; Nielaba, P

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we focus on low-dimensional colloidal model systems, via simulation studies and also some complementary experiments, in order to elucidate the interplay between phase behavior, geometric structures and transport properties. In particular, we try to investigate the (nonlinear!) response of these very soft colloidal systems to various perturbations: uniform and uniaxial pressure, laser fields, shear due to moving boundaries and randomly quenched disorder. We study ordering phenomena on surfaces or in monolayers by Monte Carlo computer simulations of binary hard-disk mixtures, the influence of a substrate being modeled by an external potential. Weak external fields allow a controlled tuning of the miscibility of the mixture. We discuss the laser induced de-mixing for the three different possible couplings to the external potential. The structural behavior of hard spheres interacting with repulsive screened Coulomb or dipolar interaction in 2D and 3D narrow constrictions is investigated using Brownian dynamics simulations. Due to misfits between multiples of the lattice parameter and the channel widths, a variety of ordered and disordered lattice structures have been observed. The resulting local lattice structures and defect probabilities are studied for various cross sections. The influence of a self-organized order within the system is reflected in the velocity of the particles and their diffusive behavior. Additionally, in an experimental system of dipolar colloidal particles confined by gravity on a solid substrate we investigate the effect of pinning on the dynamics of a two-dimensional colloidal liquid. This work contains sections reviewing previous work by the authors as well as new, unpublished results. Among the latter are detailed studies of the phase boundaries of the de-mixing regime in binary systems in external light fields, configurations for shear induced effects at structured walls, studies on the effect of confinement on the structures

  18. Degradation of chitosan hydrogel dispersed in dilute carboxylic acids by solution plasma and evaluation of anticancer activity of degraded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chokradjaroen, Chayanaphat; Rujiravanit, Ratana; Theeramunkong, Sewan; Saito, Nagahiro

    2018-01-01

    Chitosan is a polysaccharide that has been extensively studied in the field of biomedicine, especially its water-soluble degraded products called chitooligosaccharides (COS). In this study, COS were produced by the degradation of chitosan hydrogel dispersed in a dilute solution (i.e., 1.55 mM) of various kinds of carboxylic acids using a non-thermal plasma technology called solution plasma (SP). The degradation rates of chitosan were influenced by the type of carboxylic acids, depending on the interaction between chitosan and each carboxylic acid. After SP treatment, the water-soluble degraded products containing COS could be easily separated from the water-insoluble residue of chitosan hydrogel by centrifugation. The production yields of the COS were mostly higher than 55%. Furthermore, the obtained COS products were evaluated for their inhibitory effect as well as their selectivity against human lung cancer cells (H460) and human lung normal cells (MRC-5).

  19. Particle morphology as a control of permeation in polymer films obtained from MMA/nBA colloidal dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestage, David J; Urban, Marek W

    2004-07-20

    The combination of precision-controlled weight loss measurements and spectroscopic surface FT-IR analysis allowed us to identify unique behaviors of poly(methyl methacrylate) (p-MMA). When MMA and n-butyl acrylate (nBA) are polymerized into p-MMA and p-nBA homopolymer blends, MMA/nBA random copolymers, and p-MMA/p-nBA core-shell morphologies, a controlled mobility and stratification of low molecular weight components occurs in films formed from coalesced colloidal dispersions. Due to different affinities toward water, p-MMA and p-nBA are capable of releasing water at different rates, depending upon particle morphological features of initial dispersions. As coalescence progresses, water molecules are released from the high free volume p-nBA particles, whereas p-MMA retains water molecules for the longest time due to its hydrophilic nature. As a result, water losses at extended coalescence times are relatively small for p-MMA. MMA/nBA copolymer and p-MMA/p-nBA blends follow the same trends, although the magnitudes of changes are not as pronounced. The p-MMA/p-nBA core-shell behavior resembles that of p-nBA homopolymer, which is attributed to significantly lower content of the p-MMA component in particles. Annealing of coalesced colloidal films at elevated temperatures causes migration of SDOSS to the F-A interface, but for films containing primarily p-nBA, reverse diffusion back into the bulk is observed. These studies illustrate that the combination of different particle morphologies and temperatures leads to controllable permeation processes through polymeric films. Copyright 2004 American Chemical Society

  20. Amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (Amphocil) vs fluconazole for the prevention of fungal infections in neutropenic patients : data of a prematurely stopped clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmers, G J; Zweegman, S; Simoons-Smit, A M; van Loenen, A C; Touw, D; Huijgens, P C

    We conducted an open label, randomised clinical trial to compare amphotericin B colloidal dispersion (ABCD, Amphocil) 2 mg/kg/day intravenously with fluconazole 200 mg/day orally, for the prevention of fungal disease in neutropenic patients with haematological malignancies. In the event of

  1. Bio-inactivation of human malignant cells through highly responsive diluted colloidal suspension of functionalized magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Roberta V. [Federal Center of Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Department of Materials (Brazil); Silva-Caldeira, Priscila P. [Federal Center of Technological Education of Minas Gerais, Department of Chemistry (Brazil); Pereira-Maia, Elene C.; Fabris, José D.; Cavalcante, Luis Carlos D. [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry – ICEx (Brazil); Ardisson, José D. [Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) (Brazil); Domingues, Rosana Z., E-mail: rosanazd@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: rosanazd@ufmg.br [Federal University of Minas Gerais (UFMG), Department of Chemistry – ICEx (Brazil)

    2016-04-15

    Magnetic fluids, more specifically aqueous colloidal suspensions containing certain magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), have recently been gaining special interest due to their potential use in clinical treatments of cancerous formations in mammalians. The technological application arises mainly from their hyperthermic behavior, which means that the nanoparticles dissipate heat upon being exposed to an alternating magnetic field (AMF). If the temperature is raised to slightly above 43 °C, cancer cells are functionally inactivated or killed; however, normal cells tend to survive under those same conditions, entirely maintaining their bioactivity. Recent in vitro studies have revealed that under simultaneous exposure to an AMF and magnetic nanoparticles, certain lines of cancer cells are bio-inactivated even without experiencing a significant temperature increase. This non-thermal effect is cell specific, indicating that MNPs, under alternating magnetic fields, may effectively kill cancer cells under conditions that were previously thought to be implausible, considering that the temperature does not increase more than 5 °C, which is also true in cases for which the concentration of MNPs is too low. To experimentally test for this effect, this study focused on the feasibility of inducing K562 cell death using an AMF and aqueous suspensions containing very low concentrations of MNPs. The assay was designed for a ferrofluid containing magnetite nanoparticles, which were obtained through the co-precipitation method and were functionalized with citric acid; the particles had an average diameter of 10 ± 2 nm and a mean hydrodynamic diameter of approximately 40 nm. Experiments were first performed to test for the ability of the ferrofluid to release heat under an AMF. The results show that for concentrations ranging from 2.5 to 1.0 × 10{sup 3} mg L{sup −1}, the maximum temperature increase was actually less than 2 °C. However, the in vitro test results from K

  2. Measurements of Turbulence Attenuation by a Dilute Dispersion of Solid Particles in Homogeneous Isotropic Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eaton, John; Hwang, Wontae; Cabral, Patrick

    2002-11-01

    This research addresses turbulent gas flows laden with fine solid particles at sufficiently large mass loading that strong two-way coupling occurs. By two-way coupling we mean that the particle motion is governed largely by the flow, while the particles affect the gas-phase mean flow and the turbulence properties. Our main interest is in understanding how the particles affect the turbulence. Computational techniques have been developed which can accurately predict flows carrying particles that are much smaller than the smallest scales of turbulence. Also, advanced computational techniques and burgeoning computer resources make it feasible to fully resolve very large particles moving through turbulent flows. However, flows with particle diameters of the same order as the Kolmogorov scale of the turbulence are notoriously difficult to predict. Some simple flows show strong turbulence attenuation with reductions in the turbulent kinetic energy by up to a factor of five. On the other hand, some seemingly similar flows show almost no modification. No model has been proposed that allows prediction of when the strong attenuation will occur. Unfortunately, many technological and natural two-phase flows fall into this regime, so there is a strong need for new physical understanding and modeling capability. Our objective is to study the simplest possible turbulent particle-laden flow, namely homogeneous, isotropic turbulence with a uniform dispersion of monodisperse particles. We chose such a simple flow for two reasons. First, the simplicity allows us to probe the interaction in more detail and offers analytical simplicity in interpreting the results. Secondly, this flow can be addressed by numerical simulation, and many research groups are already working on calculating the flow. Our detailed data can help guide some of these efforts. By using microgravity, we can further simplify the flow to the case of no mean velocity for either the turbulence or the particles. In fact

  3. Evolution of colloidal dispersions in novel time-varying optical potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koss, Brian Alan

    Optical traps use forces exerted by a tightly focused light beam to trap objects from tens of nanometers to tens of micrometers in size. Since their introduction in 1986, optical tweezers have become very useful to biology, chemistry, and soft condensed-matter physics. Work presented here, promises to advance optical tweezers not only in fundamental scientific research, but also in applications outside of the laboratory and into the mainstream of miniaturized manufacturing and diagnostics. By providing unprecedented access to the mesoscopic world, a new generation of optical traps, called Dynamic Holographic Optical Tweezers (HOTs) offers revolutionary new opportunities for fundamental and applied research. To demonstrate this technique, HOTs will be used to pump particles via a new method of transport called Optical Peristalsis (OP). OP is efficient method for transporting mesoscopic objects in three dimensions using short repetitive sequences of holographic optical trapping patterns. Transport in this process is analogous to peristaltic pumping, with the configurations of optical traps mimicking states of a peristaltic pump. While not limited to the deterministic particle transport, OP, can also be a platform to investigate the stochastic limit of particle transport. Advances in recent years have demonstrated that a variety of time-varying perturbations can induce drift in a diffusive system without exerting an overall force. Among these, are thermal ratchet models in which the system is subjected to time-varying energy landscapes that break spatiotemporal symmetry and thereby induce drift. Typically, the potential energy landscape is chosen to be the sawtooth potential. This work describes an alternate class of symmetric thermal ratchet models, that are not sawtooth, and demonstrates their efficacy in biasing the diffusion of colloidal spheres in both the stochastic and deterministic limits. Unlike previous models, each state in this thermal ratchet consists of

  4. On the effects from the simultaneous occurrence of the critical Casimir and dispersion forces between conical colloid particle and a thick plate immersed in nonpolar critical fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valchev Galin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Here we study the interplay between the van der Waals (vdWF and critical Casimir forces (CCF, as well as the total force (TF between a conical colloid particle and a thick planar slab. We do that using general scaling arguments and mean-field type calculations utilizing the so-called “surface integration approach”, a generalization of the well known Derjaguin approximation. Its usage in the present research, requires knowledge on the forces between two parallel slabs, confining in between some fluctuating fluid medium characterized by its temperature T and chemical potential μ. The surfaces of the colloid particle and the slab are assumed coated by thin layers exerting strong preference to the liquid phase of a simple fluid, or one of the components of a binary mixture, modeled by strong adsorbing local surface potentials, ensuring the so-called (+,+ boundary conditions. On the other hand, the core region of the slab and the particle, influence the fluid by long-ranged competing dispersion potentials. We demonstrate that for a suitable set of colloid-fluid, slab-fluid, and fluid-fluid coupling parameters the competition between the effects due to the coatings and the core regions of the objects, result, when one changes T or μ, in sign change of the Casimir force (CF and the TF acting between the colloid and the slab. Such an effect can provide a strategy for solving problems with handling, feeding, trapping and fixing of microparts in nanotechnology.

  5. On the nature of fibres grown from nanodiamond colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batsanov, Stepan S., E-mail: batsanov@mail.ru [National Research Institute of Physical-Technical Measurements, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Guriev, Dmitry L.; Gavrilkin, Sergey M. [National Research Institute of Physical-Technical Measurements, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Hamilton, Katherine A.; Lindsey, Keith [School of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Mendis, Budhika G. [Physics Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom); Riggs, Helen J.; Batsanov, Andrei S. [Chemistry Department, Durham University, Durham (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-15

    Contrary to earlier assumptions, the fibres spontaneously forming in aqueous colloids of detonation-produced nanodiamond (ND), do not consist purely of ND particles but are agglomerates of the latter with water and/or soft matter of biological (probably fungal) origin, as shown by elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical refractometry, optical and electron (TEM and ESEM)microscopy, as well as biological staining tests. - Graphical abstract: Fibres spontaneously formed in water colloids of nanodiamond, consist of diamond nanoparticles dispersed in bioorganic matter. - Highlights: • Entangled fibres slowly grow in dilute (∼0.1%) colloids of nanodiamond in water. • Refractive index (∼1.56), electron microscopy and CHN analysis indicate nanodiamond dispersed in organic matter. • Explanation: nanodiamond grains help the growth of fungi which assemble them.

  6. On the nature of fibres grown from nanodiamond colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsanov, Stepan S.; Guriev, Dmitry L.; Gavrilkin, Sergey M.; Hamilton, Katherine A.; Lindsey, Keith; Mendis, Budhika G.; Riggs, Helen J.; Batsanov, Andrei S.

    2016-01-01

    Contrary to earlier assumptions, the fibres spontaneously forming in aqueous colloids of detonation-produced nanodiamond (ND), do not consist purely of ND particles but are agglomerates of the latter with water and/or soft matter of biological (probably fungal) origin, as shown by elemental analysis, IR and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, optical refractometry, optical and electron (TEM and ESEM)microscopy, as well as biological staining tests. - Graphical abstract: Fibres spontaneously formed in water colloids of nanodiamond, consist of diamond nanoparticles dispersed in bioorganic matter. - Highlights: • Entangled fibres slowly grow in dilute (∼0.1%) colloids of nanodiamond in water. • Refractive index (∼1.56), electron microscopy and CHN analysis indicate nanodiamond dispersed in organic matter. • Explanation: nanodiamond grains help the growth of fungi which assemble them.

  7. EDITORIAL: Colloidal suspensions Colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petukhov, Andrei; Kegel, Willem; van Duijneveldt, Jeroen

    2011-05-01

    fluid-fluid interface [2]. Together with Remco Tuinier, Henk has recently completed a book in this area which is to appear later this year. A major theme in Henk's research is that of phase transitions in lyotropic liquid crystals. Henk, together with Daan Frenkel and Alain Stroobants, realized in the 1980s that a smectic phase in dispersions of rod-like particles can be stable without the presence of attractive interactions, similar to nematic ordering as predicted earlier by Onsager [3]. Together with Gert-Jan Vroege he wrote a seminal review in this area [4]. Henk once said that 'one can only truly develop one colloidal model system in one's career' and in his case this must be that of gibbsite platelets. Initially Henk's group pursued another polymorph of aluminium hydroxide, boehmite, which forms rod-like particles [5], which already displayed nematic liquid crystal phases. The real breakthrough came when the same precursors treated the produced gibbsite platelets slightly differently. These reliably form a discotic nematic phase [6] and, despite the polydispersity in their diameter, a columnar phase [7]. A theme encompassing a wide range of soft matter systems is that of colloidal dynamics and phase transition kinetics. Many colloidal systems have a tendency to get stuck in metastable states, such as gels or glasses. This is a nuisance if one wishes to study phase transitions, but it is of great practical significance. Such issues feature in many of Henk's publications, and with Valerie Anderson he wrote a highly cited review in this area [8]. Henk Lekkerkerker has also invested significant effort into the promotion of synchrotron radiation studies of colloidal suspensions. He was one of the great supporters of the Dutch-Belgian beamline 'DUBBLE' project at the ESRF [9]. He attended one of the very first experiments in Grenoble in 1999, which led to a Nature publication [7]. He was strongly involved in many other experiments which followed and also has been a

  8. Spatial and Temporal Variability in Colloid Dispersion as a Function of Groundwater Injection Rate within Atlantic Coastal Plain Sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seaman, J.C.; P.M. Bertsch and D.I. Kaplan

    2007-01-01

    A subsurface injection experiment was conducted on the USDOE's Savannah River Site (SRS) to determine the influence of pump-and-treat remediation activities on the generation and transport of groundwater colloids. The impact of colloid generation on formation permeability at injection rates ranging from 19 to 132 L min -1 was monitored using a set of six sampling wells radially spaced at approximate distances of 2.0, 3.0, and 4.5 m from a central injection well. Each sampling well was further divided into three discrete sampling depths that were pumped continuously at a rate of ∼0.1 L min -1 throughout the course of the injection experiment. Discrete samples were collected for turbidity and chemical analysis. Turbidity varied greatly between sampling wells and zones within a given well, ranging from 1 (micro)m) to be readily mobile within the formation. Turbidity measurements taken during this study indicate that colloid mobilization induced by water injection was both spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Furthermore, colloid release did not follow simple predictions based on shear force, presumably due to the complexities encountered in real heterogeneous systems. These findings have important implications to our understanding of how colloids and the co-contaminants are mobilized in the subsurface environment, as well as for the development of monitoring practices that minimize the creation of colloidal artifacts. Technical and logistical obstacles encountered in conducting such an extensive field experiment are also discussed

  9. Preface: Proceedings of the Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields II Conference (Bonn-Bad Godesberg, 31 March 2 April 2008)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwen, H.

    2008-10-01

    This special issue reflects the scientific programme of the International Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields Conference (CODEF II) that took place in Bonn-Bad Godesberg from 31 March-2 April 2008. This is the second conference in a series that started in 2004 when the first CODEF meeting was held. The proceedings of the first CODEF meeting were summarized in a previous special issue (Journal of Physics: Condensed Matter 16 (issue 38)). The present issue represents recent progress in this rapidly developing field. The CODEF meeting series is held in conjunction with the German-Dutch Transregional Collaborative Research Centre SFB TR6 with the title Physics of Colloidal Dispersions in External Fields. Scientists working within this network as well as international invited guest speakers contributed to these meetings. The contributions in this issue are organized according to the type of different fields applied namely: bulk (no external field) shear flow electric field magnetic and laser-optical field confinement We would like to thank the CODEF II sponsors (Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft and MWFZ Mainz) for their financial support. Furthermore, we thank IOP Publishing for their willingness to publish the proceedings of this conference as a special issue. Participants O Alarcón-Waess (Puebla), M Allen (Coventry), J L Arauz-Lara (San Luis Potosi), L Assoud (Düsseldorf), G K Auernhammer (Mainz), R Backofen (Dresden), M Balbás-Gambra (Munich), J Bammert (Bayreuth), M Baptista (Mainz), J-L Barrat (Lyon), M Bier (Utrecht), K Binder (Mainz), R Blaak (Düsseldorf), V Blickle (Stuttgart), D Block (Kiel), S Böhm (Düsseldorf), V Botan (Mainz), J P Bouchaud (Paris), J Brader (Konstanz), G Brambilla (Montpellier), W J Briels (Enschede), M Brinkmann (Göttingen), C Brunet (Paris), H-J Butt (Mainz), M A Camargo Chaparro (Düsseldorf), R Castañeda Priego (Guanajuato), J J Cerdà Pino (Frankfurt), A Chatterji (Jülich), M Chavez Paez (San Luis Potosi), A Chremos

  10. Electrokinetic investigations on the system polystyrene/aqueous electrolyte solution : verification of model theories on dilute and concentrated dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Put, van der A.G.

    1980-01-01

    This thesis presents a systematic experimental and theoretical study on electrokinetic and electroconducting properties of disperse systems. The increasing interest in transport processes through charged porous systems has recently brought about a corresponding growth of models and theories since

  11. Analysis of colloid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.J.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The population balance methodology is described and applied to the transport and capture of polydispersed colloids in packed columns. The transient model includes particle growth, capture, convective transport, and dispersion. We also follow the dynamic accumulation of captured colloids on the solids. The multidimensional parabolic partial differential equation was solved by a recently enhanced method of characteristics technique. This computational technique minimized numerical dispersion and is computationally very fast. The FORTRAN 77 code ran on a VAX-780 in less than a minute and also runs on an IBM-AT using the Professional FORTRAN compiler. The code was extensively tested against various simplified cases and against analytical models. The packed column experiments by Saltelli et al. were re-analyzed incorporating the experimentally reported size distribution of the colloid feed material. Colloid capture was modeled using a linear size dependent filtration function. The effects of a colloid size dependent filtration factor and various initial colloid size distributions on colloid migration and capture were investigated. Also, we followed the changing colloid size distribution as a function of position in the column. Some simple arguments are made to assess the likelihood of colloid migration at a potential NTS Yucca Mountain waste disposal site. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  12. Colloidal dispersions of conducting copolymers of aniline and p-phenylenediamine for films with enhanced conductometric sensitivity to temperature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, Yu; Bober, Patrycja; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 5, č. 7 (2017), s. 1668-1674 ISSN 2050-7526 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-05568P Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : colloids * polyaniline * poly(p-phenylenediamine) Subject RIV: JI - Composite Materials OBOR OECD: Composites (including laminates, reinforced plastics, cermets, combined natural and synthetic fibre fabrics Impact factor: 5.256, year: 2016

  13. A compressible two-phase model for dispersed particle flows with application from dense to dilute regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Thomas P., E-mail: thomas.p.mcgrath@navy.mil [Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian Head Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division, 4013 Fowler Rd., Indian Head, Maryland 20640 (United States); St Clair, Jeffrey G. [Naval Surface Warfare Center Indian Head Explosive Ordnance Disposal Technology Division, 4013 Fowler Rd., Indian Head, Maryland 20640 (United States); Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 231 MAE-A, P.O. Box 116250, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States); Balachandar, S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of Florida, 231 MAE-A, P.O. Box 116250, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)

    2016-05-07

    Multiphase flows are present in many important fields ranging from multiphase explosions to chemical processing. An important subset of multiphase flow applications involves dispersed materials, such as particles, droplets, and bubbles. This work presents an Eulerian–Eulerian model for multiphase flows containing dispersed particles surrounded by a continuous media such as air or water. Following a large body of multiphase literature, the driving force for particle acceleration is modeled as a direct function of both the continuous-phase pressure gradient and the gradient of intergranular stress existing within the particle phase. While the application of these two components of driving force is well accepted in much of the literature, other models exist in which the particle-phase pressure gradient itself drives particle motion. The multiphase model treats all phases as compressible and is derived to ensure adherence to the 2nd Law of Thermodynamics. The governing equations are presented and discussed, and a characteristic analysis shows the model to be hyperbolic, with a degeneracy in the case that the intergranular stress, which is modeled as a configuration pressure, is zero. Finally, results from a two sample problems involving shock-induced particle dispersion are presented. The results agree well with experimental measurements, providing initial confidence in the proposed model.

  14. Confocal microscopy of colloidal dispersions in shear flow using a counter-rotating cone-plate shear cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derks, Didi; Wisman, Hans; Blaaderen, Alfons van; Imhof, Arnout

    2004-01-01

    We report on novel possibilities for studying colloidal suspensions in a steady shear field in real space. Fluorescence confocal microscopy is combined with the use of a counter-rotating cone-plate shear cell. This allows imaging of individual particles in the bulk of a sheared suspension in a stationary plane. Moreover, this plane of zero velocity can be moved in the velocity gradient direction while keeping the shear rate constant. The colloidal system under study consists of rhodamine labelled PMMA spheres in a nearly density and refractive index matched mixture of cyclohexylbromide and cis-decalin. We show measured flow profiles in both the fluid and the crystalline phase and find indications for shear banding in the case of a sheared crystal. Furthermore, we show that, thanks to the counter-rotating principle of the cone-plate shear cell, a layer of particles in the bulk of a sheared crystalline suspension can be imaged for a prolonged time, with the result that their positions can be tracked

  15. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds as gene carriers: development of stable colloidal dispersion for in vitro cellular uptake studies and siRNA delivery application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwani, Saniya; Kaur, Randeep; Michel, Deborah; Chitanda, Jackson M; Verrall, Ronald E; Karunakaran, Chithra; Badea, Ildiko

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as an attractive tool for gene therapeutics. To reach their full potential for biological application, NDs should maintain their colloidal stability in biological milieu. This study describes the behavior of lysine-functionalized ND (lys-ND) in various dispersion media, with an aim to limit aggregation and improve the colloidal stability of ND-gene complexes called diamoplexes. Furthermore, cellular and macromolecular interactions of lys-NDs are also analyzed in vitro to establish the understanding of ND-mediated gene transfer in cells. Methods lys-NDs were synthesized earlier through covalent conjugation of lysine amino acid to carboxylated NDs surface generated through re-oxidation in strong oxidizing acids. In this study, dispersions of lys-NDs were prepared in various media, and the degree of sedimentation was monitored for 72 hours. Particle size distributions and zeta potential measurements were performed for a period of 25 days to characterize the physicochemical stability of lys-NDs in the medium. The interaction profile of lys-NDs with fetal bovine serum showed formation of a protein corona, which was evaluated by size and charge distribution measurements. Uptake of lys-NDs in cervical cancer cells was analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cellular uptake of diamoplexes (complex of lys-NDs with small interfering RNA) was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Results Aqueous dispersion of lys-NDs showed minimum sedimentation and remained stable over a period of 25 days. Size distributions showed good stability, remaining under 100 nm throughout the testing period. A positive zeta potential of >+20 mV indicated a preservation of surface charges. Size distribution and zeta potential changed for lys-NDs after incubation with blood serum, suggesting an interaction with biomolecules, mainly proteins, and a possible formation of a protein corona. Cellular internalization

  16. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds as gene carriers: development of stable colloidal dispersion for in vitro cellular uptake studies and siRNA delivery application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwani, Saniya; Kaur, Randeep; Michel, Deborah; Chitanda, Jackson M; Verrall, Ronald E; Karunakaran, Chithra; Badea, Ildiko

    2016-01-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) are emerging as an attractive tool for gene therapeutics. To reach their full potential for biological application, NDs should maintain their colloidal stability in biological milieu. This study describes the behavior of lysine-functionalized ND (lys-ND) in various dispersion media, with an aim to limit aggregation and improve the colloidal stability of ND-gene complexes called diamoplexes. Furthermore, cellular and macromolecular interactions of lys-NDs are also analyzed in vitro to establish the understanding of ND-mediated gene transfer in cells. lys-NDs were synthesized earlier through covalent conjugation of lysine amino acid to carboxylated NDs surface generated through re-oxidation in strong oxidizing acids. In this study, dispersions of lys-NDs were prepared in various media, and the degree of sedimentation was monitored for 72 hours. Particle size distributions and zeta potential measurements were performed for a period of 25 days to characterize the physicochemical stability of lys-NDs in the medium. The interaction profile of lys-NDs with fetal bovine serum showed formation of a protein corona, which was evaluated by size and charge distribution measurements. Uptake of lys-NDs in cervical cancer cells was analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cellular uptake of diamoplexes (complex of lys-NDs with small interfering RNA) was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Aqueous dispersion of lys-NDs showed minimum sedimentation and remained stable over a period of 25 days. Size distributions showed good stability, remaining under 100 nm throughout the testing period. A positive zeta potential of >+20 mV indicated a preservation of surface charges. Size distribution and zeta potential changed for lys-NDs after incubation with blood serum, suggesting an interaction with biomolecules, mainly proteins, and a possible formation of a protein corona. Cellular internalization of lys-NDs was confirmed

  17. Rheological and DSC study of sol-gel transition in aqueous dispersions of industrially important polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishinari, K. [Osaka City Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Food and Nutrition

    1997-12-01

    Gelation kinetics, mechanical spectra, thermal scanning rheology (TSR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) in aqueous solutions of gelling polymers and colloids such as seaweed polysaccharides (agarose, carrageenans), microbial polysaccharides (gellan, curdlan), plant polysaccharides (methylcellulose), globular proteins (casein, glycinin, {beta}-conglycinin), fibrous proteins (gelatin, fibrin), and polyvinyl alcohol, which are related to foods, cosmetics, biomedical and pharmaceutical applications, are described. Some gelation processes at a constant temperature have been treated successfully by an equation of first order kinetics or by other modified equations, and the molecular mechanism of gel formation is discussed briefly. For water-soluble polymers, the criterion of the gel or sol based on the frequency dependence of storage and loss moduli gives valuable informations. TSR and DSC are complementary, and the combination of these methods has been proved to be useful. (orig.) 81 refs.

  18. Lysine-functionalized nanodiamonds as gene carriers: development of stable colloidal dispersion for in vitro cellular uptake studies and siRNA delivery application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alwani S

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Saniya Alwani,1 Randeep Kaur,1 Deborah Michel,1 Jackson M Chitanda,2 Ronald E Verrall,3 Chithra Karunakaran,4 Ildiko Badea1 1Drug Design and Discovery Research Group, College of Pharmacy and Nutrition, 2Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, 3Department of Chemistry, University of Saskatchewan, 4Canadian Light Source, Saskatoon, SK, Canada Purpose: Nanodiamonds (NDs are emerging as an attractive tool for gene therapeutics. To reach their full potential for biological application, NDs should maintain their colloidal stability in biological milieu. This study describes the behavior of lysine-functionalized ND (lys-ND in various dispersion media, with an aim to limit aggregation and improve the colloidal stability of ND-gene complexes called diamoplexes. Furthermore, cellular and macromolecular interactions of lys-NDs are also analyzed in vitro to establish the understanding of ND-mediated gene transfer in cells. Methods: lys-NDs were synthesized earlier through covalent conjugation of lysine amino acid to carboxylated NDs surface generated through re-oxidation in strong oxidizing acids. In this study, dispersions of lys-NDs were prepared in various media, and the degree of sedimentation was monitored for 72 hours. Particle size distributions and zeta potential measurements were performed for a period of 25 days to characterize the physicochemical stability of lys-NDs in the medium. The interaction profile of lys-NDs with fetal bovine serum showed formation of a protein corona, which was evaluated by size and charge distribution measurements. Uptake of lys-NDs in cervical cancer cells was analyzed by scanning transmission X-ray microscopy, flow cytometry, and confocal microscopy. Cellular uptake of diamoplexes (complex of lys-NDs with small interfering RNA was also analyzed using flow cytometry. Results: Aqueous dispersion of lys-NDs showed minimum sedimentation and remained stable over a period of 25 days. Size distributions showed

  19. Characterization of the dimensions of colloidal calcium carbonate dispersions in toluene with neutron small-angle scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlak, W.A.H.M.; Dorrepaal, J.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium carbonate particles, stabilized by a surface layer, and dispersed in toluene are investigated with neutron small-angle scattering. Estimates for the dimensions of the core particle and the layer have been obtained: the layer thickness is 8.6 A and the core particle radius is 16.5 A. The limits within which these results are valid are indicated. (Auth.)

  20. Dynamic localization and shear-induced hopping of particles: A way to understand the rheology of dense colloidal dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Tianying; Zukoski, Charles F.

    2014-01-01

    For decades, attempts have been made to understand the formation of colloidal glasses and gels by linking suspension mechanics to particle properties where details of size, shape, and spatial dependencies of pair potentials present a bewildering array of variables that can be manipulated to achieve observed properties. Despite the range of variables that control suspension properties, one consistent observation is the remarkably similarity of flow properties observed as particle properties are varied. Understanding the underlying origins of the commonality in those behaviors (e.g., shear-thinning with increasing stress, diverging zero shear rate viscosity with increasing volume fraction, development of a dynamic yield stress plateau with increases in volume faction or strength of attraction, development of two characteristic relaxation times probed in linear viscoelasticity, the creation of a rubbery plateau modulus at high strain frequencies, and shear-thickening) remains a challenge. Recently, naïve mode coupling and dynamic localization theories have been developed to capture collective behavior giving rise to formation of colloidal glasses and gels. This approach characterizes suspension mechanics of strongly interacting particles in terms of sluggish long-range particle diffusion modulated by varying particle interactions and volume fraction. These theories capture the scaling of the modulus with the volume fraction and strength of interparticle attraction, the frequency dependence of the moduli at the onset of the gel/glass transition, together with the divergence of the zero shear rate viscosity and cessation of diffusivity for hard sphere systems as close packing is approached. In this study, we explore the generality of the predictions of dynamic localization theory for systems of particles composed of bimodal particle size distributions experiencing weak interactions. We find that the mechanical properties of these suspensions are well captured within

  1. Dynamic localization and shear-induced hopping of particles: A way to understand the rheology of dense colloidal dispersions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Tianying; Zukoski, Charles F., E-mail: czukoski@illinois.edu [Department of Chemical and Biomolecular Engineering, University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 (United States)

    2014-09-01

    For decades, attempts have been made to understand the formation of colloidal glasses and gels by linking suspension mechanics to particle properties where details of size, shape, and spatial dependencies of pair potentials present a bewildering array of variables that can be manipulated to achieve observed properties. Despite the range of variables that control suspension properties, one consistent observation is the remarkably similarity of flow properties observed as particle properties are varied. Understanding the underlying origins of the commonality in those behaviors (e.g., shear-thinning with increasing stress, diverging zero shear rate viscosity with increasing volume fraction, development of a dynamic yield stress plateau with increases in volume faction or strength of attraction, development of two characteristic relaxation times probed in linear viscoelasticity, the creation of a rubbery plateau modulus at high strain frequencies, and shear-thickening) remains a challenge. Recently, naïve mode coupling and dynamic localization theories have been developed to capture collective behavior giving rise to formation of colloidal glasses and gels. This approach characterizes suspension mechanics of strongly interacting particles in terms of sluggish long-range particle diffusion modulated by varying particle interactions and volume fraction. These theories capture the scaling of the modulus with the volume fraction and strength of interparticle attraction, the frequency dependence of the moduli at the onset of the gel/glass transition, together with the divergence of the zero shear rate viscosity and cessation of diffusivity for hard sphere systems as close packing is approached. In this study, we explore the generality of the predictions of dynamic localization theory for systems of particles composed of bimodal particle size distributions experiencing weak interactions. We find that the mechanical properties of these suspensions are well captured within

  2. Demonstration of vessels in CNS and other organs by AMG silver enhancement of colloidal gold particles dispersed in gelatine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danscher, G; Andreasen, A

    1997-12-01

    We present a new autometallographic technique for demonstrating vessels and other small cavities at light microscopy (LM) and electron microscopy (EM) levels. It is possible to obtain detailed knowledge of the 3-D appearance of the vascular system by exchanging blood with a 40 degrees C, 8% gelatine solution containing colloidal gold particles (gold gelatine solution, GGS) and ensuing silver enhancement of the gold particles by autometallography (AMG). The GGS-AMG technique demonstrates the vascular system as a dark web that can be studied in cryostat, vibratome, methacrylate, paraffin and Epon sections at all magnifications. The infused GGS becomes increasingly viscous and finally becomes rigid when the temperature falls below 20 degrees C. An additional advantage of this technique is the fact that none of the tested counterstains or immunotechniques interfere with this AMG approach. The GGS-AMG technique is demonstrated on rat brains but can be applied to any organ. We believe that the present technique is valuable for both experimental studies and routine pathology.

  3. Colloidal organization

    CERN Document Server

    Okubo, Tsuneo

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal Organization presents a chemical and physical study on colloidal organization phenomena including equilibrium systems such as colloidal crystallization, drying patterns as an example of a dissipative system and similar sized aggregation. This book outlines the fundamental science behind colloid and surface chemistry and the findings from the author's own laboratory. The text goes on to discuss in-depth colloidal crystallization, gel crystallization, drying dissipative structures of solutions, suspensions and gels, and similar-sized aggregates from nanosized particles. Special emphas

  4. Influence of particle size on the low and high strain rate behavior of dense colloidal dispersions of nanosilica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asija, Neelanchali; Chouhan, Hemant; Gebremeskel, Shishay Amare; Bhatnagar, Naresh, E-mail: nareshb@mech.iitd.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Mechanical Engineering Department (India)

    2017-01-15

    Shear thickening is a non-Newtonian flow behavior characterized by the increase in apparent viscosity with the increase in applied shear rate, particularly when the shear rate exceeds a critical value termed as the critical shear rate (CSR). Due to this remarkable property of shear-thickening fluids (STFs), they are extensively used in hip protection pads, protective gear for athletes, and more recently in body armor. The use of STFs in body armor has led to the development of the concept of liquid body armor. In this study, the effect of particle size is explored on the low and high strain rate behavior of nanosilica dispersions, so as to predict the efficacy of STF-aided personal protection systems (PPS), specifically for ballistic applications. The low strain rate study was conducted on cone and plate rheometer, whereas the high strain rate characterization of STF was conducted on in-house fabricated split Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB) system. Spherical nanosilica particles of three different sizes (100, 300, and 500 nm) as well as fumed silica particles of four different specific surface areas (Aerosil A-90, A-130, A-150, and A-200), respectively, were used in this study. The test samples were prepared by dispersing nanosilica particles in polypropylene glycol (PPG) using ultrasonic homogenization method. The low strain rate studies aided in determining the CSR of the synthesized STF dispersions, whereas the high strain rate studies explored the impact-resisting ability of STFs in terms of the impact toughness and the peak stress attained during the impact loading of STF in SHPB testing.

  5. [The study of antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles in the form of a colloidal solution in the matrix of finely dispersed silica].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korchak, G I; Surmasheva, E V; Mikhienkova, A I; Nikonova, N A; Romanenko, L I; Oliĭnyk, Z A; Gorval', A K; Rosada, M A

    2012-01-01

    In the experimental study obtained with chemical method colloid solution of nanoparticles (NPs) of silver (Ag) and a composite on his base in the matrix of finely dispersed silica with particle size of 8-12 nm and NPs concentration in basic solution of 0,0016% (0,016 mg/cm3) were established to exhibit high antimicrobial activity against the test organisms: E. coli, P. aeruginosa, S. Aureus and C. Albicans, which depended on a set of factors. Antibacterial properties of tissue impregnated with Ag-NPs were studied. As stabilizing substances a mixture of surface-active substance sodium dodecyl sulfate and polymer polyvinylpyrrolidone was used Before the beginning of the study effective neutralizer was tailored. Times of preservation of antimicrobial activity of test samples have been established, and also their stability throughout long term of supervision (24 months) has been shown. Effect of organic pollution on antimicrobal activity of the samples has been studied. Based on obtained results the algorithm of the study of antimicrobial properties of nanopreparations has been elaborated.

  6. Colloidal phytosterols: synthesis, characterization and bioaccessibility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.; Seijen ten Hoorn, J.W.M.; Melnikov, S.M.; Velikov, K.P.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate the synthesis of phytosterol colloidal particles using a simple food grade method based on antisolvent precipitation in the presence of a non-ionic surfactant. The resulting colloidal particles have a rod-like shape with some degree of crystallinity. The colloidal dispersions display

  7. Self-Assembly of Faceted Colloidal Particles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gantapara, A.P.

    2015-01-01

    A colloidal dispersion consists of insoluble microscopic particles that are suspended in a solvent. Typically, a colloid is a particle for which at least one of its dimension is within the size range of a nanometer to a micron. Due to collisions with much smaller solvent molecules, colloids perform

  8. Layer-by-layer films and colloidal dispersions of graphene oxide nanosheets for efficient control of the fluorescence and aggregation properties of the cationic dye acridine orange.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansda, Chaitali; Chakraborty, Utsav; Hussain, Syed Arshad; Bhattacharjee, Debajyoti; Paul, Pabitra Kumar

    2016-03-15

    Chemically derived graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets have received great deal of interest for technological application such as optoelectronic and biosensors. Aqueous dispersions of GO become an efficient template to induce the association of cationic dye namely Acridine Orange (AO). Interactions of AO with colloidal GO was governed by both electrostatic and π-π stacking cooperative interactions. The type of dye aggregations was found to depend on the concentration of GO in the mixed ensemble. Spectroscopic calculations revealed the formation of both H and J-type dimers, but H-type aggregations were predominant. Preparation of layer-by-layer (LbL) electrostatic self-assembled films of AO and GO onto poly (allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) coated quartz substrate is also reported in this article. UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time resolve fluorescence and Raman spectroscopic techniques have been employed to explore the detail photophysical properties of pure AO, AO/GO mixed solution and AO/GO LbL films. Scanning electron microscopy was also used for visual evidence of the synthesized nanodimensional GO sheets. The fluorescence quenching of AO in the presence of GO in aqueous solution was due to the interfacial photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from photoexcited AO to GO i.e. GO acts as an efficient quenching agent for the fluorescence emission of AO. The quenching is found to be static in nature. Raman spectroscopic results also confirmed the interaction of AO with GO and the electron transfer. The formation of AO/GO complex via very fast excited state electron transfer mechanism may be proposed as to prepare GO-based fluorescence sensor for biomolecular detection without direct labeling the biomolecules by fluorescent probe. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Active colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aranson, Igor S

    2013-01-01

    A colloidal suspension is a heterogeneous fluid containing solid microscopic particles. Colloids play an important role in our everyday life, from food and pharmaceutical industries to medicine and nanotechnology. It is useful to distinguish two major classes of colloidal suspensions: equilibrium and active, i.e., maintained out of thermodynamic equilibrium by external electric or magnetic fields, light, chemical reactions, or hydrodynamic shear flow. While the properties of equilibrium colloidal suspensions are fairly well understood, active colloids pose a formidable challenge, and the research is in its early exploratory stage. One of the most remarkable properties of active colloids is the possibility of dynamic self-assembly, a natural tendency of simple building blocks to organize into complex functional architectures. Examples range from tunable, self-healing colloidal crystals and membranes to self-assembled microswimmers and robots. Active colloidal suspensions may exhibit material properties not present in their equilibrium counterparts, e.g., reduced viscosity and enhanced self-diffusivity, etc. This study surveys the most recent developments in the physics of active colloids, both in synthetic and living systems, with the aim of elucidation of the fundamental physical mechanisms governing self-assembly and collective behavior. (physics of our days)

  10. Colloidal stability of Ni(OH₂ in water and its dispersion into a ceramic matrix from the reaction media to obtain Ni/Al₂O₃ materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabanas-Polo, S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Ni/Al₂O₃ composites have been fabricated by slip casting of concentrated Ni(OH₂/Al₂O₃ suspensions and subsequent in situ reduction to metallic nickel during sintering. For that, the synthesis assisted by ultrasound of both α- and β-Ni(OH₂ polymorphs, as well as their colloidal stability, have been studied. The structural differences between both polymorphs have been thoroughly studied by means of XRD, FTIR, DTA-TG, SSA, SEM and TEM, in order to optimize the starting suspensions. This way, the IEP of both polymorphs have been established (9.7 y 12 for β- and α-Ni(OH₂, respectively, as well as the optimal content of an anionic dispersant (PAA to stabilize the particles (0.8 wt. % for beta phase and 3.0 wt. % for alpha phase. Three different Ni/Al₂O₃ composites, with a high dispersion degree of the metallic phase, have been obtained considering the potential vs. particles distance curve of the Ni(OH₂, and their structure has been discussed in terms of the strength of the agglomerates and/or aggregates of the Ni(OH₂.La obtención de materiales compuestos Ni/Al₂O₃ se ha llevado a cabo mediante colaje en molde de escayola de suspensiones concentradas de Ni(OH₂/Al₂O₃ y su posterior reducción in situ para obtener la fase metálica. Para ello, se ha estudiado la síntesis asistida por ultrasonido de los polimorfos α- y β-Ni(OH₂, así como su comportamiento coloidal en medio acuoso. Las diferencias estructurales entre ambos polimorfos han sido estudiadas en detalle mediante XRD, FTIR, ATD-TG, SSA, MEB y MET, para poder optimizar las suspensiones de partida. De esta manera, se ha establecido el PIE de ambos polimorfos (9.7 y 12 para las fases β- y α-Ni(OH₂, respectivamente, así como el contenido óptimo de un dispersante aniónico (PAA para la estabilización de las partículas (0.8 % p/p para la fase beta y 3.0 % p/p para la fase alfa. Tres materiales compuestos Ni/Al₂O₃ diferentes, con un alto grado de

  11. Colloidal glasses

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Colloidal glasses. Glassy state is attained when system fails to reach equilibrium due to crowding of constituent particles. In molecular glasses, glassy state is reached by rapidly lowering the temperature. In colloidal glasses, glassy state is reached by increasing the ...

  12. Preparation of radioactive colloidal gold 198Au

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cammarosano, S.A.

    1979-01-01

    The preparation with simple equipment of radioactive colloidal gold of particle size about approximately 300 A from seed colloid stabilized by gelatine is described. Some physico-chemical parameters which can affect the process of formation of these colloidal particles are analysed; particle size has been meassured with an electron microscope. The colloid stability has been studied as a function of dilution, age and pH. Nucleation and growth of radioactive colloidal gold have been studied using spectrophotometry. Absorption spectra of the two ones are presented and compared. Quality control of the production process is verified through measurement of parameters, such as radioactive and radiochemical purity and biological distribution in laboratorial animals. This distribution was evalusted for rats injected endovenously with the gold colloidal solution.(Author) [pt

  13. Kinetic theory of weakly ionized dilute gas of hydrogen-like atoms of the first principles of quantum statistics and dispersion laws of eigenwaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slyusarenko, Yurii V.; Sliusarenko, Oleksii Yu.

    2017-11-01

    We develop a microscopic approach to the construction of the kinetic theory of dilute weakly ionized gas of hydrogen-like atoms. The approach is based on the statements of the second quantization method in the presence of bound states of particles. The basis of the derivation of kinetic equations is the method of reduced description of relaxation processes. Within the framework of the proposed approach, a system of common kinetic equations for the Wigner distribution functions of free oppositely charged fermions of two kinds (electrons and cores) and their bound states—hydrogen-like atoms— is obtained. Kinetic equations are used to study the spectra of elementary excitations in the system when all its components are non-degenerate. It is shown that in such a system, in addition to the typical plasma waves, there are longitudinal waves of matter polarization and the transverse ones with a behavior characteristic of plasmon polaritons. The expressions for the dependence of the frequencies and Landau damping coefficients on the wave vector for all branches of the oscillations discovered are obtained. Numerical evaluation of the elementary perturbation parameters in the system on an example of a weakly ionized dilute gas of the 23Na atoms using the D2-line characteristics of the natrium atom is given. We note the possibility of using the results of the developed theory to describe the properties of a Bose condensate of photons in the diluted weakly ionized gas of hydrogen-like atoms.

  14. Clustering and self-assembly in colloidal systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smallenburg, F.

    2012-01-01

    A colloidal dispersion consists of small particles called colloids, typically tens of nanometers to a few micrometers in size, suspended in a solvent. Due to collisions with the much smaller particles in the solvent, colloids perform Brownian motion: randomly directed movements that cause the

  15. Size determinations of plutonium colloids using autocorrelation photon spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triay, I.R.; Rundberg, R.S.; Mitchell, A.J.; Ott, M.A.; Hobart, D.E.; Palmer, P.D.; Newton, T.W.; Thompson, J.L.

    1989-01-01

    Autocorrelation Photon Spectroscopy (APS) is a light-scattering technique utilized to determine the size distribution of colloidal suspensions. The capabilities of the APS methodology have been assessed by analyzing colloids of known sizes. Plutonium(IV) colloid samples were prepared by a variety of methods including: dilution; peptization; and alpha-induced auto-oxidation of Pu(III). The size of theses Pu colloids was analyzed using APS. The sizes determined for the Pu colloids studied varied from 1 to 370 nanometers. 7 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Unique Dispersal of the Changjiang-Diluted Water Plume in the East China Sea Revealed from Satellite Monitoring of Colored Dissolved Organic Matter (CDOM)

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroaki Sasaki; Yasushi Gomi; Takamasa Asai; Masashi Shibata; Yoko Kiyomoto; Kazumaro Okamura; Kou Nishiuchi; Toru Hasegawa; Haruya Yamada

    2014-01-01

    The optical properties of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the Changjiang (Yangtze River) plume water were investigated during the summer of 2009 and 2010. The absorption coefficient of CDOM at 325 nm (aCDOM) increased inversely with decreasing sea-surface salinity (SSS), implying that aCDOM can be used as a natural tracer of Changjiang-diluted water (CDW). This aCDOM vs. SSS relationship, however, differed between 2009 and 2010. For mapping the CDW plume, the aCDOM was retrieved fr...

  17. Colloid Release from Soil Aggregates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Schjønning, Per

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) has a major impact on soil functions and structural stability. In addition, the presence of mobile colloids may increase the risk of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing environmental contaminants. The WDC content was measured in 39 soils......, using laser diffraction, by agitating the samples using a wet-dispersion unit. This approach eliminated the need for long sedimentation times required by the more classical end-over-end shaking approach and provided information about the time-dependent release of WDC. The total clay content of the soils...... ranged from 0.1 to 0.44 kg kg−1. The WDC content was measured on air-dry and moist 1- to 2-mm aggregates. The WDC content at a reference time was highly correlated to the total clay content (r > 0.91, P soils. Only for two sites was the WDC content correlated to the content of clay...

  18. Colloidal nematostatics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.M. Pergamenshchik

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We give a review of the theory of large distance colloidal interaction via the nematic director field. The new area of nematic colloidal systems (or nematic emulsions has been guided by the analogy between the colloidal nematostatics and electrostatics. The elastic charge density representation of the colloidal nematostatics [V.M. Pergamenshchik, V.O. Uzunova, Eur. Phys. J. E, 2007, 23, 161; Phys. Rev. E, 2007, 76, 011707] develops this analogy at the level of charge density and Coulomb interaction. The analogy is shown to lie in common mathematics based on the solutions of Laplace equation. However, the 3d colloidal nematostatics substantially differs from electrostatics both in its mathematical structure and physical implications. The elastic charge is a vector fully determined by the torque exerted upon colloid, the role of Gauss' theorem is played by conservation of the torque components. Elastic multipoles consist of two tensors (dyads. Formulas for the elastic multipoles, the Coulomb-like, dipole-dipole, and quadrupole-quadrupole pair interaction potentials are derived and illustrated by particular examples. Based on the tensorial structure, we list possible types of elastic dipoles and quadrupoles. An elastic dipole is characterized by its isotropic strength, anisotropy, chirality, and its longitudinal component. An elastic quadrupole can be uniaxial and biaxial. Relation between the multipole type and its symmetry is discussed, sketches of some types of multipoles are given. Using the mirror image method of electrostatics as a guiding idea, we develop the mirror image method in nematostatics for arbitrary director tilt at the wall. The method is applied to the charge-wall and dipole-wall interaction.

  19. Radioactive colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergqvist, L.

    1987-01-01

    Different techniques for the characterization of radioactive colloids, used in nuclear medicine, have been evaluated and compared. Several radioactive colloids have been characterized in vitro and in vivo and tested experimentally. Colloid biokinetics following interstitial or intravenous injection were evaluated with a scintillation camera technique. Lymphoscintigraphy with a Tc-99-labelled antimony sulphur colloid was performed in 32 patients with malignant melanoma in order to evaluate the technique. Based on the biokinetic results, absorbed doses in tissues and organs were calculated. The function of the reticuloendothelial system has been evaluated in rats after inoculation with tumour cells. Microfiltration and photon correlation spectroscopy were found to be suitable in determining activity-size and particle size distributions, respectively. Maximal lymph node uptake following subcutaneous injection was found to correspond to a colloid particle size between 10 and 50 nm. Lymphoscintigraphy was found to be useful in the study of lymphatic drainage from the primary tumour site in patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk. Quantitative analysis of ilio-inguinal lymph node uptake in patients with malignant melanoma on the lower extremities was, however, found to be of no value for the detection of metastatic disease in lymph nodes. High absorbed doses may be received in lymph nodes (up to 1 mGy/MBq) and at the injection site (about 10 mGy/MBq). In an experimental study it was found that the relative colloid uptake in bone marrow and spleen depended on the total number of intravenously injected particles. This may considerably affect the absorbed dose in these organs. (author)

  20. Liquid crystal boojum-colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tasinkevych, M; Silvestre, N M; Telo da Gama, M M

    2012-01-01

    Colloidal particles dispersed in a liquid crystal (LC) lead to distortions of the director field. The distortions are responsible for long-range effective colloidal interactions whose asymptotic behaviour is well understood. The short-distance behaviour depends on the structure and dynamics of the topological defects nucleated near the colloidal particles and a full nonlinear theory is required to describe it. Spherical colloidal particles with strong planar degenerate anchoring nucleate a pair of antipodal surface topological defects, known as boojums. We use the Landau-de Gennes theory to resolve the mesoscopic structure of the boojum cores and to determine the pairwise colloidal interactions. We compare the results in three (3D) and two (2D) spatial dimensions for spherical and disc-like colloidal particles, respectively. The corresponding free energy functionals are minimized numerically using finite elements with adaptive meshes. Boojums are always point-like in 2D, but acquire a rather complex structure in 3D, which depends on the combination of the anchoring potential, the radius of the colloid, the temperature and the LC elastic anisotropy. We identify three types of defect cores in 3D that we call single, double and split-core boojums, and investigate the associated structural transitions. The split-core structure is favoured by low temperatures, strong anchoring and small twist to splay or bend ratios. For sufficiently strong anchoring potentials characterized by a well-defined uniaxial minimum, the split-core boojums are the only stable configuration. In the presence of two colloidal particles, we observe substantial re-arrangements of the inner defects in both 3D and 2D. These re-arrangements lead to qualitative changes in the force-distance profile when compared to the asymptotic quadrupole-quadrupole interaction. In line with the experimental results, the presence of the defects prevents coalescence of the colloidal particles in 2D, but not in 3D

  1. Dilution Confusion: Conventions for Defining a Dilution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fishel, Laurence A.

    2010-01-01

    Two conventions for preparing dilutions are used in clinical laboratories. The first convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A plus "b" volumes of solution B. The second convention defines an "a:b" dilution as "a" volumes of solution A diluted into a final volume of "b". Use of the incorrect dilution convention could affect…

  2. Colloidal superballs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rossi, L.

    2012-01-01

    This thesis is organized in four parts as follows. Part 1 focuses on the synthetic aspects of the colloidal model systems that will be used throughout the work described in this thesis. In Chapter 2 we describe synthetic procedures for the preparation of polycrystalline hematite superballs and

  3. Observation particle morphology of colloidal system by conventional SEM with an improved specimen preparation technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Hou, Zhaosheng; Yuan, Xiaojiao; Guo, Hong

    2011-08-01

    On the basis of our previous report that polymer emulsion with different viscosity can be investigated by conventional scanning electron microscopy (SEM), we have developed an improved specimen preparation technique for obtaining particle morphology and size of colloidal silver, collagen, glutin, and polymer microspheres. In this study, we expect to provide a means for charactering the three-dimensional surface microstructure of colloidal particles. Dilution of the samples with appropriate volatile solvent like ethanol is effective for SEM specimen preparation. At a proper ratio between sample and ethanol, the colloidal particles are dispersed uniformly in ethanol and then deposited evenly on the substrate. Different drying methods are studied to search a proper drying condition, in which the small molecule solvent is removed without destroying the natural particle morphology. And the effects of ethanol in the specimen preparation process are described by analyzing the physicochemical properties of ethanol. The specimen preparation technique is simple and can be achieved in common laboratory for charactering the particle morphology of colloidal system. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Colloidal stability of Ni(OH){sub 2} in water and its dispersion into a ceramic matrix from the reaction media to obtain Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabanas-Polo, S.; Ferrari, B.; Sanchez-Herencia, A. J.

    2014-07-01

    Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites have been fabricated by slip casting of concentrated Ni(OH){sub 2}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} suspensions and subsequent in situ reduction to metallic nickel during sintering. For that, the synthesis assisted by ultrasound of both α- and β-Ni(OH){sub 2} polymorphs, as well as their colloidal stability, have been studied. The structural differences between both polymorphs have been thoroughly studied by means of XRD, FTIR, DTA-TG, SSA, SEM and TEM, in order to optimize the starting suspensions. This way, the IEP of both polymorphs have been established (9.7 y 12 for β- and α-Ni(OH){sub 2}, respectively), as well as the optimal content of an anionic dispersant (PAA) to stabilize the particles (0.8 wt. % for beta phase and 3.0 wt. % for alpha phase). Three different Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites, with a high dispersion degree of the metallic phase, have been obtained considering the potential vs. particles distance curve of the Ni(OH){sub 2}, and their structure has been discussed in terms of the strength of the agglomerates and/or aggregates of the Ni(OH){sub 2}. (Author)

  5. Colloid transport in saturated porous media: Elimination of attachment efficiency in a new colloid transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landkamer, Lee L.; Harvey, Ronald W.; Scheibe, Timothy D.; Ryan, Joseph N.

    2013-01-01

    A colloid transport model is introduced that is conceptually simple yet captures the essential features of colloid transport and retention in saturated porous media when colloid retention is dominated by the secondary minimum because an electrostatic barrier inhibits substantial deposition in the primary minimum. This model is based on conventional colloid filtration theory (CFT) but eliminates the empirical concept of attachment efficiency. The colloid deposition rate is computed directly from CFT by assuming all predicted interceptions of colloids by collectors result in at least temporary deposition in the secondary minimum. Also, a new paradigm for colloid re-entrainment based on colloid population heterogeneity is introduced. To accomplish this, the initial colloid population is divided into two fractions. One fraction, by virtue of physiochemical characteristics (e.g., size and charge), will always be re-entrained after capture in a secondary minimum. The remaining fraction of colloids, again as a result of physiochemical characteristics, will be retained “irreversibly” when captured by a secondary minimum. Assuming the dispersion coefficient can be estimated from tracer behavior, this model has only two fitting parameters: (1) the fraction of the initial colloid population that will be retained “irreversibly” upon interception by a secondary minimum, and (2) the rate at which reversibly retained colloids leave the secondary minimum. These two parameters were correlated to the depth of the Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek (DLVO) secondary energy minimum and pore-water velocity, two physical forces that influence colloid transport. Given this correlation, the model serves as a heuristic tool for exploring the influence of physical parameters such as surface potential and fluid velocity on colloid transport.

  6. Characterization of Complex Colloidal Suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seaman, J. C.; Guerin, M.; Jackson, B. P.; Ranville, J. M.

    2003-04-01

    Surface chemical reactions play a major role in controlling contaminant fate and transport in the subsurface environment. Recent field and laboratory evidence suggests that mobile soil and groundwater colloids may facilitate the migration of sparingly soluble groundwater contaminants. Colloidal suspensions collected in the field or generated in laboratory column experiments tend to be fairly dilute in nature and comprised of relatively small particulates (reserved for studying ideal systems to the characterization of mobile colloids. However, many of these analytical techniques, including total/selective dissolution methods, dynamic light scattering, micro-electrophoresis, streaming potential, and even scanning electron microscopy (SEM), can be biased in of larger size fractions, and therefore, extremely sensitive to sampling, storage, and fractionation artifacts. In addition, surface modifiers such as sorbed oxides or organics can alter particulate appearance, composition, and behavior when compared to synthetic analogues or mineral standards. The current presentation will discuss the limitations and inherent biases associated with a number of analytical characterization techniques that are commonly applied to the study of mobile soil and groundwater colloids, including field flow fractionation (FFF) and acoustic based methods that have only recently become available.

  7. Formation and transport of radioactive colloids in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, J.Y.; Lee, K.J.

    1993-01-01

    This paper deals with the effect of the presence of colloids in natural groundwater on radionuclide transport. The system considered here treats groundwater as a dispersing medium and colloid or finely divided solid material resulting from several different repository sources as a dispersed phase. Evaluation of the radionuclides adsorption on colloid, concepts of effective transport velocity and migration distance, and mathematical formulation of the filtration equation were driven, along with the case studies using typical parameter values of a conceptual radioactive waste repository and concentration on the effect of poly dispersed colloid on radionuclide transport. This paper also introduces the three phase analysis to treat the radionuclide transport more practically. When compared with the previously published experimental data, the modified filtration equation gives a satisfactory result. Results of the case studies show that the reduction of colloidal size enhances the corresponding colloid concentration when colloidal transport is only affected by diffusion phenomena. However, the three phase analysis shows that this trend can be reversed if the colloidal filtration becomes a dominant mechanism in the colloidal transport. Consequently, these results show that colloid could play a very important role in radionuclide transport under a repository environment

  8. Towards conducting inks: Polypyrrole–silver colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Omastová, Mária; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Peřinka, Nikola; Kaplanová, Marie; Syrový, Tomáš; Hromádková, Jiřina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Composite colloidal particles combining conducting polymer and metal have been prepared. • Conducting colloids are suitable for printing applications. • Polypyrrole/silver colloids are prepared in a single reaction step. • The conductivity control is discussed and still needs improvement. - Abstract: The oxidation of pyrrole with silver nitrate in the presence of suitable water-soluble polymers yields composite polypyrrole–silver colloids. The polypyrrole–silver nanoparticles stabilized with poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone) have a typical size around 350 nm and polydispersity index 0.20, i.e. a moderate polydispersity in size. Similar results have been obtained with poly(vinyl alcohol) as stabilizer. The effect of stabilizer concentration on the particle size is marginal. In the present study, several types of stabilizers have been tested in addition to currently used poly(N-vinylpyrrolidone). Transmission electron microscopy and optical microscopy revealed the gemini morphology of polypyrrole and silver colloidal nanoparticles and confirmed their size and size-distribution determined by dynamic light scattering. The use of colloidal dispersions provides an efficient tool for the UV–vis and FT Raman spectroscopic characterization of polypyrrole, including the transition between polypyrrole salt and corresponding polypyrrole base. The dispersions were used for the preparation of coatings on polyethylene terephthalate foils, and the properties for polypyrrole–silver composites have been compared with those produced from polypyrrole colloids alone

  9. Colloid transport in dual-permeability media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leij, Feike J.; Bradford, Scott A.

    2013-07-01

    It has been widely reported that colloids can travel faster and over longer distances in natural structured porous media than in uniform structureless media used in laboratory studies. The presence of preferential pathways for colloids in the subsurface environment is of concern because of the increased risks for disease caused by microorganisms and colloid-associated contaminants. This study presents a model for colloid transport in dual-permeability media that includes reversible and irreversible retention of colloids and first-order exchange between the aqueous phases of the two regions. The model may also be used to describe transport of other reactive solutes in dual-permeability media. Analytical solutions for colloid concentrations in aqueous and solid phases were obtained using Laplace transformation and matrix decomposition. The solutions proved convenient to assess the effect of model parameters on the colloid distribution. The analytical model was used to describe effluent concentrations for a bromide tracer and 3.2- or 1-μm-colloids that were observed after transport through a composite 10-cm long porous medium made up of a cylindrical lens or core of sand and a surrounding matrix with sand of a different grain size. The tracer data were described very well and realistic estimates were obtained for the pore-water velocity in the two flow domains. An accurate description was also achieved for most colloid breakthrough curves. Dispersivity and retention parameters were typically greater for the larger 3.2-μm-colloids while both reversible and irreversible retention rates tended to be higher for the finer sands than the coarser sand. The relatively small sample size and the complex flow pattern in the composite medium made it difficult to reach definitive conclusions regarding transport parameters for colloid transport.

  10. Anisotropic Model Colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Kats, C.M.

    2008-01-01

    The driving forces for fundamental research in colloid science are the ability to manage the material properties of colloids and to unravel the forces that play a role between colloids to be able to control and understand the processes where colloids play an important role. Therefore we are

  11. Colloid Transport and Retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    related to historical prospective, synthesis, characterization, theoretical modeling and application of unique class of colloidal materials starting from colloidal gold to coated silica colloid and platinum, titania colloids. This book is unique in its design, content, providing depth of science about...

  12. Dilution-Induced Formation of Hybrid Perovskite Nanoplatelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yu; Ehrat, Florian; Vanderlinden, Willem; Cardenas-Daw, Carlos; Stolarczyk, Jacek K; Polavarapu, Lakshminarayana; Urban, Alexander S

    2016-12-27

    Perovskite nanocrystals (NCs) are an important extension to the fascinating field of hybrid halide perovskites. Showing significantly enhanced photoluminescence (PL) efficiency and emission wavelengths tunable through halide content and size, they hold great promise for light-emitting applications. Despite the rapid advancement in this field, the physical nature and size-dependent excitonic properties have not been well investigated due to the challenges associated with their preparation. Herein we report the spontaneous formation of highly luminescent, quasi-2D organic-inorganic hybrid perovskite nanoplatelets (NPls) upon dilution of a dispersion of bulk-like NCs. The fragmentation of the large NCs is attributed to osmotic swelling induced by the added solvent. An excess of organic ligands in the solvent quickly passivates the newly formed surfaces, stabilizing the NPls in the process. The thickness of the NPls can be controlled both by the dilution level and by the ligand concentration. Such colloidal NPls and their thin films were found to be extremely stable under continuous UV light irradiation. Full tunability of the NPl emission wavelength is achieved by varying the halide ion used (bromide, iodide). Additionally, time-resolved PL measurements reveal an increasing radiative decay rate with decreasing thickness of the NPls, likely due to an increasing exciton binding energy. Similarly, measurements on iodide-containing NPls show a transformation from biexponential to monoexponential PL decay with decreasing thickness, likely due to an increasing fraction of excitonic recombination. This interesting phenomenon of change in fluorescence upon dilution is a result of the intricate nature of the perovskite material itself and is uncommon in inorganic materials. Our findings enable the synthesis of halide perovskite NCs with high quantum efficiency and good stability as well as a tuning of both their optical and morphological properties.

  13. Depletion and the dynamics in colloid-polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuinier, R.; Fan, T.H.; Taniguchi, T.

    2015-01-01

    The status of work on the influence of nonadsorbing polymers on depletion dynamics in colloidal dispersions is reviewed. In the past focus has been paid to equilibrium properties of colloid-polymer mixtures. In practice the dynamical behaviour is equally important. Dynamic properties including

  14. Wetting in a Colloidal Liquid-Gas System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijting, W. K.; Besseling, N. A.; Stuart, M. A.

    2003-05-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  15. Wetting behavior in colloid-polymer mixtures at different substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present experimental observations on wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions. The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a

  16. Wetting in a colloidal liquid-gas system

    OpenAIRE

    Wijting, W.K.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica-cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting.

  17. Wetting in a colloidal liquid-gas system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijting, W.K.; Besseling, N.A.M.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    We present first observations of wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions (coated silica-cyclohexane-polydimethylsiloxane). The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate (coated glass) was determined for a series of

  18. On adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged colloid particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.

    2018-03-01

    Generalizing the Debye-Hückel formalism, we develop a new mean field theory for adiabatic pair potentials of highly charged particles in colloid dispersions. The unoccupied volume and the osmotic pressure are the key concepts to describe the chemical and thermodynamical equilibrium of the gas of small ions in the outside region of all of the colloid particles. To define the proper thermodynamic quantities, it is postulated to take an ensemble averaging with respect to the particle configurations in the integrals for their densities consisting of the electric potential satisfying a set of equations that are derived by linearizing the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. With the Fourier integral representation of the electric potential, we calculate first the internal electric energy of the system from which the Helmholtz free energy is obtained through the Legendre transformation. Then, the Gibbs free energy is calculated using both ways of the Legendre transformation with respect to the unoccupied volume and the summation of chemical potentials. The thermodynamic functions provide three types of pair potentials, all of which are inversely proportional to the fraction of the unoccupied volume. At the limit when the fraction factor reduces to unity, the Helmholtz pair potential turns exactly into the well known Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek repulsive potential. The Gibbs pair potential possessing a medium-range strong repulsive part and a long-range weak attractive tail can explain the Schulze-Hardy rule for coagulation in combination with the van der Waals-London potential and describes a rich variety of phenomena of phase transitions observed in the dilute dispersions of highly charged particles.

  19. Colloid suspension stability and transport through unsaturated porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.A.; Kaplan, D.I.

    1997-04-01

    Contaminant transport is traditionally modeled in a two-phase system: a mobile aqueous phase and an immobile solid phase. Over the last 15 years, there has been an increasing awareness of a third, mobile solid phase. This mobile solid phase, or mobile colloids, are organic or inorganic submicron-sized particles that move with groundwater flow. When colloids are present, the net effect on radionuclide transport is that radionuclides can move faster through the system. It is not known whether mobile colloids exist in the subsurface environment of the Hanford Site. Furthermore, it is not known if mobile colloids would likely exist in a plume emanating from a Low Level Waste (LLW) disposal site. No attempt was made in this study to ascertain whether colloids would form. Instead, experiments and calculations were conducted to evaluate the likelihood that colloids, if formed, would remain in suspension and move through saturated and unsaturated sediments. The objectives of this study were to evaluate three aspects of colloid-facilitated transport of radionuclides as they specifically relate to the LLW Performance Assessment. These objectives were: (1) determine if the chemical conditions likely to exist in the near and far field of the proposed disposal site are prone to induce flocculation (settling of colloids from suspension) or dispersion of naturally occurring Hanford colloids, (2) identify the important mechanisms likely involved in the removal of colloids from a Hanford sediment, and (3) determine if colloids can move through unsaturated porous media

  20. Linear Optical Properties of Gold Colloid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingmin XIA

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Gold colloid was prepared by reducing HAuCl4·4H2O with Na3C6H5O7·2H2O. The morphology, size of gold nanoparticles and the optical property of colloid were characterized by transmission electron microscope and UV-Vis spectrophotometer, respectively. It shows that the gold nanoparticles are in the shape of spheres with diameters less than 8 nm, and the surface plasmon resonance absorption peak is located at about 438 nm. As the volume fraction of gold particles increases, the intensity of absorption peak strengthens. The optical property of gold colloid was analyzed by Maxwell-Garnett (MG effective medium theory in the company of Drude dispersion model. The results show that the matrix dielectric constant is a main factor, which influences the optical property of gold colloid.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9558

  1. Rigorous theoretical framework for particle sizing in turbid colloids using light refraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Valenzuela, Augusto; Barrera, Rubén G; Gutierrez-Reyes, Edahí

    2008-11-24

    Using a non-local effective-medium approach, we analyze the refraction of light in a colloidal medium. We discuss the theoretical grounds and all the necessary precautions to design and perform experiments to measure the effective refractive index in dilute colloids. As an application, we show that it is possible to retrieve the size of small dielectric particles in a colloid by measuring the complex effective refractive index and the volume fraction occupied by the particles.

  2. Colloid Mobilization in Two Atlantic Coastal Plain Aquifers: Field Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph N.; Gschwend, Philip M.

    1990-02-01

    The geochemical mechanisms leading to the mobilization of colloids in groundwater were investigated in the Pine Barrens of New Jersey and in rural central Delaware by sampling pairs of wells screened in oxic and anoxic groundwaters in the same geologic formations. Samples were carefully taken at very low flow rates (˜100 mL min-1) to avoid suspending immobilized particles. The colloidal matter was characterized by light-scattering photometry, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X ray analysis, microelectrophoresis, and Fe, Al, Si, and organic carbon analyses. The colloids, composed primarily of clays, were observed at high concentrations (up to 60 mg colloids/L) in the anoxic groundwaters, while the oxic groundwaters exhibited ≤1 mg colloids/L. Colloidal organic carbon was present in all groundwaters; but under anoxic conditions, one-third to one-half of the total organic carbon was associated with the inorganic colloids. The field evidence indicates that anoxic conditions cause the mobilization of soil colloids by dissolving the ferric oxyhydroxide coatings cementing the clay particles to the aquifer solids. The depletion of oxidized iron on the surfaces of immobile particles and the addition of organic carbon coatings on the soil particles and colloids apparently stabilizes the colloidal suspension in the anoxic groundwaters.

  3. Electrochemical metal speciation in colloidal dispersions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wonders, J.H.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The term "heavy metals" is connected with toxicity. They form strong complexes with enzymes, other proteins and DNA in living organisms, which causes dysfunctioning and hence poisoning. In combination with the uptake mechanism of the organism, speciation of heavy metal determines the

  4. Liquid Crystal Phases of Colloidal Platelets and their Use as Nanocomposite Templates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourad, M.C.D.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304837563

    2009-01-01

    This thesis explores the gelation and liquid crystal phase behavior of colloidal dispersions of platelike particles as well as the use of such dispersions for the generation of nanocomposites. We report on the sol-gel, sol-glass and liquid crystal phase transitions of positively charged colloidal

  5. Comparison of different filtration techniques for the pre-concentration of natural colloidal dispersions for field-flow-fractionation (FFF); Vergleich verschiedener Filtrationstechniken zur Aufkonzentrierung natuerlicher kolloidaler Dispersionen fuer die Feld-Fluss-Fraktionierung (FFF)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saal, C.; Kammer, F. v.d. [Technische Univ. Hamburg-Harburg, Arbeitsbereich Umweltschutztechnik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    The objektive of this study was to compare different pre-treatment techniques (active and passive filtration techniques applying various membranes) for field-flow-fractionation (FFF) analysis of natural aquatic colloids. In most cases FFF of natural water samples requires a pre-concentration step prior to analysis. The used FFF-method with online multi-detector-analysis (MDA) is a versatile method to specify the size distribution of particles (> 10 nm) in aqueous systems. Coupling FFF with trace element analysis (e. g. ICP-MS or total reflextion X-ray fluorescence (TXRF)) is a possibility for the determination of element/ size distributions. Analysing natural water samples with FFF a sample pre-treatment is needed in most cases, which can be a coarse filtration (> 5 {mu}m) to separate algea from the sample and a preconcentration of the colloidal fraction. The pre-treatment of the sample has to assure a minimum loss of colloidal particulate matter (CPM) and no change of size distribution. The different pre-concentration techniques were tested with water extractable soil colloids. We have developed methods with concentration factors F < 50 showing minor effects on the colloidal composition of the sample, so that these methods can be used to concentrate CPM of natural waters for size- and trace metal analysis. (orig.)

  6. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  7. Fast microbial reduction of ferrihydrite colloids from a soil effluent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritzsche, Andreas; Bosch, Julian; Rennert, Thilo; Heister, Katja; Braunschweig, Juliane; Meckenstock, Rainer U.; Totsche, Kai U.

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies on the microbial reduction of synthetic iron oxide colloids showed their superior electron accepting property in comparison to bulk iron oxides. However, natural colloidal iron oxides differ in composition from their synthetic counterparts. Besides a potential effect of colloid size, microbial iron reduction may be accelerated by electron-shuttling dissolved organic matter (DOM) as well as slowed down by inhibitors such as arsenic. We examined the microbial reduction of OM- and arsenic-containing ferrihydrite colloids. Four effluent fractions were collected from a soil column experiment run under water-saturated conditions. Ferrihydrite colloids precipitated from the soil effluent and exhibited stable hydrodynamic diameters ranging from 281 (±146) nm in the effluent fraction that was collected first and 100 (±43) nm in a subsequently obtained effluent fraction. Aliquots of these oxic effluent fractions were added to anoxic low salt medium containing diluted suspensions of Geobacter sulfurreducens. Independent of the initial colloid size, the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids were quickly and completely reduced. The rates of Fe2+ formation ranged between 1.9 and 3.3 fmol h-1 cell-1, and are in the range of or slightly exceeding previously reported rates of synthetic ferrihydrite colloids (1.3 fmol h-1 cell-1), but greatly exceeding previously known rates of macroaggregate-ferrihydrite reduction (0.07 fmol h-1 cell-1). The inhibition of microbial Fe(III) reduction by arsenic is unlikely or overridden by the concurrent enhancement induced by soil effluent DOM. These organic species may have increased the already high intrinsic reducibility of colloidal ferrihydrite owing to quinone-mediated electron shuttling. Additionally, OM, which is structurally associated with the soil effluent ferrihydrite colloids, may also contribute to the higher reactivity due to increasing solubility and specific surface area of ferrihydrite. In conclusion, ferrihydrite

  8. Colloid process engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Peukert, Wolfgang; Rehage, Heinz; Schuchmann, Heike

    2015-01-01

    This book deals with colloidal systems in technical processes and the influence of colloidal systems by technical processes. It explores how new measurement capabilities can offer the potential for a dynamic development of scientific and engineering, and examines the origin of colloidal systems and its use for new products. The future challenges to colloidal process engineering are the development of appropriate equipment and processes for the production and obtainment of multi-phase structures and energetic interactions in market-relevant quantities. The book explores the relevant processes and for controlled production and how they can be used across all scales.

  9. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  10. Colloid and interface chemistry for nanotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Kralchevsky, Peter; Ravera, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    Colloid and interface science dealt with nanoscale objects for nearly a century before the term nanotechnology was coined. An interdisciplinary field, it bridges the macroscopic world and the small world of atoms and molecules. Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology is a collection of manuscripts reflecting the activities of research teams that have been involved in the networking project Colloid and Interface Chemistry for Nanotechnology (2006-2011), Action D43, the European Science Foundation. The project was a part of the intergovernmental framework for Cooperation in Science and Technology (COST), allowing the coordination of nationally funded research across Europe. With contributions by leading experts, this book covers a wide range of topics. Chapters are grouped into three sections: "Nanoparticle Synthesis and Characterization," "New Experimental Tools and Interpretation," and "Nanocolloidal Dispersions and Interfaces." The topics covered belong to six basic research areas: (1) The synthes...

  11. Colloidal stabilization of cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) suspensions via rheology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marani, Debora; Sudireddy, Bhaskar Reddy; Bentzen, Janet Jonna

    2015-01-01

    colloidally stable state. The method was applied to explore the ability of four commercial dispersants (acidic affine, neutral, basic affine, and polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)) to disperse cerium-gadolinium oxide (CGO) in ethanol. Only the acidic affine and the PVP dispersants were found to efficiently disperse...

  12. Interface colloidal robotic manipulator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aronson, Igor; Snezhko, Oleksiy

    2015-08-04

    A magnetic colloidal system confined at the interface between two immiscible liquids and energized by an alternating magnetic field dynamically self-assembles into localized asters and arrays of asters. The colloidal system exhibits locomotion and shape change. By controlling a small external magnetic field applied parallel to the interface, structures can capture, transport, and position target particles.

  13. Wetting Behavior in Colloid-Polymer Mixtures at Different Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijting, Willem K; Besseling, Nicolaas A M; Cohen Stuart, Martien A

    2003-09-25

    We present experimental observations on wetting phenomena in depletion interaction driven, phase separated colloidal dispersions. The contact angle of the colloidal liquid-gas interface at a solid substrate was determined for a series of compositions. Upon approach to the critical point, a transition occurs from partial to complete wetting. The interaction with the substrate was manipulated by modifying the substrate with a polymer. In that case, a transition from partial to complete drying is observed upon approach to the critical point.

  14. Anomalous interactions in confined charge-stabilized colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grier, D G; Han, Y

    2004-01-01

    Charge-stabilized colloidal spheres dispersed in weak 1:1 electrolytes are supposed to repel each other. Consequently, experimental evidence for anomalous long-ranged like-charged attractions induced by geometric confinement inspired a burst of activity. This has largely subsided because of nagging doubts regarding the experiments' reliability and interpretation. We describe a new class of thermodynamically self-consistent colloidal interaction measurements that confirm the appearance of pairwise attractions among colloidal spheres confined by one or two bounding walls. In addition to supporting previous claims for this as-yet unexplained effect, these measurements also cast new light on its mechanism

  15. Laser diffraction analysis of colloidal crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.; Shinohara, Tadatomi; Yoshiyama, Tsuyoshi [Kyoto Sangyo Univ., Department of Physics, Kyoto (Japan)

    2001-10-01

    Laser diffraction analysis is made on crystallization in salt-free aqueous suspensions of highly-charged colloidal particles for semi-dilute specimens of concentration 0.1-10.0 vol%. Kossel diffraction patterns which represent faithfully accurate information on lattice symmetries in the suspensions enable us to investigate the time evolution of colloidal crystals. The results show that the crystallization proceeds by way of the following intermediate phase transitions: two-dimensional hcp structure {yields} random layer structure {yields} layer structure with one sliding degree of freedom {yields} stacking disorder structure {yields} stacking structure with multivariant periodicity {yields} fcc twin structure with twin plane (111) {yields} normal fcc structure {yields} bcc twin structure with twin plane (11-bar2) or (1-bar12) {yields} normal bcc structure. For concentrated suspensions (>2 vol %), the phase transition ceases to proceed at the normal fcc structure. (author)

  16. Laser diffraction analysis of colloidal crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sogami, Ikuo S.; Shinohara, Tadatomi; Yoshiyama, Tsuyoshi

    2001-01-01

    Laser diffraction analysis is made on crystallization in salt-free aqueous suspensions of highly-charged colloidal particles for semi-dilute specimens of concentration 0.1-10.0 vol%. Kossel diffraction patterns which represent faithfully accurate information on lattice symmetries in the suspensions enable us to investigate the time evolution of colloidal crystals. The results show that the crystallization proceeds by way of the following intermediate phase transitions: two-dimensional hcp structure → random layer structure → layer structure with one sliding degree of freedom → stacking disorder structure → stacking structure with multivariant periodicity → fcc twin structure with twin plane (111) → normal fcc structure → bcc twin structure with twin plane (11-bar2) or (1-bar12) → normal bcc structure. For concentrated suspensions (>2 vol %), the phase transition ceases to proceed at the normal fcc structure. (author)

  17. Colloidal stability, surface characterisation and intracellular accumulation of Rhodium(II) citrate coated superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in breast tumour: a promising platform for cancer therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Nunes, Eloiza da [Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil); Lemos Brettas Carneiro, Marcella; Guirelli Simoes de Oliveira, Ricardo; Nair Bao, Sonia [Universidade de Brasilia (UnB), Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas (Brazil); Ribeiro de Souza, Aparecido, E-mail: ardsouza@quimica.ufg.br [Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus Samambaia, Instituto de Quimica (Brazil)

    2013-06-15

    The colloidal stability of a rhodium(II) citrate, Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4}, coating on the surface of maghemite ({gamma}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}) nanoparticles was studied and compared in different dispersion media. The adsorption of Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4} at the water-maghemite interface was evaluated as a function of pH and complex concentration. A slight pH-dependent adsorption of the complex was observed with a maximum at pH 3. The colloidal stability of the functionalised nanoparticles with different amounts of Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}cit){sub 4} as a function of pH was evaluated using dynamic light scattering measurements. The particles have a mean magnetic core size of 5.6 nm and the hydrodynamic diameters are approximately 60 nm, which remained unchanged in the pH range in which the samples were a stable sol. The tolerance to different dispersion media, which were deionised water, saline, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), foetal bovine serum (FBS) and NaCl solutions with different concentrations, was investigated. At moderate ionic strength, the colloidal stability of the dispersions was similar in saline and in PBS compared to the stability of dispersions diluted in water. Moreover, the intracellular accumulation of nanoparticles in 4T1 breast tumour was examined by ultrastructural analysis performed by transmission electron microscopy. The rhodium(II) citrate-coated nanoparticles were found mostly in the cytoplasm and nucleus. Thus, we suggest that these SPIO nanoparticles functionalized with Rh{sub 2}(H{sub 2}Cit){sub 4} can be potential tools for anticancer therapy.

  18. Buffer erosion in dilute groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, T.; Kanerva, N.; Martikainen, J.; Sane, P.; Olin, M.; Seppaelae, A.; Koskinen, K.

    2013-08-01

    One scenario of interest for repository safety assessment involves the loss of bentonite buffer material in contact with dilute groundwater flowing through a transmissive fracture interface. In order to examine the extrusion/erosion behavior of bentonite buffer material under such circumstances, a series of experiments were performed in a flow-through, 1 mm aperture, artificial fracture system. These experiments covered a range of solution chemistry (salt concentration and composition), material composition (sodium montmorillonite and admixtures with calcium montmorillonite), and flow velocity conditions. No erosion was observed for sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions from 0.5 g/L to 10 g/L NaCl. No erosion was observed for 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against 0.5 g/L NaCl. Erosion was observed for both sodium montmorillonite and 50/50 calcium/sodium montmorillonite against solution compositions ≤ 0.25 g/L NaCl. The calculated erosion rates for the tests with the highest levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under the most dilute conditions (ionic strength (IS) < ∼1 mM), were well-correlated to flow velocity, whereas the calculated erosion rates for the tests with lower levels of measured erosion, i.e., the tests run under somewhat less dilute conditions (∼1 mM < IS < ∼4 mM), were not similarly correlated indicating that material and solution composition can significantly affect erosion rates. In every experiment, both erosive and non-erosive, emplaced buffer material extruded into the fracture and was observed to be impermeable to water flowing in the fracture effectively forming an extended diffusive barrier around the intersecting fracture/buffer interface. Additionally, a model which was developed previously to predict the rate of erosion of bentonite buffer material in low ionic strength water in rock fracture environments was applied to three different cases: sodium montmorillonite expansion in a vertical tube, a

  19. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  20. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from undisturbed soil cores sampled along a natural clay gradient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Møldrup, Per; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    2011-01-01

    correlated to the accumulated outflow and was described as a diffusion controlled process, using ¾(accumulated outflow). The mass of leached particles was positively correlated to the clay content as well as to water-dispersible colloids. Particulate phosphorus (P) was linearly correlated to concentration......The presence of strongly sorbing compounds in groundwater and tile drains can be a result of colloid-facilitated transport. Colloid and phosphorus leaching from macropores in undisturbed soil cores sampled across a natural clay gradient at Aarup, Denmark, were studied. The aim of the study...... was to correlate easily measurable soil properties, such as clay content and water-dispersible colloids, to colloid and phosphorus leaching. The clay contents across the gradient ranged from 0.11 to 0.23 kg kgj1. Irrigating with artificial rainwater, all samples showed a high first flush of colloids and phosphorus...

  1. Rheological Characteristics of 2D Titanium Carbide (MXene) Dispersions: A Guide for Processing MXenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuzum, Bilen; Maleski, Kathleen; Anasori, Babak; Lelyukh, Pavel; Alvarez, Nicolas Javier; Kumbur, E Caglan; Gogotsi, Yury

    2018-03-27

    Understanding the rheological properties of two-dimensional (2D) materials in suspension is critical for the development of various solution processing and manufacturing techniques. 2D carbides and nitrides (MXenes) constitute one of the largest families of 2D materials with >20 synthesized compositions and applications already ranging from energy storage to medicine to optoelectronics. However, in spite of a report on clay-like behavior, not much is known about their rheological response. In this study, rheological behavior of single- and multilayer Ti 3 C 2 T x in aqueous dispersions was investigated. Viscous and viscoelastic properties of MXene dispersions were studied over a variety of concentrations from colloidal dispersions to high loading slurries, showing that a multilayer MXene suspension with up to 70 wt % can exhibit flowability. Processing guidelines for the fabrication of MXene films, coatings, and fibers have been established based on the rheological properties. Surprisingly, high viscosity was observed at very low concentrations for solutions of single-layer MXene flakes. Single-layer colloidal solutions were found to exhibit partial elasticity even at the lowest tested concentrations (<0.20 mg/mL) due to the presence of strong surface charge and excellent hydrophilicity of MXene, making them amenable to fabrication at dilute concentrations. Overall, the findings of this study provide fundamental insights into the rheological response of this quickly growing 2D family of materials in aqueous environments as well as offer guidelines for processing of MXenes.

  2. Grimsel colloid exercise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.; Longworth, G.; Vilks, P.

    1989-11-01

    The Grimsel Colloid Exercise was an intercomparison exercise which consisted of an in situ sampling phase followed by a colloid characterisation step. The goal of this benchmark exercise, which involved 12 laboratories, was to evaluate both sampling and characterisation techniques with emphasis on the colloid specific size distribution. The sampling phase took place at the Grimsel Test Site between February 1 and 13, 1988 and the participating groups produced colloid samples using the following methods: 1. Cross-flow ultrafiltration with production of membranes loaded with colloids. 2. Tangential diaultrafiltration and production of colloid concentrates. 3. Filtrates produced by each group. 4. Unfiltered water was also collected by PSI in glass bottles, under controlled anaerobic conditions, and by the other sampling groups in various plastic bottles. In addition, on-line monitoring of pH, χ, [O-2] and T of the water and of [O-2] in the atmosphere of the sampling units was carried out routinely. All samples were shipped according to the CoCo Club scheme for characterisation, with emphasis on the size distribution. The exercise differentiates the colloid samples produced on site from those obtained after transfer of the fluid samples to the laboratories. The colloid concentration and size distribution can be determined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), gravimetry (GRAV), chemical analysis of fluid samples after micro/ultrafiltration (MF/UF) and by transmission single particle counting (PC). The colloid concentration can also be evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), static and dynamic light scattering (SLS,DLS) and by laser-induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). The results are discussed on the basis of the detection limit, lateral resolution and counting conditions of the technique (precision) as well as sample preparation, artefact production and measurement optimisation (accuracy). A good agreement between size distribution results was

  3. Clusters in attractive colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, A [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Arcangelis, L de [Dipartimento di Ingegneria dell' Informazione and CNISM II Universita di Napoli, Aversa (CE) (Italy); Candia, A de [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Gado, E Del [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Fierro, A [Dipartimento di Scienze Fisiche, Universita di Napoli ' Federico II' , Complesso Universitario di Monte Sant' Angelo, via Cintia 80126 Naples (Italy); Sator, N [Laboratoire de Physique Theorique de la Matiere Condensee, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie-Paris6, UMR (CNRS) 7600 Case 121, 4 Place Jussieu 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France)

    2006-09-13

    We discuss how the anomalous increase of the viscosity in colloidal systems with short-range attraction can be related to the formation of long-living clusters. Based on molecular dynamics and Monte Carlo numerical simulations of different models, we propose a similar picture for colloidal gelation at low and intermediate volume fractions. On this basis, we analyze the distinct role played by the formation of long-living bonds and the crowding of the particles in the slow dynamics of attractive colloidal systems.

  4. Colloids in Biotechnology

    CERN Document Server

    Fanun, Monzer

    2010-01-01

    Colloids have come a long way from when Thomas Graham coined the term colloid to describe 'pseudo solutions'. This book enables scientists to close the gap between extensive research and translation into commercial options in biomedicine and biotechnology. It covers biosurfactants and surface properties, phase behavior, and orientational change of surfactant mixtures with peptides at the interface. It also covers adsorption of polymers and biopolymers on the surface and interface, discusses colloidal nanoparticles and their use in biotechnology, and delves into bioadhesion and microencapsulati

  5. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2007-05-01

    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  6. Liquid crystal colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Muševič, Igor

    2017-01-01

    This book brings together the many concepts and discoveries in liquid crystal colloids contributed over the last twenty years and scattered across numerous articles and book chapters. It provides both a historical overview of the development of the field and a clear perspective on the future applications in photonics. The book covers all phenomena observed in liquid crystal colloids with an emphasis on experimental tools and applications of topology in condensed matter, as well as practical micro-photonics applications. It includes a number of spectacular manifestations of new topological phenomena not found or difficult to observe in other systems. Starting from the early works on nematic colloids, it explains the basics of topological defects in ordered media, charge and winding, and the elastic forces between colloidal particles in nematics. Following a detailed description of experimental methods, such as optical tweezing and particle tracking, the book eases the reader into the theoretical part, which de...

  7. Liquid Crystal Colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalyukh, Ivan I.

    2018-03-01

    Colloids are abundant in nature, science, and technology, with examples ranging from milk to quantum dots and the colloidal atom paradigm. Similarly, liquid crystal ordering is important in contexts ranging from biological membranes to laboratory models of cosmic strings and liquid crystal displays in consumer devices. Some of the most exciting recent developments in both of these soft matter fields emerge at their interface, in the fast-growing research arena of liquid crystal colloids. Mesoscale self-assembly in such systems may lead to artificial materials and to structures with emergent physical behavior arising from patterning of molecular order and nano- or microparticles into precisely controlled configurations. Liquid crystal colloids show exceptional promise for new discovery that may impinge on composite material fabrication, low-dimensional topology, photonics, and so on. Starting from physical underpinnings, I review the state of the art in this fast-growing field, with a focus on its scientific and technological potential.

  8. Magnetic field dependence observed by {sup 27} Al NMR of species contained in alumina colloidal dispersions; Dependencia de campo magnetico observada por RMN {sup 27} Al de especies presentes em dispersoes coloidais de alumina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgado Junior, Edisson; Menezes, Sonia M.C. [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; San Gil, Rosane [Universidade Federal, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    1995-12-31

    The behaviour of some aluminium species front a magnetic field have been investigated by {sup 27} Al NMR analysis, this method was used for characterization of an octahedric aluminium specie from sols prepared by bohemite acid peptization. X-ray diffraction data have identified the mineral structure. The results have been shown and discussed, and NMR spectra were also presented and studied. Concluding this work, the nature of a colloidal specie of alumina was clarified through the dependence research of magnetic field by {sup 27} Al NMR 12 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  9. Sustainable steric stabilization of colloidal titania nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif

    2017-07-01

    A route to produce a stable colloidal suspension is essential if mono-dispersed particles are to be successfully synthesized, isolated, and used in subsequent nanocomposite manufacture. Dispersing nanoparticles in fluids was found to be an important approach for avoiding poor dispersion characteristics. However, there is still a great tendency for colloidal nanoparticles to flocculate over time. Steric stabilization can prevent coagulation by introducing a thick adsorbed organic layer which constitutes a significant steric barrier that can prevent the particle surfaces from coming into direct contact. One of the main features of hydrothermal synthesis technique is that it offers novel approaches for sustainable nanoparticle surface modification. This manuscript reports on the sustainable steric stabilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticle surface modification was performed via two main approaches including post-synthesis and in situ surface modification. The tuneable hydrothermal conditions (i.e. temperature, pressure, flow rates, and surfactant addition) were optimized to enable controlled steric stabilization in a continuous fashion. Effective post synthesis surface modification with organic ligand (dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)) was achieved; the optimum surface coating temperature was reported to be 180-240 °C to ensure DDSA ring opening and binding to titania nanoparticles. Organic-modified titania demonstrated complete change in surface properties from hydrophilic to hydrophobic and exhibited phase transfer from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. Exclusive surface modification in the reactor was found to be an effective approach; it demonstrated surfactant loading level 2.2 times that of post synthesis surface modification. Titania was also stabilized in aqueous media using poly acrylic acid (PAA) as polar polymeric dispersant. PAA-titania nanoparticles demonstrated a durable amorphous polymeric layer of 2 nm thickness. This

  10. Filtration of polydispersed colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.

    1988-01-01

    In this study, the dynamic microscopic form of the population balance model is applied to the problem of polydispersed particle capture in one spatial diffusion. This mathematical modeling approach can be applied to the difficult and potentially important problem of particulate (radiocolloid) transport in the groundwater surrounding a nuclear waste disposal site. To demonstrate the population balance methodology, the equations were developed and used to investigate transport and capture of polydispersed colloids in packed columns. Modeling simulations were compared to experimental column data. The multidimensional form of the population balance equation was used to analyze the transport and capture of polydispersed colloids. A numerical model was developed to describe transport of polydispersed colloids through a one-dimensional porous region. The effects of various size distributions were investigated in terms of capture efficiency. For simulating the column data, it was found by trial and error that as part of the population balance model a linear size dependent filtration function gave a good fit to the measured colloid concentration profile. The effects of constant versus size dependent filtration coefficients were compared and the differences illustrated by the calculated colloid profile within the column. Also observed from the model calculations was the dramatically changing liquid-phase colloid-size distribution which was plotted as a function of position down the column. This modeling approach was excellent for describing and understanding microscopic filtration in porous media

  11. Colloids in Flatland: a perspective on 2D phase-separated systems, characterisation methods, and lineactant.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernardini, C.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Arnaudov, L.N.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    In 1861 Thomas Graham gave birth to a new field of science, today known as colloid science. Nowadays, the notion “colloid” is often used referring to systems consisting of two immiscible phases, one of which is finely dispersed into the other. Research on colloids deals mostly with sols (solids

  12. Use of nuclear recoil for separating 228Ra, 224Ra, and 233Pa from colloidal thorium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beydon, J.; Gratot, I.

    1968-01-01

    By using α-recoil it is possible to separate by dialysis the α disintegration products (224 Ra; 228 Ra) of thorium from colloidal thorium hydroxide.The use of n, γ recoil allows the separation of 233 Pa produced by the neutron irradiation of thorium, on condition that the colloidal thorium hydroxide is irradiated in the presence of a dispersing. (author) [fr

  13. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1990-05-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwaters is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudocolloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC project MIRAGE II, particularly, to research area: complexation and colloids. (orig.)

  14. Mobilization And Characterization Of Colloids Generated From Cement Leachates Moving Through A SRS Sandy Sediment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D.; Roberts, K.; Kaplan, D.; Seaman, J.

    2011-01-01

    Naturally occurring mobile colloids are ubiquitous and are involved in many important processes in the subsurface zone. For example, colloid generation and subsequent mobilization represent a possible mechanism for the transport of contaminants including radionuclides in the subsurface environments. For colloid-facilitated transport to be significant, three criteria must be met: (1) colloids must be generated; (2) contaminants must associate with the colloids preferentially to the immobile solid phase (aquifer); and (3) colloids must be transported through the groundwater or in subsurface environments - once these colloids start moving they become 'mobile colloids'. Although some experimental investigations of particle release in natural porous media have been conducted, the detailed mechanisms of release and re-deposition of colloidal particles within natural porous media are poorly understood. Even though this vector of transport is known, the extent of its importance is not known yet. Colloid-facilitated transport of trace radionuclides has been observed in the field, thus demonstrating a possible radiological risk associated with the colloids. The objective of this study was to determine if cementitious leachate would promote the in situ mobilization of natural colloidal particles from a SRS sandy sediment. The intent was to determine whether cementitious surface or subsurface structure would create plumes that could produce conditions conducive to sediment dispersion and mobile colloid generation. Column studies were conducted and the cation chemistries of influents and effluents were analyzed by ICP-OES, while the mobilized colloids were characterized using XRD, SEM, EDX, PSD and Zeta potential. The mobilization mechanisms of colloids in a SRS sandy sediment by cement leachates were studied.

  15. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W; Grillo, I; Phipps, J; Gittins, D I

    2011-01-01

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  16. Structure of colloidal sphere-plate mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doshi, N; Cinacchi, G; Van Duijneveldt, J S; Cosgrove, T; Prescott, S W [School of Chemistry, University of Bristol, Bristol BS8 1TS (United Kingdom); Grillo, I [Institut Laue-Langevin, 6 rue Jules Horowitz BP 156, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Phipps, J [Imerys Minerals Ltd, Par Moor Centre, Par Moor Road, Par, Cornwall PL24 2SQ (United Kingdom); Gittins, D I, E-mail: Giorgio.Cinacchi@bristol.ac.uk, E-mail: J.S.van-Duijneveldt@bristol.ac.uk [Imerys Performance and Filtration Minerals Ltd, 130 Castilian Drive, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States)

    2011-05-18

    In addition to containing spherical pigment particles, coatings usually contain plate-like clay particles. It is thought that these improve the opacity of the paint film by providing an efficient spacing of the pigment particles. This observation is counterintuitive, as suspensions of particles of different shapes and sizes tend to phase separate on increase of concentration. In order to clarify this matter a model colloidal system is studied here, with a sphere-plate diameter ratio similar to that found in paints. For dilute suspensions, small angle neutron scattering revealed that the addition of plates leads to enhanced density fluctuations of the spheres, in agreement with new theoretical predictions. On increasing the total colloid concentration the plates and spheres phase separate due to the disparity in their shape. This is in agreement with previous theoretical and experimental work on colloidal sphere-plate mixtures, where one particle acts as a depleting agent. The fact that no large scale phase separation is observed in coatings is ascribed to dynamic arrest in intimately mixed, or possibly micro-phase separated structures, at elevated concentration.

  17. Hybridizing pines with diluted pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1967-01-01

    Diluted pollens would have many uses by the tree breeder. Dilutions would be particularly advantageous in making many controlled pollinations with a limited amount of pollen. They also would be useful in artificial mass pollinations of orchards or single trees. Diluted pollens might help overcome troublesome genetic barriers to crossing. Feasibility o,f using diluted...

  18. Colloidal silver: a novel treatment for Staphylococcus aureus biofilms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goggin, Rachel; Jardeleza, Camille; Wormald, Peter-John; Vreugde, Sarah

    2014-03-01

    Colloidal silver is an alternative medicine consisting of silver particles suspended in water. After using this solution as a nasal spray, the symptoms of a previously recalcitrant Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-infected chronic rhinosinusitis patient were observed to have improved markedly. The aim of this study was to determine whether colloidal silver has any direct bactericidal effects on these biofilms in vitro. S. aureus biofilms were grown from the ATCC 25923 reference strain on Minimum Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) device pegs, and treated with colloidal silver. Concentrations tested ranged from 10 to 150 μL colloidal silver diluted to 200 μL with sterile water in 50 μL cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) broth. Control pegs were exposed to equivalent volumes of CSF broth and sterile water. The sample size was 4 biomass values per treatment or control group. Confocal scanning laser microscopy and COMSTAT software were used to quantify biofilms 24 hours after treatment. Significant differences from control were found for all concentrations tested bar the lowest of 10 μL colloidal silver in 200 μL. At 20 μL colloidal silver, the reduction in biomass was 98.9% (mean difference between control and treatment = -4.0317 μm(3) /μm(2) , p colloidal silver (mean differences = -4.0681 and -4.0675μm(3) /μm(2) , respectively, p Colloidal silver directly attenuates in vitro S. aureus biofilms. © 2014 ARS-AAOA, LLC.

  19. Holographic characterization of colloidal particles in turbid media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheong, Fook Chiong; Kasimbeg, Priya; Ruffner, David B.; Hlaing, Ei Hnin; Blusewicz, Jaroslaw M.; Philips, Laura A.; Grier, David G.

    2017-10-01

    Holographic particle characterization uses in-line holographic microscopy and the Lorenz-Mie theory of light scattering to measure the diameter and the refractive index of individual colloidal particles in their native dispersions. This wealth of information has proved invaluable in fields as diverse as soft-matter physics, biopharmaceuticals, wastewater management, and food science but so far has been available only for dispersions in transparent media. Here, we demonstrate that holographic characterization can yield precise and accurate results even when the particles of interest are dispersed in turbid media. By elucidating how multiple light scattering contributes to image formation in holographic microscopy, we establish the range conditions under which holographic characterization can reliably probe turbid samples. We validate the technique with measurements on model colloidal spheres dispersed in commercial nanoparticle slurries.

  20. Colloid Release From Differently Managed Loess Soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad; Schjønning, Per; Møldrup, Per

    2012-01-01

    The content of water-dispersible colloids (WDC) in a soil can have a major impact on soil functions, such as permeability to water and air, and on soil strength, which can impair soil fertility and workability. In addition, the content of WDC in the soil may increase the risk of nutrient loss...... and of colloid-facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. In the present study, soils from the Bad Lauchsta¨dt longterm static fertilizer experiment with different management histories were investigated to relate basic soil properties to the content of WDC, the content of water-stable aggregates (WSA......), and aggregate tensile strength. Our studies were carried out on soils on identical parent material under controlled management conditions, enabling us to study the long-term effects on soil physical properties with few explanatory variables in play. The content of WDC and the amount of WSA were measured...

  1. Fibrinogen estimates are influenced by methods of measurement and hemodilution with colloid plasma expanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenger-Eriksen, Christian; Moore, Gary W; Rangarajan, Savita; Ingerslev, Jørgen; Sørensen, Benny

    2010-12-01

    Measurement of plasma fibrinogen is often required in critically ill patients or massively bleeding patients being resuscitated with colloid plasma expander. This study aimed at evaluating different assays of plasma fibrinogen after in vitro dilution with commonly used plasma expanders and challenged the hypothesis that levels of fibrinogen are estimated significantly higher in plasma diluted with colloid plasma expander compared with isotonic saline. Fibrinogen measurements were established in plasma samples each diluted in vitro to 30 or 50% with isotonic saline, hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 130/0.4, and human albumin. Fibrinogen levels were assessed using an antigen determination, three photo-optical Clauss methods, one mechanical Clauss method, a prothrombin-derived method, and viscoelastic measurement through thromboelastometry. Measurement of fibrinogen levels was significantly different when performed on alternate analytical platforms. By 30 and 50% dilution with HES 130/0.4 coagulation analyzers using the photo-optical Clauss methods significantly overestimated levels of fibrinogen. Dilution with human albumin did not affect fibrinogen levels except from one analyzer by 50% dilution level. Viscoelastic measurement of fibrin polymerization was reduced at both dilution levels and appeared to reflect the impairment of fibrin polymerization induced by HES 130/0.4 and to a lesser extent human albumin. This study demonstrated that different automated coagulation analyzers revealed significantly different levels of fibrinogen. The presence of colloid plasma expander gave rise to erroneous high levels of fibrinogen returned from some coagulation analyzers employing the method of Clauss. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  2. Helium dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1973-01-01

    A new system of continuous heat exchange for a helium dilution refrigerator is proposed. The 3 He effluent tube is concurrent with the affluent mixed helium tube in a vertical downward direction. Heat exchange efficiency is enhanced by placing in series a number of elements with an enlarged surface area

  3. Isotope dilution analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fudge, A.

    1978-12-15

    The following aspects of isotope dilution analysis are covered in this report: fundamental aspects of the technique; elements of interest in the nuclear field, choice and standardization of spike nuclide; pre-treatment to achieve isotopic exchange and chemical separation; sensitivity; selectivity; and accuracy.

  4. The effect of colloid preload versus prophylactic ephedrine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: We aimed to investigate the effect of colloid infusion immediately before the spinal anesthesia, and the prophylactic intravenous (IV) infusion of ephedrine after injection of intrathecal bupivacaine on hemodynamic parameters, QT, The QT interval corrected for heart rate (QTc), and dispersion of QTc (QTcDisp) intervals ...

  5. Phase behaviour of rod-like colloid + flexible polymer mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lekkerkerker, H.N.W.; Stroobants, A.

    The effect of non-adsorbing, flexible polymer on the isotropic-nematic transition in dispersions of rod-like colloids is investigated. A widening of the biphasic gap is observed, in combination with a marked polymer partitioning between the coexisting phases. Under certain conditions, areas of

  6. Synthesis of nanosized silver colloids by microwave dielectric heating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Silver nanosized crystallites have been synthesized in aqueous and polyols viz., ethylene glycol and glycerol, using a microwave technique. Dispersions of colloidal silver have been prepared by the reduction of silver nitrate both in the presence and absence of stabilizer poly(vinylpyrolidone) (PVP). It was observed that ...

  7. Medical applications of colloids

    CERN Document Server

    Matijevic, Egon

    2008-01-01

    The first book of its type on the medical and biomedical applications of colloids, although there are some related titles on different topicsDiscusses the effects of uniform particles in drug formulations and releaseEvaluates particle transport and deposition in the human body.

  8. Simulation of dense colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herrmann, H.J.; Harting, J.D.R.; Hecht, M.; Ben-Naim, E.

    2008-01-01

    We present in this proceeding recent large scale simulations of dense colloids. On one hand we simulate model clay consisting of nanometric aluminum oxide spheres in water using realistic DLVO potentials and a combination of MD and SRD. We find pronounced cluster formation and retrieve the shear

  9. Defects in dilute nitrides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, W.M.; Buyanova, I.A.; Tu, C.W.; Yonezu, H.

    2005-01-01

    We provide a brief review our recent results from optically detected magnetic resonance studies of grown-in non-radiative defects in dilute nitrides, i.e. Ga(In)NAs and Ga(Al,In)NP. Defect complexes involving intrinsic defects such as As Ga antisites and Ga i self interstitials were positively identified.Effects of growth conditions, chemical compositions and post-growth treatments on formation of the defects are closely examined. These grown-in defects are shown to play an important role in non-radiative carrier recombination and thus in degrading optical quality of the alloys, harmful to performance of potential optoelectronic and photonic devices based on these dilute nitrides. (author)

  10. Nonequilibrium Equation of State in Suspensions of Active Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix Ginot

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Active colloids constitute a novel class of materials composed of colloidal-scale particles locally converting chemical energy into motility, mimicking micro-organisms. Evolving far from equilibrium, these systems display structural organizations and dynamical properties distinct from thermalized colloidal assemblies. Harvesting the potential of this new class of systems requires the development of a conceptual framework to describe these intrinsically nonequilibrium systems. We use sedimentation experiments to probe the nonequilibrium equation of state of a bidimensional assembly of active Janus microspheres and conduct computer simulations of a model of self-propelled hard disks. Self-propulsion profoundly affects the equation of state, but these changes can be rationalized using equilibrium concepts. We show that active colloids behave, in the dilute limit, as an ideal gas with an activity-dependent effective temperature. At finite density, increasing the activity is similar to increasing adhesion between equilibrium particles. We quantify this effective adhesion and obtain a unique scaling law relating activity and effective adhesion in both experiments and simulations. Our results provide a new and efficient way to understand the emergence of novel phases of matter in active colloidal suspensions.

  11. Overview of an effective-medium approach to the reflection and refraction of light at a turbid colloidal half-space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gutierrez-Reyes, Edahi; Barrera, Ruben G. [Instituto de Fisica, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 20-364, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico); Garcia-Valenzuela, Augusto [Centro de Ciencias Aplicadas y Desarrollo Tecnologico, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70-186, Mexico Distrito Federal (Mexico)

    2012-06-15

    It has been recently shown that the effective electromagnetic bulk response of a dilute colloidal system, composed by a large collection of identical big spheres, located at random, is spatially dispersive (non-local). Here, we extend this effective-medium approach to the calculation of the reflection and transmission amplitudes of the same system but with a flat interface. We use an integral-equation approach for the calculation of the average electric field. The integral equation is solved within the effective-field approximation, by proposing a plane-wave solution with effective parameters that are calculated by solving a set of consistency equations. We obtain explicit expressions for the transmission and reflection amplitudes as a function of the filling fraction, the radius of the inclusions and the angle of incidence. We show and discuss numerical results for a system of silver particles. (Copyright copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Glass transition in soft-sphere dispersions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    RamIrez-Gonzalez, P E; Medina-Noyola, M

    2009-01-01

    The concept of dynamic equivalence among mono-disperse soft-sphere fluids is employed in the framework of the self-consistent generalized Langevin equation (SCGLE) theory of colloid dynamics to calculate the ideal glass transition phase diagram of model soft-sphere colloidal dispersions in the softness-concentration state space. The slow dynamics predicted by this theory near the glass transition is compared with available experimental data for the decay of the intermediate scattering function of colloidal dispersions of soft-microgel particles. Increasing deviations from this simple scheme occur for increasingly softer potentials, and this is studied here using the Rogers-Young static structure factor of the soft-sphere systems as the input of the SCGLE theory, without assuming a priori the validity of the equivalence principle above.

  13. Sustainable steric stabilization of colloidal titania nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elbasuney, Sherif, E-mail: sherif_basuney2000@yahoo.com

    2017-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Controlled surface properties of titania nanoparticles via surface modification, flocculation from aqueous phase (a), stabilization in aqueous phase (b), extraction to organic phase (c). - Highlights: • Complete change in surface properties of titania nanoparticles from hydrophilic to hydrophobic. • Harvesting the formulated nanoparticles from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. • Exclusive surface modification in the reactor during nanoparticle synthesis. • Sustainable stabilization of titania nanoparticles in aqueous media with polar polymeric dispersant. - Abstract: A route to produce a stable colloidal suspension is essential if mono-dispersed particles are to be successfully synthesized, isolated, and used in subsequent nanocomposite manufacture. Dispersing nanoparticles in fluids was found to be an important approach for avoiding poor dispersion characteristics. However, there is still a great tendency for colloidal nanoparticles to flocculate over time. Steric stabilization can prevent coagulation by introducing a thick adsorbed organic layer which constitutes a significant steric barrier that can prevent the particle surfaces from coming into direct contact. One of the main features of hydrothermal synthesis technique is that it offers novel approaches for sustainable nanoparticle surface modification. This manuscript reports on the sustainable steric stabilization of titanium dioxide nanoparticles. Nanoparticle surface modification was performed via two main approaches including post-synthesis and in situ surface modification. The tuneable hydrothermal conditions (i.e. temperature, pressure, flow rates, and surfactant addition) were optimized to enable controlled steric stabilization in a continuous fashion. Effective post synthesis surface modification with organic ligand (dodecenyl succinic anhydride (DDSA)) was achieved; the optimum surface coating temperature was reported to be 180–240 °C to ensure DDSA ring opening

  14. Generation of colloidal granules and capsules from double emulsion drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, Kathryn S.

    Assemblies of colloidal particles are extensively used in ceramic processing, pharmaceuticals, inks and coatings. In this project, the aim was to develop a new technique to fabricate monodispersed colloidal assemblies. The use of microfluidic devices and emulsion processing allows for the fabrication of complex materials that can be used in a variety of applications. A microfluidic device is used to create monodispersed water/oil/water (w/o/w) double emulsions with interior droplets of colloidal silica suspension ranging in size from tens to hundreds of microns. By tailoring the osmotic pressure using glycerol as a solute in the continuous and inner phases of the emulsion, we can control the final volume size of the monodispersed silica colloidal crystals that form in the inner droplets of the double emulsion. Modifying the ionic strength in the colloidal dispersion can be used to affect the particle-particle interactions and crystal formation of the final colloidal particle. This w/o/w technique has been used with other systems of metal oxide colloids and cellulose nanocrystals. Encapsulation of the colloidal suspension in a polymer shell for the generation of ceramic-polymer core-shell particles has also been developed. These core-shell particles have spawned new research in the field of locally resonant acoustic metamaterials. Systems and chemistries for creating cellulose hydrogels within the double emulsions have also been researched. Water in oil single emulsions and double emulsions have been used to create cellulose hydrogel spheres in the sub-100 micron diameter range. Oil/water/oil double emulsions allow us to create stable cellulose capsules. The addition of a second hydrogel polymer, such as acrylate or alginate, further strengthens the cellulose gel network and can also be processed into capsules and particles using the microfluidic device. This work could have promising applications in acoustic metamaterials, personal care products, pharmaceuticals

  15. Patterned Colloidal Photonic Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jue; Li, Mingzhu; Song, Yanlin

    2018-03-01

    Colloidal photonic crystals (PCs) have been well developed because they are easy to prepare, cost-effective, and versatile with regards to modification and functionalization. Patterned colloidal PCs contribute a novel approach to constructing high-performance PC devices with unique structures and specific functions. In this review, an overview of the strategies for fabricating patterned colloidal PCs, including patterned substrate-induced assembly, inkjet printing, and selective immobilization and modification, is presented. The advantages of patterned PC devices are also discussed in detail, for example, improved detection sensitivity and response speed of the sensors, control over the flow direction and wicking rate of microfluidic channels, recognition of cross-reactive molecules through an array-patterned microchip, fabrication of display devices with tunable patterns, well-arranged RGB units, and wide viewing-angles, and the ability to construct anti-counterfeiting devices with different security strategies. Finally, the perspective of future developments and challenges is presented. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Flocking ferromagnetic colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Andreas; Snezhko, Alexey; Aranson, Igor S

    2017-02-01

    Assemblages of microscopic colloidal particles exhibit fascinating collective motion when energized by electric or magnetic fields. The behaviors range from coherent vortical motion to phase separation and dynamic self-assembly. Although colloidal systems are relatively simple, understanding their collective response, especially under out-of-equilibrium conditions, remains elusive. We report on the emergence of flocking and global rotation in the system of rolling ferromagnetic microparticles energized by a vertical alternating magnetic field. By combing experiments and discrete particle simulations, we have identified primary physical mechanisms, leading to the emergence of large-scale collective motion: spontaneous symmetry breaking of the clockwise/counterclockwise particle rotation, collisional alignment of particle velocities, and random particle reorientations due to shape imperfections. We have also shown that hydrodynamic interactions between the particles do not have a qualitative effect on the collective dynamics. Our findings shed light on the onset of spatial and temporal coherence in a large class of active systems, both synthetic (colloids, swarms of robots, and biopolymers) and living (suspensions of bacteria, cell colonies, and bird flocks).

  17. Colloid migration in fractured media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    Field studies at the Nevada Test Site by researchers at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory have demonstrated that radionuclides are being transported by colloidal material suspended in groundwater. This observation is counter to most predictions from contaminant transport models because the models assume adsorbed species are immobile. The purpose of this research is to quantify the transport processes for colloidal materials and develop the mechanistic understanding necessary to predict radionuclide transport in fractured media. There were three areas of investigation during this year that have addressed these issues: chemical control of colloid deposition on clean mineral surfaces, colloid accumulation on fracture surfaces, and the influence of deposited colloids on colloid and tracer migration. 7 refs

  18. Dynamics and Rheology of Soft Colloidal Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho

    2015-01-20

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The linear viscoelastic (LVE) spectrum of a soft colloidal glass is accessed with the aid of a time-concentration superposition (TCS) principle, which unveils the glassy particle dynamics from in-cage rattling motion to out-of-cage relaxations over a broad frequency range 10-13 rad/s < ω < 101 rad/s. Progressive dilution of a suspension of hairy nanoparticles leading to increased intercenter distances is demonstrated to enable continuous mapping of the structural relaxation for colloidal glasses. In contrast to existing empirical approaches proposed to extend the rheological map of soft glassy materials, i.e., time-strain superposition (TSS) and strain-rate frequency superposition (SRFS), TCS yields a LVE master curve that satis fies the Kramers-Kronig relations which interrelate the dynamic moduli for materials at equilibrium. The soft glassy rheology (SGR) model and literature data further support the general validity of the TCS concept for soft glassy materials.

  19. A study on the characteristics of colloid-associated radionuclide transport in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yun Chang

    1997-02-01

    Recently, the radionuclide transport in the form of colloids has been focused intensively in the safety assessment of a radioactive waste repository. As colloids are considered to be able to increase the transport rate of radionuclide through geologic media, the transport of radionuclide should be adjusted by the presence of colloids. The migration of dissolved radionuclide is expected to depend on various process such as advection, dispersion and interactions with soils, and, in addition, the transport of colloid-mediated radionuclide is considered to be more complicated because of the interactions between radionuclides and colloids. In this paper the migration behavior of colloid-associated radionuclides within subsurface are reviewed and studied in detail. The colloid-mediated transport system was modelled and simulated in order to illustrate the effects of colloids on the transport of radionuclide in the aquifer system. The transport rate of radionuclide is mainly controlled by a retardation factor which is controlled by colloidal behaviors, degree of adsorption, and the related geologic parameters. Therefore it is necessary to carefully understand the accelerating tendency of the retardation difference factor, and in this study the trends are analyzed, described and the retardation difference factor is mathematically defined, simplified and applied practically to the safety and performance assessment of a future repository

  20. A dynamic force balance model for colloidal expansion and its DLVO-based application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Longcheng; Moreno, Luis; Neretnieks, Ivars

    2009-01-20

    A force balance model that describes the dynamic expansion of colloidal bentonite gels/sols is presented. The colloidal particles are assumed to consist of one or several thin sheets with the other dimensions much larger than their thickness. The forces considered include van der Waals force, diffuse double layer force, thermal force giving rise to Brownian motion, gravity, as well as friction force. The model results in an expression resembling the instationary diffusion equation but with an immensely variable diffusivity. This diffusivity is strongly influenced by the concentration of counterions as well as by the particle concentration in the colloid gel/sol. The properties of the model are explored and discussed, exemplified by the upward expansion of an originally highly compacted bentonite tablet in a test tube. Examples are presented for a number of cases with ionic concentrations varying between very dilute waters up to several molar of counterions. The volume fraction of particles ranges from 40% to very dilute sols.

  1. Self-Supporting Nanodiamond Gels: Elucidating Colloidal Interactions Through Rheology_

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, Prajesh; Tripathi, Anurodh; Vogel, Nancy A.; Rojas, Orlando J.; Raghavan, Sriunivasa R.; Khan, Saad A.

    This work investigates the colloidal interactions and rheological behavior of nanodiamond (ND) dispersions. While ND represents a promising class of nanofiller due to its high surface area, superior mechanical strength, tailorable surface functionality and biocompatibility, much remains unknown about the behavior of ND dispersions. We hypothesize that controlling interactions in ND dispersions will lead to highly functional systems with tunable modulus and shear response. Steady and dynamic rheology techniques are thus employed to systematically investigate nanodiamonds dispersed in model polar and non-polar media. We find that low concentrations of ND form gels almost instantaneously in a non-polar media. In contrast, ND's in polar media show a time-dependent behavior with the modulus increasing with time. We attribute the difference in behavior to variations in inter-particle interactions as well as the interaction of the ND with the media. Large steady and oscillatory strains are applied to ND colloidal gels to investigate the role of shear in gel microstructure breakdown and recovery. For colloidal gels in non-polar medium, the incomplete recovery of elastic modulus at high strain amplitudes indicates dominance of particle-particle interactions; however, in polar media the complete recovery of elastic modulus even at high strain amplitudes indicates dominance of particle-solvent interactions. These results taken together provide a platform to develop self-supporting gels with tunable properties in terms of ND concentration, and solvent type.

  2. Laser control of natural disperse systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Olga L.; Bezrukova, Alexandra G.

    2003-10-01

    Different water disperse systems were studied by integral (spectroturbidemetry) and differential light scattering method with a laser as a source of light. The investigation done concerns the state of kaolin dispersions at storage and under dilution as an example of mineral dispersion systems such as natural water. The role of some light scattering parameters for an optical analysis of water dispersions, like the dispersion of erythrocytes and bacterial cells -Escherichia coli is discussed. The results obtained can help to elaborate the methods for on-line optical control fo natural disperse systems (water, air) with mineral and biological particles.

  3. Macromolecular Colloids of Diblock Poly(amino acids) That Bind Insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constancis; Meyrueix; Bryson; Huille; Grosselin; Gulik-Krzywicki; Soula

    1999-09-15

    The diblock polymer poly(l-leucine-block-l-glutamate), bLE, was synthesized by acid hydrolysis of the ester poly(l-leucine-block-l-methyl glutamate). During the hydrolysis reaction the leucine block precipitates from the reaction mixture, forming nanosized particulate structures. These particles can be purified and further suspended in water or in 0.15 M phosphate saline buffer (PBS) to give stable, colloidal dispersions. TEM analysis shows the predominant particle form to be that of platelets with a diameter of 200 nm. Smaller cylindrical or spherical particles form a relatively minor fraction of the sample. After fractionation, analysis shows the platelets to be compositionally rich in leucine, while the spheres are glutamate-rich. (1)H NMR, CD, and X-ray diffraction indicate that the core of the platelets is composed of crystalline, helical leucine segments. The poly(l-glutamate) polyelectrolyte brush extending out from the two faces of the disk stabilizes individual particles from flocculation. At pH 7.4, the nanoparticles (platelets and cylinders) spontaneously adsorb proteins, such as insulin, directly from solution. Partial desorption of the protein in its native configuration can be induced by simple dilution. The reversibility of the insulin-nanoparticle complex is the basis for a potential new delivery system. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  4. Stabilized super-thermite colloids: A new generation of advanced highly energetic materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbasuney, Sherif; Gaber Zaky, M.; Radwan, Mostafa; Mostafa, Sherif F.

    2017-10-01

    One of the great impetus of nanotechnology on energetic materials is the achievement of nanothermites (metal-oxide/metal) which are characterized by massive heat output. Yet, full exploitation of super-thermites in highly energetic systems has not been achieved. This manuscript reports on the sustainable fabrication of colloidal Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles for thermite applications. TEM micrographs demonstrated mono-dispersed Fe2O3 and CuO with an average particle size of 3 and 15 nm respectively. XRD diffractograms demonstrated highly crystalline materials. SEM micrographs demonstrated a great tendency of the developed oxides to aggregate over drying process. The effective integration and dispersion of mono-dispersed colloidal thermite particles into energetic systems are vital for enhanced performance. Aluminum is of interest as highly energetic metal fuel. In this paper, synthesized Fe2O3 and CuO nanoparticles were re-dispersed in isopropyl alcohol (IPA) with aluminum nanoparticles using ultrasonic prope homogenizer. The colloidal thermite peraticles can be intgegrated into highly energetic system for subsequent nanocomposite development. Thanks to stabilization of colloidal CuO nanoparticles in IPA which could offer intimate mixing between oxidizer and metal fuel. The stabilization mechanism of CuO in IPA was correlated to steric stabilization with solvent molecules. This approach eliminated nanoparticle drying and the re-dispersion of dry aggregates into energetic materials. This manuscript shaded the light on the real development of colloidal thermite mixtures and their integration into highly energetic systems.

  5. Polymers and colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schurtenberger, P.

    1996-01-01

    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs

  6. Polymers and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schurtenberger, P [ETH Zurich, Inst. fuer Polymere, Zurich (Switzerland)

    1996-11-01

    A wealth of structural information from colloid and polymer solutions on a large range of length scales can be obtained using small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments. After a general introduction to the field of soft condensed matter, I shall give a few selected examples on how SANS combined with suitable contrast variation schemes can be used to extract information on the size and conformation of polymer coils in solution and in the melt, and on the local structure and flexibility of polymerlike micelles and microemulsions. (author) 8 figs., tabs., 44 refs.

  7. Formation mechanisms of colloidal silica via sodium silicate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsai, M.-S.; Huang, P.Y.; Yang, C.-H.

    2006-01-01

    Colloidal silica is formed by titrating active silicic acid into a heated KOH with seed solution. The colloidal silica formation mechanisms are investigated by sampling the heated solution during titration. In the initial stage, the added seeds were dissolved. This might due to the dilution of seed concentration, the addition of potassium hydroxide (KOH) and the heating at 100 deg. C. Homogenous nucleation and surface growth occur simultaneously in the second stage of colloidal silica formation. Homogenous nucleation is more important when the seed concentration is relatively low. On the other hand, surface growth plays an important role when the seed concentration is increased. In the middle seed concentration, the seed particles grow up and some new small particles are born by the homogenous nucleation process to form a bimodal size distribution product. As the titrating volume of active silicic acid exceeds a specific value in the last stage the particle size increases rapidly and the particle number decreases, which may be caused by the aggregation of particles. The intervals between each stage were varied with the seed concentration. Increasing the seed concentration led to the formation of uniform particle size colloidal silica

  8. Risk Assessment of New Chemical Substances. Dilution of Effluents in The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Greef J; de Nijs ACM

    1990-01-01

    A detailed study has been undertaken on the dilution of effluent from waste water treatment plants in The Netherlands. Using a 2-dimensional dispersion model and data from the Central Bureau of Statistics, a general overview of the dilution of effluent in receiving surface waters has been compiled

  9. Fe-Impregnated Mineral Colloids for Peroxide Activation: Effects of Mineral Substrate and Fe Precursor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Machala, Libor; Yan, Weile

    2016-02-02

    Heterogeneous iron species at the mineral/water interface are important catalysts for the generation of reactive oxygen species at circumneutral pH. One significant pathway leading to the formation of such species arises from deposition of dissolved iron onto mineral colloids due to changes in redox conditions. This study investigates the catalytic properties of Fe impregnated on silica, alumina, and titania nanoparticles (as prototypical mineral colloids). Fe impregnation was carried out by immersing the mineral nanoparticles in dilute Fe(II) or Fe(III) solutions at pH 6 and 3, respectively, in an aerobic environment. The uptake of iron per unit surface area follows the order of nTiO2 > nAl2O3 > nSiO2 for both types of Fe precursors. Impregnation of mineral particles in Fe(II) solutions results in predominantly Fe(III) species due to efficient surface-mediated oxidation. The catalytic activity of the impregnated solids to produce hydroxyl radical (·OH) from H2O2 decomposition was evaluated using benzoic acid as a probe compound under dark conditions. Invariably, the rates of benzoic acid oxidation with different Fe-laden particles increase with the surface density of Fe until a critical density above which the catalytic activity approaches a plateau, suggesting active Fe species are formed predominantly at low surface loadings. The critical surface density of Fe varies with the mineral substrate as well as the aqueous Fe precursor. Fe impregnated on TiO2 exhibits markedly higher activity than its Al2O3 and SiO2 counterparts. The speciation of interfacial Fe is analyzed with diffuse reflectance UV-vis analysis and interpretation of the data in the context of benzoic oxidation rates suggests that the surface activity of the solids for ·OH generation correlates strongly with the isolated (i.e., mononuclear) Fe species. Therefore, iron dispersed on mineral colloids is a significant form of reactive iron surfaces in the aquatic environment.

  10. Antimicrobial Peptide-Driven Colloidal Transformations in Liquid-Crystalline Nanocarriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gontsarik, Mark; Buhmann, Matthias T; Yaghmur, Anan

    2016-01-01

    Designing efficient colloidal systems for the delivery of membrane active antimicrobial peptides requires in-depth understanding of their structural and morphological characteristics. Using dispersions of inverted type bicontinuous cubic phase (cubosomes), we examine the effect of integrating...... structure, inducing colloidal transformations to sponge and lamellar phases and micelles in a concentration-dependent manner. These investigations, together with in vitro evaluation studies using a clinically relevant bacterial strain, established the composition-nanostructure-activity relationship that can...

  11. SANS observations on weakly flocculated dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mischenko, N.; Ourieva, G.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Structural changes occurring in colloidal dispersions of poly-(methyl metacrylate) (PMMA) particles, sterically stabilized with poly-(12-hydroxystearic acid) (PHSA), while varying the solvent quality, temperature and shear rate, are investigated by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS......). For a moderately concentrated dispersion in a marginal solvent the transition on cooling from the effective stability to a weak attraction is monitored, The degree of attraction is determined in the framework of the sticky spheres model (SSM), SANS and rheological results are correlated....

  12. Three-particle correlation functions of quasi-two-dimensional one-component and binary colloid suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Hau My; Lin, Binhua; Rice, Stuart A

    2006-11-14

    We report the results of experimental determinations of the triplet correlation functions of quasi-two-dimensional one-component and binary colloid suspensions in which the colloid-colloid interaction is short ranged. The suspensions studied range in density from modestly dilute to solid. The triplet correlation function of the one-component colloid system reveals extensive ordering deep in the liquid phase. At the same density the ordering of the larger diameter component in a binary colloid system is greatly diminished by a very small amount of the smaller diameter component. The possible utilization of information contained in the triplet correlation function in the theory of melting of a quasi-two-dimensional system is briefly discussed.

  13. Slow Auger Relaxation in HgTe Colloidal Quantum Dots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnychuk, Christopher; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2018-05-03

    The biexciton lifetimes in HgTe colloidal quantum dots are measured as a function of particle size. Samples produced by two synthetic methods, leading to partially aggregated or well-dispersed particles, exhibit markedly different dynamics. The relaxation characteristics of partially aggregated HgTe inhibit reliable determinations of the Auger lifetime. In well-dispersed HgTe quantum dots, the biexciton lifetime increases approximately linearly with particle volume, confirming trends observed in other systems. The extracted Auger coefficient is three orders of magnitude smaller than that for bulk HgCdTe materials with similar energy gaps. We discuss these findings in the context of understanding Auger relaxation in quantum-confined systems and their relevance to mid-infrared optoelectronic devices based on HgTe colloidal quantum dots.

  14. Investigation of Monodisperse Dendrimeric Polysaccharide Nanoparticle Dispersions Using Small Angle Neutron Scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, John; Nickels, Jonathan; Papp-Szabo, Erzsi; Katsaras, John; Dutcher, John

    2015-03-01

    Phytoglycogen is a highly branched polysaccharide that is very similar to the energy storage molecule glycogen. We have isolated monodisperse phytoglycogen nanoparticles from corn and these particles are attractive for applications in the cosmetic, food and beverage, and biomedical industries. Many of these promising applications are due to the special interaction between the nanoparticles and water, which results in: (1) high solubility; (2) low viscosity and high stability in aqueous dispersions; and (3) a remarkable capacity to sequester and retain water. Our rheology measurements indicate that the nanoparticles behave like hard spheres in water, with the viscosity diverging for concentrations >25% (w/w). Because of this, aqueous suspensions of phytoglycogen provide an ideal platform for detailed testing of theories of colloidal glasses and jamming. To further explore the interaction of the phytoglycogen particles and water, we have performed small angle neutron scattering (SANS) measurements on the Extended Q-Range SANS (EQ-SANS) diffractometer at the Spallation Neutron Source at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Measurements performed on phytoglycogen dispersions in mixtures of hydrogenated and deuterated water have allowed us to determine the particle size and average particle spacing as a function of the phytoglycogen concentration in the limits of dilute and concentrated dispersions.

  15. Field-dependent dynamic responses from dilute magnetic nanoparticle dispersions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fock, Jeppe; Balceris, Christoph; Costo, Rocio

    2018-01-01

    The response of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) to an oscillating magnetic field outside the linear response region is important for several applications including magnetic hyperthermia, magnetic resonance imaging and biodetection. The size and magnetic moment are two critical parameters for the pe...

  16. A binomial modeling approach for upscaling colloid transport under unfavorable conditions: Emergent prediction of extended tailing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilpert, Markus; Rasmuson, Anna; Johnson, William P.

    2017-07-01

    Colloid transport in saturated porous media is significantly influenced by colloidal interactions with grain surfaces. Near-surface fluid domain colloids experience relatively low fluid drag and relatively strong colloidal forces that slow their downgradient translation relative to colloids in bulk fluid. Near-surface fluid domain colloids may reenter into the bulk fluid via diffusion (nanoparticles) or expulsion at rear flow stagnation zones, they may immobilize (attach) via primary minimum interactions, or they may move along a grain-to-grain contact to the near-surface fluid domain of an adjacent grain. We introduce a simple model that accounts for all possible permutations of mass transfer within a dual pore and grain network. The primary phenomena thereby represented in the model are mass transfer of colloids between the bulk and near-surface fluid domains and immobilization. Colloid movement is described by a Markov chain, i.e., a sequence of trials in a 1-D network of unit cells, which contain a pore and a grain. Using combinatorial analysis, which utilizes the binomial coefficient, we derive the residence time distribution, i.e., an inventory of the discrete colloid travel times through the network and of their probabilities to occur. To parameterize the network model, we performed mechanistic pore-scale simulations in a single unit cell that determined the likelihoods and timescales associated with the above colloid mass transfer processes. We found that intergrain transport of colloids in the near-surface fluid domain can cause extended tailing, which has traditionally been attributed to hydrodynamic dispersion emanating from flow tortuosity of solute trajectories.

  17. Reductive and oxidative reactions with inorganic colloids in aqueous solution initiated by ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulvaney, P.C.; Sostaric, J.Z.; Ashokkumar, M.; Grieser, F.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: The absorption of ultrasound in an aqueous solution can lead to the formation of H and OH radicals which can act as redox species or react with solutes to produce secondary radicals which themselves may participate in electron transfer reactions. The radical formation occurs through the growth then rapid collapse of microbubbles a process that produces localised hot spots with an internal temperature of the order of 5000 K. We have examined two colloidal systems one involving the reductive dissolution of MnO 2 colloids and the other the oxidative dissolution of CdS colloids. In the case of MnO 2 dissolution we found that the reduction of the colloidal metal oxide was considerably enhanced in the presence of aliphatic alcohols in solution and the longer the alkyl chain length on the alcohol the greater its effect. The dissolution of CdS colloids which we ascribe to the reaction of H 2 O 2 and O 2 - with the metal sulfide lo yield Cd 2+ and S could be significantly retarded by the presence of excess S 2- in solution. The mechanisms involved in these two dissolution processes will he presented. Our results clearly show that sonochemical reactions are quite efficient in colloidal solutions and this fact needs to be considered when using sonication to disperse colloidal material in solution, a common practice among colloid chemists

  18. Dispersion for the preparation of an injectable radiopharmaceutical scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfangel, R.G.

    1976-01-01

    The invention deals with the preparation of a dispersion of a tin (II) sulphur colloid in an aqueous solution with additions of a stabilizing agent. Labelled with sup(99m)Tc, the dispersion can be used as an injectable radiopharmaceutical scanning agent. (VJ) [de

  19. Microrheology of colloidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puertas, A M; Voigtmann, T

    2014-01-01

    Microrheology was proposed almost twenty years ago as a technique to obtain rheological properties in soft matter from the microscopic motion of colloidal tracers used as probes, either freely diffusing in the host medium, or subjected to external forces. The former case is known as passive microrheology, and is based on generalizations of the Stokes–Einstein relation between the friction experienced by the probe and the host-fluid viscosity. The latter is termed active microrheology, and extends the measurement of the friction coefficient to the nonlinear-response regime of strongly driven probes. In this review article, we discuss theoretical models available in the literature for both passive and active microrheology, focusing on the case of single-probe motion in model colloidal host media. A brief overview of the theory of passive microrheology is given, starting from the work of Mason and Weitz. Further developments include refined models of the host suspension beyond that of a Newtonian-fluid continuum, and the investigation of probe-size effects. Active microrheology is described starting from microscopic equations of motion for the whole system including both the host-fluid particles and the tracer; the many-body Smoluchowski equation for the case of colloidal suspensions. At low fluid densities, this can be simplified to a two-particle equation that allows the calculation of the friction coefficient with the input of the density distribution around the tracer, as shown by Brady and coworkers. The results need to be upscaled to agree with simulations at moderate density, in both the case of pulling the tracer with a constant force or dragging it at a constant velocity. The full many-particle equation has been tackled by Fuchs and coworkers, using a mode-coupling approximation and the scheme of integration through transients, valid at high densities. A localization transition is predicted for a probe embedded in a glass-forming host suspension. The

  20. Actinide colloid generation in groundwater. Part 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.

    1991-01-01

    The progress made in the investigation of actinide colloid generation in groundwater is summarized and discussed with particular examples relevant to an understanding of the migration behaviour of actinides in natural aquifer systems. The first part deals with the characterization of colloids: groundwater colloids, actinide real-colloids and actinide pseudocolloids. The second part concentrates on the generation processes and migration behaviour of actinide pseudo colloids, which are discussed with some notable experimental examples. Importance is stressed more on the chemical aspects of the actinide colloid generation in groundwater. This work is a contribution to the CEC Mirage II project, in particular the complexation and colloids research area

  1. Non-iridescent structural colors from uniform-sized SiO2 colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçu, Gökhan; Güner, Tuğrul; Demir, Mustafa M.

    2018-05-01

    Structural colors have recently attracted interest from diverse fields of research due to their ease of fabrication and eco-friendliness. These types of colors are, in principle, achieved by periodically arranged submicron-diameter colloidal particles. The interaction of light with a structure containing long-range ordered colloidal particles leads to coloration; this usually varies depending on the angle of observation (iridescence). However, the majority of the applications demand constant color that is independent of the viewing angle (non-iridescence). In this work, silica colloids were obtained using the Stöber method at different sizes from 150 to 300 nm in an alcoholic dispersion. The casting of the dispersion on a substrate leaves behind a photonic crystal showing a colorful iridescent film. However, centrifugation and redispersion of the SiO2 particles into fresh solvent may cause the formation of small, aggregated silica domains in the new dispersion. The casting of this dispersion allows for the development of photonic glass, presumably due to the accumulation of aggregates showing stable colloidal film independent of viewing angle. Moreover, depending on the size of the silica colloids, non-iridescent photonic glasses with various colors (violet, blue, green, and orange) are obtained.

  2. Pharmacology of colloids and crystalloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffel, M I; Kaufman, B S

    1992-04-01

    We have attempted to review body fluid distribution by compartments so that the reader understands the physiology of ICF and ECF, and the relationship between interstitial and intravascular fluids. Crystalloids such as NS and RL are distributed to the ECF, whereas colloids primarily remain intravascular for longer periods. Although effective, crystalloids tend to require larger volumes for infusion, and edema remains a problem. Colloids as a group are extremely effective volume expanders, but none is ideal. Albumin, hetastarch, dextran, and the less commonly used colloids each have significant toxicities that must be considered when using them. Intelligent choices can be made to optimize use of these fluids.

  3. Driving dynamic colloidal assembly using eccentric self-propelled colloids

    OpenAIRE

    Ma, Zhan; Lei, Qun-li; Ni, Ran

    2017-01-01

    Designing protocols to dynamically direct the self-assembly of colloidal particles has become an important direction in soft matter physics because of the promising applications in fabrication of dynamic responsive functional materials. Here using computer simulations, we found that in the mixture of passive colloids and eccentric self-propelled active particles, when the eccentricity and self-propulsion of active particles are high enough, the eccentric active particles can push passive coll...

  4. Size-fractionation of groundwater arsenic in alluvial aquifers of West Bengal, India: the role of organic and inorganic colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majumder, Santanu; Nath, Bibhash; Sarkar, Simita; Chatterjee, Debashis; Roman-Ross, Gabriela; Hidalgo, Manuela

    2014-01-15

    Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and Fe mineral phases are known to influence the mobility of arsenic (As) in groundwater. Arsenic can be associated with colloidal particles containing organic matter and Fe. Currently, no data is available on the dissolved phase/colloidal association of As in groundwater of alluvial aquifers in West Bengal, India. This study investigated the fractional distribution of As (and other metals/metalloids) among the particulate, colloidal and dissolved phases in groundwater to decipher controlling behavior of organic and inorganic colloids on As mobility. The result shows that 83-94% of As remained in the 'truly dissolved' phases (i.e., 0.05 μm size) colloidal particles, which indicates the close association of As with larger Fe-rich inorganic colloids. In smaller (i.e., <0.05 μm size) colloidal particles strong positive correlation is observed between As and DOC (r(2)=0.85), which highlights the close association of As with smaller organic colloids. As(III) is mainly associated with larger inorganic colloids, whereas, As(V) is associated with smaller organic/organometallic colloids. Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive X-ray spectroscopy confirm the association of As with DOC and Fe mineral phases suggesting the formation of dissolved organo-Fe complexes and colloidal organo-Fe oxide phases. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy further confirms the formation of As-Fe-NOM organometallic colloids, however, a detailed study of these types of colloids in natural waters is necessary to underpin their controlling behavior. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Size determinations of colloidal fat emulsions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kuntsche, Judith; Klaus, Katrin; Steiniger, Frank

    2009-01-01

    Size and size distributions of colloidal dispersions are of crucial importance for their performance and safety. In the present study, commercially available fat emulsions (Lipofundin N, Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem) were analyzed by photon correlation spectroscopy, laser diffraction with adequate...... was checked with mixtures of monodisperse polystyrene nanospheres. In addition, the ultrastructure of Lipofundin N and Lipofundin MCT was investigated by cryo-electron microscopy. All different particle sizing methods gave different mean sizes and size distributions but overall, results were in reasonable...... agreement. By all methods, a larger mean droplet size (between 350 and 400 nm) as well as a broader distribution was measured for Lipofundin N compared to Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem (mean droplet size between about 280 and 320 nm). Size distributions of Lipofundin MCT and Lipidem were very similar...

  6. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen; Majumdar, Apala; Style, Robert; Sander, Graham

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates

  7. Thermodynamic stabilization of colloids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stol, R.J.; Bruyn, P.L. de

    An analysis is given of the conditions necessary for obtaining a thermodynamically stable dispersion (TSD) of solid particles in a continuous aqueous solution phase. The role of the adsorption of potential-determining ions at the planar interface in lowering the interfacial free energy (γ) to

  8. Colloid migration in porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunt, J.R.; McDowell-Boyer; Sitar, N.

    1985-01-01

    Retention of radionuclides for long periods near waste repositories depends upon multiple barriers, one of which is adsorption to immobile solid surfaces. Since small particles and colloidal matter have high adsorption capacities per unit mass and can be mobile in subsurface flows, colloidal transport of waste components requires analysis. Theories for predicting colloid migration through porous media have been developed in the filtration literature. The applicability of filtration theories for predicting particle and colloid transport. Emphasis is on suspended matter much smaller than pore sizes, where physical and chemical forces control migration rather than size dependent physical straining. In general, experimentally verifiable theories exist for particle filtration by clean media, and a sensitivity analysis is possible on particle and media properties and fluid flow rate. When particle aggregates accumulate within pores, media permeability decreases, resulting in flow field alteration and possible radionuclide isolation. An analysis of the limited experimental data available indicates that present theories cannot predict long-term colloid transport when permeability reduction occurs. The coupling of colloid attachment processes and the hydrologic flow processes requires more extensive laboratory field research than has currently been carried out. An emphasis on the fundamental mechanisms is necessary to enhance long-term predictability

  9. Characterization of colloids in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Buckau, G.; Klenze, R.

    1987-07-01

    Natural colloids in the Gorleben aquifer systems have been investigated as for their chemical composition, quantification and size distribution. Humic substances appear to be the major organic materials in these groundwaters, generating humic colloids which are analysed to be humic acid (and fulvic acid) loaded with a large number of trace heavy metal ions. These metal ions include natural homologues of actinides and some fission products in trivalent, tetravalent and hexavalent state. Concentrations of trivalent and tetravalent heavy metal ions are linearly correlated with the dissolved organic carbon (DDC) concentration in different groundwaters. The DOC is found to be present as humic colloids. The Am 3+ ions introduced in such a groundwater readily undergo the generation of its pseudocolloids through sorption or ion exchange reactions with humic colloids. The chemical behaviour of Am(III), being similar to the trivalent metal ions, e.g. Fe 3+ , REE etc. found in natural colloids, has been investigated by laser induced photoacoustic spectroscopy (LPAS). Groundwaters from Ispra, Markham Clinton and Felslabor Grimsel. Bidistilled water and one of Gorleben groundwaters, Gohy 1011, are taken for the purpose of comparison. This groundwater contains the least amount of natural colloids of all Gorleben groundwaters hitherto investigated. An indirect quantification is made by comparison of the LPAS results with experiment from Latex solution. (orig./IRB)

  10. Microscopic dynamics of binary mixtures and quasi-colloidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smorenburg, H.E.

    1996-01-01

    In the study on the title subject two questions are addressed. One is whether the microscopic dynamics of binary mixtures and quasi-colloidal systems can be understood theoretically with kinetic theories for equivalent hard sphere mixtures. The other question that arises is whether the similarity in the dynamics of dense simple fluids and concentrated colloidal suspensions also holds for binary mixtures and quasi-colloidal systems. To answer these questions, we have investigated a number of binary gas mixtures and quasi-colloidal system with different diameter ratios and concentrations. We obtain the experimental dynamic structure factors S expt (κ,ω) of the samples from inelastic neutron scattering. We compare S expt (κ,ω) with the dynamic structure S HS (κ,ω) of an equivalent hard sphere fluid, that we calculate with the Enskog theory. In chapter 2, 3 and 4 we study dense He-Ar gas mixtures (diameter ratio R=1.4, and mass ratio M=10) at low and high Ar concentrations. Experiment and kinetic theory are in good agreement. In chapter 5 we study dilute quasi-colloidal suspensions of fullerene C60 molecules dissolved in liquid CS2. The diameter ratio R=2.2 is larger than in previous experiments while the mass ratio M=9.5 is more or less the same. We obtain the self diffusion coefficient D S of one C60 molecule in CS2 and find D s ≤D SE ≤D E , with D E obtained from kinetic theory and D SE from the Stokes-Einstein description. It appears that both descriptions are relevant but not so accurate. In chapter 6 we study three dense mixtures of neopentane in 40 Ar (diameter ratio R=1.7, mass ratio M=2) at low and high neopentane concentrations. At low concentration, we find a diffusion coefficient of neopentane in Ar, which is in good agreement with kinetic theory and in moderate agreement with the Stokes-Einstein description. At high concentration the collective translational dynamics of neopentane shows a similar behaviour as in dense colloids and simple fluids

  11. Thermal diffusion in dilute nanofluids investigated by photothermal interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Philip, J; Nisha, M R

    2010-01-01

    We have carried out a theoretical analysis of the dependence of the particle mass fraction on the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of nanoparticles in liquids (dilute nanofluids). The analysis takes in to account adsorption of an ordered layer of solvent molecules around the nanoparticles. It is found that thermal diffusivity decreases with mass fraction for sufficiently small particle sizes. Beyond a critical particle size thermal diffusivity begins to increase with mass fraction for the same system. The results have been verified experimentally by measuring the thermal diffusivity of dilute suspensions of TiO 2 nanoparticles dispersed in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) medium. The effect is attributed to Kapitza resistance of thermal waves in the medium.

  12. Colloid remediation in groundwater by polyelectrolyte capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Rao, S.; Jain, R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes an ongoing study to characterize groundwater colloids, to understand the geochemical factors affecting colloid transport in groundwater, and to develop an in-situ colloid remediation process. The colloids and suspended particulate matter used in this study were collected from a perched aquifer site that has radiation levels several hundred times the natural background and where previous researchers have measured and reported the presence of radiocolloids containing plutonium and americium. At this site, radionuclides have spread over several kilometers. Inorganic colloids collected from water samples are characterized with respect to concentration, mineralogy, size distribution, electrophoretic mobility (zeta potential), and radioactivity levels. Presented are the methods used to investigate the physiochemical factors affecting colloid transport and the preliminary analytical results. Included below are a description of a colloid transport model and the corresponding computational code, water analyses, characterization of the inorganic colloids, and a conceptual description of a process for in-situ colloid remediation using the phenomenon of polyelectrolyte capture

  13. Magnetoresponsive conductive colloidal suspensions with magnetized carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdalla, Ahmed M. [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Abdel Fattah, Abdel Rahman [Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Ghosh, Suvojit [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Puri, Ishwar K., E-mail: ikpuri@mcmaster.ca [Department of Engineering Physics, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, 1280 Main Street West, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2017-01-01

    We synthesize a novel and hitherto unreported class of colloidal suspensions for which the dispersed phase, which consists of multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) decorated with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs), is both magnetoresponsive and electrically conductive. Synthesis of the dispersed phase merges processes for producing ferrofluids and magnetic MWNTs (mMWNTs). We explore means to tune the properties of these magnetic conductive colloids (MCCs) by varying the (1) MNP material composition, and (2) MNP:MWNT (w/w) magnetization weight ratio (γ). The mMWNTs are examined using XRD, TEM, EDX and SQUID and MCCs are by measuring their zeta potential and electric conductivity. Magnetite (Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4}) MNPs, which possess a high Curie temperature, produce mMWNTs with high saturation magnetization that respond relatively weakly to temperature variations. Mn{sub 0.2}Cu{sub 0.2}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} and Cu{sub 0.4}Zn{sub 0.6}Fe{sub 2}O{sub 4} MNPs with lower Curie temperatures are more sensitive to changing temperature. Increasing the MNP Cu content improves the electric conductivity of the corresponding MCC while increasing γ enhances its magnetic response. After γ is raised above a threshold value, mMWNT decoration on the CNT surface becomes nonuniform since the MNPs now agglomerate perpendicular to the nanotube surface. These colloidal suspensions are a promising new class of material that can be manipulated with a magnetic field to tune their electrical conductivity. - Highlights: ●We synthesize a novel and hitherto unreported class of colloidal suspensions. ●These colloidal suspensions are both magnetoresponsive and electrically conductive. ●The dispersed phase consists of MWNTs decorated with different magnetic nanoparticles. ●These colloids have enhanced magnetic response and electric conductivity (up to 169.5 mS cm{sup −1}). ●It is a promising new class of material that can be manipulated with a magnetic field.

  14. Universal water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamtseva, M.V.; Kardash, N.V.; Latynina, M.B.

    1993-01-01

    In the interest of environmental protection, improvement of working conditions, and reduced fire hazard in production operations, water-based protective lubricants are now available in a wide assortment, and the production volume has increased greatly. The term water-dilutable inhibited protective lubricants (WDIPL) means water-soluble, water-emulsifiable, or water-dispersible products with the dual function of reducing friction and wear and protecting metal surfaces against corrosion for specified periods of time. According to the standard Unified System of Protection Against Corrosion and Aging (COST 9.103-78), WDIPLs are classed as products for the temporary corrosion protection of metals and end-items. In the general class of WDIPLs one can identify water-dilutable combination corrosion inhibitors, film-forming inhibited petroleum compositions (FIPC-d), detergent-preservative fluids, operational-preservative lubricating-cooling process compounds (ICPC), and, finally, universal multifunctional products. Combined corrosion inhibitors may consist of water-soluble organic and inorganic compounds; water/oil and oil-soluble surfactants - corrosion inhibitors of the chemisorption type or donor and/or acceptor types; shielding inhibitors of the adsorption type; and fast-acting water-displacing components. 23 refs

  15. Colloidal suspensions hydrodynamic retention mechanisms in model porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, N.

    1996-01-01

    This study deals with the retention mechanisms of colloidal particles in porous media flows, and the subsequent reduction in permeability in the case of stable and non adsorbing colloids. It combines experimental results and modelling. This study has been realised with stable dispersion of monodispersed carboxylate polystyrene latexes negatively charged injected through negatively charged polycarbonate membranes having mono-sized cylindrical pores. The mean particle diameter is smaller than the mean pore diameter. Both batch and flow experiments in Nuclepore membranes have been done. The results of batch experiments have proved no adsorption of the colloidal latex particles on the surface of the Nuclepore membranes without flow at low salinity. In flow experiments at low particle concentration, only deposition on the upstream side of the membrane have been induced by hydrodynamic forces even for non adsorbing particles without creating any permeability reduction. The retention levels are zero at low and high Peclet numbers with a maximum at intermediate values. Partial plugging was observed at higher colloid concentration even at low salinity without any upstream surface deposition. The modelling of plugging processes is achieved by considering the particle concentration, fluid rate and ratio between the mean pore diameter and the mean particle diameter. This study can be particularly useful in the fields of water treatment and of restoration of lands following radioactive contamination. (author). 96 refs., 99 figs., 29 tabs

  16. Simultaneous transport of synthetic colloids and a nonsorbing solute through single saturated natural fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimus, P.W.; Robinson, B.A.; Nuttall, H.E.; Kale, R.

    1994-01-01

    Tracer transport experiments involving colloids that showed little tendency to attach to rock surfaces and a nonsorbing solute (iodide) -were conducted in three different well-characterized natural fractures in tuff. The colloids always arrived earlier in the effluent than the iodide, which we believe is evidence of (1) hydrodynamic chromatography and/or (2) the fact that the colloids experience a smaller effective volume in the fracture because they diffuse too slowly to enter low-velocity regions (dead zones) along the rough fracture walls. The iodide also approached the inlet concentration in the effluent more slowly than the colloids, with the concentration at a given elution volume being greater at higher flow rates. By contrast, the rate of approach of the colloid concentration to the inlet concentration did not vary with flow rate. We attribute this behavior to matrix diffusion of the iodide, with the colloids being too large/nondiffusive to experience this phenomenon. Dispersion of all tracers was greatest in the fracture of widest average aperture and least in the fracture of narrowest aperture, which is consistent with Taylor dispersion theory. The tracer experiments were modeled/interpreted using a three-step approach that involved (1) estimating the aperture distribution in each fracture using surface profiling techniques, (2) predicting the flow field in the fractures using a localized parallel-plate approximation, and (3) predicting tracer transport in the fractures using particle-tracking techniques. Although considered preliminary at this time, the model results were in qualitative agreement with the experiments

  17. Colloid, adhesive and release properties of nanoparticular ternary complexes between cationic and anionic polysaccharides and basic proteins like bone morphogenetic protein BMP-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, R; Vehlow, D; Urban, B; Grab, A L; Cavalcanti-Adam, E A; Alt, V; Müller, M

    2017-03-01

    Herein we describe an interfacial local drug delivery system for bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP-2) based on coatings of polyelectrolyte complex (PEC) nanoparticles (NP). The application horizon is the functionalization of bone substituting materials (BSM) used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Nanoparticular ternary complexes of cationic and anionic polysaccharides and BMP-2 or two further model proteins, respectively, were prepared in dependence of the molar mixing ratio, pH value and of the cationic polysaccharide. As further proteins chymotrypsin (CHY) and papain (PAP) were selected, which served as model proteins for BMP-2 due to similar isoelectric points and molecular weights. As charged polysaccharides ethylenediamine modified cellulose (EDAC) and trimethylammonium modified cellulose (PQ10) were combined with cellulose sulphatesulfate (CS). Mixing diluted cationic and anionic polysaccharide and protein solutions according to a slight either anionic or cationic excess charge colloidal ternary dispersions formed, which were cast onto germanium model substrates by water evaporation. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) demonstrated, that these dispersions were colloidally stable for at least one week. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) showed, that the cast protein loaded PEC NP coatings were irreversibly adhesive at the model substrate in contact to HEPES buffer and solely CHY, PAP and BMP-2 were released within long-term time scale. Advantageously, out of the three proteins BMP-2 showed the smallest initial burst and the slowest release kinetics and around 25% of the initial BMP-2 content were released within 14days. Released BMP-2 showed significant activity in the myoblast cells indicating the ability to regulate the formation of new bone. Therefore, BMP-2 loaded PEC NP are suggested as novel promising tool for the functionalization of BSM used for the therapy of systemic bone diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Hard sphere colloidal dispersions: Mechanical relaxation pertaining to thermodynamic forces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellema, J.; de Kruif, C.G.; Blom, C.; Vrij, A.

    1987-01-01

    The complex viscosity of sterically stabilized (hard) silica spheres in cyclohexane has been measured between 80 Hz and 170 kHz with torsion pendulums and a nickel tube resonator. The observed relaxation behaviour can be attributed to the interplay of hydrodynamic and thermodynamic forces. The

  19. Colloidal polyaniline dispersions: Antibacterial activity, cytotoxicity and neutrophil oxidative burst

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kuceková, Z.; Humpolíček, P.; Kašpárková, V.; Perečko, Tomáš; Lehocký, M.; Hauerlandova, I.; Saha, P.; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    Roč. 116, APR 2014 ( 2014 ), s. 411-417 ISSN 0927-7765 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA13-08944S; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0030 Institutional support: RVO:68081707 ; RVO:61389013 Keywords : Cytotoxicity * Apoptosis * Necrosis Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics; CD - Macromolecular Chemistry (UMCH-V) Impact factor: 4.152, year: 2014

  20. Photochemical Synthesis and Properties of Colloidal Copper, Silver and Gold Adsorbed on Quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loginov, Anatoliy V.; Gorbunova, Valentina V.; Boitsova, Tatiana B.

    2002-01-01

    Original methods for the photochemical production of stable copper, silver and gold colloids in the form of films on quartz, and dispersion in liquids were devised. It is shown that photochemical synthesis of colloidal metals is a difficult multiphase process, and includes the formation of low-valence forms of Cu(I), Au(I) and nonmetal clusters, colloidal particles and their agglomerates. Cluster stabilization and further growth to colloidal particles are achieved by adsorption onto the solid surface (quartz) or by increasing the viscosity of photolyte. In the absence of these methods of stabilization, the processes of intermediate reoxidation to Cu(II) and Au(III) and agglomeration of Ag and Au colloids proceed in a photolyte. Adsorption and the rate of cluster growth on a quartz surface are speeded up by the action of monochromatic UV light. Experimental models of the mechanism of colloidal formation are suggested. The dependence of the growth rate and the properties of the colloids on conditions of the photochemical procedure (energy and light intensity, concentration of initial complex) has been established

  1. Photoinduced charge separation in a colloidal system of exfoliated layered semiconductor controlled by coexisting aluminosilicate clay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakato, Teruyuki; Yamada, Yoshimi; Miyamoto, Nobuyoshi

    2009-02-05

    We investigated photoinduced charge separation occurring in a multicomponent colloidal system composed of oxide nanosheets of photocatalytically active niobate and photochemically inert clay and electron accepting methylviologen dications (MV2+). The inorganic nanosheets were obtained by exfoliation of layered hexaniobate and hectorite clay. The niobate and clay nanosheets were spatially separated in the colloidally dispersed state, and the MV2+ molecules were selectively adsorbed on the clay platelets. UV irradiation of the colloids led to electron transfer from the niobate nanosheets to the MV2+ molecules adsorbed on clay. The photoinduced electron transfer produced methylviologen radical cations (MV*+), which was characterized by high yield and long lifetime. The yield and stability of the MV*+ species were found to depend strongly on the clay content of the colloid: from a few mol % to approximately 70 mol % of the yield and several tens of minutes to more than 40 h of the lifetime. The contents of the niobate nanosheets and MV2+ molecules and the aging of the colloid also affected the photoinduced charge separation. In the absence of MV2+ molecules in the colloid, UV irradiation induced electron accumulation in the niobate nanosheets. The stability of the electron-accumulated state also depended on the clay content. The variation in the photochemical behavior is discussed in relation to the viscosity of the colloid.

  2. Observations of the initial stages of colloidal band formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanrong; Tagawa, Yoshiyuki; Yee, Andrew; Yoda, Minami

    2017-11-01

    A number of studies have shown that particles suspended in a conducting fluid near a wall are subject to wall-normal repulsive ``lift'' forces, even in the absence of interparticle interactions, in a flowing suspension. Evanescent-wave visualizations have shown that colloidal particles in a dilute (volume fractions negative zeta-potentials. Above a minimum ``threshold'' electric field magnitude |Emin | , the particles assemble into dense ``bands'' with cross-sectional dimensions of a few μm and length comparable to that of the channel (i.e., a few cm). The results suggest that the threshold field |Emin | is large enough so that there is a region of ``reverse'' flow, along the direction of the EO flow, near the wall. Visualization of a large segment of the channel (>300 hydraulic diameters) at frame rates as great as 1 kHz is used to determine banding maps for a variety of dilute colloidal suspensions and to investigate the initial stages of band formation over a wide range of flow conditions. Supported by US Army Research Office.

  3. Colloid electrochemistry of conducting polymer: towards potential-induced in-situ drug release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sankoh, Supannee; Vagin, Mikhail Yu.; Sekretaryova, Alina N.; Thavarungkul, Panote; Kanatharana, Proespichaya; Mak, Wing Cheung

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Pulsed electrode potential induced an in-situ drug release from dispersion of conducting polymer microcapsules. • Fast detection of the released drug within the colloid microenvironment. • Improved the efficiency of localized drug release at the electrode interface. - Abstract: Over the past decades, controlled drug delivery system remains as one of the most important area in medicine for various diseases. We have developed a new electrochemically controlled drug release system by combining colloid electrochemistry and electro-responsive microcapsules. The pulsed electrode potential modulation led to the appearance of two processes available for the time-resolved registration in colloid microenvironment: change of the electronic charge of microparticles (from 0.5 ms to 0.1 s) followed by the drug release associated with ionic equilibration (1–10 s). The dynamic electrochemical measurements allow the distinction of drug release associated with ionic relaxation and the change of electronic charge of conducting polymer colloid microparticles. The amount of released drug (methylene blue) could be controlled by modulating the applied potential. Our study demonstrated a surface-potential driven controlled drug release of dispersion of conducting polymer carrier at the electrode interfaces, while the bulk colloids dispersion away from the electrode remains as a reservoir to improve the efficiency of localized drug release. The developed new methodology creates a model platform for the investigations of surface potential-induced in-situ electrochemical drug release mechanism.

  4. Long-term kinetic effects and colloid formations in dissolution of LWR spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    This report evaluates continuous dissolution and colloid formation during spent-fuel performance under repository conditions in high-level waste disposal. Various observations suggest that reprecipitated layers formed on spent-fuel surfaces may not be protective. This situation may lead to continuous dissolution of highly soluble radionuclides such as C-14, Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. However, the diffusion limits of various species involved may retard dissolution significantly. For low-solubility actinides such as Pu-(239+240) or Am-(241+243), various processes regarding colloid formation have been analyzed. The processes analyzed are condensation, dispersion, and sorption. Colloid formation may lead to significant releases of low-solubility actinides. However, because there are only limited data available on matrix dissolution, colloid formation, and solubility limits, many uncertainties still exist. These uncertainties must be addressed before the significance of radionuclide releases can be determined. 118 refs

  5. Long-term kinetic effects and colloid formations in dissolution of LWR spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, T.M.

    1996-11-01

    This report evaluates continuous dissolution and colloid formation during spent-fuel performance under repository conditions in high-level waste disposal. Various observations suggest that reprecipitated layers formed on spent-fuel surfaces may not be protective. This situation may lead to continuous dissolution of highly soluble radionuclides such as C-14, Cl-36, Tc-99, I-129, and Cs-135. However, the diffusion limits of various species involved may retard dissolution significantly. For low-solubility actinides such as Pu-(239+240) or Am-(241+243), various processes regarding colloid formation have been analyzed. The processes analyzed are condensation, dispersion, and sorption. Colloid formation may lead to significant releases of low-solubility actinides. However, because there are only limited data available on matrix dissolution, colloid formation, and solubility limits, many uncertainties still exist. These uncertainties must be addressed before the significance of radionuclide releases can be determined. 118 refs.

  6. Shape-tailored polymer colloids on the road to become structural motifs for hierarchically organized materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plüisch, Claudia Simone; Wittemann, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    Anisometric polymer colloids are likely to behave differently when compared with centrosymmetric particles. Their study may not only shine new light on the organization of matter; they may also serve as building units with specific symmetries and complexity to build new materials from them. Polymer colloids of well-defined complex geometries can be obtained by packing a limited number of spherical polymer particles into clusters with defined configurations. Such supracolloidal architectures can be fabricated at larger scales using narrowly dispersed emulsion droplets as templates. Assemblies built from at least two different types of particles as elementary building units open perspectives in selective targeting of colloids with specific properties, aiming for mesoscale building blocks with tailor-made morphologies and multifunctionality. Polymer colloids with defined geometries are also ideal to study shape-dependent properties such as the diffusion of complex particles. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Wave oscillations in colloid oxyhydrates wave oscillations in colloid oxyhydrates

    CERN Document Server

    Sucharev, Yuri I

    2010-01-01

    The importance of coherent chemistry, that is, the chemistry of periodic oscillatory processes, is increasing at a rapid rate in specific chemical disciplines. While being perfectly understood and highly developed in the fields of physical chemistry, chemical physics and biological chemistry, the periodic developmental paradigm of processes and phenomena still remains poorly developed and misunderstood in classical inorganic chemistry and related branches, such as colloid chemistry. The probability is that we miss subtle colloid chemical phenomena that could be of utmost importance if taken into consideration when catalysis or adsorption is involved. The author here reveals all of the astonishing vistas that periodic wave paradigms open up to researchers in certain colloid chemical systems, and will doubtless stimulate researchers to look at them in a new light.Review from Book News Inc.: Coherent chemistry, the chemistry of periodical oscillatory processes, is well established in physical chemistry, chemical...

  8. The radiation chemistry of colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sellers, R.M.

    1976-08-01

    One of the most important problems associated with water cooled reactors is the accumulation on the pipework of radio-active deposits. These are formed from corrosion products which become activated during their passage through the reactor core. The first step of the activation process involves the deposition of the corrosion products, which are present as either colloidal or particulate matter, onto surfaces in the reactor core, i.e. within the radiation zone. A review of the literature on the effect of radiation on colloids is presented. Particular emphasis is given to the dependence of colloidal parameters such as particle size, turbidity and electrophoretic mobility on radiation dose. Most of the data available is of a qualitative nature only. Evidence is presented that colloids of iron are affected (in some cases precipitated) by radiation, and it is suggested that this process plays a part in the deposition of corrosion products in nuclear reactor cores. The bulk of the information available can be rationalized in terms of the radiation chemistry of aqueous solutions, and the interaction of the radicals produced with the atoms or molecules at the surface of the colloidal particles. This approach is very successful in explaining the variation of the mean particle size of monodisperse sulphur hydrosols with dose, for which quantitative experimental data are available. (author)

  9. Experimental studies on the inventory of cement-derived colloids in the pore water of a cementitious backfill material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wieland, E.

    2001-06-01

    The potential role of near-field colloids for the colloid-facilitated migration of radionuclides has stimulated investigations concerning the generation and presence of colloids in the near-field of a repository for low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW). The highly gas permeable mortar (Nagra designation: mortar M1) is currently favoured as backfill material for the engineered barrier of the planned Swiss L/ILW repository. The cementitious backfill is considered to be a chemical environment with some potential for colloid generation. In a series of batch-style laboratory experiments the physico-chemical processes controlling the inventory of colloids in cement pore water of the backfill were assessed for chemical conditions prevailing in the initial stage of the cement degradation. In these experiments, backfill mortar M1 or quartz, respectively, which may be used as aggregate material for the backfill, were immersed in artificial cement pore water (a NaOH/KOH rich cement fluid). Colloid concentrations in the cement pore water were recorded as a function of time for different experimental settings. The results indicate that a colloid-colloid interaction process (coagulation) controlled the colloid inventory. The mass concentration of dispersed colloids was found to be typically lower than 0.02 ppm in undisturbed batch systems. An upper-bound value was estimated to be 0.1 ppm taking into account uncertainties on the measurements. To assess the potential for colloid generation in a dynamic system, colloid concentrations were determined in the pore water of a column filled with backfill mortar. The chemical conditions established in the mortar column corresponded to conditions observed in the second stage of the cement degradation (a Ca(OH) 2 - controlled cement system). In this dynamic system, the upper-bound value for the colloid mass concentration was estimated to be 0.1 ppm. Implications for radionuclide mobility were deduced taking into account the

  10. Experimental studies on the inventory of cement-derived colloids in the pore water of a cementitious backfill material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wieland, E

    2001-06-01

    The potential role of near-field colloids for the colloid-facilitated migration of radionuclides has stimulated investigations concerning the generation and presence of colloids in the near-field of a repository for low- and intermediate level waste (L/ILW). The highly gas permeable mortar (Nagra designation: mortar M1) is currently favoured as backfill material for the engineered barrier of the planned Swiss L/ILW repository. The cementitious backfill is considered to be a chemical environment with some potential for colloid generation. In a series of batch-style laboratory experiments the physico-chemical processes controlling the inventory of colloids in cement pore water of the backfill were assessed for chemical conditions prevailing in the initial stage of the cement degradation. In these experiments, backfill mortar M1 or quartz, respectively, which may be used as aggregate material for the backfill, were immersed in artificial cement pore water (a NaOH/KOH rich cement fluid). Colloid concentrations in the cement pore water were recorded as a function of time for different experimental settings. The results indicate that a colloid-colloid interaction process (coagulation) controlled the colloid inventory. The mass concentration of dispersed colloids was found to be typically lower than 0.02 ppm in undisturbed batch systems. An upper-bound value was estimated to be 0.1 ppm taking into account uncertainties on the measurements. To assess the potential for colloid generation in a dynamic system, colloid concentrations were determined in the pore water of a column filled with backfill mortar. The chemical conditions established in the mortar column corresponded to conditions observed in the second stage of the cement degradation (a Ca(OH){sub 2{sup -}} controlled cement system). In this dynamic system, the upper-bound value for the colloid mass concentration was estimated to be 0.1 ppm. Implications for radionuclide mobility were deduced taking into account the

  11. Development and characterization of colloidal silica-based slow-release permanganate gel (SRP-G): laboratory investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eung Seok; Gupta, Neha

    2014-08-01

    Slow-release permanganate (MnO4(-)) gel (SRP-G) is a hyper-saline KMnO4 solution that can be used for treating large, dilute, or deep plumes of chlorinated solvents in groundwater. Ideally, the SRP-G injected into aquifers will slowly gelate to form MnO4(-) gel in situ, and the gel will slowly releases MnO4(-). Objectives of this study were to develop SRP-G using colloidal silica as gelling solution, characterize its gelation and release kinetics, and delineate its dynamics in a saturated sandy media. The SRP-G exhibited a two-phase increase in viscosity: a lag phase characterized by little increase in viscosity followed by a short gelation phase. Gelation lag times of SRP-G solutions increased (from 0.5h to 13d) with decreasing KMnO4 concentrations (from 25 to 8 g L(-1)). Permanganate release from gelated SRP-G increased with increasing KMnO4 concentrations, and was characterized as asymptotic release with initial peak (0.9-2.2 mg min(-1)) followed by more attenuated release. Gelation lag times of SRP-G flowing in sands (linear velocity=2.1md(-1)) increased (1, 3, and 6h) with decreasing KMnO4 concentrations (25.0, 23.0, and 22.9 g L(-1)). Permanganate release from gelated SRP-Gs continued for up to 3d and was characterized as asymptotic release with an initial peak release (∼1.2 g min(-1)) followed by more attenuated release over 70h. Dilution of SRP-G by dispersion in porous media affects gelation and release kinetics. Increasing the silica concentration in the SRP-G may facilitate gelation and extend the duration of MnO4(-) release from emplaced SRP-G in porous media. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Colloidal processing and rapid prototyping of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liwu Wang

    1998-12-01

    Some progresses have been made in the wet shaping of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} based on a better understanding of the colloidal behavior of suspensions and by improved pressure casting with porous polystyrene (PS) molds. This work illustrated that the combination of proper colloidal processing and rapid prototyping is an effective way to fabricate high-performance ceramics with complex shapes. In colloidal processing the packing density and microstructure of green bodies can be controlled if the interaction between ceramic particles in suspensions and the conditions under which the suspensions are consolidated are understood. Therefore, detailed studies on the surface chemistry of the Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} powder, the dispersing behavior of Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} suspensions, the influence of dispersants and the mechanism during powder consolidation into complex-shaped green bodies are performed. (orig.)

  13. THE COLLOIDAL BEHAVIOR OF SERUM GLOBULIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, David I.

    1922-01-01

    1. The globulin prepared from ox serum by dilution and precipitation with carbon dioxide has been found, by electrometric titration experiments, to behave like an amphoteric electrolyte, reacting stoichiometrically with acids and bases. 2. The potential difference developed between a solution of globulin chloride, phosphate, or acetate and a solution of the corresponding acid, free from protein, separated from the globulin by a collodion membrane, was found to be influenced by hydrogen ion concentration and salt concentration in the way predicted by Donnan's theory of membrane equilibrium. In experiments with sodium globulinate and sodium hydroxide it was found that the potential difference could be similarly explained. 3. The osmotic pressure of such solutions could be qualitatively accounted for by the Donnan theory, but exhibited a discrepancy which is explicable by analogy with certain experiments of Loeb on gelatin. 4. The application of Loeb's theory of colloidal behavior, which had previously been found to hold in the case of gelatin, casein, egg albumin, and edestin, has thus been extended to another protein, serum globulin. PMID:19871977

  14. Dilute chemical decontamination program review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anstine, L.D.; Blomgren, J.C.; Pettit, P.J.

    1980-01-01

    The objective of the Dilute Chemical Decontamination Program is to develop and evaluate a process which utilizes reagents in dilute concentrations for the decontamination of BWR primary systems and for the maintenance of dose rates on the out-of-core surfaces at acceptable levels. A discussion is presented of the process concept, solvent development, advantages and disadvantages of reagent systems, and VNC loop tests. Based on the work completed to date it is concluded that (1) rapid decontamination of BWRs using dilute reagents is feasible; (2) reasonable reagent conditions for rapid chemical decontamination are: 0.01M oxalic acid + 0.005M citric acid, pH3.0, 90/degree/C, 0.5 to 1.0 ppm dissolved oxygen; (3) control of dissolved oxygen concentration is important, since high levels suppress the rate of decontamination and low levels allow precipitation of ferrous oxalate. 4 refs

  15. Building micro-soccer-balls with evaporating colloidal fakir drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke; Marín, Álvaro G.; Susarrey-Arce, Arturo; van Housselt, Arie; Lefferts, Leon; Gardeniers, Han; Lohse, Detlef; Snoeijer, Jacco H.

    2013-11-01

    Drop evaporation can be used to self-assemble particles into three-dimensional microstructures on a scale where direct manipulation is impossible. We present a unique method to create highly-ordered colloidal microstructures in which we can control the amount of particles and their packing fraction. To this end, we evaporate colloidal dispersion drops from a special type of superhydrophobic microstructured surface, on which the drop remains in Cassie-Baxter state during the entire evaporative process. The remainders of the drop consist of a massive spherical cluster of the microspheres, with diameters ranging from a few tens up to several hundreds of microns. We present scaling arguments to show how the final particle packing fraction of these balls depends on the drop evaporation dynamics, particle size, and number of particles in the system.

  16. Crack formation and prevention in colloidal drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Cho, Kun; Ryu, Seul-A.; Kim, So Youn; Weon, Byung Mook

    2015-08-01

    Crack formation is a frequent result of residual stress release from colloidal films made by the evaporation of colloidal droplets containing nanoparticles. Crack prevention is a significant task in industrial applications such as painting and inkjet printing with colloidal nanoparticles. Here, we illustrate how colloidal drops evaporate and how crack generation is dependent on the particle size and initial volume fraction, through direct visualization of the individual colloids with confocal laser microscopy. To prevent crack formation, we suggest use of a versatile method to control the colloid-polymer interactions by mixing a nonadsorbing polymer with the colloidal suspension, which is known to drive gelation of the particles with short-range attraction. Gelation-driven crack prevention is a feasible and simple method to obtain crack-free, uniform coatings through drying-mediated assembly of colloidal nanoparticles.

  17. Colloid Thrusters, Physics, Fabrication and Performance

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Martinez-Sanchez, Manuel; Akinwande, Akintunde I

    2005-01-01

    ... discovered pure ionic mode, the microfabrication in Silicon of two types of arrays of colloid or electrospray emitters, and the development of a quantitative theory for the colloidal regime (no ions...

  18. Entropy favours open colloidal lattices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Xiaoming; Chen, Qian; Granick, Steve

    2013-03-01

    Burgeoning experimental and simulation activity seeks to understand the existence of self-assembled colloidal structures that are not close-packed. Here we describe an analytical theory based on lattice dynamics and supported by experiments that reveals the fundamental role entropy can play in stabilizing open lattices. The entropy we consider is associated with the rotational and vibrational modes unique to colloids interacting through extended attractive patches. The theory makes predictions of the implied temperature, pressure and patch-size dependence of the phase diagram of open and close-packed structures. More generally, it provides guidance for the conditions at which targeted patchy colloidal assemblies in two and three dimensions are stable, thus overcoming the difficulty in exploring by experiment or simulation the full range of conceivable parameters.

  19. Hydrodynamic disperser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bulatov, A.I.; Chernov, V.S.; Prokopov, L.I.; Proselkov, Yu.M.; Tikhonov, Yu.P.

    1980-01-15

    A hydrodynamic disperser is suggested which contains a housing, slit nozzles installed on a circular base arranged opposite from each other, resonators secured opposite the nozzle and outlet sleeve. In order to improve the effectiveness of dispersion by throttling the flow, each resonator is made in the form of a crimped plate with crimpings that decrease in height in a direction towards the nozzle.

  20. Conducting polymer colloids, hydrogels, and cryogels: common start to various destinations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stejskal, Jaroslav; Bober, Patrycja

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 296, č. 5 (2018), s. 989-994 ISSN 0303-402X R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-02787S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting polymer * polyaniline * colloidal dispersion Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 1.723, year: 2016

  1. Adsorption of polyelectrolytes and charged block copolymers on oxides consequences for colloidal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogeveen, N.G.

    1996-01-01


    The aim of the study described in this thesis was to examine the adsorption properties of polyelectrolytes and charged block copolymers on oxides, and the effect of these polymers on the colloidal stability of oxidic dispersions. For this purpose the interaction of some well-characterised

  2. Orientational Order of Carbon Nanotube Guests in a Nematic Host Suspension of Colloidal Viral Rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puech, N.; Dennison, M.; Blanc, C.; van der Schoot, P.; van Roij, R.; Poulin, P.; Grelet, E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the coupling between the degrees of alignment of elongated particles in binary nematic dispersions, surfactant stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been added to nematic suspensions of colloidal rodlike viruses in aqueous solution. We have independently

  3. Orientational order of carbon nanotube guests in a nematic host suspension of colloidal viral rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puech, N.; Dennison, M; Blanc, C; van der Schoot, P. P. A. M.; Dijkstra, M.; Van Roij, R.; Poulin, P.; Grelet, E

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the coupling between the degrees of alignment of elongated particles in binary nematic dispersions, surfactant stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been added to nematic suspensions of colloidal rodlike viruses in aqueous solution.We have independently measured

  4. Orientational order of carbon nanotube guests in a nematic host suspension of colloidal viral rods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Puech, N.; Dennison, M.; Blanc, C.; Schoot, van der P.P.A.M.; Dijkstra, Marjolein; Roij, van R.; Poulin, P.; Grelet, E.

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the coupling between the degrees of alignment of elongated particles in binary nematic dispersions, surfactant stabilized single-wall carbon nanotubes (CNTs) have been added to nematic suspensions of colloidal rodlike viruses in aqueous solution. We have independently

  5. Sedimentation behaviour and colloidal properties of porous, chemically modified silicas in non-aqueous solvents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, J.P.C.; Laven, J.; Claessens, H.A.; Cramers, C.A.M.G.; Agterof, W.G.M.

    1997-01-01

    The sedimentation behaviour and colloidal properties of porous, chemically modified silicas dispersed in non-aqueous solvents have been studied. The free settling behaviour of non-aggregated silica suspensions could effectively be described with a modified Stokes equation that takes into account the

  6. Colloid formation during waste glass corrosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, C.J.; Buck, E.C.; Fortner, J.A.; Bates, J.K.

    1996-01-01

    The long-term behavior of nuclear waste glass in a geologic repository may require a technical consideration of the role of colloids in the release and transport of radionuclides. The neglect of colloidal properties in assessing the near- and far-field migration behavior of actinides may lead to significant underestimates and poor predictions of biosphere exposure from high-level waste (HLW) disposal. Existing data on colloid-facilitated transport suggests that radionuclide migration may be enhanced, but the importance of colloids is not adequately assessed. Indeed, the occurrence of radionuclide transport, attributed to colloidal species, has been reported at Mortandad Canyon, Los Alamos and at the Nevada Test Site; both unsaturated regions are similar to the proposed HLW repository at Yucca Mountain. Although some developments have been made on understanding the transport characteristics of colloids, the characterization of colloids generated from the corrosion of the waste form has been limited. Colloids are known to incorporate radionuclides either from hydrolysis of dissolved species (real colloids) or from adsorption of dissolved species onto existing groundwater colloids (pseudocolloids); however, these colloids may be considered secondary and solubility limited when compared to the colloids generated during glass alteration

  7. Bonding assembled colloids without loss of colloidal stability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vutukuri, H.R.; Stiefelhagen, J.C.P.; Vissers, T; Imhof, A.; van Blaaderen, A.

    2012-01-01

    In recent years the diversity of self-assembled colloidal structures has strongly increased, as it is fueled by a wide range of applications in materials science and also in soft condensed-matter physics.[1–4] Some potential applications include photonic bandgap (PBG) crystals, materials for

  8. Anomalous columnar order of charged colloidal platelets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Anda, L.; Wensink, H. H.; Galindo, A.; Gil-Villegas, A.

    2012-01-01

    Monte Carlo computer simulations are carried out for a model system of like-charged colloidal platelets in the isothermal-isobaric ensemble (NpT). The aim is to elucidate the role of electrostatic interactions on the structure of synthetic clay systems at high particle densities. Short-range repulsions between particles are described by a suitable hard-core model representing a discotic particle. This potential is supplemented with an electrostatic potential based on a Yukawa model for the screened Coulombic potential between infinitely thin disklike macro-ions. The particle aspect-ratio and electrostatic parameters were chosen to mimic an aqueous dispersion of thin, like-charged, rigid colloidal platelets at finite salt concentration. An examination of the fluid phase diagram reveals a marked shift in the isotropic-nematic transition compared to the hard cut-sphere reference system. Several statistical functions, such as the pair correlation function for the center-of-mass coordinates and structure factor, are obtained to characterize the structural organization of the platelets phases. At low salinity and high osmotic pressure we observe anomalous hexagonal columnar structures characterized by interpenetrating columns with a typical intercolumnar distance corresponding to about half of that of a regular columnar phase. Increasing the ionic strength leads to the formation of glassy, disordered structures consisting of compact clusters of platelets stacked into finite-sized columns. These so-called "nematic columnar" structures have been recently observed in systems of charge-stabilized gibbsite platelets. Our findings are corroborated by an analysis of the static structure factor from a simple density functional theory.

  9. Sensitivity analyses of a colloid-facilitated contaminant transport model for unsaturated heterogeneous soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Périard, Yann; José Gumiere, Silvio; Rousseau, Alain N.; Caron, Jean

    2013-04-01

    Certain contaminants may travel faster through soils when they are sorbed to subsurface colloidal particles. Indeed, subsurface colloids may act as carriers of some contaminants accelerating their translocation through the soil into the water table. This phenomenon is known as colloid-facilitated contaminant transport. It plays a significant role in contaminant transport in soils and has been recognized as a source of groundwater contamination. From a mechanistic point of view, the attachment/detachment of the colloidal particles from the soil matrix or from the air-water interface and the straining process may modify the hydraulic properties of the porous media. Šimůnek et al. (2006) developed a model that can simulate the colloid-facilitated contaminant transport in variably saturated porous media. The model is based on the solution of a modified advection-dispersion equation that accounts for several processes, namely: straining, exclusion and attachement/detachement kinetics of colloids through the soil matrix. The solutions of these governing, partial differential equations are obtained using a standard Galerkin-type, linear finite element scheme, implemented in the HYDRUS-2D/3D software (Šimůnek et al., 2012). Modeling colloid transport through the soil and the interaction of colloids with the soil matrix and other contaminants is complex and requires the characterization of many model parameters. In practice, it is very difficult to assess actual transport parameter values, so they are often calibrated. However, before calibration, one needs to know which parameters have the greatest impact on output variables. This kind of information can be obtained through a sensitivity analysis of the model. The main objective of this work is to perform local and global sensitivity analyses of the colloid-facilitated contaminant transport module of HYDRUS. Sensitivity analysis was performed in two steps: (i) we applied a screening method based on Morris' elementary

  10. Modeling of the geochemical behaviour and of the radionuclide transport in the presence of colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Lee, Jan

    1997-01-01

    CHESS, a complete geochemical model, especially developed for coupling purposes in a transparent manner with transport codes. The second topic concerns the development of a probabilistic theory for colloid retention, as well as for the kinetics involved in the reaction. The proposed theory seem to be robust, predicts correctly the impact of System parameters such as pH, ionic strength and colloid size, and is applicable to real Systems, at least at the scale of laboratory experiments. The thesis also presents the theory of adsorption kinetics. This theory is more rigorous than the theories available in the literature, and applies for porous as well as fractured media. A comparison with models provided by the literature and with experimental data seems to confirm the correctness of the theory. The third topic involves reactive transport modelling of chemical species and colloids and has lead to the development of a new transport model, HYTEC. This tool includes convective-diffusive-dispersive transport of colloids, aqueous species and gases, calculates the thermodynamic equilibrium state of the solution and incorporates the newly developed theory of colloid retention. As far as we know, this is the first model which integrates colloids as well as the complete geochemistry in a transport model. Resuming, this work shows the importance of the adsorption capacity of most of the natural colloids with respect to actinides, such as uranium, americium and europium. The complexation capacity of organic colloids is even greater than that of inorganic colloids, such as silica, clays and hydrous ferric oxide. This study also indicates that colloids are capable of keeping the radioactive load during their journey through the geological medium, even if the complexing affinity of the medium is much stronger than of the colloids. Accordingly, colloids may act as a very rapid transport vehicle for radionuclides, provided they are chemically and electrostatically stable in suspension

  11. The Effect of Dilution on Microsegregation in AWS ER NiCrMo-14 Alloy Welding Claddings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miná, Émerson Mendonça; da Silva, Yuri Cruz; Dille, Jean; Silva, Cleiton Carvalho

    2016-12-01

    Dilution and microsegregation are phenomena inherent to claddings, which, in turn, directly affect their main properties. This study evaluated microsegregation in the fusion zone with different dilution levels. The overlays were welded by the TIG cold wire feed process. Dilution was calculated from the geometric characteristics of the claddings and from the conservation of mass equation using chemical composition measurements. Microsegregation was calculated using energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy measurements of the dendrites and the chemical composition of the fusion zone. The dilution of the claddings was increased by reducing the wire feed rate. Fe showed potential to be incorporated into the solid phase ( k > 1), and this increased with the increase of dilution. Mo, in turn, was segregated into the liquid phase ( k < 1) and also increased with the increase of dilution. However, Cr and W showed a slight decrease in their partition coefficients ( k) with the increase of dilution.

  12. Lanthanum chromite colloidal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Setz, Luiz Fernando Grespan

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanum chromite (LaCrO 3 ) is currently the most studied material for applications such as solid oxide fuel cell inter connector (HTSOFC). The complexity of microstructures and geometries of HTSOFC devices, require a precise control of processing parameters to get the desired combination of properties and this, the use of techniques involving concentrated ceramic slips conformation are appropriate, therefore, is well controlled, assist in obtaining homogeneous parts, reproductive and complex geometries. Thus, studies involving the surface chemistry, the stability conditions and slips flow behaviour in the forming conditions, provide important elements for processes control in the inter connectors manufacture, where more applied settings have slots and channels for the gases passage. Thus, surface chemistry, stability and rheological behaviour of strontium and cobalt doped LaCrO 3 (La) 0.80 Sr 0. 2 0 Cr 0.92 Co 0.08 O 3 ) slips prepared with ethanol and water, were studied. The doped lanthanum chromite was produced by combustion synthesis in the IPEN/SP labs. The influence of parameters: pH (water), dispersant concentration, homogenization times and conditions, solid concentration, different ratios binder:plasticizer in the stability and the flow behavior of ceramic suspensions prepared were evaluated. The La) 0.80 Sr 0. 2 0 Cr 0.92 Co 0.08 O 3 products obtained by casting aqueous slips in a plaster mould, using alkaline pH and anionic polyelectrolyte and tapes obtained by using ethanol as a dispersant medium, after sintering at 1600 degree C/4 hours presented theoretical density > 94%, suitable for use as HTSOFC inter connector. (author)

  13. Colloid properties in groundwaters from crystalline formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.A.

    1994-09-01

    Colloids are present in all groundwaters. The role they may play in the migration of safety-relevant radionuclides in the geosphere therefore must be studied. Colloid sampling and characterisation campaigns have been carried out in Switzerland. On the bases of the results from studies in the Grimsel area, Northern Switzerland and the Black Forest, as well as those obtained by other groups concerned with crystalline waters, a consistent picture is emerging. The groundwater colloids in crystalline formations are predominantly comprised of phyllosilicates and silica originating from the aquifer rock. Under constant hydrogeochemical conditions, the colloid concentration is not expected to exceed 100 ng.ml -1 when the calcium concentration is greater than 10 -4 . However, under transient chemical or physical conditions, such as geothermal or tectonic activity, colloid generation may be enhanced and the colloid concentration may reach 10 μg.ml -1 or more, if both the calcium and sodium concentrations are low. In the Nagra Crystalline Reference Water the expected colloid concentration is -1 . This can be compared, for example, to a colloid concentration of about 10 ng.ml -1 found in Zurzach water. The small colloid concentration in the reference water is a consequence of an attachment factor for clay colloids (monmorillonite) close to 1. A model indicates that at pH 8, the nuclide partition coefficients between water and colloid (K p ) must be smaller than 10 7 ml.g -1 if sorption takes place by surface complexation on colloids, = AIOH active groups forming the dominant sorption sites. This pragmatic model is based on the competition between the formation of nuclide hydroxo complexes in solution and their sorption on colloids. Experimental nuclide sorption data on colloids are compared with those obtained by applying this model. For a low colloid concentration, a sorption capacity of the order of 10 -9 M and reversible surface complexation, their presence in the

  14. COLLAGE 2: a numerical code for radionuclide migration through a fractured geosphere in aqueous and colloidal phases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grindrod, P.; Cooper, N.

    1993-05-01

    In previous work, the COLLAGE code was developed to model the impacts of mobile and immobile colloidal material upon the dispersal and migration of a radionuclide species within a saturated planer fracture surrounded by porous media. The adsorption of radionuclides to colloid surfaces was treated as instantaneous and reversible. In this report we present a new version of the code, COLLAGE 2. Here the adsorption of radionuclides to the colloidal material is treated via first order kinetics. The flow and geometry of the fracture remain as in the previous model. The major effect of colloids upon the radionuclide species is to adsorb them within the fracture space and thus exclude them from the surrounding porous medium. Thus the matrix diffusion process, a strongly retarding effect, is exchanged for a colloid capture/release process by which adsorbed nuclides are also retarded. The effects of having a colloid-radionuclide kinetic interaction include the phenomena of double pulse breakthrough (the pseudo colloid population followed by the solute plume) in cases where the desorption process is slow and the pseudo colloids are highly mobile. Some example calculations are given and some verification examples are discussed. Finally a complete listing of the code is presented as an appendix, including the subroutines allowing for the numerical inversion of the Laplace transformed solution via Talbot's method. 6 figs

  15. COLLAGE 2: a numerical code for radionuclide migration through a fractured geosphere in aqueous and colloidal phases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grindrod, P.; Cooper, N. [Intera Information Technologies Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    1993-05-01

    In previous work, the COLLAGE code was developed to model the impacts of mobile and immobile colloidal material upon the dispersal and migration of a radionuclide species within a saturated planer fracture surrounded by porous media. The adsorption of radionuclides to colloid surfaces was treated as instantaneous and reversible. In this report we present a new version of the code, COLLAGE 2. Here the adsorption of radionuclides to the colloidal material is treated via first order kinetics. The flow and geometry of the fracture remain as in the previous model. The major effect of colloids upon the radionuclide species is to adsorb them within the fracture space and thus exclude them from the surrounding porous medium. Thus the matrix diffusion process, a strongly retarding effect, is exchanged for a colloid capture/release process by which adsorbed nuclides are also retarded. The effects of having a colloid-radionuclide kinetic interaction include the phenomena of double pulse breakthrough (the pseudo colloid population followed by the solute plume) in cases where the desorption process is slow and the pseudo colloids are highly mobile. Some example calculations are given and some verification examples are discussed. Finally a complete listing of the code is presented as an appendix, including the subroutines allowing for the numerical inversion of the Laplace transformed solution via Talbot`s method. 6 figs.

  16. Microbial effects on colloidal agglomeration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hersman, L.

    1995-11-01

    Colloidal particles are known to enhance the transport of radioactive metals through soil and rock systems. This study was performed to determine if a soil microorganism, isolated from the surface samples collected at Yucca Mountain, NV, could affect the colloidal properties of day particles. The agglomeration of a Wyoming bentonite clay in a sterile uninoculated microbial growth medium was compared to the agglomeration in the medium inoculated with a Pseudomonas sp. In a second experiment, microorganisms were cultured in the succinate medium for 50 h and removed by centrifugation. The agglomeration of the clay in this spent was compared to sterile uninoculated medium. In both experiments, the agglomeration of the clay was greater than that of the sterile, uninoculated control. Based on these results, which indicate that this microorganism enhanced the agglomeration of the bentonite clay, it is possible to say that in the presence of microorganisms colloidal movement through a rock matrix could be reduced because of an overall increase in the size of colloidal particle agglomerates. 32 refs

  17. A short textbook of colloid chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Jirgensons, B

    1962-01-01

    A Short Textbook of Colloid Chemistry, Second Revised Edition details the factual aspect of colloid chemistry that includes the basic facts, established empirical and mathematical relationships, and practical applications. The chapters of the title are organized into two parts. In the first part, the text discusses the general concepts of colloid chemistry, such as the history and scope, basic terms, and basic methods in experiment with colloids. Part Two covers the technical aspect of colloid chemistry, such as the optical properties, electrical properties, and viscosity. The book will be of

  18. Dispersion Forces

    CERN Document Server

    Buhmann, Stefan Yoshi

    2012-01-01

    In this book, a modern unified theory of dispersion forces on atoms and bodies is presented which covers a broad range of advanced aspects and scenarios. Macroscopic quantum electrodynamics is shown to provide a powerful framework for dispersion forces which allows for discussing general properties like their non-additivity and the relation between microscopic and macroscopic interactions. It is demonstrated how the general results can be used to obtain dispersion forces on atoms in the presence of bodies of various shapes and materials. Starting with a brief recapitulation of volume I, this volume II deals especially with bodies of irregular shapes, universal scaling laws, dynamical forces on excited atoms, enhanced forces in cavity quantum electrodynamics, non-equilibrium forces in thermal environments and quantum friction. The book gives both the specialist and those new to the field a thorough overview over recent results in the field. It provides a toolbox for studying dispersion forces in various contex...

  19. Glass/Jamming Transition in Colloidal Aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segre, Philip N.; Prasad, Vikram; Weitz, David A.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have studied colloidal aggregation in a model colloid plus polymer system with short-range attractive interactions. By varying the colloid concentration and the strength of the attraction, we explored regions where the equilibrium phase is expected to consist of colloidal crystallites in coexistance with colloidal gas (i.e. monomers). This occurs for moderate values of the potential depth, U approximately equal to 2-5 kT. Crystallization was not always observed. Rather, over an extended sub-region two new metastable phases appear, one fluid-like and one solid-like. These were examined in detail with light scattering and microscopy techniques. Both phases consist of a near uniform distribution of small irregular shaped clusters of colloidal particles. The dynamical and structural characteristics of the ergodic-nonergodic transition between the two phases share much in common with the colloidal hard sphere glass transition.

  20. Colloidal characterization of ultrafine silicon carbide and silicon nitride powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitman, Pamela K.; Feke, Donald L.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of various powder treatment strategies on the colloid chemistry of aqueous dispersions of silicon carbide and silicon nitride are examined using a surface titration methodology. Pretreatments are used to differentiate between the true surface chemistry of the powders and artifacts resulting from exposure history. Silicon nitride powders require more extensive pretreatment to reveal consistent surface chemistry than do silicon carbide powders. As measured by titration, the degree of proton adsorption from the suspending fluid by pretreated silicon nitride and silicon carbide powders can both be made similar to that of silica.

  1. Collective hypersonic excitations in strongly multiple scattering colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Still, T; Gantzounis, G; Kiefer, D; Hellmann, G; Sainidou, R; Fytas, G; Stefanou, N

    2011-04-29

    Unprecedented low-dispersion high-frequency acoustic excitations are observed in dense suspensions of elastically hard colloids. The experimental phononic band structure for SiO(2) particles with different sizes and volume fractions is well represented by rigorous full-elastodynamic multiple-scattering calculations. The slow phonons, which do not relate to particle resonances, are localized in the surrounding liquid medium and stem from coherent multiple scattering that becomes strong in the close-packing regime. Such rich phonon-matter interactions in nanostructures, being still unexplored, can open new opportunities in phononics.

  2. Comparison of photon correlation spectroscopy with photosedimentation analysis for the determination of aqueous colloid size distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rees, Terry F.

    1990-01-01

    Colloidal materials, dispersed phases with dimensions between 0.001 and 1 μm, are potential transport media for a variety of contaminants in surface and ground water. Characterization of these colloids, and identification of the parameters that control their movement, are necessary before transport simulations can be attempted. Two techniques that can be used to determine the particle-size distribution of colloidal materials suspended in natural waters are compared. Photon correlation Spectroscopy (PCS) utilizes the Doppler frequency shift of photons scattered off particles undergoing Brownian motion to determine the size of colloids suspended in water. Photosedimentation analysis (PSA) measures the time-dependent change in optical density of a suspension of colloidal particles undergoing centrifugation. A description of both techniques, important underlying assumptions, and limitations are given. Results for a series of river water samples show that the colloid-size distribution means are statistically identical as determined by both techniques. This also is true of the mass median diameter (MMD), even though MMD values determined by PSA are consistently smaller than those determined by PCS. Because of this small negative bias, the skew parameters for the distributions are generally smaller for the PCS-determined distributions than for the PSA-determined distributions. Smaller polydispersity indices for the distributions are also determined by PCS.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Colloid-facilitated Plutonium Reactive Transport in Fractured Tuffaceous Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Z.; Wolfsberg, A. V.; Zhu, L.; Reimus, P. W.

    2017-12-01

    Colloids have the potential to enhance mobility of strongly sorbing radionuclide contaminants in fractured rocks at underground nuclear test sites. This study presents an experimental and numerical investigation of colloid-facilitated plutonium reactive transport in fractured porous media for identifying plutonium sorption/filtration processes. The transport parameters for dispersion, diffusion, sorption, and filtration are estimated with inverse modeling for minimizing the least squares objective function of multicomponent concentration data from multiple transport experiments with the Shuffled Complex Evolution Metropolis (SCEM). Capitalizing on an unplanned experimental artifact that led to colloid formation and migration, we adopt a stepwise strategy to first interpret the data from each experiment separately and then to incorporate multiple experiments simultaneously to identify a suite of plutonium-colloid transport processes. Nonequilibrium or kinetic attachment and detachment of plutonium-colloid in fractures was clearly demonstrated and captured in the inverted modeling parameters along with estimates of the source plutonium fraction that formed plutonium-colloids. The results from this study provide valuable insights for understanding the transport mechanisms and environmental impacts of plutonium in fractured formations and groundwater aquifers.

  4. Colloidal mobilization of arsenic from mining-affected soils by surface runoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Gonzalez, Miguel Angel; Voegelin, Andreas; Garcia-Guinea, Javier; Bolea, Eduardo; Laborda, Francisco; Garrido, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Scorodite-rich wastes left as a legacy of mining and smelting operations pose a threat to environmental health. Colloids formed by the weathering of processing wastes may control the release of arsenic (As) into surface waters. At a former mine site in Madrid (Spain), we investigated the mobilization of colloidal As by surface runoff from weathered processing wastes and from sediments in the bed of a draining creek and a downstream sedimentation-pond. Colloids mobilized by surface runoff during simulated rain events were characterized for their composition, structure and mode of As uptake using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation coupled to inductively plasma mass spectrometry (AF4-ICP-MS) and X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) at the As and Fe K-edges. Colloidal scorodite mobilized in surface runoff from the waste pile is acting as a mobile As carrier. In surface runoff from the river bed and the sedimentation pond, ferrihydrite was identified as the dominant As-bearing colloidal phase. The results from this study suggest that mobilization of As-bearing colloids by surface runoff may play an important role in the dispersion of As from metallurgical wastes deposited above ground and needs to be considered in risk assessment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wavelength-dependent Faraday–Tyndall effect on laser-induced microbubble in gold colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liaw, Jiunn-Woei; Tsai, Shiao-Wen; Lin, Hung-Hsun; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Chen, Bae-Renn

    2012-01-01

    The cavitation microbubbles in dilute gold colloids of different concentrations (2–10 ppm) induced by a focused nanosecond-pulsed laser beam were measured and characterized at different wavelengths by using the passive and active ultrasound measurements. Three colloids with gold nanoparticles (GNPs) of different sizes (10, 45, and 75 nm) were used for experiment. The results show that the lifespan of the microbubble is reduced as the concentration of GNP increases, particularly at the wavelength of 532 nm, the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of GNP. In contrast, at the off-resonant wavelength (e.g. 700 nm), the lifespan reduction is relatively small. This wavelength-dependent cavitation is attributed to the Faraday–Tyndall effect, a strong light scattering by GNPs. A slight defocusing of the Gaussian beam in gold colloid was proposed. Hence, the waist of the focused beam increases to reduce the optical breakdown in gold colloid. For simplicity, a linear relation between the incremental waist radius of Gaussian beam and the concentration of GNP was assumed. According to this formulation, the theoretical results are consistent with the experimental ones. In addition, the dynamics of the microbubble in gold colloid measured by the active ultrasound method agree with the Rayleigh–Plesset model. -- Highlights: ► The Faraday–Tyndall effect of gold colloid on laser induced microbubble is studied. ► Faraday–Tyndall effect of gold colloid causes the defocusing of laser beam. ► Lifespan of the microbubble is reduced as the concentration of GNP increases. ► Light scattering of laser beam at the surface plasmon resonance of GNP is the maximum.

  6. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Sahraoui

    2015-04-09

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  7. Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, Methods Of Making Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon, And Methods Of Using Colloidal Photoluminescent Amorphous Porous Silicon

    KAUST Repository

    Chaieb, Saharoui; Mughal, Asad Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of making a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, methods of using a colloidal photoluminescent amorphous porous silicon particle suspension, and the like.

  8. Primary system boron dilution analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crump, R.J.; Naretto, C.J.; Borgen, R.A.; Rockhold, H.C.

    1978-01-01

    The results are presented for an analysis conducted to determine the potential paths through which nonborated water or water with insufficient boron concentration might enter the LOFT primary coolant piping system or reactor vessel to cause dilution of the borated primary coolant water. No attempt was made in the course of this analysis to identify possible design modifications nor to suggest changes in administrative procedures or controls

  9. Magnetic Assisted Colloidal Pattern Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ye

    Pattern formation is a mysterious phenomenon occurring at all scales in nature. The beauty of the resulting structures and myriad of resulting properties occurring in naturally forming patterns have attracted great interest from scientists and engineers. One of the most convenient experimental models for studying pattern formation are colloidal particle suspensions, which can be used both to explore condensed matter phenomena and as a powerful fabrication technique for forming advanced materials. In my thesis, I have focused on the study of colloidal patterns, which can be conveniently tracked in an optical microscope yet can also be thermally equilibrated on experimentally relevant time scales, allowing for ground states and transitions between them to be studied with optical tracking algorithms. In particular, I have focused on systems that spontaneously organize due to particle-surface and particle-particle interactions, paying close attention to systems that can be dynamically adjusted with an externally applied magnetic or acoustic field. In the early stages of my doctoral studies, I developed a magnetic field manipulation technique to quantify the adhesion force between particles and surfaces. This manipulation technique is based on the magnetic dipolar interactions between colloidal particles and their "image dipoles" that appear within planar substrate. Since the particles interact with their own images, this system enables massively parallel surface force measurements (>100 measurements) in a single experiment, and allows statistical properties of particle-surface adhesion energies to be extracted as a function of loading rate. With this approach, I was able to probe sub-picoNewton surface interactions between colloidal particles and several substrates at the lowest force loading rates ever achieved. In the later stages of my doctoral studies, I focused on studying patterns formed from particle-particle interaction, which serve as an experimental model of

  10. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhlig, K

    2012-01-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4 He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4 He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  11. Cryogen-free dilution refrigerators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhlig, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review briefly our first cryogen-free dilution refrigerator (CF-DR) which was precooled by a GM cryocooler. We then show how today's dry DRs with pulse tube precooling have developed. A few examples of commercial DRs are explained and noteworthy features pointed out. Thereby we describe the general advantages of cryogen-free DRs, but also show where improvements are still desirable. At present, our dry DR has a base temperature of 10 mK and a cooling capacity of 700 μW at a mixing chamber temperature of 100 mK. In our cryostat, in most recent work, an additional refrigeration loop was added to the dilution circuit. This 4He circuit has a lowest temperature of about 1 K and a refrigeration capacity of up to 100 mW at temperatures slightly above 1 K; the dilution circuit and the 4He circuit can be run separately or together. The purpose of this additional loop is to increase the cooling capacity for experiments where the cooling power of the still of the DR is not sufficient to cool cold amplifiers and cables, e.g. in studies on superconducting quantum circuits or astrophysical applications.

  12. Plutonium determination by isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucas, M.

    1980-01-01

    The principle is to add to a known amount of the analysed solution a known amount of a spike solution consisting of plutonium 242. The isotopic composition of the resulting mixture is then determined by surface ionization mass spectrometry, and the plutonium concentration in the solution is deduced, from this measurement. For irradiated fuels neutronic studies or for fissile materials balance measurements, requiring the knowledge of the ratio U/Pu or of concentration both uranium and plutonium, it is better to use the double spike isotope dilution method, with a spike solution of known 233 U- 242 Pu ratio. Using this method, the ratio of uranium to plutonium concentration in the irradiated fuel solution can be determined without any accurate measurement of the mixed amounts of sample and spike solutions. For fissile material balance measurements, the uranium concentration is determined by using single isotope dilution, and the plutonium concentration is deduced from the ratio Pu/U and U concentration. The main advantages of isotope dilution are its selectivity, accuracy and very high sensitivity. The recent improvements made to surface ionization mass spectrometers have considerably increased the precision of the measurements; a relative precision of about 0.2% to 0.3% is obtained currently, but it could be reduced to 0.1%, in the future, with a careful control of the experimental procedures. The detection limite is around 0.1 ppb [fr

  13. Sorption of prioritized elements on montmorillonite colloids and their potential to transport radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wold, Susanna

    2010-04-01

    Due to colloids potential to bind radionuclides (RN) and even mobilise sorbed RN, colloid transport of RN should be taken into account when modeling radionuclide transport in the scenario of a leaking canister in a deep bedrock repository of spent nuclear fuel. Colloids are always present in natural waters and the concentrations are controlled by the groundwater chemistry where specifically the ionic strength is of major importance. In many deep bedrock groundwaters, the ionic strength is fairly high (above the Critical Coagulation Concentration) and therefore colloids are not likely to be stable. In these types of groundwaters colloid concentrations up to 100 μg/l could be expected, and clay colloids organic degradation products and bacteria and viruses represent can be found. In a long time perspective cycles of glaciations can be expected in Sweden as in other Nordic countries. It can not be excluded that glacial melt water can intrude to repository depth with high flows. In this scenario the groundwater conditions may drastically change. In contact with dilute groundwater the bentonite barrier can start to propagate a bentonite gel and further release montmorillonite colloids into water bearing fractures. The concentration of colloids in vicinity of the bentonite barrier can then increase drastically. In contact with Grimsel groundwater types with [Na] and [Ca] of 0.001 and 0.0001 M respectively a montmorillonite concentration of a maximum of 20 mg/l is expected. Further, the groundwater chemistry of Grimsel seems to be representative for glacial meltwater when comparing with the water chemistry data on meltwaters from existing glaciers. A key to be able to model colloid transport of radionuclides is the sorption strength and the sorption reversibility. To facilitate this, a compilation of literature K d -values and an inventory of available sorption kinetic data has been composed for the prioritized elements Pu, Th, Am, Pb, Pa, Ra, Np, Cm, Ac, Tc, Cs, Nb, Ni

  14. Sorption of prioritized elements on montmorillonite colloids and their potential to transport radionuclides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wold, Susanna (Royal Inst. of Technology, Stockholm (Sweden). School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Nuclear Chemistry)

    2010-04-15

    Due to colloids potential to bind radionuclides (RN) and even mobilise sorbed RN, colloid transport of RN should be taken into account when modeling radionuclide transport in the scenario of a leaking canister in a deep bedrock repository of spent nuclear fuel. Colloids are always present in natural waters and the concentrations are controlled by the groundwater chemistry where specifically the ionic strength is of major importance. In many deep bedrock groundwaters, the ionic strength is fairly high (above the Critical Coagulation Concentration) and therefore colloids are not likely to be stable. In these types of groundwaters colloid concentrations up to 100 mug/l could be expected, and clay colloids organic degradation products and bacteria and viruses represent can be found. In a long time perspective cycles of glaciations can be expected in Sweden as in other Nordic countries. It can not be excluded that glacial melt water can intrude to repository depth with high flows. In this scenario the groundwater conditions may drastically change. In contact with dilute groundwater the bentonite barrier can start to propagate a bentonite gel and further release montmorillonite colloids into water bearing fractures. The concentration of colloids in vicinity of the bentonite barrier can then increase drastically. In contact with Grimsel groundwater types with [Na] and [Ca] of 0.001 and 0.0001 M respectively a montmorillonite concentration of a maximum of 20 mg/l is expected. Further, the groundwater chemistry of Grimsel seems to be representative for glacial meltwater when comparing with the water chemistry data on meltwaters from existing glaciers. A key to be able to model colloid transport of radionuclides is the sorption strength and the sorption reversibility. To facilitate this, a compilation of literature K{sub d}-values and an inventory of available sorption kinetic data has been composed for the prioritized elements Pu, Th, Am, Pb, Pa, Ra, Np, Cm, Ac, Tc, Cs, Nb

  15. Controlled synthesis of colloidal silver nanoparticles in capillary micro-flow reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Shengtai; Liu Yulan; Maeda, Hideaki

    2008-01-01

    In this study, using a polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) capillary tube as a micro-flow reactor, well-dispersed colloidal silver nanoparticles were controllably synthesized with different flow rates of precursory solution. Scanning transmission electron microscopy images and UV-visible absorbance spectra showed that silver nanoparticles with large size can be prepared with slow flow rate in the PTFE capillary reactor. The effects of tube diameters on the growth of colloidal silver nanoparticles were investigated. Experiment results demonstrated that using tube with small diameter was more propitious for the controllable synthesis of silver nanoparticles with different sizes.

  16. Long-term Effects of Organic Waste Fertilizers on Soil Structure, Tracer Transport, and Leaching of Colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekfeldt, Jonas Duus Stevens; Kjaergaard, Charlotte; Magid, Jakob

    2017-07-01

    Organic waste fertilizers have previously been observed to significantly affect soil organic carbon (SOC) content and soil structure. However, the effect of organic waste fertilizers on colloid dispersibility and leaching of colloids from topsoil has not yet been studied extensively. We investigated how the repeated application of different types of agricultural (liquid cattle slurry and solid cattle manure) and urban waste fertilizers (sewage sludge and composted organic household waste) affected soil physical properties, colloid dispersion from aggregates, tracer transport, and colloid leaching from intact soil cores. Total porosity was positively correlated with SOC content. Yearly applications of sewage sludge increased absolute microporosity (pores 30 μm) compared with the unfertilized control, whereas organic household waste compost fertilization increased both total porosity and the absolute porosity in all pore size classes (though not significant for 100-600 μm). Treatments receiving large amounts of organic fertilizers exhibited significantly lower levels of dispersible colloids compared with an unfertilized control and a treatment that had received moderate applications of cattle slurry. The content of water-dispersible colloids could not be explained by a single factor, but differences in SOC content, electrical conductivity, and sodium adsorption ratio were important factors. Moreover, we found that the fertilizer treatments did not significantly affect the solute transport properties of the topsoil. Finally, we found that the leaching of soil colloids was significantly decreased in treatments that had received large amounts of organic waste fertilizers, and we ascribe this primarily to treatment-induced differences in effluent electrical conductivity during leaching. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  17. Simulation of bentonite colloid migration through granite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosicka, Dana; Hokr, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: Colloidal bentonite particles generate at the interface of buffer and host rock in spent nuclear fuel repository due to an erosion process and migrate through granite by the water flow. Stability of these colloids and their migration possibilities have been studied on account of radionuclide transport possibility as colloid could carry adsorbed radionuclides in groundwater through granite. That is why a simulation of bentonite colloid migration in the surrounding of a repository might be requested. According to chemical condition as ionic strength and pH, the colloidal particles coagulate into clusters and that influence the migration of particles. The coagulation kinetics of natural bentonite colloids were experimentally studied in many articles, for example by light scattering techniques. We created a model of coagulation of bentonite colloids and simulation of a chosen experiment with use of the multicomponent reactive transport equation. The coagulation model describes clustering of particles due to attractive van der Waals forces as result of collision of particles due to heat fluctuation and different velocity of particles during sedimentation and velocity gradient of water flow. Next, the model includes influence of repulsive electrostatic forces among colloidal particles leading to stability of particles provided high surface charge of colloids. In the model, each group of clusters is transported as one solution component and the kinetics of coagulation are implemented as reactions between the components: a shift of particles among groups of particles with similar migration properties, according to size of the clusters of colloids. The simulation of migration of bentonite colloid through granite using the coagulation model was calibrated according to experiment results. On the basis of the simulation, one can estimate the basic processes that occur during bentonite colloid

  18. CTCN: Colloid transport code -- nuclear

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, R.

    1993-01-01

    This report describes the CTCN computer code, designed to solve the equations of transient colloidal transport of radionuclides in porous and fractured media. This Fortran 77 package solves systems of coupled nonlinear differential-algebraic equations with a wide range of boundary conditions. The package uses the Method of Lines technique with a special section which forms finite-difference discretizations in up to four spatial dimensions to automatically convert the system into a set of ordinary differential equations. The CTCN code then solves these equations using a robust, efficient ODE solver. Thus CTCN can be used to solve population balance equations along with the usual transport equations to model colloid transport processes or as a general problem solver to treat up to four-dimensional differential-algebraic systems

  19. THE COLLOIDAL BEHAVIOR OF EDESTIN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchcock, David I.

    1922-01-01

    1. It has been shown by titration experiments that the globulin edestin behaves like an amphoteric electrolyte, reacting stoichiometrically with acids and bases. 2. The potential difference developed between a solution of edestin chloride or acetate separated by a collodion membrane from an acid solution free from protein was found to be influenced by salt concentration and hydrogen ion concentration in the way predicted by Donnan's theory of membrane equilibrium. 3. The osmotic pressure of such edestin-acid salt solutions was found to be influenced by salt concentration and by hydrogen ion concentration in the same way as is the potential difference. 4. The colloidal behavior of edestin is thus completely analogous to that observed by Loeb with gelatin, casein, and egg albumin, and may be explained by Loeb's theory of colloidal behavior, which is based on the idea that proteins react stoichiometrically as amphoteric electrolytes and on Donnan's theory of membrane equilibrium. PMID:19871959

  20. Kinetically guided colloidal structure formation

    OpenAIRE

    Hecht, Fabian M.; Bausch, Andreas R.

    2016-01-01

    The well-studied self-organization of colloidal particles is predicted to result in a variety of fascinating applications. Yet, whereas self-assembly techniques are extensively explored, designing and producing mesoscale-sized objects remains a major challenge, as equilibration times and thus structure formation timescales become prohibitively long. Asymmetric mesoscopic objects, without prior introduction of asymmetric particles with all its complications, are out of reach––due to the underl...

  1. Water evaporation in silica colloidal deposits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peixinho, Jorge; Lefèvre, Grégory; Coudert, François-Xavier; Hurisse, Olivier

    2013-10-15

    The results of an experimental study on the evaporation and boiling of water confined in the pores of deposits made of mono-dispersed silica colloidal micro-spheres are reported. The deposits are studied using scanning electron microscopy, adsorption of nitrogen, and adsorption of water through attenuated total reflection-infrared spectroscopy. The evaporation is characterized using differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetric analysis. Optical microscopy is used to observe the patterns on the deposits after evaporation. When heating at a constant rate and above boiling temperature, the release of water out of the deposits is a two step process. The first step is due to the evaporation and boiling of the surrounding and bulk water and the second is due to the desorption of water from the pores. Additional experiments on the evaporation of water from membranes having cylindrical pores and of heptane from silica deposits suggest that the second step is due to the morphology of the deposits. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Glass transition of soft colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Adrian-Marie; Truzzolillo, Domenico; Galvan-Myoshi, Julian; Dieudonné-George, Philippe; Trappe, Véronique; Berthier, Ludovic; Cipelletti, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We explore the glassy dynamics of soft colloids using microgels and charged particles interacting by steric and screened Coulomb interactions, respectively. In the supercooled regime, the structural relaxation time τα of both systems grows steeply with volume fraction, reminiscent of the behavior of colloidal hard spheres. Computer simulations confirm that the growth of τα on approaching the glass transition is independent of particle softness. By contrast, softness becomes relevant at very large packing fractions when the system falls out of equilibrium. In this nonequilibrium regime, τα depends surprisingly weakly on packing fraction, and time correlation functions exhibit a compressed exponential decay consistent with stress-driven relaxation. The transition to this novel regime coincides with the onset of an anomalous decrease in local order with increasing density typical of ultrasoft systems. We propose that these peculiar dynamics results from the combination of the nonequilibrium aging dynamics expected in the glassy state and the tendency of colloids interacting through soft potentials to refluidize at high packing fractions.

  3. Implant materials modified by colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zboromirska-Wnukiewicz Beata

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent advances in general medicine led to the development of biomaterials. Implant material should be characterized by a high biocompatibility to the tissue and appropriate functionality, i.e. to have high mechanical and electrical strength and be stable in an electrolyte environment – these are the most important properties of bioceramic materials. Considerations of biomaterials design embrace also electrical properties occurring on the implant-body fluid interface and consequently the electrokinetic potential, which can be altered by modifying the surface of the implant. In this work, the surface of the implants was modified to decrease the risk of infection by using metal colloids. Nanocolloids were obtained using different chemical and electrical methods. It was found that the colloids obtained by physical and electrical methods are more stable than colloids obtained by chemical route. In this work the surface of modified corundum implants was investigated. The implant modified by nanosilver, obtained by electrical method was selected. The in vivo research on animals was carried out. Clinical observations showed that the implants with modified surface could be applied to wounds caused by atherosclerotic skeleton, for curing the chronic and bacterial inflammations as well as for skeletal reconstruction surgery.

  4. Chemical dispersants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Murk, Albertinka J.; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Chemical dispersants were used in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill in the Gulf of Mexico, both at the sea surface and the wellhead. Their effect on oil biodegradation is unclear, as studies showed both inhibition and enhancement. This study addresses the effect of Corexit on oil

  5. Tuning the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO2 nanocrystal colloids by tungsten doping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Haiping; Liao, Jianhua; Yuan, Shuai; Zhao, Yin; Zhang, Meihong; Wang, Zhuyi; Shi, Liyi

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were prepared by hydrothermal methods. • The properties of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids can be tuned by tungsten doping. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher stability and dispersity. • W 6+ -doped TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids show higher photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: The effects of tungsten doping on the morphology, stability and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystal colloids were investigated. The nanostructure, chemical state of Ti, W, O, and the properties of tungsten doped TiO 2 samples were investigated carefully by TEM, XRD, XPS, UV–vis, PL and photocatalytic degradation experiments. And the structure–activity relationship was discussed according to the analysis and measurement results. The analysis results reveal that the morphology, zeta potential and photocatalytic activity of TiO 2 nanocrystals can be easily tuned by changing the tungsten doping concentration. The tungsten doped TiO 2 colloid combines the characters of high dispersity and high photocatalytic activity

  6. Crystallization of DNA-coated colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Yufeng; Zheng, Xiaolong; Ducrot, Étienne; Yodh, Jeremy S.; Weck, Marcus; Pine, David J.

    2015-01-01

    DNA-coated colloids hold great promise for self-assembly of programmed heterogeneous microstructures, provided they not only bind when cooled below their melting temperature, but also rearrange so that aggregated particles can anneal into the structure that minimizes the free energy. Unfortunately, DNA-coated colloids generally collide and stick forming kinetically arrested random aggregates when the thickness of the DNA coating is much smaller than the particles. Here we report DNA-coated colloids that can rearrange and anneal, thus enabling the growth of large colloidal crystals from a wide range of micrometre-sized DNA-coated colloids for the first time. The kinetics of aggregation, crystallization and defect formation are followed in real time. The crystallization rate exhibits the familiar maximum for intermediate temperature quenches observed in metallic alloys, but over a temperature range smaller by two orders of magnitude, owing to the highly temperature-sensitive diffusion between aggregated DNA-coated colloids. PMID:26078020

  7. FEBEX bentonite colloid stability in ground water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seher, H.; Schaefer, T.; Geckeis, H. [Inst. fuer Nukleare Entsorgung (INE), Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, 76021 Karlsruhe (Germany)]. e-mail: holger.seher@ine.fzk .de; Fanghaenel, T. [Ruprecht-Karls-Univ. Heidelberg, Physikalisch-Chemisches In st., D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany)

    2007-06-15

    Coagulation experiments are accomplished to identify the geochemical conditions for the stability of Febex bentonite colloids in granite ground water. The experiments are carried out by varying pH, ionic strength and type of electrolyte. The dynamic light scattering technique (photon correlation spectroscopy) is used to measure the size evolution of the colloids with time. Agglomeration rates are higher in MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} than in NaCl solution. Relative agglomeration rates follow approximately the Schulze-Hardy rule. Increasing agglomeration rates at pH>8 are observed in experiments with MgCl{sub 2} and CaCl{sub 2} which are, however, caused by coprecipitation phenomena. Bentonite colloid stability fields derived from the colloid agglomeration experiments predict low colloid stabilization in granite ground water taken from Aespoe, Sweden, and relatively high colloid stability in Grimsel ground water (Switzerland)

  8. Erosion of sodium bentonite by flow and colloid diffusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreno, L.; Liu, L.; Neretnieks, I.

    2011-01-01

    Smectite gel formed at the outer part of a bentonite buffer in granitic rock could expand into rock fractures with seeping water. Such a gel can release colloids into low ionic strength waters. In addition the gel/sol can itself slowly flow downstream when it has reached a low particle concentration sufficient to decrease the viscosity to allow flow. The erosion due to the combined effects of particle diffusion and gel/sol flow is modelled for a thin fracture into which the gel expands influenced by various forces between and on particles. Some of the forces such as the electrical double layer force and viscous force are strongly influenced by the ionic strength of the pore water. Changes in the ionic strength due to diffusion and dilution of ions in the expanding clay are modelled simultaneously with the gel expansion, flow of gel and colloid release to the seeping water. The model includes description of flow of the seeping fluid, which gradually turns from pure water to sol to more dense gel as the smectite source is approached. The model also describes expansion of the gel/sol and colloid release and flow and diffusion of ions in the system. The coupled models are solved using a numerical code. The results show that the gel will flow with a non-negligible flowrate when its volume fraction is below 1%, but that the erosion and loss of smectite is not much influenced by the concentration of sodium in the clay or in the approaching seeping water, if they are kept below the Critical Coagulation Concentration, CCC. (authors)

  9. A miniaturized plastic dilution refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bindilatti, V.; Oliveira, N.F.Jr.; Martin, R.V.; Frossati, G.

    1996-01-01

    We have built and tested a miniaturized dilution refrigerator, completely contained (still, heat exchanger and mixing chamber) inside a plastic (PVC) tube of 10 mm diameter and 170 mm length. With a 25 cm 2 CuNi heat exchanger, it reached temperatures below 50 mK, for circulation rates below 70 μmol/s. The cooling power at 100 mK and 63 μmol/s was 45 μW. The experimental space could accommodate samples up to 6 mm in diameter. (author)

  10. Heteroaggregation of titanium dioxide nanoparticles with natural clay colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labille, Jérôme; Harns, Carrie; Bottero, Jean-Yves; Brant, Jonathan

    2015-06-02

    To better understand and predict the fate of engineered nanoparticles in the water column, we assessed the heteroaggregation of TiO2 nanoparticles with a smectite clay as analogues for natural colloids. Heteroaggregation was evaluated as a function of water salinity (10(-3) and 10(-1) M NaCl), pH (5 and 8), and selected nanoparticle concentration (0-4 mg/L). Time-resolved laser diffraction was used, coupled to an aggregation model, to identify the key mechanisms and variables that drive the heteroaggregation of the nanoparticles with colloids. Our data show that, at a relevant concentration, nanoparticle behavior is mainly driven by heteroaggregation with colloids, while homoaggregation remains negligible. The affinity of TiO2 nanoparticles for clay is driven by electrostatic interactions. Opposite surface charges and/or high ionic strength favored the formation of primary heteroaggregates via the attachment of nanoparticles to the clay. The initial shape and dispersion state of the clay as well as the nanoparticle/clay concentration ratio also affected the nature of the heteroaggregation mechanism. With dispersed clay platelets (10(-3) M NaCl), secondary heteroaggregation driven by bridging nanoparticles occurred at a nanoparticle/clay number ratio of greater than 0.5. In 10(-1) M NaCl, the clay was preaggregated into larger and more spherical units. This favored secondary heteroaggregation at lower nanoparticle concentration that correlated to the nanoparticle/clay surface area ratio. In this latter case, a nanoparticle to clay sticking efficiency could be determined.

  11. Colloid chemical aspects of the ''confined bentonite concept''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.C. Le

    1978-03-01

    Measurements of the amount of particles released from a bentonite gel by light scattering and visual inspection show that while particles are released in distilled water, the gel will be coagulated if in contact with ground water and consequently the release of particles is negligibly small. Studies of sedimentation volumes by ultracentrifugation also clearly indicate that the bentonite in contact with ground water under the repository pressure will form a completely stable coagulated gel. The swelling of confined bentonite was studied in an ''artificial crack'' of width 0.5 mm. The bentonite flowed readily into this crack and into the much narrower crack formed when the cell was broken. The swelling properties of the bentonite at the repository depth are discussed. It is argued that the gel, if sufficient volume is available, will swell spontaneously to a volume that is approximately 30 % larger than the initial one and then form a stable, coagulated gel containing 30-35 % water in equilibrium with the ground water. Investigations of the diffusion of colloidal matter (sodium lignosulphonate molecules of mean diameter 6 nm) and calcium ions into a dilute bentonite gel show that colloidal matter very probably will have a negligible rate of diffusion while the calcium ions diffuse rapidly. This implies that the initial bentonite gel which is partially in its sodium form will be completely exchanged to its calcium form when brought into contact with ground water which ensures that it will remain coagulated even in its swollen state

  12. Electrode reactions of iron oxide-hydroxide colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoudi, Leila; Kissner, Reinhard

    2014-11-07

    Small-sized FeO(OH) colloids stabilised by sugars, commercially available for the clinical treatment of iron deficiency, show two waves during cathodic polarographic sweeps, or two current maxima with stationary electrodes, in neutral to slightly alkaline aqueous medium. Similar signals are observed with Fe(III) in alkaline media, pH > 12, containing citrate in excess. Voltammetric and polarographic responses reveal a strong influence of fast adsorption processes on gold and mercury. Visible spontaneous accumulation was also observed on platinum. The voltammetric signal at more positive potential is caused by Fe(III)→Fe(II) reduction, while the one at more negative potential has previously been assigned to Fe(II)→Fe(0) reduction. However, the involvement of adsorption phenomena leads us to the conclusion that the second cathodic current is caused again by Fe(III)→Fe(II), of species deeper inside the particles than those causing the first wave. This is further supported by X-ray photoelectron spectra obtained after FeO(OH) particle adsorption and reduction on a gold electrode surface. The same analysis suggests that sucrose stabilising the colloid is still bound to the adsorbed material, despite dilution and rinsing.

  13. Simulating colloid hydrodynamics with lattice Boltzmann methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cates, M E; Stratford, K; Adhikari, R; Stansell, P; Desplat, J-C; Pagonabarraga, I; Wagner, A J

    2004-01-01

    We present a progress report on our work on lattice Boltzmann methods for colloidal suspensions. We focus on the treatment of colloidal particles in binary solvents and on the inclusion of thermal noise. For a benchmark problem of colloids sedimenting and becoming trapped by capillary forces at a horizontal interface between two fluids, we discuss the criteria for parameter selection, and address the inevitable compromise between computational resources and simulation accuracy

  14. Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology

    OpenAIRE

    Weeber, R; Harting, JDR Jens

    2012-01-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme signif...

  15. Conductivity maximum in a charged colloidal suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastea, S

    2009-01-27

    Molecular dynamics simulations of a charged colloidal suspension in the salt-free regime show that the system exhibits an electrical conductivity maximum as a function of colloid charge. We attribute this behavior to two main competing effects: colloid effective charge saturation due to counterion 'condensation' and diffusion slowdown due to the relaxation effect. In agreement with previous observations, we also find that the effective transported charge is larger than the one determined by the Stern layer and suggest that it corresponds to the boundary fluid layer at the surface of the colloidal particles.

  16. Colloidal paradigm in supercapattery electrode systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kunfeng; Xue, Dongfeng

    2018-01-01

    Among decades of development, electrochemical energy storage systems are now sorely in need of a new design paradigm at the nano size and ion level to satisfy the higher energy and power demands. In this review paper, we introduce a new colloidal electrode paradigm for supercapattery that integrates multiple-scale forms of matter, i.e. ion clusters, colloidal ions, and nanosized materials, into one colloid system, coupled with multiple interactions, i.e. electrostatic, van der Waals forces, and chemical bonding, thus leading to the formation of many redox reactive centers. This colloidal electrode not only keeps the original ionic nature in colloidal materials, but also creates a new attribute of high electroactivity. Colloidal supercapattery is a perfect application example of the novel colloidal electrode, leading to higher specific capacitance than traditional electrode materials. The high electroactivity of the colloidal electrode mainly comes from the contribution of exposed reactive centers, owing to the confinement effect of carbon and a binder matrix. Systematic and thorough research on the colloidal system will significantly promote the development of fundamental science and the progress of advanced energy storage technology.

  17. Colloid Titration--A Rapid Method for the Determination of Charged Colloid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueno, Keihei; Kina, Ken'yu

    1985-01-01

    "Colloid titration" is a volumetric method for determining charged polyelectrolytes in aqueous solutions. The principle of colloid titration, reagents used in the procedure, methods of endpoint detection, preparation of reagent solutions, general procedure used, results obtained, and pH profile of colloid titration are considered. (JN)

  18. Experimental and Theoretical Investigations on Agglomeration of Magnetic Colloidal Particles in Magnetic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taketomi, Susamu; Takahashi, Hiromasa; Inaba, Nobuyuki; Miyajima, Hideki

    1991-05-01

    Macro-clusters formation of the magnetic colloidal particles in magnetic fluids is investigated. Experiments of an optical microscope observation of the macro-clusters formation and of anomalous light scattering by the magnetic fluid are reported. Looking upon the anomalous light scattering of the magnetic fluid as a kind of critical opalescence and using Debye’s opalescence theory, we derive a thermodynamical instability theory of the colloidal particles’ dispersion. Relations among the instability theory of Cebers, that of Sano and Doi, and ours are discussed. An interaction energy among the colloidal particles is evaluated from the light scattering experiment. Similarities among the macro-cluster formation, spinodal decomposition of precipitation-type magnetic alloys, and flux-line lattice formation in type-II superconductors are discussed.

  19. Tailoring particle size and morphology of colloidal Ag particles via chemical precipitation for Ag-BSCCO composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medendorp, N.W. Jr.; Bowman, K.J.; Trumble, K.P.

    1996-01-01

    The chemical precipitation of silver particles is an effective method for tailoring the particle size and morphology. This article investigates a chemical precipitation method for producing silver colloids, and how processing parameters affected particle size, morphology and adherence. Decreasing the silver nitrate concentration during precipitation with sodium borohydride decreased the colloidal silver particle size. Decreasing the addition rate of the reducing agent produced faceted particles. Reversing the reactant addition order also changed the particle size and the morphology. Precipitated colloids demonstrated a difference between the growth-dominated and the equilibrium structures. Co-dispersing Bi-based superconducting platelets during precipitation allowed Ag colloids to preferentially nucleate on the platelets and to remain adhered even after the additional processing. (orig.)

  20. Physical aging and structural recovery in a colloidal glass subjected to volume-fraction jump conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xiaoguang; McKenna, Gregory B.

    2016-04-01

    Three important kinetic phenomena have been cataloged by Kovacs in the investigation of molecular glasses during structural recovery or physical aging. These are responses to temperature-jump histories referred to as intrinsic isotherms, asymmetry of approach, and memory effect. Here we use a thermosensitive polystyrene-poly (N -isopropylacrylamide)-poly (acrylic acid) core-shell particle-based dispersion as a colloidal model and by working at a constant number concentration of particles we use temperature changes to create volume-fraction changes. This imposes conditions similar to those defined by Kovacs on the colloidal system. We use creep experiments to probe the physical aging and structural recovery behavior of colloidal glasses in the Kovacs-type histories and compare the results with those seen in molecular glasses. We find that there are similarities in aging dynamics between molecular glasses and colloidal glasses, but differences also persist. For the intrinsic isotherms, the times teq needed for relaxing or evolving into the equilibrium (or stationary) state are relatively insensitive to the volume fraction and the values of teq are longer than the α -relaxation time τα at the same volume fraction. On the other hand, both of these times grow at least exponentially with decreasing temperature in molecular glasses. For the asymmetry of approach, similar nonlinear behavior is observed for both colloidal and molecular glasses. However, the equilibration time teq is the same for both volume-fraction up-jump and down-jump experiments, different from the finding in molecular glasses that it takes longer for the structure to evolve into equilibrium for the temperature up-jump condition than for the temperature down-jump condition. For the two-step volume-fraction jumps, a memory response is observed that is different from observations of structural recovery in two-step temperature histories in molecular glasses. The concentration dependence of the dynamics

  1. Long-term aging behaviors in a model soft colloidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi; Peng, Xiaoguang; McKenna, Gregory B

    2017-02-15

    Colloidal and molecular systems share similar behaviors near to the glass transition volume fraction or temperature. Here, aging behaviors after volume fraction up-jump (induced by performing temperature down-jumps) conditions for a PS-PNIPAM/AA soft colloidal system were investigated using light scattering (diffusing wave spectroscopy, DWS). Both aging responses and equilibrium dynamics were investigated. For the aging responses, long-term experiments (100 000 s) were performed, and both equilibrium and non-equilibrium behaviors of the system were obtained. In the equilibrium state, as effective volume fraction increases (or temperature decreases), the colloidal dispersion displays a transition from the liquid to a glassy state. The equilibrium α-relaxation dynamics strongly depend on both the effective volume fraction and the initial mass concentration for the studied colloidal systems. Compared with prior results from our lab [X. Di, X. Peng and G. B. McKenna, J. Chem. Phys., 2014, 140, 054903], the effective volume fractions investigated spanned a wider range, to deeper into the glassy domain. The results show that the α-relaxation time τ α of the samples aged into equilibrium deviate from the classical Vogel-Fulcher-Tammann (VFT)-type expectations and the super-Arrhenius signature disappears above the glass transition volume fraction. The non-equilibrium aging response shows that the time for the structural evolution into equilibrium and the α-relaxation time are decoupled. The DWS investigation of the aging behavior after different volume fraction jumps reveals a different non-equilibrium or aging behavior for the considered colloidal systems compared with either molecular glasses or the macroscopic rheology of a similar colloidal dispersions.

  2. Transport of a Two-Member Decay Chain of Radionuclides Through a Discrete Fracture in a Porous Rock Matrix in the Presence of Colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tien, N.-C.; Li Shihhai

    2002-01-01

    Many physical and chemical processes dominate the transport of radionuclides in groundwater. Among these processes, the decay chain process of radionuclides was frequently disregarded in previous research. However, the daughter products may travel much farther than their parents along the fracture. Therefore, some models neglecting the effect of the decay chain may underestimate the transport radionuclide concentration in geological media. The transport of radionuclides in groundwater is also controlled by colloidal particles. The radionuclides may be enhanced or retarded by the colloids, according to the mobility of these colloidal particles. This work describes a novel model of the transport of a two-member decay chain of radionuclides through a discrete fracture in a porous rock matrix in the presence of colloids. The model addresses the following processes: (a) advective transport in the fracture, (b) mechanical dispersion and molecular diffusion along the fracture, (c) molecular diffusion from the fracture to the rock matrix, (d) adsorption onto the fracture wall, (e) adsorption in the rock matrix, and (f) radioactive decay. Furthermore, colloids are assumed to be excluded from the matrix pores because of their size. A fully developed concentration profile system with nonreactive colloids is used to understand the effect of colloidal sizes by using hydrodynamic chromatography. The external forces acting on the colloid surface, such as the inertial, the van der Waals attractive force, the double layer force, and the gravitational force are accounted for. The parameters, the average velocity of the colloid, the dispersion coefficient of the colloid, and the distribution coefficient of radionuclides with colloids are modified according to the colloidal size. The transport equations for the parent radionuclides are solved analytically using the Laplace transformation and inversion method. However, for the transformed solution of the daughter products along the

  3. Fabricating colloidal crystals and construction of ordered nanostructures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun Zhiqiang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstractColloidal crystals of polymeric or inorganic microspheres are of extensive interest due to their potential applications in such as sensing, optics, photonic bandgap and surface patterning. The article highlights a set of approaches developed in our group, which are efficient to prepare colloidal crystals with ordered voids, patterned colloidal crystals on non-planar surfaces, heterogeneous colloidal crystals of different building blocks, colloidal crystals composed of non-spherical polyhedrons, and colloidal crystals of non-close-packed colloidal microspheres in particular. The use of these colloidal crystals as templates for different microstructures range from nanoscale to micron-scale is also summarized.

  4. Long-Ranged Oppositely Charged Interactions for Designing New Types of Colloidal Clusters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Faik Demirörs

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Getting control over the valency of colloids is not trivial and has been a long-desired goal for the colloidal domain. Typically, tuning the preferred number of neighbors for colloidal particles requires directional bonding, as in the case of patchy particles, which is difficult to realize experimentally. Here, we demonstrate a general method for creating the colloidal analogs of molecules and other new regular colloidal clusters without using patchiness or complex bonding schemes (e.g., DNA coating by using a combination of long-ranged attractive and repulsive interactions between oppositely charged particles that also enable regular clusters of particles not all in close contact. We show that, due to the interplay between their attractions and repulsions, oppositely charged particles dispersed in an intermediate dielectric constant (4<ϵ<10 provide a viable approach for the formation of binary colloidal clusters. Tuning the size ratio and interactions of the particles enables control of the type and shape of the resulting regular colloidal clusters. Finally, we present an example of clusters made up of negatively charged large and positively charged small satellite particles, for which the electrostatic properties and interactions can be changed with an electric field. It appears that for sufficiently strong fields the satellite particles can move over the surface of the host particles and polarize the clusters. For even stronger fields, the satellite particles can be completely pulled off, reversing the net charge on the cluster. With computer simulations, we investigate how charged particles distribute on an oppositely charged sphere to minimize their energy and compare the results with the solutions to the well-known Thomson problem. We also use the simulations to explore the dependence of such clusters on Debye screening length κ^{−1} and the ratio of charges on the particles, showing good agreement with experimental observations.

  5. Silver nanoparticle colloids with γ-cyclodextrin: enhanced stability and Gibbs–Marangoni flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amiri, Setareh; Duroux, Laurent; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen, E-mail: kll@bio.aau.dk [Aalborg University, Department of Chemistry and Bioscience (Denmark)

    2015-01-15

    Although cyclodextrins (CD) are effective stabilizers for metal nanoparticle colloids, differences between α-, β- and γ-CD in stabilizing such colloids have not been previously reported. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized using NaBH{sub 4} as reducing agent and cyclodextrins as stabilizers. Long-term stability of AgNP colloids in equilibrium conditions showed no marked differences between CD types. Transmission electron microscopy and quantitative image analysis revealed only marginal differences in particle sizes for CD-AgNP, although statistically significant. CD-AgNP colloids showed dispersed particles with average diameters of 7.3 ± 2.2, 6.3 ± 2.9 and 4.9 ± 1.9 nm for α-, β- and γ-CD, respectively, and with similar ζ-potentials about −25 to −30 mV. AgNP without CD showed bigger and aggregated particles of 15.0 ± 2.0 nm with lower ζ-potentials of about −40 mV. When subjected to centrifugal forces, i.e. non-equilibrium conditions, γ-CD was markedly more efficient than α- and β-CD in stabilizing the colloids. Drying patterns of colloid droplets showed a typical self-pinned coffee ring for all but the colloid stabilized by γ-CD, which showed a pattern resulting from a dominant Gibbs–Marangoni flow inside the drying droplet. Calculations using the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory supported the stabilizing effect of CD in equilibrium conditions; it however did not provide clues for the superior stabilization by γ-CD in conditions of hydrodynamic stress.

  6. Silver nanoparticle colloids with γ-cyclodextrin: enhanced stability and Gibbs–Marangoni flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amiri, Setareh; Duroux, Laurent; Larsen, Kim Lambertsen

    2015-01-01

    Although cyclodextrins (CD) are effective stabilizers for metal nanoparticle colloids, differences between α-, β- and γ-CD in stabilizing such colloids have not been previously reported. In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNP) were synthesized using NaBH 4 as reducing agent and cyclodextrins as stabilizers. Long-term stability of AgNP colloids in equilibrium conditions showed no marked differences between CD types. Transmission electron microscopy and quantitative image analysis revealed only marginal differences in particle sizes for CD-AgNP, although statistically significant. CD-AgNP colloids showed dispersed particles with average diameters of 7.3 ± 2.2, 6.3 ± 2.9 and 4.9 ± 1.9 nm for α-, β- and γ-CD, respectively, and with similar ζ-potentials about −25 to −30 mV. AgNP without CD showed bigger and aggregated particles of 15.0 ± 2.0 nm with lower ζ-potentials of about −40 mV. When subjected to centrifugal forces, i.e. non-equilibrium conditions, γ-CD was markedly more efficient than α- and β-CD in stabilizing the colloids. Drying patterns of colloid droplets showed a typical self-pinned coffee ring for all but the colloid stabilized by γ-CD, which showed a pattern resulting from a dominant Gibbs–Marangoni flow inside the drying droplet. Calculations using the Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey and Overbeek (DLVO) theory supported the stabilizing effect of CD in equilibrium conditions; it however did not provide clues for the superior stabilization by γ-CD in conditions of hydrodynamic stress

  7. A report on the aquatic dilution experiment carried out at discharge canal, KGS site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reji, T.K.; Nayak, P.D.; Sudhakar, J.; Ajith, T.L.; Vishnu, M.S.; Ravi, P.M.; James, J.P.; Joshi, R.M.; Naik, S.B.; Kudtharkar, A.M.; Gaonkar, S.M.; Verma, P.C.; Datta, D.; Dahiya, Sudhir; Brijkumar; Datta, Maduparna; Sajeevan, G.

    2009-08-01

    Under Nuclear Power Corporation of India Limited (NPCIL), three units of (each of capacity 220MWe) Nuclear Power Stations are operational and one unit of similar capacity is under advanced stage of construction at Kaiga site. The radioactive liquid effluents generated in the plant are diluted with Condenser Coolant Water Stream (CCW) which is then discharged into Kadra reservoir through an artificially made discharge canal. The basic objective of the present study is to estimate the Dilution Factors at various locations of discharge canal and to understand the process of dilution and dispersion of radioactive effluent in the discharge canal. The strategy of the experiment involved the collection of samples from discharge canal lengthwise, breadth wise and depth wise immediately after the routine release of one of the batches of effluent stream into the CCW stream. No additional activity was released for the purpose of this experiment. The study compared the experimentally obtained Dilution Factor with that calculated based on the flow rates of CCW pumps and active liquid effluent discharge pumps. In the present conditions of experiment, Dilution Factor, based on flow rates of CCW pumps and Liquid Effluent Discharge pump, works out to be 8.11 E -05 while experimentally observed Mean Dilution Factor in the discharge canal works out to be (7.75±2.15) E-05. Hence this experiment clearly demonstrate the validity of the method of calculating dilution factor based on the flow rates of CCW line and that of Effluent discharge pump. The data analysis indicates that mass flow seems to be the major process of dispersion in the discharge canal. The tritium activity was found to be moving faster in the midstream as compared to that near the shore. The conclusions are drawn purely based on experimental results. This experimental data can be used for validation of aquatic dispersion models. (author)

  8. Formation of Polyelectrolyte Complex Colloid Particles between Chitosan and Pectin with Different Degree of Esterification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Sun, Hongyuan; He, Jieyu

    2017-12-01

    The effects of degree of esterification, pectin/chitosan ratio and pH on the formation of polyelectrolyte complex colloid particles between chitosan (CS) and pectin (PE) were investigated. Low methoxyl pectin (LPE) was achieved by de-esterifying high methoxyl pectin (HPE) with pectin methyl esterase. Turbidity titration and colorimetric method was used to determine the stability of complex colloid particles. The structure and morphology of complex particles were characterized by FTIR and TEM. When pectin solution was dropped into chitosan solution, complex colloidal dispersion was stable as PE/CS mass ratio was no more than 3:2. Colloidal particles of HPE-CS complex coagulated at larger ratio of PE/CS than LPE-CS. The maximum complex occurred at pH 6.1 for HPE-CS and pH 5.7 for LPE-CS, and decreasing pH leaded to the dissociation of complex particles. Electrostatic interactions between carboxyl groups on pectin and amino groups on chitosan were confirmed by FTIR. Colloidal particle sizes ranged from about 100 nm to 400 nm with spherical shape.

  9. Preparation and Optical Properties of Spherical Inverse Opals by Liquid Phase Deposition Using Spherical Colloidal Crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoi, Y; Tominaga, T

    2013-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO 2 ) inverse opals in spherical shape were prepared by liquid phase deposition (LPD) using spherical colloidal crystals as templates. Spherical colloidal crystals were produced by ink-jet drying technique. Aqueous emulsion droplets that contain polystyrene latex particles were ejected into air and dried. Closely packed colloidal crystals with spherical shape were obtained. The obtained spherical colloidal crystals were used as templates for the LPD. The templates were dispersed in the deposition solution of the LPD, i.e. a mixed solution of ammonium hexafluorotitanate and boric acid and reacted for 4 h at 30 °C. After the LPD process, the interstitial spaces of the spherical colloidal crystals were completely filled with titanium oxide. Subsequent heat treatment resulted in removal of templates and spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals. The spherical shape of the template was retained. SEM observations indicated that the periodic ordered voids were surrounded by titanium dioxide. The optical reflectance spectra indicated that the optical properties of the spherical titanium dioxide inverse opals were due to Bragg diffractions from the ordered structure. Filling in the voids of the inverse opals with different solvents caused remarkable changes in the reflectance peak.

  10. Synthesis of Ag-coated polystyrene colloids by an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Chungui; Wang Enbo; Kang Zhenhui; Mao Baodong; Zhang Chao; Lan Yang; Wang Chunlei; Song Yanli

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, an improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. Polyethyleneimine (PEI) could act as the linker between Ag ions (Ag nanoparticles) and polystyrene (PS) colloids and the reducing agent in the formation of Ag nanoparticles. Due to the multi-functional characteristic of PEI, Ag seeds formed in-situ and were immobilized on the surface of PEI-modified PS colloids and no free Ag clusters coexist with the Ag 'seeding' PS colloids in the system. Then, the additional agents could be added into the resulting dispersions straightly to produce a thick Ag nanoshell. The Ag nanoshell with controllable thickness was formed on the surface of PS by the 'one-pot' surface seeding and shell growth method. The Ag-coverage increased gradually with the increasing of mass ratio of AgNO 3 /PS. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. - Graphical abstract: An improved surface seeding and shell growth technique was developed to prepare Ag-polystyrene core shell composite. The optical properties of the Ag-PS colloids could be tailored by changing the coverage of Ag. Display Omitted

  11. Frost Heave in Colloidal Soils

    KAUST Repository

    Peppin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model of frost heave in colloidal soils. The theory accountsfor heave and consolidation while not requiring a frozen fringe assumption. Two solidificationregimes occur: a compaction regime in which the soil consolidates to accommodate the ice lenses, and a heave regime during which liquid is sucked into the consolidated soil from an external reservoir, and the added volume causes the soil to heave. The ice fraction is found to vary inversely with thefreezing velocity V , while the rate of heave is independent of V , consistent with field and laboratoryobservations. © 2011 Society for Industrial and Applied Mathematics.

  12. Spinodal decomposition in a food colloid-biopolymer mixture: evidence for a linear regime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhat, Suresh [Department of Physics and Fribourg Center for Nanomaterials, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland); Tuinier, Remco [Forschungszentrum Juelich, Institut fuer Festkoerperforschung, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Schurtenberger, Peter [Department of Physics and Fribourg Center for Nanomaterials, University of Fribourg, 1700 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2006-07-05

    We investigate phase separation and structural evolution in a complex food colloid (casein micelles) and biopolymer (xanthan) mixture using small-angle light scattering. We demonstrate that phase separation is induced by a depletion mechanism, and that the resulting coexistence curve can be described by osmotic equilibrium theory for mixtures of colloids and polymer chains in a background solvent, taking into account interactions between the polymer chains in the excluded volume limit. We show that the light scattering pattern of an unstable mixture exhibits the typical behaviour of spinodal decomposition, and we are able to confirm the validity of dynamic similarity scaling. We find three distinct regimes (initial or linear, intermediate and transition stage) for the decomposition kinetics that differ in the time dependence of the peak position of the structure factor. In particular we find clear evidence for the existence of an initial linear regime, where the peak position remains constant and the amplitude grows. The existence of spinodal-like decomposition and the validity of universal scaling in the intermediate and transition stages have been found in previous studies of phase separation in attractive colloidal suspensions. However, to our knowledge the initial linear regime has never been observed in colloidal suspensions, and we attribute this at least partly to the effect of hydrodynamic interactions which are efficiently screened in our system due to the fact that the measurements were performed at high polymer concentrations, i.e. in the semi-dilute regime. (letter to the editor)

  13. Structure of Colloidal Flocs in relation to the Dynamic Properties of Unstable Suspension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhisa Adachi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic behaviors of unstable colloidal dispersions are reviewed in terms of floc formation. Geometrical structure of flocs in terms of chemical conditions and formation mechanics is a key to predict macroscopic transportation properties. The rate of sedimentation and rheological properties can be described with the help of fractal dimension (D that is the function of the number of contacts between clusters (Nc. It is also well known that the application of water soluble polymers and polyelectrolytes, which are usually used as a conditioner or flocculants in colloidal dispersions, critically affects the process of flocculation. The resulted floc structure is also influenced by the application of polymer. In order to reveal the roles of the polymers, the elementary rate process of polymer reaching to colloidal interface and subsequent reconformation process into more stable adsorption state are needed to be analyzed. The properties of permeable flocs and adsorbed polymer (polyelectrolyte layers formed on the colloidal surfaces remain to be worked out in relation to inhomogeneous porous structure and electrokinetics in the future.

  14. Desynchronization in diluted neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zillmer, Ruediger; Livi, Roberto; Politi, Antonio; Torcini, Alessandro

    2006-01-01

    The dynamical behavior of a weakly diluted fully inhibitory network of pulse-coupled spiking neurons is investigated. Upon increasing the coupling strength, a transition from regular to stochasticlike regime is observed. In the weak-coupling phase, a periodic dynamics is rapidly approached, with all neurons firing with the same rate and mutually phase locked. The strong-coupling phase is characterized by an irregular pattern, even though the maximum Lyapunov exponent is negative. The paradox is solved by drawing an analogy with the phenomenon of 'stable chaos', i.e., by observing that the stochasticlike behavior is 'limited' to an exponentially long (with the system size) transient. Remarkably, the transient dynamics turns out to be stationary

  15. A compact rotating dilution refrigerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fear, M. J.; Walmsley, P. M.; Chorlton, D. A.; Zmeev, D. E.; Gillott, S. J.; Sellers, M. C.; Richardson, P. P.; Agrawal, H.; Batey, G.; Golov, A. I.

    2013-10-01

    We describe the design and performance of a new rotating dilution refrigerator that will primarily be used for investigating the dynamics of quantized vortices in superfluid 4He. All equipment required to operate the refrigerator and perform experimental measurements is mounted on two synchronously driven, but mechanically decoupled, rotating carousels. The design allows for relative simplicity of operation and maintenance and occupies a minimal amount of space in the laboratory. Only two connections between the laboratory and rotating frames are required for the transmission of electrical power and helium gas recovery. Measurements on the stability of rotation show that rotation is smooth to around 10-3 rad s-1 up to angular velocities in excess of 2.5 rad s-1. The behavior of a high-Q mechanical resonator during rapid changes in rotation has also been investigated.

  16. Colloid cysts of the third ventricle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, J.I.; Medrano, J.; Benito, J.L. de; Lasierra, R.; Lopez, S.; Fernandez, J.A.; Villavieja, J.L.

    1994-01-01

    Colloid cysts (CC) are uncommon cystic endo dermal tumors located in the roof of the third ventricle. The clinical features depend on their capacity for obstructing the foramen of Monro, which results in univentricular or biventricular hydrocephalus. We present three cases of colloid cysts of the third ventricle, diagnosed by CT, reviewing their diagnostic, clinical and pathological features

  17. Colloidal assemblies modified by ion irradiation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoeks, E.; Blaaderen, A. van; Dillen, T. van; Kats, C.M. van; Velikov, K.P.; Brongersma, M.L.; Polman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Spherical SiO2 and ZnS colloidal particles show a dramatic anisotropic plastic deformation under 4 MeV Xe ion irradiation, that changes their shape into oblate into oblate ellipsional, with an aspect ratio that can be precisely controlled by the ion fluence. The 290 nm and 1.1 um diameter colloids

  18. The electrostatic interaction between interfacial colloidal particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, A. J.

    1985-11-01

    The electrostatic interaction between charged, colloidal particles trapped at an air-water interface is considered using linearised Poisson-Boltzmann results for point particles. In addition to the expected screened-Coulomb contribution, which decays exponentially, an algebraic dipole-dipole interaction occurs that may account for long-range interactions in interfacial colloidal systems.

  19. Manipulating colloids with charges and electric fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leunissen, M.E.

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presents the results of experimental investigations on a variety of colloidal suspensions. Colloidal particles are at least a hundred times larger than atoms or molecules, but suspended in a liquid they display the same phase behavior, including fluid and crystalline phases. Due to their

  20. Spatially varying dispersion to model breakthrough curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guangquan

    2011-01-01

    Often the water flowing in a karst conduit is a combination of contaminated water entering at a sinkhole and cleaner water released from the limestone matrix. Transport processes in the conduit are controlled by advection, mixing (dilution and dispersion), and retention-release. In this article, a karst transport model considering advection, spatially varying dispersion, and dilution (from matrix seepage) is developed. Two approximate Green's functions are obtained using transformation of variables, respectively, for the initial-value problem and for the boundary-value problem. A numerical example illustrates that mixing associated with strong spatially varying conduit dispersion can cause strong skewness and long tailing in spring breakthrough curves. Comparison of the predicted breakthrough curve against that measured from a dye-tracing experiment between Ames Sink and Indian Spring, Northwest Florida, shows that the conduit dispersivity can be as large as 400 m. Such a large number is believed to imply strong solute interaction between the conduit and the matrix and/or multiple flow paths in a conduit network. It is concluded that Taylor dispersion is not dominant in transport in a karst conduit, and the complicated retention-release process between mobile- and immobile waters may be described by strong spatially varying conduit dispersion. Copyright © 2010 The Author(s). Journal compilation © 2010 National Ground Water Association.

  1. Experimental investigation on the use of highly charged nanoparticles to improve the stability of weakly charged colloidal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zubir, Mohd Nashrul Mohd; Badarudin, A; Kazi, S N; Misran, Misni; Amiri, Ahmad; Sadri, Rad; Khalid, Solangi

    2015-09-15

    The present work highlighted on the implementation of a unique concept for stabilizing colloids at their incipiently low charge potential. A highly charged nanoparticle was introduced within a coagulated prone colloidal system, serving as stabilizer to resist otherwise rapid flocculation and sedimentation process. A low size asymmetry of nanoparticle/colloid serves as the new topic of investigation in addition to the well-established large size ratio nanoparticle/microparticle study. Highly charged Al2O3 nanoparticles were used within the present research context to stabilize TiO2 and Fe3O4 based colloids via the formation of composite structures. It was believed, based on the experimental evidence, that Al2O3 nanoparticle interact with the weakly charged TiO2 and Fe3O4 colloids within the binary system via absorption and/or haloing modes to increase the overall charge potential of the respective colloids, thus preventing further surface contact via van der Waal's attraction. Series of experimental results strongly suggest the presence of weakly charged colloids in the studied bimodal system where, in the absence of highly charged nanoparticle, experience rapid instability. Absorbance measurement indicated that the colloidal stability drops in accordance to the highly charged nanoparticle sedimentation rate, suggesting the dominant influence of nanoparticles to attain a well-dispersed binary system. Further, it was found that the level of colloidal stability was enhanced with increasing nanoparticle fraction within the mixture. Rheological observation revealed that each hybrid complexes demonstrated behavior reminiscence to water with negligible increase in viscosity which serves as highly favorable condition particularly in thermal transport applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental evidence of colloids and nanoparticles presence from 25 waste leachates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hennebert, Pierre, E-mail: pierre.hennebert@ineris.fr [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Avellan, Astrid; Yan, Junfang [INERIS – Institut National de l’Environnement Industriel et des Risques, Domaine du Petit Arbois BP33, F-13545 Aix-en-Provence (France); Aguerre-Chariol, Olivier [INERIS, Parc Technologique ALATA, BP No. 2, 60550 Verneuil en Halatte (France)

    2013-09-15

    Highlights: • This work is the first assessment of colloids in waste leachates. • Analytical methods are proposed and discussed. • All the waste have at least one element in colloidal form, and some elements are always colloidal. • Man-made nanoparticles are observed. • It can change the interpretation of leachate elemental concentration. - Abstract: The potential colloids release from a large panel of 25 solid industrial and municipal waste leachates, contaminated soil, contaminated sediments and landfill leachates was studied. Standardized leaching, cascade filtrations and measurement of element concentrations in the microfiltrate (MF) and ultrafiltrate (UF) fraction were used to easily detect colloids potentially released by waste. Precautions against CO{sub 2} capture by alkaline leachates, or bacterial re-growth in leachates from wastes containing organic matter should be taken. Most of the colloidal particles were visible by transmission electron microscopy with energy dispersion spectrometry (TEM–EDS) if their elemental MF concentration is greater than 200 μg l{sup −1}. If the samples are dried during the preparation for microscopy, neoformation of particles can occur from the soluble part of the element. Size distribution analysis measured by photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) were frequently unvalid, particularly due to polydispersity and/or too low concentrations in the leachates. A low sensitivity device is required, and further improvement is desirable in that field. For some waste leachates, particles had a zeta potential strong enough to remain in suspension. Mn, As, Co, Pb, Sn, Zn had always a colloidal form (MF concentration/UF concentration > 1.5) and total organic carbon (TOC), Fe, P, Ba, Cr, Cu, Ni are partly colloidal for more than half of the samples). Nearly all the micro-pollutants (As, Ba, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Sn, V and Zn) were found at least once in colloidal form greater than 100 μg l{sup −1}. In particular

  3. Pollutant Dilution and Diffusion in Urban Street Canyon Neighboring Streets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Z.; Fu, Zh. M.

    2011-09-01

    In the present study we investigated the airflow patterns and air quality of a series of typical street canyon combinations, developed a mass balance model to determine the local pollutant dilution rate, and discuss the impact of upstream canyon on the air quality of downstream canyon. The results indicated that the geometrical size of upstream and downstream buildings have significant impacts on the ambient airflow patterns. The pollution distribution within the canyons varies with different building combinations and flow patterns. Within the upstream canyon, pollution always accumulates to the low building side for non-symmetrical canyon, and for symmetrical canyon high level of pollution occurs at the leeward side. The height of the middle and downstream buildings can evidently change the pollutant dispersion direction during the transport process. Within the polluted canyon, the pollutant dilution rate (PDR) also varies with different street canyon combinations. The highest PDR is observed when the upstream buildings are both low buildings no matter the height of downstream building. However, the two cases are likely to contribution pollution to the downstream canyon. The H-L-H combination is mostly against local pollution remove, while the L-H-L case is considered the best optimistic building combination with both the ability of diluting local pollution and not remarkably decreasing air quality of downstream canyon. The current work is expected instructive for city designers to optimize traffic patterns under typical existing geometry or in the development of urban geometry modification for air quality control.

  4. Ni(0-CMC-Na Nickel Colloids in Sodium Carboxymethyl-Cellulose: Catalytic Evaluation in Hydrogenation Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdallah Karim

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A recyclable catalyst, Ni(0-CMC-Na, composed of nickel colloids dispersed in a water soluble bioorganic polymer, sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC-Na, was synthesized by a simple procedure from readily available reagents. The catalyst thus obtained is stable and highly active in alkene hydrogenations.

  5. Harnessing the advantages of hard and soft colloids by the use of core-shell particles as interfacial stabilizers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchcic, C.; Tromp, R.H.; Meinders, M.B.J.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.

    2017-01-01

    The ability of colloidal particles to penetrate fluid interfaces is a crucial factor in the preparation of particle stabilized disperse systems such as foams and emulsions. For hard micron-sized particles the insertion into fluid interfaces requires substantial energy input, but soft particles

  6. Colloid formation in groundwater by subsurface aeration: characterisation of the geo-colloids and their counterparts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolthoorn, Anke; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Riemsdijk, Willem H. van

    2004-01-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater to make the water potable. In a groundwater system with pH > 7, subsurface aeration results in a non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove Fe in situ, the formation of non-mobile Fe precipitate is the desired result. In addition to this intended effect, subsurface aeration may also strongly enhance the microbiological removal of NH 4 in the purification station. A hypothesis is that mobile Fe colloids may be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the microbiological removal of NH 4 . The objective of this study is to characterise the mobile Fe colloids and to derive a synthetic substitute for the naturally formed Fe colloids in order to be able to apply the Fe colloids as a management tool to enhance the removal of NH 4 in the process of producing drinking water from groundwater. At a purification station in The Netherlands natural Fe colloids from an aerated well were sampled. Furthermore, eight synthetic Fe colloids were prepared by oxidising synthetic solutions differing in elemental composition. The colloids were analysed using chemical analysis and electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDAX). The Fe colloids sampled in the field contained Fe, Ca, Na, PO 4 and Mn. Also in the synthetic Fe colloids PO 4 , Ca, Na and Mn were the most important elements next to Fe. Phosphate and dissolved organic C strongly influenced the morphology of the synthetic Fe colloids. When both the elemental composition and the morphology of the Fe colloids are taken into account, the synthetic Fe colloids formed in the synthetic solution containing Fe, Mn, PO 4 , SiO 4 and dissolved organic matter best match the Fe colloids from the field

  7. Colloid formation in groundwater by subsurface aeration: characterisation of the geo-colloids and their counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolthoorn, Anke; Temminghoff, Erwin J.M.; Riemsdijk, Willem H. van

    2004-09-01

    Subsurface aeration is used to oxidise Fe in situ in groundwater to make the water potable. In a groundwater system with pH > 7, subsurface aeration results in a non-mobile Fe precipitate and mobile Fe colloids. Since originally the goal of subsurface aeration is to remove Fe in situ, the formation of non-mobile Fe precipitate is the desired result. In addition to this intended effect, subsurface aeration may also strongly enhance the microbiological removal of NH{sub 4} in the purification station. A hypothesis is that mobile Fe colloids may be the link between subsurface aeration and the positive effect on the microbiological removal of NH{sub 4}. The objective of this study is to characterise the mobile Fe colloids and to derive a synthetic substitute for the naturally formed Fe colloids in order to be able to apply the Fe colloids as a management tool to enhance the removal of NH{sub 4} in the process of producing drinking water from groundwater. At a purification station in The Netherlands natural Fe colloids from an aerated well were sampled. Furthermore, eight synthetic Fe colloids were prepared by oxidising synthetic solutions differing in elemental composition. The colloids were analysed using chemical analysis and electron microscopy (SEM and SEM-EDAX). The Fe colloids sampled in the field contained Fe, Ca, Na, PO{sub 4} and Mn. Also in the synthetic Fe colloids PO{sub 4}, Ca, Na and Mn were the most important elements next to Fe. Phosphate and dissolved organic C strongly influenced the morphology of the synthetic Fe colloids. When both the elemental composition and the morphology of the Fe colloids are taken into account, the synthetic Fe colloids formed in the synthetic solution containing Fe, Mn, PO{sub 4}, SiO{sub 4} and dissolved organic matter best match the Fe colloids from the field.

  8. Recommendations for plutonium colloid size determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosiewicz, S.T.

    1984-02-01

    This report presents recommendations for plutonium colloid size determination and summarizes a literature review, discussions with other researchers, and comments from equipment manufacturers. Four techniques suitable for plutonium colloid size characterization are filtration and ultrafiltration, gel permeation chromatography, diffusion methods, and high-pressure liquid chromatography (conditionally). Our findings include the following: (1) Filtration and ultrafiltration should be the first methods used for plutonium colloid size determination because they can provide the most rapid results with the least complicated experimental arrangement. (2) After expertise has been obtained with filtering, gel permeation chromatography should be incorporated into the colloid size determination program. (3) Diffusion methods can be used next. (4) High-pressure liquid chromatography will be suitable after appropriate columns are available. A plutonium colloid size characterization program with filtration/ultrafiltration and gel permeation chromatography has been initiated

  9. Dispersion and absorption of longitudinal electro-kinetic wave in ion-implanted GaN semiconductor plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soni, Dilip [Government P G Madhav Science College, Ujjain (M P) (India); Sharma, Giriraj, E-mail: grsharma@gmail.com [SRJ Government Girls’ College, Neemuch (M P) (India); Saxena, Ajay [Government College, Garoth, Dist. Mandsaur (M P) (India); Jadhav, Akhilesh [Government J Yoganandam Chhattisgarh College, Raipur (C G) (India)

    2015-07-31

    An analytical study on propagation characteristics of longitudinal electro-kinetic (LEK) waves is presented. Based on multi-fluid model of plasma, we have derived a dispersion relation for LEK waves in colloid laden GaN semiconductor plasmas. It is assumed that ions are implanted to form colloids in the GaN sample. The colloids are continuously bombarded by the plasma particles and stick on them, but they acquire a net negative charge due to relatively higher mobility of electrons. It is found from the dispersion relation that the presence of charged colloids not only modifies the existing modes but also supports new novel modes of LEKWs. It is hoped that the study would enhance understanding on dispersion and absorption of LEKWs and help in singling out the appropriate configurations in which GaN crystal would be better suited for fabrication of microwave devices.

  10. Bentonite erosion by dilute waters in initially saturated bentonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olin, Markus; Seppaelae, Anniina; Laurila, Teemu; Koskinen, Kari

    2012-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. One scenario of interest for the long-term safety assessment of a spent nuclear fuel repository involves the loss of bentonite buffer material through contact with dilute groundwater at a transmissive fracture interface (SKB 2011, Posiva 2012a). The scenario is based on the stable colloids at low ionic strength: - the cohesive forces of bentonite decrease in low-salinity conditions, and colloids start to dominate and are able to leave the gel-like bentonite on the groundwater bentonite boundary; - after colloid formation, groundwater may carry away the only just released clay colloids; - low-salinity events are most probable during post-glacial conditions, when also pressure gradients are high, causing elevated flow velocity, which may enhance colloidal transport. Therefore, it is very important from the point of view of repository safety assessment to be able to estimate how much bentonite may be lost during a post-glacial event, when the groundwater salinity and velocity, as well as the duration of the event are fixed. It is possible that more than one event will hit the same canister and buffer, and that several canisters and buffers may be jeopardized. The results in the issue so far may be divided into modelling attempts and experimental work. The modelling has been based on two main guidelines: external (Birgersson et al., 2009) and internal friction models (Neretnieks et al., 2009). However, these models have not been validated for erosion, probably due to lack of suitable laboratory data. The latter approach is more ambitious due to lack of fitting parameters, though the internal friction model itself may be varied. The internal friction model has proven to be time-consuming to solve numerically. This work indicates that experiments carried out by Schatz et al. (2012) differ significantly from the predictions obtained from Neretnieks' model. We present our numerical modelling results based on a set of

  11. Experimental evidence of an effective medium seen by diffuse light in turbid colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Contreras-Tello, H; Garcia-Valenzuela, A

    2011-01-01

    The propagation of diffuse light in turbid media is usually modeled with radiative transfer theory. When diffuse light travelling in a turbid colloid is reflected and transmitted at a flat interface where there is a refractive index mismatch, it is not clear whether one should assume the incident diffuse-light is travelling in a medium with a refractive index equal to that of the background medium (usually referred to as the matrix) or if one should assume it travels in an effective medium. Most authors simply avoid this issue and most often use the refractive index of the matrix. While this might be a good approximation for dilute turbid media one may suspect that for highly scattering materials it may not be the case. In this work we investigate experimentally this issue. Our experimental results provide clear evidence that diffuse light inside the turbid colloid travels in an effective medium and not in the matrix.

  12. Colloid-Associated Radionuclide Concentration Limits: ANL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertz, C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose and scope of this report is to describe the analysis of available colloidal data from waste form corrosion tests at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to extract characteristics of these colloids that can be used in modeling their contribution to the source term for sparingly soluble radioelements (e.g., Pu). Specifically, the focus is on developing a useful description of the following waste form colloid characteristics: (1) composition, (2) size distribution, and (3) quantification of the rate of waste form colloid generation. The composition and size distribution information are intended to support analysis of the potential transport of the sparingly soluble radionuclides associated with the waste form colloids. The rate of colloid generation is intended to support analysis of the waste form colloid-associated radionuclide concentrations. In addressing the above characteristics, available data are interpreted to address mechanisms controlling colloid formation and stability. This report was developed in accordance with the ''Technical Work Plan for Waste Form Degradation Process Model Report for SR'' (CRWMS M and O 2000). Because the end objective is to support the source term modeling we have organized the conclusions into two categories: (1) data analysis conclusions and (2) recommendations for colloid source term modeling. The second category is included to facilitate use of the conclusions from the data analysis in the abstraction of a colloid source term model. The data analyses and conclusions that are presented in this report are based on small-scale laboratory tests conducted on a limited number of waste glass compositions and spent fuel types

  13. Electroacoustic theory for concentrated colloids with overlapped DLs at arbitrary kappa alpha. I. Application to nanocolloids and nonaqueous colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shilov, V N; Borkovskaja, Y B; Dukhin, A S

    2004-09-15

    Existing theories of electroacoustic phenomena in concentrated colloids neglect the possibility of double layer overlap and are valid mostly for the "thin double layer," when the double layer thickness is much less than the particle size. In this paper we present a new electroacoustic theory which removes this restriction. This would make this new theory applicable to characterizing a variety of aqueous nanocolloids and of nonaqueous dispersions. There are two versions of the theory leading to the analytical solutions. The first version corresponds to strongly overlapped diffuse layers (so-called quasi-homogeneous model). It yields a simple analytical formula for colloid vibration current (CVI), which is valid for arbitrary ultrasound frequency, but for restricted kappa alpha range. This version of the theory, as well the Smoluchowski theory for microelectrophoresis, is independent of particle shape and polydispersity. This makes it very attractive for practical use, with the hope that it might be as useful as classical Smoluchowski theory. In order to determine the kappa alpha range of the quasi-homogeneous model validity we develop the second version that limits ultrasound frequency, but applies no restriction on kappa alpha. The ultrasound frequency should substantially exceed the Maxwell-Wagner relaxation frequency. This limitation makes active conductivity related current negligible compared to the passive dielectric displacement current. It is possible to derive an expression for CVI in the concentrated dispersion as formulae inhering definite integrals with integrands depending on equilibrium potential distribution. This second version allowed us to estimate the ranges of the applicability of the first, quasi-homogeneous version. It turns out that the quasi-homogeneous model works for kappa alpha values up to almost 1. For instance, at volume fraction 30%, the highest kappa alpha limit of the quasi-homogeneous model is 0.65. Therefore, this version of the

  14. The mechanism of hydrophilic and hydrophobic colloidal silicon dioxide types as glidants

    OpenAIRE

    Jonat, Stéphane

    2005-01-01

    AEROSIL® 200 is a hydrophilic highly disperse colloidal silicon dioxide (CSD) that is commonly used to improve flowability. This conventional CSD has low bulk and tapped densities and can produce dust if handled improperly. In order to improve its handling, special mechanical processes were developed for the homogeneous compaction of CSD. As a result, two new products have been recently introduced: AEROSIL® 200 VV and AEROSIL® R 972 V. AEROSIL® 200 VV is hydrophilic and chemically identical t...

  15. Low frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) response of dilute clay suspensions: Modeling and experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Feng, Ling; Seleznev, Nikita; Freed, Denise E

    2018-04-11

    In this work, we establish an effective medium model to describe the low-frequency complex dielectric (conductivity) dispersion of dilute clay suspensions. We use previously obtained low-frequency polarization coefficients for a charged oblate spheroidal particle immersed in an electrolyte as the building block for the Maxwell Garnett mixing formula to model the dilute clay suspension. The complex conductivity phase dispersion exhibits a near-resonance peak when the clay grains have a narrow size distribution. The peak frequency is associated with the size distribution as well as the shape of clay grains and is often referred to as the characteristic frequency. In contrast, if the size of the clay grains has a broad distribution, the phase peak is broadened and can disappear into the background of the canonical phase response of the brine. To benchmark our model, the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions is measured using a four-point impedance measurement, which can be reliably calibrated in the frequency range between 0.1 Hz and 10 kHz. By using a minimal number of fitting parameters when reliable information is available as input for the model and carefully examining the issue of potential over-fitting, we found that our model can be used to fit the measured dispersion of the complex conductivity with reasonable parameters. The good match between the modeled and experimental complex conductivity dispersion allows us to argue that our simplified model captures the essential physics for describing the low-frequency dispersion of the complex conductivity of dilute clay suspensions. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Dispersion strengthening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scattergood, R.O.; Das, E.S.P.

    1976-01-01

    Using digital computer-based methods, models for dispersion strengthening can now be developed which take into account many of the important effects that have been neglected in the past. In particular, the self interaction of a dislocation can be treated, and a computer simulation method was developed to determine the flow stress of a random distribution of circular, impenetrable obstacles, taking into account all such interactions. The flow stress values depended on the obstacle sizes and spacings, over and above the usual 1/L dependence where L is the average obstacle spacing. From an analysis of the results, it was found that the main effects of the self interactions can be captured in a line tension analogue in which the obstacles appear to be penetrable

  17. Dynamics of dilute polymer solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicholson, L.K.; Higgins, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Neutrons scattered by nuclei undergoing slow motion e.g. the internal motion within polymer chains, lose or gain very small amounts of energy. It is therefore the quasi-elastic region of the neutron scattering spectrum which is of interest and in particular the time correlation function (or intermediate scattering law S(Q,t)) which is ideally required to define the motion. The neutron spin echo spectrometer (IN11) at the ILL facilitates the measurement of very small energy changes (down to 10 neV) on scattering from a sample, by changing and keeping track of neutron beam polarization non-parallel to the magnetic guide-field (1). The resultant neutron beam polarization, when normalized against a standard (totally elastic) scatterer is directly proportional to the cosine Fourier Transform of the scattering law S(Q,ω), which is to say the time correlation function is measured directly. Dilute solutions of deuterated polystyrene (PSD) and deuterated polytetrahydrofuran (PTDF) in carbon disulphide, and of their hydrogeneous counterparts (PSH and PTHF respectively) in deuterated benzene were investigated in the range 0.027 A -1 -1 , at 30 0 C. (orig./FKS)

  18. The physics of the colloidal glass transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary L; Weeks, Eric R

    2012-06-01

    As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Beyond a certain concentration, the system is said to be a colloidal glass; structurally, the system resembles a liquid, yet motions within the suspension are slow enough that it can be considered essentially frozen. For several decades, colloids have served as a valuable model system for understanding the glass transition in molecular systems. The spatial and temporal scales involved allow these systems to be studied by a wide variety of experimental techniques. The focus of this review is the current state of understanding of the colloidal glass transition, with an emphasis on experimental observations. A brief introduction is given to important experimental techniques used to study the glass transition in colloids. We describe features of colloidal systems near and in glassy states, including increases in viscosity and relaxation times, dynamical heterogeneity and ageing, among others. We also compare and contrast the glass transition in colloids to that in molecular liquids. Other glassy systems are briefly discussed, as well as recently developed synthesis techniques that will keep these systems rich with interesting physics for years to come.

  19. The physics of the colloidal glass transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hunter, Gary L; Weeks, Eric R

    2012-01-01

    As one increases the concentration of a colloidal suspension, the system exhibits a dramatic increase in viscosity. Beyond a certain concentration, the system is said to be a colloidal glass; structurally, the system resembles a liquid, yet motions within the suspension are slow enough that it can be considered essentially frozen. For several decades, colloids have served as a valuable model system for understanding the glass transition in molecular systems. The spatial and temporal scales involved allow these systems to be studied by a wide variety of experimental techniques. The focus of this review is the current state of understanding of the colloidal glass transition, with an emphasis on experimental observations. A brief introduction is given to important experimental techniques used to study the glass transition in colloids. We describe features of colloidal systems near and in glassy states, including increases in viscosity and relaxation times, dynamical heterogeneity and ageing, among others. We also compare and contrast the glass transition in colloids to that in molecular liquids. Other glassy systems are briefly discussed, as well as recently developed synthesis techniques that will keep these systems rich with interesting physics for years to come. (review article)

  20. Influences on physicians' choices of intravenous colloids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miletin, Michael S; Stewart, Thomas E; Norton, Peter G

    2002-07-01

    Controversy over the optimal intravenous fluid for volume resuscitation continues unabated. Our objectives were to characterize the demographics of physicians who prescribe intravenous colloids and determine factors that enter into their decision to choose a colloid. Questionnaire with 61 items. Ten percent ( n = 364) of frequent intravenous fluid prescribers in the province of Ontario, Canada. The response rate was 74%. Colloid use in the past year was reported by 79% of the responding physicians. Important reasons for choosing a colloid included blood loss and manipulation of oncotic pressure. Physicians tended to prefer either albumin or pentastarch, but no important reasons were found for choosing between the two. Albumin with or without crystalloid was preferred in 5/13 scenarios by more than 50% of the respondents, whereas pentastarch was not favored by more than 50% of respondents in any scenario. Physicians practising in critical care areas and teaching hospitals generally preferred pentastarch to albumin. Physicians reporting pentastarch as representing greater than 90% of total colloid use were more likely to have been visited by a drug detailer for pentastarch than those who used less synthetic colloid (54 vs 22%, p distribution. Although albumin appeared to be preferred in more clinical niches, most physicians did not state reasons for choosing between products. Marketing, specialty, location of practice and clinical scenario appear to play significant roles in the utilization of colloid products.

  1. Storm Sewage Dilution in Smaller Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Torben; Vestergaard, Kristian

    1987-01-01

    A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow.......A numerical model has been used to show how dilution in smaller streams can be effected by unsteady hydraulic conditions caused by a storm sewage overflow....

  2. Cost effectiveness of dilute chemical decontamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeSurf, J.E.; Weyman, G.D.

    The basic principles of dilute chemical decontamination are described, as well as the method of application. Methods of computing savings in radiation dose and costs are presented, with results from actual experience and illustrative examples. It is concluded that dilute chemical decontamination is beneficial in many cases. It reduces radiation exposure of workers, saves money, and simplifies maintenance work

  3. Phosphate binding by natural iron-rich colloids in streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baken, S.; Moens, C.; Griffioen, J.J.; Smolders, E.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) in natural waters may be bound to iron (Fe) bearing colloids. However, the natural variation in composition and P binding strength of these colloids remain unclear. We related the composition of "coarse colloids" (colloids in the 0.1-1.2 μm size range) in 47 Belgian streams to the

  4. Aqueous Colloid + Polymer Depletion System for Confocal Microscopy and Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nayoung; Umanzor, Esmeralda J.; Conrad, Jacinta C.

    2018-05-01

    We developed a model depletion system with colloidal particles that were refractive index- and density-matched to 80 (w/w)% glycerol in water, and characterized the effect of interparticle interactions on the structure and dynamics of non-equilibrium phases. 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl methacrylate-co-tert-butyl methacrylate copolymer particles were synthesized following Kodger et al. (Sci. Rep. 5, 14635 (2015)). Particles were dispersed in glycerol/water solutions to generate colloidal suspensions with good control over electrostatic interactions and a moderately high background viscosity of 55 mPa-s. To probe the effects of charge screening and depletion attractions on the suspension phase behavior, we added NaCl and polyacrylamide (M_w = 186 kDa) at various concentrations to particle suspensions formulated at volume fractions of phi = 0.05 and 0.3 and imaged the suspensions using confocal microscopy. The particles were nearly hard spheres at a NaCl concentration of 20 mM, but aggregated when the concentration of NaCl was further increased. Changes in the particle structure and dynamics with increasing concentration of the depletant polyacrylamide followed the trends expected from earlier experiments on depletion-driven gelation. Additionally, we measured the viscosity and corrected first normal stress difference of suspensions formulated at phi = 0.4 with and without added polymer. The solvent viscosity was suitable for rheology measurements without the onset of instabilities such as secondary flows or edge fracture. These results validate this system as an alternative to one common model system, suspensions of poly(methyl methacrylate) particles and polystyrene depletants in organic solvents, for investigating phase behavior and flow properties in attractive colloidal suspensions.

  5. Solid colloidal particles inducing coalescence in bitumen-in-water emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, J; Chamerois, M; Placin, F; Poirier, J E; Bibette, J; Leal-Calderon, F

    2005-01-04

    Silica particles are dispersed in the continuous phase of bitumen-in-water emulsions. The mixture remains dispersed in quiescent storage conditions. However, rapid destabilization occurs once a shear is applied. Observations under the microscope reveal that the bitumen droplets form a colloidal gel and coalesce upon application of a shear. We follow the kinetic evolution of the emulsions viscosity, eta, at constant shear rate: eta remains initially constant and exhibits a dramatic increase after a finite time, tau. We study the influence of various parameters on the evolution of tau: bitumen droplet size and volume fraction, silica diameter and concentration, shear rate, etc.

  6. Solubilization of tea seed oil in a food-grade water-dilutable microemulsion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lingli Deng

    Full Text Available Food-grade microemulsions containing oleic acid, ethanol, Tween 20, and water were formulated as a carrier system for tea seed oil (Camellia oleifera Abel.. The effect of ethanol on the phase behavior of the microemulsion system was clearly reflected in pseudo-ternary diagrams. The solubilization capacity and solubilization efficiency of tea seed oil dispersions were measured along the dilution line at a 70/30 surfactant/oil mass ratio with Tween 20 as the surfactant and oleic acid and ethanol (1:3, w/w as the oil phase. The dispersed phase of the microemulsion (1.5% weight ratio of tea seed oil to the total amount of oil, surfactant, and tea seed oil could be fully diluted with water without phase separation. Differential scanning calorimetry and viscosity measurements indicated that both the carrier and solubilized systems underwent a similar microstructure transition upon dilution. The dispersion phases gradually inverted from the water-in-oil phase ( 45% water along the dilution line.

  7. Colloidal QDs-polymer nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordillo, H.; Suárez, I.; Rodríguez-Cantó, P.; Abargues, R.; García-Calzada, R.; Chyrvony, V.; Albert, S.; Martínez-Pastor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nanometer-size colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or Quantum Dots (NQD), are very prospective active centers because their light emission is highly efficient and temperature-independent. Nanocomposites based on the incorporation of QDs inside a polymer matrix are very promising materials for application in future photonic devices because they combine the properties of QDs with the technological feasibility of polymers. In the present work some basic applications of these new materials have been studied. Firstly, the fabrication of planar and linear waveguides based on the incorporation of CdS, CdSe and CdTe in PMMA and SU-8 are demonstrated. As a result, photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs are coupled to a waveguide mode, being it able to obtain multicolor waveguiding. Secondly, nanocomposite films have been evaluated as photon energy down-shifting converters to improve the efficiency of solar cells.

  8. Carbon Nanomaterials as Antibacterial Colloids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Maas

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon nanomaterials like graphene, carbon nanotubes, fullerenes and the various forms of diamond have attracted great attention for their vast potential regarding applications in electrical engineering and as biomaterials. The study of the antibacterial properties of carbon nanomaterials provides fundamental information on the possible toxicity and environmental impact of these materials. Furthermore, as a result of the increasing prevalence of resistant bacteria strains, the development of novel antibacterial materials is of great importance. This article reviews current research efforts on characterizing the antibacterial activity of carbon nanomaterials from the perspective of colloid and interface science. Building on these fundamental findings, recent functionalization strategies for enhancing the antibacterial effect of carbon nanomaterials are described. The review concludes with a comprehensive outlook that summarizes the most important discoveries and trends regarding antibacterial carbon nanomaterials.

  9. Colloidal CdSe Quantum Rings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, Igor; Talapin, Dmitri V

    2016-08-10

    Semiconductor quantum rings are of great fundamental interest because their non-trivial topology creates novel physical properties. At the same time, toroidal topology is difficult to achieve for colloidal nanocrystals and epitaxially grown semiconductor nanostructures. In this work, we introduce the synthesis of luminescent colloidal CdSe nanorings and nanostructures with double and triple toroidal topology. The nanorings form during controlled etching and rearrangement of two-dimensional nanoplatelets. We discuss a possible mechanism of the transformation of nanoplatelets into nanorings and potential utility of colloidal nanorings for magneto-optical (e.g., Aharonov-Bohm effect) and other applications.

  10. Hydrodynamic interactions in active colloidal crystal microrheology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeber, R; Harting, J

    2012-11-01

    In dense colloids it is commonly assumed that hydrodynamic interactions do not play a role. However, a found theoretical quantification is often missing. We present computer simulations that are motivated by experiments where a large colloidal particle is dragged through a colloidal crystal. To qualify the influence of long-ranged hydrodynamics, we model the setup by conventional Langevin dynamics simulations and by an improved scheme with limited hydrodynamic interactions. This scheme significantly improves our results and allows to show that hydrodynamics strongly impacts the development of defects, the crystal regeneration, as well as the jamming behavior.

  11. Characterization of natural groundwater colloids at Palmottu

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vuorinen, U.; Kumpulainen, H.

    1993-01-01

    Characterization of groundwater colloids (size range from 2 nm to 500 nm) in the Palmottu natural analogue (for radioactive waste disposal in Finland) area was continued by sampling another drill hole, 346, at three depths. Results evaluated so far indicate the presence of both organic and inorganic colloids. In terms of chemical composition and morphology, the inorganic colloids differ from those found in previous studies. According to SEM/EDS and STEM/EDS they mostly contain Ca and are spherical in shape. At this stage further characterization and evaluation of results is provisional and does not allow very accurate conclusions to be drawn

  12. Quantum-size colloid metal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roldugin, V.I.

    2000-01-01

    In the review dealing with quantum-dimensional metallic colloid systems the methods of preparation, electronic, optical and thermodynamic properties of metal nanoparticles and thin films are considered, the effect of ionizing radiation on stability of silver colloid sols and existence of a threshold radiation dose affecting loss of stability being discussed. It is shown that sol stability loss stems from particles charge neutralization due to reduction of sorbed silver ions induced by radiation, which results in destruction of double electric layer on colloid particles boundary [ru

  13. Optimizing colloidal nanocrystals for applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sytnyk, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the scientific literature colloidal nanocrystals are presented as promising materials for multiple applications, in areas covering optoelectronics, photovoltaics, spintronics, catalysis, and bio-medicine. On the marked are, however, only a very limited number of examples found, indeed implementing colloidal nanocrystals. Thus the scope of this thesis was to modify nanocrystals and to tune their properties to fulfill specific demands. While some modifications could be achieved by post synthetic treatments, one key problem of colloidal nanocrystals, hampering there widespread application is the toxicity of their constituents. To develop nanocrystals from non-toxic materials has been a major goal of this thesis as well. Roughly, the results in this thesis could be subdivided into three parts: (i) the development of ion exchange methods to tailor the properties of metallic and metal-oxide based nanocrystal heterostructures, (ii), the synthesis of semiconductor nanocrystals from non-toxic materials, and (iii) the characterization of the nanocrystals by measurements of their morphology, chemical composition, magnetic-, optical-, and electronic properties. In detail, the thesis is subdivided into an introductory chapter, 4 chapters reporting on scientific results, a chapter reporting the used methods, and the conclusions. The 4 chapters devoted to the scientific results correspond to manuscripts, which are either currently in preparation, or have been published in highly ranked scientific journals such as NanoLetters (chapter 2), ACS Nano (chapter 4), or JACS (chapter 5). Thus, these chapters provide also an extra introduction and conclusion section, as well as separate reference lists. Chapter 2 describes a cation exchange process which is used to tune and improve the magnetic properties of different iron-oxide based colloidal nanocrystal-heterostructures. The superparamagnetic blocking temperature, magnetic remanence, and coercivity is tuned by replacing Fe2+ by Co2

  14. Influence of the initial state of carbon nanotubes on their colloidal stability under natural conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwyzer, Irene; Kaegi, Ralf; Sigg, Laura; Magrez, Arnaud; Nowack, Bernd

    2011-01-01

    The colloidal stability of dry and suspended carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in the presence of amphiphilic compounds (i.e. natural organic matter or surfactants) at environmentally realistic concentrations was investigated over several days. The suspensions were analyzed for CNT concentration (UV-vis spectroscopy), particle size (nanoparticle tracking analysis), and CNT length and dispersion quality (TEM). When added in dry form, around 1% of the added CNTs remained suspended. Pre-dispersion in organic solvent or anionic detergent stabilized up to 65% of the added CNTs after 20 days of mild shaking and 5 days of settling. The initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. suspended) and the medium composition hence are critical determinants for the partitioning of CNTs between sediment and the water column. TEM analysis revealed that single suspended CNTs were present in all suspensions and that shaking and settling resulted in a fractionation of the CNTs with shorter CNTs remaining predominantly in suspension. - Highlights: → Individually suspended CNTs are present under environment relevant conditions. → The number of suspended CNTs varies depending on the medium composition. → Surfactants at environmental concentrations have no suspending effect on dry CNTs. → Pre-dispersed CNTs are more stable in suspension than dry CNTs. - The colloidal stability of CNTs varies a lot depending on the initial state of the CNTs (dry vs. pre-dispersed), the applied dispersant for pre-suspension, and the composition of the medium.

  15. Redox active polymers and colloidal particles for flow batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavvalapalli, Nagarjuna; Moore, Jeffrey S.; Rodriguez-Lopez, Joaquin; Cheng, Kevin; Shen, Mei; Lichtenstein, Timothy

    2018-05-29

    The invention provides a redox flow battery comprising a microporous or nanoporous size-exclusion membrane, wherein one cell of the battery contains a redox-active polymer dissolved in the non-aqueous solvent or a redox-active colloidal particle dispersed in the non-aqueous solvent. The redox flow battery provides enhanced ionic conductivity across the electrolyte separator and reduced redox-active species crossover, thereby improving the performance and enabling widespread utilization. Redox active poly(vinylbenzyl ethylviologen) (RAPs) and redox active colloidal particles (RACs) were prepared and were found to be highly effective redox species. Controlled potential bulk electrolysis indicates that 94-99% of the nominal charge on different RAPs is accessible and the electrolysis products are stable upon cycling. The high concentration attainable (>2.0 M) for RAPs in common non-aqueous battery solvents, their electrochemical and chemical reversibility, and their hindered transport across porous separators make them attractive materials for non-aqueous redox flow batteries based on size-selectivity.

  16. Modeling Evaporation and Particle Assembly in Colloidal Droplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin

    2017-06-13

    Evaporation-induced assembly of nanoparticles in a drying droplet is of great importance in many engineering applications, including printing, coating, and thin film processing. The investigation of particle dynamics in evaporating droplets can provide fundamental hydrodynamic insight for revealing the processing-structure relationship in the particle self-organization induced by solvent evaporation. We develop a free-energy-based multiphase lattice Boltzmann method coupled with Brownian dynamics to simulate evaporating colloidal droplets on solid substrates with specified wetting properties. The influence of interface-bound nanoparticles on the surface tension and evaporation of a flat liquid-vapor interface is first quantified. The results indicate that the particles at the interface reduce surface tension and enhance evaporation flux. For evaporating particle-covered droplets on substrates with different wetting properties, we characterize the increase of evaporate rate via measuring droplet volume. We find that droplet evaporation is determined by the number density and circumferential distribution of interfacial particles. We further correlate particle dynamics and assembly to the evaporation-induced convection in the bulk and on the surface of droplet. Finally, we observe distinct final deposits from evaporating colloidal droplets with bulk-dispersed and interface-bound particles. In addition, the deposit pattern is also influenced by the equilibrium contact angle of droplet.

  17. Colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics: The effect of polydispersity

    KAUST Repository

    Zhitomirsky, David

    2012-02-08

    The size-effect tunability of colloidal quantum dots enables facile engineering of the bandgap at the time of nanoparticle synthesis. The dependence of effective bandgap on nanoparticle size also presents a challenge if the size dispersion, hence bandgap variability, is not well-controlled within a given quantum dot solid. The impact of this polydispersity is well-studied in luminescent devices as well as in unipolar electronic transport; however, the requirements on monodispersity have yet to be quantified in photovoltaics. Here we carry out a series of combined experimental and model-based studies aimed at clarifying, and quantifying, the importance of quantum dot monodispersity in photovoltaics. We successfully predict, using a simple model, the dependence of both open-circuit voltage and photoluminescence behavior on the density of small-bandgap (large-diameter) quantum dot inclusions. The model requires inclusion of trap states to explain the experimental data quantitatively. We then explore using this same experimentally tested model the implications of a broadened quantum dot population on device performance. We report that present-day colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic devices with typical inhomogeneous linewidths of 100-150 meV are dominated by surface traps, and it is for this reason that they see marginal benefit from reduction in polydispersity. Upon eliminating surface traps, achieving inhomogeneous broadening of 50 meV or less will lead to device performance that sees very little deleterious impact from polydispersity. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  18. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides through the Vadose Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B.; Zachara, John M.; McCarthy, John F.; Lichtner, Peter C.

    2006-01-01

    This project seeks to improve the basic understanding of the role of colloids in facilitating the transport of contaminants in the vadose zone. We focus on three major thrusts: (1) thermodynamic stability and mobility of colloids formed by reactions of sediments with highly alkaline tank waste solutions, (2) colloid-contaminant interactions, and (3) in-situ colloid mobilization and colloid facilitated contaminant transport occurring in both contaminated and uncontaminated Hanford sediments

  19. Sustainable colloidal-silver-impregnated ceramic filter for point-of-use water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyanedel-Craver, Vinka A; Smith, James A

    2008-02-01

    Cylindrical colloidal-silver-impregnated ceramic filters for household (point-of-use) water treatment were manufactured and tested for performance in the laboratory with respect to flow rate and bacteria transport. Filters were manufactured by combining clay-rich soil with water, grog (previously fired clay), and flour, pressing them into cylinders, and firing them at 900 degrees C for 8 h. The pore-size distribution of the resulting ceramic filters was quantified by mercury porosimetry. Colloidal silver was applied to filters in different quantities and ways (dipping and painting). Filters were also tested without any colloidal-silver application. Hydraulic conductivity of the filters was quantified using changing-head permeability tests. [3H]H2O water was used as a conservative tracer to quantify advection velocities and the coefficient of hydrodynamic dispersion. Escherichia coli (E. coli) was used to quantify bacterial transport through the filters. Hydraulic conductivity and pore-size distribution varied with filter composition; hydraulic conductivities were on the order of 10(-5) cm/s and more than 50% of the pores for each filter had diameters ranging from 0.02 to 15 microm. The filters removed between 97.8% and 100% of the applied bacteria; colloidal-silver treatments improved filter performance, presumably by deactivation of bacteria. The quantity of colloidal silver applied per filter was more important to bacteria removal than the method of application. Silver concentrations in effluent filter water were initially greater than 0.1 mg/L, but dropped below this value after 200 min of continuous operation. These results indicate that colloidal-silver-impregnated ceramic filters, which can be made using primarily local materials and labor, show promise as an effective and sustainable point-of-use water treatment technology for the world's poorest communities.

  20. Grimsel colloid exercise, an international intercomparison exercise on the sampling and characterization of groundwater colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degueldre, C.

    1990-01-01

    The Grimsel colloid exercise was an intercomparison exercise which consisted of an in situ sampling phase followed by a colloid characterization step. The goal of this benchmark exercise, which involved 12 laboratories, was to evaluate both sampling and characterization techniques with emphasis on the colloid specific size distribution. The sampling phase took place at the Grimsel test site between 1 and 13 February 1988 and the participating groups produced colloid samples using various methods. This work was carried out within the Community COCO Club, as a component of the Mirage project (second phase)

  1. Titanium in UK rural, agricultural and urban/industrial rivers: Geogenic and anthropogenic colloidal/sub-colloidal sources and the significance of within-river retention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neal, Colin; Jarvie, Helen; Rowland, Philip; Lawler, Alan; Sleep, Darren; Scholefield, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Operationally defined dissolved Titanium [Ti] (the 1 kDa i.e. > c. 1-2 nm) for the rural areas, but as low as 28% for the urban/industrial rivers. This raises fundamental issues of the pollutant inputs of Ti, with the possibility of significant complexation of Ti in the sewage effluents and subsequent breakdown within the rivers, as well as the physical dispersion of fine colloids down to the macro-molecular scale. Although not directly measured, the particulate Ti can make an important contribution to the net Ti flux. - Research Highlights: → Filtered Ti in agricultural, urban and industrial UK rivers described. → Highest concentrations occur just downstream of STWs. → The urban/industrial inputs increased background [Ti] by up to 11 fold. → Anthropogenic Ti input lowered by within-river retention. → Up to 79% of Ti colloidal/NP for rural, down to 28% for urban/industrial rivers.

  2. Extraordinary Hall-effect in colloidal magnetic nanoparticle films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Gur, Leah; Tirosh, Einat [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Segal, Amir [School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Markovich, Gil, E-mail: gilmar@post.tau.ac.il [School of Chemistry, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel); Gerber, Alexander, E-mail: gerber@post.tau.ac.il [School of Physics, Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv 6997801 (Israel)

    2017-03-15

    Colloidal nickel nanoparticles (NPs) coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were synthesized. The nanoparticle dispersions were deposited on substrates and dried under mild heating to form conductive films. The films exhibited very small coercivity, nearly metallic conductivity, and a significant extraordinary Hall effect signal. This method could be useful for preparing simple, printed magnetic field sensors with the advantage of relatively high sensitivity around zero magnetic field, in contrast to magnetoresistive sensors, which have maximal field sensitivity away from zero magnetic field. - Highlights: • Ni nanoparticle ink capable of forming conductive films on drying. • The Ni nanoparticle films exhibit significant extraordinary Hall effect. • This system could be used for preparing printed magnetic field sensors integrated in 3D printed structures.

  3. Optical detection of magnetic nanoparticles in colloidal suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez, Alejandro J.; Ramirez-Wong, Diana G.; Favela-Camacho, Sarai E. [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad Querétaro, Querétaro, México (Mexico); Sanchez, Isaac C. [Department of Chemical Engineering, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Yáñez-Limón, J.M.; Luna-Bárcenas, Gabriel [Centro de Investigación y Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional Unidad Querétaro, Querétaro, México (Mexico)

    2016-03-15

    This study reports the change of light transmittance and light scattering dispersion by colloidal suspensions of magnetic nanoparticles. Optical changes were observed during the application of transversal magnetic fields to magnetic nanoparticles and nanowires at concentrations spanning from 20 µg/mL to 2 ng/mL. Results show that light scattering modulation is a simple, fast and inexpensive method for detection of magnetic nanoparticles at low concentrations. Frequency and time response of the optical modulation strongly depends on the geometry of the particles. In this regard, light transmittance and scattering measurements may prove useful in characterizing the morphology of suspended nanoparticles. - Highlights: • A simple route to characterize magnetic nanowire suspension is proposed. • Studied concentration as low as 2 ng/mL compares with more complex techniques. • Transmission and scattering modes allow full characterization of nanoparticles.

  4. Hydrodynamic dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pryce, M.H.L.

    1985-01-01

    A dominant mechanism contributing to hydrodynamic dispersion in fluid flow through rocks is variation of travel speeds within the channels carrying the fluid, whether these be interstices between grains, in granular rocks, or cracks in fractured crystalline rocks. The complex interconnections of the channels ensure a mixing of those parts of the fluid which travel more slowly and those which travel faster. On a macroscopic scale this can be treated statistically in terms of the distribution of times taken by a particle of fluid to move from one surface of constant hydraulic potential to another, lower, potential. The distributions in the individual channels are such that very long travel times make a very important contribution. Indeed, while the mean travel time is related to distance by a well-defined transport speed, the mean square is effectively infinite. This results in an asymmetrical plume which differs markedly from a gaussian shape. The distribution of microscopic travel times is related to the distribution of apertures in the interstices, or in the microcracks, which in turn are affected in a complex way by the stresses acting on the rock matrix

  5. Stability enhancement of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal using modified electrodes with a large electrochemical potential window

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, HongShik [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Gyun Shin, Chang; Heo, Chul-Joon; Jeon, Seog-Jin; Jin, Haishun; Woo Kim, Jung; Jin, YongWan; Lee, SangYoon; Gyu Han, Moon, E-mail: moongyu.han@samsung.com, E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-do (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jin-Kyu, E-mail: moongyu.han@samsung.com, E-mail: jinklee@snu.ac.kr [Department of Chemistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-03

    The color tuning behavior and switching stability of an electrically tunable colloidal photonic crystal system were studied with particular focus on the electrochemical aspects. Photonic color tuning of the colloidal arrays composed of monodisperse particles dispersed in water was achieved using external electric field through lattice constant manipulation. However, the number of effective color tuning cycle was limited due to generation of unwanted ions by electrolysis of the water medium during electrical switching. By introducing larger electrochemical potential window electrodes, such as conductive diamond-like carbon or boron-doped diamond, the switching stability was appreciably enhanced through reducing the number of ions generated.

  6. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-04-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute interactions are implemented using a pseudopotential model. The Nernst-Planck equation, describing the kinetics of dissolved ion species, is solved using a finite difference discretization based on the link-flux method. The colloids are resolved on the lattice and coupled to the hydrodynamics and electrokinetics through appropriate boundary conditions. We present the first full integration of these three elements. The model is validated by comparing with known analytic solutions of ionic distributions at fluid interfaces, dielectric droplet deformations, and the electrophoretic mobility of colloidal suspensions. Its possibilities are explored by considering various physical systems, such as breakup of charged and neutral droplets and colloidal dynamics at either planar or spherical fluid interfaces.

  7. Suspensions of colloidal particles and aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Babick, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This book addresses the properties of particles in colloidal suspensions. It has a focus on particle aggregates and the dependency of their physical behaviour on morphological parameters. For this purpose, relevant theories and methodological tools are reviewed and applied to selected examples. The book is divided into four main chapters. The first of them introduces important measurement techniques for the determination of particle size and interfacial properties in colloidal suspensions. A further chapter is devoted to the physico-chemical properties of colloidal particles—highlighting the interfacial phenomena and the corresponding interactions between particles. The book’s central chapter examines the structure-property relations of colloidal aggregates. This comprises concepts to quantify size and structure of aggregates, models and numerical tools for calculating the (light) scattering and hydrodynamic properties of aggregates, and a discussion on van-der-Waals and double layer interactions between ...

  8. Structural properties of dendrimer-colloid mixtures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenz, Dominic A; Blaak, Ronald; Likos, Christos N

    2012-01-01

    We consider binary mixtures of colloidal particles and amphiphilic dendrimers of the second generation by means of Monte Carlo simulations. By using the effective interactions between monomer-resolved dendrimers and colloids, we compare the results of simulations of mixtures stemming from a full monomer-resolved description with the effective two-component description at different densities, composition ratios, colloid diameters and interaction strengths. Additionally, we map the two-component system onto an effective one-component model for the colloids in the presence of the dendrimers. Simulations based on the resulting depletion potentials allow us to extend the comparison to yet another level of coarse graining and to examine under which conditions this two-step approach is valid. In addition, a preliminary outlook into the phase behavior of this system is given. (paper)

  9. Dynamics and Rheology of Soft Colloidal Glasses

    KAUST Repository

    Wen, Yu Ho; Schaefer, Jennifer L.; Archer, Lynden A.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Chemical Society. The linear viscoelastic (LVE) spectrum of a soft colloidal glass is accessed with the aid of a time-concentration superposition (TCS) principle, which unveils the glassy particle dynamics from in-cage rattling

  10. Thermal Jamming of a Colloidal Glass

    KAUST Repository

    Agarwal, Praveen; Srivastava, Samanvaya; Archer, Lynden A.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the effect of temperature on structure and dynamics of a colloidal glass created by tethering polymers to the surface of inorganic nanoparticles. Contrary to the conventional assumption, an increase in temperature slows down glassy

  11. Mobility of radioactive colloidal particles in groundwater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuttall, H.E.; Long, R.L.

    1993-01-01

    Radiocolloids are a major factor in the rapid migration of radioactive waste in groundwater. For at least two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) sites, researchers have shown that groundwater colloidal particles were responsible for the rapid transport of radioactive waste material in groundwater. On an international scale, a review of reported field observations, laboratory column studies, and carefully collected field samples provides compelling evidence that colloidal particles enhance both radioactive and toxic waste migration. The objective of this project is to understand and predict colloid-contaminant migration through fundamental mathematical models, water sampling, and laboratory experiments and use this information to develop an effective and scientifically based colloid immobilization strategy. The article focuses on solving the suspected radiocolloid transport problems at LANL's Mortandad Canyon site. (author) 6 figs., 5 tabs., 18 refs

  12. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.; Peppin, S. S. L.

    2010-01-01

    and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model

  13. Colloidal Quantum Dot Photovoltaics: A Path Forward

    KAUST Repository

    Kramer, Illan J.; Sargent, Edward H.

    2011-01-01

    spectrum. CQD materials' ease of processing derives from their synthesis, storage, and processing in solution. Rapid advances have brought colloidal quantum dot photovoltaic solar power conversion efficiencies of 6% in the latest reports. These achievements

  14. Sensitive chemical neutron dosimetry using silver colloids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brede, O.; Boes, J.; Hoesselbarth, B.

    1982-01-01

    The radiation-induced formation of silver colloid was checked for its use as a sensitive dosimeter for neutron irradiation. For non-monoenergetic pulsed neutron irradiation in the Dubna IBR-30 reactor, the colloid dosimeter was found to be suitable to indicate the chemical neutron effect, i.e., to determine the sum concentration of the primary particles of water radiolysis: esub(aq)sup(-), OH and H. (author)

  15. Colloidal Silver Not Approved for Treating Animals

    OpenAIRE

    Bagley, Clell V, DVM

    1997-01-01

    FDA has received reports that products containing colloidal silver are being promoted for use in the treatment of mastitis and other serious disease conditions of dairy cattle, as well as for various conditions of companion animals. For example, FDA’s Center for Veterinary Medicine has received reports from the Agency's regional milk specialists and State inspectors that colloidal silver products have been found on some dairy farms. Also, recent articles in some farm newspapers and journals p...

  16. Dispersions of Goethite Nanorods in Aprotic Polar Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delphine Coursault

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Colloidal suspensions of anisotropic nanoparticles can spontaneously self-organize in liquid-crystalline phases beyond some concentration threshold. These phases often respond to electric and magnetic fields. At lower concentrations, usual isotropic liquids are observed but they can display very strong Kerr and Cotton-Mouton effects (i.e., field-induced particle orientation. For many examples of these colloidal suspensions, the solvent is water, which hinders most electro-optic applications. Here, for goethite (α-FeOOH nanorod dispersions, we show that water can be replaced by polar aprotic solvents, such as N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO, without loss of colloidal stability. By polarized-light microscopy, small-angle X-ray scattering and electro-optic measurements, we found that the nematic phase, with its field-response properties, is retained. Moreover, a strong Kerr effect was also observed with isotropic goethite suspensions in these polar aprotic solvents. Furthermore, we found no significant difference in the behavior of both the nematic and isotropic phases between the aqueous and non-aqueous dispersions. Our work shows that goethite nanorod suspensions in polar aprotic solvents, suitable for electro-optic applications, can easily be produced and that they keep all their outstanding properties. It also suggests that this solvent replacement method could be extended to the aqueous colloidal suspensions of other kinds of charged anisotropic nanoparticles.

  17. Theoretical modeling of diluted antiferromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pozo, J; Elgueta, R; Acevedo, R

    2000-01-01

    Some magnetic properties of a Diluted Antiferromagnetic System (DAFS) are studied. The model of the two sub-networks for antiferromagnetism is used and a Heisenberg Hamiltonian type is proposed, where the square operators are expressed in terms of boson operators with the approach of spin waves. The behavior of the diluted system's fundamental state depends basically on the competition effect between the anisotropy field and the Weiss molecular field. The approach used allows the diluted system to be worked for strong anisotropies as well as when these are very weak

  18. Valence holes observed in nanodiamonds dispersed in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Tristan; Pflüger, Mika; Tolksdorf, Daniel; Xiao, Jie; Aziz, Emad F.

    2015-02-01

    Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp2-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed.Colloidal dispersion is essential for most nanodiamond applications, but its influence on nanodiamond electronic properties remains unknown. Here we have probed the electronic structure of oxidized detonation nanodiamonds dispersed in water by using soft X-ray absorption and emission spectroscopies at the carbon and oxygen K edges. Upon dispersion in water, the π* transitions from sp2-hybridized carbon disappear, and holes in the valence band are observed. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental methods, details on XAS/XES normalization and background correction procedures. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr06639a

  19. Synthesis and colloidal properties of anisotropic hydrothermal barium titanate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosenick, Timothy James

    2005-11-01

    Nanoparticles of high dielectric constant materials, especially BaTiO3, are required to achieve decreased layer thickness in multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs). Tabular metal nanoparticles can produce thin metal layers with low surface roughness via electrophoretic deposition (EPD). To achieve similar results with dielectric layers requires the synthesis and dispersion of tabular BaTiO3 nanoparticles. The goal of this study was to investigate the deposition of thin BaTiO3 layers using a colloidal process. The synthesis, interfacial chemistry and colloidal properties of hydrothermal BaTiO3 a model particle system, was investigated. After characterization of the material system particulates were deposited to form thin layers using EPD. In the current study, the synthesis of BaTiO3 has been investigated using a hydrothermal route. TEM and AFM analyses show that the synthesized particles are single crystal with a majority of the particle having a zone axis and {111} large face. The particles have a median thickness of 5.8 +/- 3.1 nm and face diameter of 27.1 +/- 12.3 nm. Particle growth was likely controlled by the formation of {111} twins and the synthesis pH which stabilizes the {111} face during growth. With limited growth in the direction, the particles developed a plate-like morphology. Physical property characterization shows the powder was suitable for further processing with high purity, low hydrothermal defect concentration, and controlled stoichiometry. TEM observations of thermally treated powders indicate that the particles begin to loose the plate-like morphology by 900 °C. The aqueous passivation, dispersion, and doping of nanoscale BaTiO 3 powders was investigated. Passivation BaTiO3 was achieved through the addition of oxalic acid. The oxalic acid selectively adsorbs onto the particle surface and forms a chemically stable 2-3 nm layer of barium oxalate. The negative surface charge of the oxalate effectively passivated the BaTiO3 providing a surface

  20. Colloid-Facilitated Transport of Radionuclides Through The Vadose Zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markus Flury; James B. Harsh; John F. McCarthy' Peter C. Lichtner; John M. Zachara

    2007-01-01

    The main purpose of this project was to advance the basic scientific understanding of colloid and colloid-facilitated Cs transport of radionuclides in the vadose zone. We focused our research on the hydrological and geochemical conditions beneath the leaking waste tanks at the USDOE Hanford reservation. Specific objectives were (1) to determine the lability and thermodynamic stability of colloidal materials, which form after reacting Hanford sediments with simulated Hanford Tank Waste, (2) to characterize the interactions between colloidal particles and contaminants, i.e., Cs and Eu, (3) to determine the potential of Hanford sediments for in situ mobilization of colloids, (4) to evaluate colloid-facilitated radionuclide transport through sediments under unsaturated flow, (5) to implement colloid-facilitated contaminant transport mechanisms into a transport model, and (6) to improve conceptual characterization of colloid-contaminant-soil interactions and colloid-facilitated transport for clean-up procedures and long-term risk assessment

  1. Origin of blue photoluminescence from colloidal silicon nanocrystals fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation in solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, H L; Wu, W S; Zhang, Y; Wu, L K; Shen, W Z

    2016-08-12

    We present a detailed investigation into the origin of blue emission from colloidal silicon (Si) nanocrystals (NCs) fabricated by femtosecond laser ablation of Si powder in 1-hexene. High resolution transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy observations confirm that Si NCs with average size 2.7 nm are produced and well dispersed in 1-hexene. Fourier transform infrared spectrum and x-ray photoelectron spectra have been employed to reveal the passivation of Si NCs surfaces with organic molecules. On the basis of the structural characterization, UV-visible absorption, temperature-dependent photoluminescence (PL), time-resolved PL, and PL excitation spectra investigations, we deduce that room-temperature blue luminescence from colloidal Si NCs originates from the following two processes: (i) under illumination, excitons first form within colloidal Si NCs by direct transition at the X or Γ (Γ25 → Γ'2) point; (ii) and then some trapped excitons migrate to the surfaces of colloidal Si NCs and further recombine via the surface states associated with the Si-C or Si-C-H2 bonds.

  2. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-06-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste con- stituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  3. Colloidal agglomerates in tank sludge: Impact on waste processing. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virden, J.W.

    1997-01-01

    'Disposal of millions of gallons of existing radioactive wastes is a major remediation problem for the Department of Energy (DOE). Although radionuclides are the most hazardous waste constituents. the components of greatest concern from a waste processing standpoint are insoluble sludges consisting of submicron colloidal particles. Depending on processing conditions, these colloidal particles can form agglomerate networks that could clog transfer lines or interfere with solid-liquid separations such as settle-decant operations. Under different conditions, the particles can be dispersed to form very fine suspended particles that will not create sediment in settle- decant steps and that can foul and contaminate downstream treatment components including ion exchangers or filtrations systems. Given the wide range of tank chemistries present at Hanford and other DOE sites, it is impractical to measure the properties of all potential processing conditions to design effective treatment procedures. Instead. a framework needs to be established to allow sludge property trends to be predicted on a sound scientific basis. The scientific principles of greatest utility in characterizing, understanding, and controlling the physical properties of sludge fall in the realm of colloid chemistry. The objectives of this work are to accomplish the following: understand the factors controlling the nature and extent of colloidal agglomeration under expected waste processing conditions determine how agglomeration phenomena influence physical properties relevant to waste processing including rheology, sedimentation. and filtration develop strategies for optimizing processing conditions via control of agglomeration phenomena.'

  4. A column experiment for the study of colloidal radionuclide migration in Gorleben aquifer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.I.; Delakowitz, B.; Zeh, P.; Klotz, D.; Lazik, D.

    1994-01-01

    A column experiment is performed for the assessment of the migration behaviour of trivalent 152 Eu, 241 Am and tetra- and pentavalent 237 Np, 233 Pa in the presence of humic colloids. Groundwater of an organic rich aquifer from the geological site at Gorleben is chosen for the experiment, as this has been well characterized during the earlier work and contains a substantial amount of humic colloids. The chemical and mineralogical composition of the pleistocene quartz-sand used in the column experiment is characterized by various analytical and mineralogical methods. Prior to the actinide migration experiment, the hydraulic properties (flow velocity, effective porosity, longitudinal dispersion coefficient) are determined in order to ascertain stable conditions for the experiment. In addition, the microstructure parameters (sediment surface, pore size distribution) of the groundwater-sand system in the column are determined. Radiotracers used for the determination of the hydraulic properties are 3 HHO and 82 Br - . Results obtained to date indicate a relatively high mobility of the lanthanide and actinide ions loaded on aquatic humic colloids. The recovery of injected radiotracer ions in eluates is found to depend on the flow velocity of groundwater through the column. The results help to elucidate the actinide migration behaviour in the presence of natural humic colloids. (orig.)

  5. Antibacterial Activity of Electrochemically Synthesized Colloidal Silver Nanoparticles Against Hospital-Acquired Infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thuc, Dao Tri; Huy, Tran Quang; Hoang, Luc Huy; Hoang, Tran Huy; Le, Anh-Tuan; Anh, Dang Duc

    2017-06-01

    This study evaluated the antibacterial activity of electrochemically synthesized colloidal silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against hospital-acquired infections. Colloidal AgNPs were synthesized via a single process using bulk silver bars, bi-distilled water, trisodium citrate, and direct current voltage at room temperature. Colloidal AgNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive x-ray analyses. The antibacterial activity of colloidal AgNPs against four bacterial strains isolated from clinical samples, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli O157:H7, multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumonia, was evaluated by disc diffusion, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and ultrathin sectioning electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared AgNPs were 19.7 ± 4.3 nm in size, quasi-spherical, and of high purity. Zones of inhibition approximately 6-10 mm in diameter were found, corresponding to AgNPs concentrations of 50 μg/mL to 100 μg/mL. The MIC results revealed that the antibacterial activity of the prepared AgNPs was strongly dependent on the concentration and strain of the tested bacteria.

  6. Proceedings of the fifth Asian conference on colloid and interface science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Colloid and Interfacial (Surface) phenomena constitute a field of science which today embodies concepts that are fundamental to the understanding of both microscopic and macroscopic behaviors, and hence the design of a wide range of system of great potential interest. Now a days, this branch of science has entered a new era where modern development and knowledge of physics, chemistry, biology, material science, pharmacy, engineering, etc., have been extensively exploited and adopted. As a result, both fundamental and applied aspects of colloid and surface science have advanced over the years, for example, starting from tertiary oil recovery to nanotechnology to environmental science. These multifaceted fields also find applications in everyday life, and helps in understanding the intricacies of the life process. All these developments have enriched the field, which is considered to be the front-line/emerging area of research in the national and international scenario. Recent growth of modern colloid and interface science in Asian countries has encouraged the scientists to share in-depth discussions within the regional scientific community in Asia. Scientific topics covered by the conference were: Adsorption, Molecular Assemblies, Colloids and Dispersions, Gels, Surfaces and Interfaces, Thin Films, Membranes, Nanomaterials, Biomaterials, Devices and Applications etc. Papers relevant to INIS are indexed separately

  7. Crystallization in polydisperse colloidal suspensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, S.; Bryant, G.; Van Megen, W.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Crystallization and glass formation in colloidal hard spheres has been a very active area of research over the last 15-20 years. For most of this time particle polydispersity has been considered to be a minor concern in these studies. However, over the last few years an increasing number of simulations, theoretical work and experiments have shown that consideration of the polydispersity is critical in understanding these phenomena. In this paper we provide an overview of recent crystallization studies on particles with two very different particle size distributions. These particles exhibit very different equilibrium crystal structures and crystallization kinetics. Based on these measurements and time lapse photographs, we propose a growth mechanism whereby crystallization occurs in conjunction with a local fractionation process near the crystal-fluid interface, which significantly alters the kinetics of crystallite nucleation and growth. This fractionation effect becomes more significant as polydispersity or skewness increases. The unusual crystal structures observed are explained using a schematic model that explains the structure in terms of stacks of planes, which are unregistered due to a high incidence of stacking faults caused by the incorporation of a large number of small particles

  8. Gluconeogenesis from labeled carbon: estimating isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelleher, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    To estimate the rate of gluconeogenesis from steady-state incorporation of labeled 3-carbon precursors into glucose, isotope dilution must be considered so that the rate of labeling of glucose can be quantitatively converted to the rate of gluconeogenesis. An expression for the value of this isotope dilution can be derived using mathematical techniques and a model of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The present investigation employs a more complex model than that used in previous studies. This model includes the following pathways that may affect the correction for isotope dilution: 1) flux of 3-carbon precursor to the oxaloacetate pool via acetyl-CoA and the TCA cycle; 2) flux of 4- or 5-carbon compounds into the TCA cycle; 3) reversible flux between oxaloacetate (OAA) and pyruvate and between OAA and fumarate; 4) incomplete equilibrium between OAA pools; and 5) isotope dilution of 3-carbon tracers between the experimentally measured pool and the precursor for the TCA-cycle OAA pool. Experimental tests are outlined which investigators can use to determine whether these pathways are significant in a specific steady-state system. The study indicated that flux through these five pathways can significantly affect the correction for isotope dilution. To correct for the effects of these pathways an alternative method for calculating isotope dilution is proposed using citrate to relate the specific activities of acetyl-CoA and OAA

  9. Insulin-egg yolk dispersions in self microemulsifying system

    OpenAIRE

    Singnurkar P; Gidwani S

    2008-01-01

    Formulation of insulin into a microemulsion very often presents a physicochemical instability during their preparation and storage. In order to overcome this lack of stability and facilitate the handling of these colloidal systems, stabilization of insulin in presence of hydrophobic components of a microemulsion appears as the most promising strategy. The present paper reports the use of egg yolk for stabilization of insulin in self microemulsifying dispersions. Insulin loaded egg yolk self m...

  10. Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wold, S.; Garcia-Garcia, S.; Jonsson, M.

    2010-12-01

    Colloid transport in model fracture filling materials Susanna Wold*, Sandra García-García and Mats Jonsson KTH Chemical Science and Engineering Royal Institute of Technology, SE-100 44 Stockholm, Sweden *Corresponding author: E-mail: wold@kth.se Phone: +46 8 790 6295 In colloid transport in water-bearing fractures, the retardation depends on interactions with the fracture surface by sorption or filtration. These mechanisms are difficult to separate. A rougher surface will give a larger area available for sorption, and also when a particle is physically hindered, it approaches the surface and enables further sorption. Sorption can be explained by electrostatics were the strongest sorption on minerals always is observed at pH below pHpzc (Filby et al., 2008). The adhesion of colloids to mineral surfaces is related to the surface roughness according to a recent study (Darbha et al., 2010). There is a large variation in the characteristics of water-bearing fractures in bedrock in terms of aperture distribution, flow velocity, surface roughness, mineral distributions, presence of fracture filling material, and biological and organic material, which is hard to implement in modeling. The aim of this work was to study the transport of negatively charged colloids in model fracture filling material in relation to flow, porosity, mineral type, colloid size, and surface charge distribution. In addition, the impact on transport of colloids of mixing model fracture filling materials with different retention and immobilization capacities, determined by batch sorption experiments, was investigated. The transport of Na-montmorillonite colloids and well-defined negatively charged latex microspheres of 50, 100, and 200 nm diameter were studied in either columns containing quartz or quartz mixed with biotite. The ionic strength in the solution was exclusively 0.001 and pH 6 or 8.5. The flow rates used were 0.002, 0.03, and 0.6 mL min-1. Sorption of the colloids on the model fracture

  11. Molecular Recognition in the Colloidal World.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elacqua, Elizabeth; Zheng, Xiaolong; Shillingford, Cicely; Liu, Mingzhu; Weck, Marcus

    2017-11-21

    Colloidal self-assembly is a bottom-up technique to fabricate functional nanomaterials, with paramount interest stemming from programmable assembly of smaller building blocks into dynamic crystalline domains and photonic materials. Multiple established colloidal platforms feature diverse shapes and bonding interactions, while achieving specific orientations along with short- and long-range order. A major impediment to their universal use as building blocks for predesigned architectures is the inability to precisely dictate and control particle functionalization and concomitant reversible self-assembly. Progress in colloidal self-assembly necessitates the development of strategies that endow bonding specificity and directionality within assemblies. Methodologies that emulate molecular and polymeric three-dimensional (3D) architectures feature elements of covalent bonding, while high-fidelity molecular recognition events have been installed to realize responsive reconfigurable assemblies. The emergence of anisotropic 'colloidal molecules', coupled with the ability to site-specifically decorate particle surfaces with supramolecular recognition motifs, has facilitated the formation of superstructures via directional interactions and shape recognition. In this Account, we describe supramolecular assembly routes to drive colloidal particles into precisely assembled architectures or crystalline lattices via directional noncovalent molecular interactions. The design principles are based upon the fabrication of colloidal particles bearing surface-exposed functional groups that can undergo programmable conjugation to install recognition motifs with high fidelity. Modular and versatile by design, our strategy allows for the introduction and integration of molecular recognition principles into the colloidal world. We define noncovalent molecular interactions as site-specific forces that are predictable (i.e., feature selective and controllable complementary bonding partners

  12. Functional Nanofibers and Colloidal Gels: Key Elements to Enhance Functionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Nancy Amanda

    material so that prolonged release can be readily achieved from highly water soluble nanofibers. The final research theme focuses on gaining a fundamental understanding of a new class of materials, nanodiamond, so that a desired microstructure can be achieved via functionalization or manipulating processing parameters. In particular, we utilize both steady and dynamic rheology techniques to systematically investigate systems of nanodiamonds dispersed in model nonpolar (mineral oil) and polar (glycerol) media. In both cases, selfsupporting colloidal gels form at relatively low nanodiamond content; however, the gel behavior is highly dependent on the type of media used. Nanodiamonds dispersed in mineral oil exhibit characteristic colloidal gel behavior, with a rheological response that is independent of both frequency and time. However, nanodiamonds dispersed in glycerol exhibit a time dependent response, with the strength of the colloidal gels increasing several orders of magnitude. We attribute these rheological differences to changes in solvent complexity, where new particle-solvent and particle-particle interactions have the potential to delay optimal gel formation. In addition to colloidal gel formation, we use large oscillatory strains to probe the effect of processing parameters on microstructure disruption and recovery. The results indicate that the formation and rearrangement of the nanodiamond microstructures are concentration dependent for both media types; however, the recovery after breakdown is different for each system. Recovery of the nanodiamond/mineral oil gels is incomplete, with the strength of the recovered gel being significantly reduced. In contrast, the original strength of the nanodiamond/glycerol gels is recoverable as the system restructures with time. The practical implications of these results are significant as it suggest that shear history and solvent polarity play a dominant role in nanodiamond processing.

  13. Seed dispersal in fens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middleton, Beth; van Diggelen, Rudy; Jensen, Kai

    Question: How does seed dispersal reduce fen isolation and contribute to biodiversity? Location: European and North American fens. Methods: This paper reviews the literature on seed dispersal to fens. Results: Landscape fragmentation may reduce dispersal opportunities thereby isolating fens and

  14. Thermophoretic torque in colloidal particles with mass asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olarte-Plata, Juan; Rubi, J. Miguel; Bresme, Fernando

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the response of anisotropic colloids suspended in a fluid under a thermal field. Using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics computer simulations and nonequilibrium thermodynamics theory, we show that an anisotropic mass distribution inside the colloid rectifies the rotational Brownian motion and the colloids experience transient torques that orient the colloid along the direction of the thermal field. This physical effect gives rise to distinctive changes in the dependence of the Soret coefficient with colloid mass, which features a maximum, unlike the monotonic increase of the thermophoretic force with mass observed in homogeneous colloids.

  15. Polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in charged nanosized colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gögelein, Christoph; Nägele, Gerhard; Buitenhuis, Johan; Tuinier, Remco; Dhont, Jan K. G.

    2009-05-01

    We study polymer depletion-driven cluster aggregation and initial phase separation in aqueous dispersions of charge-stabilized silica spheres, where the ionic strength and polymer (dextran) concentration are systematically varied, using dynamic light scattering and visual observation. Without polymers and for increasing salt and colloid content, the dispersions become increasingly unstable against irreversible cluster formation. By adding nonadsorbing polymers, a depletion-driven attraction is induced, which lowers the stabilizing Coulomb barrier and enhances the cluster growth rate. The initial growth rate increases with increasing polymer concentration and decreases with increasing polymer molar mass. These observations can be quantitatively understood by an irreversible dimer formation theory based on the classical Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek pair potential, with the depletion attraction modeled by the Asakura-Oosawa-Vrij potential. At low colloid concentration, we observe an exponential cluster growth rate for all polymer concentrations considered, indicating a reaction-limited aggregation mechanism. At sufficiently high polymer and colloid concentrations, and lower salt content, a gas-liquidlike demixing is observed initially. Later on, the system separates into a gel and fluidlike phase. The experimental time-dependent state diagram is compared to the theoretical equilibrium phase diagram obtained from a generalized free-volume theory and is discussed in terms of an initial reversible phase separation process in combination with irreversible aggregation at later times.

  16. Colloid chemistry: available sorption models and the question of colloid adhesion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grauer, R.

    1990-05-01

    A safety analysis of a radioactive waste repository should consider the possibility of nuclide transport by colloids. This would involve describing the sorption properties of the colloids and their transport in porous and fissured media. This report deals with a few selected aspects of the chemistry of this complex subject. Because the mechanisms of ion adsorption onto surfaces are material-specific, increased attention should be paid to identifying the material constitution of aquatic colloids. Suitable models already exist for describing reversible adsorption; these models describe sorption using mass action equations. The surface coordination model, developed for hydrous oxide surfaces, allows a uniform approach to be adopted for different classes of materials. This model is also predictive and has been applied successfully to natural systems. From the point of view of nuclide transport by colloids, irreversible sorption represents the most unfavourable situation. There is virtually no information available on the extent of reversibility and on the desorption kinetics of important nuclide/colloid combinations. Experimental investigations are therefore necessary in this respect. The only question considered in connection with colloid transport and its modelling is that of colloid sticking. Natural colloids, and the surfaces of the rock on which they may be collected, generally have negative surface charges so that colloid sticking will be difficult. The DLVO theory contains an approach for calculating the sticking factor from the surface potentials of the solid phases and the ionic strength of the water. However, it has been shown that this theory is inapplicable because of inherent shortcomings which lead to completely unrealistic predictions. The sticking probability of colloids should therefore be determined experimentally for systems which correspond as closely as possible to reality. (author) 66 figs., 12 tabs., 204 refs

  17. Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolfsberg, A.; Reimus, P.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the Saturated Zone Colloid-Facilitated Transport Analysis and Modeling Report (AMR), as outlined in its Work Direction and Planning Document (CRWMS MandO 1999a), is to provide retardation factors for colloids with irreversibly-attached radionuclides, such as plutonium, in the saturated zone (SZ) between their point of entrance from the unsaturated zone (UZ) and downgradient compliance points. Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this AMR especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and perhaps other radionuclides may be irreversibly attached to colloids. This report establishes the requirements and elements of the design of a methodology for calculating colloid transport in the saturated zone at Yucca Mountain. In previous Total Systems Performance Assessment (TSPA) analyses, radionuclide-bearing colloids were assumed to be unretarded in their migration. Field experiments in fractured tuff at Yucca Mountain and in porous media at other sites indicate that colloids may, in fact, experience retardation relative to the mean pore-water velocity, suggesting that contaminants associated with colloids should also experience some retardation. Therefore, this analysis incorporates field data where available and a theoretical framework when site-specific data are not available for estimating plausible ranges of retardation factors in both saturated fractured tuff and saturated alluvium. The distribution of retardation factors for tuff and alluvium are developed in a form consistent with the Performance Assessment (PA) analysis framework for simulating radionuclide transport in the saturated zone. To improve on the work performed so far for the saturated-zone flow and transport modeling, concerted effort has been made in quantifying colloid retardation factors in both fractured tuff and alluvium. The fractured tuff analysis used recent data

  18. Sorption behavior of cesium onto bentonite colloid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, Kazuki; Masuda, Tsuguya; Tomura, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    It is considered that bentonite colloid might be generated from bentonite which will be used as buffer material in geological disposal system, and can facilitate the migration of radionuclides by means of sorption. In order to examine this characteristic, sorption and desorption experiments of Cs onto bentonite colloid were carried out to obtain its distribution coefficient (Kd) and information on the reversibility of its sorption. In addition, particle size distribution and shape of colloid were investigated and their effect on the sorption behavior was discussed. Kds for Cs were around 20 m 3 /kg for sorption and 30 m 3 /kg for desorption, in which sorbed Cs was desorbed by 8.4x10 -4 mol/l of NaCl solution. These values did not show any dependencies on Cs concentration and duration of sorption and desorption. The first 20% of sorbed Cs was desorbed reversibly at least. Most of colloidal particles were larger than 200 nm and TEM micrographs showed they had only several sheets of the clay crystal. Obtained Kds for colloidal bentonite were larger than those for powdered bentonite. This can be caused by difference of competing ions in the solution, characteristics of contained smectite, or sorption site density. (author)

  19. The Fate of Colloidal Swarms in Fractures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.; Olander, M. K.

    2009-12-01

    In the next 10-20 years, nano- and micro-sensor engineering will advance to the stage where sensor swarms could be deployed in the subsurface to probe rock formations and the fluids contained in them. Sensor swarms are groups of nano- or micro- sensors that are maintained as a coherent group to enable either sensor-to-sensor communication and/or coherent transmission of information as a group. The ability to maintain a swarm of sensors depends on the complexity of the flow paths in the rock, on the size and shape of the sensors and on the chemical interaction among the sensors, fluids, and rock surfaces. In this study, we investigate the effect of fracture aperture and fluid currents on the formation, evolution and break-up of colloidal swarms under gravity. Transparent cubic samples (100 mm x 100 mm x 100 mm) containing synthetic fractures with uniform and non-uniform aperture distributions were used to quantify the effect of aperture on swarm formation, swarm velocity, and swarm geometry using optical imaging. A fracture with a uniform aperture distribution was fabricated from two polished rectangular prisms of acrylic. A fracture with a non-uniform aperture distribution was created with a polished rectangular acrylic prism and an acrylic replica of an induced fracture surface from a carbonate rock. A series of experiments were performed to determine how swarm movement and geometry are affected as the walls of the fracture are brought closer together from 50 mm to 1 mm. During the experiments, the fracture was fully saturated with water. We created the swarms using two different particle sizes in dilute suspension (~ 1.0% by mass) . The particles were 3 micron diameter fluorescent polymer beads and 25 micron diameter soda-lime glass beads. The swarm behavior was imaged using an optical fluorescent imaging system composed of a CCD camera illuminated by a 100 mW diode-pumped doubled YAG laser. A swam was created when approximately 0.01 g drop of the suspension was

  20. Efficient One-Pot Synthesis of Colloidal Zirconium Oxide Nanoparticles for High-Refractive-Index Nanocomposites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Hajagos, Tibor Jacob; Chen, Dustin; Chen, Yi; Kishpaugh, David; Pei, Qibing

    2016-02-01

    Zirconium oxide nanoparticles are promising candidates for optical engineering, photocatalysis, and high-κ dielectrics. However, reported synthetic methods for the colloidal zirconium oxide nanoparticles use unstable alkoxide precursors and have various other drawbacks, limiting their wide application. Here, we report a facile one-pot method for the synthesis of colloidally stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles. Using a simple solution of zirconium trifluoroacetate in oleylamine, highly stable zirconium oxide nanoparticles have been synthesized with high yield, following a proposed amidization-assisted sol-gel mechanism. The nanoparticles can be readily dispersed in nonpolar solvents, forming a long-term stable transparent solution, which can be further used to fabricate high-refractive-index nanocomposites in both monolith and thin-film forms. In addition, the same method has also been extended to the synthesis of titanium oxide nanoparticles, demonstrating its general applicability to all group IVB metal oxide nanoparticles.

  1. Colloid and materials science for the conservation of cultural heritage: cleaning, consolidation, and deacidification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baglioni, Piero; Chelazzi, David; Giorgi, Rodorico; Poggi, Giovanna

    2013-04-30

    Serendipity and experiment have been a frequent approach for the development of materials and methodologies used for a long time for either cleaning or consolidation of works of art. Recently, new perspectives have been opened by the application of materials science, colloid science, and interface science frameworks to conservation, generating a breakthrough in the development of innovative tools for the conservation and preservation of cultural heritage. This Article is an overview of the most recent contributions of colloid and materials science to the art conservation field, mainly focusing on the use of amphiphile-based fluids, gels, and alkaline earth metal hydroxide nanoparticles dispersions for the cleaning of pictorial surfaces, the consolidation of artistic substrates, and the deacidification of paper, canvas, and wood. Future possible directions for solving several conservation issues that still need to be faced are also highlighted.

  2. In vivo biodegradation of colloidal quantum dots by a freshwater invertebrate, Daphnia magna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Dongwook; Kim, Min Jung; Park, Chansik; Park, Jaehong [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyungho [Department of Environmental Health, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Tae Hyun, E-mail: thyoon@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Hanyang University, Seoul 133-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    Impacts of planktonic invertebrate, Daphnia magna, on the speciation of colloidal quantum dots (QD) were investigated using fluorescence spectromicroscopic technique. Well-dispersed {sup GA/TOPO}QD were prepared by forming a supramolecular assembly of hydrophobic {sup TOPO}QD with biomacromolecules (i.e., Gum Arabic, GA). Biological degradation of this nanomaterial was monitored by fluorescence spectromicroscopic methods. Our study confirmed the major uptake pathway of manufactured nanomaterials and in vivo biodegradation processes in a well-known toxicity test organism, D. magna. In addition, we also found that D. magna can induce significant deterioration of aquatic media by releasing fragments of partially degraded QD colloids. These biological processes may significantly change the predicted toxicities of nanomaterials in aquatic environments. Thus, we propose that the impacts of aquatic living organisms on the environmental fate of manufactured nanomaterials (MNs) should be carefully taken into account when assessing the risk of MNs to the environment and human health.

  3. Soft colloidal probes for AFM force measurements between water droplets in oil

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev; Li, Erqiang; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T

    2014-01-01

    Here we introduce an extension of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe technique, as a simple and reliable experimental approach to measure the interaction forces between small water droplets (~80-160. μm) dispersed in oil. Small water droplets are formed by capillary breakup of a microscale water jet in air, which is forced out of a fine capillary nozzle, and deposited on a superhydrophobic substrate immersed in tetradecane oil medium. In these conditions the water droplets are very loosely attached to the superhydrophobic substrate and are easily picked up with a hydrophobic AFM cantilever to form a soft colloidal probe. Sample force measurements are conducted to demonstrate the capability of the technique.

  4. Optical and structural properties of ensembles of colloidal Ag2S quantum dots in gelatin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ovchinnikov, O. V.; Smirnov, M. S.; Shapiro, B. I.; Shatskikh, T. S.; Perepelitsa, A. S.; Korolev, N. V.

    2015-01-01

    The size dependences of the absorption and luminescence spectra of ensembles of hydrophilic colloidal Ag 2 S quantum dots produced by the sol-gel method and dispersed in gelatin are analyzed. By X-ray diffraction analysis and transmission electron microscopy, the formation of core/shell nanoparticles is detected. The characteristic feature of the nanoparticles is the formation of crystalline cores, 1.5–2.0 nm in dimensions, and shells of gelatin and its complexes with the components of synthesis. The observed slight size dependence of the position of infrared photoluminescence bands (in the range 1000–1400 nm) in the ensembles of hydrophilic colloidal Ag 2 S quantum dots is explained within the context of the model of the radiative recombination of electrons localized at structural and impurity defects with free holes

  5. Soft colloidal probes for AFM force measurements between water droplets in oil

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2014-11-01

    Here we introduce an extension of the atomic force microscopy (AFM) colloidal probe technique, as a simple and reliable experimental approach to measure the interaction forces between small water droplets (~80-160. μm) dispersed in oil. Small water droplets are formed by capillary breakup of a microscale water jet in air, which is forced out of a fine capillary nozzle, and deposited on a superhydrophobic substrate immersed in tetradecane oil medium. In these conditions the water droplets are very loosely attached to the superhydrophobic substrate and are easily picked up with a hydrophobic AFM cantilever to form a soft colloidal probe. Sample force measurements are conducted to demonstrate the capability of the technique.

  6. Third-order nonlinear optical response of colloidal gold nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, Hemerson P. S.; Alencar, Márcio A. R. C.; Hickmann, Jandir M. [Optics and Materials Group–OPTMA, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, CAIXA POSTAL 2051, 57061-970 Maceió (Brazil); Wender, Heberton [Brazilian Synchrotron National Laboratory (LNLS), CNPEM, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro 10.000, 13083-970 Campinas (Brazil); Department of Physics, Universidade Federal do Mato Grosso do Sul, 79070-900, Campo Grande (Brazil); Teixeira, Sergio R. [Institute of Physics, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Dupont, Jairton [Laboratory of Molecular Catalysis, Institute of Chemistry, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, 91501-970, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-11-14

    The nonlinear optical responses of gold nanoparticles dispersed in castor oil produced by sputtering deposition were investigated, using the thermally managed Z-scan technique. Particles with spherical shape and 2.6 nm of average diameter were obtained and characterized by transmission electron microscopy and small angle X-ray scattering. This colloid was highly stable, without the presence of chemical impurities, neither stabilizers. It was observed that this system presents a large refractive third-order nonlinear response and a negligible nonlinear absorption. Moreover, the evaluation of the all-optical switching figures of merit demonstrated that the colloidal nanoparticles prepared by sputtering deposition have a good potential for the development of ultrafast photonic devices.

  7. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke; Idica, Eileen Y.; McWilliams, James C.; Stolzenbach, Keith D.

    2014-01-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Wastewater effluent dispersal in Southern California Bays

    KAUST Repository

    Uchiyama, Yusuke

    2014-03-01

    The dispersal and dilution of urban wastewater effluents from offshore, subsurface outfalls is simulated with a comprehensive circulation model with downscaling in nested grid configurations for San Pedro and Santa Monica Bays in Southern California during Fall of 2006. The circulation is comprised of mean persistent currents, mesoscale and submesoscale eddies, and tides. Effluent volume inflow rates at Huntington Beach and Hyperion are specified, and both their present outfall locations and alternative nearshore diversion sites are assessed. The effluent tracer concentration fields are highly intermittent mainly due to eddy currents, and their probability distribution functions have long tails of high concentration. The dilution rate is controlled by submesoscale stirring and straining in tracer filaments. The dominant dispersal pattern is alongshore in both directions, approximately along isobaths, over distances of more than 10. km before dilution takes over. The current outfall locations mostly keep the effluent below the surface and away from the shore, as intended, but the nearshore diversions do not. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

  9. colloidal radiogold in malig at effusio sand early ovaria carcinoma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    the radical treatment of ovarian cancer, particularly in early cases, and that colloidal .... radio-active patient treated with colloidal radiogold hould at all times work .... night nurses would receive the following amounts of stray gamma radiation (in ...

  10. Inorganic passivation and doping control in colloidal quantum dot photovoltaics

    KAUST Repository

    Hoogland, Sjoerd H.; Ip, Alex; Thon, Susanna; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Tang, Jiang; Liu, Huan; Zhitomirsky, David; Debnath, Ratan K.; Levina, Larissa; Rollny, Lisa R.; Fischer, Armin H.; Kemp, Kyle W.; Kramer, Illan J.; Ning, Zhijun; Labelle, André J.; Chou, Kang Wei; Amassian, Aram; Sargent, E. H.

    2012-01-01

    We discuss strategies to reduce midgap trap state densities in colloidal quantum dot films and requirements to control doping type and magnitude. We demonstrate that these improvements result in colloidal quantum dot solar cells with certified 7.0% efficiency.

  11. A general approach for monodisperse colloidal perovskites, Chemistry of Materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; Imhof, A.

    2009-01-01

    We describe a novel general method for synthesizing monodisperse colloidal perovskite particles at room temperature by postsynthesis addition of metal hydroxides to amorphous titania colloids. In previous work, we used titania particles to synthesize homogenously mixed silica-titania composite

  12. A theoretical framework for modeling dilution enhancement of non-reactive solutes in heterogeneous porous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Barros, F P J; Fiori, A; Boso, F; Bellin, A

    2015-01-01

    Spatial heterogeneity of the hydraulic properties of geological porous formations leads to erratically shaped solute clouds, thus increasing the edge area of the solute body and augmenting the dilution rate. In this study, we provide a theoretical framework to quantify dilution of a non-reactive solute within a steady state flow as affected by the spatial variability of the hydraulic conductivity. Embracing the Lagrangian concentration framework, we obtain explicit semi-analytical expressions for the dilution index as a function of the structural parameters of the random hydraulic conductivity field, under the assumptions of uniform-in-the-average flow, small injection source and weak-to-mild heterogeneity. Results show how the dilution enhancement of the solute cloud is strongly dependent on both the statistical anisotropy ratio and the heterogeneity level of the porous medium. The explicit semi-analytical solution also captures the temporal evolution of the dilution rate; for the early- and late-time limits, the proposed solution recovers previous results from the literature, while at intermediate times it reflects the increasing interplay between large-scale advection and local-scale dispersion. The performance of the theoretical framework is verified with high resolution numerical results and successfully tested against the Cape Cod field data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Vector assembly of colloids on monolayer substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lingxiang; Yang, Shenyu; Tsang, Boyce; Tu, Mei; Granick, Steve

    2017-06-01

    The key to spontaneous and directed assembly is to encode the desired assembly information to building blocks in a programmable and efficient way. In computer graphics, raster graphics encodes images on a single-pixel level, conferring fine details at the expense of large file sizes, whereas vector graphics encrypts shape information into vectors that allow small file sizes and operational transformations. Here, we adapt this raster/vector concept to a 2D colloidal system and realize `vector assembly' by manipulating particles on a colloidal monolayer substrate with optical tweezers. In contrast to raster assembly that assigns optical tweezers to each particle, vector assembly requires a minimal number of optical tweezers that allow operations like chain elongation and shortening. This vector approach enables simple uniform particles to form a vast collection of colloidal arenes and colloidenes, the spontaneous dissociation of which is achieved with precision and stage-by-stage complexity by simply removing the optical tweezers.

  14. Manipulating semiconductor colloidal stability through doping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleharty, Mark E; van Swol, Frank; Petsev, Dimiter N

    2014-10-10

    The interface between a doped semiconductor material and electrolyte solution is of considerable fundamental interest, and is relevant to systems of practical importance. Both adjacent domains contain mobile charges, which respond to potential variations. This is exploited to design electronic and optoelectronic sensors, and other enabling semiconductor colloidal materials. We show that the charge mobility in both phases leads to a new type of interaction between semiconductor colloids suspended in aqueous electrolyte solutions. This interaction is due to the electrostatic response of the semiconductor interior to disturbances in the external field upon the approach of two particles. The electrostatic repulsion between two charged colloids is reduced from the one governed by the charged groups present at the particles surfaces. This type of interaction is unique to semiconductor particles and may have a substantial effect on the suspension dynamics and stability.

  15. Shape-shifting colloids via stimulated dewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youssef, Mena; Hueckel, Theodore; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reconfigure elementary building blocks from one structure to another is key to many biological systems. Bringing the intrinsic adaptability of biological systems to traditional synthetic materials is currently one of the biggest scientific challenges in material engineering. Here we introduce a new design concept for the experimental realization of self-assembling systems with built-in shape-shifting elements. We demonstrate that dewetting forces between an oil phase and solid colloidal substrates can be exploited to engineer shape-shifting particles whose geometry can be changed on demand by a chemical or optical signal. We find this approach to be quite general and applicable to a broad spectrum of materials, including polymers, semiconductors and magnetic materials. This synthetic methodology can be further adopted as a new experimental platform for designing and rapidly prototyping functional colloids, such as reconfigurable micro swimmers, colloidal surfactants and switchable building blocks for self-assembly. PMID:27426418

  16. Colloid-templated multisectional porous polymeric fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jung Hun; Kretzschmar, Ilona

    2008-10-07

    A fabrication method for porous polymeric fibers (PPFs) is reported. We show that a multisectional colloidal crystal can be assembled within a microcapillary by alternating dipping into colloidal solutions of varying size. Subsequent infiltration with curable polymer and washing with suitable solvents results in porous fibers with a cylindrical cross section. Along the length of the fiber, alternating sections of controlled length, pore size, and pore size distribution exist. These fibers present interesting materials for neural scaffolding, catalysis, and possibly photonics if produced with a high degree of crystallinity. The surface pores and bulk porosity of the fibers are characterized by variable-pressure scanning electron microscopy (vp-SEM). Careful analysis shows that the surface pores vary with the colloidal template diameter and polymer infiltration time.

  17. Surfactant-enhanced flushing enhances colloid transport and alters macroporosity in diesel-contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Zhuo; Tang, Xiang-Yu; Nishimura, Taku; Katou, Hidetaka; Liu, Hui-Yun; Qing, Jing

    2018-02-01

    Soil contamination by diesel has been often reported as a result of accidental spillage, leakage and inappropriate use. Surfactant-enhanced soil flushing is a common remediation technique for soils contaminated by hydrophobic organic chemicals. In this study, soil flushing with linear alkylbenzene sulfonates (LAS, an anionic surfactant) was conducted for intact columns (15cm in diameter and 12cm in length) of diesel-contaminated farmland purple soil aged for one year in the field. Dynamics of colloid concentration in column outflow during flushing, diesel removal rate and resulting soil macroporosity change by flushing were analyzed. Removal rate of n-alkanes (representing the diesel) varied with the depth of the topsoil in the range of 14%-96% while the n-alkanes present at low concentrations in the subsoil were completely removed by LAS-enhanced flushing. Much higher colloid concentrations and larger colloid sizes were observed during LAS flushing in column outflow compared to water flushing. The X-ray micro-computed tomography analysis of flushed and unflushed soil cores showed that the proportion of fine macropores (30-250μm in diameter) was reduced significantly by LAS flushing treatment. This phenomenon can be attributed to enhanced clogging of fine macropores by colloids which exhibited higher concentration due to better dispersion by LAS. It can be inferred from this study that the application of LAS-enhanced flushing technique in the purple soil region should be cautious regarding the possibility of rapid colloid-associated contaminant transport via preferential pathways in the subsurface and the clogging of water-conducting soil pores. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Colloid migration in groundwaters: Geochemical interactions of radionuclides with natural colloids. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.J.; Longworth, G.; Hasler, S.E.; Gardiner, M.; Fritz, P.; Klotz, D.; Lazik, D.; Wolf, M.; Geyer, S.; Alexander, J.L.; Read, D.; Thomas, J.B.

    1994-08-01

    In this joint research programme the significance of groundwater colloids in far field radionuclide migration has been studied. The characterization, quantification and theoretical interpretation of colloid-borne transport phenomena for radionuclides were the main objectives of this research programme. Groundwaters, colloids and sediments were sampled from aquifer system overlying a saltdome in the Gorleben area in northern Germany and were characterized by various analytical methods (ICP-MS, ICP-AES, neutron activation analysis (NAA), DOC-Analyser, HPIC, potentiometric titration). Different natural isotopes ( 2 H, 3 H, 13 C, 14 C, 18 O, 34 S, U/Th decay series) were determined and their ratios were compared with one another in the order to ascertain the provenance of the groundwater colloids. The investigated groundwaters contain substantial amounts of colloids mainly composed of humic and fulvic acids loaded with various metal ions. The chemical interaction of radionuclide ions of various oxidation states (Am, Eu, for M(III), Th, Pu for M(IV), Np for M(V) and U for M(VI)) with groundwater colloids was investigated in order to elucidate the colloid facilitated migration behaviour of actinides in a given aquifer system. Transport process studies with generated pseudocolloids of radionuclides in various oxidation states were undertaken in scaled column experiments, pre-equilibrated with colloid rich Gorleben groundwater. A modelling programme was developed to predict chemical transport of radionuclides in the presence of humic colloids using a modified version of the CHEMTARD code. Modelling predictions have generated acceptable results for Eu, Am and U and poorer agreement between experimental and modelling results for Th and Np as a result of more limited data. (orig.)

  19. Colloid migration in groundwaters: Geochemical interactions of radionuclides with natural colloids. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J.J. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Delakowitz, B. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Zeh, P. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Probst, T. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Lin, X. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Ehrlicher, U. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Schauer, C. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Inst. fuer Radiochemie; Ivanovich, M. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Longworth, G. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Hasler, S.E. [AEA Environment and Energy, Harwell (United Kingdom); Gardiner, M. [AEA Decommissioning and Radwaste, Harwell (United Kingdom); Fritz, P. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Klotz, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Lazik, D. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Wolf, M. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Geyer, S. [Gesellschaft fuer Strahlen- und Umweltforschung mbH Muenchen, Neuherberg (Germany); Alexander, J.L. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom); Read, D. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom); Thomas, J.B. [Atkins (W.S.) Engineering Sciences, Epsom (United Kingdom)

    1994-08-01

    In this joint research programme the significance of groundwater colloids in far field radionuclide migration has been studied. The characterization, quantification and theoretical interpretation of colloid-borne transport phenomena for radionuclides were the main objectives of this research programme. Groundwaters, colloids and sediments were sampled from aquifer system overlying a saltdome in the Gorleben area in northern Germany and were characterized by various analytical methods (ICP-MS, ICP-AES, neutron activation analysis (NAA), DOC-Analyser, HPIC, potentiometric titration). Different natural isotopes ({sup 2}H, {sup 3}H, {sup 13}C, {sup 14}C, {sup 18}O, {sup 34}S, U/Th decay series) were determined and their ratios were compared with one another in the order to ascertain the provenance of the groundwater colloids. The investigated groundwaters contain substantial amounts of colloids mainly composed of humic and fulvic acids loaded with various metal ions. The chemical interaction of radionuclide ions of various oxidation states (Am, Eu, for M(III), Th, Pu for M(IV), Np for M(V) and U for M(VI)) with groundwater colloids was investigated in order to elucidate the colloid facilitated migration behaviour of actinides in a given aquifer system. Transport process studies with generated pseudocolloids of radionuclides in various oxidation states were undertaken in scaled column experiments, pre-equilibrated with colloid rich Gorleben groundwater. A modelling programme was developed to predict chemical transport of radionuclides in the presence of humic colloids using a modified version of the CHEMTARD code. Modelling predictions have generated acceptable results for Eu, Am and U and poorer agreement between experimental and modelling results for Th and Np as a result of more limited data. (orig.)

  20. Colloidal graphite/graphene nanostructures using collagen showing enhanced thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Soumya; Dhar, Purbarun; Das, Sarit K; Ganguly, Ranjan; Webster, Thomas J; Nayar, Suprabha

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the exfoliation of natural graphite (GR) directly to colloidal GR/graphene (G) nanostructures using collagen (CL) was studied as a safe and scalable process, akin to numerous natural processes and hence can be termed “biomimetic”. Although the exfoliation and functionalization takes place in just 1 day, it takes about 7 days for the nano GR/G flakes to stabilize. The predominantly aromatic residues of the triple helical CL forms its own special micro and nanoarchitecture in acetic acid dispersions. This, with the help of hydrophobic and electrostatic forces, interacts with GR and breaks it down to nanostructures, forming a stable colloidal dispersion. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the colloid show the interaction between GR and CL on day 1 and 7. Differential interference contrast images in the liquid state clearly reveal how the GR flakes are entrapped in the CL fibrils, with a corresponding fluorescence image showing the intercalation of CL within GR. Atomic force microscopy of graphene-collagen coated on glass substrates shows an average flake size of 350 nm, and the hexagonal diffraction pattern and thickness contours of the G flakes from transmission electron microscopy confirm ≤ five layers of G. Thermal conductivity of the colloid shows an approximate 17% enhancement for a volume fraction of less than approximately 0.00005 of G. Thus, through the use of CL, this new material and process may improve the use of G in terms of biocompatibility for numerous medical applications that currently employ G, such as internally controlled drug-delivery assisted thermal ablation of carcinoma cells. PMID:24648728

  1. Colloidal graphite/graphene nanostructures using collagen showing enhanced thermal conductivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharya, Soumya; Dhar, Purbarun; Das, Sarit K; Ganguly, Ranjan; Webster, Thomas J; Nayar, Suprabha

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, the exfoliation of natural graphite (GR) directly to colloidal GR/graphene (G) nanostructures using collagen (CL) was studied as a safe and scalable process, akin to numerous natural processes and hence can be termed "biomimetic". Although the exfoliation and functionalization takes place in just 1 day, it takes about 7 days for the nano GR/G flakes to stabilize. The predominantly aromatic residues of the triple helical CL forms its own special micro and nanoarchitecture in acetic acid dispersions. This, with the help of hydrophobic and electrostatic forces, interacts with GR and breaks it down to nanostructures, forming a stable colloidal dispersion. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, photoluminescence, fluorescence, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy of the colloid show the interaction between GR and CL on day 1 and 7. Differential interference contrast images in the liquid state clearly reveal how the GR flakes are entrapped in the CL fibrils, with a corresponding fluorescence image showing the intercalation of CL within GR. Atomic force microscopy of graphene-collagen coated on glass substrates shows an average flake size of 350 nm, and the hexagonal diffraction pattern and thickness contours of the G flakes from transmission electron microscopy confirm ≤ five layers of G. Thermal conductivity of the colloid shows an approximate 17% enhancement for a volume fraction of less than approximately 0.00005 of G. Thus, through the use of CL, this new material and process may improve the use of G in terms of biocompatibility for numerous medical applications that currently employ G, such as internally controlled drug-delivery assisted thermal ablation of carcinoma cells.

  2. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jilin [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Gu, Yunle [School of Material Science and Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China); Li, Zili [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Wang, Weimin, E-mail: wangwm@hotmail.com [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Fu, Zhengyi [The State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2013-06-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B{sub 2}O{sub 3} and KBH{sub 4} as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH{sub 4} played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed.

  3. Synthesis of nano-sized amorphous boron powders through active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jilin; Gu, Yunle; Li, Zili; Wang, Weimin; Fu, Zhengyi

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed. Highlights: ► Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis method. ► The morphology, particle size and purity of the samples could be effectively controlled via changing the endothermic rate. ► The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. ► The active dilution method could be further popularized and become a common approach to prepare various inorganic materials. - Abstract: Nano-sized amorphous boron powders were synthesized by active dilution self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) method at temperatures ranging from 700 °C to 850 °C in a SHS furnace using Mg, B 2 O 3 and KBH 4 as raw materials. Samples were characterized by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), Laser particle size analyzer, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FTIR), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high-resolution transmission TEM (HRTEM). The boron powders demonstrated an average particle size of 50 nm with a purity of 95.64 wt.%. The diluter KBH 4 played an important role in the active dilution synthesis of amorphous nano-sized boron powders. The effects of endothermic reaction rate, the possible chemical reaction mechanism and active dilution model for synthesis of the product were also discussed

  4. Characterization of magnetic colloids by means of magnetooptics

    OpenAIRE

    Baraban, Larysa; Erbe, Artur; Leiderer, Paul

    2007-01-01

    A new, efficient method for the characterization of magnetic colloids based on the Faraday effect is proposed. According to the main principles of this technique, it is possible to detect the stray magnetic field of the colloidal particles induced inside the magnetooptical layer. The magnetic properties of individual particles can be determined providing measurements in a wide range of magnetic fields. The magnetization curves of capped colloids and paramagnetic colloids were measured by mean...

  5. Active structuring of colloidal armour on liquid drops

    OpenAIRE

    Dommersnes, Paul; Rozynek, Zbigniew; Mikkelsen, Alexander; Castberg, Rene; Kjerstad, Knut; Hersvik, Kjetil; Fossum, Jon Otto

    2013-01-01

    Adsorption and assembly of colloidal particles at the surface of liquid droplets are at the base of particle-stabilized emulsions and templating. Here we report that electrohydrodynamic and electro-rheological effects in leaky-dielectric liquid drops can be used to structure and dynamically control colloidal particle assemblies at drop surfaces, including electric-fieldassisted convective assembly of jammed colloidal ‘ribbons’, electro-rheological colloidal chains confined to a...

  6. Colloidal interactions in field-directed self-assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lele, Pushkar P.

    This thesis discusses: (1) the fabrication of an experimental tool, namely holographic optical tweezers for simultaneously manipulating spatial locations of multiple particles, (2) development of a framework for interpreting hydrodynamic interactions between multiple particles close to a no-slip surface and comparisons of experimental data with predictive modeling results (Stokesian dynamics simulations) (3) investigations of colloidal particle interactions under external AC fields and the intriguing spontaneous pattern formations in the suspension and, (4) the use of an unconventional assemble-stretch technique for creating novel 2D and 3D crystalline arrays of anisotropically shaped particles, from spherical particle templates. By blinking holographic optical traps, we investigate the hydrodynamic interactions in multi-particle ensembles, influenced by a no-slip surface. The measurements are carried out by screening out electrostatic interactions in the suspension. We observe that with increasing proximity with the surface, the effect of particle-particle hydrodynamic interactions on the short-time self-diffusivities is screened. We use the Stokeslet representation of particles and combine it with the method of images to understand the correlated motion of particles within the ensembles. Analysis of the resultant ensemble eigen-modes reveals that even in dilute suspensions, the effective diffusivities decay as the inverse of the separations, over the range of particle-particle separations we experimented with. The relative modes exhibit dominant contributions from close neighboring particles and the collective modes incorporate long-range contributions from all particles in the ensemble. Our analysis also confirms that for larger number of particles in the ensemble, the contributions from particle-particle interactions increase and in concentrated suspensions they over-ride the strong hydrodynamic screening by the wall. We investigate the microstructure of

  7. EFFECT OF HEAT-DISPERSING ON STICKIES AND THEIR REMOVAL IN POST-FLOTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Yang Gao,; Menghua Qin,; Hailong Yu,; Fengshan Zhang

    2012-01-01

    The effect of heat-dispersing on sticky substances in a deinking pulping line was studied under different conditions including varying temperature, disc clearance, and pulp consistency. Sticky substances were quantitatively investigated before and after the heat-dispersing, and categorized into macro-, mini-, and micro-stickies as well as dissolved and colloidal substances. Meanwhile, their extents of removal in post-flotation were evaluated. The results showed that raising temperature, reduc...

  8. Clay dispersibility and soil friability – testing the soil clay-to-carbon saturation concept

    OpenAIRE

    Schjønning, P.; de Jonge, L.W.; Munkholm, L.J.; Moldrup, P.; Christensen, B.T.; Olesen, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Soil organic carbon (OC) influences clay dispersibility, which affects soil tilth conditions and the risk of vertical migration of clay colloids. No universal lower threshold of OC has been identified for satisfactory stabilization of soil structure. We tested the concept of clay saturation with OC as a predictor of clay dispersibility and soil friability. Soil was sampled three years in a field varying in clay content (~100 to ~220 g kg-1 soil) and grown with different crop rotations. Clay ...

  9. Dynamics of colloidal particles in ice

    KAUST Repository

    Spannuth, Melissa

    2011-01-01

    We use x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy (XPCS) to probe the dynamics of colloidal particles in polycrystalline ice. During freezing, the dendritic ice morphology and rejection of particles from the ice created regions of high particle density, where some of the colloids were forced into contact and formed disordered aggregates. The particles in these high density regions underwent ballistic motion, with a characteristic velocity that increased with temperature. This ballistic motion is coupled with both stretched and compressed exponential decays of the intensity autocorrelation function. We suggest that this behavior could result from ice grain boundary migration. © 2011 American Institute of Physics.

  10. Colloidal assemblies modified by ion irradiation

    OpenAIRE

    Snoeks, E.; Blaaderen, A. van; Dillen, T. van; Kats, C.M. van; Velikov, K.P.; Brongersma, M.L.; Polman, A.

    2001-01-01

    Spherical SiO2 and ZnS colloidal particles show a dramatic anisotropic plastic deformation under 4 MeV Xe ion irradiation, that changes their shape into oblate into oblate ellipsional, with an aspect ratio that can be precisely controlled by the ion fluence. The 290 nm and 1.1 um diameter colloids were deposited on a Si substrate and irradiated at 90 K, using fluences in the range 3*10^(13)-8*10^(14) cm^(-2). The transverse particle diameter shows a linear increase with ion fluence, while the...

  11. Separation of plutonium oxide nanoparticles and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Richard E.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L. [Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL (United States)

    2011-11-18

    Oil and vinegar: Colloidal plutonium is an important component of Pu aqueous speciation. Pu colloids are problematic in nuclear separations and are a potential transport vector in the environment. Using a mixture of n-octanol and trichloroacetic acid a selective and reversible separation of these particles can be achieved by exploiting their surface reactivity (Li{sub 2}[Pu{sub 38}O{sub 56}Cl{sub 42}(H{sub 2}O){sub 20}].15H{sub 2}O). (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  12. Separation of plutonium oxide nanoparticles and colloids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, Richard E.; Skanthakumar, S.; Soderholm, L. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States). Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division

    2011-11-18

    Colloidal plutonium is an important component of Pu aqueous speciation. Pu colloids are problematic in nuclear separations and are a potential transport vector in the environment. Using a mixture of n-octanol and trichloroacetic acid a selective and reversible separation of these particles can be achieved by exploiting their surface reactivity. [German] Kolloidales Plutonium ist ein wichtiger Bestandteil in waessrigen Pu-Bereitungen. Pu-Kolloide sind problematisch bei der Wiederaufbereitung von Kernmaterial und bilden einen potenziellen Transportvektor in die Umwelt. Mit einem Loesungsmittelgemisch aus n-Octanol und Trichloressigsaeure gelingt die selektive und reversible Trennung dieser Partikel durch Ausnutzung ihrer Oberflaechenreaktivitaet.

  13. Measuring the osmotic pressure of active colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Michael; Soni, Vishal; Magkiriadou, Sofia; Ferrari, Melissa; Youssef, Mina; Driscoll, Michelle; Sacanna, Stefano; Chaikin, Paul; Irvine, William

    We study the behavior of a system of colloidal spinners, consisting of weakly magnetic colloids driven by a rotating magnetic field. First the particles are allowed to sediment to an equilibrium density profile in a gravitational field, from which we measure the equilibrium equation of state. By spinning the particles at various frequencies, we introduce activity into the system through the hydrodynamic interactions between particles. We observe that the activity expands the sedimentation profile to a new steady state, from which we measure the pressure as a function of the density and activity. We compare the effects of activity on the pressure and mean-squared displacement of spinners and tracer particles.

  14. Colloid cyst in pituitary gland: a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Hee Youn; Lee, Myung Jun; Lee, Chang Joon; Yoo, Jeong Hyun

    2001-01-01

    Colloid cyst is a congenital lesion which is thought to be derived from the primitive neuro epithelium, and is most frequently located in the anterior half of the third ventricle. Colloid cysts rarely occur in the pituitary gland, and we describe a case of pituitary colloid cyst, including the CT, MRI and pathologic findings

  15. Interplay between Colloids and Interfaces : Emulsions, Foams and Microtubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Folter, J.W.J.

    2013-01-01

    The central theme of this thesis is the interplay between colloids and interfaces. The adsorption of colloids at fluid-fluid interfaces is the main topic and covers Chapters 2-6. Pickering emulsions where colloidal particles act as emulsion stabilizers in the absence of surfactants are studied in a

  16. Colloid mobilization and transport during capillary fringe fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aramrak, Surachet; Flury, Markus; Harsh, James B; Zollars, Richard L

    2014-07-01

    Capillary fringe fluctuations due to changing water tables lead to displacement of air-water interfaces in soils and sediments. These moving air-water interfaces can mobilize colloids. We visualized colloids interacting with moving air-water interfaces during capillary fringe fluctuations by confocal microscopy. We simulated capillary fringe fluctuations in a glass-bead-filled column. We studied four specific conditions: (1) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase, (2) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially wet porous medium, (3) colloids attached to the glass beads in an initially dry porous medium, and (4) colloids suspended in the aqueous phase with the presence of a static air bubble. Confocal images confirmed that the capillary fringe fluctuations affect colloid transport behavior. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids initially suspended in the aqueous phase were deposited at the solid-water interface after a drainage passage, but then were removed by subsequent capillary fringe fluctuations. The colloids that were initially attached to the wet or dry glass bead surface were detached by moving air-water interfaces in the capillary fringe. Hydrophilic negatively charged colloids did not attach to static air-bubbles, but hydrophobic negatively charged and hydrophilic positively charged colloids did. Our results demonstrate that capillary fringe fluctuations are an effective means for colloid mobilization.

  17. A general method to coat colloidal particles with titiana

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demirors, A.F.; van Blaaderen, A.; Imhof, A.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a general one-pot method for coating colloidal particles with amorphous titania. Various colloidal particles such as silica particles, large silver colloids, gibbsite platelets, and polystyrene spheres were successfully coated with a titania shell. Although there are several ways of

  18. Shape recognition of microbial cells by colloidal cell imprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borovicka, J.; Stoyanov, S.D.; Paunov, V.N.

    2013-01-01

    We have engineered a class of colloids which can recognize the shape and size of targeted microbial cells and selectively bind to their surfaces. These imprinted colloid particles, which we called "colloid antibodies", were fabricated by partial fragmentation of silica shells obtained by templating

  19. Use of polysulfides of alkali and alkaline-earth metals to obtain highly dispersed sulfur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massalimov, I.A.; Vikhareva, I.N.; Kireeva, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    Possibilities of obtaining polysulfides of alkali and alkaline earth metals (M is Na, K, Ca, Sr, Ba) in aqueous solutions were considered. The composition of the polysulfides and their concentration in solutions were found. The efficiencies of application of highly dispersed sulfur, produced from calcium polysulfide, and colloid sulfur as a fungicide were compared [ru

  20. Composite systems of dilute and dense couplings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raymond, J R; Saad, D

    2008-01-01

    Composite systems, where couplings are of two types, a combination of strong dilute and weak dense couplings of Ising spins, are examined through the replica method. The dilute and dense parts are considered to have independent canonical disordered or uniform bond distributions; mixing the models by variation of a parameter γ alongside inverse temperature β we analyse the respective thermodynamic solutions. We describe the variation in high temperature transitions as mixing occurs; in the vicinity of these transitions we exactly analyse the competing effects of the dense and sparse models. By using the replica symmetric ansatz and population dynamics we described the low temperature behaviour of mixed systems

  1. Computer automation of a dilution cryogenic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nogues, C.

    1992-09-01

    This study has been realized in the framework of studies on developing new technic for low temperature detectors for neutrinos and dark matter. The principles of low temperature physics and helium 4 and dilution cryostats, are first reviewed. The cryogenic system used and the technic for low temperature thermometry and regulation systems are then described. The computer automation of the dilution cryogenic system involves: numerical measurement of the parameter set (pressure, temperature, flow rate); computer assisted operating of the cryostat and the pump bench; numerical regulation of pressure and temperature; operation sequence full automation allowing the system to evolve from a state to another (temperature descent for example)

  2. Interaction Studies of Dilute Aqueous Oxalic Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran Kandpal

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Molecular conductance λm, relative viscosity and density of oxalicacid at different concentration in dilute aqueous solution were measured at 293 K.The conductance data were used to calculate the value association constant.Viscosity and density data were used to calculate the A and B coefficient ofJone-Dole equation and apparent molar volume respectively. The viscosityresults were utilized for the applicability of Modified Jone-Dole equation andStaurdinger equations. Mono oxalate anion acts, as structure maker and thesolute-solvent interaction were present in the dilute aqueous oxalic acid.

  3. Dilution refrigeration with multiple mixing chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coops, G.M.

    1981-01-01

    A dilution refrigerator is an instrument to reach temperatures in the mK region in a continuous way. The temperature range can be extended and the cooling power can be enlarged by adding an extra mixing chamber. In this way we obtain a double mixing chamber system. In this thesis the theory of the multiple mixing chamber is presented and tested on its validity by comparison with the measurements. Measurements on a dilution refrigerator with a circulation rate up to 2.5 mmol/s are also reported. (Auth.)

  4. Diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires exhibiting magnetoresistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [El Cerrito, CA; Choi, Heonjin [Seoul, KR; Lee, Sangkwon [Daejeon, KR; He, Rongrui [Albany, CA; Zhang, Yanfeng [El Cerrito, CA; Kuykendal, Tevye [Berkeley, CA; Pauzauskie, Peter [Berkeley, CA

    2011-08-23

    A method for is disclosed for fabricating diluted magnetic semiconductor (DMS) nanowires by providing a catalyst-coated substrate and subjecting at least a portion of the substrate to a semiconductor, and dopant via chloride-based vapor transport to synthesize the nanowires. Using this novel chloride-based chemical vapor transport process, single crystalline diluted magnetic semiconductor nanowires Ga.sub.1-xMn.sub.xN (x=0.07) were synthesized. The nanowires, which have diameters of .about.10 nm to 100 nm and lengths of up to tens of micrometers, show ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature, and magnetoresistance up to 250 Kelvin.

  5. Formation mechanisms of metal colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halaciuga, Ionel

    Highly dispersed uniform metallic particles are widely used in various areas of technology and medicine and are likely to be incorporated into many other applications in the future. It is commonly accepted that size, shape and composition of the particles represent critical factors in most applications. Thus, understanding the mechanisms of formation of metal particles and the ways to control the physical (e.g. shape, size) and chemical (e.g. composition) properties is of great importance. In the current research, the formation of uniform silver spheres is investigated experimentally. The parameters that influence the formation of silver particles when concentrated iso-ascorbic acid and silver-polyamine complex solutions are rapidly mixed were studied in the absence of dispersants. We found that by varying the nature of the amine, temperature, concentration of reactants, silver/amine molar ratio, and the nature of the silver salt, the size of the resulting silver particles can be varied in a wide range (0.08--1.5 microm). The silver particles were formed by aggregation of nanosize subunits as substantiated by both electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques and by the vivid rapid color changes during the chemical precipitation process. From the practical standpoint, the goal of this research was to prepare well dispersed spherical silver particles having a relatively smooth surface and a diameter of about 1 microm to satisfy the demands of the current electronic materials market. A two stage particle growth model previously developed to explain the narrow size distribution occurring in synthesis of gold spheres was applied to the present experimental system, and the parameters that control the size distribution characteristics were identified. The kinetic parameter required to match the final particle size was found to be in agreement with the one used previously in modeling formation of gold spheres, suggesting that similar kinetics governs the

  6. Effluent dispersion in natural water receivers (tracer examination)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szpilowski, S.; Owczarczyk, A.; Chmielewski, A.G.

    1993-01-01

    Tracer methods constitute very convenient means for observation and examination of effluent dispersion and dilution processes in natural water receivers. In the report there are presented methods developed and used by the Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology (INCT) to measure mixing parameters in natural streams to determine distances of complete transverse mixing as well as to assess and predict dispersion of sewage in large water reservoirs. There are also presented the methods of predicting initial stage of dispersion of sewage discharged into large water reservoirs through underwater out falls and the method for determining the decomposition rates of effluent entering a natural water receiver. The methods presented can be used in analysis of pollution in a given water region, in selection of optimal sewage out fall locations as well as in prediction of effluent dilution intensity at different hydro- and meteorological conditions. (author). 27 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Sampling and analysis of groundwater colloids. A literature review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takala, M.; Manninen, P.

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of this literature study was to give basic information of colloids: their formation, colloid material, sampling and characterisation of groundwater colloids. Colloids are commonly refereed to as particles in the size range of 1 nm to 1000 nm. They are defined as a suspension of solid material in a liquid that does not appear to separate even after a long period of time. Colloids can be formed from a variety of inorganic or organic material. Inorganic colloids in natural groundwaters are formed by physical fragmentation of the host rock or by precipitation. The water chemistry strongly controls the stability of colloids. The amount of colloid particles in a solution tends to decrease with the increasing ionic strength of the solution. Increases in pH and organic material tend to increase the stability of colloids. The mobility of colloids in a porous medium is controlled mainly by groundwater movement, sedimentation, diffusion and interception. Factors controlling sampling artefacts are oxygen diffusion: leads to e.g. calcite precipitation, pumping rates and filtering techniques. Efforts to minimise artefact formation should be taken if the scope of the sampling programme is to study the colloid particles. The colloid phase size distribution can be determined by light scattering systems, laser induced break down or by single particle analysis using SEM micrographs. Elemental compositions can be analysed with EDS spectrometry from single colloid particles. Bulk compositions of the colloid phase can be analysed with e.g. ICP-MS analyser. The results of this study can be used as guidelines for groundwater colloid samplings. Recommendations for future work are listed in the conclusions of this report. (orig.)

  8. Pore water colloid properties in argillaceous sedimentary rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degueldre, Claude; Cloet, Veerle

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this work is to evaluate the colloid nature, concentration and size distribution in the pore water of Opalinus Clay and other sedimentary host rocks identified for a potential radioactive waste repository in Switzerland. Because colloids could not be measured in representative undisturbed porewater of these host rocks, predictive modelling based on data from field and laboratory studies is applied. This approach allowed estimating the nature, concentration and size distributions of the colloids in the pore water of these host rocks. As a result of field campaigns, groundwater colloid concentrations are investigated on the basis of their size distribution quantified experimentally using single particle counting techniques. The colloid properties are estimated considering data gained from analogue hydrogeochemical systems ranging from mylonite features in crystalline fissures to sedimentary formations. The colloid concentrations were analysed as a function of the alkaline and alkaline earth element concentrations. Laboratory batch results on clay colloid generation from compacted pellets in quasi-stagnant water are also reported. Experiments with colloids in batch containers indicate that the size distribution of a colloidal suspension evolves toward a common particle size distribution independently of initial conditions. The final suspension size distribution was found to be a function of the attachment factor of the colloids. Finally, calculations were performed using a novel colloid distribution model based on colloid generation, aggregation and sedimentation rates to predict under in-situ conditions what makes colloid concentrations and size distributions batch- or fracture-size dependent. The data presented so far are compared with the field and laboratory data. The colloid occurrence, stability and mobility have been evaluated for the water of the considered potential host rocks. In the pore water of the considered sedimentary host rocks, the clay

  9. Prospects of Colloidal Copper Chalcogenide Nanocrystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stam, W.; Berends, A.C.; de Mello-Donega, Celso

    2016-01-01

    Over the past few years, colloidal copper chalcogenide nanocrystals (NCs) have emerged as promising alternatives to conventional Cd and Pb chalcogenide NCs. Owing to their wide size, shape, and composition tunability, Cu chalcogenide NCs hold great promise for several applications, such as

  10. Mesoscopic electrohydrodynamic simulations of binary colloidal suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rivas, Nicolas; Frijters, Stefan; Pagonabarraga, Ignacio; Harting, Jens

    2018-01-01

    A model is presented for the solution of electrokinetic phenomena of colloidal suspensions in fluid mixtures. We solve the discrete Boltzmann equation with a Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook collision operator using the lattice Boltzmann method to simulate binary fluid flows. Solvent-solvent and solvent-solute

  11. Towards conducting inks: polypyrrole-silver colloids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Omastová, M.; Bober, Patrycja; Morávková, Zuzana; Peřinka, N.; Kaplanová, M.; Syrový, T.; Hromádková, Jiřina; Trchová, Miroslava; Stejskal, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 122, 10 March (2014), s. 296-302 ISSN 0013-4686 R&D Projects: GA TA ČR TE01020022; GA ČR(CZ) GA13-00270S Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : conducting inks * polypyrrole * colloids Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 4.504, year: 2014

  12. Solid colloids with surface-mobile linkers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Meulen, Stef A J; Helms, Gesa; Dogterom, Marileen

    2015-01-01

    In this report we review the possibilities of using colloids with surface mobile linkers for the study of colloidal self-assembly processes. A promising route to create systems with mobile linkers is the use of lipid (bi-)layers. These lipid layers can be either used in the form of vesicles or as coatings for hard colloids and emulsion droplets. Inside the lipid bilayers molecules can be inserted via membrane anchors. Due to the fluidity of the lipid bilayer, the anchored molecules remain mobile. The use of different lipid mixtures even allows creating Janus-like particles that exhibit directional bonding if linkers are used which have a preference for a certain lipid phase. In nature mobile linkers can be found e.g. as receptors in cells. Therefore, towards the end of the review, we also briefly address the possibility of using colloids with surface mobile linkers as model systems to mimic cell–cell interactions and cell adhesion processes. (topical review)

  13. Random packing of colloids and granular matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouterse, A.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis deals with the random packing of colloids and granular matter. A random packing is a stable disordered collection of touching particles, without long-range positional and orientational order. Experimental random packings of particles with the same shape but made of different materials

  14. Purification of rhamnolipid using colloidal magnetic nanoparticles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Phospholipid-coated colloidal magnetic nanoparticles with mean magnetite core size of 9 nm are shown to be effective ion exchange media for the recovery and purification of Rhaminolipid from culture mixtures. These particles have high adsorption capacity for purification (an order of magnitude larger than the best ...

  15. Colloidal nanophotonics: the emerging technology platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaponenko, Sergey; Demir, Hilmi Volkan; Seassal, Christian; Woggon, Ulrike

    2016-01-25

    Dating back to decades or even centuries ago, colloidal nanophotonics during the last ten years rapidly extends towards light emitting devices, lasers, sensors and photonic circuitry to manifest itself as an emerging technology platform rather than an entirely academic research field.

  16. Sodium caseinate stabilized zein colloidal particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Bouwens, Elisabeth C M; Velikov, Krassimir P

    2010-12-08

    The present work deals with the preparation and stabilization of zein colloidal particles using sodium caseinate as electrosteric stabilizer. Colloidal particles with well-defined size range (120-150 nm) and negative surface potential (-29 to -47 mV) were obtained using a simple antisolvent precipitation method. Due to the presence of caseinate, the stabilized colloidal particles showed a shift of isoelectric point (IEP) from 6.0 to around pH 5.0 and thus prevent the aggregation of zein near its native IEP (pH 6.2). The particles also showed good stability to varying ionic strength (15 mM-1.5 M NaCl). Furthermore, stabilized particles retained the property of redispersibility after drying. In vitro protein hydrolysis study confirmed that the presence of caseinate did not alter the digestibility of zein. Such colloidal particles could potentially serve as all-natural delivery systems for bioactive molecules in food, pharmaceutical, and agricultural formulations.

  17. Self-assembly of patchy colloidal dumbbells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Avvisati, Guido|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/407630198; Vissers, Teun|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304829943; Dijkstra, Marjolein|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/123538807

    2015-01-01

    We employ Monte Carlo simulations to investigate the self-assembly of patchy colloidal dumbbells interacting via a modified Kern-Frenkel potential by probing the system concentration and dumbbell shape. We consider dumbbells consisting of one attractive sphere with diameter sigma(1) and one

  18. Patchy particles made by colloidal fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Zhe; Hueckel, Theodore; Yi, Gi-Ra; Sacanna, Stefano

    2017-10-01

    Patches on the surfaces of colloidal particles provide directional information that enables the self-assembly of the particles into higher-order structures. Although computational tools can make quantitative predictions and can generate design rules that link the patch motif of a particle to its internal microstructure and to the emergent properties of the self-assembled materials, the experimental realization of model systems of particles with surface patches (or `patchy' particles) remains a challenge. Synthetic patchy colloidal particles are often poor geometric approximations of the digital building blocks used in simulations and can only rarely be manufactured in sufficiently high yields to be routinely used as experimental model systems. Here we introduce a method, which we refer to as colloidal fusion, for fabricating functional patchy particles in a tunable and scalable manner. Using coordination dynamics and wetting forces, we engineer hybrid liquid-solid clusters that evolve into particles with a range of patchy surface morphologies on addition of a plasticizer. We are able to predict and control the evolutionary pathway by considering surface-energy minimization, leading to two main branches of product: first, spherical particles with liquid surface patches, capable of forming curable bonds with neighbouring particles to assemble robust supracolloidal structures; and second, particles with a faceted liquid compartment, which can be cured and purified to yield colloidal polyhedra. These findings outline a scalable strategy for the synthesis of patchy particles, first by designing their surface patterns by computer simulation, and then by recreating them in the laboratory with high fidelity.

  19. Continuous separation of colloidal particles using dielectrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunus, Nurul Amziah Md; Nili, Hossein; Green, Nicolas G

    2013-04-01

    Dielectrophoresis is the movement of particles in nonuniform electric fields and has been of interest for application to manipulation and separation at and below the microscale. This technique has the advantages of being noninvasive, nondestructive, and noncontact, with the movement of particle achieved by means of electric fields generated by miniaturized electrodes and microfluidic systems. Although the majority of applications have been above the microscale, there is increasing interest in application to colloidal particles around a micron and smaller. This paper begins with a review of colloidal and nanoscale dielectrophoresis with specific attention paid to separation applications. An innovative design of integrated microelectrode array and its application to flow-through, continuous separation of colloidal particles is then presented. The details of the angled chevron microelectrode array and the test microfluidic system are then discussed. The variation in device operation with applied signal voltage is presented and discussed in terms of separation efficiency, demonstrating 99.9% separation of a mixture of colloidal latex spheres. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Colloidal models. A bit of history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lyklema, J.

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers an anthology on developments in colloid and interface science emphasizing themes that may be of direct or indirect interest to Interfaces Against Pollution. Topics include the determination of Avogadro’s number, development in the insight into driving forces for double layer

  1. Dynamics of Colloids Confined in Microcylinders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghosh, Somnath; Wijnperle, Daniël; Mugele, Friedrich Gunther; Duits, Michael H.G.

    2016-01-01

    We studied both global and local effects of cylindrical confinement on the diffusive behavior of hard sphere (HS) colloids. Using confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) and particle tracking, we measured the mean squared displacement (MSD) of 1 micron sized silica particles in water–glycerol.

  2. Active colloidal propulsion over a crystalline surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury, Udit; Straube, Arthur V.; Fischer, Peer; Gibbs, John G.; Höfling, Felix

    2017-12-01

    We study both experimentally and theoretically the dynamics of chemically self-propelled Janus colloids moving atop a two-dimensional crystalline surface. The surface is a hexagonally close-packed monolayer of colloidal particles of the same size as the mobile one. The dynamics of the self-propelled colloid reflects the competition between hindered diffusion due to the periodic surface and enhanced diffusion due to active motion. Which contribution dominates depends on the propulsion strength, which can be systematically tuned by changing the concentration of a chemical fuel. The mean-square displacements (MSDs) obtained from the experiment exhibit enhanced diffusion at long lag times. Our experimental data are consistent with a Langevin model for the effectively two-dimensional translational motion of an active Brownian particle in a periodic potential, combining the confining effects of gravity and the crystalline surface with the free rotational diffusion of the colloid. Approximate analytical predictions are made for the MSD describing the crossover from free Brownian motion at short times to active diffusion at long times. The results are in semi-quantitative agreement with numerical results of a refined Langevin model that treats translational and rotational degrees of freedom on the same footing.

  3. Growth and Interaction of Colloid Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Michael-Angelo; Khusid, Boris; Meyer, William; Kondic, Lou

    2017-11-01

    We study evolution of colloid systems under zero-gravity conditions. In particular, we focus on the regime where there is a coexistence between a liquid and a solid state. Under zero gravity, the dominating process in the bulk of the fluid phase and the solid phase is diffusion. At the moving solid/liquid interface, osmotic pressure is balanced by surface tension, as well as balancing fluxes (conservation of mass) with the kinematics of nuclei growth (Wilson-Frenkel law). Due to the highly nonlinear boundary condition at the moving boundary, care has to be taken when performing numerical simulations. In this work, we present a nonlinear model for colloid nuclei growth. Numerical simulations using a finite volume method are compared with asymptotic analysis of the governing equation and experimental results for nuclei growth. Novel component in our numerical simulations is the inclusion of nonlinear (collective) diffusion terms that depend on the chemical potentials of the colloid in the solid and fluid phase. The results include growth and dissolution of a single colloidal nucleus, as well as evolution of multiple interacting nuclei. Supported by NASA Grant No. NNX16AQ79G.

  4. Cubic colloids : Synthesis, functionalization and applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Castillo, S.I.R.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis is a study on cubic colloids: micron-sized cubic particles with rounded corners (cubic superballs). Owing to their shape, particle packing for cubes is more efficient than for spheres and results in fascinating phase and packing behavior. For our cubes, the particle volume fraction when

  5. Quantifying dilution caused by execution efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taís Renata Câmara

    Full Text Available Abstract In open pit mining, dilution is not always a factor systematically analyzed and calculated. Often it is only an adjusted number, for example, calculated or even empirically determined for a certain operational condition perpetuating along time in the form of a constant applied to calculating reserves or mine planning in attendance of audit requirements. Dilution and loss are factors that should be always considered for tonnage and grade estimates. These factors are always associated and can be determined considering several particularities of the deposit and the operation itself. In this study, a methodology was determined to identify blocks adjacent to the blocks previously planned to be mined. Thus, it is possible to estimate the dilution caused by poor operating efficiency, taking into account the inability of the equipment to perfectly remove each block, respecting its limits. Mining dilution is defined as the incorporation of waste material to ore due to the operational incapacity to efficiently separate the materials during the mining process, considering the physical processes, and the operating and geometric configurations of the mining with the equipment available.

  6. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    be attributed to the reliability of the measured distances which fall off quickly with each shell. Therefore, in ... field and electrical field gradients due to impurities in vanadium [13]. The effective .... Expanding ∆φ(| Rn' |) in power series of u(R0 n), one gets ... The results of each dilute alloy system are presented separately and ...

  7. A century of indicator dilution technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm B; Larsson, Henrik B W

    2014-01-01

    This review imparts the history and the present status of the indicator dilution technique with quantitative bolus injection. The first report on flow measurement with this technique appeared 100 years ago. In 1928, the use of intravascular dyes made possible a widespread application in animals...

  8. Liquid volumes measurements by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera M, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    By the nuclear technique, isotopic dilution industrial liquid volumes may be measured in large size recipients of irregular shapes using radiotracers. In the present work laboratory and pilot test are made with 2 radiotracers for optimizing the technique and later done on an industrial scale, obtaining a maximum deviation of +-2%, some recommendations are given to improve the performance of the technique. (author)

  9. Atomic displacements in bcc dilute alloys

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We present here a systematic investigation of the atomic displacements in bcc transition metal (TM) dilute alloys. We have calculated the atomic displacements in bcc (V, Cr, Fe, Nb, Mo, Ta and W) transition metals (TMs) due to 3d, 4d and 5d TMs at the substitutional site using the Kanzaki lattice static method. Wills and ...

  10. Continuous deionization of a dilute nickel solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spoor, P.B.; Koene, L.; Veen, ter W.R.; Janssen, L.J.J.

    2002-01-01

    This paper describes the continuous removal of nickel ions from a dilute solution using a hybrid ion-exchange/electrodialysis process. Emphasis was placed on the ionic state of the bed during the process, and the mass balance of ions in the system. Much of this information was obtained by analysing

  11. Dilution kicker for the SPS beam dump

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    In order to reduce thermal stress on the SPS dump material, the fast-ejected beam was swept horizontally across the dump. This was done with the "dilution kicker" MKDH, still in use at the time of writing. The person on the left is Manfred Mayer. See also 7404072X.

  12. Magnetic properties of diluted magnetic semiconductors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonge, de W.J.M.; Swagten, H.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A review will be given of the magnetic characteristics of diluted magnetic semiconductors and the relation with the driving exchange mechanisms. II–VI as well as IV–VI compounds will be considered. The relevance of the long-range interaction and the role of the carrier concentration will be

  13. Radiolytic reduction reaction of colloidal silver bromide solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oya, Yasuhisa; Zushi, Takehiro; Hasegawa, Kunihiko; Matsuura, Tatsuo.

    1995-01-01

    The reduction reaction of colloidal silver bromide (AgBr 3 ) 2- in nitrous oxide gas saturated solution of some alcohols: methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol and 2-methyl-2-propanol by γ-irradiation was studied spectrophotometrically in order to elucidate the mechanism of the formation of colloidal silver bromide (AgBr 3 ) 3- at ambient temperature. The amount of colloidal silver bromide formed increases in the order: i-PrOH, EtOH, MeOH. In t-BuOH, colloidal silver bromide did not form. The relative reactivities of alcohols for colloidal silver bromide was also studied kinetically. (author)

  14. Quantitative uptake of colloidal particles by cell cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feliu, Neus [Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Department for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC),Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Hühn, Jonas; Zyuzin, Mikhail V.; Ashraf, Sumaira; Valdeperez, Daniel; Masood, Atif [Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Said, Alaa Hassan [Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Physics Department, Faculty of Science, South Valley University (Egypt); Escudero, Alberto [Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Sevilla, CSIC — Universidad de Sevilla, Seville (Spain); Pelaz, Beatriz [Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Gonzalez, Elena [Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); University of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Duarte, Miguel A. Correa [University of Vigo, Vigo (Spain); Roy, Sathi [Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Chakraborty, Indranath [Department of Chemistry, University of Illinois at Urbana Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Lim, Mei L.; Sjöqvist, Sebastian [Department for Clinical Science, Intervention and Technology (CLINTEC),Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Jungebluth, Philipp [Department of Thoracic Surgery, Thoraxklinik, Heidelberg University, Heidelberg (Germany); Parak, Wolfgang J., E-mail: wolfgang.parak@physik.uni-marburg.de [Department of Physics, Philipps University Marburg, Marburg (Germany); CIC biomaGUNE, San Sebastian (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    The use of nanotechnologies involving nano- and microparticles has increased tremendously in the recent past. There are various beneficial characteristics that make particles attractive for a wide range of technologies. However, colloidal particles on the other hand can potentially be harmful for humans and environment. Today, complete understanding of the interaction of colloidal particles with biological systems still remains a challenge. Indeed, their uptake, effects, and final cell cycle including their life span fate and degradation in biological systems are not fully understood. This is mainly due to the complexity of multiple parameters which need to be taken in consideration to perform the nanosafety research. Therefore, we will provide an overview of the common denominators and ideas to achieve universal metrics to assess their safety. The review discusses aspects including how biological media could change the physicochemical properties of colloids, how colloids are endocytosed by cells, how to distinguish between internalized versus membrane-attached colloids, possible correlation of cellular uptake of colloids with their physicochemical properties, and how the colloidal stability of colloids may vary upon cell internalization. In conclusion three main statements are given. First, in typically exposure scenarios only part of the colloids associated with cells are internalized while a significant part remain outside cells attached to their membrane. For quantitative uptake studies false positive counts in the form of only adherent but not internalized colloids have to be avoided. pH sensitive fluorophores attached to the colloids, which can discriminate between acidic endosomal/lysosomal and neutral extracellular environment around colloids offer a possible solution. Second, the metrics selected for uptake studies is of utmost importance. Counting the internalized colloids by number or by volume may lead to significantly different results. Third, colloids

  15. Pore water colloid properties in argillaceous sedimentary rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degueldre, Claude, E-mail: c.degueldre@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, University of Lancaster, LA1 4YW Lancaster (United Kingdom); ChiAM & Institute of Environment, University of Geneva, 1211 Genève 4, Swizerland (Switzerland); Earlier, NES, Paul Scherrer Institute, 5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Cloet, Veerle [NAGRA, Hardstrasse 73, 5430 Wettingen (Switzerland)

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this work is to evaluate the colloid nature, concentration and size distribution in the pore water of Opalinus Clay and other sedimentary host rocks identified for a potential radioactive waste repository in Switzerland. Because colloids could not be measured in representative undisturbed porewater of these host rocks, predictive modelling based on data from field and laboratory studies is applied. This approach allowed estimating the nature, concentration and size distributions of the colloids in the pore water of these host rocks. As a result of field campaigns, groundwater colloid concentrations are investigated on the basis of their size distribution quantified experimentally using single particle counting techniques. The colloid properties are estimated considering data gained from analogue hydrogeochemical systems ranging from mylonite features in crystalline fissures to sedimentary formations. The colloid concentrations were analysed as a function of the alkaline and alkaline earth element concentrations. Laboratory batch results on clay colloid generation from compacted pellets in quasi-stagnant water are also reported. Experiments with colloids in batch containers indicate that the size distribution of a colloidal suspension evolves toward a common particle size distribution independently of initial conditions. The final suspension size distribution was found to be a function of the attachment factor of the colloids. Finally, calculations were performed using a novel colloid distribution model based on colloid generation, aggregation and sedimentation rates to predict under in-situ conditions what makes colloid concentrations and size distributions batch- or fracture-size dependent. The data presented so far are compared with the field and laboratory data. The colloid occurrence, stability and mobility have been evaluated for the water of the considered potential host rocks. In the pore water of the considered sedimentary host rocks, the clay

  16. Programming Hierarchical Self-Assembly of Patchy Particles into Colloidal Crystals via Colloidal Molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morphew, Daniel; Shaw, James; Avins, Christopher; Chakrabarti, Dwaipayan

    2018-03-27

    Colloidal self-assembly is a promising bottom-up route to a wide variety of three-dimensional structures, from clusters to crystals. Programming hierarchical self-assembly of colloidal building blocks, which can give rise to structures ordered at multiple levels to rival biological complexity, poses a multiscale design problem. Here we explore a generic design principle that exploits a hierarchy of interaction strengths and employ this design principle in computer simulations to demonstrate the hierarchical self-assembly of triblock patchy colloidal particles into two distinct colloidal crystals. We obtain cubic diamond and body-centered cubic crystals via distinct clusters of uniform size and shape, namely, tetrahedra and octahedra, respectively. Such a conceptual design framework has the potential to reliably encode hierarchical self-assembly of colloidal particles into a high level of sophistication. Moreover, the design framework underpins a bottom-up route to cubic diamond colloidal crystals, which have remained elusive despite being much sought after for their attractive photonic applications.

  17. Diluting ferric carboxymaltose in sodium chloride infusion solution (0.9% w/v) in polypropylene bottles and bags: effects on chemical stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Erik; Braitsch, Michaela; Bichsel, Tobias; Mühlebach, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the physicochemical stability of colloidal ferric carboxymaltose solution (Ferinject) when diluted and stored in polypropylene (PP) bottles and bags for infusion. Two batches of ferric carboxymaltose solution (Ferinject) were diluted (500 mg, 200 mg and 100 mg iron in 100 mL saline) in PP bottles or bags under aseptic conditions. The diluted solutions were stored at 30°C and 75%±5% relative humidity (rH) for 72 h, and samples were withdrawn aseptically at preparation and after 24 h, 48 h and 72 h. Multiple parameters were used to test stability-related measures (pH, total iron and iron (II) content, molecular weight range determination, microbial contamination and particles count ≥10 μm). Overall, Ferinject diluted in 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution and stored in PP bottles and bags was stable within the specifications for the complex and the acceptability limits set for all assays. In both containers, total iron content remained stable, within 10% of the theoretical iron content, and levels of iron (II) remained far below the threshold of acceptability. All preparations were free from sediments, particle numbers were acceptable and there was no microbial contamination. The molecular weight distribution and polydispersity index were also acceptable. Under the tested experimental conditions, colloidal ferric carboxymaltose solution (Ferinject) diluted in saline in PP infusion bottles or bags demonstrated physical and chemical stability for up to 72 h at 30°C and 75% rH. Because of the lack of additional clinical data, when using ferric carboxymaltose, physicians/pharmacists should refer to the dilution and storing recommendations given in the product's summary of product characteristics.

  18. Dynamic Colloidal Molecules Maneuvered by Light-Controlled Janus Micromotors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yirong; Mou, Fangzhi; Feng, Yizheng; Che, Shengping; Li, Wei; Xu, Leilei; Guan, Jianguo

    2017-07-12

    In this work, we propose and demonstrate a dynamic colloidal molecule that is capable of moving autonomously and performing swift, reversible, and in-place assembly dissociation in a high accuracy by manipulating a TiO 2 /Pt Janus micromotor with light irradiation. Due to the efficient motion of the TiO 2 /Pt Janus motor and the light-switchable electrostatic interactions between the micromotor and colloidal particles, the colloidal particles can be captured and assembled one by one on the fly, subsequently forming into swimming colloidal molecules by mimicking space-filling models of simple molecules with central atoms. The as-demonstrated dynamic colloidal molecules have a configuration accurately controlled and stabilized by regulating the time-dependent intensity of UV light, which controls the stop-and-go motion of the colloidal molecules. The dynamic colloidal molecules are dissociated when the light irradiation is turned off due to the disappearance of light-switchable electrostatic interaction between the motor and the colloidal particles. The strategy for the assembly of dynamic colloidal molecules is applicable to various charged colloidal particles. The simulated optical properties of a dynamic colloidal molecule imply that the results here may provide a novel approach for in-place building functional microdevices, such as microlens arrays, in a swift and reversible manner.

  19. Scattering from correlations in colloidal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayter, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Colloidal suspensions typically exhibit spatial correlations over distances of order 10-10 4 A, corresponding either to the size of individual particles (e.g., polymer chains, surfactant micelles) or to the range of interaction between particles (e.g., charged polymer lattices at low ionic strength). Apart from having fundamental intrinsic interest, such systems are also extremely useful as model systems with which to study, for example, non-Newtonian hydrodynamics, since temporal correlations are generally much longer lived (10 -8 -10 -3 sec) than those found in simple atomic or small molecular systems (10 -13 -10 -10 sec). Colloids have long been the subject of macroscopic phenomenological research (on rheological properties, for example), but it is only recently that microscopic light, x-ray and neutron scattering techniques have been applied to their study, in large part because of theoretical difficulties in understanding the scattering from dense liquid-like systems of interacting particles. For spherical colloids, such theoretical problems have now been largely overcome, and for anisotropic colloids experimental techniques are being developed which circumvent the intractable theoretical areas. This paper will first review some static light and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) results on colloidal suspensions, both at equilibrium and in steady-state non-equilibrium situations, and will then discuss some dynamic measurements on polymer solutions and melts made using the neutron spin-echo (NSE) technique. Emphasis is placed on experiments which have a possible counterpart in synchrotron radiation studies. In particular, NSE extends the results of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) to larger momentum transfers and shorter time-scales than are available with visible light, and the extension of PCS to short wavelength on a synchrotron source would be of similar fundamental interest

  20. Modeling of Hydrodynamic Chromatography for Colloid Migration in Fractured Rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shihhai; Jen, C.-P.

    2001-01-01

    The role of colloids in the migration of radionuclides in the geosphere has been emphasized in the performance assessment of high-level radioactive waste disposal. The literature indicates that the colloid velocity may not be equal to the velocity of groundwater owing to hydrodynamic chromatography. A theoretical model for hydrodynamic chromatography of colloid migration in the fracture is proposed in the present work. In this model, the colloids are treated as nonreactive and the external forces acting on colloidal particles are considered including the inertial force, the van der Waals attractive force, and the electrical double-layer repulsive force, as well as the gravitational force. A fully developed concentration profile for colloids is obtained to elucidate migration behavior for colloids in the fracture. The effects of parameters governing these forces and the aperture of the fracture are determined using a theoretical model