Sample records for diluents

  1. Identification of process suitable diluent

    Dean R. Peterman


    The Sigma Team for Minor Actinide Separation (STMAS) was formed within the USDOE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program in order to develop more efficient methods for the separation of americium and other minor actinides (MA) from used nuclear fuel. The development of processes for MA separations is driven by the potential benefits; reduced long-term radiotoxicty of waste placed in a geologic repository, reduced timeframe of waste storage, reduced repository heat load, the possibility of increased repository capacity, and increased utilization of energy potential of used nuclear fuel. The research conducted within the STMAS framework is focused upon the realization of significant simplifications to aqueous recycle processes proposed for MA separations. This report describes the research efforts focused upon the identification of a process suitable diluent for a flowsheet concept for the separation of MA which is based upon the dithiophosphinic acid (DPAH) extractants previously developed at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL).

  2. 21 CFR 864.8200 - Blood cell diluent.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood cell diluent. 864.8200 Section 864.8200 Food... DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Reagents § 864.8200 Blood cell diluent. (a) Identification. A blood cell diluent is a device used to dilute blood for further testing, such as blood...

  3. Depression of Glass Transition Temperatures of Polymer Networks by Diluents

    Brinke, Gerrit ten; Karasz, Frank E.; Ellis, Thomas S.


    A classical thermodynamic theory is used to derive expressions for the depression of the glass transition temperature Tg of a polymer network by a diluent. The enhanced sensitivity of Tg in cross-linked systems to small amounts of diluent is explained. Predictions of the theory are in satisfactory a

  4. Modelling viscosity and mass fraction of bitumen - diluent mixtures

    Miadonye, A.; Latour, N.; Puttagunta, V.R. [Lakehead Univ., Thunder Bay, ON (Canada)


    In recovery of bitumen in oil sands extraction, the reduction of the viscosity is important above and below ground. The addition of liquid diluent breaks down or weakens the intermolecular forces that create a high viscosity in bitumen. The addition of even 5% of diluent can cause a viscosity reduction in excess of 8%, thus facilitating the in situ recovery and pipeline transportation of bitumen. Knowledge of bitumen - diluent viscosity is highly important because without it, determination of upgrading processes, in situ recovery, well simulation, heat transfer, fluid flow and a variety of other engineering problems would be difficult or impossible to solve. The development of a simple correlation to predict the viscosity of binary mixtures of bitumen - diluent in any proportion is described. The developed correlation used to estimate the viscosities and mass fractions of bitumen - diluent mixtures was within acceptable limits of error. For the prediction of mixture viscosities, the developed correlation gave the best results with an overall average absolute deviation of 12% compared to those of Chironis (17%) and Cragoe (23%). Predictions of diluent mass fractions yielded a much better result with an overall average absolute deviation of 5%. The unique features of the correlation include its computational simplicity, its applicability to mixtures at temperatures other than 30 degrees C, and the fact that only the bitumen and diluent viscosities are needed to make predictions. It is the only correlation capable of predicting viscosities of mixtures, as well as diluent mass fractions required to reduce bitumen viscosity to pumping viscosities. The prediction of viscosities at 25, 60.3, and 82.6 degrees C produced excellent results, particularly at high temperatures with an average absolute deviation of below 10%. 11 refs., 3 figs., 8 tabs.

  5. Comparison of four diluents for the retriever dogs semen preservation

    A. Wicaksono


    Full Text Available The quality of chilled semen depends on the composition of diluent. The choice of the buffer, anti-cold shock and nutrition sources can be the first decision in order to choose appropriate diluents. Nowadays a lot of diluent are used for canine semen preservation such as Tris buffer and Citrate buffer. This study was aimed to observe the differences of diluent for preserving Retriever dog spermatozoa. The semen sample collected from four Retriever dogs with three times repetition. The semen was evaluated macro-and microscopically. The semen with >70% sperm motility was divided into four tubes and diluted with diluter 1 (P1, diluter: P2, P3 and P4 (modified P3. The diluted semen was divided into two tubes and each sample was stored at room and 50C temperature. The viability of chilled semen was observed every 3 hours at room temperature and 12 hours at 50C. The result showed that P2 keep the sperm viability better than the other diluents. On 50C at 24 hours storage P2 showed the highest motile and live sperm percentage (46.25 ± 0.22%; 57.11 ± 0.25%. In room temperature at 6 hours P2 showed the highest motile and live sperm percentage (40.94 ± 0.20%; 52.65 ± 0.23%. It is concluded that P2 can keep the sperm viability by 84 hours of 50C and 21 hours at room temperature.

  6. Diluent and bitumen, an uneasy mix : considerations for treating, blending, transportation, marketing and refining

    Todd, C. [Connacher Oil and Gas Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation evaluated several issues regarding the use of diluent as a blending agent with Canadian bitumen. Heavy and viscous crude oils are commonly diluted with condensates and gasolines. This improves field processing, transportability in pipelines and acceptability in markets and refineries. The demand for such diluent is increasing because of the large amounts of heavy oil and bitumen currently produced in Canada. The current tenable price of diluents has meant that a wide range of diluent sources and components are finding their way into the Canadian diluent supply stream. This has raised concerns regarding diluent performance and the affect on blended crude oils. The cost of diluent is among the most controllable expense associated with most bitumen production projects. Market factors were considered in this presentation, such as supply demand; price and infrastructure; operational processing and blending issues; diluent quality and component variability; and downstream issues such as refinery processing and production. tabs., figs.

  7. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald


    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  8. Effect of diluents on tablet integrity and controlled drug release.

    Zhang, Y E; Schwartz, J B


    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of diluents and wax level on tablet integrity during heat treatment and dissolution for sustained-release formulations and the resultant effect on drug release. Dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), and lactose were evaluated for their effect on tablet integrity during drug dissolution and heat treatment in wax matrix formulations. A newly developed direct compression diluent, dibasic calcium phosphate anhydrous (DCPA), was also evaluated. Compritol 888 ATO was used as the wax matrix material, with phenylpropanolamine hydrochloride (PPA) as a model drug. Tablets were made by direct compression and then subjected to heat treatment at 80 degrees C for 30 min. The results showed that MCC, lactose, and DCPA could maintain tablets intact during heat treatment above the melting point of wax (70 degrees C-75 degrees C). However, DCPD tablets showed wax egress during the treatment. MCC tablets swelled and cracked during drug dissolution and resulted in quick release. DCPD and lactose tablets remained intact during dissolution and gave slower release than MCC tablets. DCPA tablets without heat treatment disintegrated very quickly and showed immediate release. In contrast, heat-treated DCPA tablets remained intact through the 24-hr dissolution test and only released about 80% PPA at 6 hr. In the investigation of wax level, DCPD was used as the diluent. The drug release rate decreased as the wax content increased from 15% to 81.25%. The dissolution data were best described by the Higuchi square-root-of-time model. Diluents showed various effects during heat treatment and drug dissolution. The integrity of the tablets was related to the drug release rate. Heat treatment retarded drug release if there was no wax egress.

  9. Physico chemical properties of irradiated i-SANEX diluents

    Mossini Eros


    Full Text Available The development of effective processes to recover minor actinides from spent nuclear fuel cannot leave out of consideration the evaluation of the impact of ionizing radiations on safety, fluid dynamics and extraction efficiency. It is common knowledge from the literature that radiation damage mainly affects the diluents and, indirectly, the extractants [1], but a lack of knowledge remains regarding the radiolytic behavior of innovative selective actinide extraction (i-SANEX diluents [2, 3]. As natural prosecution of the work already performed on diluted nitric acid solutions [4], 0.44 M nitric acid solutions were irradiated in contact with a mixture of kerosene + 5 vol.% 1-octanol by a Co-60 source at 2.5 kGy/h dose rate and up to 100 kGy absorbed dose, conditions of interest for the future industrial facility. Density, viscosity, acidity, nitrate anion concentration and phase transfers were systematically measured before and after γ-irradiation. This was performed because radiation-induced modifications of these parameters may induce alterations of both the fluid dynamics and the separation performances of the extracting system. The results suggest that the fluid-dynamics of the system should be unaltered. In fact, only slight alterations of the organic phase viscosity and of the aqueous phase acidity were measured after irradiation, suggesting the occurrence of limited phase transfers and of diluent by-products formation.

  10. Contact allergy to reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins.

    Aalto-Korte, Kristiina; Kuuliala, Outi; Henriks-Eckerman, Maj-Len; Suuronen, Katri


    Diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A resin (DGEBA-R) is the most common sensitizer in epoxy systems, but a minority of patients also develop contact allergy to reactive diluents. To analyse the frequency and clinical relevance of allergic reactions to different epoxy reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins. Test files (January 1991 to June 2014) were screened, and the clinical records of patients with allergic reactions were analysed for occupation, concomitant allergic reactions, and exposure. A total of 67 patients reacted to at least one of the compounds. The largest numbers of allergic reactions were to phenyl glycidyl ether (PGE; n = 41), 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDGE; n = 34), and p-tert-butylphenyl glycidyl ether (PTBPGE; n = 19). Ten of the patients did not have contact allergy to DGEBA-R. The reactions of 5 of these were related to the use of BDDGE-containing products. We found no significant exposure to PGE or PTBPGE in patients sensitized to them, but some of the patients had used cresyl glycidyl ether-containing products. Allergic reactions to reactive diluents and related aliphatic epoxy resins usually occurred together with reactions to DGEBA-R. BDDGE was the clinically most significant compound, and was the sole cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis in 3 patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Exploration of novel co-processed multifunctional diluent for the development of tablet dosage form

    Gohel, M. C.; Patel, T. M.; Parikh, R. K.; P B Parejiya; Barot, B. S.; A Ramkishan


    The aim of this investigation was to develop a novel multifunctional co-processed diluent consisting of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL) and polyethylene glycol 4000. Colloidal silicon dioxide and talc were also incorporated as minor components in the diluent to improve tableting properties. Melt granulation was adopted for preparation of co-processed diluent. Percentage of Avicel PH 102, Polyplasdone XL and polyethylene glycol 4000 were selected as i...

  12. Effect of diluents on the extraction of uranium (VI) with N-octanoyl-2-methylpiperidine

    XIANG Qun; BAO Bo-Rong; QIAN Qun; SHAO Hua


    The extraction of uranium ((Ⅵ) from nitric acid solution with N-octanoyl-2-methylpiperidine (OMPPD)in eight diluents and the dependence of distribution ratio on temperature and concentrations of both aqueous nitricacid and OMPPD were investigated. The interaction among OMPPD, the extracted species and diluent has been dis-cussed. The experiments show that the extraction ability of OMPPD decreases gradually for eight diluents in the fol-lowing order: benzene, toluene, n-octane, sulfonated kerosene, cyclohexane, carbon tetrachloride, 1,2-dichloroetheneand chloroform. It cannot be interpreted only on the basis of polarity of diluents.

  13. Effect of Diluents on the Extraction of Oxalic Acid by Trialkylphosphine Oxide

    李玉鑫; 王运东; 戴猷元


    Abstract In liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes, diluents have a strong influence on the extraction mechanism and efficiency. In this study, benzene, cyclohexane, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), butyl acetate, and 1-octanol were used as diluents in the extraction of oxalic acid by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO). The effects of extractant concentration, initial concentration of oxalic acid and diluent type on the extraction equilibrium partition coefficient are analyzed. The sequence of the extraction ability by different diluents is MIBK > butyl acetate > cyclohexane=benzene > carbon tetrachloride > 1-octanol > trichloromethane. Extraction mechanism was analyzed and extraction model parameters were evaluated.

  14. Use of thiolated oligonucleotides as anti-fouling diluents in electrochemical peptide-based sensors.

    McQuistan, Adam; Zaitouna, Anita J; Echeverria, Elena; Lai, Rebecca Y


    We incorporated short thiolated oligonucleotides as passivating diluents in the fabrication of electrochemical peptide-based (E-PB) sensors, with the goal of creating a negatively charged layer capable of resisting non-specific adsorption of matrix contaminants. The E-PB HIV sensors fabricated using these diluents were found to be more specific and selective, while retaining attributes similar to the sensor fabricated without these diluents. Overall, these results highlight the advantages of using oligonucleotides as anti-fouling diluents in self-assembled monolayer-based sensors.

  15. 20-Kw nitrogen diluent chemical oxygen-iodine laser

    Yang, Tientsai T.; Bhowmik, Anup; Burde, David H.; Clark, Roy; Carroll, S.; Dickerson, Robert A.; Eblen, J.; Gylys, Vytas T.; Hsia, Y. C.; Humphreys, Richard H., Jr.; Moon, L. F.; Hurlock, Steve C.; Tomassian, A.


    A new Chemical Oxygen-Iodine Laser (COIL) has been developed and demonstrated at chlorine flow rates up to 1 gmol/s. The laser employs a cross flow jet oxygen generator operating with no diluent. The generator product flow enters the laser cavity at Mach 1 and is accelerated by mixing with 5 gmol/s, Mach 5 nitrogen diluent in an ejector nozzle array. The nitrogen also serves as the carrier for iodine. Vortex mixing is achieved through the use of mixing tabs at the nitrogen nozzle exit. Mixing approach design and analysis, including CFD analysis, led to the preferred nozzle configuration. The selected mixing enhancement design was tested in cold flow and the results are in good agreement with the CFD predictions. Good mixing was achieved within the desired cavity flow length of 20 cm and pressure recovery about 90 Torr was measured at the cavity exit. Finally, the design was incorporated into the laser and power extraction as high as 20 kw was measured at the best operating condition of 0.9 gmol/s. Stable resonator mode footprints showed desieable intensity profiles, which none of the sugar scoop profiles characteristic of the conventional COIL designs.

  16. Exploration of Novel Co-processed Multifunctional Diluent for the Development of Tablet Dosage Form.

    Gohel, M C; Patel, T M; Parikh, R K; Parejiya, P B; Barot, B S; Ramkishan, A


    The aim of this investigation was to develop a novel multifunctional co-processed diluent consisting of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102), crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL) and polyethylene glycol 4000. Colloidal silicon dioxide and talc were also incorporated as minor components in the diluent to improve tableting properties. Melt granulation was adopted for preparation of co-processed diluent. Percentage of Avicel PH 102, Polyplasdone XL and polyethylene glycol 4000 were selected as independent variables and disintegration time was chosen as a dependent variable in simplex lattice design. The co-processed diluent was characterised for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr's index, percentage of fines and dilution potential study. Acetaminophen and metformin were used as poorly compressible model drugs for preparation of tablets. The blend of granules of drug and extra-granular co-processed diluent exhibited better flow as compared to the blend of drug granules and physical mixture of diluents blend. The diluent exhibited satisfactory tableting properties. The tablets exhibited fairly rapid drug release. In conclusion, melt granulation is proposed as a method of preparing co-processed diluent. The concept can be used to bypass patents on excipient manufacturing.

  17. Exploration of novel co-processed multifunctional diluent for the development of tablet dosage form

    M C Gohel


    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to develop a novel multifunctional co-processed diluent consisting of microcrystalline cellulose (Avicel PH 102, crospovidone (Polyplasdone XL and polyethylene glycol 4000. Colloidal silicon dioxide and talc were also incorporated as minor components in the diluent to improve tableting properties. Melt granulation was adopted for preparation of co-processed diluent. Percentage of Avicel PH 102, Polyplasdone XL and polyethylene glycol 4000 were selected as independent variables and disintegration time was chosen as a dependent variable in simplex lattice design. The co-processed diluent was characterised for angle of repose, bulk density, tapped density, Carr′s index, percentage of fines and dilution potential study. Acetaminophen and metformin were used as poorly compressible model drugs for preparation of tablets. The blend of granules of drug and extra-granular co-processed diluent exhibited better flow as compared to the blend of drug granules and physical mixture of diluents blend. The diluent exhibited satisfactory tableting properties. The tablets exhibited fairly rapid drug release. In conclusion, melt granulation is proposed as a method of preparing co-processed diluent. The concept can be used to bypass patents on excipient manufacturing.

  18. Synthesis and application of polyepoxide cardanol glycidyl ether as biobased polyepoxide reactive diluent for epoxy resin

    Polyepoxide cardanol glycidyl ether (PECGE), a novel cardanol derivative, was synthesized and used as reactive diluent for petroleum-based epoxy resin in this work. The synthetic condition was first optimized, and the resultant PECGE diluent was characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectro...

  19. The behaviour of tributyl phosphate in an organic diluent

    Leay, Laura; Tucker, Kate; Del Regno, Annalaura; Schroeder, Sven L. M.; Sharrad, Clint A.; Masters, Andrew J.


    Tributyl phosphate (TBP) is used as a complexing agent in the Plutonium Uranium Extraction (PUREX) liquid-liquid phase extraction process for recovering uranium and plutonium from spent nuclear reactor fuel. Here, we address the molecular and microstructure of the organic phases involved in the extraction process, using molecular dynamics to show that when TBP is mixed with a paraffinic diluent, the TBP self-assembles into a bi-continuous phase. The underlying self-association of TBP is driven by intermolecular interaction between its polar groups, resulting in butyl moieties radiating out into the organic solvent. Simulation predicts a TBP diffusion constant that is anomalously low compared to what might normally be expected for its size; experimental nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) studies also indicate an extremely low diffusion constant, consistent with a molecular aggregation model. Simulation of TBP at an oil/water interface shows the formation of a bilayer system at low TBP concentrations. At higher concentrations, a bulk bi-continuous structure is observed linking to this surface bilayer. We suggest that this structure may be intimately connected with the surprisingly rapid kinetics of the interfacial mass transport of uranium and plutonium from the aqueous to the organic phase in the PUREX process.

  20. Developing of Tris Soy Milk Diluent for Frisian Holstein Bull Frozen Semen



    Full Text Available Commercial artificial insemination (AI companies in the beginning of year 2000, introduced new generation of cryoprotectans with lecithin based diluents such as Biociphos (IMV, L’Aigle, France and Andromed® (Minitub, Germany. Since the commercial diluents were imported, they were often not readily available. This research aimed to develop Tris-soy modified diluent, and investigated its effects on the quality and fertility of Frisian Holstein (FH bulls frozen semen. This research consists of two experiments. At first, we compared the FH Bull frozen semen quality in modified tris soy milk (TSM, Andromed® and Tris-eggyolk (TEY diluents, the second was the fertility trials of the frozen semen. Results of the experiment demostrated that post thawed sperm motility in the semen preserved with TEY (49.10% or Andromed® (50.21% was significantly higher (P = 0.037 than that preserved with TSM (41.53%. In contrast, the conception rates in cows inseminated with semen preserved with TSM, TEY, and Andromed® were 53.84% (7/13, 38.88% (5/13, and 38.46% (7/19, respectively. We are optimistic that TSM diluents will have similar qualities as TEY and Andromed® on preserving frozen semen by doing future intensive studies.

  1. Effects of Three Different Diluents on Quality of Boar Semen Stored at 17℃

    Hu Shan; Zhang Xiao-gang; Han Cong; Wei Shuai-yi; Xie Dong-qi; Du Ren-rang; Hu Jian-hong


    To investigate the effects of different diluents on the quality of the boar semen stored at 17℃, and assess the relationship between sperm motility and the relative levels of enzymes, three commercial diluents (DiluentⅠ, DiluentⅡand DiluentⅢ) and three boar breed semens (Yorkshire, Landrace and Duroc) were utilized. The sperm motility, effective survival time, survival index, catalase (CAT), the total anti-oxidative capacity (T-AOC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were evaluated. The results showed that there were significant interaction effects between diluents and breeds on the boar sperm motility (P0.05). All of the parameters varied significantly with the increase of the storage time (P<0.001). The survival time increased 12.9% in Yorkshire boar semen diluted with DiluentⅢ than with DiluentⅡ, while the survival time increased 6.6% in Landrace boar semen diluted with DiluentⅡ than with DiluentⅢ. Both CAT and T-AOC levels were significantly positive correlated with sperm motility in all the three boar breeds (P<0.001), while MDA levels were significantly negative correlated with sperm motility (P<0.001). These results indicated that DiluentⅢ and DiluentⅡwere the optimal commercial diluents for Yorkshire and Landrace boar semen stored at 17℃, respectively.

  2. Analysis of Waste Leak and Toxic Chemical Release Accidents from Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) Diluent System



    Radiological and toxicological consequences are calculated for 4 postulated accidents involving the Waste Feed Delivery (WFD) diluent addition systems. Consequences for the onsite and offsite receptor are calculated. This analysis contains technical information used to determine the accident consequences for the River Protection Project (RPP) Final Safety Analysis Report (FSAR).

  3. Measurement of laminar burning velocities and analysis of flame stabilities for hydrogen-air-diluent premixed mixtures

    HU ErJiang; HUANG ZuoHua; HE JiaJia; JIN Chun; MIAO HaiYan; WANG XiBin


    The laminar burning velocities and Markstein lengths of the hydrogen-air-diluent mixtures were meas-ured at different equivalence ratios (0.4-1.5), different diluents (N2, CO2 and 15%CO2+85%N2) and di-lution ratios (0, 0.05, 0.10 and 0.15) by using the outwardly expanding flame. The influences of flame stretch rate on the flame propagation characteristics were analyzed. The results show that both the laminar burning velocities and the Markstein lengths of the hydrogen-air-diluent mixtures decrease with the increase of dilution ratio. The decrease in Markstein lengths means that adding diluents into the hydrogen-air mixtures will decrease the diffusional-thermal instability of the flame front. For a specified dilution ratio, the laminar burning velocities give their maximum values at an equivalence ratio of 1.8. The Markstein lengths increase with the increase of the equivalence ratio monotonously regardless of the diluents. The study shows that CO2 as the diluent has a greater impact on the laminar flame speed and the flame front stability than N2 as the diluent.


    Mehmet BİLGİN


    Full Text Available In this study, the effect of diluents in different structures on the extraction of malic acid from aqueous solutions with Aliquat-336, named chemically as tricapril metyl ammonium chloride, was investigated. Diluting solvents used in experiments are heptane, toluene, kerosene, cyclohexane and methyl isobuthyl ketone (MIBK. Furthermore, the effect of MIBK+Heptan mixture in 1:1 volume ratio on the extraction was investigated also. The extraction was performed at room temperature by means of a shaker. The distribution coefficients and loading factors were calculated from the experimentally determined results, presented as tables and graphics, and compared with each other. Among the diluents used in this study, the best results were obtained with MIBK.

  5. Effect of diluents on soot precursor formation and temperature in ethylene laminar diffusion flames

    Abhinavam Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar


    Soot precursor species concentrations and flame temperature were measured in a diluted laminar co-flow jet diffusion flame at pressures up to eight atmospheres while varying diluent type. The objective of this study was to gain a better understanding of soot production and oxidation mechanisms, which could potentially lead to a reduction in soot emissions from practical combustion devices. Gaseous samples were extracted from the centerline of an ethylene-air laminar diffusion flame, which was diluted individually with four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) to manipulate flame temperature and transport properties. The diluted fuel and co-flow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear-layer effects, and the mass fluxes were fixed over the pressure range to maintain constant Reynolds number. The flame temperature was measured using a fine gauge R-type thermocouple at pressures up to four atmospheres. Centerline concentration profiles of major non-fuel hydrocarbons collected via extractive sampling with a quartz microprobe and quantification using GC/MS+FID are reported within. The measured hydrocarbon species concentrations are vary dramatically with pressure and diluent, with the helium and carbon dioxide diluted flames yielding the largest and smallest concentrations of soot precursors, respectively. In the case of C2H2 and C6H6, two key soot precursors, helium diluted flames had concentrations more than three times higher compared with the carbon dioxide diluted flame. The peak flame temperature vary with diluents tested, as expected, with carbon dioxide diluted flame being the coolest, with a peak temperature of 1760K at 1atm, and the helium diluted flame being the hottest, with a peak temperature of 2140K. At four atmospheres, the helium diluted flame increased to 2240K, but the CO2 flame temperature increased more, decreasing the difference to approximately 250K. © 2012 The Combustion Institute.

  6. Effect of naphtha diluent on greenhouse gases and reduced sulfur compounds emissions from oil sands tailings.

    Gee, Kathleen F; Poon, Ho Yin; Hashisho, Zaher; Ulrich, Ania C


    The long-term storage of oil sands tailings has resulted in the evolution of greenhouse gases (CH4 and CO2) as a result of residual organics biodegradation. Recent studies have identified black, sulfidic zones below the tailings-water interface, which may be producing toxic sulfur-containing gases. An anaerobic mesocosm study was conducted over an 11-week period to characterize the evolution of CH4, CO2 and reduced sulfur compounds (RSCs) (including H2S) in tailings as it relates to naphtha-containing diluent concentrations (0.2, 0.8, and 1.5% w/v) and microbial activity. Our results showed that RSCs were produced first at 0.12μmol°RSCs/mL MFT (1.5% w/v diluent treatment). RSCs contribution (from highest to lowest) was H2S and 2-methylthiophene>2.5-dimethylthiophene>3-methylthiophene>thiofuran>butyl mercaptan>carbonyl sulfide, where H2S and 2-methylthiophene contributed 81% of the gas produced. CH4 and CO2 production occurred after week 5 at 40.7μmolCH4/mL MFT and 5.9μmolCO2/mL MFT (1.5% w/v diluent treatment). The amount of H2S and CH4 generated is correlated to the amount of diluent present and to microbial activity as shown by corresponding increases in sulfate-reducers' Dissimilatory sulfite reductase (DsrAB) gene and methanogens' methyl-coenzyme M reductase (MCR) gene. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Use of natural gas as a driving force in a diluent gas artificial lift system applied to heavy oils

    Brito, F.; Garcia, L.; Brown, J. [PDVSA PETROLEOS S.A. (Venezuela)


    Heavy oils constitute one of the largest fossil fuel reserves on earth; their exploitation usually requires the use of diluents. In Venezuela, the diluent used is light crude, it is injected into the well with natural gas to reduce oil viscosity and thus increase oil production. This method requires the use of diluent pumps which are critical to the project as their maintenance costs are high. This paper presents new equipment called gas displacement pump to replace diluent pumps. Simulations were conducted on the well PC-152 in Pilon field to compare the two pumping systems. Results showed that the gas displacement pump is cheaper than the other pumping systems in both capital expenditure and maintenance costs while having no restriction in flow areas. The utilization of the gas displacement pump system proposed herein would allow companies to reduce their expenses.

  8. Improving the Demulsification Process of Heavy Crude Oil Emulsion through Blending with Diluent

    K. K. Salam


    Full Text Available In crude oil production from brown fields or heavy oil, there is production of water in oil emulsions which can either be controlled or avoided. This emulsion resulted in an increase in viscosity which can seriously affect the production of oil from sand phase up to flow line. Failure to separate the oil and water mixture efficiently and effectively could result in problems such as overloading of surface separation equipments, increased cost of pumping wet crude, and corrosion problems. Light hydrocarbon diluent was added in varied proportions to three emulsion samples collected from three different oil fields in Niger delta, Nigeria, to enhance the demulsification of crude oil emulsion. The viscosity, total petroleum hydrocarbon, and quality of water were evaluated. The viscosity of the three emulsions considered reduced by 38, 31, and 18%. It is deduced that the increase in diluent blended with emulsion leads to a corresponding decrease in the value of viscosity. This in turn enhanced the rate of demulsification of the samples. The basic sediment and water (BS&W of the top dry oil reduces the trace value the three samples evaluated, and with optimum value of diluent, TPH values show that the water droplets are safe for disposal and for other field uses.

  9. Effects of diluents on cell culture viability measured by automated cell counter

    Chen, Aaron; Leith, Matthew; Tu, Roger; Tahim, Gurpreet; Sudra, Anish; Bhargava, Swapnil


    Commercially available automated cell counters based on trypan blue dye-exclusion are widely used in industrial cell culture process development and manufacturing to increase throughput and eliminate inherent variability in subjective interpretation associated with manual hemocytometers. When using these cell counters, sample dilution is often necessary to stay within the assay measurement range; however, the effect of time and diluents on cell culture is not well understood. This report presents the adverse effect of phosphate buffered saline as a diluent on cell viability when used in combination with an automated cell counter. The reduced cell viability was attributed to shear stress introduced by the automated cell counter. Furthermore, length of time samples were incubated in phosphate buffered saline also contributed to the observed drop in cell viability. Finally, as erroneous viability measurements can severely impact process decisions and product quality, this report identifies several alternative diluents that can maintain cell culture viability over time in order to ensure accurate representation of cell culture conditions. PMID:28264018

  10. Function of ram spermatozoa frozen in diluents supplemented with casein and vegetable oils.

    Del Valle, I; Souter, A; Maxwell, W M C; Muiño-Blanco, T; Cebrián-Pérez, J A


    The aim of this study was to assess biologically safer components as alternatives to egg yolk for the frozen storage of ram semen using casein, coconut or palm oil in either Salamon's diluent (S) or a swim-up medium (SU). Ejaculates were frozen as pellets and sperm motility (subjectively) and acrosome integrity (FITC-PNA/PI) by flow cytometry were assessed at 0, 3 and 6h after thawing and incubation at 37°C. Three experiments were done: different concentrations of palm oil (5%, 10% and 20%); casein added as emulsifier and protective agent; and differences between egg yolk, coconut and palm oil in S and SU. 20% of oil added to SU accounted for a lesser percentage (Poil levels on viable cells. When casein was added to diluents containing 5% of palm oil, no differences were found between palm or casein (P>0.05). No differences were found when S and SU were compared neither as groups nor between S alone and containing coconut or palm oil; however, SU alone yielded less motility than SU 5% coconut. However, in both groups, S and SU, egg yolk accounted for the greatest values in both bases. These results indicate that none of biologically safer media components (casein, palm or coconut oil) used in this study maintained the function of ram spermatozoa after freeze-thawing better than S-containing egg yolk. The application of vegetable oils as substitutes for egg yolk in diluents for the cryopreservation of ram spermatozoa requires further research.

  11. On Identification of Critical Material Attributes for Compression Behaviour of Pharmaceutical Diluent Powders.

    Zhang, Jianyi; Wu, Chuan-Yu; Pan, Xin; Wu, Chuanbin


    As one of the commonly-used solid dosage forms, pharmaceutical tablets have been widely used to deliver active drugs into the human body, satisfying patient's therapeutic requirements. To manufacture tablets of good quality, diluent powders are generally used in formulation development to increase the bulk of formulations and to bind other inactive ingredients with the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs). For formulations of a low API dose, the drug products generally consist of a large fraction of diluent powders. Hence, the attributes of diluents become extremely important and can significantly influence the final product property. Therefore, it is essential to accurately characterise the mechanical properties of the diluents and to thoroughly understand how their mechanical properties affect the manufacturing performance and properties of the final products, which will build a sound scientific basis for formulation design and product development. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the mechanical properties of the widely-used pharmaceutical diluent powders, including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC) powders with different grades (i.e., Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, and DG), mannitol SD 100, lactose monohydrate, and dibasic calcium phosphate, were performed. The powder compressibility was assessed with Heckel and Kawakita analyses. The material elastic recovery during decompression and in storage was investigated through monitoring the change in the dimensions of the compressed tablets over time. The powder hygroscopicity was also evaluated to examine the water absorption ability of powders from the surroundings. It was shown that the MCC tablets exhibited continuous volume expansion after ejection, which is believed to be induced by (1) water absorption from the surrounding, and (2) elastic recovery. However, mannitol tablets showed volume expansion immediately after ejection, followed by the material shrinkage in storage. It is anticipated that

  12. On Identification of Critical Material Attributes for Compression Behaviour of Pharmaceutical Diluent Powders

    Jianyi Zhang


    Full Text Available As one of the commonly-used solid dosage forms, pharmaceutical tablets have been widely used to deliver active drugs into the human body, satisfying patient’s therapeutic requirements. To manufacture tablets of good quality, diluent powders are generally used in formulation development to increase the bulk of formulations and to bind other inactive ingredients with the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs. For formulations of a low API dose, the drug products generally consist of a large fraction of diluent powders. Hence, the attributes of diluents become extremely important and can significantly influence the final product property. Therefore, it is essential to accurately characterise the mechanical properties of the diluents and to thoroughly understand how their mechanical properties affect the manufacturing performance and properties of the final products, which will build a sound scientific basis for formulation design and product development. In this study, a comprehensive evaluation of the mechanical properties of the widely-used pharmaceutical diluent powders, including microcrystalline cellulose (MCC powders with different grades (i.e., Avicel PH 101, Avicel PH 102, and DG, mannitol SD 100, lactose monohydrate, and dibasic calcium phosphate, were performed. The powder compressibility was assessed with Heckel and Kawakita analyses. The material elastic recovery during decompression and in storage was investigated through monitoring the change in the dimensions of the compressed tablets over time. The powder hygroscopicity was also evaluated to examine the water absorption ability of powders from the surroundings. It was shown that the MCC tablets exhibited continuous volume expansion after ejection, which is believed to be induced by (1 water absorption from the surrounding, and (2 elastic recovery. However, mannitol tablets showed volume expansion immediately after ejection, followed by the material shrinkage in storage. It is

  13. 40 CFR 60.4405 - How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS?


    ... performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS? 60.4405 Section 60.4405 Protection of... § 60.4405 How do I perform the initial performance test if I have chosen to install a NOX-diluent CEMS? If you elect to install and certify a NOX-diluent CEMS under § 60.4345, then the initial...

  14. Watermelon juice: a promising feedstock supplement, diluent, and nitrogen supplement for ethanol biofuel production

    Bruton Benny D


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Two economic factors make watermelon worthy of consideration as a feedstock for ethanol biofuel production. First, about 20% of each annual watermelon crop is left in the field because of surface blemishes or because they are misshapen; currently these are lost to growers as a source of revenue. Second, the neutraceutical value of lycopene and L-citrulline obtained from watermelon is at a threshold whereby watermelon could serve as starting material to extract and manufacture these products. Processing of watermelons to produce lycopene and L-citrulline, yields a waste stream of watermelon juice at the rate of over 500 L/t of watermelons. Since watermelon juice contains 7 to 10% (w/v directly fermentable sugars and 15 to 35 μmol/ml of free amino acids, its potential as feedstock, diluent, and nitrogen supplement was investigated in fermentations to produce bioethanol. Results Complete watermelon juice and that which did not contain the chromoplasts (lycopene, but did contain free amino acids, were readily fermentable as the sole feedstock or as diluent, feedstock supplement, and nitrogen supplement to granulated sugar or molasses. A minimum level of ~400 mg N/L (~15 μmol/ml amino nitrogen in watermelon juice was required to achieve maximal fermentation rates when it was employed as the sole nitrogen source for the fermentation. Fermentation at pH 5 produced the highest rate of fermentation for the yeast system that was employed. Utilizing watermelon juice as diluent, supplemental feedstock, and nitrogen source for fermentation of processed sugar or molasses allowed complete fermentation of up to 25% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 3 (0.41 to 0.46 g ethanol per g sugar or up to 35% (w/v sugar concentration at pH 5 with a conversion to 0.36 to 0.41 g ethanol per g sugar. Conclusion Although watermelon juice would have to be concentrated 2.5- to 3-fold to serve as the sole feedstock for ethanol biofuel production, the results

  15. XeCl Avalanche discharge laser employing Ar as a diluent

    Sze, Robert C.


    A XeCl avalanche discharge exciplex laser which uses a gaseous lasing starting mixture of: (0.2%-0.4% chlorine donor/2.5%-10% Xe/97.3%-89.6% Ar). The chlorine donor normally comprises HCl but can also comprise CCl.sub.4 BCl.sub.3. Use of Ar as a diluent gas reduces operating pressures over other rare gas halide lasers to near atmospheric pressure, increases output lasing power of the XeCl avalanche discharge laser by 30% to exceed KrF avalanche discharge lasing outputs, and is less expensive to operate.

  16. High precision measurement of silicon in naphthas by ICP-OES using isooctane as diluent.

    Gazulla, M F; Rodrigo, M; Orduña, M; Ventura, M J; Andreu, C


    An analytical protocol for the accurate and precise determination of Si in naphthas is presented by using ICP-OES, optimizing from the sample preparation to the measurement conditions, in order to be able to analyze for the first time silicon contents below 100µgkg(-1) in a relatively short time thus being used as a control method. In the petrochemical industry, silicon can be present as a contaminant in different petroleum products such as gasoline, ethanol, or naphthas, forming different silicon compounds during the treatment of these products that are irreversibly adsorbed onto catalyst surfaces decreasing its time life. The complex nature of the organic naphtha sample together with the low detection limits needed make the analysis of silicon quite difficult. The aim of this work is to optimize the measurement of silicon in naphthas by ICP-OES introducing as an improvement the use of isooctane as diluent. The set up was carried out by optimizing the measurement conditions (power, nebulizer flow, pump rate, read time, and viewing mode) and the sample preparation (type of diluent, cleaning process, blanks, and studying various dilution ratios depending on the sample characteristics). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Evaluation of lower flammability limits of fuel-air-diluent mixtures using calculated adiabatic flame temperatures.

    Vidal, M; Wong, W; Rogers, W J; Mannan, M S


    The lower flammability limit (LFL) of a fuel is the minimum composition in air over which a flame can propagate. Calculated adiabatic flame temperatures (CAFT) are a powerful tool to estimate the LFL of gas mixtures. Different CAFT values are used for the estimation of LFL. SuperChems is used by industry to perform flammability calculations under different initial conditions which depends on the selection of a threshold temperature. In this work, the CAFT at the LFL is suggested for mixtures of fuel-air and fuel-air-diluents. These CAFT can be used as the threshold values in SuperChems to calculate the LFL. This paper discusses an approach to evaluate the LFL in the presence of diluents such as N2 and CO2 by an algebraic method and by the application of SuperChems using CAFT as the basis of the calculations. The CAFT for different paraffinic and unsaturated hydrocarbons are presented as well as an average value per family of chemicals.

  18. Experimental study of tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets: effect of the diluent nature and compression pressure

    Juban, Audrey; Briançon, Stéphanie; Puel, François; Hoc, Thierry; Nouguier-Lehon, Cécile


    In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage form for oral administration in the world. Among different manufacturing processes, direct compression is widely used because of its economics interest and it is a process which avoids the steps of wet granulation and drying processes. Tablets are composed of at least two ingredients: an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) which is mixed with a diluent. The nature of the powders and the processing conditions are crucial for the properties of the blend and, consequently, strongly influence the mechanical characteristics of tablets. Moreover, tablets have to present a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling, while ensuring an appropriate disintegration after administration. Accordingly, this mechanical property is an essential parameter to consider. Experimental results showed that proportion of the diluent, fragmentary (DCPA) or plastic (MCC), had a large influence on the tensile strength evolution with API content as well as the compression load applied during tableting process. From these results a model was developed in order to predict the tensile strength of binary tablets by knowing the compression pressure. The validity of this model was demonstrated for the two studied systems and a comparison was made with two existing models.

  19. The Effect of Reactives Diluents to the Physical Properties of Acrylated Palm Oil Based Polyurethane Coatings

    Onn Munirah


    Full Text Available The development of polyurethane with hydroxyl access in a molecule leads to a new alternative of low toxicity green product. Palm oil is one of the major commodities in Malaysia. The potential of palm oil to be used as coatings raw material such as alkyd is limited due to low unsaturated side on fatty acid chains. To overcome this limitation, palm oil was modified through transesterification process to produce polyol. Acrylated isocyanate (urethane oligomer was then grafted onto polyol to produce polyurethane with vinylic ends. The polyurethane was formulated with different cross-linkers (reactive diluents and cured under UV radiation. The effect of three different diluents; monoacrylate, diacrylate and triacrylate on the properties of cured polymer were studied in this research. Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR, Hydroxyl Value Titration, Gel Content, and Volatile Organic Compound (VOC were used for characterization. Physical testing performed were Pencil Hardness and Pull-Off Adhesion test. Novel palm oil-based polyurethane coatings have been found to have good properties with mono acrylate functionality.

  20. Combustion of Methanol Droplets in Air-Diluent Environments with Reduced and Normal Gravity

    Benjamin Shaw


    Full Text Available Reduced and normal gravity combustion experiments were performed with fiber-supported methanol droplets with initial diameters in the 1 mm size range. Experiments were performed with air-diluent mixtures at about 0.101 MPa and 298 K, where carbon dioxide, helium, or xenon was separately used as the diluent gas. Results indicate that ambient gas transport properties play an important role in determining flammability and combustion behaviors including burning rates and radiant heat output histories of the droplets. Droplets would burn with significantly higher mole fractions of xenon than helium or carbon dioxide. In reduced gravity, droplets would burn steadily with a xenon mole fraction of 0.50 but would not burn steadily if helium or carbon dioxide mole fractions were 0.50. Comparison with previous experimental data shows that ignitability and combustion characteristics of droplets are influenced by the fuel type and also the gravitational level. Burning rates were about 40% to 70% higher in normal gravity than in reduced gravity. Methanol droplets also had burning rates that were typically larger than 1-propanol burning rates by about 20% in reduced gravity. In normal gravity, however, burning rate differences between the two fuels were significantly smaller.

  1. Experimental study of tensile strength of pharmaceutical tablets: effect of the diluent nature and compression pressure

    Juban Audrey


    Full Text Available In the pharmaceutical field, tablets are the most common dosage form for oral administration in the world. Among different manufacturing processes, direct compression is widely used because of its economics interest and it is a process which avoids the steps of wet granulation and drying processes. Tablets are composed of at least two ingredients: an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API which is mixed with a diluent. The nature of the powders and the processing conditions are crucial for the properties of the blend and, consequently, strongly influence the mechanical characteristics of tablets. Moreover, tablets have to present a suitable mechanical strength to avoid crumbling or breaking when handling, while ensuring an appropriate disintegration after administration. Accordingly, this mechanical property is an essential parameter to consider. Experimental results showed that proportion of the diluent, fragmentary (DCPA or plastic (MCC, had a large influence on the tensile strength evolution with API content as well as the compression load applied during tableting process. From these results a model was developed in order to predict the tensile strength of binary tablets by knowing the compression pressure. The validity of this model was demonstrated for the two studied systems and a comparison was made with two existing models.

  2. Application of Response Surface Methodology to Estimate the Design Space of Pharmaceutical Diluents for Dispensing Powdered Formulations.

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Takayama, Kozo; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki


    Scientific approaches for dispensation are important for the quality and efficacy of drug treatments. Therefore, for the dispensation of powdered medicines, we have developed a powder blending method using a planetary centrifugal mixer (PCM) to replace the empirical manual method involving a mortar and pestle. The aim of this study was to optimize the formulation of pharmaceutical diluents for dispensing powdered medicines, using PCM. The diluents, composed of powdered lactose, crystalline lactose, and corn starch were assigned to a {3,2}-Simplex Lattice design. Then, the designed diluents were blended with model powders, such as carbazochrome sodium sulfonate powder, rifampicin capsule contents, and crushed sulfasarazine tablets, at ratios of 1 : 4, 1 : 1, and 4 : 1 using PCM at 800 rpm for 60 s at a 20% filling rate. The mixtures were examined for content uniformity relative standard deviation (RSD) and flowability angle of repose (AOR). Response surface methodology was applied to optimize the formulation with the smallest RSD and AOR, and then the design space of desired diluents was estimated. On the basis of the design space, crystalline lactose, the mixture of lactose powder and crystalline lactose at a ratio of 1 : 4, and the mixture of corn starch and crystalline lactose at a ratio of 1 : 4, were suitable diluents for the powdered formulation, the content of the capsules, and the crushed tablets, respectively. The selected diluents were successfully applied to other model medicines showing a sufficient RSD and AOR. This technique could contribute to the development of scientific approaches for dispensation.

  3. Approaching viscosity control: electrical heating of extra heavy oil as alternative to diluent injection in down hole in Cerro Negro Field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Salazar, Manuel [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, PDVSA (Venezuela)


    Electrical heating is a method used to enhance oil recovery in extra heavy oil reservoirs. This method can be used when diluent injection or other methods are not able to reduce oil viscosity sufficiently or when problems of product quality or quantity arise. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the performance of electrical heating, individually and simultaneously with injection of diluents. For this purpose, simulations were undertaken in one well with integrated electrical heating and diluent injection in Cerro Negro Field in the Orinoco oil belt, Venezuela. Results have shown that the application of both methods together is more profitable than the application of electrical heating alone. This paper demonstrated that the use of electrical heating and diluent injection combined is a valid alternative to diluent injection alone, reducing production loss.

  4. Influence of Reactive Diluent on UV-curing of Acrylate Terminated Hyperbranched Polymers

    TANG Li-ming; FANG Yu; YAN Liang; FU Zhi-wei


    A Aeries of hydroxylic hyperbranched polymers were derived from 2,2-bis(methylol) propionic acid and tris (methylol) propane reacted with acrylic acid to various extents. The obtained acrylated hyperbranched polymers alone or with a monofunctional diluent, isobornylene acrylate(IBOA) were further cured by UV radiation. The cured films based on the modified polymers alone all demonstrated poor mechanical properties due to their high network densities and low moving ability of polymer chains. For the composite systems, the cured films demonstrated improved mechanical properties due to the low network densities and high chain moving ability. With more IBOA included in the systems, acrylate groups can react to a higher extent during the curing process.

  5. Preservação de sêmen refrigerado de cioba com diluentes e atmosfera modificada

    Eduardo Gomes Sanches


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de diferentes diluentes, em atmosfera normal e modificada, na preservação de sêmen refrigerado da cioba - Lutjanus analis. Amostras de sêmen de 30 peixes foram avaliadas quanto à taxa de motilidade, duração da motilidade, concentração espermática e espermatócrito. Para a refrigeração a 4ºC, três diferentes diluentes, com distintas composições iônicas e valores de pH distintos, foram testados em atmosfera normal e atmosfera modificada (100% oxigênio. Posteriormente, um teste de fertilização foi realizado para avaliar a viabilidade do sêmen refrigerado. No experimento de refrigeração, a taxa de motilidade e a duração da motilidade foram adequadas, durante 72 horas, para os diluentes A (48±7%; 190±26 s e B (41±4%; 160±22 s em atmosfera normal. Na atmosfera modificada, a qualidade do sêmen caiu drasticamente durante as primeiras 24 horas, independentemente do diluente utilizado, e não houve vantagem em sua utilização. A taxa de fertilização com sêmen refrigerado por 24 horas, tratado com diluente A, não diferiu daquela com sêmen fresco, e ambas foram superiores à obtida com sêmen refrigerado por 48 horas.

  6. Estudo histopatológico do efeito do tenoxicam e do seu diluente no endotélio venoso, em coelhos

    Schnaider Taylor Brandão


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar pela histopatologia o efeito do tenoxicam e do seu diluente no endotélio venoso, foram utilizados 48 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus, rancos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, machos, com idade acima de 10 semanas, com peso variando entre 2350 e 3500 gramas, divididos em dois grupos, denominados Experimento e Controle, que foram observados nos tempos de 6, 12 e 24 horas. Administrou-se nas venae auriculares dextra e sinistra, diluente ou tenoxicam/diluente no Grupo Experimento e cloreto de sódio a 0,9% no Grupo Controle. Não se observou diferença estatisticamente significante entre o peso dos animais do Grupo Experimento e do Grupo Controle, antes da realização do procedimento. No que se refere à presença ou ausência de trombose, observamos que: após administração do diluente no Grupo Experimento, 19,4% das venae apresentaram trombos; após administração do tenoxicam com o diluente no Grupo Experimento, a incidência de trombose foi também de 19,4%; no Grupo Controle, em que foi injetado cloreto de sódio a 0,9%, nenhuma das venae apresentou trombos. Os resultados observados permitem concluir que o tenoxicam com o seu diluente comercial ou o seu diluente isolado podem acarretar trombose nas venae em que foram injetados.

  7. Estudo morfométrico do efeito do Tenoxicam e do seu diluente no endotélio venoso, em coelhos

    Schnaider Taylor Brandão


    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar pela morfometria o efeito do tenoxicam e do seu diluente no endotélio venoso, foram utilizados 48 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus, brancos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, machos, com idade acima de 10 semanas, com peso variando entre 2.350 e 3.500 gramas, divididos em dois grupos, denominados Experimento e Controle, que foram observados nos tempos de 6, 12 e 24 horas. Administrou-se nas venae auriculares dextra e sinistra, diluente ou tenoxicam/diluente no Grupo Experimento e cloreto de sódio a 0,9% no Grupo Controle. Não se constatou diferença estatisticamente significante entre o peso dos animais do Grupo Experimento e do Grupo Controle, antes da realização do procedimento. Pode-se observar que após a administração do tenoxicam com o seu diluente ou do diluente isolado, os diâmetros dos núcleos das células endoteliais apresentaram significativamente menor dimensão, quando comparados aos do grupo Controle, em que foi injetado cloreto de sódio a 0,9%. Os resultados encontrados permitem concluir que o tenoxicam com o seu diluente comercial ou o diluente isolado reduzem o diâmetro dos núcleos das células endoteliais das venae em que foram injetados os fármacos.

  8. Improvement of frozen semen quality of Garut Sheep through the addition of α-tocopherol into yolk egg-skim milk diluent



    Full Text Available The sperm is very fragile to lipid peroxide reaction, that it can easily broken during the process of freezing. To eliminate this consequences an antioxidant agent added into the extender. A research was done to observe the effect of antioxidant agent α-tocoferrol and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT presence in the extender on the quality of frozen semen. Once week, semen from six male Garut sheep ages about 2.5 years old was collected using artificial vagina and egg yolk skim-milk diluent used as the extender. The semen were treated in egg yolk skim-milk diluent without antioxidant as control, in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol 0,2 g/100 ml diluent and in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with butylated hydroxytoluene 0,2 g/100 ml diluent. The after thawing observation shown that in egg yolk skim-milk diluent with α- tocoferrol had life percentage (75.0 ± 3.5% vs 64.8 ± 7.8% and membrane intact percentage (65.8 ± 6.8 % vs 55.2 ± 8.3% significantly higher than control (P<0,05 but insignificantly different from with BHT addition. The presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent, the motility percentage consideraly higher (P<0.05 than (45.8 ± 3.8% using BHT addition (40.0 ± 4.5% but not different from control (41.7 ± 4.1%; while acrosomal intake percentage after α-tocoferrol (54.8% ± 3.3% expressively higher (p,0.05 than BHT addition (49.7 ± 3.6% or control (49.8 ± 3.5%. In conclusion the presence of α-tocoferrol in the diluent could improve the quality of Garut sheep frozen semen.

  9. The effect of glutathione addition in sperm diluent on the quality of bovine chilled semen

    Endang Triwulaninngsih


    Full Text Available This study has been conducted at the Laboratory of Physiology Reproduction, Research Institute for Animal Production (RIAP, Ciawi-Bogor, West Java. Sperms were collected from FH bulls with body weight 613 kg (FH-1 and 480 kg (FH-2 twice a week. Briefly after quality evaluation, semen was diluted in Tris-Citrate buffer medium, containing egg yolk (20% v/v and (4% v/v glycerol to get spermatozoa concentration of 50 x 106 per ml. Sperm diluents were added with glutathione (GSH with doses of 0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 1.5 mM as treatments A, B, C and D respectively. The diluted semen was then cooled from 35 to 5°C using a cooling machine for 60 minutes then stored in the refrigerator (5°C. Recorded parameters were the survivability of spermatozoa by evaluating the percentage of motile and live, the condition of acrosome and plasma membrane. Data were analysed by completely randomised design with the general linear model (GLM procedure. The characteristics of collected semen were normal. Viability of spermatozoa stored at 5°C for 0, 1, 4 and 8 days shown by intact acrosomal were 74.42; 69.27; 57.80 and 42.58% for A, B, C and D respectively. Those data were significantly different (P<0.01. Motility, live and intact plasma membrane were 46.72; 52.34; 53.44 and 51.09%; 63.59; 69.11; 68.64; and 66.89%, and 66.01; 69.75; 68.38 and 68.44% for treatment A, B, C and D respectively. Additional 0.5 mM GSH gave the highest (P<0.01 motility, live and intact plasma membrane of sperm. Therefore, it is concluded that the effect of addition 0.5 mM of GSH to the sperm diluents can improve the viability of spermatozoa and possibly protect the spermatozoa from free radical damage.

  10. Polymerization of Oriental Lacquer (Urushi with Epoxidized Linseed Oil as a New Reactive Diluent

    Takahisa Ishimura


    Full Text Available A hybrid lacquer (HBL paint prepared by combining a natural kurome lacquer (KL paint and an amino silane reagent, for example, N-(2-aminoethyl-3-aminopropyl triethoxysilane (AATES, produced a polymerized film faster than the KL paint alone. However, the viscosity of the HBL paint was too viscous for easy handling. Addition of 10 wt% of an epoxidized linseed oil, ELO-6, with 6.4 mol% epoxidation as a reactive diluent to the HBL paint decreased the viscosity by 1/2 from 25476 mPa·s to 12841 mPa·s and improved the ease of coatability. The polymerization mechanism was elucidated by NMR measurements of extracts from the resulting polymerization films, suggesting that amino groups in the HBL paint reacted with epoxy groups of ELO-6 in the lacquer matrix, and then the complex reacted with double bonds of the urushiol side-chain by autooxidation and cross-linking reactions to give a hard polymerized film with a high quality of color and gloss. These results indicate that the addition of ELO-6 improved the polymerizability of both KL and HBL paints without decreasing the quality of the resulting films.

  11. The Effect of Diluent Gases In The Shock Tube and Rapid Compression Machine

    Silke, E; W?rmel, J; O?Conaire, M; Simmie, J; Curran, H


    Studying the details of hydrocarbon chemistry in an internal combustion engine is not straightforward. A number of factors, including varying conditions of temperature and pressure, complex fluid motions, as well as variation in the composition of gasoline, render a meaningful characterization of the combusting system difficult. Some simplified experimental laboratory devices offer an alternative to complex engine environments: they remove some of the complexities that exist in real engines but retain the ability to work under engine-relevant conditions. The choice of simplified experimental devices is limited by the range of temperature and pressure at which they can operate; only the shock tube and rapid compression machine (RCM) can reach engine-relevant temperatures and pressures quickly enough and yet withstand the high pressures that occur after the ignition event. Both devices, however, suffer a common drawback: the use of inert diluent gases has been shown to affect the measured ignition delay time under some experimental conditions. Interestingly, this effect appears to be opposite in the shock tube and RCM: in the comparative study of the carrier gases argon and nitrogen, argon decreases the ignition delay time in the shock tube, but increases it in the RCM. This observation is investigated in more detail in this study.

  12. Investigation of the Melting Point Depression of 12-Hydroxystearic Acid Organogels Using the Flory Diluent Model

    Cavicchi, Kevin; Lipowski, Brian


    This talk will focus on the gelation behavior of 12-hydroxystearic acid (12-HSA) in organic solvents. Thermo-reversible gelation occurs by crystallization of 12-HSA in organic solvent to form 3-D fibrillar networks. The melting point vs. composition for 12-HSA in a range of solvents has been measured. The liquidus lines could be fit with the Flory-diluent model that takes into account the non-ideal free energy of mixing and the disparity in the size of the solvent and 12-HSA molecules. The fits indicated that the effective molar volume of 12-HSA increased as the hydrogen bonding Hansen solubility parameter δh of the solvent decreased. This is attributed to the hydrogen-bonding driven aggregation of the 12-HSA in the liquid state based on previous observations that 12-HSA forms aggregated structures in non-polar solvents (e.g. dimers and tetrameters). These results indicate that the stabilization of the solid phase in 12-HSA solutions has contributions from both variations in the entropy of mixing as well the enthalpy of mixing. The importance of both these factors for designing small molecule gelators will be discussed.

  13. Evaluation of degree of blending colored diluents using color difference signal method.

    Miyazaki, Yasunori; Uchino, Tomonobu; Kagawa, Yoshiyuki


    We developed a color difference signal method to evaluate the degree of blending powdered medicines in pharmacies. In the method, the degree of blending is expressed as the relative standard deviation of the color difference signal value (Cb or Cr) of the YCbCr color space after digital photos of the blended medicines are analyzed by image processing. While the method is effective to determine the degree of blending colored medicines, it remains unknown whether it can be applied to uncolored or white-colored medicines. To investigate this, we examined colored diluents to identify an indicator of the degree mixtures are blended. In this study, we applied this method to Pontal® and Prednisolone® powders, which were used as uncolored and white-colored medicines, respectively. Each of these medicines was blended with the colored lactose using a pestle and mortar, and then the uniformity of blending was evaluated. The degree of blending was well-monitored in both mixtures with various blending ratios (1 : 9-9 : 1), showing a sufficient uniformity at 60 rotations of the pestle. Moreover, the Cr values of the mixtures with various blending ratios were correlated with the concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients in these medicines, which was determined using HPLC. This indicated the usefulness of the color difference signal method for the quantitative determination of medicines. Thus, we demonstrated the applicability and effectiveness of this method to check dispensing powders.


    Eduardo Shigueiro Sakaguti


    Full Text Available Sêmen de Piaractus mesopotamicus foi conservado no diluente regularmente utilizado para peixes, constituído de 20 % de gema de ovo + 5 % glicose, com 10 % dedimetil sulfóxido (DMSO (controle e quatro soluções utilizadas em diluição de sêmen de suínos: Zorlesco modificado (ZOR, BTZOR (desenvolvido na Universidade Estadual de Maringá, Andro-Hepes e Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, todos acrescidos de 0,16g de KCl mais 10% de glicerol. A motilidade progressiva e o vigor espermático foram superiores no diluente gema de ovo+glicose(16% e 2,55 pontos, respectivamente (P>0,05 aos diluidores ZOR, BTZOR, Andro-Hepes e BTS (0,25% e 0,34pontos, respectivamente, porém inferior (P<0,05 ao sêmen in natura, (75,00% e 3,40 pontos, respectivamente. A morfologia espermática não apresentou diferença entre os cinco diluentes, mas o percentual médio de espermatozóides normais e de patologias secundárias foi menor (P<0,05, após a descongelação, nos cincos diluentes crioprotetores em relação ao sêmen in natura. As patologias com maior incidência foram cauda dobrada e cabeça solta (patologias secundárias e cauda enrolada e curta (patologias primárias.Os meios para sêmen de suíno testados neste experimento não se apresentaram eficientes na congelação do sêmen de P. mesopotamicus. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Aquacultura, crioprotetor, diluidores, dimetil sulfóxido, glicerol.

  15. Effects of diluents on soot surface temperature and volume fraction in diluted ethylene diffusion flames at pressure

    Kailasanathan, Ranjith Kumar Abhinavam


    Soot surface temperature and volume fraction are measured in ethylene/air coflowing laminar diffusion flames at high pressures, diluted with one of four diluents (argon, helium, nitrogen, and carbon dioxide) using a two-color technique. Both temperature and soot measurements presented are line-of-sight averages. The results aid in understanding the kinetic and thermodynamic behavior of the soot formation and oxidation chemistry with changes in diluents, ultimately leading to possible methods of reducing soot emission from practical combustion hardware. The diluted fuel and coflow exit velocities (top-hat profiles) were matched at all pressures to minimize shear effects. In addition to the velocity-matched flow rates, the mass fluxes were held constant for all pressures. Addition of a diluent has a pronounced effect on both the soot surface temperature and volume fraction, with the helium diluted flame yielding the maximum and carbon dioxide diluted flame yielding minimum soot surface temperature and volume fraction. At low pressures, peak soot volume fraction exists at the tip of the flame, and with an increase in pressure, the location shifts lower to the wings of the flame. Due to the very high diffusivity of helium, significantly higher temperature and volume fraction are measured and explained. Carbon dioxide has the most dramatic soot suppression effect. By comparing the soot yield with previously measured soot precursor concentrations in the same flame, it is clear that the lower soot yield is a result of enhanced oxidation rates rather than a reduction in precursor formation. Copyright © 2014 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  16. Characterization of solvents containing CyMe4-BTPhen in selected cyclohexanone-based diluents after irradiation by accelerated electrons

    Distler Petr


    Full Text Available Radiation stability of CyMe4-BTPhen was examined in systems with three selected cyclohexanone-based diluents. Accelerated electrons were used as a source of ionizing radiation. The CyMe4-BTPhen radiation degradation identification and characterization of the degradation products were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and mass spectrometry (MS analyses. Residual concentrations of tested ligand were determined. Moreover, extraction properties of the solvents irradiated at two different doses were compared with the extraction properties of non-irradiated solvents to estimate the influence of the presence of degradation products in the organic phase.

  17. Effect of diluents on the extraction of praseodymium and samarium by Cyanex 923 from acidic nitrate medium

    YA; El-Nadi


    The solvent extraction of Pr(Ⅲ) and Sm(Ⅲ) with trialkyl phosphine oxide(Cyanex 923) in chloroform,carbon tetrachloride,n-octane,cyclohexane,1,2-dichloroethane,benzene,toluene,xylene and nitrobenzene from acidic nitrate medium was investigated.On the basis of slope analysis data,the composition of the extracted species was determined as(M(NO3)3?2CY923),CY923 refers to Cyanex 923.The values of the equilibrium constants and the separation factors were calculated.The effect of the diluents on the metal extracti...

  18. Effect of Diluents on the Extraction of Oxalic Acid by Trialkylphosphine Oxide%稀释剂对三烷基氧膦萃取草酸的影响

    李玉鑫; 王运东; 戴猷元


    In liquid-liquid solvent extraction processes, diluents have a strong influence on the extraction mechanism and efficiency. In this study, benzene, cyclohexane, trichloromethane, carbon tetrachloride, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK), butyl acetate, and 1-octanol were used as diluents in the extraction of oxalic acid by trialkylphosphine oxide (TRPO). The effects of extractant concentration, initial concentration of oxalic acid and diluent type on the extraction equilibrium partition coefficient are analyzed. The sequence of the extraction ability by different diluents is MIBK > butyl acetate > cyclohexane=benzene > carbon tetrachloride > 1-octanol > trichloromethane.Extraction mechanism was analyzed and extraction model parameters were evaluated.

  19. Influence of diluent alkyl substitution on the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) by a 6,6'-bis(1,2,4-triazin-3-yl)-2,2'-bipyridine ligand dissolved in alkylated cyclohexanone diluents

    Distler, P.; Spendlikova, I. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; John, J. [Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Czech Technical Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Centre for Radiochemistry and Radiation Chemistry; Harwood, L.M.; Hudson, M.J.; Lewis, F.W. [Reading Univ., Berkshire (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemistry


    Several alkylated cyclohexanones were investigated as potential diluents for the selective extraction of Am(III) from Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions by the CyMe{sub 4}-BTBP ligand. No significant extraction of either of the metal ions was observed for these diluents themselves. In the extractions from 1 M HNO{sub 3}, 3-methylcyclohexanone and 4-methylcyclohexanone gave comparable results to cyclohexanone whereas in the extractions from 4 M HNO{sub 3}, 2-methylcyclohexanone, 3-methylcyclohexanone and 4-methylcyclohexanone all gave superior results. For the monomethylated diluents, D{sub Am} and SF{sub Am/Eu} decreased in the order of alkyl substitution 2 > 4 {proportional_to} 3. However, alkyl substitution of cyclohexanone significantly slows down the extraction kinetics compared to cyclohexanone, and the position of alkyl substitution was found to play an important role in the solvents properties. 3-Methylcyclohexanone was identified as the most promising of the diluents. (orig.)

  20. Surface Dilution Kinetics Using Substrate Analog-Enantiomers as Diluents: Enzymatic Lipolysis by Bee-Venom Phospholipase A2

    Singh, Jasmeet; Ranganathan, Radha; Hajdu, Joseph


    A novel assay employing D-enantiomers of phospholipids as diluents for characterizing surface kinetics of lipid hydrolysis by phospholipases is introduced. The rationale of the method are: (i) D-enantiomers resist hydrolysis because of the stereoselectivity of the enzymes toward L-enantiomers and (ii) mixtures of L+D-lipids at various L:D ratios but constant L+D-lipid concentrations yield a surface dilution series of variable L-lipid concentration with constant medium properties. Kinetic characterization of bee-venom phospholipase A2 activity at bile salt + phospholipid aggregate-water interfaces was performed using the mixed L+D-lipid surface dilution assay and interface kinetic parameters were obtained. The assay applies to bio-membrane models as well. Activity was measured by pH-Stat methods. Aggregation numbers and interface hydration/microviscosity measured by time resolved fluorescence quenching and electron spin resonance respectively confirmed that interface properties were indeed invariant in a surface dilution series, supporting rationale (ii) and were used to calculate substrate concentrations. Activity data show excellent agreement with a kinetic model derived with D-enantiomers as diluents and also that D-phospholipids bind to the enzyme but resist hydrolysis; underscoring rationale (i). The assay is significant to enabling determination of interface specific kinetic parameters for the first time and thereby characterization of interface specificity of lipolytic enzymes. PMID:20727845

  1. Gradients of Rectification: Tuning Molecular Electronic Devices by the Controlled Use of Different-Sized Diluents in Heterogeneous Self-Assembled Monolayers.

    Kong, Gyu Don; Kim, Miso; Cho, Soo Jin; Yoon, Hyo Jae


    Molecular electronics has received significant attention in the last decades. To hone performance of devices, eliminating structural defects in molecular components inside devices is usually needed. We herein demonstrate this problem can be turned into a strength for modulating the performance of devices. We show the systematic dilution of a monolayer of an organic rectifier (2,2'-bipyridine-terminated n-undecanethiolate) with electronically inactive diluents (n-alkanethiolates of different lengths), gives remarkable gradients of rectification. Rectification is finely tunable in a range of approximately two orders of magnitude, retaining its polarity. Trends of rectification against the length of the diluent indicate the gradient of rectification is extremely sensitive to the molecular structure of the diluent. Further studies reveal that noncovalent intermolecular interactions within monolayers likely leads to gradients of structural defect and rectification.

  2. Effect of homeopathic treatment used in commercial boar semen diluent on sperm viability

    Mayra Assunpção


    maintain acrossome integrity for prolonged periods of cooling over 48 hours. The use of Pulsatilla was effective in maintaining high sperm mitochondria activity up to 24 hours from harvesting. Conclusion: Homeopathic medications can be used in artificial insemination in order to improve the quality of cooled and stored pig semen [1]. Keywords: homeopathy, swine semen, sperm viability. Reference [1] Soto, F. R. M.; Vuaden, E. R.; Coelho, C. P.; Bonamin, L. V.; Azevedo, S. S. A.; Benites, N. R.; Barros, F. R. O.; Goissis, M. D.; Assumpção, M. E. O. D.; Visintin, J. A.; Marques, M. G. Effects of the utilization of homeopathic elements in commercial diluent on swine sperm viability. In Vitro Cell.Dev.Biol.—Animal. 47:205–209, 2011.

  3. Effect of different antioxidant additives in semen diluent on cryopreservability (−196°C of buffalo semen

    Hardik A. Patel


    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different antioxidant additives in standard tris-fructose-egg yolkglycerol (TFYG extender on the cryopreservability of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen collection using artificial vagina, twice weekly for 5 weeks from three pedigreed health breeding bulls of Mehsani breed, aged between 6 and 8 years. Immediately after initial evaluation all 30 qualifying ejaculates (10/bull were split into three aliquots and diluted at 34°C keeping the concentration of 100 million spermatozoa/ml with standard TFYG extender as control and TFYG having two antioxidant additives - Cysteine HCl at 1 mg/ml and ascorbic acid at 0.2 mg/ml to study their comparative performance. Semen filled in French Mini straws using IS-4 system and gradually cooled to 4°C and equilibrated for 4 h in cold handing cabinet. After completion of equilibration, straws were cryopreserved in LN2 by Programmable Bio-freezer. Semen was examined at post-dilution, post-equilibration, and post-thaw stages for sperm quality parameters, and at each stage plasma was separated for enzymatic analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, and alkaline phosphatase (AKP. Results: The mean percentage of sperms in TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at postthaw stage in terms of progressive motility (52.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52, livability (78.70±0.21, 82.33±0.23, 81.73±0.22, and abnormality (5.43±0.21, 5.03±0.17, 5.23±0.18 varied significantly (p<0.05 between control TFYG and TFYG having antioxidant additives. The mean U/L activities of AST (78.70±0.47, 72.80±0.48, 73.30±0.54, LDH (172.70±0.41, 155.78±0.42, 156.33±0.41, and AKP (103.61±0.34, 90.20±0.34, 91.03±0.34 in semen diluted with TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage, respectively, which showed significantly (p<0.05 higher leakage of enzymes in control TFYG than TFYG

  4. Recovery of Pyruvic Acid using Tri-n-butylamine Dissolved in Non-Toxic Diluent (Rice Bran Oil)

    Pal, Dharm; Keshav, Amit


    An attempt has been made to investigate the effectiveness of the vegetable oil based biocompatible solvent for the separation of pyruvic acid from fermentation broth, by using rice bran oil as natural, non-toxic diluent. Reactive extraction of pyruvic acid (0.1-0.5 k mol/m3) from aqueous solutions has been studied using tri-n-butylamine (TBA; 10-70 %) as an extractant dissolved in non toxic rice bran oil at T = 30 ± 1 °C. Results were presented in terms of distribution coefficient (Kd), extraction efficiency (E %), loading ratio (Z), and complexation constant (\\varphi_{α β }). Extraction equilibrium was interpreted using mass action modeling approach. Based on the extent of loading (Z < 0.5) only (1:1), pyruvic acid: TBA complex was proposed. Equilibrium complexation constant was evaluated to 1.22 m3/k mol. Results obtained are useful in understanding the extraction mechanism.


    G. Malmary


    Full Text Available Tertiary alkylamines in solution with organic diluents are attractive extractants for the recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous phases. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism for extraction of organic acids from water by a long-chain aliphatic tertiary amine. In order to attain this objective, we studied the liquid-liquid equilibria between the triisooctylamine + 1-octanol + n-heptane system as solvent and an aqueous solution of an individual carboxylic acid such as citric, lactic and malic acids. The experiments showed that the partition coefficient for a particular organic acid depends on the kind of solute, notably when the acid concentration in the aqueous phase is low. A mathematical model, where both chemical association and physical distribution are taken into consideration, is proposed. The model suggests that the various complexes obtained between amine and organic acids contribute to the distribution of the solute between the coexisting phases in equilibrium.

  6. Adulterants and diluents in heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine found on the illicit drug market in Aarhus, Denmark

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lindholst, Christian; Kaa, Elisabet


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the composition of heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine seized in the police district of Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, during a 2-year period. The purity of the active substance was measured together with the frequency and purity of adulte......The aim of the present study was to investigate the composition of heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine seized in the police district of Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, during a 2-year period. The purity of the active substance was measured together with the frequency and purity...... of adulterants and diluents present in the drugs. Results are compared with a similar study conducted ten years earlier. The concentrations of the active substances in illicit heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine samples have decreased significantly over a 10-year period. This finding shows that the "cutting...

  7. Use of Penicillin and Streptomycin to Reduce Spread of Bacterial Coldwater Disease II: Efficacy of Using Antibiotics in Diluents and During Water Hardening.

    Oplinger, Randall W; Wagner, Eric J; Cavender, Wade


    Bacterial coldwater disease, caused by Flavobacterium psychrophilum, has lead to the loss of significant numbers of hatchery-reared salmonids. The bacteria can be spread from parent to progeny within contaminated sperm and ovarian fluid and can enter the egg during fertilization. The addition of antibiotics to diluents and water-hardening solutions could prevent the spread of the disease. In separate trials, a mixture of 0.197 mg/mL penicillin plus 0.313 mg/mL streptomycin was added to both a 0.5% sodium chloride fertilization diluent and hatchery well water during hardening. Tests showed that the addition of the antibiotics to the diluent and during up to 60 min of water hardening had no effect on the eye-up, hatch and deformity rates of Rainbow Trout Oncorhynchus mykiss eggs compared with the nonantibiotic-treated controls. Also, significant reductions in the prevalence of F. psychrophilum on the surface and inside eggs were observed when compared with controls. These results indicate that the addition of penicillin and streptomycin to diluents and during water hardening can prevent the vertical transmission of bacterial coldwater disease.

  8. Osmolarity of Coconut Water (Cocos nucifera Based Diluents and their Effect Over Viability of Frozen Boar Semen

    Bottini Luzardo


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Boar sperm cells are sensitive to the freezing process, which compromises viability of frozen-thawed sperm. In a constant search for minimizing or suppressing sperm cell damage caused by the temperature and osmolarity changes during the freezing process, crioprotective and antioxidant substances have been added to the freezing media, such as coconut water, in order to increase the viability of frozen-thawed swine semen. The addition of any substance to the freezing diluent, directly affects osmolarity of the media, which can have positive or negative effects over the sperm cell. Approach: There are no published studies currently that indicate the effect of adding coconut water over the osmolarity of freezing media and their effect over viability of sperm cells, therefore, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of coconut water based diluents osmolarity over the Motility (Mot, Acrosome Integrity (AI, Membrane Integrity (MI and Mitochondrial Activity (MA of thawed boar sperm cells. The treatments used were control T1 (LEY with bidistilled water + LEYGO with an osmolarity range of 296-368 mOsmol Kg-1, T2 (LEY and deionized coconut water + LEYGO between 381 and 480 mOsmol Kg-1 and T3 (LEY and in natura coconut water + LEYGO between 519 and 1041 mOsmol Kg-1. The Westendorf modified method was the freezing method used. The obtained data were statistically analyzed by GLM, using the SAS software (SAS, 2000. Results: A significant difference was observed on T2 compared to T1 regarding Mot 41.9 Vs 36.9% and MI 58.0 Vs 50.2. T3 had a detrimental effect on all studied variables. Conclusion: Under our study conditions, the osmolarity range of T2, due to the non ionic solutes content, contributed to improve the viability of frozen-thawed sperm cells.

  9. Effect of different antioxidant additives in semen diluent on cryopreservability (−196°C) of buffalo semen

    Patel, Hardik A.; Siddiquee, G. M.; Chaudhari, Dinesh V.; Suthar, Vishal S.


    Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different antioxidant additives in standard tris-fructose-egg yolk-glycerol (TFYG) extender on the cryopreservability of buffalo semen. Materials and Methods: Semen collection using artificial vagina, twice weekly for 5 weeks from three pedigreed health breeding bulls of Mehsani breed, aged between 6 and 8 years. Immediately after initial evaluation all 30 qualifying ejaculates (10/bull) were split into three aliquots and diluted at 34°C keeping the concentration of 100 million spermatozoa/ml with standard TFYG extender as control and TFYG having two antioxidant additives - Cysteine HCl at 1 mg/ml and ascorbic acid at 0.2 mg/ml to study their comparative performance. Semen filled in French Mini straws using IS-4 system and gradually cooled to 4°C and equilibrated for 4 h in cold handing cabinet. After completion of equilibration, straws were cryopreserved in LN2 by Programmable Bio-freezer. Semen was examined at post-dilution, post-equilibration, and post-thaw stages for sperm quality parameters, and at each stage plasma was separated for enzymatic analysis of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (AKP). Results: The mean percentage of sperms in TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage in terms of progressive motility (52.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52, 57.83±0.52), livability (78.70±0.21, 82.33±0.23, 81.73±0.22), and abnormality (5.43±0.21, 5.03±0.17, 5.23±0.18) varied significantly (p<0.05) between control TFYG and TFYG having antioxidant additives. The mean U/L activities of AST (78.70±0.47, 72.80±0.48, 73.30±0.54), LDH (172.70±0.41, 155.78±0.42, 156.33±0.41), and AKP (103.61±0.34, 90.20±0.34, 91.03±0.34) in semen diluted with TFYG, TFYG + cysteine HCl and TFYG + ascorbic acid diluents at post-thaw stage, respectively, which showed significantly (p<0.05) higher leakage of enzymes in control TFYG than TFYG

  10. Effects of diluents and plasma on honey bee (Apis mellifera L.) drone frozen-thawed semen fertility.

    Gül, Aziz; Şahinler, Nuray; Onal, Ali G; Hopkins, Brandon K; Sheppard, Walter S


    Cryopreservation is an advanced method used to protect germplasm in liquid nitrogen. Honey bees are of special interest to protect because of their pollination activity and critical role in agriculture. There has been important progress in the cryopreservation of honey bee germplasm in recent years, leading to practical recovery of genetic material for breeding purposes following freezing. However, there remains room for improvement and the goal of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different "extenders" added post-thaw on the fertilization rate of cryopreserved honey bee semen. The purpose of adding extender post-thaw was to dilute the cryoprotectant to remove chemicals after centrifugation because of potential adverse effects. The control consisted of frozen-thawed semen without the addition of an extender; treatment groups included the addition of one of the following extenders: glucose solution, fresh ram semen plasma, fresh honey bee semen plasma, extender solution. All of the above treatments and frozen-thawed control were compared to fresh semen. For each group, 15 virgin queens were instrumentally inseminated with the semen-diluent solution and introduced into nucleus colonies to determine the brood patterns of the queens. Percentages of worker brood produced in the fresh semen, frozen-thawed semen control, glucose, fresh ram semen plasma, fresh honey bee semen plasma, and extender solution supplemented groups were 98.±1.1%, 47.0 ± 0.9%, 3.0 ± 0.8%, 0.3 ± 0.1%, 48.1 ± 4.1% and 40.3 ± 2.4%, respectively. Similiarly, spermatozoa numbers in the spermathecae of the same treatment groups were 3.6 × 10(6), 1.6 × 10(6), 7.3 × 10(5), 4.7 × 10(5), 8.1 × 10(5), and 4.6 × 10(5) spermatozoa for the same treatment, respectively. The differences in both worker brood percentage and sperm count in the spermatheca were statistically significant (P drone semen plasma group. We found a positive correlation between sperm count in

  11. [Fertility results after insemination of a moderate count of cock sperm, diluted in Blumberger cock sperm diluent and homologous seminal plasma].

    Schramm, G P


    Incomplete studies into artificial insemination of White Leghorn hens appear to suggest that the generally common number of cock spermatozoa per insemination can be considerably reduced without adverse consequences for reproduction results. Fertilisation rates between 89.4 and 94.9% were recorded from inseminations of as little as 20 x 10(6) spermatozoa, based on tenfold dilution of ejaculate collections in Blumberg Cock Sperma Diluent (BCSD) or homologous seminal plasma or differentiated combinations of both. Addition of increasing amounts of seminal plasma, however, caused decline in hatching rates as a result of rising embryonic mortality. Best suitability was recorded from a diluent combination of 75% of BCSD with 25% of seminal plasma, with the hatching rate being 85.0%.

  12. A comparative study of the dissolution characteristics of capsule and tablet dosage forms of melt granulations of paracetamol--diluent effects.

    Uhumwangho, Michael U; Okor, Roland S


    The dissolution characteristics of melt granulations of paracetamol in capsule and tablet dosage form were compared to determine whether the dissolution characteristics of the granules can be actualized by formulating them as rapidly disintegrating tablets. The term melt granulation refers here to the wax-matrix granules that were formed by triturating the drug powder (paracetamol) with a melted carnauba wax. The matrix granules were admixed with diluents (lactose, alpha-cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose) also in granular form to prevent size separation during encapsulation or tableting. The granules were filled into hard gelatin capsules (mean content weight, 500 +/- 6.2 mg) or tableted (mean weight 500 +/- 5.1 mg, and tensile strength 1.36 +/- 0.2 to 1.7 +/- 0.3 MN/m2). The capsules and tablets were subjected to disintegration and in vitro dissolution tests. The dissolution data were analyzed on the basis of zero, first order rate kinetics and Higuchi square root of time relationship. The results showed that the dissolution profiles were generally consistent with a first order rate kinetics (r = 0.95). The first order dissolution rate constants of capsules and tablets of the matrix granules only (without diluents) were 0.31 +/- 0.02 min(-1) and 0.20 +/- 0.03 min(-1), respectively, indicating faster dissolution from the capsules. Therefore, the dissolution characteristics of the matrix particles were not intact after tableting. Addition of diluents to the capsule formulations had no effect on dissolution rates, whereas in the tablets, dissolution rates increased. For instance, inclusion of a diluent up to 50% w/w in the tablets increased the dissolution rate constants to 0.34 +/- 0.04 min(-1) (lactose), 0.42 +/- 0.02 min(-1) (alpha-cellulose), and 0.46 +/- 0.03 min(-1) (microcrystalline cellulose). Thus, alpha-cellulose and microcrystalline cellulose produced greater enhancer effect on the tablet dissolution rates compared to lactose. Both the capsules and

  13. Effect of Hydrophilic Diluents on the Degradation Kinetics of Rutin%亲水性稀释剂对芦丁降解动力学的影响

    姚倩; 郭晓强; 颜军; 何钢; 张宇; 苟小军


    目的:研究3种常用亲水性稀释剂在固态和溶液状态下对芦丁降解动力学的影响.方法:将芦丁分别与亲水性稀释剂配伍,制成溶液态或固态的混合物,在40、60℃下定时取样并测定芦丁含量,用降解动力学方程对不同芦丁溶液的浓度-时间数据进行拟合.结果:在固态下,使用乳糖或混合稀释剂可显著提高芦丁稳定性,但甘露醇和蔗糖与芦丁配伍加速了药物的降解;在溶液状态下,3种辅料的加入均提高了芦丁的稳定性,大部分溶液的降解过程符合一级动力学方程.结论:在固态和溶液状态下,亲水性辅料对芦丁稳定性有不同的影响.%OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of three hydrophilic diluents on the degradation kinetics of rutin in solid and solution state. METHODS: Rutin was mixed with hydrophilic diluents to prepare the solution and solid mixtures. They were exposed to 40 ℃ and 60 ℃, respectively. The contents of rutin were determined at certain intervals. The c-t data of the different rutin solutions were fitted by the degradation kinetic equations. RESULTS: In solid state, lactose and the mixed diluents significantly increased the stability of rutin, while mannitol and sucrose accelerated the degradation of the compound. In solution state, the stability of rutin was increased with the addition of the three hydrophilic diluents and most of degradation processes were accordant with the first order kinetic equation. CONCLUSION: In solid and solution state, the effect of the hydrophilic diluents on the stability of rutin is different.

  14. Factorial study on influence of gas generating agent and diluent on drug release kinetics of clopidogrel bisulfate floating tablets

    K R Koteswara Rao


    Full Text Available The purpose of present work was to formulate and characterize a floating drug delivery system for Clopidogrel bisulphate to improve bioavailability and to minimize the side-effects of the drug such as gastric bleeding and drug resistance development. Clopidogrel floating tablets were prepared by direct compression technique by the use of xanthan gum at different concentrations (20%, 25% and 30% w/w. Sodium bicarbonate (15% w/w and microcrystalline cellulose (MCC (30% w/w were used as gas generating agent and diluent respectively. The effects of sodium bicarbonate and MCC on the drug release kinetics and floating properties were investigated. A 2 2 factorial design was applied systematically to optimized formulation. The percentage amount of sodium bicarbonate (X 1 and percentage amount of MCC (X 2 were selected as independent variables. The drug release rate constant (K and time required for 85% drug dissolution (T85 was selected as dependent variables. Factorial design revealed that the percentage amount of sodium bicarbonate and MCC had insignificant effect on drug release kinetics (K, T85 within the chosen levels and a high level of sodium bicarbonate (X 1 and the low level of MCC (X 2 favor the preparation of clopidogrel floating tablets. All the Clopidogrel floating formulations followed first order kinetics, Higuchi drug release kinetics with diffusion as the dominant mechanism of drug release. As per Korsmeyer-Peppas equation, the release exponent "n" ranged 0.455-0.654 indicating that drug release from all the formulations was by non-fickian diffusion mechanism.

  15. Influence of the reactive diluent on electron beam curable funtionalized N-(4-hydroxyl phenyl) maleimide derivatives – Studies on thermal degradation kinetics using model free approach

    Pitchaimari, G. [Department of Polymer Technology, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, S.P.G.C. Nagar, K. Vellakulam, Tamil Nadu 625 701 (India); Sarma, K.S.S.; Varshney, Lalit [Radiation Technology Development Section, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Vijayakumar, C.T., E-mail: [Department of Polymer Technology, Kamaraj College of Engineering and Technology, S.P.G.C. Nagar, K. Vellakulam, Tamil Nadu 625 701 (India)


    Highlights: • Materials with maleimide and NVP ratio of 80:20 show better thermal stability. • The initial degradation temperatures are high at higher NVP concentration. • The E{sub a} values for ENVP are low compared to other materials investigated. • Polymers derived from DCNX needs highest E{sub a} value. • Cyanate ester functionalized materials offers better thermal stability. - Abstract: Electron beam curing of N-(4-acryloyloxy phenyl) maleimide, N-(4-methacryloyloxy phenyl) maleimide, and N-(4-cyanato phenyl) maleimide with different concentrations (80:20, 60:40, 40:60, and 20:80) of the reactive diluent N-vinylpyrrolidone (NVP) and pure NVP were investigated. The structures of all the polymers prepared were confirmed by FTIR studies and to understand the effect of the diluent concentration on the thermal stabilities of the E-beam cured polymers detailed thermogravimetric analyses were carried out. The thermal degradation kinetics is investigated using Vyazovkin, Flynn–Wall–Ozawa and Friedman methods. Of all the liquid compositions investigated materials with functionalized maleimide to NVP concentration in the ratio of 80:20 need highest activation energies for the thermal degradation and are found to have better thermal stabilities. The composition N-(4-cyanato phenyl) maleimide (80%) and NVP (20%) cured by E-beam radiation (400 kGy) lead to thermoset which showed the highest char value (30%) at 600 °C in nitrogen atmosphere.

  16. The use of skimmed dried milk as an alternative diluent for the cooling step during the boar sêmen freezing procedure

    Tatyane Bandeira Barros


    Full Text Available One of the critical points in the cryopreservation process is the use of a proper diluent while lowering the temperature following the resuspension and thawing processes. Here, we tested an alternative diluent for the process of freezing boar semen. We used skimmed dried milk (SDM during the cooling and post-thawed resuspension steps. To do so, we collected semen from 15 Dalland boars using the glovedhand technique, and incubated each ejaculate sample at 30 °C. We then removed two semen aliquots from a pre-dilution. We diluted one of the aliquots in Beltsville thawing solution (BTS - control, and the remaining sample was diluted in SDM. Both aliquots were subsequently held at 30º C for 45 min (1st period of stabilization. At the end of this period, we analysed vigor and motility to determine sperm metabolic activity. We then held the diluted semen at 25° C for 30 min (2nd period of stabilization and at 17° C for 2 h (3rd period stabilization. We centrifuged the semen at 800 × g and 1600 × g at 5º C for 15 min, discarded the supernatant, and resuspended the sperm pellet in 2 mL of the cooling diluent at 5° C for 1h. We again diluted the samples in 2 mL of the freezing diluent, poured them into straws, and cooled and plunged them into liquid N2. The sêmen samples were thawed in a 39º C water bath, and were resuspended in their respective diluents at the same temperature. We determined the following sperm features: vigor, motility, vitality, acrosomal integrity and membrane functionality. During the first phase of temperature cooling (30º C, semen diluted in SDM exhibited a higher vigor (3.4 ± 0.6 and motility (78.6 ± 13.0 than those diluted BTS (vigor: 3.1 ± 0.7; motility: 69.4±14.3. However, after the thawing procedure, the inverse was observed in that: BTS samples exhibited a higher vigor (2.1 ± 0.6 and motility (35.5 ± 21.0 than SDM samples (vigor: 1.7 ± 0.9; motility: 22.8 ± 18.1. Regarding membrane functionality and

  17. Effect of Different Diluents on Boar Semen Preservation at Normal Temperature%不同稀释液对猪精液常温保存效果的研究



    选取杜洛克公猪精液作为试验材料,比较5种稀释液时猪精液的保存效果,结果表明:用葡萄糖—柠檬酸稀释液,所保存精液的pH值、精子活率、精子畸形率等品质指标表现良好,且稀释液的成本低廉,自配简单易行,适于农村养猪户推行;基层常用的葡萄糖稀释液保存3d时的精子活率性状表现不佳,仅适合于现配现用.BL—液(美国)稀释液的保存效果也比较好,但该稀释液组分复杂,配制较难,成本也较高,可在规模养猪场中推广.%The Duroc boar semen was chosen as the tested material, and the preservation effect of 5 kinds of diluents on boar semen at normal temperature was compared. The results showed that the quality indexes (pH - value, sperm survival rate and sperm deformity rate, etc. ) of boar semen which was preserved in glucose -citric acid diluent expressed well; moreover, glucose -citric acid diluent was cheap, and was easily prepared, so it was suitable for being popularized in countryside. The sperm survival rate of boar semen preserved in frequently - used glucose diluent for 3 days expressed not so well, therefore the prepared glucose diluent should be quickly used for the boar semen preservation. The preservation effect of BL-liquid (made in America) was better, but this diluent had complex components and high cost, and was hardly prepared, so it could only be popularized in hoggery.

  18. Influence of addition of different antibiotics in semen diluent on viable bacterial count and spermatozoal viability of Awassi ram semen

    O I Azawi


    Full Text Available The objectives of the present study were to determine the effects of six different antibiotics in controlling the growth of semen contaminating bacteria and if these antibiotics have any adverse effect on Awassi ram spermatozoa. Semen samples from six mature Awassi rams were used in this study. A total number of 120 ejaculates were collected from the rams using an artificial vagina once a week. Semen ejaculates were evaluated for volume, sperm concentration, mass motility, individual motility, percentage live sperm, sperm abnormalities, and viable bacterial count. Semen samples were diluted by sodium citrate-fructose-egg yolk. The diluted semen sample was divided into 7 parts. Six types of antibiotics were added to the semen diluent parts including; penicillin G 1000 IU ml-1 with streptomycin 1 mg ml-1, gentamicin sulphate 250 mg ml-1, tetracycline 0.5 mg ml-1, lincomycin 1 mg ml-1, cefoperazone sodium 1mg ml-1, cefdinir 1 mg ml-1 and the seventh part considered as a control group without antibiotic addition. The diluted semen samples were cooled and preserved at 5 Co for 5 days. Cooled diluted semen samples were examined for individual motility, percent of live sperm, sperm abnormalities, acrosomal defects and bacterial count every 24 h until 5 days. Comparing with the control, all the antibiotics examined were effective in controlling bacterial growth (P<0.05 from 24 h to 96 h of preservation at 5 Co. Cefdinir and cefoperazone sodium proved to be significantly (P<0.05 effective than other antibiotics in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 23.3 ± 3.7 x 103 / ml and 25.4 ± 6.2 x 103 / ml, respectively. Lincomycin, gentamicin sulphate and tetracycline proved ineffective in controlling bacterial growth at 96 h of preservation as the bacterial count were 57.1 ± 20.1 x 103 / ml, 52.5 ± 29.4 x 103 / ml and 46.5 ± 8.8 x 103 / ml, respectively. The addition of tetracycline to diluted ram semen

  19. 不同稀释剂中三辛胺相对于有机羧酸碱度的研究%Relative Basicity of Trioctylamine to Carboxylic Acid in Selected Organic Diluents

    单欣昌; 秦炜; 戴猷元


    The relative basicity of trioctylamine (TOA), pKa,BS, in protic polar diluent (1-octanol), non-protic polar diluent [methyl iso-butyl ketone (MIBK)] and inert diluent (CCl4) were determined for 11 mono-carboxylic acids, and the dependence of pKa,BS on the nature of solute and diluent type was discussed. The results show that pKa,BS determined by half neutralization with the solute carboxylic acid is in the order of 1-octanol>MIBK>CCl4for a fixed TOA concentration, and it increases with increasing acidity and hydrophobicity of the carboxylic acid.Compared with two parameters of the solute extracted (acidity and hydrophobicity), pKa,BS is more sensitive to hydrophobicity of the acid. A mathematic equation representing relationship between the apparent extraction equilibrium (K11) and the system properties (pKa,BS and pKa) was proposed: lg K11 = 2pKa,BS-pKa. It is proved that the extraction equilibrium of mono-carboxylic acids can be predicted by the above equation with reasonable accuracy.

  20. Comparação de diluentes, diluições e tempo de armazenamento do sêmen sobre fertilidade, eclodibilidade e nascimento de pintos em matrizes pesadas Comparation of diluents, dilutions and storage time of heavy broiler breeder semen on fertility, hatchability and chick production

    Elsio Antonio Pereira de Figueiredo


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar o melhor diluente, a diluição e o tempo de armazenamento para sêmen de galo. Um total de 60 galos e 630 galinhas com 55 semanas de idade foi artificialmente inseminado, uma vez por semana, por seis semanas consecutivas, utilizando-se 0,05 mL de sêmen/galinha. Os tratamentos foram: T1 = sêmen diluído com diluente comercial-DC; T2 = sêmen diluído com diluente Beltsville Poultry Sêmen Extender-BPSE; T3 = sêmen diluído com solução de Lake-LAKE; e T4 = sêmen fresco puro (Testemunha. Os níveis de diluição (D foram D=0 (não-diluído, D=2 (1 parte de sêmen: 2 partes de diluente e D = 4 (1 parte de sêmen: 4 partes de diluente. O tempo de repouso (H do sêmen foi H = 0, sem repouso, H = 1, IA 1 hora após a coleta e H=24, IA 24 horas após a coleta (conservado em refrigerador entre 2 e 5°C. Os ovos foram avaliados por ovoscopia e ao nascer com quebra de ovos não-eclodidos. O sêmen puro, não-diluído e sem repouso, produziu os melhores resultados para fertilidade e nascimento, 87,2 e 79,5%, respectivamente. As médias de fertilidade e nascimento de pintos para sêmen diluído na proporção 1:2, com 2 horas de repouso, foram 84,8 e 76,3; 81,7 e 73,6; e 76,0 e 65,9%, respectivamente, para os diluentes LAKE, DC e BPSE. Quando se usou sêmen diluído, a diluição 1:2 produziu melhor resultado que 1:4. O período de repouso do sêmen, após a diluição, deve ser o menor possível. O diluente de Lake apresentou os melhores resultados entre os diluientes, equiparando-se ao uso de sêmen puro não-diluído e inseminado logo após a coleta.The objective of this work was to identify the best semen extender, the dilution rate and the storage time for rooster semen. A total of 60 roosters and 630 hens with 55 weeks of age were artificially inseminated, once a week, by six consecutive weeks, using .05 mL of semen/hen. The treatments were: T1=semen diluted with commercial extender-DC; T2 =semen diluted

  1. Concomitant contact allergy to the resins, reactive diluents and hardener of a bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin in subway construction workers.

    Chu, Chia-Yu; Pontén, Ann; Sun, Chee-Ching; Jee, Shiou-Hwa


    An outbreak of suspected contact dermatitis among subway construction workers was suspected to be due to a new bisphenol A/F-based epoxy resin system (ERS). The construction workers used ERSs during the insertion of iron bars into concrete walls. The objective of the study was to determine the components (if any) of the ERS responsible for the contact allergy. Patch testing was performed on 20 of the 22 construction workers who had had contact with the ERS, and to the various subcomponents of component A on 5 of the 7 who reacted to this component. 9 patients (9/22, 40.9%) had clinical symptoms and signs of suspected contact dermatitis at presentation. 7 of these 9, but none of the 11 asymptomatic individuals, were positive to component A, while all were negative to component B. Of the 5 cases receiving further patch testing, all reacted to m-xylylene diamine, 4 to 1,6-hexanediol diglycidyl ether, 3 to epoxy resins of the bisphenol F-type and trimethylolpropane triglycidyl ether 0.25% petrolatum, and only 1 to epoxy resins of the bisphenol A-type. Contact allergy to ERSs may involve hardeners and diluents as well as resins, and patch testing for reaction to all components should be performed.

  2. 改性环氧树脂的固化与稀释增韧研究%Study on the Toughening of Modified Epoxy Resin by Curing Agent and Reactive Diluent

    宋琼; 孙颖; 吴蓁


    The effects of the toughening of the modified epoxy resin by curing agent and reactive diluent were studied. The influences on the performances including impact strength, tensile strength and Vicar softening temperature of the modified epoxy resin by different curing agents and reactive diluents were discussed. The results showed that the toughening epoxy resin with high strength, heat resistance and curing at room temperature can be prepared by adding a proportion of curing agent 9032 and reactive diluent.%研究了改性环氧树脂的固化、稀释增韧效果。探讨了不同种类的固化剂及活性稀释剂对改性环氧树脂的冲击强度、拉伸强度及维卡软化点等性能的影响。研究结果表明,在固化剂9032和活性稀释剂的共同作用下,能制得室温固化型增韧环氧树脂,且其具有较高的强度和耐热性。

  3. Effect of pigpel extender on the boar semen quality stored at different temperatures / Efeito do diluente pigpel na qualidade do sêmen suíno refrigerado em diferentes temperaturas

    Márcio Nunes Corrêa


    Full Text Available This study aim to evaluate the quality of boar semen stored at different temperatures and media on PIGPEL5 extender, using egg yolk as an external membrane protector, and on PIGPEL5Plus, containing low density lipoprotein (LDL as protector. In the experiment 1, the semen doses were stored in a semen container at 5 and 17 °C and the results were compared with semen stored at 17 °C in BTS extender. In the experiment 2, the doses with the PIGPEL5 and PIGPEL5Plus extenders were stored in a commercial refrigerator and in semen container, both at 5 °C. The use of extenders with extracellular cryoprotectant (PIGPEL5 e PIGPEL5Plus showed higher (p 0.05 in the motility, membrane integrity and morphology for the substitution of egg yolk (PIGPEL5 for LDL (PIGPEL5Plus. In experiment 2, also there was no difference (p > 0.05 in motility, membrane integrity and morphology between extenders and type of container until 72 h. The conservation of semen on PIGPEL5 extender and commercial refrigerator (5 ºC allowed patterns of sperm quality according recommended for AI.Este estudo avaliou a qualidade do sêmen suíno preservado em diferentes temperaturas e meios de conservação no diluente PIGPEL5, utilizando gema de ovo como protetor externo de membrana, e no diluente PIGPEL5Plus, utilizando lipoproteína de baixa densidade (LDL como protetor. No experimento 1, as doses de sêmen foram conservadas em refrigerador de sêmen a 5 e 17 °C nos diluentes PIGPEL5 e PIGPEL5Plus e comparadas ao diluente BTS a 17 °C. Já no experimento 2, foi comparada a conservação do sêmen nos diluentes PIGPEL5 e PIGPEL5Plus em geladeira convencional ou em refrigerador de sêmen a 5 ºC. Observou-se que o uso de diluidores com crioprotetor extracelular (PIGPEL5 e PIGPEL5Plus apresentou maiores (p 0,05 na motilidade, integridade de membrana e morfologia para a substituição da gema de ovo (PIGPEL5 pela LDL (PIGPEL5Plus. No experimento 2, também não houve diferença na

  4. Effect of Diluent on the Morphology and Performance of IPP Hollow Fiber Microporous Membrane via Thermally Induced Phase Separation%热致相分离法iPP中空纤维微空膜结构与性能--稀释剂的作用

    杨振生; 李凭力; 常贺英; 王世昌


    Isotactic polypropylene (iPP) hollow fiber microporous membranes were prepared using thermally induced phase separation (TIPS) method. Di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP), dioctyl phthalate (DOP), and the mixed solvent were used as diluents. The effect of α (DOP mass fraction in diluent) on the morphology and performance of the hollow fiber was investigated. With increasing α, the morphology of the resulting hollow fiber changes from typical cellular structure to mixed structure, and then to typical particulate structure. As a result, the permeability of the hollow fiber increases sharply, and the mechanical properties of the hollow fiber decrease obviously. It is suggested that the morphology and performances of iPP hollow fiber microporous membrane can be controlled via adjusting the compatibility between iPP and diluent.

  5. ELISA检测方法中最佳封闭液和样品稀释液的筛选研究%Study on Screening of Optimal Blocking Buffer and Sample Diluent for ELISA

    杜改梅; 刘茂军; 甘源; 韦艳娜; 武昱孜; 邵国青


    [目的]为提高酶联免疫吸附法(ELISA)的敏感性和特异性,研究分析了不同类别和不同浓度的封闭液和样品稀释液对ELISA检测结果的影响.[方法]研究采用酪蛋白(Casein)、明胶(Gelatin)、BSA、山羊血清(GS)、马血清(HS)和兔血清(RS)等不同类封闭液和同一类不同浓度封闭液进行ELISA检测试验.[结果]2%BSA较1%BSA和3%BSA封闭效果好,2% Casein和1% Casein较3%Casein封闭效果好,8%RS和10%RS封闭效果强于6%RS和7%RS;与BSA和Casein相比,RS具有更好的封闭效果,且8%RS封闭液和8%RS样品稀释液组合最佳.[结论]良好的封闭液和样品稀释液组合可有效降低非特异性反应,提高ELISA检测方法的敏感性和特异性,这为良好ELISA检测方法的建立提供了重要实践指导作用.%[Objective] This study aimed to increase the sensitivity and specificity of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) through analyzing the effects of different blocking buffers and sample diluents and their different concentrations on the result of ELISA.[Method] Different types of blocking buffer [casein,gelatin,BSA,goat serum (GS),horse serum (HS) and rabbit serum (RS)]and sample diluent (PBST,casein,gelatin,BSA,GS,HS and RS) as well as their different concentrations were tested in ELISA to screen the optimal combination of blocking buffer and sample diluent.[Result] The results showed that 2% BSA had better effect on blocking than 1% and 3% BSA,and both 2% and 1% casein had better blocking effect than 3% casein; 8% and 10% RS showed better blocking effects than 6%RS and 7%RS; compared to BSA and casein,· RS had the best effect on blocking,and 8%RS performed best as the blocking buffer and sample diluent.[Conclusion] A good combination of blocking buffer and diluent can effectively reduce the non-specific reaction and improve the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA.This study provides an important reference for the

  6. Estudo da influência do diluente reativo PGE na cinética de cura de resina epóxi utilizada em compósitos estruturais

    Costa Michelle Leali


    Full Text Available Phenil glycidyl ether (PGE, a monofunctional diluent, has been used in epoxy resins formulations in order to increase the toughness of the epoxy molded composite. In a systematic study concerning its influence in the cure kinetics of the epoxy resin, it was used in concentrations of 2,5; 5,0; 10 and 20% in relation to a diglycidyl ether bisphenol-A (DGEBA/diamino diphenil-sulfone (DDS base matrix. Dynamic and isothermal scanning analysis were carried out using a differential scanning calorimety (DSC equipment. For all the concentrations of PGE, a n order kinetics was observed, with n varing between 0,35 -- 0,91 as a function of the increase in the PGE concentration.

  7. Paraffin wax as a diluent for extraction and separation of trivalent gallium, indium, and thallium with 2,6-bis-(1′-phenyl-3′-methyl-5′- oxopyrazole-4′) pyridineacyl


    A method is proposed for the extraction and separation of trivalent gallium, indium and thallium from their corre-sponding aqueous solutions at 65°C with 2, 6-bis-(l'-phenyl-3'-methyl-5'-oxopyrazole-4') pyridineacyl (H2PMBPPor H2A)using molten paraffin wax as a diluent. The values of pH 1/2 for extraction of gallium, indium and thallium are 2.62, 4.32 and4.93, respectively. Gallium can be extracted by H2PMBPP at a lower acid medium. The effect of solvent and the composi-tion of the extracted species are reported. And the thermodynamic data of the extraction are also obtained.


    黄笔武; 彭晋平; 黄海蓉; 向赞波; 胡春生


    In this paper,a method which could be used to eliminate the enviromental pollution in wine making process which produced fusel oil was introduced.Fusel oil was utilized to synthesize an active diluent of epoxy resin.The method could change waste to treasure and could bring about economic value and social benefit.%介绍了利用杂醇油合成环氧树脂活性稀释剂的方法,该方法可以消除制酒等工艺的下脚料杂醇油对环境污染的现象,变废为宝,具有一定的经济效益和社会效益。

  9. Study on Effect of Storage in Ambient Temperature of Boar Semen Using Different Diluent%不同稀释液对公猪精液常温保存效果的研究

    陈玉霞; 孙克宁; 林峰; 杨婷; 高汉婷; 高腾云


    In order to improve the storage effect of boar semen, three diluent formulas in ambient temperature was designed to preserve the boar semen, and the acrosome of the sperms was stained after they were preserved.The results showed that the storage time of the sperms stored by formula II was obviously different(P0.05) and all more than 95%.The storage effect of formula Ⅱ for sperms was better than that of formula I and formula Ⅲ in ambient temperature.This study provids the reference basis for the research of the storage technology in ambient temperature of boar semen and the semen diluents formula.%为提高猪精液的保存效果,设计了3种常温保存稀释液配方,并对保存后的精子进行了顶体染色,为猪精液常温保存技术及稀释液配方的研究提供参考依据.结果表明:当精子活率为50%与30%时,配方Ⅱ的精子保存时间均显著高于(P<0.05)配方Ⅰ与配方Ⅲ,且配方Ⅱ所保存精子的总存活时间也显著高于(P<0.05)配方Ⅰ与配方Ⅲ;在精液保存24h后,3种配方保存的精子顶体完整率均在95%以上,且差异不显著(P>0.05),配方Ⅱ对精子的常温保存效果要优于配方Ⅰ与配方Ⅲ.

  10. Preservasi Semen Kambing Peranakan Etawa dalam Pengencer Tris dan Sitrat Kuning Telur dengan Penambahan Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate (THE PRESERVATION OF ETTAWA GRADE BUCK SEMEN IN TRIS AND CITRATE EGG YOLK DILUENTS SUPPLEMENTED WITH SODIUM DODECYL SULPHATE

    Nur Hidayati


    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determineSDS concentration also to compare Tris egg yolk and citrateegg yolk on the quality of ettawa grade chilled semen. The study consist of two experiments. The firstexperiment was to determine the best SDS concentration in Tris egg yolk diluents and the second experimentwas to compare the SDS suplementation in tris and citrate egg yolk in the quality of ettawa grade chilledsemen. The semen were collected from three bucks, immediately after collection the semen evalutedmacro and microscopycally. Semen demonstrate more than 70% motility and less than 10% spermatozoaabnormality, individually divided into four tube, each tube was diluted in egg yolk supplemented with 0;0,025; 0,05; and 0.075% SDS then stored at 5°C for 72 hours. The quality of chilled semen was observefor motility and viability every 12 hours. Result demonstrated that 0.05% SDS was the best concentrationcompared to others. In the second experiment,the semen were diluted in four different diluents, it wereTris egg yolk (TEY, Tris egg yolk with 0.05% SDS (TEYS, citrate egg yolk (CEY and citrate egg yolk with0.05% SDS (CEYS. Result demonstrated that the mean value of motility and viability of spermatozoa inTEYSdiluents (67.08 ± 6.43% and77.07 ± 6.78% was higher (p<0.05 than CEYS (60.42 ± 9.05% and72.31± 7.45%, TEY (59.23 ± 9.41% and71.21 ± 8.56% and CEY (53.45 ± 11.33% and67.74 ± 8.90%. In conclusion,supplementation of 0.05% SDS in TEY was maintained best sperm quality compared to other diluentsduring preservation.

  11. Efeito da concentração e temperatura de adição de trealose em diluentes para a congelação de sêmen ovino em palhetas Effect of the concentration and addition temperature of trehalose in extenders on freezing ram semen in straws

    Adilson Moura


    Full Text Available A trealose é um dissacarídio com potencial emprego como crioprotetor quando adicionada aos meios para congelamento de sêmen ovino. Este experimento foi realizado para verificar os efeitos da temperatura de adição (30°C e 4°C e da concentração de trealose (2%, 4% e 6% sobre o sêmen ovino congelado em palhetas, utilizando como base as formulações INRA e TRIS/FRUTOSE. Os efeitos estudados em ambos experimentos foram medidos através da avaliação da motilidade espermática (MOT e da integridade de acrossomas (INTA em diferentes momentos após o descongelamento (0h, 2h e 5h. Os presentes resultados não recomendam a inclusão da trealose visando incrementar a qualidade in vitro do sêmen ovino congelado em palhetas nas concentrações e diluentes testados, porém, sugerem maiores estudos quanto a sua toxidade e possíveis interações com outros constituintes dos diluentes já formulados para o congelamento de sêmen ovino.This study was aimed to evaluate the possible effects of the addition of trehalose to extenders developed for freezing ram semen in straws. The effects of addition temperature (30°C and 4°C and concentration of trehalose (2, 4 and 6% on INRA and TRIS/FRUTOSE diluents was evaluated. Their effects were studied through motility rate and by acrosome integrity at different incubation times after thawing (0, 2 and 5h. The results do not recommend the inclusion of trehalose in these diluents. However, it would be interesting to learn more about toxicity and interactions between the components of the extenders and trehalose in ram sperm frozen in straws.


    Cely Marini Melo


    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo avaliar parâmetros de motilidade e viabilidade in vitro na diluição do crioprotetor dimetil-formamida a 5% pós-descongelação para concentrações de 2,5% e 1,25%, mediante utilização de dois diluentes comerciais adicionados junto ao sêmen. Após a descongelação, as amostras foram diluídas com a finalidade de manter as concentrações finais (2,5% e 1,25% de crioprotetor, utilizando-se dois diluentes comerciais (FR4® e Botu-Crio® em dois tempos: inicial (Ti e final (Tf.  Empregaram-se quinze amostras de ejaculados distintos de cinco garanhões de raças nacionais. Os parâmetros de motilidade foram observados através da análise computadorizada e os de integridade de membrana plasmática pela microscopia de epifluorescência. Verificou-se melhora nos parâmetros de motilidade total e progressiva dos espermatozóides, no tempo final (P<0,05 com o diluente Botu-Crio® em relação ao FR4®. Não houve diferença (P>0,05 entre os tratamentos quanto à integridade de membrana plasmática.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Crioprotetor, congelação, descongelação, diluente, equino.
    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the motility and viability of stallion semen cryopreserved with 5% dimethyl-formamyde as cryoprotectant and posterior dilution to 2.5 and 1.25% as final concentration of cryoprotectant. After thawing, samples were diluted with two commercial extenders (FR4® and Botucrio® in two moments: initial (Ti and final (Tf. A total of 15 distinct ejaculates from five stallions of national breeds were analysed. Motility was observed using a computer assistant system analysis and viability was analyzed using fluorescent probes. A significant (P<0.05 increase on total and progressive motility parameters was observed at the final time using Botu-Crio®  compared with FR4®. Statistical difference (P>0.05 on membrane integrity between treatments was not observed.


  13. Effect of reactive diluent on hydrothermal properties of T700/BMI composites%活性稀释剂对T700/BMI复合材料湿热性能的影响

    金保宏; 王柏臣; 陈平


    采用苯乙烯作二烯丙基双酚A(DABPA)改性双马来酰亚胺(BMI)树脂体系的活性稀释,以减小树脂的粘度.为研究苯乙烯的用量对炭纤维(T700)增强改性BMI树脂基复合材料湿热性能的影响,对T700/BMI复合材料的试样在70℃水中进行吸湿实验,并检测其力学性能.结果表明,随苯乙烯用量的增加,试样的吸湿率降低;其拉伸、弯曲和层间剪切等强度保持率也随之增大;但当苯乙烯在基体树脂中的摩尔百分含量超过20%之后,试样的拉伸强度会下降.%Styrene was used as reactive diluent to decrease the viscosity of Bismaleimide( BMI) resin modified by Diallylbisphe-nol A( DABPA). T700/BMI composite materials were prepared as testing samples,which are made up of the carbon fiber( T700)as reinforcing material and modified BMI resin as matrix. In order to investigate the effects of styrene content in matrix on the hydro-thermal properties of the sample,the moisture absorptions were measured for the samples in 70 ℃ water,and their mechanical properties were tested too. The results show that moisture absorption of the sample can be decreased with increasing styrene content, and the higher styrene content is responsible for the higher retentions in tensile,flexure and lamellar shear strengths for the sample. However the tensile strength of sample declines when styrene content exceeds 20% (mol% ) in matrix.


    金保宏; 王柏臣; 陈平; 徐信孟


    本文采用苯乙烯作改性BMI树脂的活性稀释刑以降低树脂粘度,并对该树脂体系进行了DSC测试和IR光谱分析.实验表明,加入苯乙烯后,树脂体系的反应活性极大提高,固化温度降低.实验还研究了苯乙烯的用量对T700/BMI复合材料力学性能的影响,结果表明,随着苯乙烯用量的增加,T700/BMI复合材料的拉伸强度、弯曲强度及层间剪切强度逐渐增大,但苯乙烯用量超过15%(W%)时,拉伸强度呈下降趋势,而弯曲强度和层间剪切强度则继续增大,直到苯乙烯用量超过25%(W%)时,才呈下降趋势.因此,苯乙烯的用量控制在15%~25%(W%)较为合适.%In this paper, the styrene was used as reactive diluent in modified BMI resin to decrease the viscosity of resin, because of its advantage in improving the adhesion property of the fiber and matrix during preparing T700/BMI composite materials. The DSC and IR spectrum testing has been carried out in order to describe the reaction of the styrene, BMI resin and diallylbisphenol A, the DSC curve indicates the curing temperature of the resin is reduced greatly after adding in styrene. In addition, the paper was noticed that the styrene had significant influence on the mechanical properties of T700/BMI composite materials. The results show the tensile strength, flexure strength and interlaminar shear strength of T700/BMI composite materials are enhanced with the increase of the styrene content in resin, but the tensile strength decreases when the styrene content exceeding 15% ( W% ). On the contrary, the flexure strength and interlaminar shear strength still increase until the styrene content exceeding 25% (W%). Thus the conclusion can be reached that it is the reasonable rate of styrene in resin about 15% ~25% (W%).

  15. Study on the quality and stability of sterile water for injection prefilled in syringe as varicella vaccine diluent%预灌封注射器装灭菌注射用水作为水痘减毒活疫苗稀释剂的质量和稳定性研究

    杨月莲; 周峰; 王亮; 袁剑; 蒋樱; 谢蕾; 王伟


    目的 研究预灌封注射器装灭菌注射用水(注射器装灭菌水)作为水痘减毒活疫苗(水痘疫苗)稀释剂的质量及稳定性,用以取代原有的安瓿瓶装灭菌注射用水.方法 连续生产并分装3批注射器装灭菌水,依据《中华人民共和国药典》2010年版二部(药典二部)附录XIXC“原料药与药物制剂稳定性试验指导原则”,对注射器装灭菌水的质量和稳定性进行研究;同时将注射器装灭菌水作为水痘疫苗的稀释剂,观察水痘疫苗的质量及稳定性.结果 3批注射器装灭菌水在相对湿度(60±10)%的条件下分别于(40±2)℃放置6个月和(25±5)℃放置42个月,各项检测结果均符合药典二部“灭菌注射用水”标准.3批以注射器装灭菌水作为稀释剂的水痘疫苗的加速和长期稳定性试验结果均符合“水痘减毒活疫苗注册标准”的要求,疫苗的病毒滴度≥3.3 lg噬班形成单位/0.5 ml,牛血清白蛋白残留量<50 ng/ml,抗生素残留量<50 ng/剂.结论 注射器装灭菌水可作为水痘疫苗的稀释剂.%Objective To study the quality and stability of sterile water for injection prefilled in syringe (syringe-prefilled sterile water) as varicella vaccine diluent,and use it to replace sterile water for injection loaded in ampoule bottle.Methods Three batches of syringe-prefilled sterile water were prepared,and their quality and stability were studied in accordance with appendix XIX C "Guiding Principles For The Stability Test of Raw Materials and Pharmaceutical Preparations" in Chinese Pharmacopeia 2010 edition (Volume Ⅱ).Meanwhile,syringe-prefiled sterile water was used as varicella vaccine diluent,and the quality and stability of varicella vaccines were observed.Results After 6 months at (40 ±2) ℃ and 42 months at (25 ±5) ℃ with relative humidity of (60 ± 10)%,respectively,all 3 batches of syringe-prefilled sterile water met the requirements of "Sterile Water for Injection " in

  16. 稀释剂量对反应烧结Si3N4陶瓷结构和性能的影响%Effect of Diluent Amount on the Structure and Properties of Reactive Sintered Si3N4 Ceramic

    陈超; 张立同; 刘巧沐; 成来飞


    以工业Si粉为原料,α-Si3N4粉为稀释剂,聚乙烯醇为粘结剂,采用反应烧结工艺制备了Si3N4陶瓷.研究了稀释剂量对反应烧结Si3N4陶瓷的体积密度、开气孔率、相组成、微结构、弯曲强度和抗热震性的影响.结果表明,随稀释剂量的增加,Si3N4陶瓷的体积密度从2.27g/cm3降至2.04g/cm3,开气孔率从23%升至33.8%.Si3N4 陶瓷由α-Si3N4、β-Si3N4 和少量单质Si组成.Si3N4 主要以针状晶形式存在,残留 Si 呈不规则块体.随着稀释剂量的增加,4组 Si3N4 陶瓷的三点抗弯强度分别为119MPa、112MPa、146MPa和113MPa;经50次800℃至室温空冷热震后,其强度保持率分别为81.5%、90.2%、87%和88.5%,表现出较好的抗热震性.%Reactive sintered Si3N4 ceramic was prepared using industrial Si powder as raw material, a-Si3N4 powder as diluent, and polyvinyl alcohol as binder. The effects of the diluent amount on the volume density, open po rosity, phase, microstructure, bending strength and thermal shock resistance of the Si3N4 ceramic were investigated. The results indicate that the volume density of the Si3 N4 ceramic decreases from 2. 27g/cm3 to 2. 04g/cm3 while the open porosity increases from 23% to 33. 8% with the diluent amount increases. The phases of the Si3N4 ceramic are mainly or Si3N4, (3-Si3N4 and a little of Si. The Si3N4 crystal exhibits a needle-like structure, while the residual Si ex hibits an irregular block-like structure. The three point bending strength of the Si3N4 ceramics are 119MPa, 112MPa, 146MPa and 113MPa, respectively, with the diluent amount increases. Their conservations of the bending strength are 81. 5%, 90. 2%, 87%, and 88. 5%, respectively, after 50 cycles thermal shock from 800℃ to room temperature. The Si3 N4 ceramic exhibits better thermal shock resistance.

  17. Use of antioxidants on rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792 sperm diluent: effects on motility and fertilizing capability Uso de antioxidantes en el diluyente espermático para trucha arcoiris Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum, 1792: efecto en la motilidad y capacidad fecundante

    Andrea Ubilla


    Full Text Available The present investigation determined how different antioxidants incorporated into the sperm diluent for cold storage of semen affected sperm motility and spermatozoan fertility capabilities of the rainbow trout. For the evaluations, fresh semen (C and semen that had been stored without diluents (T1 were used as control groups. The diluents were prepared using a base of UCT diluents (T2, adding grape polyphenol (0.1 g 100 mL-1 (T3, trolox C (0.1 g 100 mL-1 (T4, polyphenol (0.1 g 100 mL-1 plus trolox (0.1 g 100 mL-1 (T5, and vitamin C (0.018 g 100 mL-1 (T6. The incorporation of antioxidants into sperm diluents prolongs motility and fertility of rainbow trout semen. The results show that by day two, all of the treatments showed level 5 sperm motility. After seven days of storage, only T3 and T6 dropped to level 4 sperm motility. The duration of flagellate activity on this day was maximal for T3 with 36.87 ± 0.51 s and minimal for T6 with 29.78 ± 0.52 s. On day seven, fertility was maintained with no statistically significant differences between the control and T2 (92.80 ± 0.62%, T3 (83.66 ± 2.52%, T4 (90.46 ± 1.60%, T5 (83.57 ± 2.75%, and T6 (83.57 ± 2.30%. By days 10 and 17 of storage, the fertility of T1 was zero and that of T2 was significantly lower than the control group. On day 17, the highest percentage of fertilization was 97.38 ± 1.85% for T5 and the lowest value was 64.69 ± 3.76% for T2. The results allow concluding that the sperm viability of semen stored with different antioxidants is significantly prolonged.En la presente investigación se determinó el efecto en la motilidad espermática y la fertilidad del espermatozoide de trucha arcoiris, de diferentes antioxidantes incorporados en el diluyente espermático para el almacenamiento en frío de semen. Para las evaluaciones se utilizó como control semen fresco (C y semen almacenado sin diluir (T1, los diluyentes fueron preparados utilizando como base el diluyente UCT (T2 al

  18. Effect of Prepolymer and Reactive Diluent on the Properties of UV Curable Polyurethane-Based Conductive Silver Paste%预聚体及活性稀释剂对UV固化聚氨酯基导电银浆性能的影响∗

    吴文剑; 黄俊鹏; 赖学军; 李红强; 曾幸荣; 王全; 曾建伟; 周传玉


    Adduct containing isocyanate group ( PEG-IPDI ) was first synthesized by a nucleophilic addition be-tween isophorone diisocyanate( IPDI) and polyethylene glycol( PEG). Then polyurethane-acrylate prepolymer termi-nated with vinyl(PEG-IPDI-HEMA)was synthesized by PEG-IPDI reacting with hydroxy ethyl methacrylate(HE-MA). After that,UV curable polyurethane-based conductive silver paste was prepared by using PEG-IPDI-HEMA and reactive diluent as adhesive phase,flake silver as conductive phase. PEG-IPDI-HEMA was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FT-IR). Effects of molecular weight of PEG,types and content of reac-tive diluent on the conductivity,adhesion and bending resistance of the conductive silver paste were investigated. The results showed that when the molecular weight of PEG was 400g/mol,1,6-hexanediol diacrylate(HDDA)was used as reactive diluent and its content was 17. 0wt%,the silver paste with execllent performance was obtained. The conductivity of silver paste reached 1. 88 × 105 S/m. Meanwhile,the cured paste had a high adhesion to polyethylene terephthalate( PET) and the level of cross-hatch test reached 5 B. Moreover, the cured paste ex-hibited an excellent bending resistance,whose conductivity was still as high as 7. 41 × 104 S/m after 10 times bending test.%通过异氟尔酮二异氰酸酯( IPDI )与聚乙二醇( PEG )反应得到含有异氰酸根( NCO )的加成物(PEG-IPDI),PEG-IPDI再与甲基丙烯酸羟乙酯(HEMA)发生反应得到端乙烯基聚氨酯丙烯酸酯预聚体( PEG-IPDI-HEMA)。将PEG-IPDI-HEMA与活性稀释剂组成有机粘结相,片状银粉为导电相,制备了紫外光( UV)固化聚氨酯基导电银浆。采用傅里叶变换红外光谱( FTIR)对预聚体PEG-IPDI-HEMA进行了表征,研究了PEG分子量、活性稀释剂种类及其用量对银浆的电导率、附着力和耐弯折性能的影响。结果表明:当PEG分子量为400g/mol,采用质量分数17.0%的1,6-己二醇二丙

  19. Criopreservação de espermatozóides eqüinos comparando duas curvas de congelamento combinadas com diluentes comerciais: uma análise laboratorial Cryopreservation of equine spermatozoa comparing different freezing rates combined with commercial extenders: laboratorial analysis

    Paula Barros Terraciano


    Full Text Available Durante o processo de criopreservação de sêmen, os espermatozóides sofrem alguns danos que resultam na diminuição da fertilidade deste. O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da utilização combinada de duas curvas de congelamento com dois diluentes comerciais (FR-5® e Botu-Crio® sobre a criopreservação de sêmen eqüino. Foram analisados 20 ejaculados de dois garanhões. As amostras foram avaliadas por microscopia de contraste de fase e microscopia de epifluorescência, observando-se a motilidade progressiva e total do sêmen pós-descongelamento e a integridade e a funcionalidade da membrana dos espermatozóides. A combinação entre curva automatizada e Botu-Crio® apresentou as maiores médias nas análises de motilidade total e progressiva, após o descongelamento. O diluente Botu-Crio®, isoladamente, preservou também as membranas destes, quando foram realizadas as análises de integridade utilizando teste com diacetato de carboxifluoresceína e iodeto de propídio e funcionalidade de membrana pelo teste hiposmótico.During semen cryopreservation, sperm cells were submitted to several deleterious events leading to membrane damage which result in fertility decrease. This study was designed to compare the effects of two freezing techniques (conventional and automated, and the use of two commercial extenders as cryoprotectants (FR-5® and Botu-Crio® on total and progressive motility, integrity and functionality of spermatic membranes during the cryopreservation of equine semen. Twenty ejaculates from two stallions were analyzed. The total and progressive motility of fresh and post-thawing semen samples were evaluated by patterns assays. Function of plasmatic membrane was measured by the hipoosmotic swelling test. Integrity of plasmatic membrane was evaluated using carboxifluorescein diacatate and iodidium propide fluorescent probes. There were significant differences between the two freezing


    José Antônio Dell'Aqua


    , 12 e 24 horas após a colheita. De acordo com os resultados obtidos para os parâmetros espermáticos, não se observaram diferenças significativas entre os sistemas de refrigeração e os meios testados, concluindo-se que tanto os sistemas de refrigeração como os diluentes foram eficazes na manutenção da motilidade e viabilidade espermática, apresentando-se como alternativas à biotecnologia de transporte de sêmen eqüino refrigerado.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Diluente, eqüino, refrigeração de sêmen, sistema de transporte.

  1. 日本血吸虫间接血凝法抗体检测试剂盒稀释液的改进%Alternative diluent used for the commercial IHA assay kit for detection of Schistosoma japonicum anti-body

    章乐生; 王恩木; 张世清; 汪奇志; 呼明闯; 司武敏; 杨荣笙


    目的:确定一种适用于安徽安吉医药科技有限公司新包装试剂盒的稀释液,替代原包装中的冻干致敏红细胞稀释液(生理盐水)和血清标本稀释液(蒸馏水)。方法以pH7.2磷酸盐缓冲液作为稀释液制备新包装试剂盒替代原包装,比较新包装试剂盒与原包装的敏感性和特异性以及与肝吸虫、肺吸虫、姜片虫和钩虫等病人血清交叉反应情况;比较各试剂盒的最低检出量,观察凝集反应模式。结果新包装试剂盒与原包装敏感性分别为95%和94.2%,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.000,P=1.000);特异性分别为96.9%和95.8%,差异无统计学意义(χ2=0.000,P=1.000);约登指数分别为0.92和0.9;最低检出量均为1:1280,磷酸盐缓冲液组凝集模式较好;与肝吸虫、姜片虫和钩虫病人的血清交叉反应率均为0,与肺吸虫的交叉反应率均为19.4%。结论确定磷酸盐缓冲液作为日本血吸虫间接血凝法抗体检测试剂盒新包装的稀释液,替代原包装中的致敏红细胞稀释液和标本稀释液。%Objective To evaluate the feasibility of a new diluent as a substitute for the original ones (sa⁃line used for diluting the lyophilized sensitized red cells, and distilled water for diluting the serum specimen) packaged in the commercial indirect hemagglutination (IHA)assay kit manufactured by Anhui Anji Pharmaceu⁃tical Technology Co., Ltd. Methods Phosphate buffered solution(PBS, pH7.2)was used to replace the diluent in the original kit, and two preparations were compared regarding the sensitivity and specificity in detection of Schistosoma japonicum as well as the cross-reactivity with liver fluke, lung fluke, giant intestinal fluke and hook⁃worm. The minimal quantification and the agglutination pattern in each group were also observed. Results The sensitivity and specificity were 95% and 96.9% for the modified kit, 94.2% and 95.8% for the original one

  2. Detonability of H/sub 2/-air-diluent mixtures

    Tieszen, S.R.; Sherman, M.P.; Benedick, W.B.; Berman, M.


    This report describes the Heated Detonation Tube (HDT). Detonation cell width and velocity results are presented for H/sub 2/-air mixtures, undiluted and diluted with CO/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O for a range of H/sub 2/ concentration, initial temperature and pressure. The results show that the addition of either CO/sub 2/ or H/sub 2/O significantly increases the detonation cell width and hence reduces the detonability of the mixture. The results also show that the detonation cell width is reduced (detonability is increased) for increased initial temperature and/or pressure.

  3. 多指标正交设计评价和优化巴马香猪精液冷冻稀释液%Assessing and Optimizing the Freezing Diluent of Bama Miniature Boar Semen by Multi-Index Orthogonal Test

    孔德营; 商海涛; 刘福慧; 韩勇; 魏泓; 张家骅


    By a multi-index orthogonal test ,the effects of low-density lipoprotein (LDL ,factor A) ,treha-lose (factor B) and glycerol (factor C) used in combination were assessed and analyzed ,the mass to vol-ume ratio ,molarity ,and volume percentage of the three reagents were in the sequence of A >C>B on to-tal motile sperm (TMS) ,plasma membrane integrity (PMI) and comet rate (CR) and of B>A>C on ac-rosome integrity (AI) ,and the optimum combination was A2B3C2 .LDL ,trehalose and glycerol all had significant protective effects on TMS and PMI (p0.05) .The relativity was significant (p<0.05) or highly significant (p<0.01) of the indexes ;the regression equations between TMS and the other three indexes were effective (p<0.01) ,and the regression coefficients were all significant (p<0.05) .It is ,therefore ,concluded that when TMS ,PMI ,AI and CR are used to assess the quality of frozen-thawed Bama miniature boar semen ,no contradiction will exist between the indexes and that 9% (w/v) LDL+200 mmol/L trehalose+2% glycerol is the optimum combination of freezing diluent of Bama miniature boar semen .%该文通过多指标正交实验设计对巴马香猪精液冷冻稀释液中低密度脂蛋白(LDL ,因素A)、海藻糖(因素B)和甘油(因素C)等3种保护剂联合使用时的作用进行评价,并分别对3种物质的最佳体积质量分数、摩尔浓度和体积百分比进行优化.结果表明3种保护剂对精子活率(TMS)、质膜完整性(PMI)和彗星率(CR)作用的主次顺序均为A>C>B ,对精子顶体完整性(AI)作用的主次顺序为B>A>C;3种保护剂对TMS和PMI均有极显著的保护作用(p<0.01),对CR均无显著性作用(p>0.05);LDL和海藻糖对AI有显著的保护作用(p<0.05),甘油对AI无显性作用( p>0.05);通过因素与指标关系趋势图的绘制,发现由各个指标得到的最佳组合均为 A2 B3 C2,且指标间的相关性

  4. Post-reconstitution Stability of Telavancin with Commonly Used Diluents and Intravenous Infusion Solutions

    Zhengtian Gu, PhD


    Conclusions: These results are supportive of a total hold time for reconstituted telavancin in vials plus the time in IV infusion solutions in polyvinyl chloride bags to not exceed 12 hours under ambient conditions and 7 days under refrigeration.

  5. Alcohol diluent provides the optimal formulation for calcium chloride non-surgical sterilization in dogs

    Leoci, Raffaella; Aiudi, Giulio; Silvestre, Fabio; Lissner, Elaine A; Lacalandra, Giovanni M


    Surgical castration is widely used to sterilize male dogs, but has significant impacts on time to perform the operation, recovery of the animals as well as cost, which can limit population control programs...

  6. Cryoprotective and contraceptive properties of egg yolk as an additive in rooster sperm diluents.

    Santiago-Moreno, Julián; Castaño, Cristina; Toledano-Díaz, Adolfo; Coloma, Miguel A; López-Sebastián, Antonio; Prieto, María T; Campo, Jose L


    The addition of chicken egg yolk to semen extenders is thought to reduce the fertilizing potential of rooster spermatozoa--but not (or at least not as much) that of other avian species. The aim of the present study was to determine whether quail egg yolk, a novel extender additive, provides advantages over chicken egg yolk in the cryopreservation of rooster spermatozoa. Experiments were also performed to determine whether the harmful effect of egg yolk occurs during cryopreservation or during fertilization after artificial insemination. Heterospermic rooster semen samples were divided into aliquots and cooled in a polyvinylpyrrolidone-based medium containing 15% chicken egg yolk, 15% quail egg yolk or no egg yolk at all. The viability of spermatozoa of cooled samples (5 °C) without egg yolk were less viable (Pegg yolk. The same aliquots were then cryopreserved for 15 days. Thawed spermatozoa preserved without egg yolk showed lower motility (Pegg yolk extender. No eggs were fertilized when hens were inseminated with semen that had been diluted with chicken egg yolk. The fertilization rate was only slightly higher when sperm diluted with quail egg yolk was used (1.5%). The best results were obtained when no egg yolk was used (13.8%). These results show that the addition of egg yolk of either type protects rooster sperm cells against cold shock and during freezing and thawing, but exerts a contraceptive effect in the genital tract of the hen.

  7. Solubility parameter and activity coefficient of HDEHP dimer in select organic diluents by vapor pressure osmometry

    Gray, M.; Nilsson, M. [University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, UC Irvine, Irvine, CA 92697-2575 (United States); Zalupski, P. [Idaho National Laboratory, 2525 Fremont Avenue, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States)


    A thorough understanding of the non-ideal behavior of the chemical components utilized in solvent extraction contributes to the success of any large-scale spent nuclear fuel treatment. To address this, our current work uses vapor pressure osmometry to characterize the non-ideal behavior of the solvent extraction agent di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), a common extractant in proposed separation schemes. Solubility parameters were fit to data on HDEHP at four temperatures using models based on Scatchard Hildebrand regular solution theory with Flory Huggins entropic corrections. The results are comparable but not identical to the activity coefficients from prior slope analysis in the literature. (authors)

  8. 21 CFR 73.1 - Diluents in color additive mixtures for food use exempt from certification.


    ... (as identified in § 172.868 of this chapter). Ethylene glycol distearate. Japan wax. Limed rosin. Naphtha. Pentaerythritol ester of fumaric acid-rosin adduct. Polyethylene glycol 6000 (as identified in... forth in sec. 173.55 of this chapter In or as food-tablet coatings; limit, not more than 0.1 pct in the...

  9. Effects of diluents on cell culture viability measured by automated cell counter

    Aaron Chen; Matthew Leith; Roger Tu; Gurpreet Tahim; Anish Sudra; Swapnil Bhargava


      Commercially available automated cell counters based on trypan blue dye-exclusion are widely used in industrial cell culture process development and manufacturing to increase throughput and eliminate...

  10. Turbulent Flame Stabilization Methods Using Confinement, Diluents, and High-Potential Electric Fields


    Burning Biogas Surrogates,” ASME Journal of Energy Resources Technology, vol. 131, no. 4, pp. 1-9, 2009. [44] Papanikolaou, N. and Wierzba, “The...Hysteresis Regime and the Effects of Coflow,” ASME Journal of Energy Resources Technology, vol. 128, pp. 319-324, 2006. [3] Lyons, K.M., “Toward an...Hysteresis Effects in Methane Jet flames in Air-Coflow,” ASME Journal of Energy Resources Technology, vol. 133, no. 2, pp. 319-324, 2011. [10

  11. New Reactive Diluents for an Environmentally Efficient Approach to Composite Repair


    Weapons Division NADEP naval aviation depot nm nanometer NMR nuclear magnetic resonance OSHA Occupational Safety and Health...Kevlar (polyphenylene terephthalate), and graphite that are embedded in a polymeric resin. By far the most common resins are as polyester, vinyl...carefully cleaned, using gentle mechanical abrasion and by wiping with a damp cloth to remove as much dust as possible. A circle of the style #120 glass

  12. Cold flow properties of fatty acid methyl esters: Additives versus diluents

    Biodiesel is typically composed of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) converted from agricultural lipids. Common feedstocks include soybean oil, canola oil, rapeseed oil, sunflower oil, and palm oil. Recent debate on the conversion of edible oils into non-food products has created opportunities to deve...

  13. In vitro assessment of soybean lecithin and egg yolk based diluents for cryopreservation of goat semen.

    Salmani, Hossein; Towhidi, Armin; Zhandi, Mahdi; Bahreini, Majid; Sharafi, Mohsen


    Soybean lecithin is a suitable plant-based cryoprotectant for freezing ruminant sperm. Optimum level of lecithin was not clear for goat semen cryopreservation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different levels of soybean lecithin in semen extender on post-thaw sperm quality including CASA-motion parameters, viability, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation. Semen samples were collected from 4 Mahabadi bucks using an artificial vagina. Different concentrations of soy lecithin (SL, 0.5%, 1%, 1.5%, 2% and 2.5% w/v) were compared to 15% (v/v) egg yolk-based extender (TR-EY). No significant difference was observed for sperm progressive motility, viability or plasma membrane integrity in 1.5% SL media (33.8%, 66%, and 62.7%, respectively) and TR-EY medium (35.4%, 67.2%, and 64.9%, respectively). Sperm motion characteristics (VAP, VSL, VCL, ALH and LIN) and rapid spermatozoa were improved with extender containing 1% and 1.5% SL, compared to TR-EY extender. Furthermore, egg yolk produced significantly higher malondialdehyde (4.02±0.21) than other groups. Results suggest that the optimal lecithin concentration in the semen extender was 1.5% and also soy lecithin can substitute for egg yolk during cryopreservation for caprine sperm. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Lina Raquel Santos Araújo


    Full Text Available The use of appropriate extenders is important for the success of an artificial insemination program. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of alternative extenders for swine semen at different temperatures (17 to 10 °C. The following extenders were used: Beltsville Thawing Solution (BTS, powdered coconut water (ACP-103®, and skimmed milk powder (LPD. The 50 ejaculates were analyzed daily, in natura and after dilution, during the 5-day period of semen preservation (D0 to D4, regarding spermatic vigor and motility. Acrosome integrity and sperm viability were evaluated on D0 and D4. Data were analyzed using Mann-Whitney, Students, Tukey and chi-square tests (p<0.05. The LPD extender at 10 °C presented higher motility and sperm vigor compared to BTS and ACP until D2, and to treatments stored at 17 °C. Acrosome vitality and integrity remained higher (p<0.001 with LPD at 10 °C on D0 and D4. LPD showed to be a good extender for the swine semen at lower temperature (10 °C. Furthermore, it provided better protection to sperm cells, by allowing greater integrity and vitality of the acrosome.

  15. Sperm-egg penetration assay assessment of the contraceptive effects of glycerol and egg yolk in rooster sperm diluents.

    Abouelezz, F M K; Castaño, C; Toledano-Díaz, A; Esteso, M C; López-Sebastián, A; Campo, J L; Santiago-Moreno, J


    Glycerol (GLY) and egg yolk (EY) are good cryoprotectants of avian and mammalian sperm, but in birds, they strongly inhibit the eventual fertilization of ova. Using the sperm penetration (SP-holes) assay and fertility trials, the present study investigates (1) the possible mechanism by which this contraceptive effect occurs in chickens and (2) the maximum concentrations of GLY and EY tolerated by fresh rooster sperm. Seventy Black-Barred Andaluza hens (five per treatment) were inseminated four times (twice per week) with 0.1 mL of fresh semen from roosters of the same breed diluted 1:1 (v:v) with Lake and Ravie medium containing different concentrations of GLY or EY. No adverse effects on acrosome integrity, sperm motility, or viability were seen with any concentration of GLY or EY. The number of SP-holes on perivitelline layer samples taken from above the germinal disc became progressively lower at GLY concentrations of 1.5% or greater (P > 0.05). No holes caused by sperms were seen in unfertilized eggs. The corresponding fertility results showed similar reductions when the GLY concentration was 1.5% or greater. No changes in the number of SP-holes were seen with increasing EY concentrations (0%-7.5%), nor were any differences in fertility observed, except for a reduction when 15% EY was used. The results therefore reveal that GLY affects the transit of sperms through the oviduct in their attempt to reach the infundibulum area, limiting their access to the ovum perivitelline layer. Egg yolk had no such effect, nor did it influence acrosome reaction capacity; its mechanism of contraceptive action therefore remains unknown. The maximum GLY and EY concentrations tolerated by the rooster sperm were 0.75% and 7.5%, respectively.

  16. The Solvent Extraction of Cadmium From Phosphoric Acid Solution By3-Methyl-Quinoxaline-2-Thione in Toluene Diluent

    anae Baki Senhaji


    Full Text Available The solvent extraction of cadmium (II from phosphoric acid 2.5M by 3-methyl-2 (1H-quinoxaline-thione Vol32No6_SOLV_SANA_for1 is investigated in various experimental conditions. Obtained results show a variation of extraction of Cd with pH, and Vol32No6_SOLV_SANA_for2 concentration. The conventional methods of slope analysis can’t be performed successfully for understanding interaction mechanisms. A technique combining slope analysis with the variation of overall extraction constant with pH is performed in this case. There is no predominant removal mechanism, cadmium is extracted as complexes in Vol32No6_SOLV_SANA_for3 stoichiometry varying between 1:1:0 and 1:3:3. The extraction reaction is a complex process including ion exchange-ion pair formation,organic and inorganic complexation, H3PO4deprotonation and solvatation phenomena. A best recovery of 43 to 60% is achieved in acidic conditions with CLH = 0.26M

  17. Adulterants and diluents in heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine found on the illicit drug market in Aarhus, Denmark

    Andreasen, Mette Findal; Lindholst, Christian; Kaa, Elisabet


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the composition of heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine seized in the police district of Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, during a 2-year period. The purity of the active substance was measured together with the frequency and purity of adulte......The aim of the present study was to investigate the composition of heroin, amphetamine, and cocaine seized in the police district of Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark, during a 2-year period. The purity of the active substance was measured together with the frequency and purity...

  18. Viability of Timor deer stag (Cervus timorensis spermatozoa extended in tris egg yolk diluent with different sources of carbohydrate and storage at room temperature

    W. Marlene Mesang-Nalley


    Full Text Available The successful sperm preservation, influenced by the capability of its extender on the maintenance the sperm quality during storage. The carbohydrate such as glucose and fructose were the common sugar added on the mammalian sperm extender to support their live and motility. The sucrose was the main carbohydrate in Timor deer stag seminal plasma. The experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of carbohydrates in Tris egg yolk (TEY extender on the motility and viability of stag sperm, stored in room temperature (27-28 oC. The semen was collected using electro ejaculator from five Timor deer stags at hard antler stage, 3-5 years old, body weight of 64-102 kg with normal testes. The semen was than evaluated macro-and microscopically and divided into 3 aliquots. Each of them was diluted with TEY-glucose (TEYG, TEY-fructose (TEYF and TEY-Sucrose (TEYS with the concentration of spermatozoa 100 x 106 ml-1. The extended semen was than stored at room temperature. The sperm motility and viability were evaluated every 3 hours. Result of the experiment showed that the semen volume was 2.06 ± 0.63 ml, pH 7.03±0.13, yellow white until creamy in color and the consistency ranged from normal to thick. The mass movement between ++ to +++ and the sperm motility was 68.67 ± 7.4%. The average of sperm concentration was 842.35 ± 258.14x106 ml-1, the viable sperm was 78.11 ± 3.61%, the sperm abnormality was 7.31 ± 2.98%. The percentages of sperm motility on TEYG (18.00 ± 17.63% and TEYS (21.83 ± 15.92% were higher compare to TEYF (4,00 ± 0,00% extender in 24 hours observation. The percentage of sperm viability showed the same pattern. The sperm viability in TEYG (28.17 ± 20.06 and TEYS (24.00 ± 22.59% (P<0.05 were significantly higher compare to TEYF (4.00 ± 0.00%. It is concluded that the deer stag sperm can use the three sugars for their nutrition source. The diluted sperm still can be used for artificial insemination after 12 hour storage.

  19. Effect of diluent and reaction parameter on selective oxidation of propane over MoVTeNb catalyst using nanoflow catalytic reactor

    Restu Kartiko Widi; Sharifah Bee Abdul Hamid; Robert Schl(o)gl


    The selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid over an MoVTeNb mixed oxide catalyst, dried and calcined before reaction has been studied using high-throughput instrumentation, which is called nanoflow catalytic reactor. The effects of catalyst dilution on the catalytic performance of the MoVTeNb mixed oxide catalyst in selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid were also investigated. The effects of some reaction parameters, such as gas hourly space velocity (GHSV) and reaction temperature, for selective oxidation of propane to acrylic acid over diluted MoVTeNb catalyst have also been studied. The configuration of the nanoflow is shown to be suitable for screen catalytic performance, and its operating conditions were mimicked closely to conventional laboratory as well as to industrial conditions. The results obtained provided very good reproducibility and it showed that preparation methods as well as reaction parameters can play significant roles in catalytic performance of these catalysts.

  20. Influence of host plants and soil diluents on arbuscular mycorrhizal fungus propagation for on-farm inoculum production using leaf litter compost and agrowastes

    Arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi (Claroideoglomus etunicatum NNT10, C. etunicatum PBT03 and Funneliformis mosseae RYA08) were propagated using different culture materials (sterile sandy soil by itself or mixed 1:1 (v/v) with clay-brick granules, rice husk charcoal, or vermiculite) and host plants (...

  1. Influence of Temperature and pH of Diluent on Preservation Efficiency of Boar Semen in Room Temperature%温度与稀释液pH对猪精液常温保存效果的影响

    林峰; 杨婷; 陈玉霞; 韩雪蕾; 高汉婷; 李晓飞; 高腾云


    为提高猪精液常温保存的效果,研究不同温度和稀释液pH对猪精液常温保存效果的影响.结果表明:(1)当精子活力分别为50%和30%时,配方I与Ⅱ稀释液保存的精液,在温度为15~20℃条件下的精子存活时间均显著高于21~25℃(P<0.05);在pH为6.5~6.9条件下的精子存活时间均显著高于6.0~6.4(P<0.05);(2)精子顶体染色结果表明,适宜温度与pH条件下,精液保存48 h后,顶体完整率达到96%以上.研究结果表明,猪精液常温保存适宜温度为15~20℃,适宜PH为6.5~6.9.%To improve the preserving efficiency of boar semen in room temperature and ensure the fertilizing activity during semen dilution, the preserving conditions of boar semen, including temperature and pH of dilution buffer were optimized. The results showed that the survival time of the sperms in 15℃-20℃ was obviously longer than that in 21℃-25℃ (P<0. 05) when the sperms were stored in buffer I or Ⅱ with a respective motility rate of 50% and 30%. Similarly, the survival time in pH 6. 5-6. 9 was longer than that in pH 6. 0~6. 4 (P<0. 05). It suggested that the preserving conditions of boar semen was in 15℃-20℃ and in pH 6. 5-6. 9. Sperm acrosome staining results also showed that acrosome intact rate reached more than 96% after 48h semen preservation in optimum temperature and pH.

  2. Study on the Effects of Different Diluents on the Quality of Boar Sperm Stored at 4 ℃%不同稀释液对猪精液4℃保存效果的影响研究

    李兆华; 钱芙蓉; 朴昌植; 张树敏


    [目的]利用改进的BF5稀释液(命名为mBF5),开发一种4 ℃液态保存猪精子的方法.[方法]把猪精子在LEN、BF5和mBF5这3种稀释液中4 ℃条件下保存5 d,按照保存天数分别检测精子的活力、顶体形态、活率和ATP浓度并进行比较.[结果]在4 ℃条件下保存的1~2 d,精子的活率在3种稀释液中没有显著的差异;但是第3天开始,3种稀释液中的精子活率有显著差异,在mBF5中保存的精子活率显著地高于在LEN和BF5中保存的精子.第1~5天,在mBF5和BF5稀释液中保存的精子正常顶体的百分率高于LEN稀释液中保存的精子;并且,在4 ℃保存5 d后,在mBF5稀释液中保存的精子正常顶体的百分率要高于在BF5中保存的精子.在4 ℃条件下保存的第1~5天,mBF5稀释液中的精子活力百分率高于LEN和BF5稀释液保存的精子活力.在3种稀释液中,保存的第1~5天,精子活力的百分率都持续地降低.保存的第1~5天,mBF5稀释液中保存的精子ATP浓度比LEN和BF5稀释液中保存的高.保存5 d之后3种稀释液中精子ATP浓度都迅速下降.[结论]在4 ℃条件下保存5 d,与LEN和BF5稀释液相比,保存在mBF5稀释液中的精子表现出较高的活力、正常的顶体百分率、活率和ATP浓度.

  3. 4种溶液对陈旧斑迹胶体金试剂条ABO检测结果比较%The comparison of four sample diluents for ABO blood grouping cassette to test old biological stains


    目的 比较4种不同溶液用于陈旧斑迹ABO胶体金试剂条分型检验的结果.方法 采集已知血型的静脉血127份,唾液73份制备斑迹,放置1~2年;分别用去离子水、PBS、PBS(含2%吐温20)、PBS(含2%吐温20、1%吐温80)4种溶液浸泡,再用ABO胶体金试剂条检测其血型,观察结果的清晰度及准确度.结果 用不同溶液浸泡后进行ABO分型检测结果中,去离子水和PBS溶液分型检测线不清晰,难以判型;含吐温的PBS溶液分型检测线比较清晰,所测样本结果均准确,其中同时含吐温20和吐温80的溶液结果更佳.结论 根据本文结果,在陈旧斑迹的ABO血型检验中可选择使用含有吐温的PBS溶液作为斑迹浸泡溶液.

  4. Extraction of Sodium Picrate by 3m-Crown-m Ethers and Their Monobenzo Derivatives (m = 5, 6 into Benzene: Estimation of Their Equilibrium-Potential Differences at the Less-Polar Diluent/Water Interface by an Extraction Method

    Yoshihiro Kudo


    Full Text Available Individual distribution constants (KD,A of picrate ion (Pic− and extraction constants (Kex± of NaPic by some crown ethers (L into benzene (Bz at 25°C were calculated from data reported previously. These constants were defined as KD,Pic=Pic-o/[Pic-] and Kex±=NaL+oPic-o/(Na+Lo[Pic-], respectively. Here, the subscript “o” denotes an organic (o phase and practically o = Bz. 15-Crown-5 ether (15C5, 18-crown-6 one (18C6, and their monobenzo (B derivatives (B15C5 and B18C6 were selected as L. Interfacial equilibrium-potential differences (Δϕeq at extraction were estimated at 298 K. A plot of log⁡Kex± versus -Δϕeq for the four L extraction systems gave a straight line with slope = 84 V−1. This slope was compared with those, reported before, of the dichloromethane (DCM, 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE, and nitrobenzene (NB extraction systems. The slopes of the regression lines were in the order NB < DCM ≤ DCE < Bz. Also, the individual distribution constants of the complex ion NaL+ and an ion-pair complex (NaL+Pic- into Bz phase were calculated from the above extraction data. At least, a comparison between these values suggests that Bz molecules mainly interact with NaL+ moiety of NaL+Pic-.

  5. 糠醇缩水甘油醚稀释的环氧体系的性能研究%Study on properties of epoxy curing system with furfuryl glycidyl ether as diluent

    黄坤; 王石发; 万厉


    通过力学性能和热性能测试研究了糠醇缩水甘油醚(FGE)稀释的双酚A环氧树脂(DGEBA)体系的固化性能和固化反应动力学.通过M61ek自催化机理模型求得添加10%FGE的DGEBA与脂肪族聚酰胺固化剂的固化反应平均活化能为64.66 kJ/mol,低于苄基缩水甘油醚(BGE)稀释体系.以FGE稀释的固化产物的拉伸强度达到62.93 MPa,比BGE体系高出20%左右.拉伸伸长率达4.66%,是BGE体系的4倍左右.添加FGE的固化物冲击强度达36.17 MPa,比BGE体系高出约70%左右.使用FGE和BGE的环氧固化物的玻璃化转变温度分别为46.32℃和52.36℃.FGE和BGE体系固化物的5%的热失重温度分别为260.79℃和194.59℃.FGE是1种良好的环氧树脂稀释剂.

  6. 活性稀释剂含量对VARTM树脂工艺性能的影响%Effect of active diluent content on the technological properties of VARTM resin

    耿伟; 张国利



  7. Comparison of 4 diluents for enumeration of Bifidobacteria and lactic acid bacteria in health food%保健食品双歧杆菌和乳酸菌计数中4种稀释液的比较

    王似锦; 江志杰; 牛振东; 张光华; 高春; 刘文杰


    目的 选出益生菌类保健食品双歧杆菌和乳酸菌计数中最优稀释液.方法 对2个品种4个批次的益生菌类保健食品,分别采用4种稀释液:生理盐水(NS)、林格液(QSR液)、磷酸盐缓冲液(PBS缓冲液)、半胱氨酸磷酸盐缓冲液(CYS缓冲液)制备样品匀液,进行双歧杆菌和乳酸菌计数,并比较结果.结果 4种稀释液中,使用CYS缓冲液能够得到最高的计数结果.CYS缓冲液有更强的缓冲能力,能够提供更接近中性的pH值;可以提供有利于双歧杆菌存活的厌氧环境;可以使双歧杆菌和乳酸菌更充分的释放和分散均匀.结论 CYS缓冲液为最优稀释液.

  8. UV Active Diluent High Purity Tripropylene Glycol Diacrylate(TPGDA) and Its UV Coatings%UV活性稀释剂高纯二缩三丙二醇二丙烯酸酯及其UV涂料

    胡剑飞; 付鹏志; 马怀详; 桑卫东


    Intermediate was prepared via the ring-opening polymerization in the presence of catalyst and 1,2-propylene glycol and propylene oxide used as raw materials, the intermediate as separated by a special rectifying process, the tripropylene glycol of over 98% purity was obtained. Finally, high purity TPGDA was synthesized by esterifieation with acrylic acid. The ester distribution of tripropylene glycol diacrylate before and after purifying the tripropylene glycol and performance difference in their application of UV coatings was systematic analyzed.%1,2-丙二醇、环氧丙烷在催化剂的作用下进行开环聚合反应得中间体,再对中间体采用特殊精馏方式进行组分分离,得到纯度达98%以上的二缩三丙二醇,然后经丙烯酸酯化得高纯TPGDA。系统分析二缩三丙二醇提纯前及提纯后所合成的光固化单体二缩三丙二醇二丙烯酸酯(TPGDA)的酯分布及其在UV涂料应用中的性能差异。

  9. 9 CFR 113.3 - Sampling of biological products.


    ... Marek's Disease Vaccine, if such diluent is required to rehydrate or dilute the product before use. The... Diluent prepared for use with Marek's Disease Vaccine shall be submitted upon request from the Animal and...

  10. Stability of Solvent Radiolysis in Purex Process of Spent Fuel Reprocessing


    <正>In Purex process the regradation of TBP-diluents due to the radiolysis may cause diffculty for the process. Three diluents such as n-dodecane, hydrogenation kerosene, special kerosene were used in Purex

  11. Hypo - and hypernatremia results in inaccurate Erythrocytes mean Corpuscular Volume (MCV) measurement in vitro, when using Sysmex XE 2100

    Madsen, Kirsten Vikkelsø; Philipsen, Jens Peter


    Introduction: Automated hematology analyzers dilute patient erythrocytes with an isosmotic diluent before quantitating the erythrocyte Mean Cell Volume (MCV). However, if patient plasma osmolality differs from the diluent, water will cross the erythrocytes membrane and establish a new equilibrium...

  12. Desensitization and recovery of metastable intermolecular composites

    Busse, James R [South Fork, CO; Dye, Robert C [Los Alamos, NM; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos, NM; Higa, Kelvin T [Ridgecrest, CA; Jorgensen, Betty S [Jemez Springs, NM; Sanders, Victor E [White Rock, NM; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos, NM


    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  13. Desensitization of metastable intermolecular composites

    Busse, James R [South Fork, CO; Dye, Robert C [Los Alamos, NM; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos, NM; Higa, Kelvin T [Ridgecrest, CA; Jorgensen, Betty S [Jemez Springs, NM; Sanders, Victor E [White Rock, NM; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos, NM


    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  14. 40 CFR 180.910 - Inert ingredients used pre- and post-harvest; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.


    ... defoliant Amyl acetate Solvent, cosolvent, attractant Ascorbyl palmitate Preservative Attapulgite-type clay..., carrier Bentonite Solid diluent, carrier Benzoic acid Preservative for formulation Bicyclo hept-2-ene, 2,6... (CAS Reg. No. 110-27-0) Solvent Kaolinite-type clay Solid diluent, carrier Lactic acid Solvent Lactic...

  15. 40 CFR 60.4345 - What are the requirements for the continuous emission monitoring system equipment, if I choose to...


    ... choose to use this option? If the option to use a NOX CEMS is chosen: (a) Each NOX diluent CEMS must be..., Procedure 1 in appendix F to this part is not required. Alternatively, a NOX diluent CEMS that is installed... subpart. The relative accuracy test audit (RATA) of the CEMS shall be performed on a lb/MMBtu basis....

  16. Partial replacement of chicken semen by turkey semen in artificial insemination of chickens.

    Gavora, J S; Hodgson, G C


    Chicken semen undiluted, diluted with a diluent containing fructose and/or mixed with turkey semen was used to inseminate Leghorn hens. In two of three experiments there was an improvement in fertility from insemination by mixed semen as compared to semen diluted to the same extent with the diluent.

  17. 40 CFR 75.82 - Monitoring of Hg mass emissions and heat input at common and multiple stacks.


    ...) Use the installed flow and diluent monitors to determine the hourly heat input rate at each stack (mm... utilize two or more ducts feeding into a single stack and the owner or operator chooses to monitor in the... flow and diluent monitors to determine the hourly heat input rate at each stack or duct...

  18. 40 CFR 75.72 - Determination of NOX mass emissions for common stack and multiple stack configurations.


    ... maintain a flow monitoring system and diluent monitor in the duct to the common stack from each unit; or...; (2) Monitor NOX mass emissions at the main stack using a NOX-diluent CEMS and a flow monitoring... chooses to monitor in the ducts rather than in the stack, the owner or operator shall either: (1)...

  19. Separation Characteristics of Succinic Acid in Reactive Extraction

    Hong, Yeon Ki; Hong, Won Hi [Department of Chemical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science Technology, Taejeon (Korea)


    Succinic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. In this study succinic acid was separated by reactive extraction with tertiary amines dissolved in various diluents. Distribution coefficients were determined as the function of TPA(tripropylamine) concentrations, diluents, and chain length of tertiary amines. The extraction capacity increased with the polarity of diluents, the concentration of TPA in organic phase and the chain length of amines. Furthermore, the coextracted water into the organic phase enhanced the solubility of succinic acid into organic phase. 12 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.


    LI Wenjun; YUAN Youxin; CABASSO,Israel


    Microporous membranes of low-high density polyethylene and their blends were prepared by thermally-induced phase separation of polymer/long-aliphatic chain alcohol (diluent)mixtures.The microstructures of this particular membrane, which depends on the diluent properties,polymer concentration and cooling rate, were observed by scanning electron microscopy."Beehive-type,"leafy-like, and lacy porous structure morphologies can be formed,depending on the blend composition and phase separation conditions, which were discussed by the polymer and diluent crystallization processes.

  1. 9 CFR 112.6 - Packaging biological products.


    ... containers of the proper amount of diluent as specified in the filed Outline of Production: (1) Marek's Disease Vaccine. (2) Poultry vaccines administered to individual birds using automatic vaccinating...

  2. 21 CFR 82.6 - Certifiable mixtures.


    ... mixture is harmless and suitable for use therein; and (3) No diluent (except resins, natural gum, pectin... mixture is for external application to shell eggs, or for use in coloring a food specified in the...

  3. Removal of low molecular organic acids from aqueous solutions with reactive extraction

    Dominika Szternel; Magdalena Regel-Rosocka; Maciej Wiśniewski


    ...) from aqueous solutions with reactive extraction. The results specifically show that the extraction efficiency of acids depends on the type of extractant, diluents of the organic phase and the initial pH of the aqueous phase...

  4. Rat sperm motility analysis: methodologic considerations

    The objective of these studies was to optimize conditions for computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) of rat epididymal spermatozoa. Methodologic issues addressed include sample collection technique, sampling region within the epididymis, type of diluent medium used, and sample c...

  5. Drug: D06522 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Full Text Available D06522 Drug Silicon dioxide, colloidal (NF); Silica SiO2 59.9668 60.0843 D06522.gif Pharmaceutic aid [suspen...ding agent]; Pharmaceutic aid [tablet and capsule diluent]: Pharmaceutic aid [thick

  6. 40 CFR 61.61 - Definitions.


    ... produces vinyl chloride by any process. (c) Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) plant includes any plant where vinyl... plasticizer or plasticizer/diluent mixtures. (h) Latex resin means a resin which is produced by...

  7. Development and Validation of 1.3 ATA PO2-in-He Decompression Tables for the MK 16 MOD 1 UBA


    are then rearranged to give the rate of diluent gas addition: dN D _ dNC | dNmet _ (B.3) dt dt dt When Eq. (B.1) is used, the first term on the...expression for the rate of diluent gas addition as the rig changes pressure at rate I ^- dt ) dNc dt (dP( RTr V dt c 1, P°Vo2 RTC (B.6) It


    J. Lakshmi Prasanna*, B. Deepthi and N. Rama Rao


    The objective of the study was to examine the influence of two variables, concentration of the matrixing agent and diluent on the release of diclofenac sodium from hydrophobic matrix tablets. A 32 full factorial design was employed to optimize drug release profile. Concentration of the hydrophobic matrixing agent (X1) and type of diluent (X2) were taken as independent variables. The dependent variables selected were percentage drug release at 3h, 6h, 9h, time required for 50% drug release and...

  9. Molecular-dynamics investigation of the desensitization of detonable material

    Rice, Betsy M.; Mattson, William; Trevino, Samuel F.


    A molecular-dynamics investigation of the effects of a diluent on the detonation of a model crystalline explosive is presented. The diluent, a heavy material that cannot exothermally react with any species of the system, is inserted into the crystalline explosive in two ways. The first series of simulations investigates the attenuation of the energy of a detonation wave in a pure explosive after it encounters a small layer of crystalline diluent that has been inserted into the lattice of the pure explosive. After the shock wave has traversed the diluent layer, it reenters the pure explosive. Unsupported detonation is not reestablished unless the energy of the detonation wave exceeds a threshold value. The second series of simulations investigates detonation of solid solutions of different concentrations of the explosive and diluent. For both types of simulations, the key to reestablishing or reaching unsupported detonation is the attainment of a critical number density behind the shock front. Once this critical density is reached, the explosive molecules make a transition to an atomic phase. This is the first step in the reaction mechanism that leads to the heat release that sustains the detonation. The reactive fragments formed from the atomization of the heteronuclear reactants subsequently combine with new partners, with homonuclear product formation exothermally favored. The results of detonation of the explosive-diluent crystals are consistent with those presented in an earlier study on detonation of pure explosive [B. M. Rice, W. Mattson, J. Grosh, and S. F. Trevino, Phys. Rev. E 53, 611 (1996)].

  10. Polymer composites and porous materials prepared by thermally induced phase separation and polymer-metal hybrid methods

    Yoon, Joonsung

    The primary objective of this research is to investigate the morphological and mechanical properties of composite materials and porous materials prepared by thermally induced phase separation. High melting crystallizable diluents were mixed with polymers so that the phase separation would be induced by the solidification of the diluents upon cooling. Theoretical phase diagrams were calculated using Flory-Huggins solution thermodynamics which show good agreement with the experimental results. Porous materials were prepared by the extraction of the crystallized diluents after cooling the mixtures (hexamethylbenzene/polyethylene and pyrene/polyethylene). Anisotropic structures show strong dependence on the identity of the diluents and the composition of the mixtures. Anisotropic crystal growth of the diluents was studied in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics using DSC, optical microscopy and SEM. Microstructures of the porous materials were explained in terms of supercooling and dendritic solidification. Dual functionality of the crystallizable diluents for composite materials was evaluated using isotactic polypropylene (iPP) and compatible diluents that crystallize upon cooling. The selected diluents form homogeneous mixtures with iPP at high temperature and lower the viscosity (improved processability), which undergo phase separation upon cooling to form solid particles that function as a toughening agent at room temperature. Tensile properties and morphology of the composites showed that organic crystalline particles have the similar effect as rigid particles to increase toughness; de-wetting between the particle and iPP matrix occurs at the early stage of deformation, followed by unhindered plastic flow that consumes significant amount of fracture energy. The effect of the diluents, however, strongly depends on the identity of the diluents that interact with the iPP during solidification step, which was demonstrated by comparing tetrabromobisphenol-A and

  11. Determination of species activities in organic phase. Modelling of liquid-liquid extraction system using uniquac and unifac models; Determination des activites des especes en phase organique. Application d`uniquac et unifac a la modelisation des systemes d`extraction liquide-liquide

    Rat, B. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France). Dept. de Recherche en Retraitement et en Vitrification]|[Paris-6 Univ., 75 (France)


    The aim of nuclear fuel reprocessing is to separate reusable elements, uranium and plutonium from the other elements, fission products and minor actinides. PUREX process uses liquid-liquid extraction as separation method. Numerical codes for modelling the extraction operations of PUREX process use a semi-empirical model to represent the partition of species. To improve the precision and precision and predictive nature of the models, we looked for a theoretical tool which permits to quantify medium effects, especially in the organic phase, for which few models are available. The Sergeivskii-Dannus model permits to quantify deviations from ideality in organic phase equilibrated with aqueous phase, but with parameters depending on extractant/diluent ratio. We decided to investigate UNIQUAC and UNIFAC models which permit to estimate activity coefficients in non-electrolytic phases taking account of the mutual interactions of molecules and their morphology. UNIFAC is based on UNIQUAC but molecules are considered as structural groups assemblies. Before applying these model to extraction systems, we investigate their abilities to describe simple systems, binary and ternary systems. UNIQUAC has been applied to TBP/diluent mixtures and permits to estimate activity coefficients for diluents whose interactions with TPB are very different in nature and strength. Group contribution (UNIFAC) applied to TBP/alkane mixtures permits to represent the effect of lengthening alkane chain but not the effect of branching. UNIQUAC fails to describe the TBP/diluent/water/non-extractable-salt systems in case of strong TBP diluent interactions. In order to obtain a correct description of these systems, we used the Chem-UNIFAC model, where the INIFAC equation is supplemented with chemical equilibria allowing explicitly for complexes formation and where group contribution is used to describes complexes. We have with Chem-UNIFAC a model available which can take the effect of the diluent into

  12. Effect of the porosity of PS-DVB-copolymers on ion chromatographic behavior in inverse size-exclusion and ion chromatography.

    Füssler, Rainer; Schäfer, Helwig; Seubert, Andreas


    Small and highly pressure-stable PS-DVB copolymers of different porosity had been prepared by a two-step swelling procedure which enabled variation of diluent composition, an important characteristic affecting the porosity. The polymers were characterized by inverse size-exclusion chromatography and scanning electron microscopy. Subsequent chloromethylation and amination resulted in anion exchangers suitable for ion chromatography. The pore volume and the pore-size distribution is substantially affected by the fraction of the solvens component in the diluent. It was apparent from scanning electron microscopy that surface structure and the size of the polymer particles was not affected by diluent composition. The functionalization process led to a decrease in pore volume. The pore-size distribution remained unchanged during functionalization, which can be explained in terms of partial closing of all pore sizes. The chromatographic efficiency of the functionalized polymers in ion chromatography was highly dependent on diluent composition and the extent of functionalization was determined by the total pore volume. The composition of the diluent is an excellent tool for optimization of polymers used for the synthesis of surface-functionalized anion exchangers.

  13. New methods and media for the centrifugation of honey bee (Hymenoptera: Apidae) drone semen.

    Wegener, Jakob; May, Tanja; Kamp, Günter; Bienefeld, Kaspar


    Centrifugation of Apis mellifera L. drone semen is a necessary step in the homogenization of semen pools for the enlargement of the effective breeding population, as well as in the collection of semen by the so-called washing technique. It is also of interest for the removal of cryoprotectants after cryopreservation. The adoption of methods involving semen centrifugation has been hampered by their damaging effect to sperm. Here, we tested four new diluents as well as three additives (catalase, hen egg yolk, and a protease inhibitor), using sperm motility and dual fluorescent staining as indicators of semen quality. Three of the new diluents significantly reduced motility losses after centrifugation, as compared with the literature standard. Values of motility and propidium iodide negativity obtained with two of these diluents were not different from those measured with untreated semen. The least damaging diluent, a citrate-HEPES buffer containing trehalose, was then tested in an insemination experiment with centrifuged semen. Most queens receiving this semen produced normal brood, and the number of sperm reaching the storage organ of the queen was not significantly different from that in queens receiving untreated semen. These results could improve the acceptance of techniques involving the centrifugation of drone semen. The diluent used in the insemination experiment could also serve as semen extender for applications not involving centrifugation.

  14. Immunological and physical properties of allergen solutions. Effects of nebulization

    Frølund, L; Poulsen, L K; Heinig, J H;


    Lyophilised birch pollen allergen extracts, reconstituted with different diluents (H2O, saline, Albumin diluent (AD] were investigated to determine whether the allergen activity and quality of the extracts deteriorated by nebulization with different nebulizers (Pari, Wright, and Sandoz). Allergen...... activity was measured by IgG4 RAST inhibition technique and allergen quality was analysed by crossed immunoelectrophoresis (CIE). The distribution of particle sizes of aerosols of different allergen solutions was determined by a TSI Aerodynamic Particle Sizer. A significant difference (P less than 0.......05) in allergen activity was found between the AD and H2O diluents before and after using a Sandoz nebulizer and a Wright nebulizer equipped with a small chamber. This suggested greater allergen activity in AD-diluted solutions, and the pattern was repeated with the other two nebulizers, but was not statistically...

  15. An inhibitor to rubella hemagglutination present in bovine albumin preparations: its removal by treatment with kaolin.

    Campbell, J B; Ellins, M L; Tasios, C


    Certain commercial preparations of bovine albumin, fraction V, show inhibitory activity in the rubella hemagglutination (HA) and hemagglutination-inhibition (HI) tests. This does not appear to be due to albumin per se, but instead to a contaminant (or contaminants) with the properties of a lipoprotein. All inhibitory activity can be removed from albumin preparations by treatment with kaolin, gel filtration, or flotation ultracentrifugation. We have found that, even when there was no inhibition of HA titers, kaolin treatment of the albumins prior to their incorporation into the test diluent resulted in more clearly defined agglutination patterns. Reasons for and against including albumin in the test diluent are discussed. It is concluded that, although not essential, it is a worthwhile additive. Our data suggest, however, that each batch of albumin used for this purpose should be checked for the presence of inhibitor, and that treatment with kaolin might be considered as a routine step prior to its incorporation into the test diluent.

  16. Quantitative assessment of factors contributing to mottling of colored tablets II: formulation variables.

    Armstrong, N A; March, G A


    The effects of several formulation variables were quantified with respect to factors affecting tablet mottling. Tablet mottling occurred with several commonly used binders and could not be prevented by using highly viscous binding solutions. However, mottling was reduced initially by increasing granule strength. Tablet diluents and dye-adsorbent materials had a profound effect on mottling, not by preventing dye migration but by affecting granule fragmentation on compression and the extent to which the dye-deficient material at the center of the granule was revealed. The lake form of FD&C Blue No. 1 was found to bleed in the presence of diluents that raised the pH of the granulating fluid above 6.4. Anionic impurities in the diluents also caused leaching of free dye and, consequently, increased tablet mottling. The conclusions from this study and previous papers were drawn together to give general principles for the production of uniformly colored tablets by aqueous granulation techniques.

  17. A facile method of fabricating mechanical durable anti-icing coatings based on CeO2 microparticles

    Wang, Pengren; Peng, Chaoyi; Wu, Binrui; Yuan, Zhiqing; Yang, Fubiao; Zeng, Jingcheng


    Compromising between hydrophobicity and mechanical durability may be a feasible approach to fabricating usable anti-icing coatings. This work improves the contact angle of current commercial anti-icing coatings applied to wind turbine blades dramatically and keeps relatively high mechanical durability. CeO2 microparticles and diluent were mixed with fluorocarbon resin to fabricate high hydrophobic coatings on the glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite substrates. The proportion of CeO2 microparticles and diluent influences the contact angles significantly. The optimum mass ratio of fluorocarbon resin to CeO2 microparticles to diluent is 1:1.5:1, which leads to the highest contact angle close to 140°. The microscopy analysis shows that the CeO2 microparticles form nano/microscale hierarchical structure on the surface of the coatings.

  18. A study of parameters affecting the solvent extraction of lactic acid from fermentation broth

    I. S. Udachan


    Full Text Available Lactic acid has recently been drawing much interest as a raw material for biodegradable polymer. One of the promising technologies for recovery of lactic acid from fermentation broth is reactive liquid - liquid extraction. Equilibrium studies on the reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine (TOA in various organic phases and its re-extraction into aqueous solutions were carried out. In this study distribution coefficient, extractability, stripping efficiency of various active and inert diluents with TOA as extractant were investigated, which were higher for active diluents. The effects of operating temperature, speed of agitation, agitation time and diluent composition on extraction efficiency were also studied. Temperature and extraction efficiency were inversely proportional to each other, whereas extraction efficiency was little affected by speed of agitation and agitation time.

  19. Studies on the compressibility of wax matrix granules of acetaminophen and their admixtures with various tableting bases.

    Uhumwangho, M U; Okor, R S


    Matrix granules of acetaminophen have been formed by a melt granulation process whereby the acetaminophen powder was triturated with the melted wax--goat wax, glyceryl monostearate or carnuba wax. The compressibility of the matrix granules and their admixture, with diluent granules (lactose, alpha-cellulose or microcrystalline cellulose) was investigated. The granules were compressed to tablets at a constant load (30 arbitrary units on the load scale) of a manesty single punch machine. Resulting tablets were evaluated for tensile strength (T) and disintegration times (DT). Granule flow was determined by measuring their angle of repose when allowed to fall freely on a level surface. Matrix granules prepared by melt granulation with goat wax or glyceryl monostearate were too sticky and therefore did not flow at all. They were also poorly compressible (T values = 0.20MN/m2). Inclusion of the diluent remarkably improved granule flow property and compressibility. The T values of the tablets (measure of compressibility) increased from about 0.24 to 0.65 MN/m2 during increase in diluent (lactose) content from 20 to 80 %w/w. Microcrystalline cellulose and alpha-cellulose were more effective than lactose in promoting compressibility of the granules. By contrast the matrix granules formed with carnuba wax were free flowing (angle of repose, 18.60). Addition of the diluent further improved flowability slightly. The matrix granules (without a diluent) were readily compressible (T value, 1.79MN/m2). Addition of the diluent (80%w/w) reduced T values (MN/m2) slightly to 1.32 (lactose), 1.48 (alpha-cellulose) and 1.74 (microcrystalline cellulose). Tablets of the matrix granules only, disintegrated rapidly within 3 minutes. DT was further reduced to wax proved most promising in the melt granulation of the test drug for sustained release applications.

  20. Functional materials - Study of process for CVD SiC/C composite material

    Choi, Doo Jin; Wang, Chae Chyun; Lee, Young Jin; Oh, Byung Jun [Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea)


    The CVD SiC coating techniques are the one of high functional material manufactures that improve the thermal, wear, oxidization and infiltration resistance of the surface of raw materials and extend the life of material. Silicon carbide films have been grown onto graphite substrates by low pressure chemical vapor deposition using MTS(CH{sub 3}SiCl{sub 3}) as a source precursor and H{sub 2} or N{sub 2} as a diluent gas. The experiments for temperature and diluent gas addition changes were performed. The effect of temperature from 900 deg. C to 1350 deg. C and the alteration of diluent gas species on the growth rate and structure of deposits have been studied. The experimental results showed that the deposition rate increased with increasing deposition temperature irrespective of diluent gases and reactant depletion effect increased especially at H{sub 2} diluent gas ambient. As the diluent gas added, the growth rate decreased parabolically. For N{sub 2} addition, surface morphology of leaf-like structure appeared, and for H{sub 2}, faceted structure at 1350 deg. C. The observed features were involved by crystalline phase of {beta}-SiC and surface composition with different gas ambient. We also compared the experimental results of the effect of partial pressure on the growth rate with the results of theoretical approach based on the Langmuir-Hinshelwood model. C/SiC composites were prepared by isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI). In order to fabricate the more dense C/SiC composites, a novel process of the in-situ whisker growing and filling during ICVI was devised, which was manipulated by alternating dilute gas species. The denser C/SiC composites were successfully prepared by the novel process comparing with the conventional ICVI process. 64 refs., 36 figs., 5 tabs. (Author)

  1. Copolímeros de estireno-divinilbenzeno para aplicação em cromatografia de exclusão por tamanho Styrene-Divinylbenzene copolymers for application in size exclusion chromatography

    Márcia Angelica F.S. Neves


    Full Text Available Copolímeros de estireno-divinilbenzeno para a aplicação em cromatografia de exclusão por tamanho foram sintetizados através de polimerização em suspensão aquosa modificada pela presença de diluentes. Na síntese dos copolímeros foram variados os seguintes parâmetros reacionais: tipo de diluente, grau de diluição e teor de divinilbenzeno. Os copolímeros obtidos como partículas esféricas com tamanho médio em torno de 10 µm foram caracterizados quanto à porosidade no estado seco e às propriedades de inchamento. Os copolímeros foram utilizados como material de empacotamento de colunas para cromatografia de exclusão por tamanho (SEC. O aumento do grau de diluição na síntese do copolímero aumentou o limite de exclusão da cromatografia, porém a redução do poder solvatante do diluente teve um efeito mais pronunciado sobre esse parâmetro.Styrene-divinylbenzene copolymers were synthesized by modified suspension polymerization in presence of diluents. In the copolymers synthesis, the following reaction parameters were varied: diluent type, dilution degree and divinylbenzene content. The copolymers obtained as spherical particles with average diameter around 10 µm. were characterized by their porosity in dry state and by their swelling properties. The copolymers were applied as packing material of size exclusion chromatography columns. The increase of dilution degree in the copolymer synthesis increased the chromatography exclusion limit, but the decrease of diluent-copolymer affinity provoked a more accentuated effect on that parameter.

  2. Safety and efficacy of aspartame-based liquid versus sucrose-based liquids used for dilution in oral sodium phosphate solutions for colonoscopy preparations.

    Chamberlain, Sherman M; Balart, J Carter; Sideridis, Kostas; Salek, Jefrey; Sridhar, Subbaramiah; Thompson, William O


    The aim of this study was to investigate whether an oral sodium phosphate solution (OSPS) mixed with aspartame-based clear liquids as the diluent would yield improved colon cleansing results compared to an OSPS mixed with sucrose-based liquids as the diluent. Fifty-one patients undergoing colonoscopy were prospectively randomized into two groups to receive different OSPS colonoscopy preparations, with sucrose-based or aspartame-based liquids used as diluents. The primary end point was the quality of the colonoscopy preparation and secondary end points were serum electrolytes before and after preparations. No significant difference in colonoscopy preparation quality was seen between the two OSPS diluent groups (Mantel-Haenzel chi (2) = 0.795, P = 0.484). There were no significant differences in mean electrolyte shifts of sodium, potassium, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine (Cr), or BUN/Cr ratios between the two groups. There was a statistically significant increase in serum phosphorous in the aspartame-based group compared to the sucrose-based diluent group (P = 0.021). In conclusion, there was no clinically detectable difference in colonoscopy preparation quality between the two OSPS diluent groups. This study suggests that passive fluid transport by aquaporins may well be the major mediator of fluid shifts in the study subjects. This result suggests the potential importance of aquaporins and minimizes the importance of sodium glucose cotransporter SGLT1 in fluid and electrolyte transport in the human gastrointestinal tract. Aspartame or its constituent amino acids may enhance phosphate absorption across the human small intestine.

  3. A remarkable enhancement in Am³⁺/Eu³⁺ selectivity by an ionic liquid based solvent containing bis-1,2,4-triazinyl pyridine derivatives: DFT validation of experimental results.

    Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Ansari, Seraj A; Gadly, Trilochan; Ghosh, Sunil K; Mohapatra, Manoj; Mohapatra, P K


    Mutual separation of trivalent actinide (An(3+)) and lanthanide (Ln(3+)) using several soft (N) donor ligands (bis(5,6-dialkyl-1,2,4-triazinyl)pyridine (R-BTP)) is attempted for the first time in room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) medium. The results indicate a spectacular enhancement in the selectivity as compared to that in molecular diluents with a separation factor (S.F.) of >3000 for Am(3+) over Eu(3+) using the methyl derivative (Me-BTP) in RTIL medium using [C(n)mim]·[NTf2] as the diluents (where n = 2, 3, 4, 6 or 8). Such a high S.F. value has never been reported before with any of the R-BTP derivatives in molecular diluents. An opposite trend in the distribution ratio values of both Am(3+) and Eu(3+) with the increasing size of the alkyl (R) group is observed in RTIL medium when compared with that in molecular diluents. The differences in the extraction behaviour of R-BTPs in RTILs vis-à-vis molecular diluents are explained on the basis of the difference in the nature of complexes extracted in these two distinctly different media as supported by the time resolved fluorescence (TRFS) study. An unusually high extractability and selectivity for Am(3+) over Eu(3+) with Me-BTP was attributed to the formation of a 1 : 4 complex for Am(3+), which was never reported earlier with any of the R-BTP derivatives in molecular diluents. DFT studies indicated higher metal 'd' and 'f' orbital participation (covalence) in the bonding with R-BTP in the case of Am(3+) complexes as compared to that in the case of Eu(3+) complexes, which resulted in the selectivity of these classes of ligands. The observed results may have a great significance in the radioactive waste management involving the partitioning and transmutation strategy.

  4. Comparative study of some factors affecting enumeration of moulds using dilution plate techniques.

    Bragulat, M R; Abarca, M L; Bruguera, M T; Cabañes, F J


    The influence of dilution plating technique, nature of diluent, culture media and incubation period on the enumeration of moulds have been studied. Three new culture media containing Auramine, Gentian Violet and Malachite Green respectively have been induced in this study. No significant differences were observed between results obtained after 3, 5 and 7 days of incubation. Significantly higher recoveries were obtained using the surface-spread method than pour plate method. Using the first technique no effect of diluent was observed, and among the different culture media studied higher counts were obtained with medium containing Auramine.

  5. Method for depositing high-quality microcrystalline semiconductor materials

    Guha, Subhendu; Yang, Chi C.; Yan, Baojie


    A process for the plasma deposition of a layer of a microcrystalline semiconductor material is carried out by energizing a process gas which includes a precursor of the semiconductor material and a diluent with electromagnetic energy so as to create a plasma therefrom. The plasma deposits a layer of the microcrystalline semiconductor material onto the substrate. The concentration of the diluent in the process gas is varied as a function of the thickness of the layer of microcrystalline semiconductor material which has been deposited. Also disclosed is the use of the process for the preparation of an N-I-P type photovoltaic device.

  6. Criopreservação de sêmen de galos

    LAAN, Guilherme Martino Van Der


    A adição de diluentes ao sêmen de aves é uma prática rotineiramente empregada em programas de inseminação artificial para melhorar o manejo de machos geneticamente superiores. A fertilidade do sêmen fresco normalmente decai 1 hora após a coleta, por isso a necessidade do uso de diluentes e temperaturas hipotérmicas para o armazenamento do sêmen por períodos mais prolongados. A Lipoproteína de Baixa Densidade (LDL), extraída da gema de ovo, tem sido utilizada na composição de...

  7. Nickel electrode for alkaline batteries

    Charkey, A.; Januszkiewicz, S.


    A nickel electrode including a conductive support and a layer on the support including a mixture of a nickel active material and a graphite diluent containing a spinel type oxide, the spinel type oxide having the formula M/sub 2/Co/sub 2/O/sub 4/, where M/sub 2/ is Co, Ni, Mn, Fe, Cu, Zn or Cd, or combinations thereof, and having a weight which is in the range of 1-30 percent of the weight of the diluent.

  8. Quality factors to consider in condensate selection

    Lywood, B. [Crude Quality Inc., Edmonton, AB (Canada)


    Many factors must be considered when assessing the feasibility of using condensates as a diluent for bitumen or heavy crude production blending. In addition to commercial issues, the effect of condensate quality is a key consideration. In general, condensate quality refers to density and viscosity. However, valuation decisions could be enhanced through the expansion of quality definitions and understanding. This presentation focused on the parameters that are important in choosing a diluent grade product. It also reviewed pipeline and industry specifications and provided additional information regarding general properties for bitumen and condensate compatibility; sampling and quality testing needs; and existing sources of information regarding condensate quality. tabs., figs.

  9. [Epoxy resin systems and contact dermatitis].

    Pietranek, Jolanta Eliza


    Contact dermatitis is the major chronic skin disease that represents a global health problem. Its prevalence has been significant increasing in the latest decades. Contact dermatitis substantially alters the social life of patients and affects their work productivity. Epoxy resin systems are a frequent cause of occupational allergic contact dermatitis. Epoxy resins have an extremely wide range of commercial applications. Epoxy resin systems include combinations of epoxy monomers, hardeners, reactive diluents, and/or a vast array of other additives. In occupational settings, sensitization occurs not only to resins, but also to hardeners and reactive diluents. In this article adverse effects of epoxy resin systems are discussed.

  10. Effect of vaginal douching and different semen extenders on bacterial load and fertility in turkeys.

    Omprakash, A V; Venkatesh, G


    1. A study on artificial insemination of Beltsville Small White turkeys investigated the effect on bacterial load and fertility of vaginal douching with diluents containing Gentamicin 400 microg/ml and different semen extenders. 2. Irrespective of the extenders used, vaginal douching with Gentamicin reduced the microbial load of the vagina with resultant improvement in fertility and hatchability and corresponding reduction in embryonic mortality. 3. Eggs from hens inseminated with semen extended with Beltsville Poultry Semen Extender (BPSE) diluent along with vaginal douching showed a trend towards higher per cent fertility and per cent hatchability of total and fertile eggs set compared to other extenders, though this was non-significant.

  11. Novel Solvent for the Simultaneous recovery of Radioactive Nuclides from Liquid Radioactive Wastes

    Romanovskiy, Valeriy Nicholiavich; Smirnov, Lgor V.; Babain, Vasiliy A.; Todd, Terry A.; Brewer, Ken N.


    The present invention relates to solvents, and methods, for selectively extracting and recovering radionuclides, especially cesium and strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive wastes. More specifically, the invention relates to extracting agent solvent compositions comprising complex organoboron compounds, substituted polyethylene glycols, and neutral organophosphorus compounds in a diluent. The preferred solvent comprises a chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide, diphenyl-dibutylmethylenecarbamoylphosphine oxide, PEG-400, and a diluent of phenylpolyfluoroalkyl sulfone. The invention also provides a method of using the invention extracting agents to recover cesium, strontium, rare earths and actinides from liquid radioactive waste.

  12. Study of the physico-chemical agents influencing uranium and plutonium extraction by tributylphosphate in nitric media; Etude des facteurs physico-chimiques intervenant dans l'extraction de l'uranium et du plutonium par le phosphate de tributyle en milieu nitrique

    Tarnero, M. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires


    The following different factors are reviewed: tributylphosphate concentration, nitric acid concentration, influence of non-extractable nitrates, simultaneous presence of uranium and plutonium, presence of some different ions, temperature, nature of the diluent, addition of a second active solvent (synergic or antagonistic effect), tributylphosphate and diluent degradation. (author) [French] On passe en revue les differents facteurs suivants: concentration en phosphate de tributyle, concentration en acide nitrique, influence des nitrates non-extractibles, presence simultanee d'uranium et de plutonium, presence d'ions divers, addition d'un second solvant actif (effet de synergie, ou effet antagoniste), degradation du phosphate de tributyle et des solvants inertes. (auteur)

  13. Studies on the heterogeneity of St/DVB copolymers by phenyl aggregate fluorescence

    王国昌; 叶彦春; 高焕; 何炳林; 栗凤珍; 高传喜


    A new method for characterizing St/DVB copolymer heterogeneity by phenyl aggregatefluorescence has been developed and used to study the effects of crosslinking degree,crosslinker and diluent onthe heterogeneity of the copolyruer gels.The results show that St/m-DVB copolymer gel is more homogeneousin structure than St/p-DVB copolymer gel,whereas increasing crosslinking degree and the proportion of goodsolvent in diluent lead to an increase of gel heterogeneity.These results provide structural evidence which mayserve as a bridge between St/DVB crosslinking reaction and the copolymer properties.

  14. Toxicity of contaminated sediments in dilution series with control sediments

    Nelson, M.K.; Landrum, P.F.; Burton, G.A.; Klaine, S.J.; Crecelius, E.A.; Byl, T.D.; Gossiaux, Duane C.; Tsymbal, V.N.; Cleveland, L.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; Sasson-Brickson, G.


    The use of dilutions has been the foundation of our approach for assessing contaminated water, and accordingly, it may be important to establish similar or parallel approaches for sediment dilutions. Test organism responses to dilution gradients can identify the degree of necessary sediment alteration to reduce the toxicity. Using whole sediment dilutions to represent the complex interactions of in situ sediments can identify the toxicity, but the selection of the appropriate diluent for the contaminated sediment may affect the results and conclusions drawn. Contaminated whole sediments were examined to evaluate the toxicity of dilutions of sediments with a diversity of test organisms. Dilutions of the contaminated sediments were prepared with differing diluents that varied in organic carbon content, particle size distribution, and volatile solids. Studies were conducted using four macroinvertebrates and a vascular, rooted plant. Responses by some test organisms followed a sigmoidal dose-response curve, but others followed a U-shaped curve. Initial dilutions reduced toxicity as expected, but further dilution resulted in an increase in toxicity. The type of diluent used was an important factor in assessing the sediment toxicity, because the control soil reduced toxicity more effectively than sand as a diluent of the same sediment. Using sediment chemical and physical characteristics as an indicator of sediment dilution may not be as useful as chemical analysis of contaminants, but warrants further investigation.

  15. Temperature Trends in Coal Char Combustion under Oxy-fuel Conditions for the Determination of Kinetics

    Iqbal, Samira [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hecht, Ethan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Oxy-fuel combustion technology with carbon capture and storage could significantly reduce global CO2 emissions, a greenhouse gas. Implementation can be aided by computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations, which require an accurate understanding of coal particle kinetics as they go through combustion in a range of environments. To understand the kinetics of pulverized coal char combustion, a heated flow reactor was operated under a wide range of experimental conditions. We varied the environment for combustion by modifying the diluent gas, oxygen concentration, gas flow rate, and temperature of the reactor/reacting gases. Measurements of reacting particle temperatures were made for a sub-bituminous and bituminous coal char, in environments with CO2 or N2 as the diluent gas, with 12, 24, and 36 vol-% oxygen concentration, at 50, 80, 100, and 200 standard liters per minute flowing through the reactor, reactor temperatures of 1200, 1400 K, at pressures slightly above atmospheric. The data shows consistent increasing particle temperature with increased oxygen concentration, reactor temperature and higher particle temperatures for N2 diluent than CO2. We also see the effects of CO2 gasification when different ranks of coal are used, and how the reduction in the temperature due to the CO2 diluent is greater for the coal char that has higher reactivity. Quantitative measurements for temperature are not yet complete due to ongoing calibration of detection systems.

  16. Porous crosslinked poly(e-caprolactone fumarate)/nanohydroxyapatite composites for bone tissue engineering

    Farokhi, M.; Sharifi, S.; Shafieyan, Y.; Bagher, Z.; Mottaghitalab, F.; Hatampoor, A.; Imani, M.; Shokrgozar, M. A.


    Porous nanocomposites based on poly(e-caprolactone fumarate) (PCLF) resin matrix; N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) as a reactive diluents and nanohydroxyapatite (nHA) filler were developed for bone tissue engineering applications. Nanocomposite scaffolds with three different contents of nHA [5, 10, and 20

  17. 9 CFR 113.32 - Detection of Brucella contamination.


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Detection of Brucella contamination. 113.32 Section 113.32 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE... antibiotics, diluent and stabilizer, shall be inoculated onto each of three tryptose agar plates and...

  18. Synthesis of Novel Extractants——Amide Podands

    TANGHong-bin; ZHUWen-bin; YEGuo-an; ZHUZhi-xuan; CHENWen-jun


    Amide podands which are used as a novel extractants are widely concerned recently. In the early stage, the studies were focused on the amide potands substituted with short-chain alky group, and for avoiding the formation of the second organic phase, aromatic, halogenated or higher alcohol compound must be used as diluents.


    Feder, H.M.; Ader, M.; Ross, L.E.


    A process is presented for extracting uranium salt from aqueous acidic solutions by organic solvent extraction. It consists in contacting the uranium bearing solution with a water immiscible dialkylacetamide having at least 8 carbon atoms in the molecule. Mentioned as a preferred extractant is dibutylacetamide. The organic solvent is usually used with a diluent such as kerosene or CCl/sub 4/.

  20. Could the WHO model list of essential medicines do more for the safe and appropriate use of injections?

    Logez, Sophie M D; Hutin, Yvan J F; Holloway, Kathleen; Gray, Robin; Hogerzeil, Hans V


    A national drug policy addressing the safe and appropriate use of injections is an important element to prevent overuse and unsafe use of injections. Because the World Health Organization World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines is a keystone of national drug policies, the authors examined the way it addresses injection practices. They reviewed the 11th World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines to collect information on (1) injectable medicines, (2) diluents, and (3) the recommendations regarding the procurement of injection devices. Of 306 active ingredients on the list, 135 (44%) are mentioned in injectable form. Of these, 41 (30%) need diluents for reconstitution. The list does not mention the need to procure appropriate diluents, injection devices, and safety boxes in quantities that match the quantities of injectable medicines. In addition, the list provides limited information that can be used to forecast the needs of injection devices to administer the injectable medicines that are included in the list. Future revisions of the World Health Organization Model List of Essential Medicines should attempt to reduce the number of injectable formulations on the basis of evidence. In addition, the list should specify that when injectable medicines are being supplied, diluents, single-use syringes, and safety boxes should be supplied. The volume of syringes needed for administration should be specified for each injectable medication on the list to facilitate the forecasting of the needs of injection devices.

  1. Interchain tube pressure effect in extensional flows of oligomer diluted nearly monodisperse polystyrene melts

    Rasmussen, Henrik K.; Huang, Qian


    We have derived a constitutive equation to explain the extensional dynamics of oligomer-diluted monodisperse polymers, if the length of the diluent has at least two Kuhn steps. These polymer systems have a flow dynamics which distinguish from pure monodisperse melts and solutions thereof, if the ...



    Incorporation of vernonia oil in the production of high solid coatings would ... additives to slip and anti-block additives for polyethylene films. ..... Dirlikov, S.; Islam, M.S.; Muturi, P. Vernonia oil: "A new reactive diluent", Modern paint and coating ...

  3. Federal Aviation Administration Small Business Innovation Research 5- Year Project Summaries


    to avoid diluents, etc., that attack asphalt . One part systems such as amine-blocked, moisture-cure silicones, isocyanates , hot melts, UV cure, and... Asphalt Stripping from Aggregates ..... ............... 53 viii Sinnar Associates Infrared Ice Accretion Measurement System ...... 54 Springborn...Methods to Determine the Degree of Asphalt Stripping from Aggregates ....... ............... 80 x OPHIR Corporation An Ice Accumulation Sensor for

  4. Chemical Analysis of the Dyes Used in Navy Green and Yellow Colored Smokes .


    as some dehydrated glycerol resin polymers (aromatics) and dextrin as diluent. Table 1 shows the elements contained in the insolubles. The values...chlorinated Vat Yellow 4 remains unchanged. The insoluble materials are mostly dextrin and inorganic salts such as aluminum chlorohydrate and aluminum

  5. Effects of sodium lactate Ringer's injection on transfection of human protein kinase C-α antisense oligonucleotide in A549 lung cancer cells.

    Wang, Z H; Sun, W W; Han, Y L; Ma, Z


    In the present study, we evaluated the effects of four solutions [Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM), sodium lactate Ringer's injection (SLRI), phosphate-buffered saline (PBS), and NaCl] on the transfection of the human protein kinase C-a antisense oligonucleotide (PKC-a ASO) aprinocarsen in human lung carcinoma A549 cells. Specifically, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as the growth solutions for A549 cells, and OPTI-MEM was used as the PKC-a ASO diluent for transfection. Additionally, SLRI, DMEM, PBS, or NaCl were used as both the growth solutions and diluents for transfection. The cell viability and transfection efficiency were determined. The results demonstrated that when SLRI was used as either the growth solution or both the growth solution and diluent for aprinocarsen transfection in A549 cells, the effects were close to the best effects observed with DMEM as the growth solution and OPTI-MEM as the diluent, which supported the transfection of aprinocarsen into the cells. Moreover, SLRI resulted in higher transfection efficiency than those of PBS and NaCl. In in vitro experiments, aprinocarsen effectively induced apoptosis in A549 cells. In conclusion, SLRI may replace PBS or NaCl in clinical trials as a transfection solution readily accepted by the human body. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the use of SLRI as a transfection solution in lung-cancer cell lines.

  6. 9 CFR 317.363 - Nutrient content claims for “healthy.”


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrient content claims for âhealthy.â... INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION LABELING, MARKING DEVICES, AND CONTAINERS Nutrition Labeling § 317.363 Nutrient... diluent containing an insignificant amount, as defined in § 317.309(f)(1), of all nutrients, the...

  7. A novel epoxy methacrylate resin containing phthalazinone moiety for UV coatings

    Yan Kou; Jin Yan Wang; Xi Gao Jian


    A novel phthalazinone modified epoxy acrylate resin for the high temperature resistant ultravioet (UV) curable coating was synthesized. The methacrylated epoxy resins obtained were utilized to UV radiation curing by taking 2.5% (wt%) of photoinitiator in combination with 20% (wt%) of diluent, and generated the interpenetraring polymer networks. The cured film had good thermal and chemical stability.

  8. The Cytoplasm Translocation of the Androgen Receptor Cofactor p44 as a Target for Prostate Cancer Treatment


    the barred animal facility. Chemical compounds (1 g per compound) were purchased from ChemBridge. Compounds were dissolved in DMSO-0.5% Tween 80 at...administration of the diluent (5%DMSO-0.5% Tween 80 in distilled water) by intraperitoneal injection (I.P.) twice weekly; and the treated mice (n=18

  9. Recovery of acetic acid from an aqueous pyrolysis oil phase by reactive extraction using tri-n-octylamine

    Rasrendra, C. B.; Girisuta, B.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Leijenhorst, E. J.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Windt, M.; Meier, D.; Heeres, H. J.


    The application of reactive extraction to isolate organic acids, particularly acetic acid, from the aqueous stream of phase splitted pyrolysis oil using a long chain aliphatic tertiary amine is reported. Acetic acid recovery was optimized by selecting the proper amine and diluent combination and adj

  10. Functional characteristics of Lactobacillus plantarum and ...



    Sep 15, 2009 ... in MRS broth supplemented with 0.3% bile within a period of 24 to 48 h. The assayed strains ... Fermentation is one of the oldest technologies used for .... maximum recovery diluent (Oxoid) and 0.1 ml taken from 10-5, 10-6.

  11. Development of a sperm cryopreservation protocol for redside dace, Clinostomus elongatus: implications for genome resource banking

    Butts, Ian A.E.; Mokdad, A.; Trippel, E.A.;


    of extirpation.We developed cryopreservation protocols by testing the effects of diluent (buffered sperm motility-inhibiting saline solution [BSMIS]; BSMIS + glycine; sucrose; and Hanks’ balanced salt solution [HBSS]), cryoprotectant (dimethyl sulfoxide [DMSO]; propylene glycol [PG]; N,N-dimethylacetamide [DMA...

  12. The role of depressed metabolism in space biology: An overview

    Saunders, J.


    Organization and research activities of the entire NASA Space Biology Program are outlined. Various technical approaches are reported to study depressed metabolism particularly in the situation of 100% oxygen and reduced ambient pressures. These include hibernation and hypothermia, thermal regulation, and diluent gases.

  13. 40 CFR 75.74 - Annual and ozone season monitoring and reporting requirements.


    ... every five years and is also required if the flow monitor polynomial coefficients or K factor(s) are...-diluent monitoring system, each flow rate monitoring system, each moisture monitoring system and each... not apply, and, for flow rate monitoring systems, the required RATA load level(s) (or operating level...

  14. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellent AI3-30180-c, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemical, April 1982 - September 1984.


    irritation photochemical chemical and 10 percent reaction under test con- irritation in humans. (wlv) Oil of Bergamot ditions. 2 * - Study No. 75-51-0367-85...control (oil of Bergamot ), than unirradiated skin areas. a and diluent were applied to additional skin areas to serve as unirradiated control sites

  15. Topical Hazard Evaluation Program of Candidate Insect Repellents AI3-38352a, AI3-38354a, AI3-38355a, US Department of Agriculture Proprietary Chemicals, May 1982 - November 1983.


    irrita- chemical and of 10% (wv) A13-38357a, AI3-38360a, tion reaction under Oil of Bergamot (positive and Ar3-38361a did test conditions and control...caused a greater Irritant positive control (Oil of effect than In un- Bergamot ) and diluent were Irradiated skin areas. applied to additional skin

  16. 21 CFR 522.1002 - Follicle stimulating hormone.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Follicle stimulating hormone. 522.1002 Section 522....1002 Follicle stimulating hormone. (a)(1) Specifications. Each package contains 2 vials. One vial... hormone. The other vial contains 10 milliliters of aqueous diluent. (2) Sponsor. See 059521 in §...

  17. 40 CFR 60.335 - Test methods and procedures.


    ... samples each of the points sequentially. Alternatively, a multi-hole probe designed and documented to..., 50, 75, and 90-to-100 percent of peak load or at four evenly-spaced load points in the normal... determine NOX and diluent concentration. (4) Sampling traverse points are to be selected following Method...

  18. A Bench Top Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer System for Accurate Analysis of Trace Noble Gas%准确分析微量惰性气体的轻便四极杆质谱系统

    张子斌; Adolf.Goetz; 韦冠一; 李雪松; H.Gerken; 常永福


    A Bench top Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer System for Accurate Analysis of Trace Noble Gas was introduced in this paper. The inlet system was a especially designed one. And a capacitance pressure gauge with its linearity less than 0.01% was used to measure the fixed volume sample ratio. By using the calibration gas with the uncertainty of which less than 0.1% ,isotope condensed diluent could be quantified online. The procedure is done by alternate online mixture gas measurement of diluent gas, calibration gas to quantify the diluent gas, and diluent gas, sample gas to quantify the sample gas. The precision of six inlet from the same sample is +_0.13%0; The precision of six getting sample from the same source is less than ±0.5%. Self test was done by testing the mixture gas got with weighing method, in which consists Kr and Xe of 30 mg/kg. The system uncertainty tested to be below ±1%.

  19. 40 CFR 63.7947 - What are my monitoring alternatives?


    ... (CEMS) to measure the control device outlet total organic emissions or organic HAP emissions concentration. (1) The CEMS used on combustion control devices must include a diluent gas monitoring system (for... excess air). (2) Each CEMS must complete a minimum of one cycle of operation (sampling, analyzing,...

  20. Process for the extraction of strontium from acidic solutions

    Horwitz, E.P.; Dietz, M.L.


    The invention is a process for selectively extracting strontium values from aqueous nitric acid waste solutions containing these and other fission product values. The extractant solution is a macrocyclic polyether in an aliphatic hydrocarbon diluent containing a phase modifier. The process will selectively extract strontium values from nitric acid solutions which are up to 6 molar in nitric acid.

  1. 准确分析微量惰性气体的轻便四极杆质谱系统

    张子斌; Adolf.Goetz; 韦冠一; 李雪松; H.Gerken; 常永福


    A Bench top Quadrupole Mass Spectrometer System for Accurate Analysis of Trace Noble Gas was introduced in this paper. The inlet system was a especially designed one. And a capacitance pressure gauge with its linearity less than 0.01% was used to measure the fixed volume sample ratio. By using the calibration gas with the uncertainty of which less than 0.1% ,isotope condensed diluent could be quantified online. The procedure is done by alternate online mixture gas measurement of diluent gas, calibration gas to quantify the diluent gas, and diluent gas, sample gas to quantify the sample gas. The precision of six inlet from the same sample is +_0.13%0; The precision of six getting sample from the same source is less than ±0.5%. Self test was done by testing the mixture gas got with weighing method, in which consists Kr and Xe of 30 mg/kg. The system uncertainty tested to be below ±1%.

  2. Multi-year residual activity of Arborjet's IMA-jet (imidacloprid 5% SL) against emerald ash borer [Agrilus planipennis Fairemaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae)] in green ash (Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh) in Troy, MI.

    Joseph J. Doccola; Peter M. Wild; Eric J. Bristol; Joseph Lojko; Xin Li


    In cooperative university studies, IMA-jet treated green ash were effectively protected for 2 years to date in Troy, MI against emerald ash borer (EAB). Trees were infested at the time of treatment, exhibiting epicormic sprouting and thinning canopies. Twenty trees were injected with IMA-jet alone or with a diluent to aid uptake and translocation within the vascular...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix I to Part 110 - Illustrative List of Reprocessing Plant Components Under NRC Export Licensing Authority


    ... products by solvent extraction using a mixture of tributyl phosphate in an organic diluent. Purex... denitration of uranium nitrate, conversion of plutonium nitrate to oxide metal, and treatment of fission... plutonium oxide conversion systems. Complete systems especially designed or prepared for the conversion...

  4. A case story, involving the use of maltitol, a sugar alcohol, as a cutting agent in amphetamine and cocaine powders

    Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Holm, Niels Bjerre; Linnet, Kristian


    In a criminal case involving cutting and resale of amphetamine and cocaine in the Copenhagen area of Denmark, maltitol was used as a cutting agent. The analysis of maltitol in seizures of pure diluents as well as in amphetamine and cocaine powders was carried out using reversed-phase high perform...

  5. [Toxological problems inherent in varnish and paint products used in aeronautics].

    Cianetti, E; Bancheri, C


    Paint products and the need for their employment on aircraft and spacecraft are described and reference is made to the types of poisoning that may arise from their application. The main solvents and diluents are listed, together with their toxicological features. Lastly, mention is made of technical products required by the aeronautical regulations, the dangers associated with them, and the preventive measures required.

  6. New coating systems based on vinyl ether- and oxetane-modified hyperbranched polyesters

    Schmaljohann, D.; Voit, B.I.; Jansen, J.F.G.A.; Hendriks, Peter; Loontjens, J.A.


    A series of hyperbranched aliphatic-aromatic polyesters has been synthesized which contain vinyl ether or oxetane functionalities as curable groups. We investigated the curing behavior of these multifunctional polymers in the presence of reactive diluents in order to analyze the possibility of their

  7. Laser Induced Chemical Vapor Epitaxial Growth of Gallium Arsenide Films.


    heteroepitaxial growth of GaAs. The important process parameters are: the substrate surface cleanliness , substrate temperature, composition and flow rate of the...hydrogen was used as the diluent and win.dw purging gas [9]. The important process parameters are: the substrate surface cleanliness , substrate temperature

  8. Recovery of acetic acid from an aqueous pyrolysis oil phase by reactive extraction using tri-n-octylamine

    Rasrendra, C. B.; Girisuta, B.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Leijenhorst, E. J.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Windt, M.; Meier, D.; Heeres, H. J.


    The application of reactive extraction to isolate organic acids, particularly acetic acid, from the aqueous stream of phase splitted pyrolysis oil using a long chain aliphatic tertiary amine is reported. Acetic acid recovery was optimized by selecting the proper amine and diluent combination and

  9. Determinants of epoxy allergy in the construction industry : a case-control study

    Spee, Ton; Timmerman, Johan G; Rühl, Reinhold; Kersting, Klaus; Heederik, Dick J J; Smit, Lidwien A M


    BACKGROUND: Workers exposed to epoxy products are at risk of developing allergic contact dermatitis. OBJECTIVES: To compare workers throughout the German construction industry with and without skin allergy to epoxy resins, hardeners, and/or reactive diluents, and to investigate which determinants

  10. Combustor nozzle for a fuel-flexible combustion system

    Haynes, Joel Meier [Niskayuna, NY; Mosbacher, David Matthew [Cohoes, NY; Janssen, Jonathan Sebastian [Troy, NY; Iyer, Venkatraman Ananthakrishnan [Mason, OH


    A combustor nozzle is provided. The combustor nozzle includes a first fuel system configured to introduce a syngas fuel into a combustion chamber to enable lean premixed combustion within the combustion chamber and a second fuel system configured to introduce the syngas fuel, or a hydrocarbon fuel, or diluents, or combinations thereof into the combustion chamber to enable diffusion combustion within the combustion chamber.

  11. A poly(D,L-lactide) resin for the preparation of tissue engineering scaffolds by stereolithography

    Melchels, Ferry P. W.; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W.


    Porous polylactide constructs were prepared by stereolithography, for the first time without the use of reactive diluents. Star-shaped poly(D,L-lactide) oligomers with 2, 3 and 6 arms were synthesised, end-functionalised with methacryloyl chloride and photo-crosslinked in the presence of ethyl lacta

  12. Effects of in ovo injection of organic zinc, manganese, and copper on the hatchability and bone parameters of broiler hatchlings

    Effects of the in ovo injection of commercial diluent containing supplemental microminerals (Zn, Mn, and Cu) on hatchability and hatching chick quality variables in Ross × Ross 708 broilers were examined. On 17 d of incubation (doi) eggs were subjected to 1 of 4 treatments using a commercial multi-e...

  13. Recovery of acetic acid from an aqueous pyrolysis oil phase by reactive extraction using tri-n-octylamine

    Rasrendra, C. B.; Girisuta, B.; van de Bovenkamp, H. H.; Winkelman, J. G. M.; Leijenhorst, E. J.; Venderbosch, R. H.; Windt, M.; Meier, D.; Heeres, H. J.


    The application of reactive extraction to isolate organic acids, particularly acetic acid, from the aqueous stream of phase splitted pyrolysis oil using a long chain aliphatic tertiary amine is reported. Acetic acid recovery was optimized by selecting the proper amine and diluent combination and adj

  14. 40 CFR 90.312 - Analytical gases.


    ... expiration date stated by the gas supplier must be recorded. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases... a concentration of propane higher than what a gas supplier considers to be safe may be substituted... choice of diluent (zero air or purified nitrogen) between the calibration and span gases. If...

  15. 40 CFR 91.312 - Analytical gases.


    ... stated by the gas supplier for each calibration gas. (b) Pure gases. The required purity of the gases is... purified synthetic air which contains a concentration of propane higher than what a gas supplier considers... manufacturer must be consistent in the choice of diluent (zero air or purified nitrogen) between...

  16. Retained Gas Sampler Calibration and Simulant Tests



    This test plan provides a method for calibration of the retained gas sampler (RGS) for ammonia gas analysis. Simulant solutions of ammonium hydroxide at known concentrations will be diluted with isotopically labeled 0.04 M ammonium hydroxide solution. Sea sand solids will also be mixed with ammonium hydroxide solution and diluent to determine the accuracy of the system for ammonia gas analysis.

  17. Technology and Development Trends of China's Viscous Crude Surface Production Facilities

    Miao Chengwu


    @@ Main Technical Characteristics Technique of viscous crude gathering, transportation and treatment approaches the international level (1) Diluent oil-blended gathering and transportation process, an original creation of China, plays an important and guarantee role in increasing viscous crude output,especially in the viscous crude fields with dilute crude resources nearby.

  18. Allergic Non-Asthmatic Adults Have Regional Pulmonary Responses to Segmental Allergen Challenge.

    Vanessa J Kelly

    Full Text Available Allergic non-asthmatic (ANA adults experience upper airway symptoms of allergic disease such as rhinorrhea, congestion and sneezing without symptoms of asthma. The aim of this study was to utilize PET-CT functional imaging to determine whether allergen challenge elicits a pulmonary response in ANA subjects or whether their allergic disease is truly isolated to the upper airways.In 6 ANA subjects, bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL were performed at baseline and 24h after instillation of an allergen and a diluent in separate lung lobes. After instillation (10h, functional imaging was performed to quantify and compare regional perfusion, ventilation, fractional gas content (Fgas, and glucose uptake rate (Ki between the baseline, diluent and allergen lobes. BAL cell counts were also compared.In ANA subjects, compared to the baseline and diluent lobes, perfusion and ventilation were significantly lower in the allergen lobe (median [inter-quartile range], baseline vs. diluent vs. allergen: Mean-normalized perfusion; 0.87 [0.85-0.97] vs. 0.90 [0.86-0.98] vs. 0.59 [0.55-0.67]; p<0.05. Mean-normalized ventilation 0.89 [0.88-0.98] vs. 0.95 [0.89-1.02] vs. 0.63 [0.52-0.67], p<0.05. In contrast, no significant differences were found in Fgas between baseline, diluent and allergen lobes or in Ki. Total cell counts, eosinophil and neutrophil cell counts (cells/ml BAL were significantly greater in the allergen lobe compared to the baseline lobe (all P<0.05.Despite having no clinical symptoms of a lower airway allergic response (cough and wheeze allergic non-asthmatic subjects have a pulmonary response to allergen exposure which manifests as reduced ventilation and perfusion.

  19. Modification of the analysis of parathyroid hormone-related protein in milk and concentrations of this protein in commercial milk and milk products in Japan.

    Onda, K; Yamaguchi, M; Ohashi, M; Sato, R; Ochiai, H; Iriki, T; Wada, Y


    Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP), which causes hypercalcemia associated with malignant tumors, is known to be present in milk. Gene expression of PTHrP in the mammary gland increases markedly during parturition and with the onset of lactation. Even when circulating PTHrP levels are extremely low or below the detection limit, milk PTHrP levels are remarkably high. Parathyroid hormone-related protein derived from the mammary gland is assumed to play a role in maintaining the maternal calcium homeostasis and calcium transport from blood to milk. In previous studies that determined the PTHrP concentrations in milk, the pretreatments and diluent composition were not standardized. Here, we investigated the effect of various pretreatment procedures and diluent constitutions and the consequent PTHrP concentrations in commercial milk and milk products in Japan. Significant differences were found in PTHrP concentrations in raw milk samples subjected to different combinations of pretreatments (mixing, centrifugation, acidification, and heating) and diluents (0pM standard solution of PTHrP, plasma treated with protease inhibitors, and original diluent). We measured the PTHrP concentrations in normal liquid milk, processed milk, milk drinks, formulated milk powders, and skim milk powder by using the appropriate combination of pretreatment (acidification) and diluent (plasma treated with protease inhibitors). The PTHrP concentration in normal liquid milk, processed milk, and skim milk powder was as high as that in raw milk (>5nM), whereas that in milk drinks differed considerably. The PTHrP concentration in infant formulas (PTHrP is ingested when milk and milk products are consumed. Copyright 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.


    Anil V. Virkar


    Anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells with Ni + yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) anode, YSZ-samaria-doped ceria (SDC) bi-layer electrolyte and Sr-doped LaCoO{sub 3} (LSC) + SDC cathode were fabricated. Fuel used consisted of H{sub 2} diluted with He, N{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O or CO{sub 2}, mixtures of H{sub 2} and CO, and mixtures of CO and CO{sub 2}. Cell performance was measured at 800 C with above-mentioned fuel gas mixtures and air as oxidant. For a given concentration of the diluent, the cell performance was higher with He as the diluent than with N{sub 2} as the diluent. Mass transport through porous Ni-YSZ anode for H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O, CO-CO{sub 2} binary systems and H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-diluent gas ternary systems was analyzed using multicomponent gas diffusion theory. At high concentrations of the diluent, the maximum achievable current density was limited by the anodic concentration polarization. From this measured limiting current density, the corresponding effective gas diffusivity was estimated. Highest effective diffusivity was estimated for fuel gas mixtures containing H{sub 2}-H{sub 2}O-He mixtures ({approx}0.34 cm{sup 2}/s), and the lowest for CO-CO{sub 2} mixtures ({approx}0.07 cm{sup 2}/s). The lowest performance was observed with CO-CO{sub 2} mixture as a fuel, which in part was attributed to the lowest effective diffusivity of the fuels tested.


    K.P.R. Chowdary and G. Rami Reddy *


    Full Text Available The objective of the study is to evaluate Olibanum resin, a natural resin polymer as matrix polymer for controlled release tablets and to design matrix tablets of diclofenac for controlled release. Matrix tablets of diclofenac were formulated employing Olibanum resin in different proportions of drug and polymer and the tablets were evaluated for drug release kinetics and mechanism .Two diluents namely lactose (water soluble and DCP (water insoluble were included in the formulations to assess their influence on drug release characteristics of olibanum resin matrix tablets. Matrix tablets were found t¬o be non- disint-egrating in water, acidic (pH 1.2 and alkaline (pH 7.4 fluids and were considered suitable for oral controlled release. Diclofenac release from the matrix tablets formulated was slow and spread over 24 h and depended on the concentration (% of olibanum resin in the matrix tablets and nature/type of diluent. As the concentration of olibanum resin in the matrix tablets was increased, drug release was decreased. Release was relatively faster with water soluble diluent lactose when compared to water insoluble diluent DCP at all concentrations of olibanum resin. Drug release from the tablets followed first order kinetics and followed non - Fickian (anomalous diffusion release mechanism. Good linear relationships were observed between percent polymer and release rate in each case. The results of the study thus indicated olibanum resin could be used as rate controlling matrix in design of controlled release tablets. Both water soluble and water insoluble diluents can be included in the olibanum resin matrix tablets without affecting its rate controlling efficiency. Matrix tablets formulated employing olibanum resin(DF2 are considered suitable for controlled release of diclofenac over 24 h (i.e. once-a-day administration.

  2. Effects of in ovo injection of carbohydrates on somatic characteristics and liver nutrient profiles of broiler embryos and hatchlings.

    Zhai, W; Bennett, L W; Gerard, P D; Pulikanti, R; Peebles, E D


    Effects of the in ovo injection of commercial diluent supplemented with dextrin or with dextrin in combination with various other carbohydrates on the somatic characteristics and liver nutrient profiles of Ross × Ross 708 broiler embryos and chicks were investigated. Results include information concerning the gluconeogenic energy status of the liver before and after hatch. Eggs containing live embryos were injected in the amnion on d 18 of incubation using an automated multiple-egg injector for the delivery of the following carbohydrates dissolved in 0.4 mL of commercial diluent: 1) 6.25% glucose and 18.75% dextrin; 2) 6.25% sucrose and 18.75% dextrin; 3) 6.25% maltose and 18.75% dextrin; and 4) 25% dextrin. Also, a noninjected control and a 0.4-mL diluent-injected control were included. Body weight relative to set egg weight on d 19 of incubation (E19) was increased by the injection of all carbohydrate solutions, and on the day of hatch was increased by the injection of diluent, sucrose and dextrin, and maltose and dextrin solutions. Hatchability of the fertilized eggs, residual yolk sac weight, and liver weight were not affected by any injection treatment; however, as compared with the 0.4 mL diluent-injected group, all of the supplementary carbohydrates, except for the glucose and dextrin combination group, increased liver glycogen and glucose concentrations on E19. Furthermore, all carbohydrates, except for the 25% dextrin treatment, decreased liver fat concentration on E19. From E19 to the day of hatch, liver glycogen concentrations dropped dramatically from an average of 3.2 to 0.6%. Despite treatment differences observed on E19 for liver glycogen, glucose, and fat concentrations, these differences were lost by the day of hatch. Nevertheless, liver glycogen and glucose concentrations were positively correlated on the day of hatch. In conclusion, the in ovo injection of various supplemental carbohydrates dissolved in 0.4 mL of commercial diluent altered the

  3. Effects of vitrification on ram spermatozoa using free-egg yolk extenders.

    Jiménez-Rabadán, Pilar; García-Álvarez, Olga; Vidal, Ana; Maroto-Morales, Alejandro; Iniesta-Cuerda, María; Ramón, Manuel; del Olmo, Enrique; Fernández-Santos, Rocío; Garde, J Julián; Soler, Ana Josefa


    The present study aimed to examine the behavior of ram spermatozoa subjected to a vitrification process in free-egg yolk diluents in relation with conventional diluents and cryopreservation protocol used in this species. Previously it was investigated the toxicity of cryoprotectants, sucrose and glycerol, based on different concentrations (sucrose at 0.03 M, 0.05 M, 0.15 M and 0.25 M; and glycerol at 3%, 7%, 14% and 18%) compared to a commercial extender (Biladyl® with 20% egg yolk and 7% glyerol). Cryoprotectants which reported less toxicity were chosen to perform the vitrification and results were compared with the conventional cryopreservation. Semen from three rams was collected by electroejaculation. The sperm evaluation was carried out at 0, 2 and 4h through the incubation time at 37°C for the experiment of toxicity and, at thawing when cryopreservation was performed. The sperm quality throughout the incubation time always resulted lower (P⩽0.05) for the free-egg yolk diluents in relation to Biladyl® (control), obtaining the lowest values of sperm quality with the highest concentrations of sucrose and glycerol. The vitrification was carried out with combinations of sucrose and glycerol (sucrose at 0.03 and 0.05 M with 3% and 7% of glycerol, respectively) and with Biladyl® (at different sperm concentrations). The vitrification decreased drastically (P⩽0.05) the sperm quality when combinations of sucrose and glycerol were used. Nevertheless, the sperm samples vitrified with Biladyl® at the lowest sperm concentration showed acceptable values of viability, acrosome integrity and DFI, although the sperm motility was strongly decreased. In conclusion, the use of vitrification with diluents based on combinations of sucrose and glycerol did not work for semen cryopreservation of ram. Promising results were obtained when diluents with egg yolk were used in the vitrification procedure, although more studies are necessary to improve this technique and the use

  4. Leite em pó desnatado não inativado e leite desnatado uht para preservação e fertilidade do sêmen eqüino resfriado The use of not inactivated nonfat dry milk and uht skim milk in the preservation and fertility of cooled equine semen

    Luciana Silva Meirelles


    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi delineado com o objetivo de verificar a necessidade de inativar o leite em pó desnatado reconstituído, bem como o uso do leite desnatado UHT como diluente de sêmen eqüino resfriado. Para tanto, foram efetuados dois experimentos. No primeiro experimento, 4 diluentes foram testados: leite desnatado não inativado, leite desnatado inativado, leite desnatado UHT, marca A e leite desnatado UHT marca B. 20 coletas de sêmen foram realizadas. O sêmen resfriado a +4°C foi avaliado quanto à motilidade progressiva e motilidade total nas 0 , 24 e 48 horas posteriores à diluição. No segundo experimento, um total de 101 ciclos foram utilizados, inseminando-se as éguas com sêmen diluído em leite desnatado não inativado e leite desnatado inativado. A diluição foi realizada numa proporção de 1:2 (sêmen: diluente e a dose inseminante mínima utilizada foi de 500x10(6 espermatozóides. Conclui-se que não há necessidade de inativar o leite em pó desnatado, reconstituído, na sua utilização como diluente de sêmen eqüino resfriado, e que o leite desnatado UHT pode ser utilizado como diluente para preservar sêmen eqüino resfriado.The present study was designed aiming to verify the need of inactivating reconstituted nonfat dry milk and the use of skim milk UHT as extender for cooling equine semen. Two experiments were performed. In the first experiment, four diluents were tested: reconstituted not-inactivated dry skim milk, inactivated reconstituted dry skim milk, UHT skim milk A and UHT skim milk B. Twenty semen collections were obtained. semen were cooled at +4°C and evaluated for progressive and total motility 0 , 24 and 48 h after collection. In the second experiment, one hundred and one cycles were studied. Mares were inseminated with semen diluted in inactivated and not-inactivated dry skim milk. Dilution was done in a 1:2 (sêmen:diluem ratio and the minimal inseminating dosis used was 500x10(6 spermatozoa. It

  5. Selective extraction of cesium: from compound to process; Extraction selective du cesium: de la molecule au procede

    Simon, N.; Eymard, S.; Tournois, B.; Dozol, J.F. [CEA Cadarache, Dept. d' Entreposage et de Stockage des Dechets (DCC/DESD/SEP), 13 - Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France)


    Under the French law of 30 December 1991 on nuclear waste management, research is conducted to recover long-lived fission products from high-level radioactive effluents generated by spent fuel reprocessing, in order to destroy them by transmutation or encapsulate them in specific matrices. Cesium extraction with mono and bis-crown calix(4)arenes (Frame 1) is a candidate for process development. These extractants remove cesium from highly acidic or basic pH media even with high salinity. A real raffinate was treated in 1994 in a hot cell to extract cesium with a calix-crown extractant. The success of this one batch experiment confirmed the feasibility of cesium decontamination from high-level liquid waste. It was then decided to develop a process flowchart to extract cesium selectively from high-level raffinate, to be included in the general scheme of long-lived radionuclide partitioning. It was accordingly decided to develop a process based on liquid-liquid extraction and hence optimize a calixarene/diluent solvent according to: - hydraulic properties: density, viscosity, interfacial tension, - chemical criteria: sufficient cesium extraction (depending on the diluent), kinetics, third phase elimination... New mono-crown-calixarenes branched with long aliphatic groups (Frame 2) were designed to be soluble in aliphatic diluents. To prevent third phase formation associated with nitric acid extraction, the addition of modifiers (alcohol, phosphate and amide) in the organic phase was tested (Frame 3). Table 1 shows examples of calixarene/diluent systems suitable for a process flowchart, and Figure 2 provides data on cesium extraction with these new systems. Alongside these improvements, a system based on a modified 1,3-di(n-octyl-oxy)2,4-calix[4]arene crown and a modified diluent was also developed, considering a mixed TPH/NPHE system as the diluent, where TPH (hydrogenated tetra propylene) is a common aliphatic industrial solvent and NPHE is nitrophenyl

  6. Effects of glycerol and sugar mixing temperature on the morphologic and functional integrity of cryopreserved ram sperm.

    Pelufo, V; López Armengol, M F; Malcotti, V; Venturino, A; Aisen, E G


    Sperm deep freezing procedures for ram semen have considerable variations regarding the steps being employed for cooling, freezing, and addition of cryoprotectants. In this work, we evaluated the effects of the addition of glycerol and/or the disaccharides sucrose and trehalose to hypertonic diluents either before or after cooling from 30 °C to 5 °C in Merino Australian ram semen cryopreservation. Using optical and transmission electron microscopy techniques, we assessed that glycerol was beneficial to the cooling process independently of its addition at 30 °C or 5 °C in terms of sperm membrane integrity in different regions of the plasma membrane (acrosomal region, 14.5% higher integrity; postacrosomal region, 8.0% higher integrity [P ram semen cryopreservation in hypertonic disaccharide-containing diluents is the addition of glycerol and trehalose after the cooling process, at 5 °C.

  7. Association Mechanism Between Propionic Acid and Trioctylamine

    李振宇; 秦炜; 戴猷元


    Tertiary amines dissolved in diluents are attractive extractants for recovery of carboxylic acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Quantitative Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis of organic solutions containing various concentrations of trioctylamine (TOA), n-octanol, and propionic acid was carried out, and liquid-liquid equilibrium was investigated using TOA in n-octanol as the solvent. The fraction of ion-pair association between TOA and propionic acid in the organic phase was quantitatively determined by FTIR. The apparent reactive extraction equilibrium constant, K11, was calculated using the quantitative FTIR spectrum and the equilibrium data. The results show that the fraction of ion-pair association depends on diluent concentration, complex dissolution for propionic acid, and association between TOA and propionic acid. The K11 based on quantitative FTIR has the same loading trend as that from the equilibrium data.

  8. Study on Gold(Ⅰ) Solvent Extraction from Alkaline Cyanide Solution by TBP with Addition of Surfactant


    The new solvent extraction system for gold(Ⅰ) from alkaline cyanide solution by TBP with addition of surfactant in aqueous phase was studied. The effect of various factors, such as equilibrium pH, constitution of organic phase, molar ratio of CPB∶Au(CN)2-, extraction time, aqueous/organic phase ratio, different initial gold concentration, equilibrium temperature, different diluent, different types of extractants and surfactants etc., was inspected. The results show that gold(Ⅰ) can be extracted quantitatively by controlling the quantity of surfactant (CPB); both the equilibrium pH and diluent hardly influence percent extraction. Gold(Ⅰ) percent extraction reaches more than 98% under the optimal experimental conditions. 30% vol TBP diluted by sulphonating kerosene can load gold(Ⅰ) to rather high levels. Loading capacity is in excess of 38 g/L. The extraction mechanism is discussed and the overall extraction reaction is deduced.

  9. Reactive extraction of lactic acid with trioctylamine/methylene chloride/n-hexane

    Han, D.H.; Hong, W.H. [Korea Advanced Inst. of Science and Technology, Tajeon (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)


    The trioctylamine (TOA)/methylene chloride (MC)/n-hexane system was used as the extraction agent for the extraction of lactic acid. Curves of equilibrium and hydration were obtained at various temperatures and concentrations of TOA. A modified mass action model was proposed to interpret the equilibrium and the hydration curves. The reaction mechanism and the corresponding parameters which best represent the equilibrium data were estimated, and the concentration of water in the organic phase was predicted by inserting the parameters into the simple mathematical equation of the modified model. The concentration of MC and the change of temperature were important factors for the extraction and the stripping process. The stripping was performed by a simple distillation which was a combination of temperature-swing regeneration and diluent-swing regeneration. The type of inactive diluent has no influence on the stripping. The stripping efficiencies were about 70%.

  10. DSC and curing kinetics study of epoxy grouting diluted with furfural -acetone slurry

    Yin, H.; Sun, D. W.; Li, B.; Liu, Y. T.; Ran, Q. P.; Liu, J. P.


    The use of furfural-acetone slurry as active diluents of Bisphenol-A epoxy resin (DGEBA) groutings has been studied by dynamic and non-isothermal DSC for the first time. Curing kinetics study was investigated by non-isothermal differential scanning calorimetries at different heating rates. Activation enery (Ea) was calculated based on Kissinger and Ozawa Methods, and the results showed that Ea increased from 58.87 to 71.13KJ/mol after the diluents were added. The furfural-acetone epoxy matrix could cure completely at the theoretical curing temperature of 365.8K and the curing time of 139mins, which were determined by the kinetic model parameters.

  11. Nonthermal metabolic response of rats to He-O2, N2-O2, and Ar-O2 at 1 atm.

    Schatte, C. L.; Jordan, J. P.; Phillips, R. W.; Clarkson, D. P.; Simmons, J. B., II


    Experiments were performed to describe qualitatively and quantitatively the nonthermal metabolic response of rats to normoxic mixtures of helium, nitrogen, or argon at 1 atm ambient pressure. Hypoxic mixtures were similarly tested to determine any differences in hypoxic response as a function of the diluent gas. Rats exposed to argon for 5 days had a reduced metabolic rate relative to nitrogen, as evidenced by oxygen and food consumption, CO2 production, and the catabolism of radiosubstrates. While some parameters indicated that helium increased metabolic rate, oxygen consumption did not significantly differ from that in nitrogen. The physiologic and metabolic response to an imposed hypoxia varied among the different environments. Certain indices suggested that the hypoxic effects were less severe in helium and more pronounced in argon than in nitrogen. The mechanisms by which the diluent gases produced the observed changes could not be identified, but some possibilities are discussed.

  12. A summary of hydrogen-air detonation experiments

    Guirao, C.M.; Knystautas, R.; Lee, J.H.


    Dynamic detonation parameters are reviewed for hydrogen-air-diluent detonations and deflagration-to-detonation transitions (DDT). These parameters include the characteristic chemical length scale, such as the detonation cell width, associated with the three-dimensional cellular structure of detonation waves, critical transmission conditions of confined detonations into unconfined environments, critical initiation energy for unconfined detonations, detonability limits, and critical conditions for DDT. The detonation cell width, which depends on hydrogen and diluent concentrations, pressure, and temperature, is an important parameter in the prediction of critical geometry-dependent conditions for the transmission of confined detonations into unconfined environments and the critical energies for the direct initiation of unconfined detonations. Detonability limits depend on both initial and boundary conditions and the limit has been defined as the onset of single head spin. Four flame propagation regimes have been identified and the criterion for DDT in a smooth tube is discussed. 108 refs., 28 figs., 5 tabs.


    J. Lakshmi Prasanna*, B. Deepthi and N. Rama Rao


    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the influence of two variables, concentration of the matrixing agent and diluent on the release of diclofenac sodium from hydrophobic matrix tablets. A 32 full factorial design was employed to optimize drug release profile. Concentration of the hydrophobic matrixing agent (X1 and type of diluent (X2 were taken as independent variables. The dependent variables selected were percentage drug release at 3h, 6h, 9h, time required for 50% drug release and zero order rate constant. Matrix tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, weight variation and in vitro drug release. Polynomial equations and response surface plots were generated for all dependent variables. It was observed that all the factors had significant contribution on all dependent variables.

  14. Prescribing errors in a Brazilian neonatal intensive care unit

    Ana Paula Cezar Machado


    Full Text Available Abstract Pediatric patients, especially those admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (ICU, are highly vulnerable to medication errors. This study aimed to measure the prescription error rate in a university hospital neonatal ICU and to identify susceptible patients, types of errors, and the medicines involved. The variables related to medicines prescribed were compared to the Neofax prescription protocol. The study enrolled 150 newborns and analyzed 489 prescription order forms, with 1,491 medication items, corresponding to 46 drugs. Prescription error rate was 43.5%. Errors were found in dosage, intervals, diluents, and infusion time, distributed across 7 therapeutic classes. Errors were more frequent in preterm newborns. Diluent and dosing were the most frequent sources of errors. The therapeutic classes most involved in errors were antimicrobial agents and drugs that act on the nervous and cardiovascular systems.

  15. Boar seminal plasma exosomes maintain sperm function by infiltrating into the sperm membrane.

    Du, Jian; Shen, Jian; Wang, Yuanxian; Pan, Chuanying; Pang, Weijun; Diao, Hua; Dong, Wuzi


    Seminal plasma ingredients are important for maintenance of sperm viability. This study focuses on the effect of boar seminal plasma exosomes on sperm function during long-term liquid storage. Boar seminal plasma exosomes had typical nano-structure morphology as measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and molecular markers such as AWN, CD9 and CD63 by western blot analysis. The effect on sperm parameters of adding different ratio of boar seminal plasma exosomes to boar sperm preparations was analyzed. Compared to the diluent without exosomes, the diluent with four times or sixteen times exosomes compared to original semen had higher sperm motility, prolonged effective survival time, improved sperm plasma membrane integrity (p membrane of sperm head which could improve sperm plasma membrane integrity.

  16. Quantifying sperm egg interaction to assess the breeding efficiency through artificial insemination in guinea fowls.

    Hudson, G H; Omprakash, A V; Premavalli, K; Dhinakar Raj, G


    1. Guinea fowl hens were inseminated weekly once with two doses of spermatozoa (75 million and 100 million) in two different diluents, Beltsville poultry semen extender (BPSE), and Instruments for Veterinary Medicine (IMV), each with and without pre-insemination vaginal douching. Per cent fertility, hatchability, dead germ, dead in shells along with data on sperm egg interaction and vaginal microbial counts were recorded. 2. Artificial insemination had significantly improved the per cent fertility and hatchability compared to natural mating. Dose dependent improvement in fertility was noticed with both diluents. 3. There was a beneficial effect of vaginal douching, which was more pronounced at lower insemination doses. 4. For optimum fertility and hatchability in guinea fowl, insemination of 75 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE once in 4 d and 100 million spermatozoa diluted in BPSE or IMV once in 5 d coupled with vaginal douching is recommended.

  17. The shock sensitivities of nitromethane/methanol mixtures

    Dattelbaum, D. M.; Sheffield, S. A.; Bartram, B. D.; Gibson, L. L.; Bowden, P. R.; Schilling, B. F.


    Dilution of liquid explosives with "inert" solvents have been shown previously to affect a degradation in the detonation performance properties of the explosive, and result in a rapid increase in the critical diameter with increasing diluent. To date, the shock sensitivities of liquid explosive-diluent mixtures have not been measured. In this work, we describe the results of a series of gas gun-driven plate impact experiments on nitromethane (NM)-methanol (MeOH) solutions of several concentrations, using in situ electromagnetic gauging to measure the initial shock state (Hugoniot) of the mixture, as well as the overtake-time-to-detonation (Pop-plot). Surprisingly, the shock sensitivities did not fall off dramatically with increasing MeOH concentration. In fact, at some concentrations MeOH appears to sensitize NM, relative to neat NM.

  18. Methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.


    Embodiments of methods and apparatuses for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. In one example, a method comprises the steps of separating a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent into a low-oxygen-pyoil organic phase stream and an aqueous phase stream. Phenolic compounds are removed from the aqueous phase stream to form a phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream. A biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream is diluted and heated with the phenolic-rich diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen to deoxygenate the heated diluted pyoil feed stream.

  19. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3C(O)O2 radicals. Kinetics of their reaction with NO2 and kinetics of the thermal decomposition of the product CF3C(O)O2NO2

    Wallington, T.J.; Sehested, J.; Nielsen, O.J.


    A pulse radiolysis technique has been used to measure a rate constant of (6.6 +/- 1.3) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 for the association reaction between CF3C(O)O2 radicals and NO2 at 295 K and one atmosphere total pressure of SF6 diluent. A FTIR/smog chamber system was used to study the thermal...... decomposition CF3C(O)O2NO2. The rate of decomposition of CF3C(O)O2NO2 was independent of the total pressure of N2 diluent over the range 100-700 Torr and was fit by the expression k-1 = (1.9(-1.5)+7.6) x 10(16) exp[(-14000 +/- 480)/T] s-1. Implications for the atmospheric chemistry of CFC replacements...

  20. New design method for valves internals, to optimize process

    Jorge, Leonardo [PDVSA (Venezuela)


    In the heavy oil industry, various methods can be used to reduce the viscosity of oil, one of them being the injection of diluent. This method is commonly used in the Orinoco oil belt but it requires good control of the volume of diluent injected as well as the gas flow to optimize production; thus flow control valves need to be accurate. A new valve with a new method was designed with the characteristic of being very reliable and was then bench tested and compared with the other commercially available valves. Results showed better repeatability, accuracy and reliability with lower maintenance for the new method. The use of this valve provides significant savings while distributing the exact amount of fluids; up to date a less than 2% failure rate has been recorded in the field. The new method developed demonstrated impressive performance and PDVSA has decided to use it in mass.


    T.A.Zhang; Y.L.Wang; Z.H.Dou; H.Yang


    Tungsten powder was fabricated from the system CaWO4-Mg by self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS) with a magnesium thermit stage. The physic-chemical change during heating and the effects of pressure of sample and diluents (W powder) on product have been studied. The experimental results show that the porosity of combustion product and the particle size of final tungsten powder decrease with increasing pressure of sample. Addition of diluents could increase the particle size of final tungsten powder. The purity of tungsten is improved by leaching in NaOH solution. The results of spectral analysis and particle size distribution of final tungsten powder show that the final Tungsten powder has a median diameter of 0.87μn, specific surface area of 1.09m2/g and purity of above 99.0%.


    Schonfeld, F.W.; Waber, J.T.


    A series of nuclear reactor fuel alloys consisting of from about 5 to about 50 at.% zirconium (or higher zirconium alloys such as Zircaloy), balance plutonium, and having the structural composition of a plutonium are described. Zirconium is a satisfactory diluent because it alloys readily with plutonium and has desirable nuclear properties. Additional advantages are corrosion resistance, excellent fabrication propenties, an isotropie structure, and initial softness.

  3. Army Drug Development Program. Phase I. Clinical Testing.


    ingestion of each formulation. Various symptoms occured - "twitching", "fuzzy spots on ceiling", "feeling hot" and " bad dreams" - which could not be...Counter, Model S. Scientific Product diluents were used for diluting the blood samples ( Isotonic Buffered Saline; Automated Lysing and Hemoglobin Reagent...1), and at 6 a.m. will drink 360 ml of Sustacal (Mead Johnson product), containing a total of 360 calories. The drug will be administered at 8 a.m

  4. Underwater Sediment Sampling Research


    Statement Diluted bitumen, Dilbit, diluents, total petroleum hydrocarbon, TPH, Texas Raw Crude, Turner Designs Cyclops-7, pore water, Dexsil PetroFlag...concentration of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH). While this study focuses on Dilbit and a Texas crude, a sampling process that could also be applied to...measurement system SubChem SubChem Sensor Systems, Inc. TPH Total petroleum hydrocarbons TR Texas Raw Crude U.S. United States USB Universal serial bus

  5. Radiation chemistry in the reprocessing and recycling of spent nuclear fuels

    Bruce J. Mincher


    The interaction of ionizing radiation with solvent extraction solutions results in the ionization, excitation, and decay to neutral radicals of mainly diluent molecules. These produced reactive species diffuse into the bulk solution to react with solvent extraction ligands. Ligand reactions often result in deleterious effects such as loss in ligand concentration or the production of decomposition products that may also be complexing agents. This often interferes with desired separations. The common radiolysis reactions and their potential effects on solvent extraction are reviewed here.

  6. [Analysis of two year heroin seizures in the Liege area].

    Denooz, R; Dubois, N; Charlier, C


    The results of heroin analysis from seizures in the Liege area during the last two years are presented in this article. Between January 2003 and January 2005, 50 samples were analysed in the Laboratory of Clinical Toxicology and Forensic Toxicology of the University of Liege. Mean heroin concentration was 14,7%. Noscapine and papaverine, other opium alcaloïds, were simultaneously present with heroin. As diluents, we only identified caffein and acetaminophen.

  7. Extraction Mechanism of La3+ from Hydrochloric Acid Solution Using Cyanex 302

    乌东北; 牛春吉; 李德谦


    The solvent extraction of La3+ from hydrochloric acid solutions was investigated using bis(2, 4, 4-trimethylpentyl) monothiophosphinic acid(Cyanex 302, HL) as an extractant. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of La3+ using Cyanex 302 in different diluents was discussed. The effects of extractant concentration and chloride ion on the extraction reaction were also studied. Stoichiometry of the extraction reactions and the nature of metal complexes formed were determined using slope analysis technique and IR measurement.

  8. Formulasi Tablet Klorfeniramin Maleat Menggunakan Selulosa Mikrokristal dengan Metode Cetak Langsung

    Sihaloho, Jandri Duvico


    Microcrystalline cellulose is an exipient which often used in the manufacture of tablets by direct compression. The purpose of this research is to apply the use of microcrystalline cellulose isolated from nata de coco as a diluent in the manufacture of chlorpheniramin maleate tablets by direct compression. Microcrystalline cellulose obtained by isolation from nata de coco. Isolation was carried out by extraction using 18% sodium hydroxide to produce α-cellulose and α-cellulose is hydrol...

  9. An exploration of experimental parameters in the analysis of epoxy resin by reverse phase liquid chromatography.

    Twichell, J E; Walker, J Q; Maynard, J B


    Reverse phase liquid chromatographic methods have been developed for the quality control of epoxy resin formulations. The results show that different formulations require different instrumental parameters for optimun separation and detection. Operating parameters required for the analysis of complex mixtures of epoxy resins, which include curing agents and diluents, are described in this paper. Parameters found to be critical are column temperature, solvent flow rate and gradient, and detector wavelength. Microprocessor parameters required to obtain reproducible data are also discussed.

  10. Physicochemical study of CaCO3 from egg shells

    Murakami, Fabio Seigi; Rodrigues,Patrik Oening; Campos, Célia Maria Teixeira de; Silva, Marcos Antônio Segatto


    Calcium carbonate, a pharmaceutical excipient, is widely used as diluent in solid dosage forms. It is also used as a base for medicinal and dental preparations, a buffering and dissolution aid for dispersible tablets, a food additive and a calcium supplement. Egg shells are a rich source of mineral salts, mainly calcium carbonate, which corresponds to about 94% of the shell. Layer farms produce large amounts of shells, whose final disposal poses a challenge from the environmental standpoint. ...

  11. Programmatic Life Cycle Environmental Assessment for Smoke/Obscurants. Volume 5. Dye/Colored Smokes


    and Organization Maintenance Manual forGrenades. " The grenades produce smoke by means of a reaction In which a carbohydrate -based fuel, such as...Is nonhygroscopic, yellow smoke grenades Incorporating lactose burned unevenly and several green smoke grenades exploded. 5. Dextrin Is not...recommended as a Solvent Yellow 33 diluent, although its use is allowed in the other standard military smoke dyes. The presence of " dextrin in the Improved


    Long, R.L.


    A proccss is described for the recovery of uranium from phosphatic products derived from phosphatic ores. It has been discovered that certain alkyl phosphatic, derivatives can be employed in a direct solvent extraction operation to recover uranium from solid products, such as superphosphates, without first dissolving such solids. The organic extractants found suitable include alkyl derivatives of phosphoric, pyrophosphoric, phosof the derivative contains from 4 to 7 carbon atoms. A diluent such as kerosene is also used.

  13. System Certification Procedures and Criteria Manual for Deep Submergence Systems


    nitrogen partial pressure is limited to 3 .. tn, the pressure at which the first symptoms of nitrogen narcosis appear, and nitrogen partial pressures to...requirements except as noted below: Gas System Designation Color Paint Helium He Buff Oxygen 0 Green Helium-O’cvqen mix He-O Buff and Green Nitrogen N Light...tion, and inert diluent gas, such as nitrogen or helium, that is not consumed or altered. The oxygen consumed in the body reacts with carbon and

  14. MK 16 MOD 0 Underwater Breathing Apparatus (UBA) TECHEVAL Report


    control (3) Carbon dioxide absorbent F (4) Oxygen depletion (5) Diluent depletion (b) Decompression Sickness (c) Oxygen toxicity (d) Nitrogen narcosis (e...recompression chamber. Enclosure (5) 2 e. Nitrogen narcosis may occur at 120 and 150 FSW. If narcosis persists and seems to get worse on the bottom, the diver or...16, remain on his line, and continue an orderly decompression on the 0.7 ATA PO2 in Nitrogen Table if the diver with the problem is on air SCUBA

  15. Predicting the Viscosity of Low VOC Vinyl Ester and Fatty Acid-Based Resins


    gelation and reducing diffusion limitations (3). These properties provided by the reactive diluent also allow for the use of low cost composite...have been used as plasticizers and toughening agents (12). In fact, the largest non- food use of triglycerides is the use of epoxidized soybean and...the high molecular weight Epon 100XF. Addition of styrene during the methacrylation reaction normally causes gelation . Therefore, hydroquinone

  16. Environmental and Chemical Aging of Fatty-Acid-Based Vinyl Ester Composites


    Reactive diluents in vinyl ester and unsaturated polyester resins, such as styrene and methyl methacrylate, are used to reduce the resin viscosity to...Contamination by Fluids [11]) that were selected as a hydrocarbon fuel (JP-8), a solvent ( methyl ethyl ketone [MEK]), and saltwater exposure...Exposure of Non-Metallic Materials. Annu. Book ASTM Stand. 2005. 20 14. MIL-DTL-83133F. Detail Specification: Turbine Fuel, Aviation, Kerosene

  17. 40 CFR 180.930 - Inert ingredients applied to animals; exemptions from the requirement of a tolerance.


    ...-hydroxypoly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl/oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl) C8-C18 saturated and unsaturated alkylamines; the poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl/oxy(methyl-1,2-ethanediyl) content is 2-60 moles (CAS Reg. Nos. 68213-26-3... diluent, carrier Kerosene, U.S.P. reagent Solvent, cosolvent Lactic acid Solvent Lactic acid, 2-ethylhexyl...

  18. Effects of Wind Speed on Aerosol Spray Penetration in Adult Mosquito Bioassay Cages


    Indianapolis, IN) with Uvitex fluorescent dye at the rate of 1 g/liter of oil. The oil was selected because it is commonly used as a diluent in vector control...Solution samples were analyzed in the laboratory to determine the exact amount of dye in solution and used to standardize deposition measurements across the...each replication, the straws were carefully placed in individually labeled plastic bags and stored out of the light to prevent any photodegradation

  19. Atmospheric lifetime of fluorotelomer alcohols

    Ellis, DA; Martin, JW; Mabury, SA


    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with a series of fluorotelomer alcohols, F(CF2CF2)(n)-CH2CH2OH (n = 2, 3, 4), in 700 Torr of N-2 or air, diluent at 296 +/- 2K. The length of the F(CF2CF2)(n)- group had no discernible impact...

  20. Prostate Cancer in African-American Men: Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection Using Nanoparticles


    curve for data obtained from EIS st udies for different PSA concentrations. 1000 times diluted human plasma sample was used as a blocker and a diluent...and dynamic properties and emerging applications of nanomaterials’, International Workshop on Nanotechnology, Los Lagos, Mexico , July 2007, invited...Cancer Research and Prevention Found ation – ‘Quantum dot-conjugated biomarkers for ear ly detection of breast cancer in Mexico (Phelan PI) 5. Florida

  1. Control of Grafting Density and Distribution in Graft Polymers by Living Ring-Opening Metathesis Copolymerization.

    Lin, Tzu-Pin; Chang, Alice B; Chen, Hsiang-Yun; Liberman-Martin, Allegra L; Bates, Christopher M; Voegtle, Matthew J; Bauer, Christina A; Grubbs, Robert H


    Control over polymer sequence and architecture is crucial to both understanding structure-property relationships and designing functional materials. In pursuit of these goals, we developed a new synthetic approach that enables facile manipulation of the density and distribution of grafts in polymers via living ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). Discrete endo,exo-norbornenyl dialkylesters (dimethyl DME, diethyl DEE, di-n-butyl DBE) were strategically designed to copolymerize with a norbornene-functionalized polystyrene (PS), polylactide (PLA), or polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) macromonomer mediated by the third-generation metathesis catalyst (G3). The small-molecule diesters act as diluents that increase the average distance between grafted side chains, generating polymers with variable grafting density. The grafting density (number of side chains/number of norbornene backbone repeats) could be straightforwardly controlled by the macromonomer/diluent feed ratio. To gain insight into the copolymer sequence and architecture, self-propagation and cross-propagation rate constants were determined according to a terminal copolymerization model. These kinetic analyses suggest that copolymerizing a macromonomer/diluent pair with evenly matched self-propagation rate constants favors randomly distributed side chains. As the disparity between macromonomer and diluent homopolymerization rates increases, the reactivity ratios depart from unity, leading to an increase in gradient tendency. To demonstrate the effectiveness of our method, an array of monodisperse polymers (PLA(x)-ran-DME(1-x))n bearing variable grafting densities (x = 1.0, 0.75, 0.5, 0.25) and total backbone degrees of polymerization (n = 167, 133, 100, 67, 33) were synthesized. The approach disclosed in this work therefore constitutes a powerful strategy for the synthesis of polymers spanning the linear-to-bottlebrush regimes with controlled grafting density and side chain distribution, molecular

  2. Ultra-fast mechanochemical synthesis of boron phosphides, BP and B12P2.

    Mukhanov, Vladimir A; Vrel, Dominique; Sokolov, Petr S; Le Godec, Yann; Solozhenko, Vladimir L


    Here we propose a new approach to the synthesis of single-phase boron phosphides (BP and B12P2) by mechanochemical reactions between boron phosphate and magnesium/magnesium diboride in the presence of an inert diluent (sodium chloride). The proposed method is characterized by the simplicity of implementation, high efficiency, low cost of the product, and good perspectives for large-scale production.

  3. Numerical Simulation of Confined Multiple Transverse Jets


    density ratio • Multiple confined transverse jets • Single phase/component ONERA experimental/LES studies of an eight jet mixing chamber 9Distribution A...Approved for public release; distribution unlimited ONERA Experiments Pros: • PIV and PLIF data • Characterized boundary conditions Cons: • ONERA ...Pairs Diluent Flow X = 2d: X = 5d: X = 10d: Fluent STAR-CCM+ CFD++ Axial locations (d = inj. dia.) Experiment LES ( ONERA ) Distribution A: Approved

  4. Unmanned Evaluation of the U.S. Navy MK 16 First Article Closed-Circuit UBA (Underwater Breathing Apparatus)


    operating depths to simulate light through extreme diver work rates. Breathing resistance was measured using a pressure transducer located in the oral ...used. Moisture ranged from 14.5 to 15.5%. 3. 02 Set-point Control Tests: a. 02 level in inhalation tubing expresed as percentage of SEV. b. 02 add...surface. (c) Calibrate oral pressure transducer and Beckman 755 02 analyzer. (d) Open makeup gas supply valve to test UBA (Diluent: air). (e) Water

  5. Actinide ion extraction using room temperature ionic liquids: opportunities and challenges for nuclear fuel cycle applications.

    Mohapatra, Prasanta Kumar


    Studies on the extraction of actinide ions from radioactive feeds have great relevance in nuclear fuel cycle activities, mainly in the back end processes focused on reprocessing and waste management. Room temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) based diluents are becoming increasingly popular due to factors such as more efficient extraction vis-à-vis molecular diluents, higher metal loading, higher radiation resistance, etc. The fascinating chemistry of the actinide ions in RTIL based solvent systems due to complex extraction mechanisms makes it a challenging area of research. By the suitable tuning of the cationic and anionic parts of the ionic liquids, their physical properties such as density, dielectric constant and viscosity can be changed which are considered key parameters in metal ion extraction. Aqueous solubility of the RTILs, which can lead to significant loss in the solvent inventory, can be avoided by appending the extractant moieties onto the ionic liquid. While the low vapour pressure and non-flammability of the ionic liquids make them appear as 'green' diluents, their aqueous solubility raises concerns of environmental hazards. The present article gives a summary of studies carried out on actinide ion extraction and presents perspectives of its applications in the nuclear fuel cycle. The article discusses various extractants used for actinide ion extraction and at many places, comparison is made vis-à-vis molecular diluents which includes the nature of the extracted species and the mechanism of extraction. Results of studies on rare earth elements are also included in view of their similarities with the trivalent minor actinides.

  6. The Effects of Pyridostigmine and Physostigmine on the Cholinergic Synapse


    equivalent diluent composed of 1.30 mg/ml citric acid monohydrate, 4.1.0 mg/ml sodium citrate dihydrate, 0.50 mg/ml methyl paraben , 0.05 mg/ml propyl... paraben and 7.40 mg/ml’sodium chloride in sterile water at pH 5.1. Acute Drug Exposure. Acute doses of pyridostigmine ranged from 0.0036 mg/kg to 3.6 mg

  7. Probing the effect of the solution environment around redox-active moieties using rigid anthraquinone terminated molecular rulers.

    Darwish, Nadim; Eggers, Paul K; Ciampi, Simone; Tong, Yujin; Ye, Shen; Paddon-Row, Michael N; Gooding, J Justin


    Herein, we report the influence of the position and the solution environment around surface-bound redox-active moieties on their redox reaction. The study was made possible by using rigid norbornylogous bridges, which possess anthraquinone (AQ) moieties. An L-shaped norbornylogous bridge (L-NB) and straight-shaped norbornylogous bridge (S-NB) were used to situate AQ moieties at well-defined position and environments above a mixed alkanethiol self-assembled monolayer (SAM) on Au (111) surfaces. Sum frequency generation (SFG) vibrational spectroscopy was employed to evaluate the interaction between the S-NB and L-NB with diluent molecules in the mixed SAMs. The SFG measurements demonstrated that hydrogen-bonding interactions were formed between AQ moieties of L-NB and diluent molecules terminated by hydroxyl group within a suitable separation. The SFG observations provided information about the relative position of the AQ moieties in each SAM, which significantly affects the thermodynamics and the kinetics of the electron transfer on the electrode/solution interface. The rate constant (k(et)) of the electron transfer between the AQ moiety and the gold surface and the apparent formal potential (E(0')) were studied using cyclic voltammetry (CV), alternating current voltammetry (ACV), and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). It was found that the k(et) increases and E(0') shifts to more anodic values as the distance between the AQ moiety and the surface of the diluent was increased, for both methyl and hydroxyl terminated diluent. These results are discussed in relation to H-bonding interactions with water surrounding the AQ moieties.

  8. Equilibrium of Extraction of Succinic,Malic,Maleic and Fumaric Acids with Trioctylamine

    LIZhenyu; QINWei; 等


    Extraction equilibrium features of succinic acid,malic acid,maleic acid and fumaric acid were investigated systematically with trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform,4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) and 1-octanol.Fourier transform-infrared(FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of organic samples loaded with the acid show that amine forms 1:1 complex of ion-pair association with succinic acid,malic acid and maleic acid,and 1:1,2:1 complex of ion-pair association with fumaric acid.It is proposed that the complex forms depend on the second dissociation constant of the dibasic acid,pKa2.Results of equilibrium experiments show that diluents affects extraction behavior,and depend on the solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective than the others when the equilibrium solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective tthan the others when the equilibrium solute concentration is lower than 1:1 stoichiometry of TOA to acid,otherwise the extraction ability shows that MIBK>1-octanol>chloroform for malic and maleic acids,and 1-octanol>MIBK>chloroform for succinic acid.Overloading(Solute concentration in organic phase is lager than TOA concentration) appears for all of the studied acids, and the sequence of overloading amount is the same as that of distribution constant of diluent.The results show that the sequence of extraction ability of different acid is the same as that of acidity at low equilibrium solute concentrations,while it is the same as the sequence of hydrophobicity at high equilibrium concentrations.

  9. Antioxidant activity of aqueous extract of noni in dilutent for ram semen cryopreservation

    Ana Lauren Costa Nascimento


    Full Text Available Noni (Morinda citrifolia L. is a fruit consumed worldwide because of its nutritional and therapeutic properties resulting from the large amount of phenolic compounds, which has aroused interest of the scientific community. In order to identify new natural sources of antioxidants, the objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of noni in diluent for ram semen cryopreservation. A completely randomized design consisting of four treatments and three repetitions per treatment was used. The treatments differed in terms of the concentration of the aqueous extract of noni added to the diluent: control, no addition of the extract, and three concentrations (24, 72, and 120 µg/mL. The physical and chemical variables of the mature fruit were evaluated: total acidity (8.78, pH (4.12, and soluble solids (8.18%. The vitamin C content was 309.42 mg per 100 g fresh matter. The aqueous extract of noni was also evaluated regarding the quantity of total phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity, and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity. The aqueous extract contained a moderate amount of phenolic compounds (47.96 ± 1.95 mg gallic acid equivalent/100 g extract. The concentrations of the aqueous extract of 72 and 120 µg/mL in diluent used for semen cryopreservation inhibited lipid peroxidation by 21.75% and 51.32%, respectively. There was no positive effect of the lowest concentration (24 µg/mL. The antioxidant activity index of noni was 33.33, corresponding to very strong antioxidant activity. The aqueous extract of noni exhibits very strong antioxidant activity and its addition to the diluent for semen cryopreservation at a concentration of 72 µg/mL is able to inhibit lipid peroxidation.

  10. Synergistic Extraction of Lanthanides by 1-Nitroso-2-Naphthol and Trioctylphosphine Oxide in Paraffin Wax


    The paraffin wax was used as a diluent for 1-nitroso-2-naphthol(HA) and trioctylphosphine oxide(TOPO) in the extraction of lanthanides at 70℃. The composition of the extracted species was given as LnA3(TOPO)2 by means of the slope analysis. The variation of the synergistic extraction equilibrium constant(Ksex) was investigated at 60~80℃, and the thermodynamic data were calculated. The dependence of separation factors on temperature was also studied.

  11. Kinetics of the gas-phase reactions of chlorine atoms with CH2F2, CH3CCl3 and CF3CFH2 over the temperature range 253 – 551 K

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Nielsen, Ole John;


    Relative rate techniques were used to study the title reactions in 930–1200 mbar of N2 diluent. The reaction rate coefficients measured in the present work are summarized by the expressions k(Cl+CH2F2) = 1.19×10-17 T 2 exp(-1023/T ) cm3 molecule-1 s-1 (253– 553 K), k(Cl+CH3CCl3) = 2.41×10-12 exp(...

  12. Morphologic evaluation of goat spermatozoa diluted and frozen in media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101) or TRIS, stained by eosin-nigrosin and bromophenol blue AVALIAÇÃO MORFOLÓGICA DE ESPERMATOZÓIDES CAPRINOS DILUÍDOS E CONGELADOS EM MEIO À BASE DE ÁGUA DE COCO EM PÓ (ACP-101) OU TRIS, CORADOS POR EOSINA-NIGROSINA E AZUL DE BROMOFENOL

    Arlindo de Alencar Araripe Moura; José Maurício Maciel Cavalcante; Cristiane Clemente de Mello Salgueiro; José Ferreira Nunes; Rodrigo Vasconcelos de Oliveira; Airton Alencar de Araujo


    This aims of the work were: to evaluate in vitro the goat semen frozen in diluents media based on powder coconut water (PCW-101) and TRIS and, compare the bromophenol blue stain efficiency with the eosin-nigrosin stain. The ejaculateds were divided and diluted into PCW-101 and TRIS, frozed and thawed after 30 days. Spermatic morphology was evaluated, through semen smears stained by eosin-nigrosin (EN) and bromophenol blue (BB). The morphologic parameters evaluated were: normal sperma...

  13. Atmospheric chemistry of 4 : 2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH): Products and mechanism of Cl atom initiated oxidation

    Hurley, MD; Ball, JC; Wallington, TJ;


    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the products and mechanism of the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CH2OH) in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 296 K. CF3(CF2)(3)CH2CHO is the sole primary oxidation product. CF3(CF2)(3)CHO, CF3(CF2)(3)CH2COOH, an...

  14. Epoxy Resins Modified with Vegetable Oils



    1 Results The application of modified natural oils, nontoxic, biodegradable and renewable materials, for the modification and the synthesis of epoxy resins were presented. Firstly, the application of epoxidized vegetable oils (soybean, rapeseed, linseed and sunflower):as reactive diluents for epoxy resins was proposed and studied[1-2]. Viscosity reducing ability of epoxidized oils was tested in the compositions with Bisphenol A based low-molecular-weight epoxy resins. The rheological behaviour of the mi...

  15. Kinetics of the reaction of CH3O2 radicals with NO2

    Wallington, T.J.; Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, K.


    The kinetics of the gas-phase reaction of CH3O2 radicals with NO2 were studied at 295 K in 0.5-14 arm of SF6 diluent using pulse radiolysis combined with time-resolved UV-VIS spectroscopy. Rate data were obtained by following the loss of CH3O2 using a monitoring wavelength of 260 nm. The results...

  16. Combustion and Magnetohydrodynamic Processes in Advanced Pulse Detonation Rocket Engines


    an endothermic process, the parameter θa in this formulation is an averaged activation energy of the key radical-producing reactions. This is a...conserved variables, W = LQ, and by definition LR = RL = I. Now that the governing equations have been linearized with the pro- cess shown in Equation...Radulescu et al. attributed the stabilizing effect of the diluent to the lower temperature in the reaction zone which leads to slower exothermic reaction

  17. Microbiological evaluation of open and sealed tattoo inks


    Background. Introduction of tattoo inks in the skin has been associated with a potential entry of a great number of microorganisms including bacteria, virus and fungi. Contaminated pigments, diluents and instruments represent primary infection risk factors as well as inadequacy of hygienic measures during this practice. However, the evaluation of the infectious risk for public health due to tattoo ink use is actually not feasible cause of the low efficiency of health surveillance and the lack...

  18. Tuning polymer glass formation with additives and ions

    Simmons, David


    A polymer's glass transition and associated dynamic and mechanical properties are among the most important factors determining its performance in engineering applications. For this reason, decades of research have aimed to establish methods of tuning polymers' glass formation behavior. Here I describe molecular simulations providing new insight into two approaches to altering a polymer's glass formation behavior: introduction of small-molecule diluents; and introduction of charged moieties to form an ionomer. In the first case, we explore how diluent molecular properties control modifications to the host polymer's glass transition and mechanical response. Results indicate that diluents can induce a rich array of effects, necessitating development of an expanded classification beyond the usual plasticizer/antiplasticizer dichotomy. In the second case, simulations indicate that ionomer glass formation is indistinguishable from that in polymer nanocomposites, in contrast to the longstanding assumption that covalent grafting of chains to ionic aggregates in these systems leads to a qualitatively distinct effect. Taken together, these results provide new guidance towards the rational understanding and control of polymer glass-formation in a range of materials. In collaboration with Jayachandra Hari Mangalara and Dihui Ruan, The University of Akron. This material is based in part on work supported by the W.M. Keck Foundation.

  19. Phillips solves Venezuelan tar-belt producing problems

    Finken, R.E.; Meldau, R.F.


    Phillips Petroleum Co. and partners have just completed an expansion to produce, treat, and ship 88,000 bpd of heavy oil from the tar-belt region of E. Venezuela. The first phase of the expansion was a $4.5-million diluent project to produce 80 API oil from the largest reservoir in the Morichal field, Monagas State. The second phase was to drill 41 wells in Amoco's Jobo field under an operating contract. The final phase was a $3.5-million expansion of treating, pipeline, and terminal facilities to handle the increased throughput. The crude produced is naphthenic and after treating is ready for road-building use, and as residual fuel at its usual viscosity of 520 to 550 sfs at 122/sup 0/F. As an asphalt stock, it has a yield of 60 to 70% and is readily processed into quality-paving asphalts which meet standard specifications. Production of the viscous 80 API crude oil, even though the major oil reservoir in Morichal, was very limited until installation of the diluent facilities last year. The same problem exists all over the famous tar-belt region of E. Venezuela. Vast oil reserves exist almost continuously in the area shown by the base map, but the oil cannot be dehydrated, desalted or transported when produced by itself. Thus, the 80 API oil is a known reserve, but without an external supply of diluent it cannot be commercially recovered.

  20. Electrochemical Characterization of Protein Adsorption onto YNGRT-Au and VLGXE-Au Surfaces

    Hanna Trzeciakiewicz


    Full Text Available The adsorption of the proteins CD13, mucin and bovine serum albumin on VLGXE-Au and YNGRT-Au interfaces was monitored by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in the presence of [Fe(CN6]3−/4−. The hydrophobicity of the Au surface was tailored using specific peptides, blocking agents and diluents. The combination of blocking agents (ethanolamine or n-butylamine and diluents (hexanethiol or 2-mercaptoethanol was used to prepare various peptide-modified Au surfaces. Protein adsorption onto the peptide-Au surfaces modified with the combination of n-butylamine and hexanethiol produced a dramatic decrease in the charge transfer resistance, Rct, for all three proteins. In contrast, polar peptide-surfaces induced a minimal change in Rct for all three proteins. Furthermore, an increase in Rct was observed with CD13 (an aminopeptidase overexpressed in certain cancers in comparison to the other proteins when the VLGXE-Au surface was modified with n-butylamine as a blocking agent. The electrochemical data indicated that protein adsorption may be modulated by tailoring the peptide sequence on Au surfaces and that blocking agents and diluents play a key role in promoting or preventing protein adsorption. The peptide-Au platform may also be used for targeting cancer biomarkers with designer peptides.

  1. Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) implemented by integration of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and 3D printed microfluidics.

    Chi, Albert; Curi, Sebastian; Clayton, Kevin; Luciano, David; Klauber, Kameron; Alexander-Katz, Alfredo; D'hers, Sebastian; Elman, Noel M


    Rapid Reconstitution Packages (RRPs) are portable platforms that integrate microfluidics for rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs. Rapid reconstitution of lyophilized drugs using standard vials and syringes is an error-prone process. RRPs were designed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) techniques to optimize fluidic structures for rapid mixing and integrating physical properties of targeted drugs and diluents. Devices were manufactured using stereo lithography 3D printing for micrometer structural precision and rapid prototyping. Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) was selected as the initial model drug to test the RRPs as it is unstable in solution. tPA is a thrombolytic drug, stored in lyophilized form, required in emergency settings for which rapid reconstitution is of critical importance. RRP performance and drug stability were evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) to characterize release kinetics. In addition, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) were performed to test for drug activity after the RRPs were exposed to various controlled temperature conditions. Experimental results showed that RRPs provided effective reconstitution of tPA that strongly correlated with CFD results. Simulation and experimental results show that release kinetics can be adjusted by tuning the device structural dimensions and diluent drug physical parameters. The design of RRPs can be tailored for a number of applications by taking into account physical parameters of the active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs), excipients, and diluents. RRPs are portable platforms that can be utilized for reconstitution of emergency drugs in time-critical therapies.

  2. Extraction Behavior and Wastewater Treatment of Amino Sulfonic Acid with Alamine 336

    秦炜; 李振宇; 汪敏; 戴猷元


    p-Amino benzene sulfonic acid (PABSA) is selected as the solute with amphoteric functional group, Lewis acid and Lewis base, to be separated from its dilute solutions. An aliphatic, straight chain amine, Alamine 336, is used as the extractant, and kerosene, 1-octanol, chloroform, butyl acetate and benzene as the diluent. The effects of pH value of solution, extractant concentration, salt and types of diluent on the distribution coefficient, D, are studied. There is a peak of D value with pH value of solution, the polar diluents are favorable for extracting PABSA, and the salt in aqueous phase reduces values of D apparently. The extraction equilibrium is described using the mass action law, and the calculated data according to the proposed model agree with the experimental data well. Further, the extraction behavior for other amino benzene sulfonic acids, 1-amino-8-naphtol-3,6-disulfonic acid (H acid) and 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DSD acid), is investigated in a wide pH value region. Finally. H acid and DSD acid are successfully removed from wastewater by the extraction with Alamine 336.

  3. 三烷基胺萃取氨基磺酸及其废水的特性研究%Extraction Behavior and Wastewater Treatment of Amino Sulfonic Acid with Alamine 336

    秦炜; 李振宇; 汪敏; 戴猷元


    p-Amino benzene sulfonic acid (PABSA) is selected as the solute with amphoteric functional group,Lewis acid and Lewis base, to be separated from its dilute solutions. An aliphatic, straight chain amine, Alamine 336, is used as the extractant, and kerosene, 1-octanol, chloroform, butyl acetate and benzene as the diluent. The effects of pH value of solution, extractant concentration, salt and types of diluent on the distribution coefficient, D,are studied. There is a peak of D value with pH value of solution, the polar diluents are favorable for extracting PABSA, and the salt in aqueous phase reduces values of D apparently. The extraction equilibrium is described using the mass action law, and the calculated data according to the proposed model agree with the experimental data well. Further, the extraction behavior for other amino benzene sulfonic acids, 1-amino-8-naphtol-3,6-disulfonic acid (H acid) and 4,4′-diaminostilbene-2,2′Cdisulfonic acid (DSD acid), is investigated in a wide pH value region.Finally, H acid and DSD acid are successfully removed from wastewater by the extraction with Alamine 336.

  4. Life Cycle Analysis of Bitumen Transportation to Refineries by Rail and Pipeline.

    Nimana, Balwinder; Verma, Aman; Di Lullo, Giovanni; Rahman, Md Mustafizur; Canter, Christina E; Olateju, Babatunde; Zhang, Hao; Kumar, Amit


    Crude oil is currently transported primarily by pipelines and rail from extraction sites to refineries around the world. This research evaluates energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for three scenarios (synthetic crude oil and dilbit with and without diluent return) in which 750 000 bpd of Alberta's bitumen is transported 3000 km to determine which method has a lower environmental impact. Each scenario has a pipeline and rail pathway, and the dilbit without diluent return scenario has an additional heated bitumen pathway, which does not require diluent. An Excel based bottom-up model is developed using engineering first-principles to calculate mass and energy balances for each process. Results show that pipeline transportation produced between 61% and 77% fewer GHG emissions than by rail. The GHG emissions decreased by 15% and 73% for rail and pipelines as the capacity increased from 100 000 to 800 000 bpd. A Monte Carlo simulation was performed to determine the uncertainty in the emissions and found that the uncertainty was larger for pipelines (up to ±73%) and smaller for rail (up to ±28%). The uncertainty ranges do not overlap, thus confirming that pipelines have lower GHG emissions, which is important information for policy makers conducting pipeline reviews.

  5. Efficient removal of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions by solvent extraction.

    Shao, Jingjing; Cheng, Yan; Yang, Chunping; Zeng, Guangming; Liu, Wencan; Jiao, Panpan; He, Huijun


    Naphthalene-2-ol is a typical biologically recalcitrant pollutant in dye wastewater. Solvent extraction of naphthalene-2-ol from aqueous solutions using mixed solvents was investigated. Various extractants and diluents were evaluated, and the effects of volume ratio of extractant to diluent, initial pH, initial concentration of naphthalene-2-ol in aqueous solution, extraction time, temperature, volume ratio of organic phase to aqueous phase (O/A), stirring rate and extraction stages, on extraction efficiency were examined separately. Regeneration and reuse of the spent extractant were also investigated. Results showed that tributyl phosphate (TBP) achieved 98% extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol in a single stage extraction, the highest among the 12 extractants evaluated. Extraction efficiency was optimized when cyclohexane and n-octane were used as diluents. The solvent combination of 20% TBP, 20% n-octanol and 60% cyclohexane (V/V) obtained the maximum extraction efficiency for naphthalene-2-ol, 99.3%, within 20min using three cross-current extraction stages under the following extraction conditions: O/A ratio of 1:1, initial pH of 3, 25°C and stirring rate of 150r/min. Recovery of mixed solvents was achieved by using 15% (W/W) NaOH solution at an O:A ratio of 1:1 and a contact time of 15min. The mixed solvents achieved an extraction capacity for naphthalene-2-ol stably higher than 90% during five cycles after regeneration.

  6. Preservation of mithun (Bos frontalis) semen at refrigeration temperature.

    Karunakaran, M; Dhali, A; Mech, A; Khate, K; Rajkhowa, C; Mishra, D P


    The objective of the present study was to investigate the possibility of preserving mithun (Bos frontalis) spermatozoa at refrigeration temperature using tris-egg yolk diluent. Semen samples were collected from four adult mithun bulls through rectal massage method. Good quality semen samples (n=30) were preserved at 4 degrees C using tris-egg yolk diluent for 72 h. Progressive motility, live spermatozoa count and morphological abnormalities were evaluated every 12 h until 72 h of preservation. The colour, consistency and mass activity of fresh semen samples were found to be creamy white, medium and 3+ to 4+ (5+ scale), respectively. The average (mean+/-S.E.) volume (ml), pH and spermatozoa concentration (10(6) ml(-1)) of fresh semen samples were found to be 0.6+/-0.01, 6.8+/-0.03 and 425+/-48, respectively. Progressive motility and live spermatozoa count were found to be less than 30% (Prefrigeration temperature in tris-egg yolk diluent, which can be further used for artificial insemination within 36 h of storage.

  7. Enhanced Hydrogen Production Integrated with CO2 Separation in a Single-Stage Reactor

    Mahesh Iyer; Himanshu Gupta; Danny Wong; Liang-Shih Fan


    Hydrogen production from coal gasification can be enhanced by driving the equilibrium limited Water Gas Shift reaction forward by incessantly removing the CO{sub 2} by-product via the carbonation of calcium oxide. This project aims at using the OSU patented high-reactivity mesoporous precipitated calcium carbonate sorbent for removing the CO{sub 2} product. Preliminary experiments demonstrate the show the superior performance of the PCC sorbent over other naturally occurring calcium sorbents. Gas composition analyses show the formation of 100% pure hydrogen. Novel calcination techniques could lead to smaller reactor footprint and single-stage reactors that can achieve maximum theoretical H{sub 2} production for multicyclic applications. Sub-atmospheric calcination studies reveal the effect of vacuum level, diluent gas flow rate, thermal properties of the diluent gas and the sorbent loading on the calcination kinetics which play an important role on the sorbent morphology. Steam, which can be easily separated from CO{sub 2}, is envisioned to be a potential diluent gas due to its enhanced thermal properties. Steam calcination studies at 700-850 C reveal improved sorbent morphology over regular nitrogen calcination. A mixture of 80% steam and 20% CO{sub 2} at ambient pressure was used to calcine the spent sorbent at 820 C thus lowering the calcination temperature. Regeneration of calcium sulfide to calcium carbonate was achieved by carbonating the calcium sulfide slurry by bubbling CO{sub 2} gas at room temperature.

  8. Emulsion stability evaluation of SAGD product with the IPR-CEF technique

    Beetge, J.H. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States)]|[Champion Technologies Inc., Fort McMurray, AB (Canada)


    This paper presented the results of an experimental study that was based on a sample of bitumen from a steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) facility in northern Alberta. The newly developed internal phase ratio-critical electric field (IPR-CEF) measuring technique was used to study the stability of emulsions made up from the SAGD bitumen sample. Bitumen concentration, diluent character, time dependency and the effect of chemical demulsifiers were the significant factors examined. The effect of bitumen concentration on the stability of bitumen based emulsions was evaluated at 3 different concentrations, for 3 different diluents of heptane and toluene mixtures. Linear IPR-CEF relationships were noted for emulsions made from diluted SAGD bitumen under a range of different experimental conditions. Experimental errors were low enough to allow reasonable calculated values for flocculation and coalescence coefficients. The trends correlated well with expectations based on previous studies. It was concluded that bitumen concentration plays an important role in emulsion stability. It was shown that the barrier to flocculation may increase at higher bitumen concentrations. The stability of emulsions appears to be time dependent, particularly with highly aromatic diluents. The time dependency is associated with a change in coalescence coefficient during the first few minutes ensuing emulsion formation. 17 refs., 18 figs.

  9. Equilibrium of Extraction of Succinic, Malic, Maleic and Fumaric Acids with Trioctylamine%三辛胺萃取丁二酸、苹果酸、马来酸、富马酸特性的研究

    李振宇; 秦炜; 汪敏; 黄焱; 戴猷元


    Extraction equilibrium features of succinic acid, malic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid were investigated systematically with trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform, 4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) and 1-octanol. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of organic samples loaded with the acid shows that amine forms 1:1 complex of ion-pair association with succinic acid, malic acid and maleic acid, and 1:1, 2:1 complex of ion-pair association with fumaric acid. It is proposed that the complex forms depend on the second dissociation constant of the dibasic acid, pKa2. Results of equilibrium experiments show that diluents affect extraction behavior, and depend on the solute concentration. Protic diluents, chloroform and 1-octanol, are more effective than the others when the equilibrium solute concentration is lower than 1:1 stoichiometry of TOA to acid, otherwise the extraction ability shows that MIBK>l-octanol>chloroform for malic and maleic acids, and 1-octanol>MIBK>chloroform for succinic acid. Overloading (solute concentration in organic phase is lager than TOA concentration) appears for all of the studied acids, and the sequence of overloading amount is the same as that of distribution constant of diluent. The results show that the sequence of extraction ability of different acid is the same as that of acidity at low equilibrium solute concentrations, while it is the same as the sequence of hydrophobicity at high equilibrium concentrations.

  10. The chemistry of separations ligand degradation by organic radical cations

    Mezyk, S.P.; Horne, G.P. [California State University at Long Beach, Long Beach, CA 90840 (United States); Mincher, B.J.; Zalupski, P.R. [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Cook, A.R.; Wishart, J.F. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, New York, 11973 (United States)


    Solvent based extractions of used nuclear fuel use designer ligands in an organic phase extracting ligand complexed metal ions from an acidic aqueous phase. These extractions will be performed in highly radioactive environments, and the radiation chemistry of all these complexing agents and their diluents will play a major role in determining extraction efficiency, separation factors, and solvent-recycle longevity. Although there has been considerable effort in investigating ligand damage occurring in acidic water radiolysis conditions, only minimal fundamental kinetic and mechanistic data has been reported for the degradation of extraction ligands in the organic phase. Extraction solvent phases typically use normal alkanes such as dodecane, TPH, and kerosene as diluents. The radiolysis of such diluents produce a mixture of radical cations (R{sup .+}), carbon-centered radicals (R{sup .}), solvated electrons, and molecular products such as hydrogen. Typically, the radical species will preferentially react with the dissolved oxygen present to produce relatively inert peroxyl radicals. This isolates the alkane radical cation species, R{sup .+} as the major radiolytically-induced organic species that can react with, and degrade, extraction agents in this phase. Here we report on our recent studies of organic radical cation reactions with 2 ligands: CMPO and TODGA. Elucidating these parameters, and combining them with the known acidic aqueous phase chemistry, will allow a full, fundamental, understanding of the impact of radiation on solvent extraction based separation processes to be achieved. (authors)

  11. Sustain-release of various drugs from leucaena leucocephala polysaccharide.

    Jeevanandham, S; Sekar, M; Dhachinamoorthi, D; Muthukumaran, M; Sriram, N; Joysaruby, J


    This study examines the sustained release behavior of both water-soluble (acetaminophen, caffeine, theophylline and salicylic acid) and water-insoluble (indomethacin) drugs from Leucaena leucocephala seed Gum isolated from Leucaena leucocephala kernel powder. It further investigates the effect of incorporation of diluents like microcrystalline cellulose and lactose on release of caffeine and partial cross-linking of the gum (polysaccharide) on release of acetaminophen. Applying exponential equation, the mechanism of release of soluble drugs was found to be anomalous. The insoluble drug showed near case II or zero-order release mechanism. The rate of release was in the decreasing order of caffeine, acetaminophen, theophylline, salicylic acid and indomethacin. An increase in release kinetics of drug was observed on blending with diluents. However, the rate of release varied with type and amount of blend in the matrix. The mechanism of release due to effect of diluents was found to be anomalous. The rate of release of drug decreased on partial cross-linking and the mechanism of release was found to be super case II.

  12. Evaluación citotóxica y genotóxica del adyuvante AFCo1 por el ensayo de morfología de la cabeza del espermatozoide en ratón NMRI

    Aníbal Domínguez


    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio para evaluar el potencial citogenotóxico en células espermáticas de ratón, del adyuvante AFCo1 (Adyuvante Finlay Cocleato 1, obtenido a partir del proteoliposoma de Neisseria meningitidis serogrupo B. El AFCo1 y su diluente se administraron por vía intranasal en una dosis de 40 µL (1 mg/mL, mientras que los controles positivo (ciclofosfamida y negativo (agua destilada estéril, se administraron por vía oral a razón de 40 mg y 1 mL/kg, respectivamente. Se utilizaron ratones (NMRI de 8-12 semanas de edad, con peso corporal entre 27-30 g, a los cuales se les aplicaron cinco dosis con un intervalo de 24 h, durante los primeros cinco días del experimento. Se evaluó la toxicidad general (peso corporal e indicadores testiculares de citotoxicidad testicular (concentración espermática y genotoxicidad (morfología espermática. El AFCo1 y su diluente no provocaron toxicidad general, citotoxicidad, ni genotoxicidad. La ciclofosfamida sí produjo citotoxicidad (47,77% y genotoxicidad (534,61%. Se concluye que el AFCo1 y su diluente pueden ser considerados como no tóxicos para las células espermáticas en el nivel de dosis y para el biomodelo animal utilizado.

  13. Replacing egg yolk with soybean lecithin in the cryopreservation of stallion semen.

    Papa, Frederico Ozanam; Felício, Gabriel Barcelos; Melo-Oña, Cely Marini; Alvarenga, Marco Antonio; De Vita, Bruna; Trinque, Cássio; Puoli-Filho, José Nicolau P; Dell'Aqua, José Antonio


    The objective of this study was to determine whether replacing the egg yolk with soybean lecithin in the Botu-Crio® cryodiluent would maintain the fertility of cryopreserved stallion sperm. Two experiments were performed to evaluate cell freezability. In experiment 1, sperm from 15 stallions were frozen in Botu-Crio® (BC) or Botu-Crio® which contained 45g/L soybean lecithin (BCLS45) in place of the egg yolk. In experiment 2, we compared different concentrations of soybean lecithin: 0, 10.0, 12.5, 15.0, 17.5 and 20.0g/L (BC, BCLS10, BCLS12.5, BCLS17.5 and BCLS20, respectively). In experiment 1, sperm frozen in BC and BCLS45 exhibited similar (P>0.05) percentages of total motile sperm (61% and 61%, respectively); progressively motile sperm (27% and 27%, respectively) and sperm with intact plasma membranes (IMP; 53% and 57%, respectively). Similarly, sperm frozen in BC or BC containing any concentration of soybean lecithin maintained similar (P>0.05) percentages of total motile sperm (61-68%) and progressively motile sperm (27-31%). In the first fertility trial, we used cryopreserved semen from a single stallion was inseminated into mares. The semen from the sperm that were frozen in BC diluent resulted in a higher fertility rate (66%, 16/24) compared to the sperm that were frozen in BCLS45 diluent (17%, 5/29; Plecithin provided similar laboratory results for stallion sperm, after cryopreservation, the sperm that was frozen with soybean lecithin in the diluent correlated with lower fertility rates. Based on these results, we concluded that the use of BCLS can be used as an alternative diluent for cryopreserving stallion sperm. However, the resulting reduced fertility rate is a matter of concern. Further studies are necessary to clarify the reasons for this decrease in fertility and to determine the optimal lecithin concentration for diluents to freeze stallion sperm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Quality of cocaine seized in 1997 in the street-drug market of São Paulo city, Brazil Qualidade da cocaína traficada em 1997 na cidade de São Paulo, Brasil

    Débora Gonçalves de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Street drugs when in great demand in an illicit market become not only more expensive but are also subject to extensive adulteration and dilution. These fraudulent practices may also contribute to the amplification of toxic effects observed in the abuse of certain drugs including cocaine hydrochloride. The number of seizures reflects the increase of illicit use of cocaine powder in the city of S.Paulo, where the identity of the suspected drug is its hydrochloride form. Routine analytical procedures in enforcement laboratories in Brazil now comprise techniques involving thin layer chromatography for presumptive identification of the drug and eventually gas chromatography for its confirmation or quantification whenever required. The determination of cocaine content, adulterants and diluents in street samples is not only of clinical value but also important for enforcement activities, recognition of its geographical distribution and allocation. So, the aim of this study was to continue examining the quality of cocaine hydrochloride in the illicit market of the city of S.Paulo. Cocaine and adulterant contents were determined as well as the identification of several diluents in 389 out of 1958 samples of "white powder" seized in the city of São Paulo. Thin-layer and gas-liquid chromatography (FID and GC-MS were used for the determination of cocaine and adulterant contents. Spot-tests and thin-layer chromatography were the techniques applied for the identification of diluents. The results were as follows: neither cocaine nor adulterants were detected in 17 samples (4.4%; of all positive samples (95.6 % for cocaine, 14% consisted of no more than 200 mg/g; in 70% cocaine purity ranged from 201 to 550 mg/g and in 16% it was not greater than 700 mg/g. The local anesthetics lidocaine and procaine were detected in 19 samples (4,9% in a range from 10 to 602 mg/g. Caffeine was present in only two samples (179 and 356 mg/g. The main diluents detected were

  15. Polyester based hybrid organic coatings

    Wang, Xiaojiang

    terminated polyester were characterized by Brookfield viscometer, NMR and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). UV-curable non-isocyanate polyurethane coatings were formulated by using Acrylated Polyester (APE) oligomer and Non-isocyanate Urethane Dimethacrylates (NUDMA) reactive diluents. The effect of the NUDMA on the viscosity of the APE oligomer was investigated by Brookfield viscometer. The photopolymerization kinetics of NUDMA reactive diluents were investigated by the real time FTIR. It was found that the polymerization conversion and maximum polymerization rate increase with increasing initiator concentration in the range from 0.5 % to 4.0 %. The formulation system containing both the APE oligomer and NUDMA reactive dilutes showed higher polymerization overall conversion and maximum polymerization rate than APE oligomer. After UV curing, the viscoelastic, tensile and thermal properties of the cured films were evaluated as a function of the reactive diluent by using DMTA, tensile test, Differential Scanning Calorimeters (DSC), and Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). In addition, coating properties such as pencil hardness, chemical resistance, impact resistance, and gloss were also investigated. It was found that crosslink density, storage and tensile modulus, pencil hardness, chemical resistance, gel content, total water absorption, and Tg were directly proportional to amount of the reactive diluents. Compared to the commercial Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate (EGDMA) reactive diluent, the NUDMA reactive diluents show significant improvements in impact resistance and elongation at break properties.

  16. Assessing the growth and recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 after sodium dichloroisocyanurate exposure

    Fernanda Stoduto Ferreira


    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to assess the growth and the recovery of Salmonella (S. Enteritidis SE86 in different diluents, culture media and using different plating methods after the exposure to 200 mg/kg sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC. Before and after NaDCC exposure, SE86 was cultured at 30 °C and 7 °C in the following diluents: Peptone water (P, Saline solution (SaS, Peptone water+Saline solution (P+SaS, Peptone water+Tween 80+Lecithin+Sodium thiosulfate (P+N and Saline solution+Tween 80+Lecithin+Sodium thiosulfate (SaS+N. The SaS diluent was chosen because it was able to maintain cells viable without growth and was further used for plating SE86 on non selective medium (Tryptic Soy Agar-TSA and on selective media (Mannitol Lysine Crystal Violet Brilliant Green Agar-MLCB; Brilliant Green Agar-BGA; Salmonella Shigella Agar-SS and Xylose Lysine Dextrose-XLD. The Thin Agar Layer method (TAL i.e., selective media overlayed with non selective TSA was also evaluated. Results indicated that SE86 not exposed to NaDCC was able to grow in P, P+N, SaS+N and P+SaS, but not in SaS, that was able to maintain cells viable. SE86 exposed to NaDCC demonstrated similar counts after dilution in SaS and the plating on non selective TSA, selective media MLCB, BGA, SS and XLD and on TAL media. SE86, S. Typhimurium and S. Bredeney, exposed or not exposed to NaDCC, showed no significant differences in counts on TSA, XLD and XLD overlayed with TSA, suggesting that all those media may be used to quantify NaDCC-exposed Salmonella by plating method.

  17. Validation of the NeoFilm for Yeast and Mold Method for Enumeration of Yeasts and Molds in Select Foods.

    Caballero, Oscar; Alles, Susan; Le, Quynh-Nhi; Mozola, Mark; Rice, Jennifer


    NeoFilm Yeast and Mold (Y&M), also known as Sanita-kun Yeasts and Molds, is a simple, effective device used for the enumeration of yeasts and molds. It consists of a nonwoven fabric on which a layer of microbial nutrients is deposited in a film. A 1 mL sample homogenate is applied to the membrane and this, in turn, is incubated for 48-72 h at 25°C. Sample homogenates were prepared using two different diluents for customer convenience: phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and 0.1% peptone water. In comparative testing of breaded chicken nuggets, dry pet food, orange juice concentrate, yogurt, and cake mix, there were statistically significant differences in the counts obtained by the NeoFilm Y&M and U.S. Food and Drug Administration Bacteriological Analytical Manual reference culture methods only in the following instances: medium level for orange juice with PBS as diluent and low level for pet food with 0.1% peptone water as diluent, where reference method counts were higher than those of NeoFilm; medium level for cake mix with PBS, and low and medium levels for cake mix with 0.1% peptone water, where NeoFilm produced higher counts than the reference method. In addition to the method comparison study with five matrixes, robustness and stability/lot-to-lot testing were also performed. Results of robustness testing showed no significant effect on results even with perturbation to three assay parameters simultaneously. Results of testing of three lots of devices ranging in age from 2 to 26 months post-manufacture showed no significant differences in performance.

  18. Evaluation of the MicroWorks, Inc. Swab Sampling System (MSSSTM) for Use in Performing Quantitative Swab Sampling.

    Rubio, Sandy; McIver, Dawn; Behm, Natalie; Fisher, Madeline; Fleming, William


    The purpose of this study was to qualify the MicroWorks, Inc. Swab Sampling System (MSSS™) swab kit for use in sampling cleanroom surfaces for bioburden. A six-part study was performed to demonstrate the suitability of the swab materials, the recovery of bioburden from typical cleanroom surfaces, the neutralization of typical disinfectants used in cleanrooms, the removal of diluents from the swabbed surface, and the hold time for test samples. A total of 13 challenge organisms were used: six National Collection of Type Cultures/American Type Culture Collection (NCTC/ATCC) standard culture organisms and seven environmental isolates, which were recovered from different MedImmune manufacturing facilities. Based on the results of the study it was shown that 12 of the challenge organisms were recovered from the calcium alginate swab materials and 13 of the challenge organisms were recovered from the sodium citrate diluent at ≥70%. Eleven organisms, including the six NCTC/ATCC organisms and five of the environmental organisms, were recovered from stainless steel, glass, polyvinylchloride curtain material, latex glove material, and neoprene at a rate of ≥70%. Effective neutralization was shown for LpH (an acid phenolic compound manufactured by Steris Corporation, Mentor, OH), Vesphene II, Spor-Klenz, 70% isopropyl alcohol (IPA), and Biocides B, X, and Y when utilizing the filtration/rinsing process. Recovery of six NCTC/ATCC organisms was demonstrated at ≥70%. The study also demonstrated that the diluents could easily be removed from the swabbed surface by following the swab with a 70% IPA wipe. A hold time of at least 24 h was demonstrated when samples were stored at 2-8 °C. The results of this study demonstrated that the MSSS™ swab kit and qualified test method recover ≥70% of surface bioburden from common cleanroom surfaces in the presence of a wide variety of disinfectants.

  19. Assessing the growth and recovery of Salmonella Enteritidis SE86 after sodium dichloroisocyanurate exposure.

    Ferreira, Fernanda Stoduto; Horvath, Mariana Bandeira; Tondo, Eduardo Cesar


    The objective of the present study was to assess the growth and the recovery of Salmonella (S.) Enteritidis SE86 in different diluents, culture media and using different plating methods after the exposure to 200 mg/kg sodium dichloroisocyanurate (NaDCC). Before and after NaDCC exposure, SE86 was cultured at 30 °C and 7 °C in the following diluents: Peptone water (P), Saline solution (SaS), Peptone water+Saline solution (P+SaS), Peptone water+Tween 80+Lecithin+Sodium thiosulfate (P+N) and Saline solution+Tween 80+Lecithin+Sodium thiosulfate (SaS+N). The SaS diluent was chosen because it was able to maintain cells viable without growth and was further used for plating SE86 on non selective medium (Tryptic Soy Agar-TSA) and on selective media (Mannitol Lysine Crystal Violet Brilliant Green Agar-MLCB; Brilliant Green Agar-BGA; Salmonella Shigella Agar-SS and Xylose Lysine Dextrose-XLD). The Thin Agar Layer method (TAL) i.e., selective media overlayed with non selective TSA was also evaluated. Results indicated that SE86 not exposed to NaDCC was able to grow in P, P+N, SaS+N and P+SaS, but not in SaS, that was able to maintain cells viable. SE86 exposed to NaDCC demonstrated similar counts after dilution in SaS and the plating on non selective TSA, selective media MLCB, BGA, SS and XLD and on TAL media. SE86, S. Typhimurium and S. Bredeney, exposed or not exposed to NaDCC, showed no significant differences in counts on TSA, XLD and XLD overlayed with TSA, suggesting that all those media may be used to quantify NaDCC-exposed Salmonella by plating method.

  20. Motilitas Spermatozoa Ayam Kampung dalam Pengencer Air Kelapa, NaCl Fisiologis dan Air Kelapa-NaCl Fisiologis pada 25-29°C

    Triva Murtina Lubis


    Full Text Available Spermatozoa motility of local chicken in coconut water, physiological nacl and physiological nacl-coconut water at 25-29°c ABSTRACT. This study aimed to determine the effect of coconut water diluent, physiological NaCl and combination of coconut water-physiological NaCl to the survival of chicken spermatozoa at room temperature (25-29°C. Semen was collected from a local chicken of 1.5 years old with weight of 2 kg in massage twice a week. Once evaluated, a good quality semen was divided into 3 treatment groups: coconut water (P1, physiological saline (P2, and its combination (P3 with the addition of 20% egg yolk [(P1 80:0:20 (P2 0:80:20 and (P3 40:40:20] and stored at room temperature. Evaluation of spermatozoa motility conducted every 1 hour until reaching 40% of spermatozoa motility. Data obtained were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA with design patterns Split-plot and if there are differences between treatments tested by Duncan's multiple test. The results showed that motility of spermatozoa is significantly different (p <0.05 between storage time and diluent and there are interactions between storage time and diluent. P2 is able to maintain the minimum percentage of inseminated sperm motility (40% for 4 hours, followed by P3 for 1 hour, and the lowest percentage motility of spermatozoa present in P1 for 0 hours. It can be concluded that the percentage of spermatozoa motility in group P2 is higher than P1 and P3.

  1. Viabilidade do sêmen de tatus-peba (Euphractus sexcinctus centrifugado e diluído em Tris ou agua de coco em pó

    Patrícia da Cunha Sousa


    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos da centrifugação associada ao uso de dois diluentes na manutenção da viabilidade espermática em tatus-peba (Euphractus sexcinctus ao longo do teste de termorresistência (TTR. Amostras de sêmen (n=12, oriundas de 04 machos adultos coletados por eletroejaculação, foram divididas em quatro alíquotas, sendo duas imediatamente diluídas em Tris ou água de coco em pó (ACP-119(r, e as outras duas centrifugadas (800g10min-1 previamente à diluição. As amostras foram incubadas a 34°C por 3h, e os parâmetros seminais avaliados em intervalos de 1h. Em termos gerais, verificou-se uma redução da viscosidade espermática imediata à diluição em ambos os diluentes, independente do uso da centrifugação. Aos 60 minutos, verificou-se uma redução dos parâmetros avaliados (P0,05. Ainda, verificou-se um efeito deletério da centrifugação sobre a qualidade do sêmen de tatus-peba durante todo o teste de termorresistência. Nas condições do presente estudo, conclui-se que o diluente Tris mostrou-se superior ao ACP-119(r para a manutenção da viabilidade do sêmen de tatus-peba, sendo desnecessária a realização de centrifugação prévia à diluição.

  2. Dextrose-mediated aggregation of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies in human plasma: Implication of isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins.

    Luo, Shen; Zhang, Baolin


    Many therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are clinically administered through intravenous infusion after mixing with a diluent, e.g., saline, 5% dextrose. Such a clinical setting increases the likelihood of interactions among mAb molecules, diluent, and plasma components, which may adversely affect product safety and efficacy. Avastin® (bevacizumab) and Herceptin® (trastuzumab), but not Remicade® (infliximab), were shown to undergo rapid aggregation upon dilution into 5% dextrose when mixed with human plasma in vitro; however, the biochemical pathways leading to the aggregation were not clearly defined. Here, we show that dextrose-mediated aggregation of Avastin or Herceptin in plasma involves isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins. Using mass spectrometry, we found that dextrose-induced insoluble aggregates were composed of mAb itself and multiple abundant plasma proteins, namely complement proteins C3, C4, factor H, fibronectin, and apolipoprotein. These plasma proteins, which are characterized by an isoelectronic point of 5.5-6.7, lost solubility at the resulting pH in the mixture with formulated Avastin (pH 6.2) and Herceptin (pH 6.0). Notably, switching formulation buffers for Avastin (pH 6.2) and Remicade (pH 7.2) reversed their aggregation profiles. Avastin formed little, if any, insoluble aggregates in dextrose-plasma upon raising the buffer pH to 7.2 or above. Furthermore, dextrose induced pH-dependent precipitation of plasma proteins, with massive insoluble aggregates being detected at pH 6.5-6.8. These data show that isoelectric precipitation of complement proteins is a prerequisite of dextrose-induced aggregation of mAb in human plasma. This finding highlights the importance of assessing the compatibility of a therapeutic mAb with diluent and human plasma during product development.

  3. Methanol Droplet Combustion in Oxygen-Inert Environments in Microgravity

    Nayagam, Vedha; Dietrich, Daniel L.; Hicks, Michael C.; Williams, Forman A.


    The Flame Extinguishment (FLEX) experiment that is currently underway in the Combustion Integrated Rack facility onboard the International Space Station is aimed at understanding the effects of inert diluents on the flammability of condensed phase fuels. To this end, droplets of various fuels, including alkanes and alcohols, are burned in a quiescent microgravity environment with varying amounts of oxygen and inert diluents to determine the limiting oxygen index (LOI) for these fuels. In this study we report experimental observations of methanol droplets burning in oxygen-nitrogen-carbon dioxide and oxygen-nitrogen-helium gas mixtures at 0.7 and 1 atmospheric pressures. The initial droplet size varied between approximately 1.5 mm and 4 mm to capture both diffusive extinction brought about by insufficient residence time at the flame and radiative extinction caused by excessive heat loss from the flame zone. The ambient oxygen concentration varied from a high value of 30% by volume to as low as 12%, approaching the limiting oxygen index for the fuel. The inert dilution by carbon dioxide and helium varied over a range of 0% to 70% by volume. In these experiments, both freely floated and tethered droplets were ignited using symmetrically opposed hot-wire igniters and the burning histories were recorded onboard using digital cameras, downlinked later to the ground for analysis. The digital images yielded droplet and flame diameters as functions of time and subsequently droplet burning rate, flame standoff ratio, and initial and extinction droplet diameters. Simplified theoretical models correlate the measured burning rate constant and the flame standoff ratio reasonably well. An activation energy asymptotic theory accounting for time-dependent water dissolution or evaporation from the droplet is shown to predict the measured diffusive extinction conditions well. The experiments also show that the limiting oxygen index for methanol in these diluent gases is around 12% to

  4. Avaliação de espermatozoides caprinos congelados em meio à base de água de coco em pó (ACP-101® ou TRIS

    R.V. Oliveira


    Full Text Available Compararam-se as características cinéticas e morfológicas de espermatozoides caprinos congelados nos meios à base de ACP-101® e TRIS. Os diluentes utilizados foram: ACP-101® (+ 2,5% gema ovo + 7% glicerol e TRIS (+ 20% gema ovo + 6,8% glicerol. Quarenta e oito ejaculados de quatro bodes foram coletados, avaliados, divididos em duas alíquotas e diluídos nos meios ACP-101® e TRIS, respectivamente, posteriormente congelados e, após 30 dias, descongelados. A avaliação da motilidade espermática por computador foi realizada aos 5, 60 e 120 minutos pós-descongelação. As características de motilidade espermática analisadas foram: motilidade total (MT (% e progressiva (MP (%, velocidades média do trajeto do espermatozoide (VAP (µm/s e linear (VSL (µm/s e população de espermatozoides rápidos (ER (%. As avaliações de morfologia espermática quantificaram a porcentagem de espermatozoides normais (N e as alterações da cabeça (AC, da peça intermediária (API e do flagelo (AF, aos cinco e 120 minutos pós-descongelação. O diluente TRIS apresentou resultados cinéticos mais elevados que o ACP-101® aos 60 e 120 minutos pós-descongelação. As AC aos 120 minutos pós-descongelação foram mais altas nos espermatozoides congelados em ACP-101®. Conclui-se que o diluente TRIS promoveu maior viabilidade in vitro dos espermatozoides caprinos pós-descongelação.

  5. Effects of Different Surfaces and Insecticide Carriers on Residual Insecticide Bioassays Against Bed Bugs, Cimex spp. (Hemiptera: Cimicidae).

    Dang, Kai; Singham, G Veera; Doggett, Stephen L; Lilly, David G; Lee, Chow-Yang


    The performance of five insecticides (bendiocarb, deltamethrin, DDT, malathion, and imidacloprid) using three application methods (oil-based insecticide films on filter paper, and acetone-based insecticide deposits on two substrates: filter paper and glass) was assessed against a susceptible strain of Cimex lectularius (L.) and two resistant strains of Cimex hemipterus (F.). Substrate type significantly affected (P < 0.05) the insecticide knockdown response of the susceptible strain in acetone-based insecticide bioassays, with longer survival time on filter paper than on the glass surface. With the exception of deltamethrin, the different diluents (oil and acetone) also significantly affected (P < 0.05) the insecticide knockdown response of the susceptible strain in the filter paper-based insecticide bioassays, with longer survival time with acetone as the diluent. For both strains of C. hemipterus, there were no significant effects with the different surfaces and diluents for all insecticides except for malathion and imidacloprid, which was largely due to high levels of resistance. The lower effectiveness for the insecticide acetone-based treatment on filter paper may be due to crystal bloom. This occurs when an insecticide, dissolved in a volatile solvent, is applied onto absorptive surfaces. The effect is reduced on nonabsorptive surfaces and slowed down with oil-based insecticides, whereby the oil forms a film on absorptive surfaces. These findings suggest that nonabsorptive surfaces should be used in bioassays to monitor insecticide resistance. If absorptive surfaces are used in bioassays for testing active ingredients, then oil-based insecticides should be preferably used. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email:

  6. Oil shale project: run summary for small retort Run S-11

    Sandholtz, W.A.; Ackerman, F.J.; Bierman, A.; Kaehler, M.; Raley, J.; Laswell, B.H.; Tripp, L.J. (eds.)


    Results are reported on retort run S-11 conducted to observe the effects of combustion retorting with undiluted air at relatively rapid burn (retorting) rates and to provide a base case for retorting small uniform shale (Anvil Points master batch -2.5 +- 1.3 cm) with undiluted air. It was found that a 0.6 m/sup 3//m/sup 2//minute superficial gas velocity gave an average rate of propagation of the combustion peak of about 2.7 m/day and an average maximum temperature on the centerline of the rubble bed of 1003/sup 0/C. Oil yield was 93 percent of Fischer assay. For small uniform shale particles (-2.5 + 1.3 cm) it is concluded that only small losses in yield (92 percent vs 96 percent in Run S-10) result from high retorting rates. Maximum temperature considerations preclude going to higher rates with undiluted air. Without diluent, a larger air flux would give excessive bed temperatures causing rock melting and potential closure to gas flow. In experimental retorts, another problem of excessive temperatures is potential damage to metal walls and in-situ sensors. No advantage is seen to using recycled off-gas as a combustion gas diluent. Inert diluents (e.g. nitrogen or steam) may be necessary for process control, but the fuel values in the off-gas should best be used for energy recovery rather than burned in the retort during recycle. Another consideration from model calculations is that the use of recycle gas containing fuel components retards the retorting rate and so is undesirable. No further recycle experiments are planned as the results of this run proved satisfactory.

  7. 3种药剂防治奶油南瓜白粉病药效试验%Drug efficiency experiment of three fungicides on cream pumpkin powdery mildew



    进行43%戊唑醇悬浮剂、0.5%大黄素甲醚水剂、75%肟菌.戊唑醇水分散粒剂3种药剂防治奶油南瓜白粉病的田间药效试验,结果表明:43%戊唑醇悬浮剂4 000倍液的防效较好,且持效期较长;其次为75%肟菌.戊唑醇水分散粒剂5 000倍液,具有戊唑醇与肟菌酯的综合作用机理、杀菌谱广的特点,持效期也较长;0.5%大黄素甲醚水剂250倍液的防效较低,但其为植物源杀菌剂,产品安全性较化学农药高,也具有应用推广前景。%The field drug-efficiency experiments of three kinds of fungicides(43% tebuconazole SC,0.5% physcion agent,75% trifloxystrobin· tebuconazole WG) on cream pumpkin powdery mildew disease were carried out.The results showed that 400-times diluent of 43% tebuconazole SC had a better control efficiency and longer effective period,followed by 5000-times diluent of 75% trifloxystrobin· tebuconazole WG,which had comprehensive action effects of trifloxystrobin and tebuconazole,a broad spectrum of disease control and longer effective period.However,250-times diluent of 0.5% physcion agent had lower control efficiency.But it also had potential application prospects,for it was botanical microbicides and was more safety than chemical fungicide.


    E. Kelner; T.E. Owen; D.L. George; A. Minachi; M.G. Nored; C.J. Schwartz


    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute{reg_sign} began a multi-year project co-funded by the Gas Research Institute (GRI) and the U.S. Department of Energy. The project goal is to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype retrofit natural gas energy flow meter in 2000-2001 included: (1) evaluation of the inferential gas energy analysis algorithm using supplemental gas databases and anticipated worst-case gas mixtures; (2) identification and feasibility review of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen diluent content; (3) experimental performance evaluation of infrared absorption sensors for carbon dioxide diluent content; and (4) procurement of a custom ultrasonic transducer and redesign of the ultrasonic pulse reflection correlation sensor for precision speed-of-sound measurements. A prototype energy meter module containing improved carbon dioxide and speed-of-sound sensors was constructed and tested in the GRI Metering Research Facility at SwRI. Performance of this module using transmission-quality natural gas and gas containing supplemental carbon dioxide up to 9 mol% resulted in gas energy determinations well within the inferential algorithm worst-case tolerance of {+-}2.4 Btu/scf (nitrogen diluent gas measured by gas chromatograph). A two-week field test was performed at a gas-fired power plant to evaluate the inferential algorithm and the data acquisition requirements needed to adapt the prototype energy meter module to practical field site conditions.

  9. Coordination Chemistry of Europium(III) Ion Towards Acylpyrazolone Ligands.

    Atanassova, Maria; Kurteva, Vanya; Billard, Isabelle


    Two Eu(III) complexes were synthesized using 4-acylpyrazolone ligands: 3-methyl-4-(4-methylbenzoyl)-1-phenyl-pyrazol-5-one (HPMMBP) and 3-methyl-1-phenyl-4-(4-phenylbenzoyl)-pyrazol-5-one (HPPMBP). The composition of the obtained solid complexes was determined as Eu(PMMBP)3·C2H5OH and Eu(PPMBP)3·3H2O based on elemental analysis and was further studied by IR, NMR and TG-TSC data. The lanthanoid complexation in solid state and in solution during liquid-liquid extraction (molecular diluent and ionic liquid) is discussed.

  10. Prostate Cancer in African-American Men: Serum Biomarkers for Early Detection Using Nanoparticles


    position f or the whole spot is calculated by simple summation of all pe aks and dividing the sum on the number of spectra, which for this spot equals to...with the PSA detection. Using diluted plasma sample as a diluent and blocker allowed to mask major NSB issues and shift t o actual com plex human...Sekhar PK, Sun K, Bhansali S. Cortisol Detection in Sa liva using Silica Nanow ires as a Te mplate for Enzyme Immunoassay . In: Proceedings of the

  11. Sistema aquoso bifásico: uma alternativa eficiente para extração de íons

    Maria do Carmo Hespanhol da Silva


    Full Text Available Solvent extraction has been successfully applied to metal ion preconcentration and often meant the use of toxic organic diluents. However, regulatory pressure is increasingly focusing on the use and disposal of organic solvents, and thus the development of nonhazardous alternatives is important. In this review, we examine the application of aqueous biphasic systems (ABS to extraction of ions, analyzing their potential and limitations and suggest that ABSs could be an efficient substitute for oil/water biphasic systems. ABSs are formed by mixing certain inorganic salts and water-soluble polymers, or by mixing two water-soluble polymers.

  12. Development of advanced zeolite catalysts for the vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime

    Dai, Lian-Xin; Iwaki, Yoshihide; Koyama, Katsuyuki; Tatsumi, Takashi


    The vapor phase Beckmann rearrangement of cyclohexanone oxime to ɛ-caprolactam catalyzed by various zeolites was studied. The catalytic performance was greatly affected by both the zeolite structure and diluent solvent. When 1-hexanol was used in place of benzene, the catalytic performance of all catalysts except silicalite-1 was greatly improved. In particular, the selectivity and stability of H-LTL and H-OFF-ERI zeolites remarkably increased; both catalysts exhibited ca. 100% oxime conversion and ɛ-caprolactam selectivity of >95% for 6 h.

  13. Research on a clean preparation process of sebacic acid by catalytic cracking of castor oil%蓖麻油催化裂解制备癸二酸的清洁工艺研究

    王彦雄; 张小里; 李红亚; 豆坤坤; 张甜甜; 姚娜


    The traditional preparation process of sebacic acid by cracking castor oil could cause serious environment pollution because of using o-cresol as the diluent and lead oxide as the catalyst. Using liquid paraffin as the diluent, an environmental friendly catalyst for preparation of sebacic acid was screened and the clean preparation process of sebacic acid was investigated. The results showed that iron oxide as the catalyst exhibited good cracking effect;sebacic acid yield of 67.2% and the purity of 99.0% after separation were attained under the optimum condition as follows:catalyst dosage 1.00% of castor oil mass, V( diluent) : V( castor oil) =4-1, V( sodium hydroxide): V( castor oil) =1:1,reaction temperature 280?, and reaction time 4 h. Using iron oxide as the catalyst and liquid paraffin as the diluent,a clean preparation process of sebacic acid by cracking castor oil will be expected to be developed.%传统的蓖麻油裂解制备癸二酸工艺因使用稀释剂邻甲酚和催化剂铅氧化物而导致严重的环境污染.以对环境温和的液体石蜡作稀释剂,筛选环境友好型催化剂制备癸二酸,开发清洁生产工艺,研究发现,采用氧化铁作催化剂可取得良好的裂解反应效果.最佳工艺条件为:催化剂用量为蓖麻油质量的1.00%,V(稀释剂)∶V(蓖麻油)=4∶1,V(碱液)∶V(蓖麻油)=1∶1,反应温度280℃,反应时间4h.在此条件下,癸二酸收率达67.2%,分离后纯度达到99.0%.表明氧化铁作为催化剂配合液体石蜡作稀释剂可望开发一条蓖麻油裂解制备癸二酸的清洁生产工艺.

  14. Compatibility and stability of potassium chloride and magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and 5% dextrose injeciton solutions.

    Quay, I; Tan, E


    The compatibility and stability of 80 mmol/L potassium chloride and 16 mmol/L magnesium sulfate in 0.9% sodium chloride injection and in 5% dextrose injection solutions at 22 deg C have been studied by means of a Beckman Clinical Chemistry Analyzer Synchron CX5 Delta. The infusions were stable for 24 hours at 22 deg C. The results from both diluents showed an average of +/-5% fluctuations in concentration. None of the samples appeared to form visible precipitation or to change in color or clarity.

  15. Optical self-sensing of impact damage in composites using E-glass cloth

    Rauf, A.; Hand, R. J.; Hayes, S. A.


    Self-sensing of damage in composites employs the reinforcing fibres as the sensing element, obviating the need for addition of sensing elements to the system. Optical self-sensing systems in the past have relied on the use of low refractive index resins in order to work, preventing the use of commercial laminating resins. In this study a commercial laminating resin (Araldite LY5052/Aradur HY5052) is modified with propylene carbonate, a commercial reactive diluent, to reduce the resin’s refractive index. It is shown that this system is capable of identifying and locating an impact and quantifying the extent of damage within a composite.

  16. Lignin-based monomers: Utilization in high-performance polymers and the effects of their structures on polymer properties

    Stanzione, Joseph F., III

    With the uncertainty of petroleum reserves and future crude oil prices, lignocellulosic biomass is becoming an increasingly valuable resource for the sustainable development of fuels, chemicals, and materials, including vinyl ester resins (VERs). Petroleum-based VERs are used to produce polymer composites for a wide variety of commercial applications. Although possessing relatively high moduli, strengths, and glass transition temperatures, commercial VERs typically contain high concentrations of a reactive diluent, such as styrene. However, these reactive diluents are often considered hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and anticipated carcinogens. Moreover, bisphenol-A, which has gained considerable attention due to potential associated health-related issues, is utilized as a precursor in the synthesis of VERs. A green chemistry and engineering approach in the development of new VERs and renewable reactive diluents that are based on lignin is presented in this dissertation. Lignin, which is currently an abundant, renewable waste product of the paper and pulping industry, is primarily burned as a low value fuel. However, lignin has the potential to be a low cost feedstock in future lignocellulosic biorefineries that could yield highly valuable aromatic chemicals (lignin model compounds, LMCs) when strategically depolymerized. The incorporation of aromaticity in a resin's chemical structure is known to improve overall polymer composite performance and the high aromatic content found in lignin is ideal for novel resin development. Highlighted in this dissertation are three projects: (1) the synthesis and characterization of a lignin-based bio-oil resin/reactive diluent, (2) the use of functionalized LMCs as styrene replacements in VERs, and (3) the synthesis and characterization of a vanillin-based resin. Through the use of traditional and new polymer theory coupled with spectroscopic, thermal, and mechanical techniques, structure

  17. Durable zinc oxide-containing sorbents for coal gas desulfurization

    Siriwardane, Ranjani V.


    Durable zinc-oxide containing sorbent pellets for removing hydrogen sulfide from a gas stream at an elevated temperature are made up to contain titania as a diluent, high-surface-area silica gel, and a binder. These materials are mixed, moistened, and formed into pellets, which are then dried and calcined. The resulting pellets undergo repeated cycles of sulfidation and regeneration without loss of reactivity and without mechanical degradation. Regeneration of the pellets is carried out by contacting the bed with an oxidizing gas mixture.

  18. Lanthanides and actinides extraction by calixarenes containing CMPO groups; Extraction des lanthanides et des actinides au moyen de calixarenes portant des groupements CMPO

    Garcia Carrera, A


    In the framework of the French program SPIN concerning the radioactive waste management, researches are performed to develop processes allowing the separation of long-lived radioisotopes in order to their transmutation or their specific conditioning. These studies deal with the extraction and the separation of trivalent lanthanides and actinides in acid solution. Many systems ''calixarene-diluent-aqueous phase'' are examined by extraction liquid-liquid and membrane transport. The extraction efficiency and the selectivity of the synthesized calixarene-CMPO and of the CMPO are compared with these cations, as the nitric acid extraction by these molecules. (A.L.B.)

  19. Proceedings of the Annual Chemical Defense Bioscience Review (4th) Held at Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland on 30 May-1 June 1984


    Bacterlophage T7 by Mono- and Difunctional Sulphur Mustards in Relation to Cross-linking and Depurinat!on of Bacteriophage DNA. J. Mol. Biol. 39, 181-198 (1969...formulation containing 40% (w/w) NaCN and 60% (w/w) kaolin as an inert solid diluent, as contained in many fumigant formulations. (e) A comparison water on intact and abraded skin. (iv) A powder formulation, containing 40% NaCN/60% kaolin (w/w), applied to dry intact skin, moist skin, and dry

  20. Desensitizing nano powders to electrostatic discharge ignition

    Steelman, Ryan [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Clark, Billy [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Pantoya, Michelle L. [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Heaps, Ronald J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Daniels, Michael A. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)


    Electrostatic discharge (ESD) is a main cause for ignition in powder media ranging from grain silos to fireworks. Nanoscale particles are orders of magnitude more ESD ignition sensitive than their micron scale counterparts. This study shows that at least 13 vol. % carbon nanotubes (CNT) added to nano-aluminum and nano-copper oxide particles (nAl + CuO) eliminates ESD ignition sensitivity. The CNT act as a conduit for electric energy and directs electric charge through the powder to desensitize the reactive mixture to ignition. For nanoparticles, the required CNT concentration for desensitizing ESD ignition acts as a diluent to quench energy propagation.

  1. Evaluating the effectiveness of dilution of the recovered uranium with depleted uranium and low-enriched uranium to obtain fuel for VVER reactors

    Smirnov, A. Yu; Sulaberidze, G. A.; Dudnikov, A. A.; Nevinitsa, V. A.


    The possibility of the recovered uranium enrichment in a cascade of gas centrifuges with three feed flows (depleted uranium, low-enriched uranium, recovered uranium) with simultaneous dilution of U-232,234,236 isotopes was shown. A series of numerical experiments were performed for different content of U-235 in low-enriched uranium. It has been demonstrated that the selected combination of diluents can simultaneously reduce the cost of separative work and the consumption of natural uranium, not only with respect to the previously used multi-flow cascade schemes, but also in comparison to the standard cascade for uranium enrichment.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of n-CxF2x+1CHO (x = 1, 2, 3, 4)

    Hurley, M. D.; Ball, J. C.; Wallington, T. J.;


    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the atmospheric fate of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) (x = 1, 2, 3, 4) radicals in 700 Torr O(2)/N(2) diluent at 298 +/- 3 K. A competition is observed between reaction with O(2) to form n-C(x)()F(2)(x)()(+1)C(O)O(2) radicals and decomposition to form n-C(x...... to the atmospheric chemistry of n-C(x)F(2)(x)(+1)C(O) radicals and their possible role in contributing to the formation of perfluorocarboxylic acids in the environment....

  3. A Study of NO{sub x} Reduction by Fuel Injection Recirculation

    Feese, J.J.; Turns, S.R.


    Flue-gas recirculation (FGR) is a well-known method used to control oxides of nitrogen (NO{sub X}) in industrial burner applications. Recent small- and large-scale experiments in natural-gas fired boilers have shown that introducing the recirculated flue gases with the fuel results in a much greater reduction in NO{sub X}, per unit mass of gas recirculated, in comparison to introducing the flue gases with the combustion air. That fuel injection recirculation (FIR) is more effective than windbox FGR is quite remarkable. At present, however, there is no definitive understanding of why FIR is more effective than conventional FGR. The objective of the present investigation is to ascertain whether or not chemical and/or molecular transport effects alone can explain the differences in NO{sub X} reduction observed between FIR and FGR by studying laminar diffusion flames. The purpose of studying laminar flames is to isolate chemical effects from the effects of turbulent mixing and heat transfer, which are inherent in practical boilers. Numerical simulations of H{sub 2}-air and CH{sub 4}-air counterflow diffusion flames using full kinetics were performed and NO{sub X} emission indices calculated for various conditions. Studies were conducted in which a N{sub 2} diluent was added either on the fuel- or air-side of the flame for conditions of either fixed initial velocities or fixed fuel mass flux. Results from these simulation studies indicate that a major factor in diluent effectiveness is the differential effect on flame zone residence times associated with fuel-side verses air-side dilution. Simulations in which flow velocities were fixed as diluent was added either to the air or fuel stream showed lower NO{sub X} emissions for air-side dilution; however, if instead, fuel mass fluxes were fixed as diluent was added, which results in an increase in the velocity of the streams, fuel-side dilution was more effective. These results were independent of whether H{sub 2} or Ch

  4. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R.


    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. PMID:26904700

  5. Pharmacologic modulation of acute ocular inflammation with quercetin.

    Romero, J; Marak, G E; Rao, N A


    Anti-inflammatory potentials of a safe, common dietary component, quercetin, were investigated in suppression of intraocular inflammation induced by retinal S antigen. Lewis rats sensitized to S antigen were treated daily with intraperitoneal injections of quercetin. Control rats with S-antigen-induced uveitis were similarly treated with diluent. When compared with controls the treated group showed marked reduction in uveal and retinal inflammation and in vasculitis and perivasculitis. Morphometric analysis revealed a significant reduction (p less than 0.005) in choroidal thickness when compared with that of control animals. These results clearly show the antiphlogistic effects of quercetin in experimental uveitis.

  6. Plutonium microstructures. Part 2. Binary and ternary alloys

    Cramer, E.M.; Bergin, J.B.


    This report is the second of three parts that exhibit illustrations of inclusions in plutonium metal from inherent and tramp impurities, of intermetallic and nonmetallic constituents from alloy additions, and of the effects of thermal and mechanical treatments. This part includes illustrations of the microstructures in binary cast alloys and a few selected ternary alloys that result from measured additions of diluent elements, and of the microconstituents that are characteristic of phase fields in extended alloy systems. Microhardness data are given and the etchant used in the preparation of each sample is described.

  7. Unique selectivity reversal in Am(3+)-Eu(3+) extraction in a tripodal TREN-based diglycolamide in ionic liquid: extraction, luminescence, complexation and structural studies.

    Leoncini, Andrea; Mohapatra, Prasanta K; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Raut, Dhaval R; Sengupta, Arijit; Verma, Parveen K; Tiwari, Nidhi; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Jha, Sambhunath; Wouda, Anna M; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem


    An N-pivot diglycolamide extractant (DGA-TREN) was synthesized for the first time and its complexation behaviour was studied towards trivalent lanthanide/actinide ions. The solvent extraction studies suggested a unique selectivity reversal in the extraction of trivalent actinides versus trivalent lanthanides which was observed performing extraction studies in an ionic liquid vis-à-vis a molecular diluent for a tripodal TREN-based diglycolamide ligand (DGA-TREN) vs. a tripodal diglycolamide ligand (T-DGA) which may have great significance in radioactive waste remediation. The nature of the bonding to Eu(3+) ion was investigated by EXAFS as well as by DFT calculations.

  8. Production of super-smooth articles

    Duchane, D.V.


    Super-smooth rounded or formed articles made of thermoplastic materials including various poly(methyl methacrylate) or acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene copolymers are produced by immersing the articles into a bath, the composition of which is slowly changed with time. The starting composition of the bath is made up of at least one solvent for the polymer and a diluent made up of at least one nonsolvent for the polymer and optional materials which are soluble in the bath. The resulting extremely smooth articles are useful as mandrels for laser fusion and should be useful for a wide variety of other purposes, for example lenses.

  9. Reactive Extraction of L (+ Tartaric Acid by Amberlite LA-2 in Different Solvents

    I. Inci


    Full Text Available The extraction of L(+ tartaric acid from aqueous solutions by amberlite LA-2 is a secondary amine mixture in different diluent solvents. Extraction equilibria of L(+ tartaric acid by amberlite LA-2 in 1-octanol, cyclohexane, isooctane, hexane, methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK solvents at temperature 298.15 K have been measured. The batch extraction experiments distribution coefficients (D, loading factors ( Z and extraction efficiency (E were calculated. The maximum removal of L(+ tartaric acid is 91 % with MIBK and 0.92 mol.L-1 initial concentration of Amberlite LA-2.

  10. Unexpected acute renal injury after high-dose etoposide phosphate and total body irradiation in children undergoing hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

    Cordero, C; Loboda, C; Clerc-Urmès, I; Clément, L; Pochon, C; Chastagner, P


    High-dose etoposide phosphate, a water-soluble prodrug of etoposide, may be used after total body irradiation (TBI) in pediatric allogeneic bone marrow transplantation for lymphoblastic leukemia. In a retrospective study of 21 children treated at the Nancy University Hospital (2000-2014), we identified unprecedentedly an unexpectedly high incidence (57%) of acute renal injury following etoposide phosphate infusion. Patients who developed renal function impairment experienced more severe mucositis but had outcomes similar to those who did not. No risk factors were identified. We speculate that the etoposide phosphate diluent, dextran 40, may have been the causative agent in these post-TBI renal toxicity cases. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Methods for deoxygenating biomass-derived pyrolysis oil

    Baird, Lance Awender; Brandvold, Timothy A.


    Methods for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil are provided. A method for deoxygenating a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil comprising the steps of combining a biomass-derived pyrolysis oil stream with a heated low-oxygen-pyoil diluent recycle stream to form a heated diluted pyoil feed stream is provided. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream has a feed temperature of about C. or greater. The heated diluted pyoil feed stream is contacted with a first deoxygenating catalyst in the presence of hydrogen at first hydroprocessing conditions effective to form a low-oxygen biomass-derived pyrolysis oil effluent.

  12. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion: A Case of High Osmolal Gap Metabolic Acidosis.

    Cunningham, Courtney A; Ku, Kevin; Sue, Gloria R


    In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  13. Epoxy Pipelining Composition and Method of Manufacture.


    resin such as DGEBA (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A; see infra page 38) 16 and/or DGEBF (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol F; see infra page 38...acid and 1,2 DCH, 20 about 22.4 mole % of the benzyl alcohol (i.e. the exemplary reactive diluent), and about 21 6.26 mole % of the DGEBA wherein x = 0...of the part A epoxy resin 5 ( DGEBA : Epon° 828, and/or Araldite XU Bis F GY° 281) containing optional 6 pigments such as Titanium Oxide (TiO 2 R-960

  14. High Temperature Epoxy Nanocomposites for Aerospace Applications


    epoxy-clay nanocomposites were prepared by dispersing imidazolium- modified clays in diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A ( DGEBA ) mixture by performing...functionalized anionic clay was vigorously mixed for 2h with difunctional epoxy resin ( DGEBA ) that contained small fraction of reactive diluent 1,4...the neat DGEBA resin to increase from ~300°C to ~330°C in the 2 wt% NLDH nanocomposite at 10°C/min heating rate, while it increases from ~305°C in

  15. Effects of different concentrations of sucrose or trehalose on the post-thawing quality of cattle bull semen

    Reda I. El-Sheshtawy; Gamal A. Sisy; Walid S. El-Nattat


    Objective: To examine the effect of different concentrations of trehalose or sucrose (50 or 100 or 200 mM) on post-thawed quality of bull semen, cryo-preserved in Tris-citric acid-egg yolk-fructose (TCYF). Methods:Semen samples were diluted in TCYF extender, TCYF +trehalose (50, 100 and 150 mM/L) or TCYF+sucrose (50, 100 and 150 mM/L) to ensure 60 million motile spermatozoa mL-1, cooled slowly up to 5℃ and equilibrated for 4 h. Semen was packed into 0.25 mL polyvinyl French straws. The straws were placed horizontally on a rack and frozen in a vapor 4 cm above liquid nitrogen (LN2) for 10 minutes then dipped in liquid LN2. Frozen straws were thawed at 37℃ for 1 min. The parameters studied were sperm motility, sperm viability, sperm abnormality, sperm membrane integrity (HOST), percent of normal intact acrosome and DNA fragmentation. Results:The output data demonstrated that addition of 50–100 mM of trehalose or sucrose/L TCYF after chilling at 5℃ had significantly (P<0.0001) ameliorated motility, membrane integrity, viability, abnormal morphology, and acrosome integrity %compared to control diluted semen while 50 mM of trehalose/L, and 50-100 mM of sucrose/L to TCYF diluent had significantly (P<0.0001) improved after thawing motility (43.00,% 45.00%and 41.00%, respectively), membrane integrity (67.40%, 67.80%and 69.40%, respectively), life sperm % (70.20%, 69.40%and 71.40%respectively), and acrosome integrity percentages (56.40%, 58.80%and 55.80%respectively) compared to the control tris-base diluent, while diminishing the abnormal sperm morphology (6.20, 3.80 and 3.80 respectively) and DNA fragmentation (3.60%, 3.80%and 3.80%respectively). Besides, the addition of 100 mM of trehalose/L to tris-base diluent has also a promising effect when added to the tris-base diluent concerning the above parameters. Conclusion:It is finally concluded that the addition of 50- 100 mM trehalose or sucrose/L to TCYF have a beneficial effect in chilling diluted bull semen

  16. Immunological and serological diversity of Neisseria gonorrhoeae: gonococcal serotypes and their relationship with immunotypes.

    Wong, K H; Arko, R J; Logan, L C; Bullard, J C


    Strains of gonococcus were shown to be immunologically heterologous. Serum bactericidal activity generally correlated with induced immunity to gonococcal challenge as detected by the guinea pig subcutaneous chamber model. Sera devoid of bactericidal activity reflected the lack of cross-protection in subcutaneous chambers. Factors affecting the bactericidal assay described in this report include (i) source of complement, (ii) concentration of test antigen and complement activity, and (iii) presence of calcium and magnesium ions and bovine serum albumin in diluent. Poor correlation was observed between agglutinating activity of the immune sera and protection. PMID:826483

  17. Extraction of Thulium(Ⅲ) Nitrate with N,N,N′,N′-Tetrabutylmalonamide%N,N,N′,N′-四丁基丙二酰胺萃取硝酸铥(Ⅲ)

    徐荣琪; 张振伟; 崔玉; 张怀忠; 孙国新


    The behavior of N,N,N′,N′-tetrabutylmalonamide(TBMA) in extraction of Tm(Ⅲ) using toluene as diluent has been investigated. The effects of the concentrations of TBMA, nitric acid, lithium nitrate, and temperature on the extraction have been studied. The composition of the extracted species was found to be Tm(NO3)3·3TBMA as characterized by IR spectrometry. The apparent equilibrium constant of extraction has been determined to be (0.61±0.18) L6/mol-6 at 298 K. Enthalpy of the extraction reaction is -27.61 kJ/mol.

  18. A highly efficient solvent system containing functionalized diglycolamides and an ionic liquid for americium recovery from radioactive wastes

    Sengupta, A; Mohapatra, P.K.; Iqbal, M.; Huskens, Jurriaan; Verboom, Willem


    Three room temperature ionic liquids (RTILs), viz. C4mim+·PF6−, C6mim+·PF6− and C8mim+·PF6−, were evaluated as diluents for the extraction of Am(III) by N,N,N′,N′-tetraoctyl diglycolamide (TODGA). At 3 M HNO3, the DAm-values by 0.01 M TODGA were found to be 102, 34 and 74 for C4mim+·PF6−,

  19. The role of the resid solvent in coprocessing

    Curtis, C.W. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)


    The objective of this project is to determine the role of petroleum resid in coprocessing of coal and resid. The question being asked is whether the resid is a reactant in the system or whether the resid is a merely a diluent that is being simultaneously upgraded? To fulfill the objective the hydrogen transfer from model compounds, naphthenes that represent petroleum resids to model acceptors is being determined. The specificity of different catalytic systems for promoting the hydrogen transfer from naphthenes to model acceptors and to coal is also being determined. In addition the efficacy of hydrogen transfer from and solvancy of whole and specific resid fractions under coprocessing conditions is being determined.

  20. Pengaruh Tekanan Hidrolik Untuk Mengurangi Kadar Oil Losses Pada Fiber Di Proses Screw Press Di PKA Multimas Nabati Asahan- Kuala Tanjung

    Fahrozi, Mahadi


    Processing of oil palm fruits into crude oil (CPO) and palm kernel oil (PKO) comprised of several treatment processes such as weighing, boiling, refining, compression, purification, and core citations. Percentage loss of oil palm fiber contained in the press greatly affect the quality of palm oil. Pressing process is influenced by the type of screw press and the water diluent. Percentage loss of oil palm fiber was found in 3.75% at a pressure of 38 bar. Where the greater the hydraulic pressur...

  1. Delayed post-treatment with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells is neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improves motor function after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia.

    Cameron, Stella H; Alwakeel, Amr J; Goddard, Liping; Hobbs, Catherine E; Gowing, Emma K; Barnett, Elizabeth R; Kohe, Sarah E; Sizemore, Rachel J; Oorschot, Dorothy E


    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia is a major cause of striatal injury and may lead to cerebral palsy. This study investigated whether delayed administration of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), at one week after neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia, was neurorestorative of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons and improved motor function. The effect of a subcutaneous injection of a high-dose, or a low-dose, of MSCs was investigated in stereological studies. Postnatal day (PN) 7 pups were subjected to hypoxia-ischemia. At PN14, pups received treatment with either MSCs or diluent. A subset of high-dose pups, and their diluent control pups, were also injected intraperitoneally with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU), every 24h, on PN15, PN16 and PN17. This permitted tracking of the migration and survival of neuroblasts originating from the subventricular zone into the adjacent injured striatum. Pups were euthanized on PN21 and the absolute number of striatal medium-spiny projection neurons was measured after immunostaining for DARPP-32 (dopamine- and cAMP-regulated phosphoprotein-32), double immunostaining for BrdU and DARPP-32, and after cresyl violet staining alone. The absolute number of striatal immunostained calretinin interneurons was also measured. There was a statistically significant increase in the absolute number of DARPP-32-positive, BrdU/DARPP-32-positive, and cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons, and fewer striatal calretinin interneurons, in the high-dose mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) group compared to their diluent counterparts. A high-dose of MSCs restored the absolute number of these neurons to normal uninjured levels, when compared with previous stereological data on the absolute number of cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny projection neurons in the normal uninjured brain. For the low-dose experiment, in which cresyl violet-stained striatal medium-spiny neurons alone were measured, there was a lower statistically

  2. Improved Whole-Blood-Staining Device

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian; Paul, Bonnie; Melton, Shannon; Guess, Terry


    Dramatic improvements have been made in NASA s Whole Blood Staining Device (WBSD) since it was last described in "Whole-Blood-Staining Device," NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 23, No. 10 (October 1999), page 64. The new system has a longer shelf life, a simpler and more effective operational procedure, improved interface with instrumentation, and shorter processing time. More specifically, the improvements have targeted bag and locking clip materials, sampling ports, and air pocket prevention. The WBSD stains whole blood collected during spaceflight for subsequent flow cytometric analysis. In short, the main device stains white blood cells by use of monoclonal antibodies conjugated to various fluorochromes, followed by lysing and fixing of the cells by use of a commercial reagent that has been diluted according to NASA safety standards. This system is compact, robust, and does not require electric power, precise mixing, or precise incubation times. Figure 1 depicts the present improved version for staining applications, which is a poly(tetrafluoroethylene) bag with a Luer-lock port and plastic locking clips. An InterLink (or equivalent) intravenous- injection port screws into the Luer-lock port. The inflatable/collapsible nature of the bag facilitates loading and helps to minimize the amount of air trapped in the fully loaded bag. Some additional uses have been identified for the device beyond whole blood staining. The WBSD has been configured for functional assays that require culture of live cells by housing sterile culture media, mitogens, and fixatives prior to use [Figure 2(a)]. Simple injection of whole blood allows cell-stimulation culture to be performed in reduced gravity conditions, and product stabilization prior to storage, while protecting astronauts from liquid biohazardous materials. Also, the improved WBSD has reconstituted powdered injectable antibiotics by mixing them with diluent liquids [Figure 2(b)]. Although such mixing can readily be performed on

  3. Reduced and Validated Kinetic Mechanisms for Hydrogen-CO-sir Combustion in Gas Turbines

    Yiguang Ju; Frederick Dryer


    Rigorous experimental, theoretical, and numerical investigation of various issues relevant to the development of reduced, validated kinetic mechanisms for synthetic gas combustion in gas turbines was carried out - including the construction of new radiation models for combusting flows, improvement of flame speed measurement techniques, measurements and chemical kinetic analysis of H{sub 2}/CO/CO{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mixtures, revision of the H{sub 2}/O{sub 2} kinetic model to improve flame speed prediction capabilities, and development of a multi-time scale algorithm to improve computational efficiency in reacting flow simulations.

  4. Formulation of an RP-1 Pyrolysis Surrogate from Shock Tube Measurements of Fuel and Ethylene Time Histories


    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NO. Air Force Research Laboratory (AFMC) AFRL/RQRC 10 E. Saturn Blvd. Edwards AFB...times of ram accelerator CH4/O2/diluent mixtures. Journal of Propulsion and Power, 15(1):82–91, 1999. E. L. Petersen, D. F. Davidson, M. Rohrig, and...Arai. Overall rate constant of pyrolysis of n-alkanes at a low conversion level. Industrial and Engineering Chemistry Research, 40(9):2027–2036, 2001

  5. Mechanism and kinetics analysis of AlN combustion synthesis

    郑永挺; 张宇民; 赫晓东; 刘长青


    Mechanism of AlN combustion synthesis was studied by DSC analysis and "quenching" experiment of combustion wave. In preheating region, Al powder melted at 660 ℃ and became spherical because of surface tension. In reaction region, Al volatilized rapidly at 1 000 ℃ and Al vapor reacted with N2 to form AlN, which nucleated and grew on the surface of AlN formed precedently as a diluent. Based on the experiment analysis,kinetics equations and modeling were established. Analysis showed the dramatic effect of temperature, aluminum particle size and nitrogen pressure on the reaction speed.

  6. Determination of total selenium and Se-77 in isotopically enriched human samples by ICP-dynamic reaction cell-MS

    Sloth, Jens Jørgen; Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Bügel, Susanne H.;


    This paper describes an analytical method for the simultaneous quantitative determination of total selenium (Se) and Se-77 in isotopically enriched human plasma, urine and faeces by inductively coupled plasma- dynamic reaction cell- mass spectrometry ( ICP- DRC- MS). The samples originated from...... and the digested faecal samples were diluted using an aqueous diluent containing 0.5% Triton X-100, 2% nitric acid and 3% methanol. Selenium was detected as Se-76, Se-77 and Se-80 by ICP- DRC- MS. Selenium originating from the natural isotope abundance yeast and other selenium sources from the diet was determined...

  7. Atmospheric chemistry of CF3CH2CH2OH

    Hurley, Michael D.; Misner, Jessica A.; Ball, James C.


    Relative rate techniques were used to study the kinetics of the reactions of Cl atoms and OH radicals with CF3CH2C(O)H and CF3CH2CH2OH in 700 Torr of N-2 or air diluent at 296 2 K. The rate constants determined were k(Cl+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (1.81 +/- 0.27) x 10(-11), k(OH+CF3CH2C(O)H) = (2.57 +/- 0.44...

  8. Extraction of Aminobenzoic Acid with TOA and TBP

    张瑾; 戴猷元


    A series of extraction equilibrium experiments for aminobenzoic acid were carried out. Tri-n-octylamine (TOA) and tributyl phosphate (TBP) were selected as complexing agents. 1-Octanol and kerosene were selected as diluents. The effects of extractant concentration and pH on the distribution ratio were discussed in detail. It was found that there are ion-pair association and hydrogen-bond complexing in the extraction. Expressions of the equilibrium distribution for different solvent systems are proposed. The precision of the models is satisfactoy.

  9. Potential Involvement of Type I Interferon Signaling in Immunotherapy in Seasonal Allergic Rhinitis

    Lina Mattson; Antonio Lentini; Gawel, Danuta R.; Tejaswi V. S. Badam; Mikael Benson; Torbjorn Ledin; Nestor, Colm E; Mika Gustafsson; Jordi Serra-Musach; Janne Bjorkander; Zou Xiang; Huan Zhang


    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) reverses the symptoms of seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) in most patients. Recent studies report type I interferons shifting the balance between type I T helper cell (Th1) and type II T helper cells (Th2) towards Th2 dominance by inhibiting the differentiation of naive T cells into Th1 cells. As SIT is thought to cause a shift towards Th1 dominance, we hypothesized that SIT would alter interferon type I signaling. To test this, allergen and diluent challenged CD4...

  10. Chromium Toxicity Test for Fall Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) Using Hanford Site Groundwater: Onsite Early Life-Stage Toxicity Evaluation

    Patton, Gregory W.; Dauble, Dennis D.; Chamness, Michele A.; Abernethy, Cary S.; McKinstry, Craig A.


    The objective of this study was to evaluate site-specific effects for early life-stage (eyed eggs to free swimming juveniles) fall chinook salmon that might be exposed to hexavalent chromium from Hanford groundwater sources. Our exposure conditions included hexavalent chromium obtained from Hanford groundwater wells near the Columbia River, Columbia River water as the diluent, and locally adapted populations of fall chinook salmon. This report describes both a 96-hr pretest using rainbow trout eggs and an early life-stage test beginning with chinook salmon eggs.

  11. Leishmania Skin Test


    2009, a dose of 50µg will be used in the design of a phase III clinical trial. 15. SUBJECT TERMS LtSTA = Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen 16...2010 on a Leishmania Skin Test (LtSTA) developed from the promastigotes of Leishmania tropica . During this period a phase IIB study was in progress...diluent. The final product is referred to as Leishmania tropica Skin Test Antigen (LtSTA). Figure 3 is a schematic diagram of the Drug Product

  12. Preparation of niobium nanoparticles by sodiothermic reduction of Nb_2O_5 in molten salts


    Niobium nanoparticles with high purity were prepared by a sodiothermic reduction process using Nb2O5 as the raw material, LiCl, NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 as the diluents and sodium as the reducing reagent. The effects of the different molten salt systems, CaCl2 content, reaction time, excessive sodium and reaction temperature on the characteristics of the obtained niobium powder were discussed. The as-prepared niobium nanoparticles under the optimum experimental conditions were obtained by sodiothermic reduction ...

  13. Functionalized ionic liquids: new agents for the extraction of actinides/lanthanides

    Ouadi, A.; Hesemann, P.; Billard, I.; Gaillard, C.; Gadenne, B.; Moreau, Joel J.E; Moutiers, G.; Mariet, C.; Labet, A


    The potentialities of hydrophobic ionic liquids BumimPF{sub 6} and BumimTf{sub 2}N for their use in the nuclear fuel cycle were investigated, in particular for the liquid liquid extraction. We demonstrate that the use of RTILs in replacement of the organic diluents for actinides partitioning is promising. In our contribution, we present the synthesis of several task-specific ionic liquids. Our results show that grafting metal complexing groups increases the affinity of metals to the IL phase and gives rise to suitable media for the liquid-liquid extraction of actinides. (authors)

  14. Low emissions compression ignited engine technology

    Coleman, Gerald N.; Kilkenny, Jonathan P.; Fluga, Eric C.; Duffy, Kevin P.


    A method and apparatus for operating a compression ignition engine having a cylinder wall, a piston, and a head defining a combustion chamber. The method and apparatus includes delivering fuel substantially uniformly into the combustion chamber, the fuel being dispersed throughout the combustion chamber and spaced from the cylinder wall, delivering an oxidant into the combustion chamber sufficient to support combustion at a first predetermined combustion duration, and delivering a diluent into the combustion chamber sufficient to change the first predetermined combustion duration to a second predetermined combustion duration different from the first predetermined combustion duration.


    Natalia Marchitan


    Full Text Available The present paper describes the results of reactive extraction of tartaric acid in model systems, which can be used for its separation from secondary wine products. As extractant have been used a normal/isododecyl mixed secondary amine Amberlite LA-2. The following parameters of the separation process have been varied: nature of diluent and modifier; modifier concentration; concentration, temperature and pH of the tartaric acid solution and the stirring time, and the work intervals have been established. It was concluded that in determinated conditions the extent of tartaric acid extraction attains value 85-95%.

  16. Alpha Radiolysis of Nuclear Solvent Extraction Ligands Used for An(III) and Ln(III) Separations

    Mezyk, Stephen P. [California State Univ. (CalState), Long Beach, CA (United States); Mincher, Bruce J. [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Nilsson, Mikael [Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)


    This document is the final report for the Nuclear Energy Universities Program (NEUP) grant 10-910 (DE-AC07-05ID14517) “Alpha Radiolysis of Nuclear Solvent Extraction Ligands used for An(III) and Ln(III) Separations”. The goal of this work was to obtain a quantitative understanding of the impacts of both low Linear Energy Transfer (LET, gamma-rays) and high LET (alpha particles) radiation chemistry occurring in future large-scale separations processes. This quantitative understanding of the major radiation effects on diluents and ligands is essential for optimal process implementation, and could result in significant cost savings in the future.

  17. Maximizing heavy oil value while minimizing environmental impact with HTL upgrading of heavy to light oil

    Koshka, E. [Ivanhoe Energy Inc., Calgary, AB (Canada)


    This presentation described Ivanhoe Energy Inc.'s proprietary HTL upgrading technology which was designed to process heavy oil in the field to cost effectively produce an upgraded synthetic oil that meets pipeline requirements. Steam and electricity are generated from the energy produced during the process. HTL improves the economics of heavy oil production by reducing the need for natural gas and diluent, and by capturing most of the heavy to light oil price differential. Integrated HTL heavy oil production also provides many environmental benefits regarding greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The HTL upgrading process is ready for full scale application. tabs., figs.

  18. Scientific contribution to the HYPAR 07 of the Europart contract; Contribution scientifique a l'Hypar 07 du contrat Europart

    Hill, C.; Meridiano, Y.; Sorel, C.; Berthon-Nigond, L.; Crozes, X


    In the frame of the DIAMEX process, the self-association properties of the N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-di-octyl-hexyl-ethoxy-malonamide (DMDOHEMA) were studied in order to establish a direct link between the structures of the extractant molecules in the organic phase and their extracting properties towards Ln(III) and An(III). Malonamides are amphiphilic molecules and diluted in n-alkane diluents, are organized in reverse aggregates with a polar core containing water and the extracted ions. (authors)

  19. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil

    Poster, Dianne L.; Schantz, Michele M.; Wise, Stephen A.


    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containi...

  20. Preparation of Reference Material 8504, Transformer Oil.

    Poster, Dianne L; Schantz, Michele M; Wise, Stephen A


    A new reference material (RM), RM 8504, has been prepared for use as a diluent oil with Aroclors in transformer oil Standard Reference Materials (SRMs) 3075 to 3080 and SRM 3090 when developing and validating methods for the determination of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) as Aroclors in transformer oil or similar matrices. SRMs 3075-3080 and SRM 3090 consist of individual Aroclors in the same transformer oil that was used to prepare RM 8504. A unit of RM 8504 consists of one bottle containing approximately 100 mL of transformer oil. No additional constituents have been added to the oil.

  1. Identification of isopropylbiphenyl, alkyl diphenylmethanes, diisopropylnaphthalene, linear alkyl benzenes and other polychlorinated biphenyl replacement compounds in effluents, sediments and fish in the Fox River System, Wisconsin

    Peterman, Paul H.; Delfino, Joseph J.


    Five polychlorinated biphenyl replacement dye solvents and a diluent present in carbonless copy paper were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in the following matrices: effluents from a de-inking–recycling paper mill and a municipal wastewater treatment plant receiving wastewaters from a carbonless copy paper manufacturing plant; sediments; and fish collected near both discharges in the Fox River System, Wisconsin. An isopropylbiphenyl dye solvent mixture included mono-, di- and triisopropylbiphenyls. Also identified were two dye solvent mixtures marketed under the trade name Santosol. Santosol 100 comprised ethyl-diphenylmethanes (DPMs), benzyl-ethyl-DPMs, and dibenzyl-ethyl-DPMs. Similarly, Santosol 150 comprised dimethyl-DPMs, benzyl-dimethyl-DPMs, and dibenzyl-dimethyl-DPMs. Diisopropylnaphthalenes, widely used as a dye solvent in Japan, were identified for the first time in the US environment. sec-Butylbiphenyls and di-sec-butylbiphenyls, likely constituents of a sec-butylbiphenyl dye solvent mixture, were tentatively identified. Linear alkyl benzenes (C10 to C13-LABs) constituted the Alkylate 215 diluent mixture. Although known to occur as minor constituents in linear alkyl sulfonate detergents, LAB residues have not been previously attributed to commercial use of LABs.

  2. Role of amino acids as additives on sperm motility, plasma membrane integrity and lipid peroxidation levels at pre-freeze and post-thawed ram semen.

    Sangeeta, Sharon; Arangasamy, A; Kulkarni, S; Selvaraju, S


    The possibility of including amino acids for cryopreservation of ram semen to improve the quality of frozen semen was explored in this study in sheep model. 24 samples were collected in triplicate from 8 rams of 2-3 year old Bannur cross bred rams maintained at the Institute Experimental Livestock Unit. Semen was diluted in tris-egg yolk glycerol diluent and made into 7 aliquots as follows: aliquot 1 served as control, "l-alanine" was added at 100 and 135mM in the aliquots 2 and 3, "l-glutamine" was added at 20 and 25mM in the aliquots 4 and 5 and "l-proline" was added at 25 and 50mM in the aliquots 6 and 7, respectively. Diluted semen was filled in 0.25ml French straws and frozen in LN2. Inclusion of "l-proline" and "l-glutamine" in the diluent increased the percent live sperm (Pram semen as they prevented cryoinjuries to sperm and improved the pre-freeze and post-thaw semen characteristics.

  3. A New Emulsion Liquid Membrane Based on a Palm Oil for the Extraction of Heavy Metals

    Sanna Björkegren


    Full Text Available The extraction efficiency of hexavalent chromium, Cr(VI, from water has been investigated using a vegetable oil based emulsion liquid membrane (ELM technique. The main purpose of this study was to create a novel ELM formulation by choosing a more environmentally friendly and non-toxic diluent such as palm oil. The membrane phase so formulated includes the mobile carrier tri-n-octylmethylammonium chloride (TOMAC, to facilitate the metal transport, and the hydrophilic surfactant Tween 80 to facilitate the dispersion of the ELM phase in the aqueous solution. Span 80 is used as surfactant and butanol as co-surfactant. Our results demonstrate that this novel ELM formulation, using the vegetable palm oil as diluent, is useful for the removal of hexavalent chromium with an efficiency of over 99% and is thus competitive with the already existing, yet less environmentally friendly, ELM formulations. This result was achieved with an optimal concentration of 0.1 M NaOH as stripping agent and an external phase pH of 0.5. Different water qualities have also been investigated showing that the type of water (deionized, distilled, or tap water does not significantly influence the extraction rate.

  4. Study on the extraction of uranium (Ⅵ) in ethyl acetate system with DCH-18-C-6%DCH-18-C-6/乙酸乙酯萃取体系萃取分离铀(Ⅵ)的研究

    徐丽华; 袁亚莉; 郭建波; 陈萍; 贾继云; 黄笑寒


    以二苯并-18-冠醚-6(DCH-18-C-6)作为萃取剂,采用溶剂萃取法萃取分离溶液中的铀(Ⅵ),研究了稀释剂、盐析剂、介质酸度等条件对萃取率的影响,确定了乙酸乙酯为稀释剂,0.1 mol/L的KH_2PO_4为盐析剂、水杨酸为酸性介质的溶剂萃取体系.该萃取体系在选定的条件下,对1×10~(-4)mol/L的铀酰离子一次萃取率可达82.5%.%The influence of the diluent, media,salting-out agent from the external environment on the extraction rate of uranium was studied with the DCH-18-C-6 as the extractant of uranium (Ⅵ).The optimum condition was obtained as follows:ethyl acetate as diluent,salicylic acid as the media,KH_2PO_4(0.1 mol/L) as salting-out agent.In the extraction system the result shows that the extraction rate of the uranyl ion(1×10~(-4) mol/L ) reaches 82.5% under the optimum conditions.

  5. Demonstration of alternative and classical complement pathway activity in colostrum from buffalo (Bubalus bubalis).

    Matheswaran, K; Dhinakar Raj, G; Nachimuthu, K


    Buffalo colostrum caused lysis of unsensitized red blood cells (RBC) from sheep, goats, rabbits and chickens. RBC from cattle and buffalo were resistant to lysis. That lysis was due to the presence of natural antibodies to these RBC was ruled out since there was no reduction in haemolytic titres even after adsorption with the respective RBC. The addition of EGTA to the diluent had no effect on the haemolytic activity. These findings indicate the presence of alternative complement pathway (ACP) activity in buffalo colostrum. The haemolytic activity of buffalo complement for unsensitized rabbit RBC was reduced to very low levels by heating at 50 degrees C for 45 min. Treatment with zymosan also inhibited the haemolytic activity, while inulin had no effect. The maximum activity of ACP occurred in the presence of 4 mmol/L Mg(2+) in the diluent. The range of ACP activities in colostrum from buffaloes varied from 4.06 to 8.48 CH50 units/ml. Using a standard system for titrating the classical complement pathway and rabbit red blood cells sensitized with goat haemolysin, the range of complement activity in buffalo colostrum was 4.81-6.77 CH50/ml.

  6. 淡化后浓海水制溴工艺中几种节水改进措施%After Desalination Process Making Bromide Several Water-saving Improvement Measures

    任杰; 刘立平


    文章针对浓海水空气吹出法制溴生产中,需使用清水作为吸收剂、浓酸稀释剂、二氧化硫冷却洗涤剂,因此需要消耗大量的淡水资源,通过对浓海水吹溴工艺进行研究,采用吹溴后的浓海水作为吸收剂、稀释剂、冷却剂,达到了节约淡水及对物料进行回收的目的,提高企业整体效益.%This article mainly aims at the seawater desalination using air blown process method to make bromide.We need to use water as absorbent,concentrated sulfuric acid diluent and SO2 cooling detergent.Therefore,a large number of fresh water resources are consumed.Through the process of research,we use the strong water make bromide as absorbent,diluents,coolant,achieve saving fresh water and recycle material purpose.The overall effectiveness of enterprise was improved by the measures.

  7. Strategies to protect ram accelerator projectiles from in-tube gasdynamic heating

    Bogdanoff, D.W. [Eloret, Sunnyvale, CA (United States)


    A serious problem in advancing ram accelerator technology is the very high in-tube heat transfer rate to the projectile. Herein, we examine a number of strategies for protecting the projectile from gasdynamic heating. Radiation cooling of the projectile and flying the projectile through alternating regions of fuel-oxidizer-diluent drive gas and pure hydrogen are found to be totally unworkable. The ablative cooling technique has serious problems with a substantial retreat of the projectile surface. A transpiration cooling technique using liquid ammonia is calculated to provide adequate protection of the projectile for ram accelerator missions from 3 to 7 or 8 km/sec. Techniques for flying the projectile in pure hydrogen are also examined. One may have a vortex arrangement with a pure hydrogen core surrounded by a fuel-oxidizer-diluent mixture. The projectile may also fly in pure hydrogen while the driving energy is supplied by a deflagrating or detonating solid coating on the tube wall or by electrical energy input. The techniques for flying the projectile in pure hydrogen are judged to be extremely complex and expensive to implement. The transpiration technique appears to be the most viable way to protect projectiles flying in the 4 - 7 km/sec range. (orig.)

  8. Carbon fiber composite molecular sieves

    Burchell, T.D.; Rogers, M.R.; Williams, A.M.


    The removal of CO{sub 2} is of significance in several energy applications. The combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal or natural gas, releases large volumes of CO{sub 2} to the environment. Several options exist to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions, including substitution of nuclear power for fossil fuels, increasing the efficiency of fossil plants and capturing the CO{sub 2} prior to emission to the environment. All of these techniques have the attractive feature of limiting the amount of CO{sub 2} emitted to the atmosphere, but each has economic, technical, or societal limitations. In the production of natural gas, the feed stream from the well frequently contains contaminants and diluents which must be removed before the gas can enter the pipeline distribution system. Notable amongst these diluent gasses is CO{sub 2}, which has no calorific value. Currently, the pipeline specification calls for <2 mol % CO{sub 2} in the gas. Gas separation is thus a relevant technology in the field of energy production. A novel separation system based on a parametric swing process has been developed that utilizes the unique combination of properties exhibited by our carbon fiber composite molecular sieve (CFCMS).

  9. Solvent extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from aqueous chloride medium using carbamoyl-carboxylic acid extractants

    Reyhaneh Safarbali; Mohammad Reza Yaftian; Abbasali Zamani


    N,N-dibutyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) and N,N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (HLI) were synthesized and characterized by con-ventional spectroscopic methods. These molecules were examined as extractants for extraction-separation of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III), as representative ions of light, middle and heavy rare earths, from aqueous chloride solutions. The analysis of the extraction equilibria revealed that the extracted species of lanthanum and europium ions by both of the extractants had a 1:3 metal to ligand ratio. It was suggested that erbium ions were extracted into the organic phase via the formation of Er(LI or I)2Cl complexes. The effect of the organic diluents on the extraction-separation efficiency of the studied rare earths by HLI and HLI was investigated by comparing the results obtained in dichloromethane and carbon tetrachloride. Regardless to the diluent used, the order of selectivity presented by the investigated extractants was Er(III)>Eu(III)>La(III). It is noteworthy that, a significant enhancement in separation of the studied rare earths by the extractants was achieved in their competitive extraction experiments with respect to that obtained in single component extraction experiments. Applicability of the extractants for the removal of rare earth ions from spent Ni-MH batteries was tested by removal of La(III), Eu(III) and Er(III) ions from simulated leach solution of such batteries.

  10. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organophosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    Zhou, N.; Wu, J.; Yu, Z.; Neuman, R.D.; Wang, D.; Xu, G.


    Three acidic extractants (I) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP), (II) 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (HEHPEHE) and (III) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanide-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems. Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) results on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n-heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP. The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent, by which the mixed solvent was formed, increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates. Aggregates formed from the lanthanide ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable. In the case of naphthenic acid, PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent. The extraction of lanthanides by the saponified naphthenic acid in the mixed solvent under the given experimental conditions was a process of destruction of the w/o microemulsion. A possible mechanism of the breakdown of the w/o microemulsion droplets is discussed.

  11. Atmospheric chemistry of BrO radicals: kinetics of the reaction with C2H5O2 radicals at 233-333 K.

    Sakamoto, Yosuke; Yamano, Daisuke; Nakayama, Tomoki; Hashimoto, Satoshi; Kawasaki, Masahiro; Wallington, Timothy J; Miyano, Shun; Tonokura, Kenichi; Takahashi, Kenshi


    Cavity ring-down spectroscopy was used to study the title reaction in 50-200 Torr of O2 diluent at 233-333 K. There was no discernible effect of total pressure, and a rate constant of k(BrO + C2H5O2) = (3.8 +/- 1.7) x 10(-12) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1) was determined at 293 K in 150 Torr total pressure of O2 diluent. The addition of 1.4 x 10(17) molecules cm(-3) of H2O vapor had no measurable impact on k(BrO + C2H5O2) at 293 K and 150 Torr. The rate constant exhibited a negative temperature dependence and was described by k(BrO + C2H5O2) = 6.5 x 10(-13) exp((505 +/- 570)/T) cm3 molecule(-1) s(-1). Results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of BrO radicals.

  12. Extraction of gold from hydrochloric acid solutions by Alamine 336 and Alkylaniline

    Natalya Dolgova


    Full Text Available The extraction of gold with 336 Alamin and Alkylaniline from hydrochloric acid solutions was studied. Shown that Alamin extracts gold quantitatively in the field of acidity of the aqueuous phase pH=3,0 – СHCl=3,5 M when used as diluents of kerosene and higher carboxylic acids in admixture with paraffin. The time of quantitative extraction of gold: with Alamin – 3 minutes, with Alkylaniline – 5 minutes, regardless of the choice of diluent. The composition of the extracted complex and scheme of  gold extraction process with Alamin was proposed. Extraction of gold with 5%- Alamin-HCA-paraffin can be used for development of a combined extraction -  X-ray fluorescence technique for determination of gold because the resulting solids extracts meet the requirements imposed on emitters samples in X-ray fluorescence analysis. Calibration characteritstic is linear in the range of gold content in the samples emitters 0,006-0,17 wt%.

  13. Extraction of gold by tributylphosphate and dioctylsulfide from hydrocloric acid solutions

    Natalya Dolgova


    Full Text Available Тributylphosphate (TBF and dioctylsulfide (DOS in liquid organic diluents are well known extractants used in analytical chemistry of gold. The study of the extraction of gold by these reagents in higher carboxylic acids (HCA and paraffin as well as a comparison of their extraction capacities by replacing the solvent are of great interest. Extractant for development of X-ray fluorescence analysis technique for gold in various objects was selected by studying the extraction of gold by tributylphosphate and dioctylsulfidein low melting diluents. It was shown that, when using kerosene for dilution, tributylphosphate quantitatively extracted gold СHCl=0.5-3.5 M. Extractant containing 5-20 % TBF-paraffin-HCAdid not provide quantitative extraction of gold. Recovery of gold for 5 % DOS-HCA-paraffinat СHCl =0.5-3.0 M reached 98-99%. Using the method of equilibrium shift,composition of the extracted gold complex with DOS was proposed: AuCl3 - R2S. This extractant can be used for development of X-ray fluorescence method for determination of gold.Calibration curve forX-ray fluorescence determination of gold in extracts is linear in the range of mass concentrations4.0 x 10-3-1.7 x 10-1 % (w/w. Detection limit of the method is 5.0 x 10-4 % (w/w.

  14. The monitoring of organic waste pollution in the sibelis river

    Huda, Thorikul; Jannah, Wirdatul


    Has conducted monitoring of organic waste pollution in the River Sibelis of Tegal City of Central Java. Organic wastes that pollute River Sibelis can degrade the quality of well water along the river. Monitoring carried out in the upstream and downstream by chemical oxygen demand (COD) and biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) parameters. COD test methods by titration and the results are used to determine the test sample comparison with the volume of diluent required for analysts BOD. COD test results on the upstream and downstream Sibelis River respectively 58.13 mg/L and 73.97 mg / L so that the ratio of the test sample with diluent volume for BOD analysis is 20: 280 (Sawyer, 1978). BOD test principle is based on the reduction of dissolved oxygen zero day (DO0) and five days (DO5). The result of observation BOD samples at upstream and downstream Sibelis Rivers are 10.7212 mg / L and 5.3792 mg / L respectively. Quality control of BOD testing conducted with measurement accuracy and precision and obtained result are 85.36% and 0.27% respectively. The result of uncertainty measurement for BOD testing at upstream and downstream are ±0.4469 mg/L and ±0.22188 mg/L.

  15. Enhanced dissolution of sildenafil citrate as dry foam tablets.

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Atipairin, Apichart; Sae Yoon, Attawadee; Srichana, Teerapol; Changsan, Narumon


    Dry foam formulation technology is alternative approach to enhance dissolution of the drug. Sildenafil citrate was suspended in sodium dodecyl sulfate solution and adding a mixture of maltodextrin and mannitol as diluent to form a paste. Sildenafil citrate paste was passed through a nozzle spray bottle to obtain smooth foam. The homogeneous foam was dried in a vacuum oven and sieved to obtain dry foam granules. The granules were mixed with croscarmellose sodium, magnesium stearate and compressed into tablet. All formulations were evaluated for their physicochemical properties and dissolution profiles. All the tested excipients were compatible with sildenafil citrate by both differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared (IR) analysis. There are no X-ray diffraction (XRD) peaks representing crystals of sildenafil citrate observed form dry foam formulations. The hardness of tablets was about 5 kg, friability test foam tablet had higher dissolution rate in 0.1 N HCl in comparison with commercial sildenafil citrate tablet, sildenafil citrate prepared by direct compression and wet granulation method. Sildenafil citrate dry foam tablet with the high-level composition of surfactant, water and diluent showed enhanced dissolution rate than that of the lower-level composition of these excipients. This formulation was stable under accelerated conditions for at least 6 months.


    Elzayat, Ehab M; Abdel-Rahman, Ali A; Ahmed, Sayed M; Alanazi, Fars K; Habib, Walid A; Sakr, Adel


    Hydrophilic matrices, especially HPMC based, are widely used to provide sustained delivery where drug release occurs mainly by diffusion. A 3(2) full factorial design was used to develop and evaluate HPMC matrix tablet for sustained delivery of diclofenac. The influences of polymer concentration/viscosity, diluent type/ratio, drug load/solubility, compression force and pH change on drug release were investigated. Ten tablet formulations were prepared using wet granulation. HPMC K15M (10-30% w/w) was used as the polymer forming matrix. The release kinetics, compatibility studies, lot reproducibility and effect on storage were discussed. Increasing polymer concentration and compression force showed antagonistic effect on release rate. Mannitol tends to increase release rate more than lactose. Reversing diluent ratio between lactose and MCC did not affect drug release. Changing pH resulted in burst release whereas drug solubility is pH independent. F1 showed similar release to Voltaren SR and followed Higuchi model. Drug and polymer were compatible to each other. The formulation is stable at long and intermediate conditions with a significant increase in release rate at accelerated conditions due to water uptake and polymer swelling. The developed formulation was successful for a sustained delivery of diclofenac.

  17. Etude de l'état des asphaltènes dans les mélanges d'hydrocarbures : taille des amas moléculaires Research on the State of Asphaltenes in Hydrocarbon Mixtures: Size of Molecular Clusters

    Briant J.


    Full Text Available On expose dans cet article les mesures, par différentes méthodes expérimentales (tonométrie, viscosimétrie, ultrafiltration, des poids et des tailles moléculaires des asphaltènes dans divers mélanges de diluants. Les variations des poids et des tailles moléculaires en fonction de la concentration en soluté et de la composition du mélange de diluants sont expliquées en relation avec le modèle de Yen et ses différentes structures et sous-structures. This article describes the different experimental methods (tonometry, viscosimetry, ultrafiltration used to measure the molecular weights and sizes of asphaltenes in different diluent mixtures. Variations in molecular weights and sizes as a function of the solute concentration and the composition of the diluent mixture are explained in relation to Yen's model and its different structures and substructures.

  18. Photocarcinogenesis promotion studies with benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and croton oil.

    Epstein, J H


    Previous studies demonstrated that BPO can promote chemically initiated tumor formation in SENCAR mice. In addition, a number of chemicals have been shown to promote and/or enhance UVR induced carcinogenesis. This study examined the effect of BPO on UVR initiated tumor formation. One hundred and forty-eight Uscd mice received 270 mJ/cm2 of UVB radiation to the posterior halves of their backs 3 times a week for 8 weeks. Four weeks later the mice were divided into 4 groups. Group I received croton oil in acetone applications to the back 5 times a week for the duration of the study. Group II received acetone, Group III received the BPO diluent, and Group IV received the BPO in an aqueous diluent applications as in Group I. One mouse in Group II (acetone) and one in Group IV (BPO) developed tumors in unirradiated skin. In the UVR initiated skin 38% of the survivors developed tumors in Group I (croton oil), whereas 5% did in Group II (acetone), 8% in Group III (BPO base), and 8% group IV (BPO). Thus under the circumstances of this study croton oil did promote UV initiated tumor formation but BPO did not. These results are consistent with those recently reported by Iversen.

  19. Development of the Chalmers Grouped Actinide Extraction Process

    Halleröd Jenny


    Full Text Available Several solvents for Grouped ActiNide EXtraction (GANEX processes have been investigated at Chalmers University of Technology in recent years. Four different GANEX solvents; cyclo-GANEX (CyMe4- -BTBP, 30 vol.% tri-butyl phosphate (TBP and cyclohexanone, DEHBA-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 20 vol.% N,N-di-2(ethylhexyl butyramide (DEHBA and cyclohexanone, hexanol-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and hexanol and FS-13-GANEX (CyMe4-BTBP, 30 vol.% TBP and phenyl trifluoromethyl sulfone (FS-13 have been studied and the results are discussed and compared in this work. The cyclohexanone based solvents show fast and high extraction of the actinides but a somewhat poor diluent stability in contact with the acidic aqueous phase. FS-13-GANEX display high separation factors between the actinides and lanthanides and a good radiolytic and hydrolytic stability. However, the distribution ratios of the actinides are lower, compared to the cyclohexanone based solvents. The hexanol-GANEX is a cheap solvent system using a rather stable diluent but the actinide extraction is, however, comparatively low.

  20. Solvent Extraction and QSPR of Catecholamines with a Bis(2-ethlhexyl) Hydrogen Phosphate

    Yoshizuka, Kazuharu.; Fujimoto, Yuko.; Ota, Keisuke.; Inoue, Katsutoshi. [Saga University, Saga (Japan). Dept. of Applied Chemistry


    In order to develop an effective separation recess for catecholamine (CA), a basic investigation on solvent extraction of dopamine (DA), adrenaline (Ad) and noradrenaline (NA) from hydrochloric acid solution and their stripping is conducted at 30 degree C employing bis(2-ethylhexyl) hydrogen phosphate (D2EHPA) in chloroform, n-hexane and toluene as the organic diluents. From the dependencies of the distribution ratios on the concentrations of reactant species, i.e. CA, hydrogen ion and D2EHPA, it is elucidated that CA (RNH{sub 2}) is extracted with D2EHPA (HR`) according to the ion exchange mechanism, as the complex type, RNH{sub 3}R` (HR`){sub 3}, and the equilibrium constants (K{sub ex,CA}) for the extraction reactions are also evaluated. The quantitative structure property relationship (QSPR) of K{sub ex,CA} values for each organic diluent is discussed using molecular modeling with semi-empirical molecular orbital calculations considering the solvent effect. (author)

  1. A Reduced Reaction Mechanism For Isooctane Combustion

    C.R.Berlin Selva Rex,


    Full Text Available A reduced chemical kinetic mechanism for the oxidation of iso-octane has been developed and a detailed study on the ignition of iso-octane has been conducted analytically using a kinetic scheme with 994 elementary reactions and 201 species. The activation energies of isooctane are higher than n-octane. Hence iso-octane is widelyused for combustion simulations. A program has been developed in MATLAB for the calculation and prediction of the concentration of 201 intermediate species and the ignition delay in the combustion of Iso-octane. The various initial conditions considered was in between the temperatures of 600K to 1250K with pressure ranging from 10atm to40atm at various equivalence ratios of 0.3 and 0.6. Nitrogen is considered as the diluent. The diluent percentage is assumed as 79% to make a comparison with atmospheric condition. The criteria for determination of ignition delay times are based on the OH concentrations to reach to a value of 1x10-9 moles/cc. The ignition delay times are obtained by varying initial conditions of the mixture in the combustion of Iso-octane. The results on ignition delays have been found to be agreeable with those available in the literature. Cantera (an object oriented software for reacting flows software is used in this study.

  2. Effects of flunixin meglumine on the recovery of ischaemic equine colonic mucosa in vitro.

    Morton, A J; Grosche, A; Matyjaszek, S A; Polyak, M M R; Freeman, D E


    The effects of prostaglandins and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on repair of equine intestinal mucosa are important since most horses with gastrointestinal diseases are routinely treated with NSAIDs, such as flunixin meglumine (FM), and these drugs can be toxic to equine gastrointestinal mucosa. Flunixin meglumine would not affect recovery of equine colonic mucosa in vitro, 18 h after a reversible ischaemic injury. In 14 anaesthetised horses, a segment of pelvic flexure was subjected to 2 h of ischaemia and the horses were allowed to recover for 18 h. Seven horses received normal saline and 7 received FM, 1.1 mg/kg bwt i.v., at the end of ischaemia and 12 h later. Colonic mucosa was harvested during a second anaesthesia, 18 h after recovery from ischaemia and then horses were subjected to euthanasia. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) and transepithelial flux of tritiated mannitol were used to measure mucosal permeability during 4 h of incubation in Ussing chambers, with the following in vitro treatments: 1) no addition, 2) FM 14 µmol/l as powder, 3) FM 14 µmol/l in injectable form and 4) diluent for injectable FM. Histomorphological changes were assessed by light microscopy. There were no significant differences in any of the measurements between saline and FM treated horses. The mucosal height of the ischaemic FM tissues incubated in diluent was significantly decreased compared to the nonischaemic tissues. Flunixin meglumine did not adversely affect barrier integrity in ischaemic equine colonic mucosa. © 2011 EVJ Ltd.

  3. Investigation of aggregation in solvent extraction of lanthanides by acidic extractants (organo-phosphorus and naphthenic acid)

    周乃扶; 吴瑾光; 俞致健; 王笃金; 徐光宪


    Three acidic extractants (Ⅰ) di(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP),(Ⅱ) 2-ethylhexyl phos-phonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (KEHPEHE) and (Ⅲ) naphthenic acid were employed in preparing the samples for the characterization of the coordination structure of lanthanlde-extractant complexes and the physicochemical nature of aggregates formed in the organic diluent of the solvent extraction systems.Photo correlation spectroscopy (PCS) re-suits on the aggregates formed by the partially saponified HDEHP in n -heptane showed that the hydrodynamic radius of the aggregates was comparable to the molecular dimensions of HDEHP.The addition of 2-octanol into the diluent,by which the mixed solvent was formed,increased the dimensions of the corresponding aggregates.Aggregates formed from the ianthamde ions and HDEHP in the organic phase of the extraction systems were found very unstable.In the case of naphthenic acid,PCS data showed the formation of w/o microemulsion from the saponified naphthenic acid in the mix

  4. Development of mineral oil free offset printing ink using vegetable oil esters.

    Roy, Ananda Sankar; Bhattacharjee, Moumita; Mondal, Rabindranath; Ghosh, Santinath


    Until the middle of this century, fats and oils are the major raw material source for paints, coating and lubricating applications. These markets are completely taken over by petroleum based stocks due to their abundance and versatility. However, recent public awareness to use environmentally acceptable products that minimize pollution, are compatible to human health and readily biodegradable created opportunities for vegetable oils for application in paints and printing inks. The formulation of vegetable oil methyl ester based 'green' offset printing ink that reduces the volatile organic compounds (VOC) has been discussed in the present study. Methyl esters of rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil have been prepared and their physical properties have been measured and compared with standard petroleum feed stock. Varnishes were prepared with these esters and their properties are also compared with that of the petroleum based products. Rheological properties of the inks are also evaluated and compared with standard printing ink using petroleum based solvent. In general performance of the ester-based printing inks are comparable with that of the mineral oil based product. On the basis of tack stability and gloss, ester based inks are much superior than the mineral oil based products. In conclusion, a new non-volatile diluent for printing ink has been developed. The diluent is made from common vegetable oils like rapeseed, soybean, rice bran and palm oil, a renewable source that is environmental friendly. Vegetable oil esters offer a cost effective solution for mineral oil based printing ink to meet VOCs regulations.

  5. Slurry sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry: determination of trace metals in mineral coal.

    Silva, M M; Goreti, M; Vale, R; Caramão, E B


    A procedure for lead, cadmium and copper determination in coal samples based on slurry sampling using an atomic absorption spectrometer equipped with a transversely heated graphite tube atomizer is proposed. The slurries were prepared by weighing the samples directly into autosampler cups (5-30 mg) and adding a 1.5 ml aliquot of a diluent mixture of 5% v/v HNO(3), 0.05% Triton X-100 and 10% ethanol. The slurry was homogenized by manual stirring before measurement. Slurry homogenization using ultrasonic agitation was also investigated for comparison. The effect of particle size and the use of different diluent compositions on the slurry preparation were investigated. The temperature programmes were optimized on the basis of pyrolysis and atomization curves. Absorbance characteristics with and without the addition of a palladium-magnesium modifier were compared. The use of 0.05% m/v Pd and 0.03% m/v Mg was found satisfactory for stabilizing Cd and Pb. The calibration was performed with aqueous standards. In addition, a conventional acid digestion procedure was applied to verify the efficiency of the slurry sampling. Better recoveries of the analytes were obtained when the particle size was reduced to <37 mum. Several certified coal reference materials (BCR Nos. 40, 180, and 181) were analyzed, and good agreement was obtained between the results from the proposed slurry sampling method and the certificate values.

  6. In vitro examination of potentized atropine sulfate dilutions on the contractility of the isolated rat ileum.

    Siegling-Vlitakis, Christiane; Martens, Holger; Lüdtke, Rainer


    Atropine sulphate, a competitive antagonist of acetylcholine (ACh) at muscarinic receptors, was first isolated from Atropa belladonna, one of the most used and best known homeopathic medicines. It has been suggested that high potencies of homeopathic atropine sulphate might have an influence on ACh-induced contraction of smooth muscles. The aim of the study was to determine the effects of homeopathic dilutions of atropine sulphate D6, D32, and D100 compared to the potentized diluents L6, L32, and L100 on ACh-induced contraction of isolated rat ileum. Forty-eight (48) ileal sections from 12 male Wistar rats were incubated in modified Krebs solutions, and the contractile activity responses to ACh obtained in the absence and presence of the test substances were recorded. Investigators and biometrician were completely blinded. No significant effects of atropine sulphate D6, D32, or D100 could be found (all p > 0.4 after Bonferoni-Holm correction) compared to the potentized diluents L6, L32, and L100, respectively. These figures did not change considerably even when strict a priori criteria were applied that define a measurement as valid and comparable. Our experiments could not replicate previous results on the effects of homeopathic atropine.

  7. Demonstration of a Reheat Combustor for Power Production With CO2 Sequestration

    Ben Chorpening; Geo. A. Richards; Kent H. Casleton; Mark Woike; Brian Willis; Larry Hoffman


    Concerns about climate change have encouraged significant interest in concepts for ultralow or “zero”-emissions power generation systems. In a concept proposed by Clean Energy Systems, Inc., nitrogen is removed from the combustion air and replaced with steam diluent. In this way, formation of nitrogen oxides is prevented, and the exhaust stream can be separated into concentrated CO2 and water streams. The concentrated CO2 stream could then serve as input to a CO2 sequestration process. In this study, experimental data are reported from a full-scale combustion test using steam as the diluent in oxy-fuel combustion. This combustor represents the “reheat” combustion system in a steam cycle that uses a high and low-pressure steam expansion. The reheat combustor serves to raise the temperature of the low-pressure steam turbine inlet, similar to the reheat stage of a conventional steam power cycle. Unlike a conventional steam cycle, the reheat enthalpy is actually generated by oxy-fuel combustion in the steam flow. This paper reports on the unique design aspects of this combustor, as well as initial emissions and operating performance.

  8. A prototype of the direct agglutination test kit (DAT-Canis) for the serological diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Oliveira, Edward; Saliba, Juliana Wilke; Oliveira, Diana; Dias, Edelberto Santos; Paz, Gustavo Fontes


    This report describes the stege I/II development of a new direct agglutination test (DAT) for the diagnosis of canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL) using freeze-dried antigen produced Coomassie blue-stained Leishmania (Leishmania) infantum promastigotes. In stage I, 16 canine serum samples, collected from eight dogs carrying CVL and eight healthy dogs, were assessed with the DAT using 2-mercaptoethanol (2-ME), N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC), kaolin or NAC plus urea (NAC+U) to improve the assay conditions. Stage II assessed the diagnostic accuracy with 100 serum samples collected from dogs with symptomatic CVL and clinically healthy dogs, comparing the four different sample diluents. The CVL-DAT prototype kit showed equivalent performances when 2-ME, NAC or NAC+U were used: 97.1% sensitivity (CI: 83-99.8%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and a 97% diagnostic accuracy (CI: 90.8-99.2). With kaolin, a 94.1% sensitivity (CI: 79-99%), 97% specificity (CI: 88.5-99.5%) and 96% diagnostic accuracy were observed (CI: 89.5-98.7), with no statistically significant differences among the four reagents (p=1.0). The NAC plus urea in sample diluent decreased non-specific agglutination, promoted a better defined sharp-edged blue spot and was thus chosen as a component for the new DAT prototype to diagnose canine VL, designated DAT-Canis.

  9. Influence Of Sample Preparation Method On Isothermal Studies During Compatibility Screening Of Ofloxacin; Correlation With DSC Data

    M. Misra, A. K. MISRA,, G. M. Panpalia


    Full Text Available Objectives: The compatibility of ofloxacin with somecommonly used diluents has been investigated usingisothermal stability studies (IST to allow relative ranking.Materials and Methods: The samples were prepared usingthree methods namely physical admixtures (with 5% addedmoisture, slugging and kneading in order to evaluate theeffect of mechanical treatment on the physicochemical stabilityof drug. To further verify the results of IST fresh binarymixtures were subjected to thermal analysis and an attemptwas made to correlate the results obtained from the twostudies.Results: The results from both DSC and IST revealed thatofloxacin was compatible with all the diluents used in thestudy. Among the three methods of sample preparation usedfor the study, the extent of degradation was more or less samein all the three methods indicating least influence of method ofsample preparation on the results of IST.Conclusions: From the study it was concluded that a betterco-correlation could have been obtained had ofloxacin beenmore unstable with few of the excipients than rest, used in thestudy. This way the extent of degradation would bedistinguishing enough to rank the excipients in decreasingorder of stability.

  10. Immobilized carboxymethylated dextran coatings for enhanced ELISA.

    Liberelle, Benoît; Merzouki, Abderrazzak; De Crescenzo, Gregory


    We here report the development of a new generation of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that takes advantage of a low-fouling carboxymethylated dextran (CMD) layer chemically grafted on ELISA wells. In our approach, the overnight capture antibody adsorption step found in classical ELISA was replaced by a covalent attachment step to the CMD layer completed in 15 min. As a model, the potential of our approach was highlighted using commercially available anti-human epidermal growth factor (EGF) antibodies to quantify EGF present in various samples. Of interest, the grafted CMD layer was found to be as efficient as the commonly used bovine serum albumine (BSA) to reduce non-specific adsorption, thus eliminating the need of a time-consuming BSA blocking step normally required in classical ELISA. Our results demonstrated similar specificity, affinity, and intra- and inter-assay variations regardless of the diluent used in the assay (BSA-based diluent or protein-free buffer solution) when compared to standard ELISA. Finally, accuracy and precision of the CMD-based ELISA were verified by a spike and recovery test. Dilutions of recombinant human EGF in serum from healthy human volunteers showed almost-perfect linearity and mean recovery rates ranging between 90 and 110%.

  11. SELEX-Asp : game-changer in residue upgrading

    Chung, K.H. [Well Resources Inc., AB (Canada); Zhao, S. [China Univ. of Petroleum, Beijing (Canada). China State Key Laboratory of Heavy Oil Processing


    This power point presentation discussed a procedure designed to selectively extract asphaltenes from heavy oil. The SELEX-Asp process was designed to reduce or eliminate the need for diluents in the pipeline transportation of heavy oil while producing a high yield clean feedstock suitable for conventional refinery processes. The asphalts are removed as dry granulates during a supercritical solvent extraction and fractionation process that allows for enhanced solvent recovery from the produced bottoms stream. The SELEX-Asp process was designed to remove only inappropriate molecules not suitable for making transportation fuels. The resulting products require significantly less diluent for pipeline transportation, and typically have a viscosity rate of less than 1 percent. When combined with hydrotreating, the process requires 40 percent less hydrogen to produce the same sulphur and nitrogen content as other products. The asphaltene granules produced by the process can be used as feedstock for asphalt, carbon products, gasification and combustion. Use of the process will eliminate the need for upgraders. tabs., figs.

  12. 不同浓度生根剂及浸根时间对胡椒扦插繁育的影响%Effects of Different Concentration Rooting Agents and Immersion Times on Cutting Propagation of Piper nigrum L.

    沈绍斌; 刘光华; 王跃全; 左红


    Using different concentration rooting agents solution and immersion time to process the pepper cuttings,and the bottom seedbed cutting seedlings experiment was carried on. The results showed that the survival rate and rooting rate of cuttings were better in the processing agent 100 times diluent ;processing with 100 times rooting agent diluent for 10 minutes,the rooting rate of the pepper cuttings reached 93.1%,the length of average longest root reached 10.50 cm.%用不同浓度的生根荆及浸根时间对胡椒扦插枝条底部作浸泡处理,并进行苗床扦插育苗试验。结果表明:插穗在生根剂100倍稀释液的浸泡处理下成活率和生根率较好;在生根剂100倍稀释液下处理10min插穗生根率可达93.1%,平均最长根长迭10.50cm。

  13. Third phase formation in the extraction of Th(NO{sub 3}){sub 4} by Tri-sec-butyl phosphate. A comparison with Tri-n-butyl phosphate

    Chandrasekar, Aditi; Suresh, A.; Sivaraman, N. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India). Chemistry Group


    Earlier studies carried out in our laboratory indicated that Tri-sec-butyl phosphate (TsBP) is a potential extractant for U/Th separation. Also, the third phase formation tendency of TsBP is lower compared to its isomers, Tri-n-butyl-phosphate (TBP) and Tri-iso-butyl phosphate (TiBP). In this context, the extraction and third phase formation behaviour of 1.1 M solutions of TiBP and TsBP in n-dodecane in the extraction of Th(IV) from 1 M HNO{sub 3} at 303 K over a wide range of Th concentrations were investigated in the present study and the results are compared with the literature data on TBP system. Concentrations of Th(IV) and HNO{sub 3} loaded in the organic phase before third phase formation (biphasic region) as well as in third phase and diluent-rich phase after third phase formation (triphasic region) were measured as a function of equilibrium aqueous phase Th(IV) concentration. The density of loaded organic phase was also measured at various Th(IV) concentrations. The extraction profiles in the biphasic region indicated that extraction of Th(IV) by TBP is higher than that of TiBP which in turn is higher than that of TsBP. Extractant concentration in the diluent-rich phase and third phase was measured for the triphasic region.

  14. Actinide and lanthanide separation process (ALSEP)

    Guelis, Artem V.


    The process of the invention is the separation of minor actinides from lanthanides in a fluid mixture comprising, fission products, lanthanides, minor actinides, rare earth elements, nitric acid and water by addition of an organic chelating aid to the fluid; extracting the fluid with a solvent comprising a first extractant, a second extractant and an organic diluent to form an organic extractant stream and an aqueous raffinate. Scrubbing the organic stream with a dicarboxylic acid and a chelating agent to form a scrubber discharge. The scrubber discharge is stripped with a simple buffering agent and a second chelating agent in the pH range of 2.5 to 6.1 to produce actinide and lanthanide streams and spent organic diluents. The first extractant is selected from bis(2-ethylhexyl)hydrogen phosphate (HDEHP) and mono(2-ethylhexyl)2-ethylhexyl phosphonate (HEH(EHP)) and the second extractant is selected from N,N,N,N-tetra-2-ethylhexyl diglycol amide (TEHDGA) and N,N,N',N'-tetraoctyl-3-oxapentanediamide (TODGA).

  15. Stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0. 9% sodium chloride injections

    Townsend, R.J.; Puchala, A.H.; Nail, S.L.


    The stability of methylprednisolone sodium succinate in small volumes of 5% dextrose and 0.9% sodium chloride injections was studied. Vials of methylprednisolone sodium succinate (125-3000 mg) were reconstituted and added to 50- and 100-ml volumes of the two diluents. These piggyback solutions were visually inspected for the development of haze over a 24-hour period. A nephelometer was used to quantitate the development of turbidity with time. The effect of pH on haze formation was investigated, and infrared spectroscopy was used to identify the haze. Nephelometer readings were found to correlate well with visual inspections. The haze was identified as being formed by the precipitation of free methylprednisolone. The rate of change of turbidity was directly related to the pH. A 1.4-3.2 percentage-point increase in the free methylprednisolone concentration secondary to hydrolysis over the 24-hour period was noted. The duration of stability was variable among the investigated lots and concentrations. Nineteen of the 24 admixtures stored at room temperature remained stable and free of visible haze for at least 12 hours after preparation. For all dosage strengths of methylprednisolone sodium succinate studied, these data indicate that solutions can be made stable for at least 12 hours by selecting the appropriate volume of diluent.

  16. 半合成切削液的消泡稳定性研究%Study on Antifoam Stability of Semi-synthetic Cutting Fluid

    李平亮; 庄晓华; 沈燕良


    The new kind of micro-emulsible green cutting fluid was developed by choosing suitable lubricant,anticorro-sion agent,antifoam,antiseptic and surfactant. The assessment results show that the antifoam of cutting fluid will be invalid after long time of use. The hard water diluent of cutting fluid is shown phenomenon of separation out oil. The stability of an-ti-hard water diluent of cutting fluid is improved by choosing suitable surfactant,and the method of stabilizing antifoam of semi-synthetic cutting fluid is proposed.%  通过筛选合适的润滑剂、防锈剂、消泡剂、杀菌剂、表面活性剂,研制一种新型微乳化绿色切削液。通评价发现,该切削液消泡剂长时间使用会失效,硬水稀释液出现了析油现象。通过筛选合适的表面活性剂改善了稀释的抗硬水稳定性,并提出了改善半合成切削液的消泡稳定性的方法。

  17. Recovery of carboxylic acids at pH greater than pK{sub a}

    Tung, L.A.


    Economics of producing carboxylic acids by fermentation is often dominated, not by the fermentation cost, but by the cost of recovering and purifying the acids from dilute aqueous solutions. Experiments were performed to measure uptakes of lactic and succinic acids as functions of pH by basic polymeric sorbents; sorbent regeneration was also tested. Performance at pH > pK{sub a} and regenerability depend on sorbent basicity; apparent pK{sub a} and monomer pK{sub a} can be used to predict sorbent performance. Two basic amine extractants, Alamine 336 and Amberlite LA-2, in were also studied; they are able to sustain capacity to higher pH in diluents that stabilize the acid-amine complex through H bonding. Secondary amines perform better than tert-amines in diluents that solvate the additional proton. Competitive sulfate and phosphate, an interference in fermentation, are taken up by sorbents more strongly than by extractants. The third step in the proposed fermentation process, the cracking of the trimethylammonium (TMA) carboxylate, was also examined. Because lactic acid is more soluble and tends to self-esterify, simple thermal cracking does not remove all TMA; a more promising approach is to esterify the TMA lactate by reaction with an alcohol.

  18. Radical Cations and Acid Protection during Radiolysis

    Bruce J. Mincher; Christopher A. Zarzana; Stephen P. Mezyk


    Ligand molecules for used nuclear fuel separation schemes are exposed to high radiation fields and high concentrations of acid. Thus, an understanding of the complex interactions between extraction ligands, diluent, and acid is critical to understanding the performance of a separation process. The diglycolamides are ligands with important structural similarities to CMPO; however, previous work has shown that their radiolytic degradation has important mechanistic differences from CMPO. The DGAs do not enjoy radioprotection by HNO3 and the kinetics of DGA radiolytic degradation are different. CMPO degrades with pseudo-zero-order kinetics in linear fashion with absorbed dose while the DGAs degrade in pseudo-first-order, exponential fashion. This suggests that the DGAs degrade by simple reaction with some product of direct diluent radiolysis, while CMPO degradation is probably multi-step, with a slow step that is not dependent on the CMPO concentration, and mitigated by HNO3. It is thus believed that radio-protection and the zero-order radiolytic degradation kinetics are related, and that these phenomena are a function of either the formation of strong acid complexes with CMPO and/or to the presence of the CMPO phenyl ring. Experiments to test both these hypotheses have been designed and partially conducted. This report summarizes findings related to these phenomena for FY16, in satisfaction of milestone M3FT-16IN030104053. It also reports continued kinetic measurements for the reactions of the dodecane radical cation with solvent extraction ligands.

  19. Gamma radiolysis of the highly selective ligands CyMe{sub 4}BTBP and CyMe{sub 4}BTPhen: Qualitative and quantitative investigation of radiolysis product

    Schmidt, H.; Wilden, A.; Modolo, G.; Bosbach, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Institute of Energy and Climate Research IEK-6: Nuclear Waste Management, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Santiago-Schuebel, B.; Hupert, M. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH, Central Institute for Engineering, Analytics - ZEA-3, 52425 Juelich (Germany); Svehla, J.; Gruner, B. [Institute of Inorganic Chemistry, Academy of Sciences, Hlavni 1001, 25068 Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic); Ekberg, C. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, Chalmers University of Technology, 41296 Gothenburg (Sweden)


    The highly selective nitrogen donor ligands CyMe{sub 4}BTBP and CyMe4{sub B}TPhen where γ-irradiated under identical experimental conditions in 1-octanol with and without contact to nitric acid solution. Subsequently, solvent extraction experiments were carried out to evaluate the stability of the extractants against γ-radiation monitoring Am(III) and Eu(III) distribution ratios. Generally, decreasing distribution ratios with increasing absorbed dose were detected for both molecules. Furthermore, qualitative mass spectrometric analyses were performed and ligand concentrations were determined by HPLC-DAD after irradiation to investigate the radiolysis mechanism. An exponential decrease with increasing absorbed dose was observed for both ligands with a faster rate for CyMe{sub 4}BTPhen. Main radiolysis products indicated the addition of one or more diluent molecules (1-octanol) to the ligand via prior production of α-hydroxy-octyl radicals from diluent radiolysis. The addition of nitric acid during the irradiation lead to a remarkable stabilization of the system, as the extraction of Am(III) and Eu(III) did not change significantly over the whole examined dose range. Quantification of the remaining ligand concentration on the other hand showed decreasing concentrations with increasing absorbed dose. The stabilization of D values is therefore explained by the formation of 1-octanol addition products which are also able to extract the studied metal ions. (authors)

  20. A poly(D,L-lactide) resin for the preparation of tissue engineering scaffolds by stereolithography.

    Melchels, Ferry P W; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W


    Porous polylactide constructs were prepared by stereolithography, for the first time without the use of reactive diluents. Star-shaped poly(D,L-lactide) oligomers with 2, 3 and 6 arms were synthesised, end-functionalised with methacryloyl chloride and photo-crosslinked in the presence of ethyl lactate as a non-reactive diluent. The molecular weights of the arms of the macromers were 0.2, 0.6, 1.1 and 5 kg/mol, allowing variation of the crosslink density of the resulting networks. Networks prepared from macromers of which the molecular weight per arm was 0.6 kg/mol or higher had good mechanical properties, similar to linear high-molecular weight poly(D,L-lactide). A resin based on a 2-armed poly(D,L-lactide) macromer with a molecular weight of 0.6 kg/mol per arm (75 wt%), ethyl lactate (19 wt%), photo-initiator (6 wt%), inhibitor and dye was prepared. Using this resin, films and computer-designed porous constructs were accurately fabricated by stereolithography. Pre-osteoblasts showed good adherence to these photo-crosslinked networks. The proliferation rate on these materials was comparable to that on high-molecular weight poly(D,L-lactide) and tissue culture polystyrene.

  1. Auto-ignitions of a methane/air mixture at high and intermediate temperatures

    Leschevich, V. V.; Martynenko, V. V.; Penyazkov, O. G.; Sevrouk, K. L.; Shabunya, S. I.


    A rapid compression machine (RCM) and a shock tube (ST) have been employed to study ignition delay times of homogeneous methane/air mixtures at intermediate-to-high temperatures. Both facilities allow measurements to be made at temperatures of 900-2000 K, at pressures of 0.38-2.23 MPa, and at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. In ST experiments, nitrogen served as a diluent gas, whereas in RCM runs the diluent gas composition ranged from pure nitrogen to pure argon. Recording pressure, UV, and visible emissions identified the evolution of chemical reactions. Correlations of ignition delay time were generated from the data for each facility. At temperatures below 1300 K, a significant reduction of average activation energy from 53 to 15.3 kcal/mol was obtained. Moreover, the RCM data showed significant scatter that dramatically increased with decreasing temperature. An explanation for the abnormal scatter in the data was proposed based on the high-speed visualization of auto-ignition phenomena and experiments performed with oxygen-free and fuel-free mixtures. It is proposed that the main reason for such a significant reduction of average activation energy is attributable to the premature ignition of ultrafine particles in the reactive mixture.

  2. Heavy oil transportation - Challenges and opportunities

    Gerez, John [Enbridge International (United States)


    Enbridge is a leading company in the transportation of oil and gas through pipelines, the company is also active in green energy projects. In North America, Enbridge has built a pipeline which provides the Canadian oil sands with diluent for the production of heavy oil. The heavy oil sector is confronted with technical, social, environmental, regulatory, commercial and diluent supply challenges. With the declining demand in North America, Enbridge has launched a pipeline project to link the Canadian oil sands to Canada's west coast and thereby gain better access to growing markets such as China and India. This project is expected to provide billions of dollars of benefits in the form of provincial and federal revenues and to increase Canada's gross domestic product over the next 30 years. A similar project, Oleoducto al Pacifico, is underway in Colombia to stimulate heavy oil exploration and production by connecting the oil plays to high growth Pacific markets; it is expected to provide long-term economic benefits to the country.

  3. Criopreservação do sêmen de tambaqui utilizando dry shipper e máquina de congelação programada

    Mayara Setúbal Oliveira


    Full Text Available O tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum é uma espécie nativa de peixe de água doce de grande importância para aquicultura brasileira. Devido a isso, diversas técnicas têm sido desenvolvidas para aperfeiçoar a reprodução desta espécie em cativeiro, dentre elas a criopreservação de sêmen de peixe. Como uma forma de melhorar os protocolos de criopreservação, tem-se buscado utilizar soluções diluidoras e métodos de congelação adequados, proporcionando uma boa qualidade seminal pós-descongelação. Dessa forma, este estudo objetivou avaliar a eficiência de diferentes diluidores e métodos de congelação na criopreservação do sêmen de tambaqui (C. macropomum. As amostras de sêmen fresco foram diluídas em diferentes tratamentos (Glicose 5% + 10% Dimetilsufóxido – DMSO; Glicose 5% + 10% Metil glicol – MG; Beltsville Thawing Solution – BTS + 10% DMSO e BTS + 10% MG na proporção 1:9 e congeladas em máquina de congelação programada e em Dry shipper. As amostras seminais foram descongeladas e avaliadas para vitalidade, morfologia e cinética espermáticas. O sêmen criopreservado com DMSO utilizando a máquina de congelação programada proporcionou maiores percentuais de espermatozoides móveis (15,44 ± 1,04% após a descongelação em relação ao Dry shipper (3,99 ± 0,55%, independente do diluente utilizado. Além disso, DMSO proporcionou as melhores velocidades espermáticas em relação ao MG, independente do método de congelação e diluente empregado. Um maior percentual de espermatozoides vivos foi observado quando se utilizou Glicose (37,28 ± 1,32% como diluente (independente do método e crioprotetor, e DMSO (37,98 ± 1,25% em máquina de congelação programada. Para a morfologia espermática, uma maior quantidade de espermatozoides normais (46,10 ± 1,82% foi observada quando o sêmen foi criopreservado usando a máquina de congelação programada com o DMSO, para os crioprotetores, Glicose e BTS (38,16 ± 1

  4. Purification of Indonesian oil sands bitumen%印尼油砂沥青的净化工艺

    罗宽勇; 韩冬云; 李福起; 石薇薇; 庞海全; 曹祖宾


    溶剂萃取法分离油砂制得油砂沥青中含大量机械杂质,影响沥青的品质及后期加工利用。通过XRD和激光粒度仪表征了机械杂质的矿物组成和粒度分布等特性。针对机械杂质的特性,开发了复配试剂,通过稀释剂降黏沥青、复配试剂净化沥青、稀释剂回收再生及循环利用3个操作单元对油砂沥青进行了脱杂净化实验,并分析了净化机理。结果表明:降黏过程,温度70℃、时间10min、稀释剂与沥青比0.3g/g,稀释沥青70℃黏度为3.2Pa·s;净化过程,6%盐酸与稀释沥青比0.2mL/g、CaCl2与稀释沥青比0.01g/g,温度70℃,混合时间10min,沉降时间20min,机械杂质脱除率可达到93.5%;回收及循环过程,稀释剂回收率为98%,循环使用5次,机械杂质脱除率仍92%以上。该工艺具有沉降时间短、机械杂质脱除彻底的优点。%Oil sands bitumen obtained from solvent extraction contained a great amount of mechanical impurities(MI),which was harmful to the post processing of bitumen. The characterization of mineral components of MI by XRD and particle size distribution of MI by laser particle analyzer were presented. Compound reagent was developed for the removal of MI and the reaction mechanism was presented. The technology consisted of three steps,namely,dilution of bitumen by diluent(P1), purification of diluted bitumen by compound reagent(P2)and recovery of diluent(P3). In P1,under the optimal reaction conditions of 70℃,10min,m(diluent)/m(bitumen)=0.3g/g,the viscosity of diluted bitumen at 70℃ was 3.2Pa·s. In P2,under the optimal reaction conditions ofV(HCl,6%)/m(diluted bitumen)=0.2mL/g,m(CaCl2)/m(diluted bitumen)=0.01g/g,70℃,mixing time 10min,settling time 20min,the mechanical impurities removal rate(MIRR)could reach 93.5%. In P3,the recovery rate of diluent was 98%,MIRR remained above 92% after diluent being recycled 5 times. The technology has the advantages of short

  5. Study on special adjuvants of antibiological inoculant bacillus subtilis sf- 628%枯草芽孢杆菌生防茵剂sf-628专用助剂的研发

    徐广春; 顾中言; 罗楚平; 徐德进; 许小龙; 陈志谊


    【目的】为了获得枯草芽孢杆菌sf-628的专用助剂,【方法】将sf-628与6种不同的表面活性剂组合按重量比95:5进行混配,并以菌液中的活菌量为依据进行筛选。同时采用国标GB5549—90的方法测定sf_628与各个表面活性剂组合混配后稀释液的表面张力,并将其与苹果、梨叶片的临界表面张力进行比较分析。【结果l结果表明,苹果叶片正、反面的临界表面张力值分别为31.78mN·m^(-1)和33.75mN·m^(-1);梨叶片的临界表面张力值分别为39.90mN·m^(-1)和38.02mN·m^(-1)。活菌量的测定结果表明4种表面活性剂组合对sf-628表现为抑制作用,其余2种表面活性剂组合(Ⅲ和IV)则对其安全。将其与sf-628混配后0—1000倍稀释液中,表面活性剂组合Ⅲ和IV达到临界胶束浓度,表面活性剂组合Ⅲ稀释液的表面张力大于苹果叶片的临界表面张力,故难以很好地在苹果叶片上润湿展布:表面活性剂组合IV稀释液的表面张力小于苹果、梨叶片的临界表面张力。故可以在苹果、梨叶片上黏着并润湿展布。【结论】表面活性剂组合IV可作为枯草芽孢杆菌sf-628的专用助剂在苹果、梨树上使用。%[Objective]The objective of the study is to obtain special adjuvants of antibiological inoculant Bacillus subtilis strain sf-628. [Method]sf-628 were mixed with 6 different combinations of surfactants at the weight ratio of 95 to 5, respectively. The suitable adjuvants were filtered out based on the amount of viable bacteria in the mixtures. At the same time, the surface tension of mixture diluent was determined followed by the national standard GB 5549-90 and the critical surface tension of apple and pear leaf was measured by Zisman plot. Then the relationship between the critical surface tension and the surface ten- sion of diluent was compared and analyzed. [Result]The results indicate that the critical

  6. 孟鲁司特钠咀嚼片细菌计数检查方法的比较与优化%Comparison and Optimization of Bacterial Counting Method for Montelukast Sodium Chew-able Tablets



    Objective:To optimize bacterial counting method for Montelukast Sodium Chewable Tablets .Methods:Based on Chinese Pharmacopoeia (2010 edition), two types of diluents were used to prepare sample solutions that were applied for bacterial recovery as -say.In this study, the optimal bacterial counting method for the Montelukast Sodium Chewable Tablet was figured out by comparing the bacterial recovery rates using the two diluents .Results: The antibiotic activity of Montelukast Sodium Chewable Tablets was largely compromised by addition of 0.5%lecithin and 4%polysorbate80 to the sample solution.The bacterial recovery rate was shown higher than 70%with the routine plate counting method .On the other hand , the recovery rate for the sample without neutralization agents was less than 70%, it could be reached only if the sample solution was diluted to 1/1 000 as performed routinely.Conclusion:The bacte-rial counting method for Montelukast Sodium Chewable Tablets was set up optimally by adding 0.5%lecithin and 4%polysorbate80 to the diluent.%目的:优化孟鲁司特钠咀嚼片细菌计数检查方法。方法:用两种稀释剂分别制备供试液,按2010年版《中国药典》进行回收率试验,比较不同计数方法回收率的高低,以选择该药品最佳的细菌计数方法。结果:添加0.5%大豆卵磷脂和4%聚山梨酯80的稀释剂可去除孟鲁司特钠咀嚼片的抗菌活性,细菌计数检查方法为常规法回收率可达70%以上;未添加中和剂组细菌计数检查方法为常规法回收率低于70%,需用1∶1000稀释级常规法才能使回收率达到70%以上。结论:采用稀释剂中添加0.5%大豆卵磷脂和4%聚山梨酯80法可优化孟鲁司特钠咀嚼片的细菌计数检查方法。

  7. Estudo morfométrico do efeito do tenoxicam com água bidestilada ou com cloreto de sódio a 0,9% no endotélio venoso, em coelhos

    Schnaider Taylor Brandão


    Full Text Available Objetivo: Avaliar, pela morfometria, se o tenoxicam com água bidestilada (diluente ou com cloreto de sódio a 0,9% (NaCl 0,9% provoca alterações no endotélio venoso. Métodos: Foram utilizados 90 coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus, brancos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, machos, com idade acima de 10 semanas, com peso variando entre 2000 e 3500 gramas, divididos em dois grupos denominados Experimento e Controle, que foram observados nos tempos de 6h, 12h e 24h. Administrou-se nas venae auriculares dextra e sinistra, tenoxicam com seu diluente ou com NaCl 0,9% no grupo Experimento e NaCl 0,9% no grupo Controle. Para análise estatística dos resultados foi aplicada a análise de variância a um critério: a em separado para cada grupo (Tenoxicam/NaCl 0,9%, Tenoxicam/Diluente e NaCl 0,9%, para comparar as medidas médias dos diâmetros dos núcleos das células endoteliais obtidas nos períodos de observação de 6h, 12h e 24h. Resultados: Observou-se que não ocorreram diferenças significantes entre as medidas médias dos diâmetros nucleares encontradas nos períodos de eutanásia de 6, 12 e 24h, em separado para cada grupo. As medidas médias dos diâmetros nucleares do grupo Controle foram significantemente maiores do que as observadas no grupo Experimento. Conclusão: O tenoxicam, com água bidestilada ou com cloreto de sódio a 0,9%, reduziu os diâmetros dos núcleos das células endoteliais nas venae em que foi injetado.

  8. Mechanical and thermal properties of oxazolidone modified epoxy resin%噁唑烷酮改性环氧树脂的性能

    黄丽; 石萌萌; 王成忠


    Oxazolidone ring was introduced into epoxy resin by reacting 4,4’-diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) with epoxy resin composed of bisphenol A epoxy resin and aliphatic epoxy resin. The viscosity of modified epoxy resin,mechanical and thermal properties of cured resin were studied by changing the content of aliphatic epoxy resin which was used as reactive diluent and MDI. The viscosity of oxazolidone modified epoxy resin could be reduced effectively when modification ratio was decreased and content of diluent was increased. When modification ratio was 4∶1,tensile strength and bending strength of cured resin reached 75.4 MPa and 158.2 MPa. The values were increased by 64%and 57%respectively compared with those of bisphenol A epoxy resin cured samples. Elongation and impact strength were also greatly improved. Oxazolidone modified epoxy resin exhibited high strength and toughness. Diluent content indicated a small influence on glass transition temperature (Tg). The Tg of oxazolidone modified epoxy resin was between 108 ℃ and 118 ℃. Oxazolidone modified epoxy resin possessed thermal resistance as bisphenol A epoxy resin.%采用4,4-二苯基甲烷二异氰酸酯(MDI)对双酚A环氧树脂和脂肪族环氧树脂进行唑烷酮化共改性,研究了MDI及作为活性稀释剂的脂肪族环氧用量对改性产物黏度及树脂固化物力学性能、耐热性的影响。结果表明,低改性比和稀释剂可以有效降低唑烷酮改性环氧树脂黏度,当改性比为4∶1时,树脂固化物拉伸强度、弯曲强度达到75.4 MPa和158.2 MPa,分别比环氧树脂固化物提高了64%和57%,断裂延伸率和冲击强度有较大提高,具有高强高韧的特点。稀释剂含量对Tg影响较小,各改性树脂Tg在108~118℃之间,与纯环氧树脂的耐热性相当。

  9. Laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flame supported by an oxygen-permeable-ion-transport membrane

    Hong, Jongsup


    A numerical model with detailed gas-phase chemistry and transport was used to predict homogeneous fuel conversion processes and to capture the important features (e.g., the location, temperature, thickness and structure of a flame) of laminar oxy-fuel diffusion flames stabilized on the sweep side of an oxygen permeable ion transport membrane (ITM). We assume that the membrane surface is not catalytic to hydrocarbon or syngas oxidation. It has been demonstrated that an ITM can be used for hydrocarbon conversion with enhanced reaction selectivity such as oxy-fuel combustion for carbon capture technologies and syngas production. Within an ITM unit, the oxidizer flow rate, i.e., the oxygen permeation flux, is not a pre-determined quantity, since it depends on the oxygen partial pressures on the feed and sweep sides and the membrane temperature. Instead, it is influenced by the oxidation reactions that are also dependent on the oxygen permeation rate, the initial conditions of the sweep gas, i.e., the fuel concentration, flow rate and temperature, and the diluent. In oxy-fuel combustion applications, the sweep side is fuel-diluted with CO2, and the entire unit is preheated to achieve a high oxygen permeation flux. This study focuses on the flame structure under these conditions and specifically on the chemical effect of CO2 dilution. Results show that, when the fuel diluent is CO2, a diffusion flame with a lower temperature and a larger thickness is established in the vicinity of the membrane, in comparison with the case in which N2 is used as a diluent. Enhanced OH-driven reactions and suppressed H radical chemistry result in the formation of products with larger CO and H2O and smaller H2 concentrations. Moreover, radical concentrations are reduced due to the high CO2 fraction in the sweep gas. CO2 dilution reduces CH3 formation and slows down the formation of soot precursors, C2H2 and C2H4. The flame location impacts the species diffusion and heat transfer from the

  10. Surface Coverage and Structure of Mixed DNA/Alkylthiol Monolayers on Gold: Characterization by XPS, NEXAFS, and Fluorescence Intensity Measurements

    Lee,C.; Gong, P.; Harbers, G.; Grainger, D.; Castner, D.; Gamble, L.


    Self-assembly of thiol-terminated single-stranded DNA (HS-ssDNA) on gold has served as an important model system for DNA immobilization at surfaces. Here, we report a detailed study of the surface composition and structure of mixed self-assembled DNA monolayers containing a short alkylthiol surface diluent [11-mercapto-1-undecanol (MCU)] on gold supports. These mixed DNA monolayers were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), and fluorescence intensity measurements. XPS results on sequentially adsorbed DNA/MCU monolayers on gold indicated that adsorbed MCU molecules first incorporate into the HS-ssDNA monolayer and, upon longer MCU exposures, displace adsorbed HS-ssDNA molecules from the surface. Thus, HS-ssDNA surface coverage steadily decreased with MCU exposure time. Polarization-dependent NEXAFS and fluorescence results both show changes in signals consistent with changes in DNA orientation after only 30 min of MCU exposure. NEXAFS polarization dependence (followed by monitoring the N 1s{yields}{pi}* transition) of the mixed DNA monolayers indicated that the DNA nucleotide base ring structures are oriented more parallel to the gold surface compared to DNA bases in pure HS-ssDNA monolayers. This indicates that HS-ssDNA oligomers reorient toward a more-upright position upon MCU incorporation. Fluorescence intensity results using end-labeled DNA probes on gold show little observable fluorescence on pure HS-ssDNA monolayers, likely due to substrate quenching effects between the fluorophore and the gold. MCU diluent incorporation into HS-ssDNA monolayers initially increases DNA fluorescence signal by densifying the chemisorbed monolayer, prompting an upright orientation of the DNA, and moving the terminal fluorophore away from the substrate. Immobilized DNA probe density and DNA target hybridization in these mixed DNA monolayers, as well as effects of MCU diluent on DNA hybridization in

  11. Surface Coverage and Structure of Mixed DNA/Alkylthiol Monolayers on Gold: Characterization by XPS, NEXAFS, and Fluorescence Intensity Measurements

    Lee, Chi-Ying; Gong, Ping; Harbers, Gregory M.; Grainger, David W.; Castner, David G.; Gamble, Lara J.


    Self-assembly of thiol-terminated single-stranded DNA (HS-ssDNA) on gold has served as an important model system for DNA immobilization at surfaces. Here, we report a detailed study of the surface composition and structure of mixed self-assembled DNA monolayers containing a short alkylthiol surface diluent [11-mercapto-1-undecanol (MCU)] on gold supports. These mixed DNA monolayers were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), and fluorescence intensity measurements. XPS results on sequentially adsorbed DNA/MCU monolayers on gold indicated that adsorbed MCU molecules first incorporate into the HS-ssDNA monolayer and, upon longer MCU exposures, displace adsorbed HS-ssDNA molecules from the surface. Thus, HS-ssDNA surface coverage steadily decreased with MCU exposure time. Polarization-dependent NEXAFS and fluorescence results both show changes in signals consistent with changes in DNA orientation after only 30 min of MCU exposure. NEXAFS polarization dependence (followed by monitoring the N 1s → π* transition) of the mixed DNA monolayers indicated that the DNA nucleotide base ring structures are oriented more parallel to the gold surface compared to DNA bases in pure HS-ssDNA monolayers. This indicates that HS-ssDNA oligomers reorient toward a more-upright position upon MCU incorporation. Fluorescence intensity results using end-labeled DNA probes on gold show little observable fluorescence on pure HS-ssDNA monolayers, likely due to substrate quenching effects between the fluorophore and the gold. MCU diluent incorporation into HS-ssDNA monolayers initially increases DNA fluorescence signal by densifying the chemisorbed monolayer, prompting an upright orientation of the DNA, and moving the terminal fluorophore away from the substrate. Immobilized DNA probe density and DNA target hybridization in these mixed DNA monolayers, as well as effects of MCU diluent on DNA hybridization in complex

  12. Microbial challenge test of a novel epoprostenol sodium formulation

    Bandilla D


    Full Text Available Dirk Bandilla,1 Marcel Goverde,2 Paolo Giudici,1 Olivier Lambert1 1Actelion Pharmaceuticals Ltd., Allschwil, 2MGP Consulting GmbH, Binningen, Switzerland Aim: The aim of the current study was to present a comprehensive display of antimicrobial activity of a novel epoprostenol sodium formulation with respect to seven different microorganisms, two levels of inoculation (102–103 colony forming units [CFU]/mL and 105–106 CFU/mL, two diluents (sterile water for injection [SWI] and sterile saline [sodium chloride 0.9%] for injection [SSI], two concentrations (3,000 ng/mL and 15,000 ng/mL, and seven different storage time points at two temperatures (up to 10 days at 2°C–8°C and 20°C–25°C. Materials and methods: Antimicrobial activity was evaluated for, 1 solutions at 3,000 ng/mL inoculated with 102–103 CFU/mL and 105–106 CFU/mL; and 2 solutions at 15,000 ng/mL inoculated with 102–103 CFU/mL and 105–106 CFU/mL. All solutions were stored for up to 10 days at 2°C–8°C and 20°C–25°C. Solutions were prepared by reconstitution and further dilution of an epoprostenol sodium formulation using SWI or SSI. Antimicrobial activity was measured after inoculation with seven species of bacteria, yeast, and mold. Results: For all solutions, after 10 days, no microbial growth with respect to initial inoculum was observed, with the exception of a few early time points when using SWI as diluent. Some microorganisms died off completely, whereas others remained stable overall or returned to initial levels. Prior to decreasing, some microorganisms displayed a slight initial increase, presumed to be caused by breakup of clusters. Storage temperature had a negligible influence on the results, whereas choice of diluent (SSI or SWI impacted growth kinetics in that SSI had a greater antimicrobial effect than SWI. Conclusion: Upon reconstitution and further dilution of the novel epoprostenol formulation to concentrations of 3,000 ng/mL and

  13. Extracellular calcium is involved in egg yolk-induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm.

    Yang, D H; McMillan, A G; Standley, N T; Shannon, P; Xu, Z Z


    Head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm occurs when semen is highly diluted in an egg yolk-citrate diluent without streptomycin. The objectives were to investigate causes of sperm agglutination and the underlying mechanism. Aliquots of bull semen were diluted in a base diluent (BD) supplemented with various test components and the percentage of agglutinated sperm (% AggSp) was quantified at 1, 5, 24, 48, and 72 h of incubation. When sperm were incubated at 22 °C, no agglutination was observed in BD for up to 72 h, whereas the % AggSp was 5.0, 41.7, 72.2, 91.1, and 92.8% in BD + 5% egg yolk (BD + EY) at 1, 5, 24, 48 and 72 h, respectively. However, no sperm agglutination was observed in BD + EY if incubation temperature was 37 °C. Addition of 5 or 10 mM ethylenebis (oxyethyleneni-trilo) tetra-acetic acid to BD + EY reduced the % AggSp from 95% to sperm agglutination in the absence of egg yolk, implicating calcium and other factors in egg yolk. Addition of the citrate-soluble fraction (CSF) of egg yolk to BD induced sperm agglutination similar to whole egg yolk, whereas water- and saline-soluble fractions of egg yolk were ineffective. The sperm-agglutinating efficacy of CSF (the % AggSp = 95% at 72 h) was reduced by dialysis (20%; P sperm agglutination, whereas addition of 2 mM of a cAMP analogue, dbcAMP, to a nonagglutinating diluent failed to induce sperm agglutination. Agglutination status had no effect on sperm plasma membrane/acrosome status and mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, calcium and other component(s) in the CSF of egg yolk induced head-to-head agglutination of bull sperm in a time- and temperature-dependent manner. Although the mechanism of agglutination was not determined, the cAMP- protein kinase A signaling pathway was not involved.

  14. 大蒜提取液对番茄主要病原真菌的抑制作用%Inhibition of Garlic Extract of the Major Pathogens in Tomato

    徐文静; 赵洪锟; 董英山; 周义发; 李启云


    The inhibition of garlic extract of 4 pathogens in tomato was studied by using aimiao, the imported fungicide, and carbendazim, the commonly used fungicide at home, as the contrast. The results indicated the controlled ability of aimiao EC is the highest, and the garlic extract EC is close to carbendazim powder, but garlic extract EC is better compared to carbendazim powder by garlic extract EC,carbendazim powder and aimiao EC control the growth of 4 pathogens in tomato. By analyzing the inhibitory rate and calculating the trend of fungicide concentration, the EC_(95) oiFulvia fulva that aimiao EC controlled turns out to be 5 025-time diluent, and that of other fungi is about 2 220 times; the EC_(90) of Col-letotrichum coccodesthat garlic extract EC controlled is 586-time diluent, and that for Alternaria solani, Fulvia fulva and Botrytis cinerea are 149,173 and 446 times respectively; EC_(90) of Fulvia fulva that carbendazim powder controlled is 178-time diluent, and that for Alternaria solani, Colletotrichum coccodes and Botrytis cinerea are 111,145,107 times respectively. In a word, garlic extract EC and 2 fungicides have very strong ability in controlling the growth of the 4 pathogens in tomato, and the trend of fungicide concentration is consistent with the measured result, but the specificity is different for different fungicides respectively.%以进口杀菌剂爱苗和国内常用杀菌剂多菌灵为对照,研究了大蒜提取液对番茄4种病原真菌的抑制作用.结果表明:爱苗对4种病菌的抑制作用最大,大蒜提取液抑菌作用好于多菌灵.大蒜提取液对炭疽菌的EC_(90)为586倍稀释液,对早疫菌、叶霉菌和灰霉菌的EC_(90)分别为149,173,446倍.大蒜提取液和2种农药对番茄4种病原真菌有很强的抑制作用,但不同药剂有不同的专一性.

  15. Chemical Kinetics in Support of Syngas Turbine Combustion

    Dryer, Frederick


    This document is the final report on an overall program formulated to extend our prior work in developing and validating kinetic models for the CO/hydrogen/oxygen reaction by carefully analyzing the individual and interactive behavior of specific elementary and subsets of elementary reactions at conditions of interest to syngas combustion in gas turbines. A summary of the tasks performed under this work are: 1. Determine experimentally the third body efficiencies in H+O{sub 2}+M = HO{sub 2}+M (R1) for CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. 2. Using published literature data and the results in this program, further develop the present H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent and CO/H{sub 2}/O{sub 2}/diluent mechanisms for dilution with CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O and N{sub 2} through comparisons with new experimental validation targets for H{sub 2}-CO-O{sub 2}-N{sub 2} reaction kinetics in the presence of significant diluent fractions of CO{sub 2} and/or H{sub 2}O, at high pressures. (task amplified to especially address ignition delay issues, see below). 3. Analyze and demonstrate issues related to NOx interactions with syngas combustion chemistry (task amplified to include interactions of iron pentacarbonyl with syngas combustion chemistry, see below). 4. Publish results, including updated syngas kinetic model. Results are summarized in this document and its appendices. Three archival papers which contain a majority of the research results have appeared. Those results not published elsewhere are highlighted here, and will appear as part of future publications. Portions of the work appearing in the above publications were also supported in part by the Department of Energy under Grant No. DE-FG02-86ER-13503. As a result of and during the research under the present contract, we became aware of other reported results that revealed substantial differences between experimental characterizations of ignition delays for syngas mixtures and ignition delay predictions based upon homogenous kinetic modeling. We

  16. Surface coverage and structure of mixed DNA/alkylthiol monolayers on gold: characterization by XPS, NEXAFS, and fluorescence intensity measurements.

    Lee, Chi-Ying; Gong, Ping; Harbers, Gregory M; Grainger, David W; Castner, David G; Gamble, Lara J


    Self-assembly of thiol-terminated single-stranded DNA (HS-ssDNA) on gold has served as an important model system for DNA immobilization at surfaces. Here, we report a detailed study of the surface composition and structure of mixed self-assembled DNA monolayers containing a short alkylthiol surface diluent [11-mercapto-1-undecanol (MCU)] on gold supports. These mixed DNA monolayers were studied with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (NEXAFS), and fluorescence intensity measurements. XPS results on sequentially adsorbed DNA/MCU monolayers on gold indicated that adsorbed MCU molecules first incorporate into the HS-ssDNA monolayer and, upon longer MCU exposures, displace adsorbed HS-ssDNA molecules from the surface. Thus, HS-ssDNA surface coverage steadily decreased with MCU exposure time. Polarization-dependent NEXAFS and fluorescence results both show changes in signals consistent with changes in DNA orientation after only 30 min of MCU exposure. NEXAFS polarization dependence (followed by monitoring the N 1s --> pi* transition) of the mixed DNA monolayers indicated that the DNA nucleotide base ring structures are oriented more parallel to the gold surface compared to DNA bases in pure HS-ssDNA monolayers. This indicates that HS-ssDNA oligomers reorient toward a more-upright position upon MCU incorporation. Fluorescence intensity results using end-labeled DNA probes on gold show little observable fluorescence on pure HS-ssDNA monolayers, likely due to substrate quenching effects between the fluorophore and the gold. MCU diluent incorporation into HS-ssDNA monolayers initially increases DNA fluorescence signal by densifying the chemisorbed monolayer, prompting an upright orientation of the DNA, and moving the terminal fluorophore away from the substrate. Immobilized DNA probe density and DNA target hybridization in these mixed DNA monolayers, as well as effects of MCU diluent on DNA hybridization in complex

  17. Diferença entre volume de fluidos cristaloides intravenosos prescritos e infundidos em pacientes no pós-operatório precoce

    José Eduardo de Aguilar-Nascimento

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste trabalho foi auditar a real quantidade de fluídos cristalóides infundidos por via intravenosa em pacientes submetidos a operações abdominais de grande porte num hospital universitário. MÉTODOS: Computou-se a carga hídrica total (CHT de fluidos cristalóides intravenosos infundida diariamente do 1º ao 4º dia de PO em 31 pacientes submetidos à operações de grande porte. Comparou-se a CHT com a carga hídrica prescrita (CHP pelo médico. A CHT foi definida como a somatória da CHP acrescida de diluentes e medicações intravenosas. O protocolo do serviço recomendava a hidratação venosa no peri-operatório entre 30 e 50 mL/Kg/dia em pacientes com prescrição de jejum oral. A comparação entre CHT e CHP foi realizada em todos os dias de pós-operatório pelo teste t pareado. Estabeleceu-se em 5% o nível de significância estatística. RESULTADOS: A CHT infundida do 1º ao 4ºdia de pós-operatório foi de 12,8 (6,4-17,5 L. Desse total, 9,5 litros (74,3% corresponderam a CHP e 3,3 L (25,7% a diluentes e medicações venosas. Em todos os dias de pós-operatório a CHT foi significativamente maior que a CHP (p<0.001. Até o 3º dia de PO os pacientes receberam uma CHT superior a 50 mL/kg/dia. CONCLUSÃO: Conclui-se que a prescrição médica não contém o real volume de fluidos cristalóides intravenosos infundido. O volume de diluentes e medicações intravenosas pode chegar a 25% da carga hídrica prescrita.

  18. Principles, performance, and applications of spectral reconstitution (SR) in quantitative analysis of oils by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).

    García-González, Diego L; Sedman, Jacqueline; van de Voort, Frederik R


    Spectral reconstitution (SR) is a dilution technique developed to facilitate the rapid, automated, and quantitative analysis of viscous oil samples by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). This technique involves determining the dilution factor through measurement of an absorption band of a suitable spectral marker added to the diluent, and then spectrally removing the diluent from the sample and multiplying the resulting spectrum to compensate for the effect of dilution on the band intensities. The facsimile spectrum of the neat oil thus obtained can then be qualitatively or quantitatively analyzed for the parameter(s) of interest. The quantitative performance of the SR technique was examined with two transition-metal carbonyl complexes as spectral markers, chromium hexacarbonyl and methylcyclopentadienyl manganese tricarbonyl. The estimation of the volume fraction (VF) of the diluent in a model system, consisting of canola oil diluted to various extents with odorless mineral spirits, served as the basis for assessment of these markers. The relationship between the VF estimates and the true volume fraction (VF(t)) was found to be strongly dependent on the dilution ratio and also depended, to a lesser extent, on the spectral resolution. These dependences are attributable to the effect of changes in matrix polarity on the bandwidth of the ν(CO) marker bands. Excellent VF(t) estimates were obtained by making a polarity correction devised with a variance-spectrum-delineated correction equation. In the absence of such a correction, SR was shown to introduce only a minor and constant bias, provided that polarity differences among all the diluted samples analyzed were minimal. This bias can be built into the calibration of a quantitative FT-IR analytical method by subjecting appropriate calibration standards to the same SR procedure as the samples to be analyzed. The primary purpose of the SR technique is to simplify preparation of diluted samples such that

  19. Direct reading spectrochemical determination of aluminium, iron and silicon in fluorite; Determinacion espectroquimica de lectura directa de aluminio, hierro y silicio en fluorita

    Roca, M.


    A quantitative spectrochemical method for the determination of Al, Fe and Si in fluorite has been worked out. The sample was supported in a graphite electrode with crater of 5 mm. in diameter, 2,5 mm deep, and burned by a d.c. are in a direct reading spectrometer. The excitation of samples has been studied without dilution as well as using graphite powder as diluent in the ratios 1:1, 1:4, and 1:9; the latter factor was chosen. Ag, Ca, Co, Cr, Mo and Sn were tested as internal standards. It has not been found any significant inter element effect. It is necessary to use natural fluorite as base material for the standards. (Author) 5 refs.

  20. Combustion Synthesis of TiB2 Ceramics Powder from B2O3-TiO2-Mg System in Air Atmosphere

    HE Jinyun; WANG Weimin; FU Zhengyi; SUN Hui


    TiB2 ceramics powder was synthesized from B2O3-TiO2-Mg system. The effects of TiB2 addition as diluent on the combustion synthesis process were investigated. The results of thermodynamic calculation and experiments show that the increase of TiB2 content ranging from 0 to 20wt% can reduce the adiabatic temperature Tad from 3100 K to 2896 K and combustion temperature Tc from 2139 K to 1621 K respectively. The particle size and half width of the particle distribution are also increased with the addition of TiB2 increasing from 0 to 20wt%. The combustion product is a mixture of TiB2, MgO, and other intermediate phases. The leached product contains mainly TiB2, TiO2 and TiN, and its oxygen content is 7.77wt%.

  1. Compatibility of the antitumoral beta-lapachone with different solid dosage forms excipients.

    Cunha-Filho, Marcílio S S; Martínez-Pacheco, Ramón; Landín, Mariana


    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the compatibility of the beta-lapachone (betaLAP), an antitumoral drug in clinical phase, with pharmaceutical excipients of common use including diluents, binders, disintegrants, lubricants and solubilising agents. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used for a first screening to find small variations in peak temperatures and/or their associated enthalpy for six drug/excipient combinations (magnesium stearate, sodium estearyl fumarate, dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, mannitol, randomized methyl-beta-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin), which indicate some degree of interaction. Additional studies using Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), optical microscopy (OM) and heating-cooling DSC (HC-DSC) confirmed the incompatibility of betaLAP with magnesium stearate and dicalcium phosphate dihydrate. Those excipients should be avoided in the development of solid dosage forms.

  2. Atmospheric chemistry of dimethyl sulfide. Kinetics of the CH3SCH2O2 + NO2 reaction in the gas phase at 296 K

    Nielsen, O.J.; Sehested, J.; Wallington, T.J.


    The pulse radiolysis of SF6/CH3SCH3/O-2/NO2 gas mixtures was used to generate CH3SCH2O2 radicals in the presence of NO2. By monitoring the rate of NO2 decay using its absorption at 400 nm, rate constants for the reaction of CH3SCH2O2 radicals with NO2 were measured to be (9.2 +/- 0.9) x 10......(-12) and (7.1 +/- 0.9) X 10(-12) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1) at room temperature in 1000 and 300 mbar of SF6 diluent, respectively. Results are discussed with respect to the atmospheric chemistry of dimethyl sulfide....

  3. Portable sample preparation and analysis system for micron and sub-micron particle characterization using light scattering and absorption spectroscopy

    Stark, Peter C.; Zurek, Eduardo; Wheat, Jeffrey V.; Dunbar, John M.; Olivares, Jose A.; Garcia-Rubio, Luis H.; Ward, Michael D.


    There is provided a method and device for remote sampling, preparation and optical interrogation of a sample using light scattering and light absorption methods. The portable device is a filtration-based device that removes interfering background particle material from the sample matrix by segregating or filtering the chosen analyte from the sample solution or matrix while allowing the interfering background particles to be pumped out of the device. The segregated analyte is then suspended in a diluent for analysis. The device is capable of calculating an initial concentration of the analyte, as well as diluting the analyte such that reliable optical measurements can be made. Suitable analytes include cells, microorganisms, bioparticles, pathogens and diseases. Sample matrixes include biological fluids such as blood and urine, as well as environmental samples including waste water.

  4. Formulation development and evaluation of orally disintegrating tablets of doxazosin mesylate

    Shilpa P Chaudhari


    Full Text Available Doxazosin mesylate has some of the ideal characteristics required for an orally disintegrating tablet. There were some challenges faced during this formulation development. The aims of the present research were to mask the bitter taste of Doxazosin mesylate and to formulate orally disintegrating tablets of taste masked drug. Taste masking was performed by coating Doxazosin Mesylate with suitable polymer Eudragit powdered E-100 using spray drying technique. The resultant microspheres were then evaluated for thermal analysis, yield, particle size, entrapment efficiency and in vitro taste masking. The tablets were formulated by mixing the taste masked microspheres with different types and concentration of super-disintegrants and granulated Mannitol was selected as diluent and compressed using direct compression method. The tablets prepared were evaluated for weight variation, thickness, hardness, friability, drug content, water content, in vitro disintegration time and in vitro drug release and compared with marketed IR tablet of Doxazosin mesylate.

  5. Daya Hidup Spermatozoa Sapi Limousin yang Dipreservasi dengan Metode Water Jacket dan Free Water Jacket (SPERMATOZOA VIABILITY OF LIMOUSIN CATTLE PRESERVED WITH WATER JACKET AND FREE WATER JACKET METHOD

    Indriani .


    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effect of different methods of saving the storage by using a waterjacket and a free water jacket to quality semen Limousin cattle after being stored at a temperature of 5°C.Semen used the criteria motility e” + + collected two times a week. Semen evaluated macroscopically andmicroscopically and diluted in the ratio 1: 1 using the Cauda Epididymal Plasma (CEP-2 diluent added10% egg yolk. Stored in the refrigerator temperature 5°C and semen quality  was observed immediatelyafter dilution, 1 hour, 2 hours, 3 hours, 24 hours, 48 hours and 72 hours. The results showed that themethod of free storage waterjacket better in maintaining the percentage of motility, viability, abnormalityand plasma membrane intact spermatozoa

  6. Selected Diagnostics for Microgravity Combustion Science

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Weiland, Karen J.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Yanis, William


    The evolution of our understanding of combustion phenomena occurring under reduced gravity conditions poses a continuing demand for diagnostic tools of increased sophistication. Existing methods have become insufficient to keep pace with emerging refinements in the underlying theories and predictive models. The coupling of physical mechanisms inherent in combustion systems mandates the simultaneous determination of numerous thermophysical quantities, principally temperature, velocity, and species concentrations. Observed differences attributable to variations in experimental configuration, fuels and diluents, and initial conditions enhance the difficulty of developing diagnostic methods suitable for the acquisition of the required data over the desired range of experimental parameters. Efforts to provide for ongoing diagnostic development supporting microgravity combustion science experiments are conducted within the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA-Lewis Research Center. The following describes recent results from several diagnostic development efforts conducted under this project.


    Xiao-ming Tan; Hong-quan Xie; Nai-yu Huang


    New water soluble and photocrosslinkable prepolymers containing acrylate and quaternary ammonium salt groups were synthesized from epoxy phenolic resin via ring-opening reaction with acrylic acid and with aqueous solution of triethylamine hydrochloride successively. The second reaction needs no phase transfer catalyst to accelerate, since the product formed can act as a phase transfer catalyst. The prepolymer obtained contains both photocrosslinkable acrylate groups and hydrophilic quaternary ammonium salt groups. Optimum conditions for these reactions were studied. The photosensitivity of the prepolymer was also investigated. The effects of different photoinitiators, different crosslinkable diluent monomers and amine accelerator on the photosensitivity of the prepolymer were compared. The photoinitiator of hydrogen abstraction type is still effective without using amine or alcohol as accelerator, because the prepolymer contains α H beside the OH groups formed in the ring-opening reactions.

  8. Increased toxicity of malathion diluted with heavy aromatic naphtha on adult Aedes taeniorhynchus.

    Bunner, B L; Boobar, L R; Vorgetts, L J; Broski, F H


    Field tests of ground ULV application of Cythion diluted with heavy aromatic naphtha (HAN), 1:4 ratio, at 0.45 oz AI/acre resulted in a 96% and 49% mortality of caged adult Aedes taeniorhynchus located 150 and 300 ft downwind. Cythion, 0.45 oz AI/acre produced a 33% mortality at 150 ft and a 21% mortality at 300 ft. This compares with an 8% mortality at 150 ft on a plot treated with HAN only (0.45 oz/acre), and a 6% mortality in an untreated area. The study was repeated on four successive nights, reversing test plots, and the data pooled. Statistical analysis shows that the toxicity of the active ingredient, malathion, is significantly increased with the addition of the diluent, HAN.

  9. Zirconium carbonitride pellets by internal sol gel and spark plasma sintering as inert matrix fuel material

    Hedberg, Marcus; Cologna, Marco; Cambriani, Andrea; Somers, Joseph; Ekberg, Christian


    Inert matrix fuel is a fuel type where the fissile material is blended with a solid diluent material. In this work zirconium carbonitride microspheres have been produced by internal sol gel technique, followed by carbothermal reduction. Material nitride purities in the produced materials ranged from Zr(N0.45C0.55) to Zr(N0.74C0.26) as determined by X-ray diffraction and application of Vegard's law. The zirconium carbonitride microspheres have been pelletized by spark plasma sintering (SPS) and by conventional cold pressing and sintering. In all SPS experiments cohesive pellets were formed. Maximum final density reached by SPS at 1700 °C was 87% theoretical density (TD) compared to 53% TD in conventional sintering at 1700 °C. Pore sizes in all the produced pellets were in the μm scale and no density gradients could be observed by computer tomography.

  10. Hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in a heavy oil well, Pilon field, Faja Petrolifera del Orinoco

    Marfissi, S.; Lujan, A. [PDVSA EandP (Venezuela)


    The Pilon Field in the Morichal District, Venezuela is producing heavy oil with numerous gas lift wells. Some of these wells are now inactive due to casing damage. The purpose of this paper is to assess the benefits of using hot gas injection as an artificial lift system through a concentric tubing completion in such wells. A pilot test was conducted on a well presenting a low water cut and 12 degree API, an indirect fire heater was installed near the wells. Results showed that heat losses were minimized thanks to the concentric pipe completion. In addition hot gas injection resulted in an oil production increase of 57%. The hot gas injection method used with a concentric tubing completion was proved to be a good alternative to the use of diluent but an economic analysis is nevertheless recommended to determine the costs of installing heating equipment.




    Full Text Available Several tablet formulations containing silymarin were developed, in order to meet the requirements of different markets. Milk thistle - Silybum marianum (L. Gaertn – standardized extracts have proven their positive effect on liver functionality plus other health benefits. Lactose is a widely used excipient for the production of oral solid dosage forms. One important inconvenient of lactose is related to the lactose intolerant potential customers. Cellulose, isomalt and dicalcium phosphate have been selected as alternative possible tablet binders and diluents. Laboratory and pilot batches were studied for each excipient. The pharmacotechnical properties and silybin content of the tablets were measured and recorded in accordance to the European Pharmacopoeia. All pilot batches had results in the desired range of values in order to permit large scale compacting and blistering of the tablets. Currently the formulations containing isomalt and dicalcium phosphate that made the subject of this study are being produced on industrial scale.

  12. Atmospheric chemistry of CFsub>3sub>CH‗CH>2sub> and Csub>4sub>F>9sub>CH‗CH>2sub>

    Nakayama, T.; Takahashi, K.; Matsumi, Y.


    FTIR-smog chamber techniques were used to study the products of the Cl atom and OH radical initiated oxidation of CF3CHCH2 in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2, diluent at 296 K. The Cl atom initiated oxidation of CF3CHCH2 in 700 Torr of air in the absence of NOx gives CF3C(O)CH2Cl and CF3CHO in yields of 70...... +/- 5% and 6.2 +/- 0.5 respectively. Reaction with Cl atoms proceeds via addition to the > CC atom) and leads to the formation of CF3CH(O)CH2Cl and CF3CHClCH2O radicals. Reaction with O-2 and decomposition via C-C bond scission...

  13. Atmospheric chemistry of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (n-Csub>4sub>F>9sub>CH>2sub>CH>2sub>OH)

    Andersen, Mads Peter Sulbæk; Nielsen, Ole John; Hurley, M. D.


    Smog chamber/FTIR techniques were used to study the Cl atom initiated oxidation of 4:2 fluorotelomer alcohol (C4F9CH2CH2OH, 4:2 FTOH) in the presence of NOx in 700 Torr of N-2/O-2 diluent at 296 K. Chemical activation effects play an important role in the atmospheric chemistry of the peroxy......, and possibly the alkoxy, radicals derived from 4:2 FTOH. Cl atoms react with C4F9CH2CH2OH to give C4F9CH2C.HOH radicals which add O-2 to give chemically activated alpha-hydroxyperoxy radicals, [C4F9CH2C(OO.)HOH]*. In 700 Torr of N-2/ O-2 at 296 K, approximately 50% of the [C4F9CH2C(OO.)HOH]* radicals decompose...

  14. Microbial activities and communities in oil sands tailings ponds

    Gieg, Lisa; Ramos, Esther; Clothier, Lindsay; Bordenave, Sylvain; Lin, Shiping; Voordouw, Gerrit; Dong, Xiaoli; Sensen, Christoph [University of Calgary (Canada)


    This paper discusses how the microbial communities and their activity play a vital role in tailings ponds. The ponds contain microorganisms along with metals, hydrocarbon diluent, naphthenic acid and others. The ponds play an important role in mining operations because they store bitumen extraction waste and also allow water to be re-used in the bitumen extraction process. Pond management presents a few challenges that include, among others, gas emissions and the presence of toxic and corrosive acids. Microbial activities and communities help in managing these ponds. Microbial activity measurement in active and inactive ponds is described and analyzed and the results are presented. The conditions for reducing sulfate, nitrate and iron are also presented. From the results it can be concluded that naphthenic acids can potentially serve as substrates for anaerobic populations in tailings ponds.

  15. Physicochemical inactivation of Lassa, Ebola, and Marburg viruses and effect on clinical laboratory analyses

    Mitchell, S.W.; McCormick, J.B.


    Clinical specimens from patients infected with Lassa, Ebola, or Marburg virus may present a serious biohazard to laboratory workers. The authors have examined the effects of heat, alteration of pH, and gamma radiation on these viruses in human blood and on the electrolytes, enzymes, and coagulation factors measured in laboratory tests that are important in the care of an infected patient. Heating serum at 60 degrees C for 1 h reduced high titers of these viruses to noninfectious levels without altering the serum levels of glucose, blood urea nitrogen, and electrolytes. Dilution of blood in 3% acetic acid, diluent for a leukocyte count, inactivated all of these viruses. All of the methods tested for viral inactivation markedly altered certain serum proteins, making these methods unsuitable for samples that are to be tested for certain enzyme levels and coagulation factors.

  16. Development of Acetic Acid Removal Technology for the UREX+Process

    Robert M. Counce; Jack S. Watson


    It is imperative that acetic acid is removed from a waste stream in the UREX+process so that nitric acid can be recycled and possible interference with downstreatm steps can be avoidec. Acetic acid arises from acetohydrozamic acid (AHA), and is used to suppress plutonium in the first step of the UREX+process. Later, it is hydrolyzed into hydroxyl amine nitrate and acetic acid. Many common separation technologies were examined, and solvent extraction was determined to be the best choice under process conditions. Solvents already used in the UREX+ process were then tested to determine if they would be sufficient for the removal of acetic acid. The tributyl phosphage (TBP)-dodecane diluent, used in both UREX and NPEX, was determined to be a solvent system that gave sufficient distribution coefficients for acetic acid in addition to a high separation factor from nitric acid.

  17. Electron-beam initiated polymerization of acrylate compositions 1 : FTIR monitoring of incremental irradiation

    Patacz, C; Coqueret, X


    The electron-beam induced polymerization of some representative formulations including acrylate functional oligomers and diluents has been investigated by means of FTIR spectroscopy applied to films that were cured under a nitrogen flow. In order to gain a deeper insight into the reactivity of the polymerizable systems, the conversion-dose relationship was examined with emphasis on the following points : depth cure profile of the films, and the additivity of effects of incremental radiation doses on monomer conversion. It was shown to be possible to reproduce the actual polymerization profile from discontinuous measurements. This remarkable result is tentatively explained by the geometry of the samples causing limited thermal effects and by the minor influence of possible inhibition and post-polymerization that could influence each of the incremental transformations compared to a single large dose treatment. This method provides a fine tool for revealing differences in kinetic behavior between polymerizable m...

  18. Epoxy resins.

    Bray, P G


    Epoxy resins have an extraordinarily broad range of commercial applications, especially as protective surface coatings and adhesives. Epoxy resin systems include combinations of epoxy monomers, hardeners, reactive diluents, and/or a vast array of other additives. As a result, an epoxy resin system may have a number of chemical ingredients with the potential for attendant health hazards. Most, but not all, of these health hazards arise in the occupational setting. The most frequent adverse effects are irritation or allergic mechanisms involving the dermal and respiratory systems. Sensitization usually is caused by low molecular weight or short-chain compounds. This review discusses the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of epoxy resin-related adverse health effects.

  19. Biodegradable foam plastics based on castor oil.

    Wang, Hong Juan; Rong, Min Zhi; Zhang, Ming Qiu; Hu, Jing; Chen, Hui Wen; Czigány, Tibor


    In this work, a simple but effective approach was proposed for preparing biodegradable plastic foams with a high content of castor oil. First of all, castor oil reacted with maleic anhydride to produce maleated castor oil (MACO) without the aid of any catalyst. Then plastic foams were synthesized through free radical initiated copolymerization between MACO and diluent monomer styrene. With changes in MACO/St ratio and species of curing initiator, mechanical properties of MACO foams can be easily adjusted. In this way, biofoams with comparable compressive stress at 25% strain as commercial polyurethane (PU) foams were prepared, while the content of castor oil can be as high as 61 wt %. The soil burial tests further proved that the castor oil based foams kept the biodegradability of renewable resources despite the fact that some petrol-based components were introduced.

  20. Accompanying of parameters of color, gloss and hardness on polymeric films coated with pigmented inks cured by different radiation doses of ultraviolet light

    Bardi, Marcelo Augusto Gonçalves; Machado, Luci Diva Brocardo


    In the search for alternatives to traditional paint systems solvent-based, the curing process of polymer coatings by ultraviolet light (UV) has been widely studied and discussed, especially because of their high content of solids and null emission of VOC. In UV-curing technology, organic solvents are replaced by reactive diluents, such as monomers. This paper aims to investigate variations on color, gloss and hardness of print inks cured by different UV radiation doses. The ratio pigment/clear coating was kept constant. The clear coating presented higher average values for König hardness than pigmented ones, indicating that UV-light absorption has been reduced by the presence of pigments. Besides, they have indicated a slight variation in function of cure degree for the studied radiation doses range. The gloss loss related to UV light exposition allows inferring that some degradation occurred at the surface of print ink films.

  1. Study of the effect hydrogen binding in the solvation of alkaline earth cations with MeOH in nitromethane using 1 H NMR technique and determination of ionic solvation number

    Alizadeh, N


    A proton NMR method for the study of the effect hydrogen binding and determination of solvation numbers of alkaline earth cations with methanol (MeOH) in in tromethane (NM) as diluent is described. The method is based on monitoring the resonance frequency of MeOH protons as a function of MeOH to metal ion mole ratio at constant metal ion concentration. the average solvation number of cation, n, at any MeOH/ metal ion mole ration was calculated from the NMR chemical shift-mole ration data and was plotted against the mole ration values. The solvation numbers of alkaline earth cations were obtained from the limiting values of the corresponding n, vs. mole ratio plots.

  2. Selected Diagnostics for Microgravity Combustion Science

    Greenberg, Paul S.; Weiland, Karen J.; Griffin, DeVon W.; Yanis, William


    The evolution of our understanding of combustion phenomena occurring under reduced gravity conditions poses a continuing demand for diagnostic tools of increased sophistication. Existing methods have become insufficient to keep pace with emerging refinements in the underlying theories and predictive models. The coupling of physical mechanisms inherent in combustion systems mandates the simultaneous determination of numerous thermophysical quantities, principally temperature, velocity, and species concentrations. Observed differences attributable to variations in experimental configuration, fuels and diluents, and initial conditions enhance the difficulty of developing diagnostic methods suitable for the acquisition of the required data over the desired range of experimental parameters. Efforts to provide for ongoing diagnostic development supporting microgravity combustion science experiments are conducted within the Microgravity Science Division at the NASA-Lewis Research Center. The following describes recent results from several diagnostic development efforts conducted under this project.


    I Nyoman Sulabda


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of tender coconut water substitutionon egg yolk citrate diluent with different doses on local breeds dog sperm motility and livespermatozoa. Semen was manually collected. Progressive motility and percentage of livespermatozoa were evaluated under a microscope utilizing a drop of semen between awarmed glass slide and coverslip, both at a temperature of 38 0C. The percentage of motileand live spermatozoa were examined by counting 100 spermatozoa using the classificationof Christiansen (1984. Sperm viability was assessed by eosinnegrosin staining. The result showed that coconut water substitution has significant effect on the motility and livespermatozoa . Combination between the levels of coconut water in the egg yolk citratediluent could be applied as an alternative diligent instead of egg yolk diligent for dogsemen up to 75%.

  4. Self-Healing anticorrosive coatings

    Nesterova, Tatyana

    different experimental procedures, available in the literature, have been used for encapsulation of six core materials, including epoxy resins, diluent, and linseed oil. Several challenges have been identified during the investigations. Main of them dealt with encapsulation of viscous healing agents...... and a necessity of a thorough adjustment of the synthesis procedures for a wider use with other than original core materials. Free-flowing powders of two types of microcapsules (filled with linseed oil and alkylglycidylether) have been produced and investigated for solvent stability, stability towards stirring...... and storage, as well as ease of capsule dispersion. A systematic laboratory study, for reduction of poly(urea-formaldehyde) microcapsule size, filled with linseed oil, has been performed. Several synthesis parameters were varied (temperature, stabilizer content, stirring rate, stirrer geometry) and mechanical...

  5. Synergistic extraction of praseodymium with 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinoline

    ZHANG Qian; WU Dong-bei; BAO Bo-rong


    The synergistic extraction of Pr3+ from hydrochloric medium using mixture of 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester (P507, HL) and 8-Hydroxyquinoline (HQ) in heptane was investigated. The effect of equilibrium of aqueous acidity on extraction of Pr3+ was discussed. The effect of extractant concentraction, different diluents, equilibrium time and acetate ion concentration on extraction reaction were also studied. With a method of double-logarithmic slope, composition of the extracted species on 2-ethylhexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester and 8-Hydroxyquinolinc was derived. The result shows that the synergistic extraction system not only overcomes emulsification of 8-Hydroxyquinoline, but also shows perfect capacity of synergistic extraction. The largest synergistic enhancement factor can be calculated to be 5.49 at pH 3.6 for Pr3+.

  6. Molten solvent extraction behavior of trivalent La, Sm, Dy, and Yb withtri-n-butyl phosphate into molten paraffin wax at 60 ℃


    The extraction behavior of La3+, Sm3+, Dy3+, and Yb3+ in sodium acetate-acetic acid medium was studied with tri-n-butyl phosphate (TBP) at 60 ℃ using paraffin wax as a diluent. The extraction percentage is greater than 85% in the pH range of 6 to 8. The result of slope analysis method indicates that the compositions of the extracted species are different between the light and heavy rare earths. The formula of the extracted species is found to be La(TBP)(OH)(Ac)2for La3+ and Yb(TBP)(OH)3 for Yb3+. The effects of extracting time, the concentration of TBP in the organic phase and salts on the extraction efficiency were also discussed.

  7. ELectrolytes,water,acid—base imbalance


    930044 The effect of dilution and heparin onthe blood gas analysis.JIANG Hongxi(蒋鸿鑫)et al.Beijing Friendship Hosp,Beijing,100050.Chin J Tubere & Respri Dis 1992;15(4):225-227.The effect of heparin on the measurement ofblood gases is mainly caused by dilution,whichsubstantially reduces the PCO2 and HCO3- val-ues.Excess heparin will change the pH,PCO2and HCO3- as a consequence of an alternation inH+ ion concentration.The effect of dilution onelectrolytes depends on the respective elec-trolyte concentration in diluent.Dilution re-duces the glucose value,but to a higher degreeas could be expected from a dilution effect.

  8. Plasma polymerization of ethylene in an atmospheric pressure-pulsed discharge

    Donohoe, K.; Wydeven, T.


    The polymerization of ethylene in an atmospheric pressure-pulsed discharge has been studied. Partial pressures of ethylene up to 4 kN/sq m were used with helium as a diluent. Deposition rates (on glass slides) were the same throughout the discharge volume over a wide range of operating conditions. These rates were in the 1-2 A/sec range. The films were clear, soft, and showed good adhesion to the glass substrates. Oligomers large enough to visibly scatter 637.8-nm light were observed in the gas phase under all conditions in which film deposition occurred. The experimental results suggest that Brownian diffusion of these oligomers was the rate-limiting step in the film deposition process.

  9. Bad news about an old poison. A case of nicotine poisoning due to both ingestion and injection of the content of an electronic cigarette refill

    Gianfranco Cervellin


    Full Text Available There are increasing concerns about the escalating use of electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes. In particular, smokers have been advised by important agencies such as the US Food and Drug Administration about the potential harm to the health of these products, being now considered as drug delivery devices. The leading issues supporting this statement include the repeated inhalation of propylene glycol that is used as a diluent in refills, accidental poisoning, as well as evidence that ecigarettes may promote continued smoking since their use may compromise quitting motivations. Some authors have minimized these risks, considering the potential advantages of these devices for public health. Here we describe the first case of nicotine poisoning due to both ingestion and intravenous injection of the content of an e-cigarette refill, incorrectly mixed with methadone, bottled in a generic vial.

  10. Effect of silicon powder the types of fillers on the properties of epoxy encapsulating materials%硅微粉填料的种类对环氧灌封材料性能的影响



    以E-51为基体树脂,加入增韧剂、稀释剂、填料等制成环氧树脂灌封材料,考察了普通硅微粉与活性硅微粉对体系凝胶时间、力学性能、电性能等方面的影响,结果表明,表面活性硅微粉经表面处理后对体系的增韧增强效果更好.%The E-51 as matrix resin, join toughening agents, diluent, such as epoxy resin packing made potting material, inspected the common silicon micro powder and active silica powder on the system, mechanical properties, gel time performance effect, the results surface active silica powder on the surface treatment of the system after toughening and reinforcing the effect is better.

  11. Formulation and Dissolution Study of Valsartan Immediate Release Tablets

    B. Brahmaiah*, K. Sasikanth, Sreekanth Nama , P.Suresh, Patan Adam Khan


    Full Text Available In the present study, design of oral immediate release tablets of Valsartan by direct compression techniquewas carried out. The main aim and objective of the work is to formulate immediate release tablets usingdifferent direct compression vehicles (DCV’S in different ratios. The main motive is to compare thedissolution profile of these formulations and conclude the best formulation which release drug at a fasterrate. To determine the best fit dissolution profile for the dosage forms. Valsartan tablets were formulated byusing microcrystalline cellulose (diluents, potato starch, acacia (binder and magnesium stearate(lubricant. The granules were compressed into tablets and were subjected to dissolution studies. Thedissolution profile of the formulation F2 was found to have better dissolution rate compared to others. TheIn-vitro dissolution studies of all the formulations were conducted and the results were obtained, it wasconcluded that formulation F2 was the best with fast release of drug compared to others.

  12. A case story, involving the use of maltitol, a sugar alcohol, as a cutting agent in amphetamine and cocaine powders

    Reitzel, Lotte Ask; Holm, Niels Bjerre; Linnet, Kristian;


    In a criminal case involving cutting and resale of amphetamine and cocaine in the Copenhagen area of Denmark, maltitol was used as a cutting agent. The analysis of maltitol in seizures of pure diluents as well as in amphetamine and cocaine powders was carried out using reversed-phase high...... performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with high-resolution (HR) mass spectrometric detection. Maltitol was identified in four out of nine amphetamine samples and in five out of six cocaine samples from the case in question. The use of maltitol as a cutting agent was considered by the police as a specific...... marker of the particular criminal group under investigation. To support or reject this hypothesis, cocaine and amphetamine samples from a four month period after the involved persons had been arrested were evaluated, also as part of the police investigation. None of these samples contained maltitol...

  13. Optimizing cultivation strategies for robust algal growth and consequent removal of inorganic nutrients in pretreated livestock effluent.

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Choi, Wook Jin; Ryu, Jun Hee; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Kim, Han Soo; Lee, Byung-Chan; Song, Kyung Guen


    Dilution was employed as a pretreatment strategy to increase light transmittance and decrease ammonia toxicity in piggery effluent prior to the cultivation of microalgae. The dilution effect was quantitatively determined based on both the maximum specific nutrient consumption rate and the maximum growth coefficient to minimize the usage of diluent. The biomass productivity of microalgae was also evaluated to select the best species among the five different candidates examined. A 20-fold dilution of piggery wastewater resulted in decreased chromaticity (584 mg Pt-Co L(-1)) and total nitrogen (76 mg L(-1)), on which the microalgae cultivation was more effective for an algal growth compared to the other dilution factors. If the initial cell concentration of Scenedesmus quadricauda increased, the production of biomass tended to improve. Robust growth and harvesting of S. quadricauda were achieved, and the associated consistent removal of inorganic nutrients was accomplished during the semi-continuous cultivation of the best species.

  14. Nanoscale heterogeneities in radiation-cured diacrylate networks: Weakness or asset?

    Krzeminski, Mickael; Molinari, Michael; Defoort, Brigitte; Coqueret, Xavier


    The crosslinking polymerization of multifunctional monomers is known to yield brittle matrices, therefore limiting the development of this technique for the production of high performance composite materials. Among the various possible causes of the brittleness, the spontaneous formation of nanoheterogeneities during radiation-initiated polymerization is supported by atomic force microscopy imaging and by calorimetric analyses. The controlled polymerization-induced phase separation of nanosized clusters of polyethersulfone was evaluated as a means for alleviating the inherent tendency of the diacrylate materials to fragile failure. Various homogeneous formulations including the aromatic diacrylate monomers, and polyethersulfone together with a compatible reactive diluent were prepared and polymerized by electron beam irradiation. The resulting toughened materials show optimized critical stress intensity factor (KIc) over 2 MPa m0.5, whereas the KIc value is about 1 MPa m0.5 for the unmodified reference resin.

  15. Determination of alkyl methanesulfonates in doxazosin mesylate by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer

    C Sitaram


    Full Text Available High sensitive rapid gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method for the determination of four carcinogenic alkyl methanesulfonates viz. methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, isopropyl methanesulfonate and n-butyl methanesulfonate in doxazosin mesylate has been presented by using selective ion monitoring mode. The optimum separation was achieved between methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, isopropyl methanesulfonate and n-butyl methanesulfonate on a DB-5 (30 m×0.32 mm×1.0 μm capillary column under programming temperature. Acetonitrile, water and ammonia (90:9:1 v/v/v mixture was used as diluent. Various factors involved in the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method development are also presented. This method was validated as per International Conference on Harmonization guidelines. The limit of quantitation of methyl methanesulfonate, ethyl methanesulfonate, isopropyl methanesulfonate and n-butyl methanesulfonate is 6 ppm with respect to 30 mg/ml of doxazosin mesylate.

  16. Development of aquarium fish models for environmental carcinogenesis: an intermittent-flow exposure system for volatile, hydrophobic chemicals

    Walker, W.W.; Manning, C.S.; Overstreet, R.M.; Hawkins, W.E.


    An intermittent-flow exposure system was designed to provide stable and manipulative concentrations of volatile and hydrophobic compounds to small aquatic animals for uninterrupted long periods. Test species for 28-day experiments included two aquarium fishes, the Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) and the king cobra guppy (Poecilia reticulata). Test chemicals included trichloroethylene, vinylidene chloride, bis(2-chloroethyl)ether, ethylene dichloride, and a mixture of carbon tetrachloride, trichloroethylene, chloroform, bromodichloromethane, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform. These compounds are drinking water biorefractories and are potentially carcinogenic. Concentrated aqueous toxicant solutions, delivered from a remote triple carboy dispensing system, were mixed with diluent water within an isolated chamber containing exposure aquaria and test fish. Toxicant concentrations measured throughout each exposure period proved to be stable within acceptable variability ranges as indicated by coefficients of variation generally less than 15%.

  17. Susceptibility of Bacteroides nodosus to various antimicrobial agents.

    Gradin, J L; Schmitz, J A


    The susceptibility of 18 strains of Bacteroides nodosus to 21 antimicrobial agents was tested in vitro. Penicillin was the most effective antibiotic tested. Other antibiotics tested, in order of relative efficacy, were cefamandole, clindamycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, sodium cefoxitin, tylosin tartrate, nitrofurazone, tinidazole, and dihydrostreptomycin sulfate. Tests of solutions of 4 antibiotics in 70% ethanol indicated that ethanol served primarily as a diluent and did not contribute substantially to the curative effect of such topical medications on foot rot lesions in sheep. Of the chemicals commonly used in foot baths for treatment of ovine foot rot, copper sulfate was most effective, followed by zinc sulfate, then formalin. Several commercial disinfectants and iodine were quite effective against B nodosus, whereas 5.25% sodium hypochlorite and 70% ethanol alone were relatively ineffective.

  18. Development of a multiparticulate system containing enteric-release mini-tablets of omeprazole

    Volnei Jose Tondo Filho


    Full Text Available The main aim of this study was to develop a multiparticulate system containing mini-tablets of omeprazole formulated with an enteric polymer with pH-dependent solubility. Pre-formulation studies showed good flow and compaction capacity, leading to the production ofhigh quality mini-tablets. The mini-tablets were coated in a fluidized bed with hydroxypropylmethylcellulose /Eudragit(r L30D55 and packed into hard gelatin capsules. The dissolution profile showed gastro-resistance and zero-order kinetics. The dissolution profile for the formulation containing lactose as the diluent and coated with 12% (tablet weight gain of polymer was similar to that ofthe reference drug.

  19. Ignition characteristics of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran: An experimental and kinetic study

    Tripathi, Rupali


    The present paper elucidates oxidation behavior of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF), a novel second-generation biofuel. New experimental data sets for 2-MTHF including ignition delay time measurements in two different combustion reactors, i.e. rapid compression machine and high-pressure shock tube, are presented. Measurements for 2-MTHF/oxidizer/diluent mixtures were performed in the temperature range of . 639-1413 K, at pressures of 10, 20, and 40 bar, and at three different equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. A detailed chemical kinetic model describing both low-and high-temperature chemistry of 2-MTHF was developed and validated against new ignition delay measurements and already existing flame species profiles and ignition delay measurements. The mechanism provides satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. For identifying key reactions at various combustion conditions and to attain a better understanding of the combustion behavior, reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed.

  20. Disposable screen-printed sensors for determination of duloxetine hydrochloride

    Alarfaj Nawal A


    Full Text Available Abstract A screen-printed disposable electrode system for the determination of duloxetine hydrochloride (DL was developed using screen-printing technology. Homemade printing has been characterized and optimized on the basis of effects of the modifier and plasticizers. The fabricated bi-electrode potentiometric strip containing both working and reference electrodes was used as duloxetine hydrochloride sensor. The proposed sensors worked satisfactorily in the concentration range from 1.0 × 10-6-1.0 × 10-2 mol L-1 with detection limit reaching 5.0 × 10-7 mol L-1 and adequate shelf life of 6 months. The method is accurate, precise and economical. The proposed method has been applied successfully for the analysis of the drug in pure and in its dosage forms. In this method, there is no interference from any common pharmaceutical additives and diluents. Results of the analysis were validated statistically by recovery studies.

  1. Transparent Conductive Films of Copper Nanofiber Network Fabricated by Electrospinning

    Sungyeoul Kim


    Full Text Available Cu nanofiber networks can be a good alternative of the Ag nanowire of high electrical conductivity while having the advantage of low price. An electrospinning method was developed to fabricate copper nanofiber network for use as a transparent conductive film on glass substrate. The effects of liquid diluents for electrospinning processability were examined in relation to the subsequent Cu nanofiber formation processes. Electrospinning solutions of copper acetate/polyvinyl alcohol (PVA and copper nitrate trihydrate/polyvinyl butyral (PVB were investigated. The polymer mixing solutions influenced the subsequent annealing temperatures for removal of the polymers and reduction of the formed CuO nanofibers to Cu metal nanofibers. The morphology and structures of the formed nanofiber networks were examined by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and so forth. The mixture with PVB provided lower annealing temperatures suitable for application to flexible substrates.

  2. Enabling fiber optic serotyping of pathogenic bacteria through improved anti-fouling functional surfaces

    Janssen, K. P. F.; Knez, K.; Vanysacker, L.; Schrooten, J.; Spasic, D.; Lammertyn, J.


    Significant research efforts are continually being directed towards the development of sensitive and accurate surface plasmon resonance biosensors for sequence specific DNA detection. These sensors hold great potential for applications in healthcare and diagnostics. However, the performance of these sensors in practical usage scenarios is often limited due to interference from the sample matrix. This work shows how the co-immobilization of glycol (PEG) diluents or ‘back filling’ of the DNA sensing layer can successfully address these problems. A novel SPR based melting assay is used for the analysis of a synthetic oligomer target as well as PCR amplified genomic DNA extracted from Legionella pneumophila. The benefits of sensing layer back filling on the assay performance are first demonstrated through melting analysis of the oligomer target and it is shown how back filling enables accurate discrimination of Legionella pneumophila serogroups directly from the PCR reaction product with complete suppression of sensor fouling.

  3. Flow of formulation granules through a conical hopper

    Mazumder B


    Full Text Available Gravity flow characteristics of various pharmaceutical granules through static conical hoppers of different cone angles were studied. Mass flow rate depends on properties of granules and cone angles when environmental conditions such as temperature and relative humidity are kept within a fixed range. The granules were made with active pharmaceutical ingredients as per Indian pharmacopoeia with other additives like binders and diluents. Lubricants were added with the granules to observe their effects on mass flow rate. Magnesium stearate and colloidal silicon dioxide of different proportions were used as lubricants after granulation. A new dimensionally analyzed equation was developed to predict flow rate of the granules. The developed equation agreed well with the experimental data with a percentage deviation of ±10%.

  4. Validação de método para avaliação da qualidade sanitária de preparação cosmética de base lipófila Validation of method to evaluate sanitary quality of lipophilic base cosmetics

    Nádia Araci Bou-Chacra; Mitsuko Taba Ohara


    A validação de método para a avaliação da qualidade sanitária de produto cosmético de base lipófila foi efetuada empregando-se neutralizantes químicos e diluição para a eliminação de efeito inibitório no crescimento microbiano. Para a preparação da amostra foi empregado miristato de isopropila e polissorbato 20. Além dessas substâncias, foi adicionado ao diluente 0,5% (p/v) de lecitina de soja visando à neutralização do cloreto de benzalcônio. Os ensaios foram efetuados objetivando a comprova...

  5. Propylene Glycol Poisoning From Excess Whiskey Ingestion

    Courtney A. Cunningham MD


    Full Text Available In this report, we describe a case of high anion gap metabolic acidosis with a significant osmolal gap attributed to the ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol. Recently, several reports have characterized severe lactic acidosis occurring in the setting of iatrogenic unintentional overdosing of medications that use propylene glycol as a diluent, including lorazepam and diazepam. To date, no studies have explored potential effects of excess propylene glycol in the setting of alcohol intoxication. Our patient endorsed drinking large volumes of cinnamon flavored whiskey, which was likely Fireball Cinnamon Whisky. To our knowledge, this is the first case of propylene glycol toxicity from an intentional ingestion of liquor containing propylene glycol.

  6. 阻燃型有机胶粘剂%Fire retardant organic adhesive

    李子东; 李广宇; 于敏


    论述了有机胶粘剂的阻燃问题,以阻燃性树脂、橡胶、固化剂、增塑剂、稀释剂、偶联剂、溶剂等配制阻燃型有机胶粘剂,用于电子、电器、建筑、汽车、化工等行业的粘接与修复,可以防止火灾发生。%The reasearch on flame retardant of organic adhesive was described in this paper.The fire retardant organic adhesive is compounded with fire retardant resin,rubber,curing agent and plasticizer,diluent,filler,coupling agent and solvent.It can avoid fire loss and ensure the safety of life and property.

  7. Solvent extraction of uranium(VI) and thorium(IV) in nitric acid solution by N,N,N‘,N’—tetrabutyladipicamide

    WangYou-Shao; BaoBo-Rong; 等


    N,N,N'N'-tetrabutyladipicamide(TBAA) has been synthesized,and applied to the extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) from nitric acid solutions in a diluent composed of 0.50 volume fraction 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene (TMA) and 0.50 volume fraction kerosene(OK),The effects of the aueous nitric acid concentration,extractant concentration,slating-out agent (LiNO3) and temperature on extraction ability of TBAA for U(VI) and Th(IV) have been studied.Back Extraction of U(VI) and Th (IV) from organic phases were performed by dilute nitric acid.The compositions of extracted complexes,equilibrium constants and enthalpies of extraction reactions have also been estimated.The IR spectra of extraction of U(VI) and Th(IV) have been studied.

  8. Avaliação da formação e degradação de filmes de vernizes curados por radiação ultravioleta e feixe de elétrons e expostos ao envelhecimento acelerado

    Carmen Silvia Bentivoglio Ruiz


    Os revestimentos curáveis por radiação ultravioleta (UV) ou feixe de elétrons (EB) são sistemas líquidos reativos compostos por resinas, diluentes (monômero) e aditivos, capazes de formar compostos poliméricos termorrígidos por reações de polimerização e reticulação induzidas por radiação. Esta tecnologia tem sido empregada como alternativa aos processos convencionais no desenvolvimento de uma variada gama de produtos. Um dos grandes desafios da aplicação da tecnologia de cura UV/EB em produt...

  9. Preliminary study of application effect of bamboo vinegar on vegetable growth

    Mu Jun; Yu Zhi-ming; Wu Wen-qiang; Wu Qing-li


    This paper reports the effects of moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescense) vinegar, with different diluents, on the growth of lettuce, cole and cucumber based on field tests. The results show that moso bamboo vinegar with 500-800 times dilution had good effect on the growth of tested vegetables. The harvest of vegetables increased from 18.8%-20.2% compared with a control. The height and the weight of the average single vegetable tested also increased. The main components of moso bamboo vinegar were analyzed by GC-MS and the positive effect on the growth was, in the first instance, attributed to a synergistic effect of trace amounts of the main components of bamboo vinegar.

  10. Combustion Synthesis of Ti-2B-Cu/Ni and 3Ti-2BN-Cu/Ni Bilayered Cermets

    Weiping SHEN; Wenbin CAO; Changchun GE; E.H.Grigoryan; A.E.Sytschev; A.S.Rogachev


    The effects of Cu and Ni (x=0, 10, 20 and 40 wt pct) and compaction pressures (12, 24, 84 and 108 MPa)on combustion wave velocity and wave front shape for Ti-2B-Cu/Ni and 3Ti-2BN-Cu/Ni bilayered cermets were investigated by a video camera. Since the boiling point of Cu is lower, the wave velocities of specimens are slower.Due to the higher specific heat of Ni than that of Cu, the wave velocities of specimens was slowed down a lot with increasing the Ni diluent. The wave velocity differences of the specimens containing Ni are more than that of the bilayered specimens containing Cu. Wave velocities of the specimens containing Ni increased more than that of the specimens containing Cu when higher pressure was employed for green mixture. The more the wave velocity difference of the bilayer, the more curved the specimen.

  11. Parametric Erosion Investigation: Propellant Adiabatic Flame Temperature

    P. J. Conroy


    Full Text Available The influence of quasi-independent parameters and their potential influence on erosion in guns have been investigated. Specifically, the effects of flame temperature and the effect of assuming that the Lewis number (ratio of mass-to-heat transport to the surface, Le = 1, has been examined. The adiabatic flame temperature for a propellant was reduced by the addition of a diluent from a high temperature of 3843 K (similar to that of M9 down to 3004 K, which is near the value for M30A1 propellant. Mass fractions of critical species at the surface with and without the assumption of Le = 1 are presented, demonstrating that certain species preferentially reach the surface providing varied conditions for the surface reactions. The results for gun tube bore surface regression qualitatively agree with previous studies and with current experimental data.

  12. Oxy-fuel combustion of solid fuels

    Toftegaard, Maja Bøg; Brix, Jacob; Jensen, Peter Arendt


    Oxy-fuel combustion is suggested as one of the possible, promising technologies for capturing CO2 from power plants. The concept of oxy-fuel combustion is removal of nitrogen from the oxidizer to carry out the combustion process in oxygen and, in most concepts, recycled flue gas to lower the flame...... temperature. The flue gas produced thus consists primarily of carbon dioxide and water. Much research on the different aspects of an oxy-fuel power plant has been performed during the last decade. Focus has mainly been on retrofits of existing pulverized-coal-fired power plant units. Green-field plants which...... provide additional options for improvement of process economics are however likewise investigated. Of particular interest is the change of the combustion process induced by the exchange of carbon dioxide and water vapor for nitrogen as diluent. This paper reviews the published knowledge on the oxy-fuel...

  13. Recent advances of starch-based excipients used in extended-release tablets: a review.

    Hong, Yan; Liu, Guodong; Gu, Zhengbiao


    In recent years, polysaccharides, including starch and its derivatives, have been widely used in the pharmaceutical industry, including as diluents, fillers, binders, disintegrants and glidants. The use of native starch as excipient in extended-release tablets is limited due to its low compactibility and enzymatic degradability, leading to the formation of weakly structured tablets. To overcome these limitations and expand the application of starch as an excipient, researchers have modified starch by physical and chemical methods, as well as by enzymatic hydrolysis. Some starch derivatives, including retrograded starch, pregelatinized starch, carboxymethyl starch, starch acetate, cross-linked starch and grafted starch have recently been introduced as excipients in oral tablets to control drug release. In this review, applications of starch and its derivatives as extended release excipients are reviewed and future frontiers are described.

  14. Recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores by solvent extraction

    覃文庆; 蓝卓越; 黎维中


    The recovery of zinc from low-grade zinc oxide ores with solvent extraction-electrowinning technique was investigated by using D2EHPA as extractant and 260# kerosene as diluent. The results show that it is possible to selectively leach zinc from the ores by heap leaching. The zinc concentration of leach solution in the first leaching cycle is 32.57 g/L, and in the sixteenth cycle the zinc concentration is 8.27g/L after solvent extraction. The leaching solution is subjected to solvent extraction, scrubbing and selective stripping for enrichment of zinc and removal of impurities. The pregnant zinc sulfate solution produced from the stripping cycle is suitable for zinc electrowinning.Extra-pure zinc metal was obtained in the electrowinning test under conventional conditions.

  15. Recovery studies for plutonium machining oil coolant

    Navratil, J. D.; Baldwin, C. E.


    Lathe coolant oil, contaminated with plutonium and having a carbon tetrachloride diluent, is generated in plutonium machining areas at Rocky Flats. A research program was initiated to determine the nature of plutonium in this mixture of oil and carbon tetrachloride. Appropriate methods then could be developed to remove the plutonium and to recycle the oil and carbon tetrachloride. Studies showed that the mixtures of spent oil and carbon tetrachloride contained particulate plutonium and plutonium species that are soluble in water or in oil and carbon tetrachloride. The particulate plutonium was removed by filtration; the nonfilterable plutonium was removed by adsorption on various materials. Laboratory-scale tests indicated the lathe-coolant oil mixture could be separated by distilling the carbon tetrachloride to yield recyclable products.

  16. The phosphine oxides Cyanex 921 and Cyanex 923 as carriers for facilitated transport of chromium (VI)-chloride aqueous solutions.

    Alguacil, Francisco José; López-Delgado, Aurora; Alonso, Manuel; Sastre, Ana Maria


    The behaviour of the phosphine oxides Cyanex 921 and Cyanex 923 in the facilitated transport of chromium (VI) from chloride solutions is described. Transport is studied as a function of several variables such as stirring speeds of the aqueous phases, membrane phase diluent, hydrochloric acid concentration in the source phase and chromium and carrier concentrations. The separation of chromium (VI) from other metals presented in the source phase as well as the behaviour of phosphine oxides with respect to other neutral organophosphorous derivatives (tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) and dibutyl butylphosphonate (DBBP)) are also investigated. Moreover, by using hydrazine sulphate in the receiving phase, Cr(VI) is immediately reduced to the less toxic Cr(III).

  17. Numerical investigation of biogas diffusion flames characteristics under several operation conditions in counter-flow configuration with an emphasis on thermal and chemical effects of CO2 in the fuel mixture

    Mameri, A.; Tabet, F.; Hadef, A.


    This study addresses the influence of several operating conditions (composition and ambient pressure) on biogas diffusion flame structure and NO emissions with particular attention on thermal and chemical effect of CO2. The biogas flame is modeled by a counter flow diffusion flame and analyzed in mixture fraction space using flamelet approach. The GRI Mech-3.0 mechanism that involves 53 species and 325 reactions is adopted for the oxidation chemistry. It has been observed that flame properties are very sensitive to biogas composition and pressure. CO2 addition decreases flame temperature by both thermal and chemical effects. Added CO2 may participate in chemical reaction due to thermal dissociation (chemical effect). Excessively supplied CO2 plays the role of pure diluent (thermal effect). The ambient pressure rise increases temperature and reduces flame thickness, radiation losses and dissociation amount. At high pressure, recombination reactions coupled with chain carrier radicals reduction, diminishes NO mass fraction.

  18. Effect of Air Space in Storage Vials on Motility of Spermatozoa in Chilled Buck Semen

    Magnus Paul K and Lali F Anand 1

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to find out the effect of air space on the top of glass vial in which semen is stored, on the motility of spermatozoa. 45 samples collected from two bucks over a span of 6 months were used for experiment. Goat milk extender was the diluent used. Two ml each of diluted semen after noting their initial motility was stored in 2 ml and 5 ml vials. Samples were stored at 5°C and motility of spermatozoa noted at 24 and 48 hours. Semen without air space was found to preserve the motility better than semen with air space on 24 and 48 hours of incubation. This could be better attributed to reactive oxygen species production by the spermatozoa, but further investigation is needed in this aspect to confirm it. [Veterinary World 2010; 3(9.000: 421-423

  19. Neutral Complex Extraction and Synergistic Extraction of Macrolide Antibiotics


    Based on the theory of reactive extraction, new solvent systems were developed to replace butylacetate for extraction of macrolide antibiotics (erythromycin, kitasamycin, spiramycin meleumycin etc.). A new neutral complex solvent extraction system, fatty alcohol-kerosene (marked by E1), was used for extraction of erythromycin, one of the macrolide antibiotics. The extraction equilibrium equation is obtained, and the extraction distribution is as follows The effects of several parameters on extraction equilibrium were investigated. Furthermore, a new synergistic extraction system (marked by E2) was developed, in which another solvent was used as synergistic agent to replace the diluent kerosene in the neutral complex extraction system. Based on these new extraction systems, an improved process for extraction of erythromycin was developed, showing remarkable advantages in technology and economics owing to its low solvent consumption of 3kg per billion unit compared with 9-10 for butylacetate. The recovery process of solvent from raffinate may be eliminated.

  20. Testing of organic waste surrogate materials in support of the Hanford organic tank program. Final report

    Turner, D.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Miron, Y. [Bureau of Mines (United States)


    To address safety issues regarding effective waste management efforts of underground organic waste storage tanks at the Hanford Site, the Bureau of Mines conducted a series of tests, at the request of the Westinghouse Hanford company. In this battery of tests, the thermal and explosive characteristics of surrogate materials, chosen by Hanford, were determined. The surrogate materials were mixtures of inorganic and organic sodium salts, representing fuels and oxidants. The oxidants were sodium nitrate and sodium nitrite. The fuels were sodium salts of oxalate, citrate and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Polyethylene powder was also used as a fuel with the oxidant(s). Sodium aluminate was used as a diluent. In addition, a sample of FeCN, supplied by Hanford was also investigated.

  1. Implementation plan for the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7. Revision 1

    Borsheim, G.L.; Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.


    This document revises the original plan submitted in March 1991 for implementing the recommendations made by the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board in their Recommendation 90-7 to the US Department of Energy. Recommendation 90-7 addresses safety issues of concern for 24 single-shell, high-level radioactive waste tanks containing ferrocyanide compounds at the Hanford Site. The waste in these tanks is a potential safety concern because, under certain conditions involving elevated temperatures and low concentrations of nonparticipating diluents, ferrocyanide compounds in the presence of oxidizing materials can undergo a runaway (propagating) chemical reaction. This document describes those activities underway by the Hanford Site contractor responsible for waste tank safety that address each of the six parts of Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7. This document also identifies the progress made on these activities since the beginning of the ferrocyanide safety program in September 1990. Revised schedules for planned activities are also included.

  2. Quarterly report on Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board Recommendation 90-7 for the period ending June 30, 1993

    Cash, R.J.; Dukelow, G.T.; Forbes, C.J.; Meacham, J.E.


    This is the ninth quarterly report on the progress of activities that address safety issues associated with Hanford Site high-level radioactive waste tanks containing ferrocyanide compounds. Milestones completed this quarter include (1) a report on the credibility of hot spots and a recommendation on infrared scans; (2) a document discussing the strength and limitations of proposed moisture monitoring technologies; (3) limited calibration of the neutron probe in simulant-filled drums; (4) a report interpreting data from auger surface samples of ferrocyanide tank 241-BY-104; (5) a document on the effect of possible catalyst, initiator, and diluents on ferrocyanide reactivity; (6) a report on small scale sensitivity tests of ferrocyanide flowsheet simulants; and (7) preparation and shipment of T Plant simulants for calorimetric and dryout tests.

  3. Hyperacute drug-induced hepatitis with intravenous amiodarone: case report and review of the literature.

    Nasser, Mohammad; Larsen, Timothy R; Waanbah, Barryton; Sidiqi, Ibrahim; McCullough, Peter A


    Amiodarone is a benzofuran class III antiarrhythmic drug used to treat a wide spectrum of ventricular tachyarrhythmias. The parenteral formulation is prepared in polysorbate 80 diluent. We report an unusual case of acute elevation of aminotransaminase concentrations after the initiation of intravenous amiodarone. An 88-year-old Caucasian female developed acute hepatitis and renal failure after initiating intravenous amiodarone for atrial fibrillation with a rapid ventricular response in the setting of acutely decompensated heart failure and hepatic congestion. Liver transaminases returned to baseline within 7 days after discontinuing the drug. Researchers hypothesized that this type of injury is related to liver ischemia with possible superimposed direct drug toxicity. The CIOMS/RUCAM scale identifies our patient's acute hepatitis as a highly probable adverse drug reaction. Future research is needed to understand the mechanisms by which hyperacute drug toxicity occurs in the setting of impaired hepatic perfusion and venous congestion.

  4. 有机硅在混凝土保护中的应用研究%Application research of silicone in concrete protection

    刘莹; 罗庚望; 蔡挺; 王书耕; 焦钰钰; 张巧欣


    In this paper, the distinction of water absorption ratio,penetration depth, contact angle and hydrophobic retention applying on concrete among different types of silicone hydrophobic agent (Isooctyltriethoxysilane, silane/silane-siloxane materials) and their diluent liquid have been researched, and the reason for this phenomenon has been analyzed, the more suitable type of hydrophobic agent for concrete protection has been recommended.%研究了异辛基三乙氧基硅烷、硅烷/硅氧烷混合物等不同种类的有机硅憎水剂及其稀释液在混凝土表面应用时的吸水率比、渗透深度、接触角、憎水性保持率等性能,并进行了对比分析,确定了较适合应用于混凝土保护的憎水剂种类.

  5. Solvent Extraction in Hydrometallurgy: Present and Future


    During the past 10 years, there have been incremental advances in the application of solvent extraction to process hydrometallurgy. The most cited areas in the literature include chemistry, chemical engineering, pilot plants, and plant operation. Within these areas, there were considerable interest in synergism,diluents, degradation, contactors, surfactants, hydrometallurgical applications, environmental and secondary applications, and health and safety. The summary to the present is followed by a prediction for the future in the above areas of interest. These include the use of speciation; improved understanding of the role of surfactants on the system; optimization through modelling, pilot plants, and contactor selection; improvements in plant operation; further new applications; and plant safety. The review has indicated that considerable knowledge is now available to optimize and improve on process design and plant applications.

  6. Metabolism of BTEX and naphtha compounds to methane in oil sands tailings.

    Siddique, Tariq; Fedorak, Phillip M; MacKinnon, Michael D; Foght, Julia M


    Naphtha, comprising low molecular weight aliphatics and aromatics (C3-C14), is used as a diluent in processing of bitumen from oil sands. A small fraction ( o-xylene > m- plus p-xylene > ethylbenzene > benzene. Only 15-23% of whole naphtha, mainly n-alkanes (in the sequence: nonane > octane > heptane) and some BTEX compounds (toluene > o-xylene > m-xylene), was metabolized. Other naphtha constituents, such as iso-paraffins and naphthenes, remained unchanged during this period. These results suggest that the microbial communities in the MFT can readily utilize certain fractions of unrecovered naphtha in oil sands tailings and support methanogenesis in settling basins. Current study findings could influence extraction process, MFT management, and reclamation options.

  7. Air-segmented amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis.

    Inui, Koji; Uemura, Takeshi; Ogusu, Takeshi; Takeuchi, Masaki; Tanaka, Hideji


    Air-segmentation is applied to amplitude-modulated multiplexed flow analysis, which we proposed recently. Sample solutions, the flow rates of which are varied periodically, are merged with reagent and/or diluent solution. The merged stream is segmented by air-bubbles and, downstream, its absorbance is measured after deaeration. The analytes in the samples are quantified from the amplitudes of the respective wave components in the absorbance. The proposed method is applied to the determinations of a food dye, phosphate ions and nitrite ions. The air-segmentation is effective for limiting amplitude damping through the axial dispersion, resulting in an improvement in sensitivity. This effect is more pronounced at shorter control periods and longer flow path lengths.

  8. Facility and test support equipment for the manned thermal vacuum tests of the Apollo Soyuz docking module

    Pearson, O. L.


    In order to accommodate manned thermal-vacuum testing of the Apollo-Soyuz docking module (ASDM), modifications to the facility, cleanliness and access control, and special test equipment were required. Facility modifications discussed briefly include: the addition of an oxygen supply system; the modification of manlock (ML) piping for cleaning and access controls; the addition of a nitrogen diluent system; the removal of manlock internal lights and the addition of external lights as well as fusing all power circuits over 10 watts; the removal/containment of flammable materials; the upgrading of a ML fire suppression system; and the addition of a garment donning station for cleanliness control. Special test equipment discussed include: an access tunnel for crew ingress/egress; a support device for the docking module (DM) and simulators; a command module thermal simulator; a DM infrared (IR) simulator; a docking system IR simulator; a metabolic heat load simulator; and a television camera simulator.

  9. Development of a stable low-dose aglycosylated antibody formulation to minimize protein loss during intravenous administration

    Morar-Mitrica, Sorina; Puri, Manasi; Beumer Sassi, Alexandra; Fuller, Joshua; Hu, Ping; Crotts, George; Nesta, Douglas


    The physical and chemical integrity of a biopharmaceutical must be maintained not only during long-term storage but also during administration. Specifically for the intravenous (i.v.) delivery of a protein drug, loss of stability can occur when the protein formulation is compounded with i.v. bag diluents, thus modifying the original composition of the drug product. Here we present the challenges associated with the delivery of a low-dose, highly potent monoclonal antibody (mAb) via the i.v. route. Through parallel in-use stability studies and conventional formulation development, a drug product was developed in which adsorptive losses and critical oxidative degradation pathways were effectively controlled. This development approach enabled the i.v. administration of clinical doses in the range of 0.1 to 0.5 mg total protein, while ensuring liquid drug product storage stability under refrigerated conditions. PMID:26073995

  10. Fabrication of hexagonal boron nitride based ceramics by combustion synthesis


    Pure h-BN (hexagonal boron nitride) and h-BN based ceramic parts were fabricated by combustion synthesis technique, i.e. self-propagating high-temperature synthesis (SHS). Components were manufactured by the combustion reaction of 80  MPa nitrogen and the compact made by cool isostatic pressing. In h-BN based ceramic parts, h-BN powder was used as diluent and SiO2 powder as reinforcing phase. The density of pure h-BN and h-BN-based ceramic parts were 58% and 78% of theoretical density, respectively. With XRD and SEM, phases and microstructures of ceramic parts were analyzed. Mechanical properties were also tested.

  11. Application of ionic liquids in actinide and fission product separations: progress and prospects.

    Stepinski, D. C.; Young, B. A.; Jensen, M. P.; Rickert, P. G.; Dzielawa, J. A.; Dilger, A. A.; Rausch, D. J.; Dietz, M. L.; Chemistry


    Ionic liquids (ILs), particularly those that are liquid at room temperature, have attracted intense interest as alternatives to conventional organic solvents in a host of synthetic, catalytic, and electrochemical applications. Recently, growing attention has been devoted to their use in separations, typically as replacements for the organic diluents employed in traditional liquid-liquid extraction or membrane-based separations of organic solutes or metal ions. Although studies of the extraction of metal ions into various ILs indicate that these solvents frequently provide extraction efficiencies far greater than those obtained with conventional solvents, other work suggests that they suffer from various drawbacks that could limit their utility as extraction solvents. In this chapter, we examine the viability of ionic liquids as the basis for extraction systems for the separation of actinides and fission products from acidic media and consider approaches by which their limitations may be overcome.

  12. Development of flame resistant treatment for Nomex fibrous structures

    Toy, M. S.


    Flame resistant fibrous materials for space shuttle application were developed through chemical modification of commercially available aromatic polyamide fibrous products. The new surface treatment was achieved in the laboratory by ultraviolet activation of the fabric in the presence of fluoroolefin monomers and a diluent gas. The monomers grafted under these conditions provide the improved properties of the fabric in flame resistance, chemical inertness, and nonwettability without the sacrifice of color or physical properties. The laboratory reaction vessel was scaled-up to a batch continuous process, which treats ten yards of the commercial width textiles. The treated commercial width Nomex (HT-10-41) from the scaled-up reactor is self-extinguishing in an oxygen-enriched environment, water-repellent, soft, silky, and improved in chemical resistance. Unlike most textile processes, the grafting unit operates under dry conditions and no chemical by-products have to be washed out of the finished product.

  13. Extraction of uranium (VI) from nitric acid solutions with N,N,-di-n-butyloctanamide

    Dembinski, W.; Gasparini, G.M.


    N,N-dialkylamides show interesting properties as new extracting agents of actinides. This report presents the data concerning the N,N-di-n-butyloctanamide: CH/sub 3/-(CH/sub 2/)/sub 5/-CH/sub 2/-C(O)N (C/sub 4/H/sub 9/)/sub 2/. In particular the following have been studied: the formation of a third phase with n-dodecane and mesitylene as diluents; the influence of the concentration of the uranium of the nitric acid and of the extractant on the distribution coeffcient, of uranium(VI); the radiation stability of this amide and the influence of the absorbed dose on the distribution coefficient for U(VI). The general properties of the di-n-butyloctanamide as potential extractant of uranium are discussed.

  14. 溶剂萃取系统中的常见问题%Some Problems in Solvent Extraction System

    徐志刚; 邹潜; 汤启明; 李建; 王朝华


    The problems occurred in solvent extraction systems were introduced .The possible reasons caused these problems were analyzed and the effective methods for solving these problems were discussed .It point out that the selectivity of extractants and diluents ,constitutes and pH of water phase ,chemical reaction cause emulsification and flocculation ,and entrainment loss of organic phase . The measures for reducing organic phase loss and purifying organic phase are proposed .%介绍了溶剂萃取系统中的常见问题,分析了产生问题的可能原因。指出萃取剂和稀释剂、料液组成及pH、化学反应都会引起乳化和絮凝物的产生,提出了降低有机相损失及有机相净化的相关措施。

  15. Process for coating an object with silicon carbide

    Levin, Harry (Inventor)


    A process for coating a carbon or graphite object with silicon carbide by contacting it with silicon liquid and vapor over various lengths of contact time. In the process, a stream of silicon-containing precursor material in gaseous phase below the decomposition temperature of said gas and a co-reactant, carrier or diluent gas such as hydrogen is passed through a hole within a high emissivity, thin, insulating septum into a reaction chamber above the melting point of silicon. The thin septum has one face below the decomposition temperature of the gas and an opposite face exposed to the reaction chamber. The precursor gas is decomposed directly to silicon in the reaction chamber. A stream of any decomposition gas and any unreacted precursor gas from said reaction chamber is removed. The object within the reaction chamber is then contacted with silicon, and recovered after it has been coated with silicon carbide.

  16. Spectrophotometric determination of platinum after solid-liquid extraction with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol at 90°C

    DONG Yanjie; GAI Ke; GONG Xingxin


    An effective spectrophotometric determination of platinum with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol (PAN) using molten naphthalene as a diluent was studied. A green complex of platinum with PAN is formed at 90°C. In the range of pH 2.5-6.5,the complex is quantitatively extracted into molten naphthalene. The organic phase is anhydrously dissolved in CHC13 to be determined spectrophotometrically at 690 nm against the reagent blank. Beer's law is obeyed over the concentration range tively. The optimum conditions for determination are obtained. The interferences of various ions are observed in detail. The method has been applied to the determination of platinum in synthetic samples.

  17. Effect of chromatographic conditions on retention behavior and system efficiency for HPTLC of selected psychotropic drugs on chemically bonded stationary phases.

    Petruczynik, Anna; Wróblewski, Karol; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika


    Selected psychotropic drug standards have been chromatographed on RP18, CN and diol layers with a variety of aqueous and nonaqueous mobile phases. The effect of buffers at acidic or basic pH, acetic acid, ammonia and diethylamine (DEA) in aqueous mobile phases on retention, efficiency and peak symmetry was examined. Improved peak symmetry and separation selectivity for investigated compounds were observed when ammonia or DEA were used as mobile phase additives. The effect of diethylamine concentration in aqueous eluents on retention, peak symmetry and theoretical plate number obtained on CN plates was also investigated. Because of the strong retention of these basic drugs on stationary phases bonded on silica matrix, nonaqueous eluents containing medium polar diluents, strongly polar modifiers and silanol blockers (ammonia or diethylamine) were applied. Aqueous and nonaqueous eluent systems with the best selectivity and efficiency were used for separate psychotropic drug standards' mixture on CN layer by 2D TLC.

  18. 聚醚多元醇合成封端型水性聚氨酯乳液%Synthesis of waterborne blocked polyurethane emulsion based on polyether polyols

    陡媛; 赵振河; 刘晶


    Using polyether triol and toluene diisocyanate as the basic raw materials, isopropanol as the diluent and sodium bisulfite as the blocking agent, the waterborne blocked polyurethane emulsion was synthesized. And the effects of isocyanate index (R value), temperature and time of prepolymerization, blocking agent amount and temperature and time of blocking on the properties of blocked waterborne polyurethane emulsion were analyzed and discussed.%以聚醚三元醇和甲苯二异氰酸酯(TDI)为基本原料,异丙醇为稀释剂,亚硫酸氢钠为封端剂制得水性聚氨酯。分析并讨论预聚温度和时间、R值、封端剂用量、封端温度及时间等因素对水性聚氨酯性能的影响。

  19. Investigation of ultraviolet curable waterborne polyurethane acrylate dispersion based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene

    NIU Zhenbin; ZHANG Xingyuan; DAI Jiabing; ZHANG Heping


    A new kind of ultraviolet (UV) curable waterborne polyurethane acrylate dispersion was synthesized based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB),poly(propylene glycol) (PPG),isophorene diisocyanate (IPDI),2-hydroxy ethyl acrylate (HEA) and dimethylol propionic acid (DMPA) after neutralizing by triethylamine (TEA).2-Hydroxy- 1-[4-(2-hydroxyethoxy) phenyl]-2-methyl-1-propanone (Irgacure 2959) was used as a photoinitiator and deionized water as a diluent.Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis was used to identify the chain structure of the UV-curable polyurethane prepolymer based on HTPB and the curing process.Effects of relative content of HTPB and PPG on emulsion stability,resistance to water and ethanol,thermal stability,compatibility of soft and hard segment,as well as the mechanical property of the cured film were investigated.

  20. Preparation of flexible and elastic poly(trimethylene carbonate) structures by stereolithography.

    Schüller-Ravoo, Sigrid; Feijen, Jan; Grijpma, Dirk W


    3D porous and non-porous structures are designed and prepared by stereolithography using resins based on PTMC macromers. Tough, flexible network films prepared in this manner show E moduli of ≈3.8 MPa and high elongations at break >900%; tensile strengths are ≈4.2 MPa. These values increase with increasing PTMC macromer molecular weight. To reach suitable viscosities for processing, up to 45 wt% propylene carbonate is added as non-reactive diluent. The solid specimens have compression moduli of 3.1-4.2 MPa, similar to the values determined in tensile testing. The built porous structures show porosities of 53-66% and average pore sizes of 309-407 µm. The compression moduli of the porous structures are significantly lower than those of the solid structures.