Sample records for diisopropyl ether

  1. Phase equilibrium properties of binary and ternary systems containing di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene at 313.15 K

    Villamanan, Rosa M. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Martin, M. Carmen [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Chamorro, Cesar R. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Villamanan, Miguel A. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail:; Segovia, Jose J. [Grupo de Termodinamica y Calibracion TERMOCAL, Dpto. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomecanica, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce s/n, E-47071 Valladolid (Spain)]. E-mail:


    (Vapour + liquid) equilibria data of (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol + benzene) (di-isopropyl ether + 1-butanol) and (1-butanol + benzene) have been measured at T = 313.15 K using an isothermal total pressure cell. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for the excess molar Gibbs energy using the Margules equation for the binary systems and the Wohl expansion for the ternary. The Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been applied successfully to both the binary and the ternary systems reported here.

  2. A probe on the intermolecular forces in diisopropyl ether-n-butyric acid mixture by dielectric, FTIR studies and quantum chemical calculations.

    Arivazhagan, G; Shanmugam, R; Elangovan, A


    The results of FTIR spectral measurement on equimolar diisopropyl ether-butyric acid binary mixture and quantum chemical calculations on the complex molecule have been presented. Dielectric studies have been carried out on the binary mixture over the entire composition range and at four different temperatures 303 K, 308 K, 313 K and 318 K. n-Butyric acid seems to prefer less polar ether to interact with it. It appears that the usual interpretation of variation of static dielectric constant and positive deviation of excess permittivity from ideal mixture behavior needs to be relooked.

  3. Thermodynamic modeling of ternary and quaternary (liquid + liquid) systems containing water, FeCl3, HCl and diisopropyl ether

    Milosevic, M.; Hendriks, I.; Smits, R.E.R.; Schuur, Boelo; de Haan, A.B.


    Liquid–liquid extraction using ethers as solvents is a potentially energy saving alternative for the concentration of aqueous ferric chloride solutions. Adequate thermodynamic models that describe the behavior of the resulting quaternary systems (FeCl3, ether, acid and water) are not available in

  4. Thermodynamics of octane enhancing additives in gasolines: vapor-liquid equilibrium of the ternary system di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) + cyclohexane + benzene at 313.15 K; Thermodynamique d'additifs ameliorant l'index d'octane dans les essences: equilibre liquide-vapeur du systeme ternaire DIPE+cyclohexane+benzene a 313.15 K

    Chamorro, C.R.; Segovia, J.J.; Martin, M.C.; Villamanan, M.A. [Valladolid Univ., Lab. de Termodinamica, Dept. Ingenieria Energetica y Fluidomevanica E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales (Spain)


    Experimental isothermal P-x data at 313.15 K for the ternary system (di-isopropyl ether (DIPE) + cyclohexane + benzene) and for the two DIPE-binaries, DIPE + cyclohexane and DIPE = benzene, are reported. Data reduction by Barker's method provides correlations for g{sup E} using the Margules equation for the binary systems and the Wohl expansion for the ternary system. Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models have been applied successfully to both the binary and the ternary systems. (authors)

  5. A Green Synthesis of Diisopropyl Phosphoryl Amino Acid


    In this paper, we report that diisopropyl phosphoryl amino acid could be prepared with reasonable yields under solvent-free condition by adding amino acid to the mixture of diisopropyl phosphite and N-chlorodiisopropylamine.

  6. Long-chain ethers as solvents can amplify the enantioselectivity of the Carica papaya lipase-catalyzed transesterification of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acid esters.

    Miyazawa, Toshifumi; Iguchi, Wakana


    The enantioselectivity of the transesterification of the 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl esters of 2-(substituted phenoxy)propanoic acids, as catalyzed by the lipase from Carica papaya, was greatly improved by using long-chain ethers, such as di-n-hexyl ether, as solvents instead of the conventional diisopropyl ether. Thus, for example, the E value was enhanced from 21 [in diisopropyl ether (0.8 ml)] to 57 [in di-n-hexyl ether (0.8 ml)] in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-phenoxypropanoate (0.1 mmol) with methanol (0.4 mmol) in the presence of the plant lipase preparation (10 mg); it was also improved from 13 (in diisopropyl ether) to 44 (in di-n-hexyl ether) in the reaction of 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl(RS)-2-(2-chlorophenoxy)propanoate with methanol under the same reaction conditions.

  7. N-(Diphenyl-vinyl-idene)-2,6-diisopropyl-aniline.

    Imhof, Wolfgang


    The title compound, C(26)H(27)N, was prepared by the elimination of water from N-(2,6-diisopropyl-phen-yl)-2,2-diphenyl-acetamide. The angle at the central C atom of the cumulene measures 172.5 (4)°. Mol-ecules are connected into infinite chains by inter-molecular C-H⋯N inter-actions.

  8. Purification of neuropathy target esterase from avian brain after prelabelling with [3H]diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate.

    Rüffer-Turner, M E; Read, D J; Johnson, M K


    Neuropathy target esterase from hen brains was radiolabelled at the active site with [3H]diisopropyl phosphorofluoridate. The labelled protein was purified by differential centrifugation and Nonidet P40 solubilization, detergent phase partitioning, anion exchange, and preparative sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The volatilizable counts assay and analytical SDS-PAGE were used to monitor the protein. The 150-kDa subunit polypeptide appears as a single band on analytical SDS-PAGE.

  9. Cosmic Ether

    Tomaschitz, R


    A prerelativistic approach to particle dynamics is explored in an expanding Robertson-Walker cosmology. The receding galactic background provides a distinguished frame of reference and a unique cosmic time. In this context the relativistic, purely geometric space-time concept is criticized. Physical space is regarded as a permeable medium, the cosmic ether, which effects the world-lines of particles and rays. We study in detail a Robertson-Walker universe with linear expansion factor and negatively curved, open three-space; we choose the permeability tensor of the ether in such a way that the semiclassical approximation is exact. Galactic red-shifts depend on the refractive index of the ether. In the local Minkowskian limit the ether causes a time variation of mass, which scales inversely proportional to cosmic time. In the globally geodesic rest frames of galactic observers the ether manifests itself in an unbounded speed of signal transfer, in bifurcations of world-lines, and in time inversion effects.

  10. ESI/MS of N-(O, O-Diisopropyl) Phosphoryl Aromatic Amino Acids and their Stability Investigation Using HPLC/UV/ESI/MS

    Hong Xia LIU; Shu Sheng ZHANG; Jian Chen ZHANG; Xiao YANG; Ling Bo QU; Yu Fen ZHAO


    The full scan ESI/MS and ESI/MS2 of N-(O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl aromatic amino acids (DIPPAAAs), N-(O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl phenylalanine, N-(O, O-diisopropyl)phosphoryl tryptophan and N-(O, O-diisopropyl) phosphoryl tyrosine, were obtained. The specific ions for them were found. Their stability in the LC mobile phase was investigated using developed HPLC/UV/ESI/MS and the results demonstrated that the DIPPAAAs were stable in the mobile phase (5 mmol/L NH4Ac-MeCN (80:20,v/v, pH7.5) within 48 h.

  11. Synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylene with FeCl3/ether complexes in hexane; kinetic and mechanistic studies

    Kumar, Rajeev Ananda


    The kinetics and mechanism of the polymerization of isobutylene catalyzed by FeCl3·ether complexes in hexane at 0°C were investigated. The polymerization rates increased in the diisopropyl ether< 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether < bis(2-chloroethyl) ether order, attributed to electronic effects. The polymerization rates increased with increasing initiator and catalyst concentrations. The first order plots, however, deviated from the linear suggesting that the cation concentration decreases with time. The previously proposed mechanism is inadequate to explain this finding. The decrease in the polymerization rate with time is explained by the low solubility of the H+ROR′FeCl4 - complexes that precipitate during polymerization. Based on mechanistic studies the revised mechanism now also includes the equilibrium H+ROR′FeCl4 - ⇋ HCl + FeCl3·ROR′.

  12. Preliminary time-of-flight neutron diffraction study on diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) from Loligo vulgaris

    Blum, Marc-Michael [Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Bundeswehr Institute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Neuherbergstrasse 11, D-80937 Munich (Germany); Koglin, Alexander [Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Department of Biological Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115 (United States); Rüterjans, Heinz [Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany); Schoenborn, Benno [Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Langan, Paul [Bioscience Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Toledo, Toledo, OH 53606 (United States); Chen, Julian C.-H., E-mail: [Institute of Biophysical Chemistry, J. W. Goethe University Frankfurt, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 9, D-60438 Frankfurt (Germany)


    Diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) effectively hydrolyzes a number of organophosphorus nerve agents, including sarin, cyclohexylsarin, soman and tabun. Neutron diffraction data have been collected from DFPase crystals to 2.2 Å resolution in an effort to gain further insight into the mechanism of this enzyme. The enzyme diisopropyl fluorophosphatase (DFPase) from Loligo vulgaris is capable of decontaminating a wide variety of toxic organophosphorus nerve agents. DFPase is structurally related to a number of enzymes, such as the medically important paraoxonase (PON). In order to investigate the reaction mechanism of this phosphotriesterase and to elucidate the protonation state of the active-site residues, large-sized crystals of DFPase have been prepared for neutron diffraction studies. Available H atoms have been exchanged through vapour diffusion against D{sub 2}O-containing mother liquor in the capillary. A neutron data set has been collected to 2.2 Å resolution on a relatively small (0.43 mm{sup 3}) crystal at the spallation source in Los Alamos. The sample size and asymmetric unit requirements for the feasibility of neutron diffraction studies are summarized.

  13. Synthesis of highly reactive polyisobutylene catalyzed by EtAlCl 2/Bis(2-chloroethyl) ether soluble complex in hexanes

    Kumar, Rajeev Ananda


    The polymerization of isobutylene (IB) to yield highly reactive polyisobutylene (HR PIB) with high exo-olefin content using GaCl3 or FeCl3·diisopropyl ether complexes has been previously reported.1 In an effort to further improve polymerization rates and exo-olefin content, we have studied ethylaluminum dichloride (EADC) complexes with diisopropyl ether, 2-chloroethyl ethyl ether (CEEE), and bis(2-chloroethyl) ether (CEE) as catalysts in conjunction with tert-butyl chloride as initiator in hexanes at different temperatures. All three complexes were readily soluble in hexanes. Polymerization, however, was only observed with CEE. At 0 °C polymerization was complete in 5 min at [t-BuCl] = [EADC·CEE] = 10 mM and resulted in PIB with ∼70% exo-olefin content. Studies on complexation using ATR FTIR and 1H NMR spectroscopy revealed that at 1:1 stoichiometry a small amount of EADC remains uncomplexed. By employing an excess of CEE, exo-olefin contents increased up to 90%, while polymerization rates decreased only slightly. With decreasing temperature, polymerization rates decreased while molecular weights as well as exo-olefin contents increased, suggesting that isomerization has a higher activation energy than β-proton abstraction. Density functional theory (DFT) studies on the Lewis acid·ether binding energies indicated a trend consistent with the polymerization results. The polymerization mechanism proposed previously for Lewis acid·ether complexes1 adequately explains all the findings. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  14. OH Production from Reactions of Organic Peroxy Radicals with HO2 : Recent Studies on Ether-Derived Peroxy Radicals

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.; Kegley Owen, C. S.; Reynoldson, N.


    There is now ample evidence supporting significant formation of OH radicals in the reaction of HO2 with certain organic peroxy radicals (RO2). These reaction channels serve to promote radical propagation, and thus have the potential to alter HOx budgets and partitioning and hence tropospheric oxidative capacity. While much focus has been placed on OH production from reactions involving carbonyl-containing RO2 species, it is also the case that other oxygen- substituted peroxy species (e.g., CH3OCH2OO, HOCH2OO) likely generate OH in their reactions with HO2 (see ref. 1 and refs therein). In this work, the Cl-atom-initiated oxidation of two ethers, diethyl and diisopropyl ether, is investigated over ranges of conditions in an environmental chamber, using both FTIR and GC-FID methods for product quantification. Preliminary analysis suggests that significant OH production is occurring in the reaction of HO2 with CH3CH2OCH(OO)CH3, and also provides evidence for a rapid unimolecular reaction of diisopropyl ether-derived peroxy radicals. Details of these and other results will be described. 1. Orlando, J. J., and G. S. Tyndall, 2012: Laboratory studies of organic peroxy radical chemistry: an overview with emphasis on recent issues of atmospheric significance, Chemical Society Reviews, 41, 6294-6317, doi: 10.1039/C2CS35166H.

  15. 异丙醚提纯工艺的研究%Research Isopropyl Ether Purification Process

    姜丽敏; 位淑华; 张梦博


    研究了异丙醚的提纯工艺。采用酸洗的方法,用硫酸做酸化剂与异丙醇副产叠合油中的异丙醚反应,静止分离,水解,精馏得到高纯度的异丙醚。讨论了硫酸质量分数、硫酸与异丙醚的质量比、反应时间对反应的影响,所得异丙醚的质量分数大于99%。%Purification process of isopropyl ether was studied.Sulfuric acid as acidifying reagent reac-ted with isopropyl ether in composite oil which was a byproduct of isopropanol,after still separation,hydroly-sis,distillation,isopropyl ether with high purity was obtained.The content of sulfuric acid,the mass ratio of sulfuric acid to isopropyl ether,the reaction time were discussed,the obtained content of diisopropyl ether was greater than 99%.

  16. Cooperative study with sup(99m)Tc diisopropyl-IDA on biliary tract diseases

    Mitta, A.E.A.; Mollerach, F; Almeida, C.A. (Complejo Medico Policial Churruca Visca, Buenos Aires (Argentina). Servicio de Medicina Nuclear)


    The results of a cooperative study on the investigation of the biliary tract with sup(99m)Tc diisopropyl-IDA are presented. 15 normal volunteers and 75 patients with acute cholecystitis (AC), chronic cholecystitis (CC), hepatocellular jaundice (HCJ), incomplete extrahepatic biliary obstruction (IEBO) and complete extrahepatic biliary obstruction (CEBO) were studied. The biological behaviour of the radiopharmaceutical in the two groups was determined through the measurement of the uptake times and of the times of arrival in the hepatic parenchyma, in the intra and extrahepatic bile ducts, in the gallbladder, in the duodenum and in the kidneys. The pathophysiologic features found in the AC, CC, HCJ, IEBO and CEBO are described. It is concluded that the procedure has a selective indication in the AC, that its value is limited in the CC, and that in jaundice, except in very special situations, the method gives very little information of clinical value. The possibility of performing cooperative scientific studies between Latin-American Departments, increasing their efficiency, is emphasized.

  17. High temperature shock tube experiments and kinetic modeling study of diisopropyl ketone ignition and pyrolysis

    Barari, Ghazal


    Diisopropyl ketone (DIPK) is a promising biofuel candidate, which is produced using endophytic fungal conversion. In this work, a high temperature detailed combustion kinetic model for DIPK was developed using the reaction class approach. DIPK ignition and pyrolysis experiments were performed using the UCF shock tube. The shock tube oxidation experiments were conducted between 1093K and 1630K for different reactant compositions, equivalence ratios (φ=0.5–2.0), and pressures (1–6atm). In addition, methane concentration time-histories were measured during 2% DIPK pyrolysis in argon using cw laser absorption near 3400nm at temperatures between 1300 and 1400K near 1atm. To the best of our knowledge, current ignition delay times (above 1050K) and methane time histories are the first such experiments performed in DIPK at high temperatures. Present data were used as validation targets for the new kinetic model and simulation results showed fair agreement compared to the experiments. The reaction rates corresponding to the main consumption pathways of DIPK were found to have high sensitivity in controlling the reactivity, so these were adjusted to attain better agreement between the simulation and experimental data. A correlation was developed based on the experimental data to predict the ignition delay times using the temperature, pressure, fuel concentration and oxygen concentration.

  18. Toxicity and characterization of cholinesterase-inhibition induced by diisopropyl fluorophosphate in Artemia salina larvae.

    Sánchez-Fortún, S; Barahona, M V


    The acute toxicity of diisopropyl fluorophosphate (DFP) on three age classes of Artemia salina was evaluated. An increase in toxicity of this organophosphorous (OP) compound was found following longer development of A. salina larvae. The effects of pretreatment with the non-selective muscarinic antagonist atropine, the two reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitors physostigmine and pyridostigmine, and the cholinesterase-reactivating oxime 2-pyridine aldoxime methoiodide (2-PAM), as individual and combined pretreatments, on DFP-induced lethality in 24h Artemia were also investigated. The lethal action of DFP was not prevented by pretreatment of 24h Artemia with atropine, physostigmine, and pyridostigmine, while 2-PAM proved effective against intoxication with this OP compound. The inhibitory effects of combinations of atropine (10(-5)M) plus 2-PAM or physostigmine were greater than those elicited by either drug alone, with the maximum protection afforded being 100%. Pretreatment with 2-PAM (10(-6)M) plus physostigmine or pyridostigmine was ineffective. These results suggest that the combinations of atropine plus 2-PAM or physostigmine are effective in the prevention of the lethal effects induced by DFP in A. salina larvae.

  19. Vinyl ether silicones

    Herzig, C.; Dauth, J.; Deubzer, B.; Weis, J. [Wacker-Chemie GmbH, Burghausen (Germany)


    Siloxanes with vinyl ether groups are prepared by hydrosilylation reaction of dihydrosiloxanes with divinyl ethers in excess. Different stoichiometry, produces linear copolymers of different viscosities and double bond concentrations always with an active vinyl ether group at each chain end. Polymerisations triggered by UV light were done with mixtures of these compounds and a series of onium salts. Very fast cure is observed even with low doses at 290 nm. V.E. silicones are found to cure essentially quantitative. The comparison with other highly reactive cationic monomers revealed that compounds are among the fastest curing prepolymers in cationic chemistry.

  20. Catalytic oxidation of dimethyl ether

    Zelenay, Piotr; Wu, Gang; Johnston, Christina M.; Li, Qing


    A composition for oxidizing dimethyl ether includes an alloy supported on carbon, the alloy being of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium. A process for oxidizing dimethyl ether involves exposing dimethyl ether to a carbon-supported alloy of platinum, ruthenium, and palladium under conditions sufficient to electrochemically oxidize the dimethyl ether.

  1. Crystal Structure of Bis (O,O’-diisopropyl dithiophosphate):[(C3H7O)2PS2]2

    ZHANG Shu-sheng; LI Xue-mei; WANG Jin-li; WAN Jun; JIAO Kui


    The crystal and molecular structures of [(C3H7O)2PS2]2 (CCDC No. 217201) were determined by means of X-ray crystallography. It crystallized in a triclinic system with space group P(-1) and lattice parameters a=0.82794(3) nm, b=0.84764(2) nm, c=0.85034(3) nm, α=97.78(3)°, β=110.77(3)°, γ= 94. 95 (3)°,V= 0. 54701(9) nm3, Z= 1. In this molecule, the two diisopropyl dithiophosphate groups, [(C3H7O)2PS2]2,which are parallel to each other, are linked by an S-S bond and there exist inversion centers in the molecule.In the structure, the P = S bonds in the two dithiophosphate units are trans-oriented to each other.

  2. Synthesis of 3,5-diisopropyl(carboxy- sup 14 C)salicylic acid and its sup 67 Cu complex

    Chidambaram, M.V.; Epperson, C.E.; Williams, S.; Gray, R.A.; Sorenson, J.R.J. (Univ. of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, Little Rock (USA). College of Pharmacy)


    The synthesis of 3,5-diisopropyl(carboxy-{sup 14}C)salicylic acid was achieved via Kolbe-Schmitt carboxylation of potassium 2,4-di-isopropylphenolate. The yield of this acid was 81% based upon the weight of the product and 93% based upon radioactivity incorporated into the labeled acid which contains 98% {sup 14}C in the carboxyl group (specific activity = 5.1 {mu}Ci/mg). The labeled acid was characterized by ultraviolet spectrophotometry and purity established by thin-layer chromatography, autoradiography, and liquid scintillation counting. A 90% yield of the double labeled {sup 14}C, {sup 67}Cu-complex (specific activity = 4.6 {mu}Ci {sup 67}Cu/mg) was obtained using conditions developed with non-radioactive reactants. The presence of {sup 67}Cu in this complex was established using {gamma}-ray emission spectrophometry. (author).

  3. Preparation and photoelectronic and electrochemical properties of oligo [(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silolene)-co-(alkylphenylsilylene)]s

    Jung, Young Min; Park, Young Tae [Dept. of Chemistry, Keimyung University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Seong Ho [Div. of Green Energy Research, Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)


    We oligomerized 2,5-dibromo-1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole with dichloroalkylphenylsilanes utilizing n-BuLi to yield conjugated oligo [(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silolene)-co-(alkylphenylsilylene)]s. Gel permeation chromatography measurements confirm that the synthesized materials are oligomeric. In addition, the prepared oligomers show characteristic diene stretching bands at 1579–1599 cm{sup −1} in their FT-IR spectra. Furthermore, the oligomers are highly soluble in common organic solvents such as tetrahydrofuran and chloroform. In tetrahydrofuran, the oligomers show strong maximum electronic absorption bands at 253–292 nm with molar absorptivities of 1.61 × 10{sup 2} to 2.57 × 10{sup 4} /cm M in their UV–vis electronic absorption spectra, indicating that the maxima are red-shifted by 5–8 nm compared to the 2,5-dibromo-1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silole monomer, strong maximum electronic excitation bands at 292–312 nm, and strong maxima electronic emission bands at 385–396 nm in the emission fluorescence spectra. The emission and absorption spectra strongly suggest that the prepared silole-containing oligomers may be conjugated through the oligomer backbone. In particular, cyclic voltammetry measurements of oligo[(1,1-diisopropyl-3,4-diphenyl-2,5-silolene)-co-(diphenylsilylene)] deposited on a glassy carbon electrode in 1.0 M aqueous hydrogen chloride show two oxidation potentials at 0.98 and 1.61 V vs. Ag/Ag{sup +}, and two reduction potentials at 0.00 and −1.93 V vs. Ag/Ag{sup +}. The oligomers were stable on heating to 200 °C under nitrogen, as determined by thermogravimetric analysis, losing between 4% and 23% of their starting weights.

  4. Diacetonitrile[N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropyl­phenyl)ethane-1,2-diimine]dichloridochromium(II) acetonitrile solvate

    Peitz, Stephan; Peulecke, Normen; Müller, Bernd H.; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe


    The title compound, [CrCl2(CH3CN)2(C26H36N2)]·CH3CN, was synthesized by the reaction of CrCl2(THF)2 with N,N′-bis­(2,6-diisopropyl­phen­yl)ethane-1,2-diimine in dichloro­methane/acetonitrile. The chromium center is coordinated by two N atoms of the chelating diimine ligand, two chloride ions in a trans configuration with respect to each other, and by two N atoms of two acetonitrile mol­ecules in a distorted octa­hedral geometry. PMID:21578093

  5. Direct Dimethyl Ether Synthesis

    Takashi Ogawa; Norio Inoue; Tutomu Shikada; Yotaro Ohno


    Dimethyl ether (DME) is a clean and economical alternative fuel which can be produced from natural gas through synthesis gas. The properties of DME are very similar to those of LP gas. DME can be used for various fields as a fuel such as power generation, transportation, home heating and cooking,etc. It contains no sulfur or nitrogen. It is not corrosive to any metal and not harmful to human body. An innovative process of direct synthesis of DME from synthesis gas has been developed. Newly developed catalyst in a slurry phase reactor gave a high conversion and high selectivity of DME production. One and half year pilot scale plant (5 tons per day) testing, which was supported by METI, had successfully finished with about 400 tons DME production.

  6. Solvent-Induced Crystallization of Poly(ether ether ketone)

    McPeak, Jennifer Lynne


    The purpose of this study was learn how the diffusion, swelling, and crystallization processes are coupled during solvent-induced crystallization of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK). Unoriented amorphous PEEK films were immersed in aprotic organic liquids at ambient temperature and bulk properties or characteristics were monitored as a function of immersion time. The sorption behavior, Tg and Tm° suppression, crystallinity, and dynamic mechanical response were correlated as a function of sol...

  7. Glyceryl guaiacol ether – review

    Massone, Flávio; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Luna, Stélio Pacca Loureiro; Universidade Estadual Paulista; Castro, Gladys Bastos; Universidade Estadual Paulista


    The history, physical and chemical properties, pharmacodynamics, pharmacokinetics, adverse effects, toxicity, clinical use in wild and domestic species and drug interactions with glyceryl guaiacol ether, an a-glyceryt ether, is presented. Guaiphenesin produces muscle relaxation without affecting diaphragmatic function. Besides muscle relaxation, the drug produces hypocholesterolemia, hypouricemia and has antitussive and expectorant actions, among others. It is a safe agent, but can produce th...

  8. Rearrangements of Cycloalkenyl Aryl Ethers

    Mercedesz Törincsi


    Full Text Available Rearrangement reactions of cycloalkenyl phenol and naphthyl ethers and the acid-catalyzed cyclization of the resulting product were investigated. Claisen rearrangement afforded 2-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. Combined Claisen and Cope rearrangement resulted in the formation of 4-substituted phenol and naphthol derivatives. In the case of cycloocthylphenyl ether the consecutive Claisen and Cope rearrangements were followed by an alkyl migration. The mechanism of this novel rearrangement reaction is also discussed.

  9. Ether: Bitcoin's competitor or ally?

    Bouoiyour, Jamal; Selmi, Refk


    Although Bitcoin has long been dominant in the crypto scene, it is certainly not alone. Ether is another cryptocurrency related project that has attracted an intensive attention because of its additional features. This study seeks to test whether these cryptocurrencies differ in terms of their volatile and speculative behaviors, hedge, safe haven and risk diversification properties. Using different econometric techniques, we show that a) Bitcoin and Ether are volatile and relatively more resp...

  10. Synthesis of 2,4-diisopropyl-5,5-dimethyl- 1,3-dioxane catalyzed by Brφnsted acidic ionic liquids

    WANG WenJuan; WANG YouFei; CHENG WenPing; WANG Jian; YANG JianGuo; HE MingYuan


    The acetalization reactions of isobutyraldehyde with 2,2,4-trimethyl-1,3-pentanediol (TMPD) for the synthesis of 2,4-diisopropyl-5,5-dimethyl-1,3-dioxane were carried out under mild reaction conditions using four water-stable Brφnsted-acidic task-specific ionic liquids ([HMIM]BF4, -SO3H functionalized acidic ionic liquid, -COOH functionalized acidic ionic liquid, [NMP][HSO4]) as environmentally benign catalysts for the first time. The process is highly effective and very selective. The -COOH functional-ized Bronsted acidic ionic liquid with the two acid sites (IL-3) exhibited the most excellent catalytic performance under mild reaction conditions. The --COOH functionalized Brφnsted acidic ionic liquid could be conveniently separated from the product and easily recycled in subsequent runs.

  11. Luminescent Lariat Aza-Crown Ether

    Burkhard König


    Full Text Available Lariat ethers are interesting recognition motifs in supramolecular chemistry. The synthesis of a luminescent lariat ether with triglycol chain by azide–alkyne (Huisgen cycloaddition is presented.

  12. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria.

    Lars Kuerschner

    Full Text Available Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high amounts of ether-phosphatidylcholine and ether-phosphatidylethanolamine. Both lipids were specifically labeled using the corresponding lyso-ether lipids, which we established as supreme precursors for lipid tagging. Polyfosine, a fluorescent analogue of the anti-neoplastic ether lipid edelfosine, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria in ether lipid metabolism and intracellular ether lipid trafficking.

  13. Palladium(II complexes with R2edda derived ligands: Part VI. O,O’-diisopropyl-(S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N’-di-2-(4-methylpentanoate dihydrochloride dihydrate and its palladium(II complex: Synthesis and characterization

    Zmejkovski Bojana B.


    Full Text Available A new R2edda-type ester, O,O’-diisopropyl-(S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N’-di-2-(4-methyl-pentanoate dihydrochloride dihydrate, [(S,S-H2iPr2eddl]Cl2∙2H2O, 1, and its palladium(II complex, dichlorido(O,O’-diisopropyl-(S,S-ethylenediamine-N,N’-di-2-(4-methylpentanoatepalla-dium(II hemihydrate, [PdCl2{(S,S-iPr2eddl}]∙0.5H2O, 2, were synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, IR and NMR spectroscopy. As expected the palladium(II complex is found in two from three diastereoisomeric forms (R,R, (S,S and (R,S≡(S,R. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172035

  14. Surface Heparinization of Poly(ether ether ketone)

    SUN Hui; CHEN Rui-chao; LIU Shu; XU Guo-zhi


    Photo-grafting of hydrophilic monomer and space arms was used to enhance the hydrophilicity of poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK) with the aim of extending its application to biological fields.PEEK films were surface modified by UV grafting of acrylic acid(AA) to introduce-COOH on PEEK surface.Adipic amine was used as ann to introduce heparin on PEEK surface based on the condensation reaction between -NH2 and -COOH.The modified PEEK(PEEK-COOH,PEEK-NH2 and PEEK-Hep) was characterized by energy-disperse spectroscopy (EDS),X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy(XPS) and water contact angle measurements,which show that heparin was grafted on PEEK surface.The contact angles of modified PEEK films were lower than those of original films,demonstrating a significant improvement of surface hydrophilicity.

  15. ETG举办针对EtherCAT产品提供商的EtherCAT培训



  16. UV and γ-ray resistance of poly(N-methylmaleimide-alt-isobutene) and poly(diisopropyl fumarate) as transparent polymer films

    Imaizumi, Ryota; Furuta, Masakazu; Okamura, Haruyuki; Matsumoto, Akikazu


    UV and γ-ray resistance of transparent polymers obtained by radical polymerization of maleic and fumaric acid derivatives, i.e., an alternating copolymer of N-methylmaleimide and isobutene (PMI) and poly(diisopropyl fumarate) (PDiPF), was investigated. Transmittance in UV and visible regions of these polymers were examined after UV irradiation and compared with the results for poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC) as conventional transparent polymers. The order of stability toward UV irradiation was PMMA≈PDiPF>PMI>>PC, deduced from changes in the transmittance of 380 nm light. Tensile mechanical properties, such as elastic modulus, maximum strength, and elongation values of PMI, PDiPF, and PMMA were also investigated after UV and γ-radiation. UV irradiation induced the side chain scission of PMI and PDiPF via Norrish I type reaction as well as crosslinking by combination between formed polymer radicals, leading to deterioration in their optical and mechanical properties. γ-radiation induced significant changes in molecular weight and mechanical properties of the polymers. In conclusion, PMI exhibited unchanged mechanical properties and PDiPF maintained its high transparency under various irradiation conditions.

  17. Atomic layer deposition of stoichiometric Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} films using bis(1,4-di-iso-propyl-1,4-diazabutadiene) cobalt

    Han, Byeol; Park, Jae-Min; Choi, Kyu Ha; Lim, Wan-Kyu; Mayangsari, Tirta R. [Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Wonyong [R& D Center, UP Chemical Co., Ltd. Pyeongtaek-si, Gyeonggi-do 459-050 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Won-Jun, E-mail: [Department of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials Engineering, Sejong University, Seoul 143-747 (Korea, Republic of)


    We report the deposition of cobalt oxide films at 120–300 °C using alternating injections of a novel liquid cobalt precursor, bis(1,4-di-iso-propyl-1,4-diazabutadiene)cobalt [C{sub 16}H{sub 32}N{sub 4}Co, Co(dpdab){sub 2}], and ozone. The saturation doses of Co(dpdab){sub 2} and O{sub 3}/O{sub 2} were 4 × 10{sup 6} and 1 × 10{sup 8} L, respectively. The atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature window was between 120 °C and 250 °C with a maximum growth per cycle of 0.12 nm/cycle. The deposited films showed excellent step coverage. Cobalt oxide films deposited at 250 °C consisted of stoichiometric and crystalline Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. - Highlights: • Cobalt oxide films were grown by ALD using a novel cobalt precursor and O{sub 3}. • The ALD temperature window was 120–250 °C with a growth per cycle of 0.12 nm/cycle. • Cobalt oxide thin films showed excellent step coverage. • Cobalt oxide films deposited at 250 °C were stoichiometric and crystalline Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}.

  18. Simultaneous determination of methyl tert.-butyl ether and its degradation products, other gasoline oxygenates and benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylenes in Catalonian groundwater by purge-and-trap-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Rosell, Mònica; Lacorte, Sílvia; Ginebreda, Antoni; Barceló, Damià


    In Catalonia (northeast Spain), a monitoring program was carried out to determine methyl tert.-butyl ether (MTBE), its main degradation products, tert.-butyl alcohol (TBA), tert.-butyl formate (TBF), and other gasoline additives, the oxygenate dialkyl ethers ethyl tert.-butyl ether, tert.-amyl methyl ether and diisopropyl ether and the aromatic compounds benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) in 21 groundwater wells that were located near different gasoline point sources (a gasoline spill and underground storage tank leakage). Purge-and-trap coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimised for the simultaneous determination of the above mentioned compounds and enabled to detect concentrations at ng/l or sub-microg/l concentrations. Special attention was given to the determination of polar MTBE degradation products, TBA and TBF, since not much data on method performance and environmental levels are given on these compounds in groundwater. All samples analysed contained MTBE at levels between 0.3 and 70 microg/l. Seven contaminated hot spots were identified with levels up to US Environmental Protection Agency drinking water advisory (20-40 microg/l) and a maximum concentration of 670 microg/l (doubling the Danish suggested toxicity level of 350 microg/l). Samples with high levels of MTBE contained 0.1-60 microg/l of TBA, indicating (but not proving) in situ degradation of parent compound. In all cases, BTEX was at low concentrations or not detected showing less solubility and persistence than MTBE. This fact confirms the suitability of MTBE as a tracer or indicator of long-term gasoline contamination than the historically used BTEX.

  19. The viscosity of dimethyl ether

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen


    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as an excellent fuel for diesel engines for over one decade now. Engines fuelled by DME emit virtually no particulate matter even at low NOx levels. This is only possible in the case of diesel oil operation if expensive and efficient lowering particles...... for pressurisation in these methods. The results of the VFVM are consolidated by measurements of the viscosities of propane and butane: these agree with the outcome of measurements using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) a method that is supposedly less sensible than the Reynolds number....

  20. Synthesis and Characterization of Poly(ether amide)s Containing Bisphthalazinone and Ether Linkages

    Cheng LIU; Shou Hai ZHANG; Ming Jing WANG; Qi Zhen LIANG; Xi Gao JIAN


    A novel aromatic diacid, 4, 4'-bis[2-(4-carboxyphenyl)phthalazin-1-one-4-yl]-bisphenyl ether Ⅲ, containing bisphthalazinone and ether linkages was prepared from nucleophilic substitution of p-chlorobenzonitrile with the bisphenol-like monomer Ⅰ, followed by alkaline hydrolysis of the intermediate dinitrile Ⅱ. A series of poly(ether amide)s containing bisphthalazinone and ether linkages derived from diacid Ⅲ and aromatic diamines were synthesized by one-step solution condensation polymerization using triphenyl phosphite and pyridine as condensing agents. Moreover, the properties of poly(ether amide)s including thermal stability,solubility and crystallinity were also studied.

  1. 27 CFR 21.108 - Ethyl ether.


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ethyl ether. 21.108 Section 21.108 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT....108 Ethyl ether. (a) Odor. Characteristic odor. (b) Specific gravity at 15.56 °/15.56 °C. Not...

  2. 水-醋酸-二异丙醚三元体系液液相平衡数据的测定%Measurement of Liquid-Liquid Equilibrium Data for the Ternary System of Water + Acetic acid + Diisopropyl Ether

    庄六星; 白璐


    实验测定了水-醋酸-二异丙醚三元体系在293.15 K、303.15 K的液液相平衡数据.分别采用Othmer-Tobias和Bachman方程对实验数据进行了可靠性检验,相关性系数均大于0.983.绘制了三元液液平衡相图.

  3. An expedient synthesis of linden ether.

    Serra, Stefano; Cominetti, Alessandra A


    We here describe a comprehensive study on the preparation of the intensive flavor 3,9-epoxy-p-mentha-1,4(8)-diene (1). Key steps of the presented synthesis are the selective addition of MeLi to the keto-ester 7, the regioselective cyclization of the obtained triol to give the ethers 4 and 8 and the selective dehydration of ether 4 through the use of POCI3 and pyridine. It is worth noting that the presented synthesis represents the first expedient and reliable entry to ether 1. Being present in linden honey, 1 is also known as linden ether and it has been regarded as a potential marker for the authentication of the linden honey origin. Therefore, ether 1 can be used as a useful reference standard for the analysis of the natural flavors, as we demonstrated by means of its identification in a sample ofunifloral linden honey.

  4. A new alternative to expandable pedicle screws: Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell.

    Demir, Teyfik


    Screw pullout is a very common problem in the fixation of sacrum with pedicle screws. The principal cause of this problem is that the cyclic micro motions in the fixation of sacrum are higher than the other regions of the vertebrae that limit the osteo-integration between bone and screw. In addition to that, the bone quality is very poor at sacrum region. This study investigated a possible solution to the pullout problem without the expandable screws' handicaps. Newly designed poly-ether-ether-ketone expandable shell and classical pedicle screws were biomechanically compared. Torsion test, pullout tests, fatigue tests, flexion/extension moment test, axial gripping capacity tests and torsional gripping capacity tests were conducted in accordance with ASTM F543, F1798 and F1717. Standard polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were used as embedding medium for pullout tests. Classical pedicle screw pullout load on polyurethane foam was 564.8 N compared to the failure load for calf vertebrae's 1264 N. Under the same test conditions, expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell system's pullout loads from polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae were 1196.3 and 1890 N, respectively. The pullout values for expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell were 33% and 53% higher than classical pedicle screw on polyurethane foam and calf vertebrae, respectively. The expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited endurance on its 90% of yield load. Contrary to poly-ether-ether-ketone shell, classical pedicle screw exhibited endurance on 70% of its yield load. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell exhibited much higher pullout performance than classical pedicle screw. Fatigue performance of expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is also higher than classical pedicle screw due to damping the micro motion capacity of the poly-ether-ether-ketone. Expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shell is a safe alternative to all other expandable pedicle screw systems on mechanical perspective

  5. Photopolymerization of Glycerin Triglycidyl Ether Based Systems

    HUANG Biwu; CHEN Yiwang; DENG Qilan


    Photopolymerization process of glycerin triglycidyl ether based systems was studied by an FT-IR spectrometer.An increase in the rate of polymerization for glycerin triglycidyl ether was evident when 3,4-epoxycyclohexylmethyl-3',4'-epoxycyclohexanecarboxylate was added to it.Its copolymerization mechanism was confirmed by using DSC analysis.The effect of ethoxylated trimethyol propane triacrylate on the rate of polymerization for glycerin triglycidyl ether was also studied,and the formation of interpenetrating network tightly cross-link was proposed.

  6. A transferable force field to predict phase equilibria and surface tension of ethers and glycol ethers.

    Ferrando, Nicolas; Lachet, Véronique; Pérez-Pellitero, Javier; Mackie, Allan D; Malfreyt, Patrice; Boutin, Anne


    We propose a new transferable force field to simulate phase equilibrium and interfacial properties of systems involving ethers and glycol ethers. On the basis of the anisotropic united-atom force field, only one new group is introduced: the ether oxygen atom. The optimized Lennard-Jones (LJ) parameters of this atom are identical whatever the molecule simulated (linear ether, branched ether, cyclic ether, aromatic ether, diether, or glycol ether). Accurate predictions are achieved for pure compound saturated properties, critical properties, and surface tensions of the liquid-vapor interface, as well as for pressure-composition binary mixture diagrams. Multifunctional molecules (1,2-dimethoxyethane, 2-methoxyethanol, diethylene glycol) have also been studied using a recently proposed methodology for the calculation of the intramolecular electrostatic energy avoiding the use of additional empirical parameters. This new force field appears transferable for a wide variety of molecules and properties. It is furthermore worth noticing that binary mixtures have been simulated without introducing empirical binary parameters, highlighting also the transferability to mixtures. Hence, this new force field gives future opportunities to simulate complex systems of industrial interest involving molecules with ether functions.

  7. 基于FPGA的EtherCAT从站节点开发%FPGA- based Development of EtherCAT Slave Node

    李昆; 杨建武


    随着实时工业以太网技术在工业自动化领域的发展和应用,德国倍福公司推出的EtherCAT技术尤其备受瞩目.EtherCAT技术的核心在于EtherCAT通信机制、EtherCAT主站和EtherCAT从站节点.EtherCAT从站节点通常是采用EtherCAT从站控制芯片和从站控制微处理器来设计实现的,对此提出了一种使用FPGA技术开发实现EtherCAT从站节点功能的方法,并验证了方法的可行性.%With the development and application of the real - time industrial Ethernet technology in industrial automation, EtherCAT technology introduced by Beckhoff is especially well received. The core of EtherCAT technology is the EtherCAT communication mechanisms, EtherCAT Master and EtherCAT Slave Node. EtherCAT slave node is usually designed by using EtherCAT slave controller chip and slave control microprocessor chip to achieve its function, this paper presents a method which is using FPGA technology to develop the EtherCAT slave node, and verifies the feasibility of it.

  8. Vacuum condensates and `ether-drift' experiments

    Consoli, M.; Pagano, A.; Pappalardo, L.


    The idea of a `condensed' vacuum state is generally accepted in modern elementary particle physics. We argue that this should motivate a new generation of precise `ether-drift' experiments with present-day technology.

  9. Activity relationships for aromatic crown ethers

    Wilson, M J


    This thesis involves an investigation of aromatic crown ethers and a study of their binding constants for alkali metals. The study was motivated by the current needs of the semiconductor industry to improve the scavenging of mobile ions from fabricated circuits. A number of aromatic crown ethers have been sulphonated in an attempt to improve their water solubility and cation binding activity. These materials have been extensively studied and their binding activity determined. In collaboration with a molecular modelling study, the effect of ionisable sulphonate groups on the macrocycles' behaviour has been investigated. The broader issue of the effect of substituents in aromatic crown ethers has also been studied with the preparation of a wide range of substituted crown ethers. The cation binding activity of these materials has been found to bear a simple relationship to the electron withdrawing nature of the aromatic substituents. This relationship can be accurately monitored using electronic charge densities...

  10. Exogenous ether lipids predominantly target mitochondria

    Kuerschner, Lars; Richter, Doris; Hannibal-Bach, Hans Kristian


    Ether lipids are ubiquitous constituents of cellular membranes with no discrete cell biological function assigned yet. Using fluorescent polyene-ether lipids we analyzed their intracellular distribution in living cells by microscopy. Mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum accumulated high......, accumulated to mitochondria and induced morphological changes and cellular apoptosis. These data indicate that edelfosine could exert its pro-apoptotic power by targeting and damaging mitochondria and thereby inducing cellular apoptosis. In general, this study implies an important role of mitochondria...

  11. Thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films for the dehydration of compressed carbon dioxide

    Koziara, B.T.


    In this thesis, the properties of thin films from highly sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) have been investigated within the context of their application as membranes for the dehydration of compressed carbon dioxide. Spectroscopic ellipsometry has been used as the predominant measurement t

  12. Optical anisotropy, molecular orientations, and internal stresses in thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films

    Koziara, Beata; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.; Benes, Nieck Edwin


    The thickness, the refractive index, and the optical anisotropy of thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films, prepared by spin-coating or solvent deposition, have been investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. For not too high polymer concentrations (B5 wt%) and not too low spin speeds

  13. Optical anisotropy, molecular orientations, and internal stresses in thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films

    Koziara, B.T.; Nijmeijer, D.C.; Benes, N.E.


    The thickness, the refractive index, and the optical anisotropy of thin sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) films, prepared by spin-coating or solvent deposition, have been investigated with spectroscopic ellipsometry. For not too high polymer concentrations (B5 wt%) and not too low spin speeds (C20

  14. Lewis酸性离子液体催化合成丁二酸二异丙酯%Synthesis of succinic acid diisopropyl ester catalyzed by Lewis acid ionic liquids

    赵地顺; 葛京京; 翟建华; 张娟; 刘猛帅; 李俊盼


    采用两步法制备了9种不同的Lewis酸性离子液体,采用1H NMR、FT-IR对离子液体的结构进行了表征,并系统地考察了其对丁二酸和异丙醇酯化反应的催化性能。结果表明,离子液体随着卤化物用量增加表现出更强的酸性。其中[Bmim]Br-Fe2Cl6催化合成丁二酸二异丙酯效果良好,催化剂用量为丁二酸质量的10.0%,反应温度100℃,反应时间4 h,酸醇摩尔比为1:5,丁二酸二异丙酯收率为88.9%,酯化率达92.7%。离子液体重复使用6次后,产品收率下降1.7%。%Nine kinds of different Lewis acid ionic liquids were synthesized by two-step process and their structures were characterized with 1H NMR and FT-IR. Lewis acid ionic liquids prepared were used to catalyze the esterification reaction of succinic acid and isopropyl alcohol. With the increase of dosage of halide, the ionic liquids showed stronger acidity. [Bmim]Br-Fe2Cl6 had the best catalytic performance, and optimal conditions for the synthesis of succinic acid diisopropyl ester were obtained as follows, amount of catalyst 10.0%(g/g)of succinic acid, reaction temperature 100℃ and reaction time 4 h, succinic acid and isopropyl alcohol ratio 1:5. Under the optimal conditions, the yield of succinic acid diisopropyl ester was up to 88.9%, esterification rate was 92.7%.The catalyst was recycled 6 times, and the yield of succinic acid diisopropyl ester only decreased by 1.7%.

  15. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of dimethyl ether steam reforming and dimethyl ether hydrolysis

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.

    The production of a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed by dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming was investigated using calculations of thermodynamic equilibrium as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0.00-4.00), temperature (100-600 °C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species. Species considered were acetone, acetylene, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, dimethyl ether, ethane, ethanol, ethylene, formaldehyde, formic acid, hydrogen, isopropanol, methane, methanol, methyl-ethyl ether, n-propanol and water. Thermodynamic equilibrium calculations of DME steam reforming indicate complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide at temperatures greater than 200 °C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure ( P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure shifts the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 to 5 atm decreases the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5 to 76.2%. The trend of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction is methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol-formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. Based on the equilibrium calculations, the optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occur at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.50, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 °C. These thermodynamic equilibrium calculations show dimethyl ether processed with steam will produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds—with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. The conversion of dimethyl ether via hydrolysis (considering methanol as the only product) is limited by thermodynamic equilibrium. Equilibrium conversion increases with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio. A maximum dimethyl ether conversion of 62% is achieved at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 5.00 and a processing temperature of 600 °C.

  16. Bis[μ-N,N′-bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)ethene-1,2-diamido]-1,4(η2);1:2κ4 N:N;3:4κ4 N:N-bis(diethyl ether)-1κO,4κO-di-μ-hydrido-2:3κ4 H:H-2,3-dichromium(II)-1,4-dilithium(I) pentane hemisolvate

    Peitz, Stephan; Peulecke, Normen; Müller, Bernd H.; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe


    The title compound, [Cr2Li2(C26H36N2)2(μ-H)2(C4H10O)2]·0.5C5H12, is a binuclear chromium complex bridged by two hydrogen atoms. Each chromium atom is coordinated in a distorted square-planar geometry by one chelating bis­(2,6-diisopropyl­phen­yl)ethene-1,2-diamido ligand via its two N atoms. Additionally, two diametrically opposed lithium ether adducts coordinate in an η4 mode on the backbone of the ligands. There is a crystallographic inversion center in the middle of the Cr2H2 ring. One of the isopropyl groups is disordered over two positions in a 0.567 (7):0.433 (7) ratio. Disorder is also observed in the pentane hemisolvate molecule. PMID:21580241

  17. EtherCAT协议分析



    <正>EtherCAT协议是德国倍福自动化有限公司(Beckhoff Automation GmbH)于2003年提出,并于2005年被定为IEC标准62407;2007年,IEC把EtherCAT协议加到工业现场总线标准61158。一、协议概述为提高通信效率以及实时性,EtherCAT协议的主要思想有两方面。简化协议,协议兼容以太网的MAC层协议,并由纯硬件完成解析,提高处理速度;而其他协议由软件

  18. Limonene ethers from tire pyrolysis oil

    Stanciulescu, Maria; Ikura, Michio [CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Natural Resources Canada, 1 Haanel Drive, Ottawa, ON (Canada)


    Tire pyrolysis oil was produced by EnerVision Inc., Halifax, Canada using the continuous ablative reactor (CAR) system. The tire oil was separated by distillation into several fractions. Naphtha and limonene enriched naphtha were reacted with methanol over different catalysts. Batch experiments were carried out to separate limonene as methyl limonene ethers. Whole tire pyrolysis oil was distilled and the resulting distillates were redistilled to separate the limonene (bp about 176{sup o}C). Vacuum distillation yielded on average 25.5wt% naphtha containing 16.3wt% limonene (average). Redistillation increased the limonene concentration to approximately 32-37wt%. The conversion of limonene (mono-terpene) to limonene ethers (terpenoides) shifted the boiling point of the limonene derivatives out of the naphtha boiling range (IBP -190{sup o}C). This allowed the separation of fragrant limonene ethers from foul smelling naphtha. Alkoxylation reactions were performed mostly using methanol and acidic catalysts. The methyl ether [1-methyl-4-({alpha}-methoxy-isopropyl)-1-cyclohexene] has a boiling point of about 198{sup o}C which is higher than the end boiling point of the naphtha cut. Five heterogeneous catalysts (four zeolites and one ion exchange resin) were tested in a batch reactor. {beta}-Zeolite produced excellent results. The reaction of R-(+)-limonene with methanol in the presence of activated {beta}-zeolite yielded methyl ether, 87.5% at selectivity 89.7% with a maximum of 2h reaction time. Limonene conversion from whole naphtha to ethers was also high. (author)

  19. Finkelstein Reaction in Functionalized Crown-ether Ionic Liquids

    Xiao Hua WANG; Han Zhi WANG; Hui LIU; Yuan KOU


    Functional crown-ether ionic liquids were used as catalytic green solvents of Finkelstein reaction of 1-bromooctane and iodide. The rate and yield of the reaction were obvious improved compared with that using crown ether in water. No free crown ether loss was observed after reaction.

  20. 40 CFR 721.3435 - Butoxy-substituted ether alkane.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. 721... Substances § 721.3435 Butoxy-substituted ether alkane. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as butoxy-substituted ether...

  1. 46 CFR 151.50-42 - Ethyl ether.


    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ethyl ether. 151.50-42 Section 151.50-42 Shipping COAST... LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-42 Ethyl ether. (a)(1) Gravity tanks... liquid. (g) Precautions shall be taken to prevent the contamination of ethyl ether by strong...

  2. Orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism.

    Watschinger, Katrin; Werner, Ernst R


    Ether lipids are an emerging class of lipids which have so far not been investigated and understood in every detail. They have important roles as membrane components of e.g. lens, brain and testis, and as mediators such as platelet-activating factor. The metabolic enzymes for biosynthesis and degradation have been investigated to some extent. As most involved enzymes are integral membrane proteins they are tricky to handle in biochemical protocols. The sequence of some ether lipid metabolising enzymes has only recently been reported and other sequences still remain obscure. Defined enzymes without assigned sequence are known as orphan enzymes. One of these enzymes with uncharacterised sequence is plasmanylethanolamine desaturase, a key enzyme for the biosynthesis of one of the most abundant phospholipids in our body, the plasmalogens. This review aims to briefly summarise known functions of ether lipids, give an overview on their metabolism including the most prominent members, platelet-activating factor and the plasmalogens. A special focus is set on the description of orphan enzymes in ether lipid metabolism and on the successful strategies how four previous orphans have recently been assigned a sequence. Only one of these four was characterised by classical protein purification and sequencing, whereas the other three required alternative strategies such as bioinformatic candidate gene selection and recombinant expression or development of an inhibitor and multidimensional metabolic profiling.


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are used as flame retardants in a wide variety of consumer products. Concerns surrounding these compounds are primarily due do their ubiquitous presence in the environment as well as in human tissue, such as milk, coupled with evidence indi...

  4. Ether, Luminosity and Galactic Source Counts

    Tomaschitz, R


    An interpretation of the cosmological redshift in terms of a cosmic ether is given. We study a Robertson-Walker cosmology in which the ether is phenomenologically defined by a homogeneous and isotropic permeability tensor. The speed of light becomes so a function of cosmic time like in a dielectric medium. However, the cosmic ether is dispersion free, it does not lead to a broadening of spectral lines. Locally, in Euclidean frames, the scale factors of the permeability tensor get absorbed in the fundamental constants. Mass and charge scale with cosmic time, and so do atomic energy levels. This substantially changes the interpretation of the cosmological redshift as a Doppler shift. Photon frequencies are independent of the expansion factor; their time scaling is determined by the permeability tensor. The impact of the ether on the luminosity-distance, on the distance-redshift relation, and on galactic number counts is discussed. The Hubble constant is related to the scale factors of the metric and the permeab...

  5. Biosynthesis of archaeal membrane ether lipids

    Jain, Samta; Caforio, Antonella; Driessen, Arnold J. M.


    A vital function of the cell membrane in all living organism is to maintain the membrane permeability barrier and fluidity. The composition of the phospholipid bilayer is distinct in archaea when compared to bacteria and eukarya. In archaea, isoprenoid hydrocarbon side chains are linked via an ether

  6. Based Design EtherCAT Slave%基于EtherCAT的从站设计



    Fieldbus has become an important part of the automatic control technology, through a large number of practical experiments and testing, now widely applied. EtherCAT has good real-time capability to adapt to the small amount of data communications, and affordable, the industrial control has been widely used. However, due to EtherCAT Slave design must use a special chip, leading from the station complex hardware design, commissioning difficulties, increasing costs. In this paper, AM3358 Cortex A8 processor plus Ethernet physical layer transceiver (PHY) program, due to the integrated chip inside AM3358 Industrial communications subsystem (PRU-ICSS) EtherCAT protocol can be achieved, so long as the external PHY can become EtherCAT Slave ..%现场总线已经成为自动化控制技术重要组成部分,通过大量的实践实验与测试,如今已经获得广泛的应用。EtherCAT具有良好的实时能力,适应小数据量通信,并且价格经济,在工业控制上得到广泛的应用。但由于EtherCAT从站设计必须使用专门的芯片,导致从站的硬件设计复杂、调试困难、成本增加。文章采用AM3358 Cortex A8处理器外加以太网物理层收发器(PHY)的方案,由于AM3358片内集成工业用通信子系统(PRU-ICSS)可以实现EtherCAT协议,因此只要外加PHY就可以成为EtherCAT从站。

  7. Synthesis of poly(vinyl ether)s with perfluoroalkyl pendant groups

    Höpken, Jens; Möller, Martin; Lee, Myongsoo; Percec, Virgil


    2-Perfluoro(alkyl)ethyl vinyl ethers, F(CF2)nCH2CH2OCHCH2, (n = 6 or 8), were synthesized and polymerized by means of cationic initiators (HI/ZnI2 and CF3SO3H/(CH3)2S). The perfluorohexyl-substituted poly(vinyl ether) is completely amorphous. The polymer with perfluorooctyl segments shows side chain

  8. Preparation and characterization of monovalent ion selective cation exchange membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    Balster, J.H.; Krupenko, O.; Krupenko, O.; Punt, Ineke G.M.; Stamatialis, Dimitrios; Wessling, Matthias


    This paper analyses the separation properties of various commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs) and tailor made membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(ether sulphone) for binary electrolyte solutions containing protons and calcium ions. All membranes are thoroughly

  9. Preparation and characterisation of monovalent ion selective cation exchange membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone)

    Balster, J.; Krupenko, O.; Punt, I.G.M.; Stamatialis, D.; Wessling, M.


    This paper analyses the separation properties of various commercial cation exchange membranes (CEMs) and tailor made membranes based on sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) and poly(ether sulphone) for binary electrolyte solutions containing protons and calcium ions. All membranes are thoroughly cha

  10. Tween as a Substitute for Diethyl Ether in the Formalin-Ether Sedimentation Technique

    NA Ahmadi


    Full Text Available Background: Tween as a substitute for diethyl ether in the formalin-ether sedimentation technique was evaluated for para­site detection.Methods: Fresh fecal material free of parasites with 10% formalin to prepare standardized specimen was thoroughly pooled. This specimen was divided into 5 equal portions; one was without infection, and each of the others was individually seeded with Entamoeba coli, and Giardia lamblia cysts, ova of Ascaris lumbericoides, and Hymenolepis nana. Six hundred and eighty four slides including 228 stool samples for each of formalin-tween, formalin-ether and direct wet mount proce­dures were examined.Results: The sensitivity of above mentioned procedures were computed 72.1%, 55% and 30 %; their negative predictive value were 69.3%, 58.3% and 47.3%; and their false negative error rate were 27.9%, 45% and 70%, respectively. There were no false-positive results among the 264 specimens previously identified as negative for the presence of intestinal para­sites. Therefore, specificity for each technique was 100%.Conclusion: In the range of our study, formalin-tween method proved to be equivalent to or better than formalin-ether tech­nique in concentrating parasite eggs, and cysts, as well as in maintaining characteristic morphology. Tween is more stable, safer, cheaper, and less flammable than that of ether; and promises to be a useful alternative to ether.

  11. Inhibition of diethyl ether degradation in Rhodococcus sp. strain DEE5151 by glutaraldehyde and ethyl vinyl ether.

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich


    Alkyl ether-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain DEE5151, isolated from activated sewage sludge, has an activity for the oxidation of a variety of alkyl ethers, aralkyl ethers and dibenzyl ether. The whole cell activity for diethyl ether oxidation was effectively inhibited by 2,3-dihydrofurane, ethyl vinyl ether and glutaraldehyde. Glutaraldehyde of less than 30 microM inhibited the activity by a competitive manner with the inhibition constant, K(I) of 7.07+/-1.36 microM. The inhibition type became mixed at higher glutaraldehyde concentrations >30 microM, probably due to the inactivation of the cell activity by the Schiff-base formation. Structurally analogous ethyl vinyl ether inhibited the diethyl ether oxidation activity in a mixed manner with decreasing the apparent maximum oxidation rate, v(max)(app), and increasing the apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, K(M)(app). The mixed type inhibition by ethyl vinyl ether seemed to be introduced not only by the structure similarity with diethyl ether, but also by the reactivity of the vinyl ether with cellular components in the whole cell system.

  12. Emergent gravity and ether-drift experiments

    Consoli, M


    In principle, ether-drift experiments could distinguish phenomenologically emergent-gravity approaches, where an effective curvature emerges from hydrodynamic distortions of the same physical, flat-space vacuum, from the more conventional scenario where curvature is considered a fundamental property of space-time down to extremely small length scales and the speed of light represents a universal constant. From an experimental point of view, in this particular context, besides time modulations that might be induced by the Earth's rotation (and its orbital revolution), one should also consider the possibility of random fluctuations of the signal. These might reflect the stochastic nature of the underlying 'quantum ether' and be erroneously interpreted as mere instrumental noise. To test the present interpretation, we have extracted the mean amplitude of the signal from various experiments with different systematics, operating both at room temperature and in the cryogenic regime. They all give the same consisten...

  13. Synthesis of New Liquid Crystalline Diglycidyl Ethers

    Issam Ahmed Mohammed


    Full Text Available The phenolic Schiff bases I–VI were synthesized by condensation reactions between various diamines, namely o-dianisidine, o-tolidine and ethylenediamine with vanillin or p-hydroxybenzaldehyde and subsequent reactions between these phenolic Schiff bases and epichlorohydrin to produce new diglycidyl ethers Ia–VIa. The structures of these compounds were confirmed by CHN, FT-IR, 1H-NMR, and 13C-NMR spectroscopy. Their thermotropic liquid crystalline behavior was studied using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and polarizing optical microscopy (POM. All the diglycidyl ethers prepared exhibit nematic mesophases, except for Va and VIa, which did not show any transition mesophases, but simply flow to liquids.

  14. Fluoroalkylation of aryl ether perfluorocyclobutyl polymers

    Ligon, Clark; Ameduri, Bruno; Boutevin, Bernard; Smith, Dennis


    International audience; Post functionalization of aryl ether perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers with fluoroalkyl side chains was accomplished with Umemoto's FITS reagents. The fluoroalkylated PFCB polymers (20 % functionalized) showed increases in both hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Static contact angle for hexadecane was increased after fluoroalkylation from 0° to greater than 30° for the two PFCB polymers tested. Increased oil repellency makes these materials potential candidates for va...

  15. Catalytic intermolecular hydroamination of vinyl ethers.

    Pahadi, Nirmal K; Tunge, Jon A


    This manuscript details the development of a palladium-catalyzed hydroamination of vinyl ethers. It is proposed that palladium catalyzes the hydroamination via Bronsted base catalysis, where palladium is protonated by the relatively acidic sulfonamide to generate a palladium hydride as well as the active anionic sulfonamide nucleophile. Thus, this process is distinct from known palladium-catalyzed hydroaminations of styrene derivatives that utilize less acidic amines.

  16. Converting biogenic dimethyl ether into fuels

    Zimmermann, Michael; Otto, Thomas N.; Dinjus, Eckhard [Karlsruher Institut fuer Technologie (KIT), Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany). Inst. fuer Katalyseforschung und -technologie (IKFT)


    In the seventies, the MtG (''methanol-to-gasoline'') process was an alternative to the Fischer-Tropsch process developed in the thirties of the past century. The MtG process is performed with dimethyl ether (DME) as an intermediate. Hydrocarbons (C{sub 1}-C{sub 10}) directly synthesised via DME with the assistance of zeolites as catalysts offers considerable advantages over the MtG process. Zeolites play an important role in the production of biomass-based fuels from synthesis gas. Known and mature technologies exist for synthesis gas of fossil origin (coal, natural gas, petroleum). These established technologies may also be transferred to synthesis gas of biogenous origin. Dimethyl ether produced from biomass-based synthesis gas is a central intermediate product. In the MtG and DtG (''dimethyl ether-to-gasoline'') process H-ZSM-5 zeolites are of major significance. Modification of H-ZSM-5 catalysts is the basis of customized product synthesis. Hierarchic structures of zeolites change the diffusion properties of the crystals and can help to achieve a more selective range of products. (orig.)

  17. Nikola Tesla, the Ether and his Telautomaton

    Milar, Kendall


    In the nineteenth century physicists' understanding of the ether changed dramatically. New developments in thermodynamics, energy physics, and electricity and magnetism dictated new properties of the ether. These have traditionally been examined from the perspective of the scientists re-conceptualizing the ether. However Nikola Tesla, a prolific inventor and writer, presents a different picture of nineteenth century physics. Alongside the displays that showcased his inventions he presented alternative interpretations of physical, physiological and even psychical research. This is particularly evident in his telautomaton, a radio remote controlled boat. This invention and Tesla's descriptions of it showcase some of his novel interpretations of physical theories. He offered a perspective on nineteenth century physics that focused on practical application instead of experiment. Sometimes the understanding of physical theories that Tesla reached was counterproductive to his own inventive work; other times he offered new insights. Tesla's utilitarian interpretation of physical theories suggests a more scientifically curious and invested inventor than previously described and a connection between the scientific and inventive communities.

  18. From ether theory to ether theology: Oliver Lodge and the physics of immortality.

    Raia, Courtenay Grean


    This article follows the development of physicist Oliver Lodge's religio-scientific worldview, beginning with his reticent attraction to metaphysics in the early 1880s to the full formulation of his "ether theology" in the late 1890s. Lodge undertook the study of psychical phenomena such as telepathy, telekinesis, and "ectoplasm" to further his scientific investigations of the ether, speculating that electrical and psychical manifestations were linked phenomena that described the deeper underlying structures of the universe, beneath and beyond matter. For Lodge, to fully understand the ether was to force from the universe an ultimate Revelation, and psychical research, as the most modern and probatory science, was poised to replace religion as the means of that disclosure. (c) 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Synthesis of Diaryl Ethers, Diaryl Sulfides, Heteroaryl Ethers and Heteroaryl Sulfides under Microwave Heating

    LI,Feng; ZOU,Jiong; WANG,Quan-Rui; TAO,Feng-Gang


    @@ Diaryl ether moiety is found in a pool of naturally occurring and medicinally important compounds.[1] As a consequent, considerable efforts have been devoted to the assembly of this framework.[2] Recently, we have developed a microwave heating version of the synthesis of diaryl ethers as well as aryl sulfides. Under our conditions, even the extremely electron-poor 4-nitrophenol works well and its reaction with 1-halo-4-nitrobenzenes produces 4-(nitrophenoxy)-benzonitriles in satisfactory yield. The scope of the present protocol has been expanded to hydroxylated six-membered heterocycles as well as 2-pyrimidinethiol with mildly activated aryl halides, affording heteroaryl ethers and respectively sulfides. The advantages of the present method include the wide substrate scope, no use of any metal catalysts, the ease of product isolation and high yields.

  20. Comparison of Properties among Dendritic and Hyperbranched Poly(ether ether ketone)s and Linear Poly(ether ketone)s.

    Morikawa, Atsushi


    Poly(ether ether ketone) dendrimers and hyperbranched polymers were prepared from 3,5-dimethoxy-4'-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether and 3,5-dihydroxy-4'-(4-fluorobenzoyl)diphenyl ether through aromatic nucleophilic substitution reactions. 1-(tert-Butyldimethylsiloxy)-3,5-bis(4-fluorobenzoyl)benzene was polycondensed with bisphenols, followed by cleavage of the protective group to form linear poly(ether ketone)s having the same hydroxyl groups in the side chains as the chain ends of the dendrimer and hyperbranched polymers. Their properties, such as solubilities, reduced viscosities, and thermal properties, were compared with one another. Similar comparisons were also carried out among the corresponding methoxy group polymers, and the size of the molecules was shown to affect the properties.

  1. 76 FR 38026 - Diethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether; Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance


    ... butyl ether, also a glycol ether differing in only one ethyl group from DEGBE. These data were used to... monobutyl ether, also a glycol ether differing only in one ethyl group. This data was used to assess the... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Diethylene Glycol Mono Butyl Ether; Exemption From the Requirement of a...

  2. Azidated Ether-Butadiene-Ether Block Copolymers as Binders for Solid Propellants

    Cappello, Miriam; Lamia, Pietro; Mura, Claudio; Polacco, Giovanni; Filippi, Sara


    Polymeric binders for solid propellants are usually based on hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB), which does not contribute to the overall energy output. Azidic polyethers represent an interesting alternative but may have poorer mechanical properties. Polybutadiene-polyether copolymers may combine the advantages of both. Four different ether-butadiene-ether triblock copolymers were prepared and azidated starting from halogenated and/or tosylated monomers using HTPB as initiator. The presence of the butadiene block complicates the azidation step and reduces the storage stability of the azidic polymer. Nevertheless, the procedure allows modifying the binder properties by varying the type and lengths of the energetic blocks.

  3. [N,N'-Bis(2,6-diisopropyl-phen-yl)methanimidamidato][η-1,4-bis-(tri-methyl-sil-yl)cyclo-octa-tetra-enyl](tetra-hydro-furan)-samarium(III) toluene monosolvate.

    Edelmann, Anja; Hrib, Cristian G; Hilfert, Liane; Blaurock, Steffen; Edelmann, Frank T


    The title compound, [Sm(C(25)H(35)N(2))(C(14)H(24)Si(2))(C(4)H(8)O)]·C(7)H(8), was prepared by treatment of anhydrous samarium trichloride with a 1:1 mixture of in situ-prepared Li(DippForm) [DippFormH = N,N'-bis-(2,6-diisopropyl-phen-yl)methanimidamide] and Li(2)(COT'') [COT'' = 1,4-bis-(trimethyl-sil-yl)cyclo-octa-tetra-enyl] in tetra-hydro-furan (THF). Despite the presence of two very bulky ligands (COT'' and DippForm), the mol-ecule still contains one coordinated THF ligand. The overall coordination geometry around the Sm(III) atom resembles a three-legged piano-stool with the COT'' ligand being η(8)-coordinated and the DippForm(-) anion acting as an N,N'-chelating ligand [Sm-N = 2.5555 (15) and 2.4699 (15) Å]. The asymmetric unit also contains a disordered mol-ecule of toluene, the refined ratio of the two components being 0.80 (4):0.20 (4).

  4. Phenolic ethers in the organic polymer of the Murchison meteorite

    Hayatsu, R.; Winans, R. E.; Scott, R. G.; McBeth, R. L.; Moore, L. P.; Studier, M. H.


    Results of the oxidation of the organic polymer of the Murchison meteorite with alkaline cupric oxide, a mild-oxidant specific for cleaving ether linkages, are reported. Qualitative analyses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, solid-probe mass spectrometry and high-resolution mass spectrometry reveal the presence of large amounts of meta-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3-hydroxy-1,5-benzenedicarboxylic acid, along with seven phenolic acids, in the oxidized solution, indicating the presence of phenolic ethers and of aryl alkyl ethers having no nuclear hydroxy group in the meteorite. The formation of phenolic ethers in the solar nebula by Fischer-Tropsch type reactions is then discussed.

  5. Alcohol dehydration: Mechanism of ether formation using an alumina catalyst

    Shi, B.; Davis, B.H. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States)


    Ether formation during the dehydration of secondary alcohols, namely, 2-butanol, 3-pentanol, and 1-cyclopentylethanol, was investigated. Using the proper reaction conditions, the yield of di-2-butyl ether during the dehydration of 2-butanol on alumina can be as high as 40%. That ether is formed by adding an alcohol to the alkene is ruled out by the results from deuterium tracer studies. Results from experiments using S(+)- 2-butanol suggest that the formation of di-2-butyl ether occurs by a S{sub N}2-type mechanism. 33 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Lithiated and sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone) solid state electrolyte films for supercapacitors

    Chiu, K.-F.; Su, S.-H., E-mail:


    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been synthesised and used as solid-state electrolytes for supercapacitors. In order to increase their ion conductivity, the PEEK films were sulphonated by sulphuric acid, and various amounts of LiClO{sub 4} were added. The solid-state electrolyte films were characterised by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analysis. The ionic conductivities of the electrolyte films were analysed by performing electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The obtained electrolyte films can be sandwiched or directly coated on activated carbon electrodes to form solid-state supercapacitors. The electrochemical characteristics of these supercapacitors were investigated by performing cyclic voltammetry and charge–discharge tests. Under an optimal content of LiClO{sub 4}, the supercapacitor can provide a capacitance as high as 190 F/g. After 1000 cycles, the supercapacitors show almost no capacitance fading, indicating high stability of the solid-state electrolyte films. - Highlights: • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK) films have been used as solid-state electrolytes. • LiClO4 addition can efficiently improve the ionic conductivity. • Supercapacitors using PEEK electrolyte films deliver high capacitance.

  7. Syntheses and GABA uptake properties of 6-ether- and 6-enol ether-substituted nipecotic acids.

    N'Goka, Victor; Bissantz, Caterina; Bisel, Philippe; Stenbøl, Tine B; Krogsgaard-Larsen, Povl; Schlewer, Gilbert


    6-aralkylether- and 6-arylenol-ether-substituted nipecotic acids were synthesized. These analogues are poor GABA uptake inhibitors. The electronegative region concept developed in the N-substituted nipecotic acid series cannot be transferred on the side chain of this series of 6-substituted analogues.

  8. Novel high T{sub g} high-strength poly(aryl ether)s

    Banerjee, S.; Maier, G. [Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Stoffe


    A novel 2-perfluoroalkyl-activated bisfluoro monomer has been synthesized successfully using a Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl phenyl boronic acid with 4,4{prime}-dibromodiphenylbenzene. This monomer was converted to novel poly(aryl ether)s by nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine atoms on the benzene ring with several bisphenols. The products obtained by displacement of the fluorine atoms exhibit weight average molar masses up to 1.06 {times} 10{sup 5} g/mol in GPC. These poly(aryl ether)s showed outstanding thermooxidative stability up to 534 C for 5% weight loss in TGA under synthetic air and high glass transition temperatures (T{sub g}) even up to 300 C in DSC and DMTA. These polymers are soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, e.g., CHCl{sub 3}, THF, NMP, DMF, toluene, etc., and are insoluble in DMSO and acetone. Transparent thin films of these polymers cast from DMF exhibited tensile strengths up to 115 MPa, moduli up to 2.59 GPa, and elongations up to 120% depending on their exact repeating unit structures. These values are comparable to those of high performance thermoplastic materials such as PEEK or Ultem PEI.

  9. Novel high T[sub g] high-strength poly(aryl ether)s

    Banerjee, S.; Maier, G. (Technische Univ. Muenchen, Garching (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Makromolekulare Stoffe)


    A novel 2-perfluoroalkyl-activated bisfluoro monomer has been synthesized successfully using a Pd(0)-catalyzed cross-coupling reaction of 4-fluoro-3-trifluoromethyl phenyl boronic acid with 4,4[prime]-dibromodiphenylbenzene. This monomer was converted to novel poly(aryl ether)s by nucleophilic displacement of the fluorine atoms on the benzene ring with several bisphenols. The products obtained by displacement of the fluorine atoms exhibit weight average molar masses up to 1.06 [times] 10[sup 5] g/mol in GPC. These poly(aryl ether)s showed outstanding thermooxidative stability up to 534 C for 5% weight loss in TGA under synthetic air and high glass transition temperatures (T[sub g]) even up to 300 C in DSC and DMTA. These polymers are soluble in a wide range of organic solvents, e.g., CHCl[sub 3], THF, NMP, DMF, toluene, etc., and are insoluble in DMSO and acetone. Transparent thin films of these polymers cast from DMF exhibited tensile strengths up to 115 MPa, moduli up to 2.59 GPa, and elongations up to 120% depending on their exact repeating unit structures. These values are comparable to those of high performance thermoplastic materials such as PEEK or Ultem PEI.

  10. 75 FR 28804 - An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs)


    ... AGENCY An Exposure Assessment of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) AGENCY: Environmental Protection...'s 2006 Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers (PBDEs) Project Plan. This document ] provides an assessment of the exposure of Americans to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), a class of brominated...

  11. Short and stereoselective total synthesis of furano lignans (+/-)-dihydrosesamin, (+/-)-lariciresinol dimethyl ether, (+/-)-acuminatin methyl ether, (+/-)-sanshodiol methyl ether, (+/-)-lariciresinol, (+/-)-acuminatin, and (+/-)-lariciresinol monomethyl ether and furofuran lignans (+/-)-sesamin, (+/-)-eudesmin, (+/-)-piperitol methyl ether, (+/-)-pinoresinol, (+/-)-piperitol, and (+/-)-pinoresinol monomethyl ether by radical cyclization of epoxides using a transition-metal radical source.

    Roy, Subhas Chandra; Rana, Kalyan Kumar; Guin, Chandrani


    Intramolecular radical cyclization of suitably substituted epoxy ethers 4a-g using bis(cyclopentadienyl)titanium(III) chloride as the radical source resulted in trisubstituted tetrahydrofurano lignans and 2,6-diaryl-3,7-dioxabicyclo[3.3.0]octane lignans depending on the reaction conditions. The titanium(III) species was prepared in situ from commercially available titanocene dichloride and activated zinc dust in THF. Upon radical cyclization followed by acidic workup, epoxy olefinic ethers 4a-g afforded furano lignans dihydrosesamin 1a, lariciresinol dimethyl ether 1b, acuminatin methyl ether 1e, and sanshodiol methyl ether 1g directly and lariciresinol 1h, acuminatin 1i, and lariciresinol monomethyl ether 1j after removal of the benzyl protecting group by controlled hydrogenolysis of the corresponding cyclized products. The furofuran lignans sesamin 2a, eudesmin 2b, and piperitol methyl ether 2e were also prepared directly by using the same precursors 4a-f on radical cyclization followed by treatment with iodine and pinoresinol 2h, piperitol 2i, and pinoresinol monomethyl ether 2j after controlled hydrogenolysis of the benzyl protecting group of the corresponding cyclized products. Two naturally occurring acyclic lignans, secoisolariciresinol 5h and secoisolariciresinol dimethyl ether 5b, have also been prepared by exhaustive hydrogenolysis of 2h and 2b, respectively.

  12. Application of simplified PC-SAFT to glycol ethers

    Avlund, Ane Søgaard; Kontogeorgis, Georgios; Michelsen, Michael Locht


    The simplified PC-SAFT (sPC-SAFT) equation of state is applied for binary glycol ether-containing mixtures, and it is investigated how the results are influenced by inclusion of intramolecular association in the association theory. Three different glycol ethers are examined: 2-methoxyethanol, 2-e...

  13. Congenital malformations and maternal occupational exposure to glycol ethers

    Cordier, S; Bergeret, A; Goujard, J; Ha, MC; Ayme, S; Calzolari, E; DeWalle, HEK; KnillJones, R; Candela, S; Dale, [No Value; Dananche, B; deVigan, C; Fevotte, J; Kiel, G; Mandereau, L


    Glycol ethers are found in a wide range of domestic and industrial products, many of which are used in women's work environments. Motivated by concern about their potential reproductive toxicity, we have evaluated the risk of congenital malformations related to glycol ether exposure during preg nanc

  14. Characterization of Poly(ether)urethanes - High Resolution Thermogravimetric Analysis


    ether)urethanes.11 Table 5. Percent weight loss for steps in stepwise isothermal TGA analysis .......................... 14 viii DRDC Atlantic...Stepwise isothermal plots for the six poly(ether)urethanes. Table 5. Percent weight loss for steps in stepwise isothermal TGA analysis . SAMPLE/ % WT LOSS

  15. Active-site peptides of acetylcholinesterase of Electrophorus electricus: labelling of His-440 by 1-bromo-[2-14C]pinacolone and Ser-200 by tritiated diisopropyl fluorophosphate.

    Salih, E; Chishti, S B; Vicedomine, P; Cohen, S G; Chiara, D C; Cohen, J B


    To characterize the structure of the active site of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the electric organ of E. electricus, we identified sites of incorporation of two active-site affinity labels, [3H]diisopropyl fluorophosphate ([3H]DFP), and 1-bromo-2-[14C]pinacolone ([14C]BrPin). AChE was isolated, purified, inactivated and digested with trypsin, and peptides containing 3H or 14C were purified by reverse-phase HPLC and characterized by N-terminal sequence analysis. [3H]DFP, labelling Ser-200, was found in a single peptide, QVTIFGESAGAASVGMHLLSPDSR, 83% identical with the sequence from Thr-193 to Arg-216 deduced for AChE of T. californica, with Gln, Ala, Leu, and Asp in place of Thr-193, Gly-203, Ile-210 and Gly-214, respectively, and 87% identical with that from bovine and human brain AChEs. Inactivation by [14C]BrPin led to two radioactive peptides. One, ASNLVWPEWMGVIHGYEIEFVFGLPLEK, was 96% identical with that extending from Ala-427 to Lys-454 of T. californica. Release of 14C in cycle 14 established reaction of [14C]BrPin with active-site His-440, protected by 5-trimethylammonio-2-pentanone (TAP). The other peptide, LLXVTENIDDAER, 77% homologous with that of T. californica extending from Leu-531 to Arg-543, had label associated with the third cycle, not protected by TAP, corresponding to Asn-533. The slow inactivation of eel AChE by reaction of [14C]BrPin at His-440 contrasts with that of AChE from T. nobiliana, where it reacts rapidly with a free cysteine, Cys-231, not present in eel AChE. For both AChEs, inactivation by BrPin prevents subsequent reaction with [3H]DFP, and prior inactivation by DFP does not prevent reactions with [14C]BrPin.

  16. Observation of a re-entrant phase transition in the molecular complex tris(μ2-3,5-diisopropyl-1,2,4-triazolato-κ2N1:N2trigold(I under high pressure

    Christopher H. Woodall


    Full Text Available We report a molecular crystal that exhibits four successive phase transitions under hydrostatic pressure, driven by aurophilic interactions, with the ground-state structure re-emerging at high pressure. The effect of pressure on two polytypes of tris(μ2-3,5-diisopropyl-1,2,4-triazolato-κ2N1:N2trigold(I (denoted Form-I and Form-II has been analysed using luminescence spectroscopy, single-crystal X-ray diffraction and first-principles computation. A unique phase behaviour was observed in Form-I, with a complex sequence of phase transitions between 1 and 3.5 GPa. The ambient C2/c mother cell transforms to a P21/n phase above 1 GPa, followed by a P21/a phase above 2 GPa and a large-volume C2/c supercell at 2.70 GPa, with the previously observed P21/n phase then reappearing at higher pressure. The observation of crystallographically identical low- and high-pressure P21/n phases makes this a rare example of a re-entrant phase transformation. The phase behaviour has been characterized using detailed crystallographic theory and modelling, and rationalized in terms of molecular structural distortions. The dramatic changes in conformation are correlated with shifts of the luminescence maxima, from a band maximum at 14040 cm−1 at 2.40 GPa, decreasing steeply to 13550 cm−1 at 3 GPa. A similar study of Form-II displays more conventional crystallographic behaviour, indicating that the complex behaviour observed in Form-I is likely to be a direct consequence of the differences in crystal packing between the two polytypes.

  17. Ethylated Urea - Ether - Modified Urea - Formaldehyde Resins,

    Mathew Obichukwu EDOGA


    Full Text Available First, phenol - formaldehyde (PF and urea - formaldehyde (UFII resins were separately conventionally prepared in our laboratory. Also, UF resin synthesized from the acid modified synthesis procedure was synthesized in a purely acid medium of pH 1.0, FU molar ratio of 1.0 and at 50oC (one-stage acid modified-synthesis procedure. Subsequently, the UF resin II was modified during synthesis by incorporating ethylated urea-ether (EUER (i.e. UFIII and glycerol (GLYC (i.e. UFV cured with and without acid curing agent. The structural and physicochemical analyses of the various resin samples were carried out.The results showed that the unmodified UF resin (UF II synthesized in acid medium of pH 1.0, F/U molar ratio 1.0, and at 50oC, cured in absence of acid curing catalyst, showed features in their spectra which are consistent with a tri-, and/or tetra-substituted urea in the reaction to give a 3 - dimensional network cured UF resin. Modification of the UF resin(UF II with ethylated urea-ether and glycerol to produce UF resins III and respectively V prominently increased the absorbance of methylene and ether groups in the spectra which are consistent with increased hydrophobicity and improved hydrolytic stability. For the conventional UF resin (UF I, the only clear distinction between spectra for the UF resin II and UF resins (III/V is the presence of diminished peaks for methylene groups at 2.2 ppm. The relationship between the logarithmic viscosity of cured PF resin with time showed continuos dependence of viscosity with time during cure up to 70 minutes. Similar trends were shown by UF resins (III/V, cured in absence of acid catalyst. In contrast, the conventional UF resins I and UF IV (i.e. UF II cured with NH4CL showed abrupt discontinuity in viscosity with time just after about 20 minutes of cure.

  18. Polymeric 32-channel arrayed waveguide grating multiplexer using fluorinated poly (ether ether ketone)

    Fei Wang(王菲); Wei Sun(孙伟); Aize Li(李艾泽); Maobin Yi(衣茂斌); Zhenhua Jiang(姜振华); Daming Zhang(张大明)


    In wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) systems, an arrayed waveguide grating (AWG) multiplexer is a key component. A polymeric AWG multiplexer has recently attracted much attention due to its low cost processing and a potential of integration with other devices. Fluorinated poly (ether ether ketone)(FPEEK) is excellent material for fabrication of optical waveguides due to its low absorption loss at 1.55-μm wavelength and high thermal stability. A 32-channel AWG multiplexer has been designed based on the grating diffraction theory and fabricated using newly synthesized FPEEK. During the fabrication process of the Polymer/Si AWG device, spin coating, vaporizing, photolithographic patterning and reactive ion etching (RIE) are used. The AWG multiplexer measurement system is based on a tunable semiconductor laser, infrared camera and a Peltier-type heater. The device exhibits a wavelength channel spacing of 0.8nm and a center wavelength of 1548 nm in the room temperature.

  19. Origin of mechanical modifications in poly (ether ether ketone)/carbon nanotube composite

    Pavlenko, Ekaterina; Puech, Pascal; Bacsa, Wolfgang, E-mail: [CEMES-CNRS and University of Toulouse, 29 Jeanne Marvig, 31055 Toulouse (France); Boyer, François; Olivier, Philippe [Université de Toulouse, Institut Clément Ader, I.U.T. Université Paul Sabatier - 133C Avenue de Rangueil - B.P. 67701, 31077 Toulouse CEDEX 4 (France); Sapelkin, Andrei [School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary, University of London, Mile End Road, E1 4NS London (United Kingdom); King, Stephen; Heenan, Richard [ISIS Facility, Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, OX11 0QX Didcot (United Kingdom); Pons, François; Gauthier, Bénédicte; Cadaux, Pierre-Henri [AIRBUS FRANCE (B.E. M and P Toulouse), 316 Route de Bayonne, 31060 Toulouse (France)


    Variations in the hardness of a poly (ether ether ketone) beam electrically modified with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT, 0.5%-3%) are investigated. It is shown that both rupture and hardness variations correlate with the changes in carbon nanotube concentration when using micro indentation and extended Raman imaging. Statistical analysis of the relative spectral intensities in the Raman image is used to estimate local tube concentration and polymer crystallinity. We show that the histogram of the Raman D band across the image provides information about the amount of MWCNTs and the dispersion of MWCNTs in the composite. We speculate that we have observed a local modification of the ordering between pure and modified polymer. This is partially supported by small angle neutron scattering measurements, which indicate that the agglomeration state of the MWCNTs is the same at the concentrations studied.

  20. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Mai, Zhensheng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China); Graduate University of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng [PEMFC Key Materials and Technology Laboratory, Dalian Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Zhongshan Road 457, Dalian 116023 (China)


    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test. (author)

  1. Modification of Poly(ether ether ketone Polymer for Fuel Cell Application

    Devesh Shukla


    Full Text Available Polyelectrolyte membrane (PEM is an important part of PEM fuel cell. Nafion is a commercially known membrane which gives the satisfactory result in PEM fuel cell operating at low temperature. Present research paper includes functionalization of Poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK polymer with phosphonic acid group. The functionalization was done with the help of nickel-based catalyst. Further, the polymer was characterized by the FTIR, EDAX, DSC, TGA, and 1H NMR, and it was found that PEEK polymer was functionalized with phosphonic acid group with good thermal stability in comparison to virgin PEEK. Finally, the thin films of functionalized polymer were prepared by solution casting method, and proton conductivity of film samples was measured by impedance spectra whose value was found satisfactory with good thermal stability in comparison to commercially available Nafion membrane.

  2. Evaluation of Stabilization Performances of Antioxidants in Poly(ether ether ketone)

    ZHOU Zheng; ZHOU Fu-gui; ZHANG Shu-ling; MU Jian-xin; YUE Xi-gui; WANG Gui-bin


    Two types of antioxidants(a primary antioxidant and a secondary antioxidant) were used to improve the stability of poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK).The effects of the antioxidants on the properties of PEEK and the stabilization mechanism were investigated by some characterization methods,such as rheometer,thermogravinetric analysis(TGA),universal tester and electron spin resonance(ESR).The results indicate that the efficiency of the phosphorous antioxidant(DS) in improving the stability of PEEK was better than that of the phenolic antioxidant(DN) in both melting stability and thermal stability,and the thermal stability of PEEK sample containing 0.07%(mass fraction) DS was the best among all the samples due to the decrease of the free radicals density,as proven by ESR measurement.Additionally,no obvious changes could be observed in mechanical properties of PEEK containing antioxidants compared to those of virgin PEEK.

  3. Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) membranes for vanadium redox flow battery application

    Mai, Zhensheng; Zhang, Huamin; Li, Xianfeng; Bi, Cheng; Dai, Hua

    Sulfonated poly(tetramethydiphenyl ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) with various degree of sulfonation is prepared and first used as ion exchange membrane for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application. The vanadium ion permeability of SPEEK40 membrane is one order of magnitude lower than that of Nafion 115 membrane. The low cost SPEEK membranes exhibit a better performance than Nafion at the same operating condition. VRB single cells with SPEEK membranes show very high energy efficiency (>84%), comparable to that of the Nafion, but at much higher columbic efficiency (>97%). In the self-discharge test, the duration of the cell with the SPEEK membrane is two times longer than that with Nafion 115. The membrane keeps a stable performance after 80-cycles charge-discharge test.


    Jing-kun Xu; Wei-qiang Zhou; Jian Hou; Shou-zhi Pu; Jing-wu Wang; Liu-shui Yan


    High quality poly(5-cyanoindole) (P5CI) films were electrosynthesized by direct anodic oxidation of 5-cyanoindole on stainless steel sheet in the mixed electrolytes of boron trifluoride diethyl etherate (BFEE) and diethyl ether (EE) (by volume 1:1) + 0.05 mol L-1 Bu4NBF4. The film formed can be peeled off the electrode into freestanding films. The addition of EE into BFEE can improve the solubility of monomer. P5CI films obtained from this medium showed excellent electrochemical behavior with conductivity of 10-2 Scm-1. Structural studies showed that the polymerization of 5-cyanoindole occurred at the 2,3 position. As-formed P5CI films were thoroughly soluble in strong polar organic solvent dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) while partly soluble in tetrahydrofuran (THF) or acetone. Fluorescence spectral studies indicated that P5CI was a good blue-light emitter.

  5. Dielectric properties of poly (1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone)

    Spasevska, H


    Dielectric properties of Poly (1,4-phenylene ether-ether-sulfone) are obtained from dielectric spectroscopy of the polymer pellet. The values of relative dielectric constant epsilon', dielectric losses epsilon sup , dielectric dissipation factor tan delta and complex impedance are obtained at temperature of 75 sup o C. The temperature dependence of these parameters is investigated for three frequencies (8x10 sup 4 Hz; 8x10 sup 5 Hz; 8x10 sup 6 Hz) of applied electric field. The specific conductivity sigma, which depends on temperature, is related to the ohmic resistance R, at temperature in the interval from 66 to 83 sup o C. Fitting the experimental data, the value of the activation energy U is obtained. (Original)

  6. Poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    Hwang, Mi-Lim; Choi, Jisun; Woo, Hyun-Su; Kumar, Vinod; Sohn, Joon-Yong; Shin, Junhwa, E-mail:


    Highlights: • PEEK-g-PVBSA, a polymer electrolyte membrane was prepared by a radiation grafting technique. • Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), an aromatic hydrocarbon polymer was used as a grafting backbone film. • The water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the membranes were evaluated. • PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes show considerably lower methanol permeability compared to a Nafion membrane. -- Abstract: In this study, an aromatic hydrocarbon based polymer electrolyte membrane, poly(vinylbenzyl sulfonic acid)-grafted poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK-g-PVBSA), has been prepared by the simultaneous irradiation grafting of vinylbenzyl chloride (VBC) monomer onto a PEEK film and subsequent sulfonation. Each chemical conversion was monitored by FT-IR and SEM–EDX instruments. The physicochemical properties including IEC, water uptake, proton conductivity, and methanol permeability of the prepared membranes were also investigated and found that the values of these properties increase with the increase of degree of grafting. It was observed that the IEC values of the prepared PEEK-g-PVBSA membranes with 32%, 58%, and 80% DOG values were 0.50, 1.05, and 1.22 meq/g while the water uptakes were 14%, 20%, and 21%, respectively. The proton conductivities (0.0272–0.0721 S/cm at 70 °C) were found to be somewhat lower than Nafion 212 (0.126 S/cm at 70 °C) at a relative humidity of 90%. However, the prepared membranes showed a considerably lower methanol permeability (0.61–1.92 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s) compared to a Nafion 212 membrane (5.37 × 10{sup −7} cm{sup 2}/s)

  7. Mass transport of direct methanol fuel cell species in sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) membranes

    Silva, V.S.; Boaventura, M.; Mendes, A.M.; Madeira, L.M. [LEPAE, Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, 4200-465 Porto (Portugal); Ruffmann, B.; Vetter, S.; Nunes, S.P. [GKSS Research Centre, Max-Planck Str., 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)


    Homogeneous membranes based on sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with different sulfonation degrees (SD) were prepared and characterized. In order to perform a critical analysis of the SD effect on the polymer barrier and mass transport properties towards direct methanol fuel cell species, proton conductivity, water/methanol pervaporation and nitrogen/oxygen/carbon dioxide pressure rise method experiments are proposed. This procedure allows the evaluation of the individual permeability coefficients in hydrated sPEEK membranes with different sulfonation degrees. Nafion{sup (R)} 112 was used as reference material. DMFC tests were also performed at 50{sup o}C. It was observed that the proton conductivity and the permeability towards water, methanol, oxygen and carbon dioxide increase with the sPEEK sulfonation degree. In contrast, the SD seems to not affect the nitrogen permeability coefficient. In terms of selectivity, it was observed that the carbon dioxide/oxygen selectivity increases with the sPEEK SD. In contrast, the nitrogen/oxygen selectivity decreases. In terms of barrier properties for preventing the DMFC reactants loss, the polymer electrolyte membrane based on the sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) with SD lower or equal to 71%, although having slightly lower proton conductivity, presented much better characteristics for fuel cell applications compared with the well known Nafion{sup (R)} 112. In terms of the DMFC tests of the studied membranes at low temperature, the sPEEK membrane with SD=71% showed to have similar performance, or even better, as that of Nafion{sup (R)} 112. However, the highest DMFC overall efficiency was achieved using sPEEK membrane with SD=52%. (author)

  8. Microwave Spectrum of the Ethylmethyl Ether Molecule

    Kojiro Takagi


    Full Text Available We have observed rotational transitions of ethylmethyl ether (CH3CH2OCH3 in the 24-110 GHz frequency range. We newly assigned the transitions of four Q-branch series for J=1-38 with Ka=0-5 and six R-branch series of b-type transitions for J=7-37 with Ka=0-3. All these assigned transitions were observed to be split into two or four components due to the internal rotations of the methyl groups. We analyzed the averaged frequencies of the split components on the basis of the Watson A-reduced Hamiltonian, neglecting the effect of the internal rotations. A total of 122 transitions were fitted to eight molecular parameters to a 1s standard deviation of 24 kHz. The parameters A, B, C and DJ were improved, and DJK, Dk, dJ and dK were determined for the first time.

  9. Molecular dynamics model of dimethyl ether

    Lin, B.; Halley, W.J. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)


    We report a molecular dynamics model of the monomeric liquid dimethyl ether. The united atom approach is used to treat CH{sub 3} groups as point source centers. Partial charges are derived from the experimental dipole moment. Harmonic force constants are used for intramolecular interactions, and their values are so chosen that the model`s fundamental frequencies agree with experimental results. Because we are interested in solvation properties, the model contains flexible molecules, allowing molecular distortion and internal dynamical quantities. We report radial distribution functions and the static structure factors as well as some dynamical quantities such as the dynamical structure factor, infrared absorption, and Raman scattering spectra. Calculated results agree reasonably well with experimental and other simulation results. 25 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether: A model of ether linkages in low rank coal

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Malcolm, E.A.


    Currently, an area of interest and frustration for coal chemists has been the direct liquefaction of low rank coal. Although low rank coals are more reactive than bituminous coals, they are more difficult to liquefy and offer lower liquefaction yields under conditions optimized for bituminous coals. Solomon, Serio, and co-workers have shown that: in the pyrolysis and liquefaction of low rank coals, a low temperature cross-linking reaction associated with oxygen functional groups occurs before tar evolution. A variety of pretreatments (demineralization, alkylation, and ion-exchange) have been shown to reduce these retrogressive reactions and increase tar yields, but the actual chemical reactions responsible for these processes have not been defined. In order to gain insight into the thermochemical reactions leading to cross-linking in low rank coal, we have undertaken a study of the pyrolysis of oxygen containing coal model compounds. Solid state NMR studies suggest that the alkyl aryl ether linkage may be present in modest amounts in low rank coal. Therefore, in this paper, we will investigate the thermolysis of phenethyl phenyl ether (PPE) as a model of 0-aryl ether linkages found in low rank coal, lignites, and lignin, an evolutionary precursor of coal. Our results have uncovered a new reaction channel that can account for 25% of the products formed. The impact of reaction conditions, including restricted mass transport, on this new reaction pathway and the role of oxygen functional groups in cross-linking reactions will be investigated.

  11. Cationic Poly(benzyl ether)s as Self-Immolative Antimicrobial Polymers.

    Ergene, Cansu; Palermo, Edmund F


    Self-immolative polymers (SIMPs) are macromolecules that spontaneously undergo depolymerization into small molecules when triggered by specific external stimuli. We report here the first examples of antimicrobial SIMPs with potent, rapid, and broad-spectrum bactericidal activity. Their antibacterial and hemolytic activities were examined as a function of cationic functionality. Polymers bearing primary ammonium cationic groups showed more potent bactericidal activity against Escherichia coli, relative to tertiary and quaternary ammonium counterparts, whereas the quaternary ammonium polymers showed the lowest hemolytic toxicity. These antibacterial polycations undergo end-to-end depolymerization when triggered by an externally applied stimulus. Specifically, poly(benzyl ether)s end-capped with a silyl ether group and bearing pendant allyl side chains were converted to polycations by photoinitiated thiol-ene radical addition using cysteamine HCl. The intact polycations are stable in solution, but they spontaneously unzip into their component monomers upon exposure to fluoride ions, with excellent sensitivity and selectivity. Upon triggered depolymerization, the antibacterial potency was largely retained but the hemolytic toxicity was substantially reduced. Thus, we reveal the first example of a self-immolative antibacterial polymer platform that will enable antibacterial materials to spontaneously unzip into biologically active small molecules upon the introduction of a specifically designed stimulus.

  12. High temperature fuel cell membranes based on poly(arylene ether)s containing benzimidazole groups

    Kim, Dae Sik [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kim, Yu Seung [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Lee, Kwan - Soo [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Boncella, James M [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Kuiper, David [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Guiver, Michael D [CANADA


    Development of new high-performance polymer membranes that retain their proton conductivity under low humidity conditions is one of the most critical requirements to commercialize PEMFC systems. Current sulfonated proton exchange membranes acquire proton conductivity by water that solvates ion and carries proton. Consequently, a loss of water under low RH conditions immediately results in a loss of proton conductivity. One approach to maintain proton conductivity under low RH conditions is to replace water with a less volatile proton solvent. Kreuer has pointed out the possibility to develop fully polymeric proton-conducting membranes based on nitrogen-containing heterocycles such as imidazole, benzimidazole, and pyrazole. We have attempted to blend those less volatile proton solvent with sulfonated copolymers such as polystyrene sulfonic acid, Nafion, poly(arylene ether sulfone, BPSH-xx). [Ref. DOE review meeting 2007 and 2008] However, we observed that imidazole was slowly sublimated out as temperature and humidity increases which could cause poisoning of electro-catalyst, corrosion and losing conductivity. In this presentation, we report the synthesis of novel poly(arylene ether sulfone)s containing benzimidazole groups These benzimidazole containing polymer was blended with sulfonated poly(arylene ether sulfone). In the blend system, benzimidazole group attached to the polysulfone acts as a medium through the basic nitrogen for transfer of protons between the sulfonic acid groups. Proton conductivity of the blend membranes was investigated as a function of water content at 80 C and compared the performance with water based proton conduction system.

  13. Formulating liquid ethers for microtubular SOFCs

    Kendall, Kevin; Slinn, Matthew; Preece, John

    One of the key problems of applying solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) in transportation is that conventional fuels like kerosene and diesel do not operate directly in SOFCs without prereforming to hydrogen and carbon monoxide which can be handled by the nickel cermet anode. SOFCs can internally reform certain hydrocarbon molecules such as methanol and methane. However, other liquid fuels usable in petrol or diesel internal combustion engines (ICEs) have not easily been reformable directly on the anode. This paper describes a search for liquid fuels which can be mixed with petrol or diesel and also injected directly into an SOFC without destroying the nickel anode. When fuel molecules such as octane are injected onto the conventional nickel/yttria stabilised zirconia (Ni/YSZ) SOFC fuel electrode, the anode rapidly becomes blocked by carbon deposition and the cell power drops to near zero in minutes. This degeneration of the anode can be inhibited by injection of air or water into the anode or by some upstream reforming just before entry to the SOFC. Some smaller molecules such as methane, methanol and methanoic acid produce a slight tendency to carbon deposition but not sufficient to prevent long term operation. In this project we have investigated a large number of molecules and now found that some liquid ethers do not significantly damage the anode when directly injected. These molecules and formulations with other components have been evaluated in this study. The theory put forward in this paper is that carbon-carbon bonds in the fuel are the main reason for anode damage. By testing a number of fuels without such bonds, particularly liquid ethers such as methyl formate and dimethoxy methane, it has been shown that SOFCs can run without substantial carbon formation. The proposal is that conventional fuels can be doped with these molecules to allow hybrid operation of an ICE/SOFC device.

  14. Vapor intrusion risk of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE): A modeling study.

    Ma, Jie; Xiong, Desen; Li, Haiyan; Ding, Yi; Xia, Xiangcheng; Yang, Yongqi


    Vapor intrusion of synthetic fuel additives represents a critical yet still neglected problem at sites contaminated by petroleum fuel releases. This study used an advanced numerical model to investigate the vapor intrusion potential of fuel ether oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME), and ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). Simulated indoor air concentration of these compounds can exceed USEPA indoor air screening level for MTBE (110μg/m(3)). Our results also reveal that MTBE has much higher chance to cause vapor intrusion problems than TAME and ETBE. This study supports the statements made by USEPA in the Petroleum Vapor Intrusion (PVI) Guidance that the vertical screening criteria for petroleum hydrocarbons may not provide sufficient protectiveness for fuel additives, and ether oxygenates in particular. In addition to adverse impacts on human health, ether oxygenate vapor intrusion may also cause aesthetic problems (i.e., odour and flavour). Overall, this study points out that ether oxygenates can cause vapor intrusion problems. We recommend that USEPA consider including the field measurement data of synthetic fuel additives in the existing PVI database and possibly revising the PVI Guidance as necessary.

  15. Characterization of Microsolvated Crown Ethers from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie; Blanco, Susana; Lopez, Juan Carlos


    Since they were first synthetized, crown ethers have been extensively used in organometallic chemistry due to their unparalleled binding selectivity with alkali metal cations. From a structural point of view, crown ethers are heterocycles containing oxygen and/or other heteroatoms, although the most common ones are formed from ethylene oxide unit. Crown ethers are conventionally seen as being hydrophilic inside and hydrophobic outside when the structures found for the metal cation complexes are considered. However, crown ethers are extremely flexible and in isolation may present a variety of stable conformations so that their structure may be easily adapted in presence of a strong ligand as an alkali metal cation minimize the energy of the resulting complex. Water can be considered a soft ligand which interacts with crown ethers through moderate hydrogen bonds. It is thus interesting to investigate which conformers are selected by water to form complexes, the preferred interaction sites and the possible conformational changes due to the presence of one or more water molecules. Previous studies identified microsolvated crown ethers but in all cases with a chromophore group attached to the structure. Here we present a broadband rotational spectroscopy study of microsolvated crown ethers produced in a pulsed molecular jet expansion. Several 1:1 and 1:2 crown ether:water aggregates are presented for 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6. Unambiguous identification of the structures has been achieved using isotopic substitution within the water unit. The subtle changes induced in the structures of the crown ether monomer upon complexation and the hydrogen-bonding network that hold them together will be also discussed. F. Gámez, B. Martínez-Haya, S. Blanco,J. C. López and J. L. Alonso, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 2014, 14 12912-12918 V. A. Shubert, C.W. Müller and T. Zwier, J. Phys. Chem. A 2009, 113 8067-8079

  16. 德国赫优讯EtherCAT新产品


    EtherCAT作为实时以太网协议之一,以其强大的性能和“On the fly”的速度,以及网络抖动小于1μs的同步功能.成为发展最快的实时网络协议。同时,EtherCAT全球组织在中国代表处的设立,表明了EtherCAT全球组织对中国市场的关心。

  17. Impact of cellulose ethers on the cement paste microstructure

    Pourchez, Jérémie; Grosseau, Philippe; Rouèche-Pourchez, Emilie; Debayle, Johan; Pinoli, Jean-Charles; Maire, Eric; Boller, Elodie; Parra-Denis, Estelle


    ISBN = 3-87264-022-4 7 pages; International audience; Complementary investigation tools (2D and 3D observations by optical microscopy and fast X-ray microtomography and then image analysis) were developed in order to examine the effects of cellulose ethers on the cement paste microstructure. The obtained results show that the presence of cellulose ether may induce an increase of both 50-250 µm-diameter air voids. The chemistry of the cellulose ethers appears as a main controlling factor of th...

  18. Synthesis and Adsorption Property of Dihydroxyl Azacrown Ether-Grafted Chitosan


    A novel dihydroxyl azacrown ether chitosan was synthesized by reacting dihydroxyl azacrown ether with epoxy activated chitosan. The adsorption property of the azacrown ether chitosan for Pb2+, Cr3+, and Ag+, were determined. The experimental results showed that the dihydroxyl azacrown ether grafted chitosan has high adsorption capacity and high selectivity for some metal ions.

  19. Evaluation of crystallization kinetics of poly (ether-ketone-ketone and poly (ether-ether-ketone by DSC

    Gibran da Cunha Vasconcelos


    Full Text Available The poly (aryl ether ketones are used as matrices in advanced composites with high performance due to its high thermal stability, excellent environmental performance and superior mechanical properties. Most of the physical, mechanical and thermodynamic properties of semi-crystalline polymers depend on the degree of crystallinity and morphology of the crystalline regions. Thus, a study on the crystallization process promotes a good prediction of how the manufacturing parameters affect the developed structure, and the properties of the final product. The objective of this work was to evaluate the thermoplastics polymers PEKK e PEEK by DSC, aiming to obtain the relationship between kinetics, content, nucleation and geometry of the crystalline phases, according to the parameters of the Avrami and Kissinger models. The analysis of the Avrami exponents obtained for the studied polymers indicates that both showed the formation of crystalline phases with heterogeneous nucleation and growth geometry of the type sticks or discs, depending on the cooling conditions. It was also found that the PEEK has a higher crystallinity than PEKK.

  20. Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Spatial trends of polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners were analyzed in young of the year bluefish collected along the U.S. Atlantic coastline from...

  1. Fluorinated Alkyl Ether Epoxy Resin Compositions and Applications Thereof

    Wohl, Christopher J. (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Siochi, Emilie J. (Inventor); Gardner, John M. (Inventor); Palmieri, Frank M. (Inventor)


    Epoxy resin compositions prepared using amino terminated fluoro alkyl ethers. The epoxy resin compositions exhibit low surface adhesion properties making them useful as coatings, paints, moldings, adhesives, and fiber reinforced composites.

  2. 德国赫优讯EtherCAT产品



  3. Nickel-catalyzed direct synthesis of dialkoxymethane ethers



    A simple and efficient method for the preparation of dialkoxymethane ethers (oxymethylene ethers) from alcohols and paraformaldehyde in the presence of commercially available nickel(II) salt is described. The reaction proceeds readily under neutral, solvent-free conditions using paraformaldehyde as a C1 source. The present strategy has a broad substrate scope including aliphatic (both primary and secondary) and aromatic alcohols and provides a benign method for the preparation of symmetrical dialkoxymethanes in good yields (up to 89%).

  4. Imide/Arylene Ether Copolymers Containing Phosphine Oxide

    Jensen, Brian J.; Partos, Richard D.


    Phosphine oxide groups react with oxygen to form protective phosphate surface layers. Series of imide/arylene ether block copolymers containing phosphine oxide units in backbone synthesized and characterized. In comparison with commercial polyimide, these copolymers display better resistance to etching by oxygen plasma. Tensile strengths and tensile moduli greater than those of polyarylene ether homopolymer. Combination of properties makes copolymers attractive for films, coatings, adhesives, and composite matrices where resistance to atomic oxygen needed.

  5. Marine Sponge Dysidea herbacea revisited: Another Brominated Diphenyl Ether

    Bruce F. Bowden


    Full Text Available Abstract: A pentabrominated phenolic diphenyl ether (1 that has not previously been reported from marine sources has been isolated from Dysidea herbacea collected at Pelorus Island, Great Barrier Reef, Australia. The structure was determined by comparison of NMR data with those of known structurally-related metabolites. NMR spectral assignments for (1 are discussed in context with those of three previously reported isomeric pentabrominated phenolic diphenyl ethers.

  6. Effect of diethyl ether on the biliary excretion of acetaminophen.

    Watkins, J B; Siegers, C P; Klaassen, C D


    The biliary and renal excretion of acetaminophen and its metabolites over 8 hr was determined in rats exposed to diethyl ether by inhalation for 1 hr. Additional rats were anesthetized with urethane (1 g/kg ip) while control animals were conscious throughout the experiment (surgery was performed under hexobarbital narcosis: 150 mg/kg ip; 30-min duration). The concentration of UDP-glucuronic acid was decreased 80% in livers from ether-anesthetized rats but was not reduced in urethane-treated animals when compared to that in control rats. The concentration of reduced glutathione was not affected by either urethane or diethyl ether. Basal bile flow was not altered by the anesthetic agents. Bile flow rate after acetaminophen injection (100 mg/kg iv) was increased slightly over basal levels for 2 hr in hexobarbital-treated control rats, was unaltered in urethane-anesthetized animals, and was decreased throughout the 8-hr experiment in rats exposed to diethyl ether for 1 hr. In control and urethane-anesthetized animals, approximately 30-35% of the total acetaminophen dose (100 mg/kg iv) was excreted into bile in 8 hr, while only 16% was excreted in rats anesthetized with diethyl ether. Urinary elimination (60-70% of the dose) was not altered by exposure to ether. Separation of metabolites by reverse-phase high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that ether decreased the biliary elimination of unchanged acetaminophen and its glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates by 47, 40, 49, and 73%, respectively, as compared to control rats. Excretion of unchanged acetaminophen and the glutathione conjugate into bile was depressed in urethane-anesthetized animals by 45 and 66%, respectively, whereas elimination of the glucuronide and sulfate conjugates was increased by 27 and 50%, respectively. These results indicate that biliary excretion is influenced by the anesthetic agent and that diethyl ether depresses conjugation with sulfate and glutathione as well as glucuronic

  7. Advanced hybrid fluoropolymers from the cycloaddition of aryl trifluorovinyl ethers

    Ligon, S. Clark, Jr.

    This dissertation discusses the synthesis of aryl trifluorovinyl ethers and their cycloaddition polymerization to give perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers. To explore the stereochemistry of these polymers, simple monomfunctional aryl trifluorovinyl ethers were dimerized and the resultant cis and trans isomers were separated. Differences in structure help to improve understanding of the amorphous nature of the bulk PFCB polymeric material. To apply this knowledge, crown ether containing perfluorocyclobutyl (PFCB) polymers were synthesized for use in lithium ion battery applications. While poor solubility has hindered further development of these materials, slight modifications to structure may provide a solution. Also described is a fluorinated aryl vinyl ether and its attempted copolymerization with chlorotrifluoroethylene. While this copolymerization did not yield the desired materials, novel semifluorinated phenol precursors have been utilized in reactions with carboxylic acids to give polyesters and most recently with phosgene like species to give polycarbonates. Next, PFCB polymers were post functionalized with fluoroalkyl tethers to improve oleophobicity and hydrophobicity without decreasing thermal stability or optical clarity. In addition, various silica nanostructures were functionalized with aryl trifluorovinyl ethers. This includes the reaction of aryl silanes to give trifluorovinyl ether functional POSS and their polymerization to provide PFCB hybrid materials. Silane coupling agents were also used to functionalize colloidal silica and fumed silica nanoparticles. These procedures allow excellent dispersion of the silica nanoparticles throughout the fluoropolymer matrix. Finally, the reaction of aryl trifluorovinyl ether with nonfluorinated alkenes and alkynes was explored. In these reactions, the fluorinated olefin adds with the hydrocarbon olefin to give semifluorinated cyclobutanes (SFCB) and with the alkyne to give semifluorinated cyclobutene. The

  8. Effects of the ether phospholipid AMG-PC on mast cells are similar to that of the ether lipid AMG but different from that of the analogue hexadecylphosphocholine

    Grosman, Nina


    Farmakologi, ether phospholipid, hexacylphosphocholine, miltefosine, protein kinase C, AMG-PC(alkyl-methyl-glycero-phosphocholine), Histamine release, mast cell......Farmakologi, ether phospholipid, hexacylphosphocholine, miltefosine, protein kinase C, AMG-PC(alkyl-methyl-glycero-phosphocholine), Histamine release, mast cell...

  9. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.


    ... occurring in non-baseline gasoline formulations include ethanol, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tertiary butyl ether (ETBE), tertiary amyl methyl ether (TAME), diisopropyl ether (DIPE), dimethyl ether (DME), tertiary amyl ethyl ether (TAEE), and any other compound(s) which increase the oxygen content...

  10. Review on Modification of Sulfonated Poly (-ether-ether-ketone Membranes Used as Proton Exchange Membranes

    Xiaomin GAO


    Full Text Available The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC is a type of modern power, but the traditional proton exchange membranes (PEM of PEMFC are limited by high methanol permeability and water uptake. Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK is a widely used thermoplastic with good cost-effective property. Sulfonated poly (-ether-ether-ketone (SPEEK has high electric conductivity and low methanol permeability, as well as comprehensive property, which is expected to be used as PEMs. However, the proton exchange ability, methanol resistance, mechanical property and thermal stability of SPEEK are closely related to the degree of sulfonation (DS of SPEEK membranes. Additionally, the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, and stability of SPEEK membranes applied in various conditions need to be further improved. In this paper, the research into modification of SPEEK membranes made by SPEEK and other polymers, inorganic materials are introduced. The properties and modification situation of the SPEEK and the composite membranes, as well as the advantages and disadvantages of membranes prepared by different materials are summarized. From the results we know that, the methanol permeability of SPEEK/PES-C membranes is within the order of magnitude, 10-7cm2/s. The proton conductivity of the SPPESK/SPEEK blend membrane reaches 0.212 S cm-1 at 80 °C. The cross-linked SPEEK membranes have raised thermal and dimensional stability. The non-solvent caused aggregation of the SPEEK ionomers. The proton conductivity of SPEEK/50%BMIMPF6/4.6PA membrane maintains stable as 2.0 x 10-2S cm-1 after 600 h at 160 °C. Incorporation of aligned CNT into SPEEK increases the proton conductivity and reduces the methanol permeability of the composite membranes. The PANI improves the hydrothermal stability. More proton transfer sites lead to a more compact structure in the composite membranes. According to the results, the proton exchange capacity, water uptake, and conductivity of

  11. Conversion of dimethyl ether on zeolite catalysts

    Abramova, A.V.; Kulumbegov, R.V.; Khadzhiev, S.N. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). A.V. Topchiev Inst. of Petrochemical Synthesis


    Catalytic conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrocarbons was investigated using zeolite catalyst ZSM-5 type. 2% MexOy - 60% HZVM(analogue of ZSM-5)/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, (Me = Zn, Ga, Fe, Co, V, Ni) catalyst samples have been obtained. The reaction was carried out in a fixed bed reaction set-up at 350-400 C, pressure 3 MPa, gas mix (% vol.): 24 DME, 76 N{sub 2}, WHSV=1300 l/l-{sub kat.}h. Most effective catalysts of DME conversion are pentasil based catalysts with promoter metals zinc, iron and cobalt by totality DME-conversion, gas and liquid hydrocarbon selectivity, ethylene and propylene content in gas. The best work temperatures are 350 and 375 C, thereupon increasing of temperature to 400 C leads to considerable growth of methane in hydrocarbon gas. Liquid hydrocarbons have high content of aromatics and iso-paraffins. Liquid hydrocarbon product is characterized by high octane number (RON) 90-98. (orig.)

  12. Dimethyl ether (DME) as an alternative fuel

    Semelsberger, Troy A.; Borup, Rodney L.; Greene, Howard L.

    With ever growing concerns on environmental pollution, energy security, and future oil supplies, the global community is seeking non-petroleum based alternative fuels, along with more advanced energy technologies (e.g., fuel cells) to increase the efficiency of energy use. The most promising alternative fuel will be the fuel that has the greatest impact on society. The major impact areas include well-to-wheel greenhouse gas emissions, non-petroleum feed stocks, well-to-wheel efficiencies, fuel versatility, infrastructure, availability, economics, and safety. Compared to some of the other leading alternative fuel candidates (i.e., methane, methanol, ethanol, and Fischer-Tropsch fuels), dimethyl ether appears to have the largest potential impact on society, and should be considered as the fuel of choice for eliminating the dependency on petroleum. DME can be used as a clean high-efficiency compression ignition fuel with reduced NO x, SO x, and particulate matter, it can be efficiently reformed to hydrogen at low temperatures, and does not have large issues with toxicity, production, infrastructure, and transportation as do various other fuels. The literature relevant to DME use is reviewed and summarized to demonstrate the viability of DME as an alternative fuel.

  13. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers and novel flame retardants

    Frederiksen, Marie; Vorkamp, Katrin; Nielsen, Jesper Bo

    ,4,6-tribromophenyl ether (TBP-DBPE) and dechlorane plus (DDC-CO) have been detected in the same dust samples previously analysed for PBDEs and are currently being analysed in the corresponding human milk samples. [1] Stapleon H.M., Eagle S., Sjödin A., Webster T.F. (2012). Serum PBDEs in a North Carolina Toddler......, the objectives were to study whether i) the associations observed for plasma also existed for human milk, ii) the PBDE profiles in dust and milk could provide insights into the bioavailability and bioaccumulation of individual congeners, iii) NFRs were measurable in human milk, and iv) infants were exposed...... to significant amounts of NFRs via breast feeding. PBDEs were detected in all of the 40 milk samples analysed in this study. ΣPBDEtri-hepta ranged from 0.98-45.8 ng/g lw, with a median of 2.26 ng/g lw. The main congener in milk was BDE-153, accounting for 35% of ΣPBDEtri-hepta. This is much higher than in dust...

  14. Molecular Design of Crown Ethers.22.Synthesis of Benzocrown Ether Derivatives and Their Solvent Extraction with Univalent/Bivalent Metal Picrates

    YANG,Ying-Wei(杨英威); LI,Chun-Ju(李春举); ZHANG,Heng-Yi(张衡益); LIU,Yu(刘育)


    Three novel benzocrown ether derivatives have been synthesized and their cation binding behavior with uniand bi-valent metal ions was evaluated by the solvent extraction of aqueous metal picrates. The obtained results indicate that the size-fit of crown ether and metal cation, and electron effect of the side arm attached to benzocrown ethers affect their cation binding ability and selectivity.

  15. The Effects of Sulfonated Poly(ether ether ketone Ion Exchange Preparation Conditions on Membrane Properties

    Rebecca S. L. Yee


    Full Text Available A low cost cation exchange membrane to be used in a specific bioelectrochemical system has been developed using poly(ether ether ketone (PEEK. This material is presented as an alternative to current commercial ion exchange membranes that have been primarily designed for fuel cell applications. To increase the hydrophilicity and ion transport of the PEEK material, charged groups are introduced through sulfonation. The effect of sulfonation and casting conditions on membrane performance has been systematically determined by producing a series of membranes synthesized over an array of reaction and casting conditions. Optimal reaction and casting conditions for producing SPEEK ion exchange membranes with appropriate performance characteristics have been established by this uniquely systematic experimental series. Membrane materials were characterized by ion exchange capacity, water uptake, swelling, potential difference and NMR analysis. Testing this extensive membranes series established that the most appropriate sulfonation conditions were 60 °C for 6 h. For mechanical stability and ease of handling, SPEEK membranes cast from solvent casting concentrations of 15%–25% with a resulting thickness of 30–50 µm were also found to be most suitable from the series of tested casting conditions. Drying conditions did not have any apparent impact on the measured parameters in this study. The conductivity of SPEEK membranes was found to be in the range of 10−3 S cm−1, which is suitable for use as a low cost membrane in the intended bioelectrochemical systems.

  16. Evaluation of workers exposed to ethylene glycol monomethyl ether and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate.

    Park, Jiyoung; Yoon, Chungsik; Byun, Hyaejeong; Kim, Yangho; Park, Donguk; Ha, Kwonchul; Lee, Sang man; Park, Sungki; Chung, Eunkyo


    Ethylene glycol monomethyl ether (EGME) and ethylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (EGMEA) are widely used in industries as solvents for coatings, paint and ink, but exposure data are limited because they are minor components out of mixed solvents, as well as because of inconsistency in desorption solvent use. The objective of this study was to investigate the worker exposure profile of EGME and EGMEA. Our study investigated 27 workplaces from June to September 2008 and detected EGME and EGMEA in 20 and 13, respectively. Both personal and area sampling were conducted using a charcoal tube to collect EGME and EGMEA. Gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector was used to analyze these compounds after desorption using a mixture of methylene chloride and methanol. The arithmetic mean concentrations of EGME and EGMEA during periods of full work shifts were 2.59 ppm and 0.33 ppm, respectively. The exposure levels were lower than the Korean Ministry of Labor (MOL) OEL (5 ppm) but higher than the ACGIH TLV (0.1 ppm). In general, the working environments were poor and required much improvement, including the use of personal protective equipment. Only 50% of the workplaces had local exhaust ventilation systems in operation. The average capture velocity of the operating local exhaust ventilation systems was 0.27 m/s, which did not meet the legal requirement of 0.5 m/s. Educating workers to clearly understand the handling and use of hazardous chemicals and improving working conditions are strongly suggested.

  17. Molecular sieve/sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone) composite membrane as proton exchange membrane

    Changkhamchom, Sairung; Sirivat, Anuvat


    A proton exchange membrane (PEM) is an electrolyte membrane used in both polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells (PEMFC) and direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). Currently, PEMs typically used for PEMFCs are mainly the commercially available Nafion^ membranes, which is high cost and loss of proton conductivity at elevated temperature. In this work, the Sulfonated poly(ether ketone ether sulfone), (S-PEKES), was synthesized by the nucleophilic aromatic substitution polycondensation between bisphenol S and 4,4'-dichlorobenzophenone, and followed by the sulfonation reaction with concentrated sulfuric acid. The molecular sieve was added in the S-PEKES matrix at various ratios to form composite membranes to be the candidate for PEM. Properties of both pure sulfonated polymer and composite membranes were compared with the commercial Nafion^ 117 membrane from Dupont. S-PEKES membranes cast from these materials were evaluated as a polymer electrolyte membrane for direct methanol fuel cells. The main properties investigated were the proton conductivity, methanol permeability, thermal, chemical, oxidative, and mechanical stabilities by using a LCR meter, Gas Chromatography, Thermogravimetric Analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Fenton's reagent, and Universal Testing Machine. The addition of the molecular sieve helped to increase both the proton conductivity and the methanol stability. These composite membranes are shown as to be potential candidates for use as a Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM).

  18. UV-induced Self-initiated Graft Polymerization of Acrylamide onto Poly(ether ether ketone)

    CHEN Rui-chao; SUN Hui; LI Ang; XU Guo-zhi


    Photo-grafting of hydrophilic monomer was used to enhance the hydrophilicity of poly(ether ether ketone)(PEEK) with the aim of extending its applications to biological fields.PEEK sheets were surface modified by grafting of acrylamide(AAm) with ultraviolet(UV) irradiation in the presence or absence of benzophenone(BP).The effects of BP,irradiation time and monomer concentration on the surface wettability of PEEK were investigated.Characterization of modified PEEK using scanning electron microscopy(SEM),energy-disperse spectrometer(EDS) and water contact angle measurements shows that AAm was successfully grafted on PEEK surface both in presence and absence of BP.With the increase in irradiation time and monomer concentration,contact angles decrease to as low as 30°,demonstrating a significant improvement of surface hydrophilicity.In agreement with the decrease in contact angle,under identical conditions,the nitrogen concentration increases,suggesting the increase in grafting degree of the grafting polymerization.This investigation demonstrates a self-initiation of PEEK due to its BP-like structure in the backbone of the polymer.Though the graft polymerization proceeds more readily in the presence of BP,the self-initiated graft polymerization is clearly observed.

  19. EtherCAT bus application in CNC system%EtherCAT总线在数控系统中的应用




  20. Biodegradation of ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE), methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-amyl methyl ether (TAME) by Gordonia terrae.

    Hernandez-Perez, G; Fayolle, F; Vandecasteele, J P


    Gordonia terrae strain IFP 2001 was selected from activated sludge for its capacity to grow on ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE) as sole carbon and energy source. ETBE was stoichiometrically degraded to t-butyl alcohol (TBA) and the activity was inducible. A constitutive strain, G. terrae IFP 2007, derived from strain IFP 2001, was also selected. Methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE) and t-amyl methyl ether (TAME) were not used as carbon and energy sources by the two strains, but cometabolic degradation of MTBE and TAME was demonstrated, to TBA and t-amyl alcohol (TAA) respectively, in the presence of a carbon source such as ethanol. No two-carbon compound was detected during growth on ETBE, but formate was produced during cometabolic degradation of MTBE or TAME. A monooxygenase was involved in the degradation of ethers, because no degradation of ETBE was observed under anaerobic conditions and the presence of a cytochrome P-450 was demonstrated in G. terrae IFP 2001 after induction by cultivation on ETBE.

  1. Crystal structures of bis[2-(diphenylphosphinothioylphenyl] ether and bis{2-[diphenyl(selanylidenephosphanyl]phenyl} ether

    Daron E. Janzen


    Full Text Available The title compounds, C36H28OP2S2, (1, and C36H28OP2Se2, (2, exhibit remarkably similar structures although they are not isomorphous. The whole molecule of compound (2 is generated by twofold symmetry, with the ether O atom located on the twofold axis. Both compounds have intramolecular π–π interactions between terminal phenyl rings with centroid–centroid distances of 3.6214 (16 and 3.8027 (14 Å in (1 and (2, respectively. In the crystal of (1, short C—H...S hydrogen bonds link the molecules, forming chains along [001], while in (2 there are no analogous C—H...Se interactions present.

  2. Stress shielding and fatigue limits of poly-ether-ether-ketone dental implants.

    Lee, Woo-Taek; Koak, Jai-Young; Lim, Young-Jun; Kim, Seong-Kyun; Kwon, Ho-Beom; Kim, Myung-Joo


    The poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) polymer is of great interest as an alternative to titanium in orthopedics because of its biocompatibility and low elastic modulus. This study evaluated the fatigue limits of PEEK and the effects of the low elastic modulus PEEK in relation to existing dental implants. Compressive loading tests were performed with glass fiber-reinforced PEEK (GFR-PEEK), carbon fiber-reinforced PEEK (CFR-PEEK), and titanium rods. Among these tests, GFR-PEEK fatigue tests were performed according to ISO 14801. For the finite element analysis, three-dimensional models of dental implants and bone were constructed. The implants in the test groups were coated with a 0.5-mm thick and 5-mm long PEEK layer on the upper intrabony area. The strain energy densities (SED) were calculated, and the bone resorption was predicted. The fatigue limits of GFR-PEEK were 310 N and were higher than the static compressive strength of GFR-PEEK. The bone around PEEK-coated implants showed higher levels of SED than the bone in direct contact with the implants, and the wider diameter and stiffer implants showed lower levels of SED. The compressive strength of the GFR-PEEK and CFR-PEEK implants ranged within the bite force of the anterior and posterior dentitions, respectively, and the PEEK implants showed adequate fatigue limits for replacing the anterior teeth. Dental implants with PEEK coatings and PEEK implants may reduce stress shielding effects. Dental implant application of PEEK polymer-fatigue limit and stress shielding. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Influence of Cellulose Ethers on Hydration Products of Portland Cement

    MA Baoguo; OU Zhihua; JIAN Shouwei; XU Rulin


    Cellulose ethers are widely used to mortar formulations, and it is significant to understand the interaction between cellulose ethers and cement pastes. FT-IR spectra, thermal analysis and SEM are used to investigate hydration products in the cement pastes modified by HEMC and HPMC in this article. The results show that the hydration products in modified cement pastes were finally identical with those in the unmodified cement paste, but the major hydration products, such as CH (calcium hydroxide), ettringite and C-S-H, appeared later in the modified cement pastes than in the unmodified cement paste. The cellulose ethers decrease the outer products and increase inner products of C-S-H gels. Compared to unmodified cement pastes, no new products are found in the modified cement pastes in the present experiment. The HEMC and HPMC investigation shows almost the same influence on the hydration products of Portland cement.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of novel cellulose ether sulfates.

    Rohowsky, Juta; Heise, Katja; Fischer, Steffen; Hettrich, Kay


    The synthesis and characterization of novel cellulose sulfate derivatives was reported. Various cellulose ethers were prepared in a homogeneous reaction with common sulfating agents. The received product possess different properties in dependence on the reaction conditions like sulfating agent, solvent, reaction time and reaction temperature. The cellulose ether sulfates are all soluble in water, they rheological behavior could be determined by viscosity measurements and the determination of the sulfur content by elemental analysis lead to a resulting degree of substitution ascribed to sulfate groups (DSSul) of the product. A wide range of products from DSSul 0.1 to DSSul 2.7 will be obtained. Furthermore the cellulose sulfate ethers could be characterized by Raman spectroscopy.

  5. Spontaneous Generation of Chirality in Simple Diaryl Ethers.

    Lennartson, Anders; Hedström, Anna; Håkansson, Mikael


    We studied the spontaneous formation of chiral crystals of four diaryl ethers, 3-phenoxybenzaldehyde, 1; 1,3-dimethyl-2-phenoxybenzene, 2; di(4-aminophenyl) ether, 3; and di(p-tolyl) ether, 4. Compounds 1, 3, and 4 form conformationally chiral molecules in the solid state, while the chirality of 2 arises from the formation of supramolecular helices. Compound 1 is a liquid at ambient temperature, but 2-4 are crystalline, and solid-state CD-spectroscopy showed that they could be obtained as optically active bulk samples. It should be noted that the optical activity arise upon crystallization, and no optically active precursors were used. Indeed, even commercial samples of 3 and 4 were found to be optically active, giving evidence for the ease at which total spontaneous resolution may occur in certain systems.

  6. Highly efficient palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether.

    Andrews, Ian P; Kwon, Ohyun


    The palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of acetylenes is widely exploited in organic synthesis as a means of forming vinyl stannanes for use in palladium-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions. Application of this methodology to ethyl ethynyl ether results in an enol ether that is challenging to isolate from the crude reaction mixture because of incompatibility with typical silica gel chromatography. Reported here is a highly efficient procedure for the palladium-catalyzed hydrostannation of ethyl ethynyl ether using 0.1% palladium(0) catalyst and 1.0 equiv of tributyltin hydride. The product obtained is a mixture of regioisomers that can be carried forward with exclusive reaction of the beta-isomer. This method is highly reproducible; relative to previously reported procedures, it is more economical and involves a more facile purification procedure.

  7. EtherCAT被纳入EUROMAP协议规范



  8. EtherCAT以太网现场总线



  9. ELMO驱动器获得EtherCAT审批



  10. Enzymatic network for production of ether amines from alcohols

    Palacio, Cyntia M.; Crismaru, Ciprian G.; Bartsch, Sebastian


    of the desired ether amines from the corresponding ether alcohols with inorganic ammonium as the only additional substrate. To examine conversion, individual and overall reaction equilibria were established. Using these data, it was found that the experimentally observed conversions of up to 60% observed...... for reactions containing 10mM alcohol and up to 280mM ammonia corresponded well to predicted conversions. The results indicate that efficient amination can be driven by high concentrations of ammonia and may require improving enzyme robustness for scale-up....

  11. Synthesis and biophysical characterization of chlorambucil anticancer ether lipid prodrugs.

    Pedersen, Palle J; Christensen, Mikkel S; Ruysschaert, Tristan; Linderoth, Lars; Andresen, Thomas L; Melander, Fredrik; Mouritsen, Ole G; Madsen, Robert; Clausen, Mads H


    The synthesis and biophysical characterization of four prodrug ether phospholipid conjugates are described. The lipids are prepared from the anticancer drug chlorambucil and have C16 and C18 ether chains with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol headgroups. All four prodrugs have the ability to form unilamellar liposomes (86-125 nm) and are hydrolyzed by phospholipase A(2), resulting in chlorambucil release. Liposomal formulations of prodrug lipids displayed cytotoxicity toward HT-29, MT-3, and ES-2 cancer cell lines in the presence of phospholipase A(2), with IC(50) values in the 8-36 microM range.

  12. Synthesis and Biophysical Characterization of Chlorambucil Anticancer Ether Lipid Prodrugs

    Pedersen, Palle Jacob; Christensen, Mikkel Stochkendahl; Ruysschaert, Tristan


    The synthesis and biophysical characterization of four prodrug ether phospholipid conjugates are described. The lipids are prepared from the anticancer drug chlorambucil and have C16 and C18 ether chains with phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol headgroups. All four prodrugs have the ability...... to form unilamellar liposomes (86-125 nm) and are hydrolyzed by phospholipase A2, resulting in chlorambucil release. Liposomal formulations of prodrug lipids displayed cytotoxicity toward HT-29, MT-3, and ES-2 cancer cell lines in the presence of phospholipase A2, with IC50 values in the 8-36 μM range....

  13. Effects of dimethyl ether on n-butane oxidation

    Bekat, Tuğçe; İnal, Fikret


    Dimethyl ether (DME) is the simplest ether and it is used as an alternative fuel or fuel additive to reduce toxic emissions from combustion processes. The effects of DME on n-butane oxidation were investigated for two different concentrations of DME in the fuel mixture (i.e., 20% and 50%) and two different fuel-rich equivalence ratios (i.e., 2.6 and 3.0) using detailed chemical kinetic modeling. Reactor model was selected as atmospheric-pressure, adiabatic, tubular reactor, operated under lam...

  14. Diphytanyl and dibiphytanyl glycerol ether lipids of methanogenic archaebacteria

    Tornabene, T.G. (Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins); Langworthy, T.A.


    The lipids of nine different methanogenic bacterial strains are comprised of diphytanyl glycerol diethers, previously known only in extremely halophilic bacteria, as well as dibiphytanyl diglycerol tetraethers, known formerly only in the extremely thermoacidophilic bacteria Thermoplasma and Sulfolobus. Of the methanogens examined from four representative taxonomic groups, Methanobacterium and Methanospirillum contained both types of isopranyl ethers in nearly equal proportions, whereas the coccal forms, Methanosarcina and Methanococcus, possessed diphytanyl glycerol diethers, but with only a trace of or no dibiphytanyl diglycerol tetraethers. The occurrence of both types of isopranyl glycerol ethers in methanogenic bacteria supports the proposal that they have a close genealogical relationship to the extremely halophilic and thermoacidophilic bacteria.

  15. Environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers and decabromodiphenyl ethane.

    Kierkegaard, Amelie; Sellström, Ulla; McLachlan, Michael S


    Methods for environmental analysis of higher brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), in particular decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209), and the recently discovered environmental contaminant decabromodiphenyl ethane (deBDethane) are reviewed. The extensive literature on analysis of BDE209 has identified several critical issues, including contamination of the sample, degradation of the analyte during sample preparation and GC analysis, and the selection of appropriate detection methods and surrogate standards. The limited experience with the analysis of deBDethane suggests that there are many commonalities with BDE209. The experience garnered from the analysis of BDE209 over the last 15 years will greatly facilitate progress in the analysis of deBDethane.

  16. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) ...

    The IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE) was released for external peer review in April 2017. EPA’s Science Advisory Board’s (SAB) Chemical Assessment Advisory Committee (CAAC) will conduct a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the ETBE assessment and release a final report of their review. Information regarding the peer review can be found on the SAB website. EPA is conducting an Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) health assessment for Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE). The outcome of this project is a Toxicological Review and IRIS Summary for ETBE that will be entered into the IRIS database.

  17. Acid Catalyzed Condensation of Phenylethanal Enol or Thiol Enol Ether to 2-Phenylnaphthalene

    CHANG, Yu-An


    Treatment of enol ether or thiol enol ether of phenylethanals with sulfuric or polyphosphoric acid in toluene or xylene gave 2-phenylnaphthalene in good yield. More importantly, a one-pot reaction has been developed.

  18. Aliphatic polycarbonates based on carbon dioxide, furfuryl glycidyl ether, and glycidyl methyl ether: reversible functionalization and cross-linking.

    Hilf, Jeannette; Scharfenberg, Markus; Poon, Jeffrey; Moers, Christian; Frey, Holger


    Well-defined poly((furfuryl glycidyl ether)-co-(glycidyl methyl ether) carbonate) (P((FGE-co-GME)C)) copolymers with varying furfuryl glycidyl ether (FGE) content in the range of 26% to 100% are prepared directly from CO2 and the respective epoxides in a solvent-free synthesis. All materials are characterized by size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), (1)H NMR spectroscopy, and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The furfuryl-functional samples exhibit monomodal molecular weight distributions with Mw/Mn in the range of 1.16 to 1.43 and molecular weights (Mn) between 2300 and 4300 g mol(-1). Thermal properties reflect the amorphous structure of the polymers. Both post-functionalization and cross-linking are performed via Diels-Alder chemistry using maleimide derivatives, leading to reversible network formation. This transformation is shown to be thermally reversible at 110 °C.

  19. Two Reaction Mechanisms via Iminium Ion Intermediates: The Different Reactivities of Diphenylprolinol Silyl Ether and Trifluoromethyl-Substituted Diarylprolinol Silyl Ether.

    Gotoh, Hiroaki; Uchimaru, Tadafumi; Hayashi, Yujiro


    The reactions of α,β-unsaturated aldehydes with cyclopentadiene in the presence of diarylprolinol silyl ethers as catalyst proceed via iminium cations as intermediates, and can be divided into two types; one involving a Michael-type reaction (type A) and one involving a cycloaddition (type B). Diphenylprolinol silyl ethers and trifluoromethyl-substituted diarylprolinol silyl ethers, which are widely used proline-type organocatalysts, have been investigated in this study. As the LUMO of the iminium ion derived from trifluoromethyl-substituted diarylprolinol silyl ether is lower in energy than that derived from diphenylprolinol silyl ether, as supported by ab initio calculations, the trifluoromethyl-substituted catalyst is more reactive in a type B reaction. The iminium ion from an α,β-unsaturated aldehyde is generated more quickly with diphenylprolinol silyl ether than with the trifluoromethyl-substituted diarylprolinol silyl ether. When the generation of the iminium ion is the rate-determining step, the diphenylprolinol silyl ether catalyst is the more reactive. Because acid accelerates the generation of iminium ions and reduces the generation of anionic nucleophiles in the Michael-type reaction (type A), it is necessary to select the appropriate acid for specific reactions. In general, diphenylprolinol silyl ether is a superior catalyst for type A reactions, whereas the trifluoromethyl-substituted diarylprolinol silyl ether catalyst is preferred for type B reactions.

  20. Sulfoalkyl ether-alkyl ether cyclodextrin derivatives, their synthesis, NMR characterization, and binding of 6alpha-methylprednisolone.

    Tongiani, Serena; Velde, David Vander; Ozeki, Tetsuya; Stella, Valentino J


    The objective of this study is to see if random alkyl ethers of various sulfoalkyl ether cyclodextrins can be synthesized and characterized. The purpose of the alkylation was to test the hypothesis that an increase in the "height" of a cyclodextrins cavity would help in the binding/complexation of larger more structurally complex molecules. The synthesis of new cyclodextrin derivatives comprising a mixture of sulfoalkyl ether and alkyl ether substituents on the same cyclodextrin ring was performed in aqueous alkaline solutions using various sultones and alkylsulfates. The method presented provided an easy and efficient way to modify cyclodextrins avoiding the use of organic solvents and high quantities of alkylating agents and could be carried out in either a two step or "one pot" single step process. Purification was by neutralization followed by ultrafiltration. The derivatives were characterized by 1D, ((1)H and (13)C), and a 2D NMR technique (HMQC, Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Coherence). The combination of these techniques allowed an analysis of the degree of substitution and the site of substitution on the cyclodextrin (CD) nucleus. For both beta- and gamma-CD, sulfoakylation was preferred on the 2 > 3 > 6 hydroxyls while alkylation was preferred 6 > 2 > 3. Due to the simultaneous presence of short alkyl ether chains and negatively charged sulfoalkyl ether chains, these mixed water-soluble cyclodextrin derivatives, especially those of gamma-cyclodextrin, should be able to bind more complex drugs. The improved binding capacity of these new modified CDs with the model drug 6alpha-methylprednisolone is reported.

  1. Research of EtherCAT master based on Linux-RTAI%基于Linux-RTAI的EtherCAT主站研究

    张少勋; 郗晓田




    S. Guhan; N.Arun Kumar; D.Sangeetha


    Composite membranes with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA),sulphonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) and phosphotungstic acid (PWA) were prepared using solvent casting method.The proton conductivities of such membranes were found to be in the order of 10-3 S/cm in the fully hydrated condition at room temperature as measured by impedance spectroscopy.The crystalline properties were studied by X-ray diffraction analysis.The thermal properties were determined by TGA and DSC techniques.The tensile strength and percentage elongation were obtained from UTM studies.Water and methanol uptake of these membranes were studied.

  3. EtherCAT技术协会宣布成立中国代表处


    在北京一年一度的自动化展会FA/PA2007的高峰论坛上。EtherCAT技术协会(EtherCAT Technology Group,ETG)主席Martin Rostan先生宣布了EtherCAT技术协会中国代表处的成立。

  4. 21 CFR 177.1970 - Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers.


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. 177... for Use as Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1970 Vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers. The vinyl chloride-lauryl vinyl ether copolymers identified in...

  5. Synthesis and Properties of New-type Troponoid Dithio-Crown Ethers


    Condensation of 3,7-dichloromethyl-5-isopropyl-2-methoxytropone 4 with bis (mer-captoethyl) ether 5a and mono, di, and tri-ethylene glycol bis(mercaptoethyl) ethers 5b-5d gave troponoid-annexed dithiocrown ethers 6a-6d. Compounds 6a-6d have selective and reversible mercury salt capturing ability.

  6. 40 CFR 721.10017 - Amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (generic).


    ... diglycidyl ether polymer (generic). 721.10017 Section 721.10017 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... ether polymer (generic). (a) Chemical substances and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substances identified generically as amine terminated bisphenol A diglycidyl ether polymer (PMNs P...

  7. Selection and identification of bacterial strains with methyl-tert-butyl ether, ethyl-tert-butyl ether, and tert-amyl methyl ether degrading capacities.

    Purswani, Jessica; Pozo, Clementina; Rodríguez-Díaz, Marina; González-López, Jesús


    Nine bacterial strains isolated from two hydrocarbon-contaminated soils were selected because of their capacity for growth in culture media amended with 200 mg/L of one of the following gasoline oxygenates: Methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl-tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). These strains were identified by amplification of their 16S rRNA gene, using fDl and rD1 primers, and were tested for their capacity to grow and biotransform these oxygenates in both mineral and cometabolic media. The isolates were classified as Bacillus simplex, Bacillus drentensis, Arthrobacter sp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Acinetobacter sp., Gordonia amicalis (two strains), Nocardioides sp., and Rhodococcus ruber. Arthrobacter sp. (strain MG) and A. calcoaceticus (strain M10) consumed 100 (cometabolic medium) and 82 mg/L (mineral medium) of oxygenate TAME in 21 d, respectively, under aerobic conditions. Rhodococcus ruber (strain E10) was observed to use MTBE and ETBE as the sole carbon and energy source, whereas G. amicalis (strain T3) used TAME as the sole carbon and energy source for growth. All the bacterial strains transformed oxygenates better in the presence of an alternative carbon source (ethanol) with the exception of A. calcoaceticus (strain M10). The capacity of the selected strains to remove MTBE, ETBE, and TAME looks promising for application in bioremediation technologies.

  8. Dimethyl ether in diesel engines - progress and perspectives

    Sorenson, Spencer C


    A review of recent developments related to the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in engines is presented Research work discussed is in the areas of engine performance and emissions, fuel injection systems, spray and ignition delay, and detailed chemical kinetic modeling. DME's properties and safety...

  9. Ether lipids of planktonic archae in the marine water column

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Hoefs, M.J.L.; Schouten, S.; King, L.L.; Wakeham, S.G.; Leeuw, J.W. de


    Acyclic and cyclic biphytanes derived from the membrane ether lipids of archaea were found in water column particulate and sedimentary organic matter from several oxic and anoxic marine environments. Compound-specific isotope analyses of the carbon skeletons suggest that planktonic archaea utilize a

  10. The effect of gasses on the viscosity of dimethyl ether

    Sivebæk, Ion Marius; Jakobsen, Jørgen


    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been recognised as a clean substitute for diesel oil as it does not form soot during combustion. DME has a vapour pressure of 6 bar at 25 degrees C; so pressurisation is necessary to keep DME liquid at ambient temperature. Inert gases are good candidates as pressurising m...

  11. Conversion Excess Coal Gas to Dimethyl Ether in Steel Works


    With the technical progress of metallurgical industry, more excess gas will be produced in steel works. The feasibility of producing dimethyl ether by gas synthesis was discussed, which focused on marketing, energy balance, process design, economic evaluation, and environmental protection etc. DME was considered to be a new way to utilize excess coal gas in steel works.

  12. Synthesis of hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers from olive oil waste waters

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños; Mariana Trujillo; Guillermo Rodríguez; Raquel Mateos; Gema Pereira-Caro; Andrés Madrona; Espartero, José L.


    The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  13. Synthesis of Hydroxytyrosyl Alkyl Ethers from Olive Oil Waste Waters

    Juan Fernández-Bolaños


    Full Text Available The preparation of a new type of derivatives of the naturally occurring antioxidant hydroxytyrosol is reported. Hydroxytyrosyl alkyl ethers were obtained in high yield by a three-step procedure starting from hydroxytyrosol isolated from olive oil waste waters. Preliminary results obtained by the Rancimat method have shown that these derivatives retain the high protective capacity of free hydroxytyrosol.

  14. Antiknock evaluation of hydrocarbons and ethers as aviation fuel components

    Barnett, Henry C


    The results of a NACA investigation conducted over a period of several years to evaluate the anti-knock characteristics of organic compounds are summarized. Included are data for 18 branched paraffins and olefins, 27 aromatics, and 22 ethers. The factors of performance investigated were blending characteristics, temperature sensitivity, lead response, and relation between molecular structure and antiknock ratings. Four engines were used.

  15. Why do crown ethers activate enzymes in organic solvents?

    Unen, van Dirk-Jan; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    One of the major drawbacks of enzymes in nonaqueous solvents is that their activity is often dramatically low compared to that in water. This limitation can be largely overcome by crown ether treatment of enzymes. In this paper, we describe a number of carefully designed new experiments that have im

  16. Anthracylmethyl Benzoazacrown Ether as Selective Fluorescence Sensors for Zn2+

    Li Hua JIA; Xiang Feng GUO; Yuan Yuan LIU; Xu Hong QIAN


    A new benzoazacrown ether fluorescence sensor was synthesized with 9-anthrylmethyl chloride and benzoaza-15-crown-5 in CH3CN, which particularly shows a strong affinity for Zn2+. Its fluorescence quantum yield increase more than one order of magnitude and a red shift could be noticed when passing from the apolar to the polar solvent.

  17. Photodegradation of poly(ether sulphone). Part 2

    Norrman, K.; Krebs, Frederik C


    The photodegradation of poly(ether sulphone) (PES) was investigated systematically by time-of-flight SIMS (ToF-SIMS) and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The effect of varying the irradiation dose, wavelength and the atmosphere was studied along with mechanistic photooxidation studies using...

  18. Functionalization of thiocrown ethers containing the thioacetal unit

    Buter, Jan; Meijer, Renzo H.; Kellogg, Richard M.; Meijer, H.C.


    Thiocrown ethers containing thioacetal units are readily prepared by reaction of the cesium salts of long chain dithiols with methylene dibromide. Preparation of the trimethylsilyl derivatives followed by condensation with aldehydes under basic conditions (Peterson reaction) leads to the expected ma

  19. Isotope effects of hafnium in solvent extraction using crown ethers

    Fujii, Toshiyuki; Moriyama, Hirotake [Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, Osaka (Japan); Hirata, Takafumi [Laboratory for Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan); Nishizawa, Kazushige [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, Osaka (Japan)


    Hafnium isotopes were fractionated in a liquid-liquid extraction system by using seven types of crown ethers, tributyl phosphate, or {omicron}-diethoxybenzene. The largest isotope effect was observed in the isotope pair of {sup 177}Hf-{sup 179}Hf with dibenzo-24-crown-8; the isotope enrichment factor was observed to be 0.0129{+-}0.0032. (author)

  20. Lithium air batteries having ether-based electrolytes

    Amine, Khalil; Curtiss, Larry A.; Lu, Jun; Lau, Kah Chun; Zhang, Zhengcheng; Sun, Yang-Kook


    A lithium-air battery includes a cathode including a porous active carbon material, a separator, an anode including lithium, and an electrolyte including a lithium salt and polyalkylene glycol ether, where the porous active carbon material is free of a metal-based catalyst.

  1. Study on the Multi-axis Motion Controller Based on EtherCAT%基于EtherCAT的多轴运动控制器研究

    刘艳强; 王健; 单春荣



  2. EtherCAT-Industrial Ethernet Fieldbus and Its Driver Design%工业以太网现场总线EtherCAT及驱动程序设计

    单春荣; 刘艳强; 郇极




    CHENYuanyin; MENGLingzhi; 等


    Network crown ether polymer with pendant sulfide side chain in the network structure units has been synthesized via ring-opening copolymerization of β-ethylthioethyl glycidyl ether and diethylene glycol bisglycidyl ether.A kind of active catalyst suitable for this reaction was suggested.The title polymer was found to be a good ligand for platinous chloride,and the platinous complex could catalyze the hydrosilylation of ole fins with triethoxysilane efficiently.

  4. Ether CAT总线在数控系统中的应用




  5. A mild and efficient procedure for the synthesis of ethers from various alkyl halides

    Mosstafa Kazemi


    Full Text Available A simple, mild and practical procedure has been developed for the synthesis of symmetrical and unsymmetrical ethers by using DMSO, TBAI in the presence of K2CO3. We extended the utility of Potassium carbonate as an efficient base for the preparation of ethers. A wide range of alkyl aryl and dialkyl ethers are synthezied from treatment of aliphatic alcohols and phenols with various alkyl halides in the prescence of efficient base Potassium carbonate. Secondary alkyl halides were easily converted to corresponding ethers in releatively good yields . This is a mild, simple and practical procedure for the preparation of ethers in high yields and suitable times under mild condition.

  6. Modified nanocrystal cellulose/fluorene-containing sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone) composites for proton exchange membranes

    Wei, Yingcong; Shang, Yabei; Ni, Chuangjiang; Zhang, Hanyu; Li, Xiaobai; Liu, Baijun; Men, Yongfeng; Zhang, Mingyao; Hu, Wei


    Highly sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone ketone)s (SFPEEKKs) with sulfonation degrees of 2.34 (SFPEEKK5) and 2.48 (SFPEEKK10) were synthesized through the direct sulfonation of a fluorene-containing poly(ether ether ketone ketone) under a relatively mild reaction condition. Using the solution blending method, sulfonated nanocrystal cellulose (sNCC)-enhanced SFPEEKK composites (SFPEEKK/sNCC) were successfully prepared for investigation as proton exchange membranes. Transmission electron microscopy showed that sNCC was uniformly distributed in the composite membranes. The properties of the composite membranes, including thermal stability, mechanical properties, water uptake, swelling ratio, oxidative stability and proton conductivity were thoroughly evaluated. Results indicated that the insertion of sNCC could contribute to water management and improve the mechanical performance of the membranes. Notably, the proton conductivity of SFPEEKK5/sNCC-5 was as high as 0.242 S cm-1 at 80 °C. All data proved the potential of SFPEEKK/sNCC composites for proton exchange membranes in medium-temperature fuel cells.

  7. Comparative photophysical behaviour of naphthalene-linked crown ethers and aza crown ethers of varying cavity dimensions

    Subhodip Samanta; Pinki Saha Sardar; Shyam Sundar Maity; Anirban Pal; Maitrayee Basu Roy; Sanjib Ghosh


    A comparative time-resolved emission studies of several naphtho-crown ethers I-V, where metal ions can be complexed in a predetermined orientation with respect to the naphthalene (Naph) - plane and naphthalene-linked aza crown ethers (L1 and L2) have been presented. In both the systems, crown ethers and aza crown ethers, naphthalene fluorescence gets quenched. In the systems I to V, the quenching is mainly due to efficient spin-orbit coupling (SOC) leading to greater population of the lowest triplet state of naphthalene. This SOC depends on the orientation of the crown ring with respect to the Naph--plane. However, in the systems L1 and L2, the quenching is due to photoinduced electron transfer (PET) from nitrogen lone pair of the aza crown ring to naphthalene moiety and consequent exciplex formation. The results have been interpreted using the time-resolved emission studies of all the compounds in various solvents, their alkali metal ion complexes, and protonated ligands.

  8. Designed poly(ether-imide)s and fluoro-copoly(ether-imide)s: Synthesis, characterization and their film properties

    Vora, Rohitkumar H. [Advanced Polymer Research and Technologies, 505 Cinder Road, Edison, NJ 08820 (United States)]. E-mail:; Goh, Suat Hong [Department of Chemistry, National University of Singapore, 10 Kent Ridge Crescent, Singapore 119260 (Singapore)


    Two series of amorphous fluoro-poly(ether-imide) (6F-PEI) and one series of fluoro-coploy(ether-imide) (6F-CoPEI) polymers based on 2,2'-bis(3,4-dicarboxyphenyl) hexafluropropane dianhydride (6FDA) and di-ether-containing diamines: 1,2'-bis(4-aminophenoxy)benzene (o-BAPOB) and 4,4'-bis(4-aminophenoxy)diphenyl sulfone (p-SED) were synthesized. The solution properties, chemical resistance, thermal stability, mechanical properties, thermo-oxidative and hydrolytic stability of selected 6F-PEIs and 6F-CoPEIs were studied. The dielectric constant ({epsilon}') values of 6F-PEI and 6F-CoPEI were estimated by additive group contribution calculation using mathematical equations defined by the Lorentz-Lorenz's theory and the Vogel's theory, and by Vora-Wang equations, respectively. These polymers not only showed excellent electrical properties but also excellent long-term thermo-oxidative stability and reduced water absorption relative to non-fluorinated polyimides. The estimated dielectric constant of these polymers ({epsilon}' < 3.15) were lower than those of commercially available poly(ether-imide) ULTEM[reg] 1000 and polyimides Kapton[reg] H, respectively at 1 kHz. The analytical results are summarized and discussed.

  9. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha, E-mail:


    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane in SCMFC used to determine the BOD. • The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm. • This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. • SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}. • Nafion{sup ®} shows high anodic internal resistance (67 Ω) than the SPEEK (39 Ω). - Abstract: The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion{sup ®}. The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion{sup ®}, resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  10. Use of fluorinated polybrominated diphenyl ethers and simplified cleanup for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in house dust

    A simple, cost-effective method is described for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust using pressurized fluid extraction, cleanup with modified silica solid phase extraction tubes, and fluorinated internal standards. There are 14 PBDE congeners inc...

  11. Biodegradability of fuel-ethers in environment; Biodegradabilite des ethers-carburants dans l'environnement

    Fayolle-Guichard, F.


    Fuel ethers (methyl tert-butyl ether or MTBE, ethyl tert-butyl ether or ETBE and tert-amyl methyl ether or TAME have been used as gasoline additives since about twenty years in order to meet the requirements for the octane index and to limit the polluting emission in exhaust pipe gas (unburnt hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide). The high water solubility and the poor biodegradability of these compounds make them pollutants frequently encountered in aquifers. The present manuscript summarizes the knowledge concerning the biodegradability of fuel ethers obtained both at IFP and during collaborations with the Pasteur Institute (Paris), the Biotechnology Research Institute (Montreal, Canada) and the Center for Environmental Biotechnology (University of Tennessee, USA). Rhodococcus ruber IFP 2001 and Mycobacterium austroafricanum IFP 2012, two microorganisms isolated at IFP for their ability to grow, respectively, on ETBE and MTBE, were studied in order to determine the intermediates produced during MTBE and ETBE biodegradation and the enzymes required for each biodegradation step, thus allowing us to propose MTBE and ETBE catabolic pathways. A proteomic approach, from the protein induced during the degradation of ETBE or MTBE to the genes encoding these different enzymes, was carried out. The isolation of such genes is required:1) to use them for help in determining the bio-remediation capacities in polluted aquifers (DNA micro-arrays), 2) to monitor the microorganisms isolated for their degradative capacities during bio-remediation processes (fluorescent in situ hybridization or FISH) and 3) to create new tools for the detection and the quantification of ETBE or MTBE in contaminated aquifers (bio-sensor). The manuscript also describes the different ways for the adaptation of microorganisms to the presence of a xenobiotic compound. (author)

  12. Degradation of various alkyl ethers by alkyl ether-degrading Actinobacteria isolated from activated sludge of a mixed wastewater treatment.

    Kim, Yong-Hak; Cha, Chang-Jun; Engesser, Karl-Heinrich; Kim, Sang-Jong


    Various substrate specificity groups of alkyl ether (AE)-degrading Actinobacteria coexisted in activated sewage sludge of a mixed wastewater treatment. There were substrate niche overlaps including diethyl ether between linear AE- and cyclic AE-degrading strains and phenetole between monoalkoxybenzene- and linear AE-degrading strains. Representatives of each group showed different substrate specificities and degradation pathways for the preferred substrates. Determining the rates of initial reactions and the initial metabolite(s) from whole cell biotransformation helped us to get information about the degradation pathways. Rhodococcus sp. strain DEE5311 and Rhodococcus rhodochrous strain 117 both were able to degrade anisole and phenetole through aromatic 2-monooxygenation to form 2-alkoxyphenols. In contrast, diethyl ether-oxidizing strain DEE5311 capable of degrading a broad range of linear AE, dibenzyl ether and monoalkoxybenzenes initially transformed anisole and phenetole to phenol via direct O-dealkylation. Compared to this, cyclic AE-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain THF100 preferred tetrahydrofuran (265 ± 35 nmol min(-1)mg(-1) protein) to diethyl ether (diethoxybenzene-degrading Rhodococcus sp. strain DEOB100 and Gordonia sp. strain DEOB200 transformed 1,3-/1,4-dialkoxybenzenes to 3-/4-alkoxyphenols by similar manners in the order of rates (nmol min(-1) mg(-1) protein): 1,4-diethoxybenzene (11.1 vs. 3.9)>1,4-dimethoxybenzene (1.6 vs. 2.6)>1,3-dimethoxybenzene (0.6 vs. 0.6). This study suggests that the AE-degrading Actinobacteria can orchestrate various substrate specificity responses to the degradation of various categories of AE pollutants in activated sludge communities.

  13. EtherCAT高性能从站的设计与实现%Design and implementation of EtherCAT high performance slave station

    任计羽; 范永坤; 熊皑


    The use of dedicated EtherCAT slave chip leads to high cost, low hardware integration, software complexity and difficulty in debugging, so a new hardware and software design method of EtherCAT slave station was presented. In the method, the AM3359 ARM chip was used, in which all functions including EtherCAT slave communication and application layer ware achieved, so the hardware cost was greatly reduced. A layered approach was used in software design, so it became simple and convenient to program and debug software. EtherCAT slave was implemented, at the same time, a EtherCAT network was designed to test and analyze the performance of EtherCAT slave. The EtherCAT slave station could work well.%针对使用专用芯片导致EtherCAT从站成本增加、硬件集成度下降、软件复杂、调试困难的问题,提出了新的EtherCAT从站软硬件设计方法。该方法使用AM3359 ARM芯片,在一块芯片内实现了EtherCAT从站通信功能和应用层功能,使硬件成本降低;使用分层的软件设计方法,软件编程简单,调试方便。通过搭建EtherCAT测试网络对所设计的从站功能进行测试,从站能够完好地工作。

  14. Biodegradation of the gasoline oxygenates methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether, and tert-amyl methyl ether by propane-oxidizing bacteria.

    Steffan, R J; McClay, K; Vainberg, S; Condee, C W; Zhang, D


    Several propane-oxidizing bacteria were tested for their ability to degrade gasoline oxygenates, including methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE), and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME). Both a laboratory strain and natural isolates were able to degrade each compound after growth on propane. When propane-grown strain ENV425 was incubated with 20 mg of uniformly labeled [14C]MTBE per liter, the strain converted > 60% of the added MTBE to 14CO2 in production of nearly stoichiometric amounts of tert-butyl alcohol (TBA), while the initial oxidation of TAME resulted in the production of tert-amyl alcohol. The methoxy methyl group of MTBE was oxidized to formaldehyde and ultimately to CO2. TBA was further oxidized to 2-methyl-2-hydroxy-1-propanol and then 2-hydroxy isobutyric acid; however, neither of these degradation products was an effective growth substrate for the propane oxidizers. Analysis of cell extracts of ENV425 and experiments with enzyme inhibitors implicated a soluble P-450 enzyme in the oxidation of both MTBE and TBA. MTBE was oxidized to TBA by camphor-grown Pseudomonas putida CAM, which produces the well-characterized P-450cam, but not by Rhodococcus rhodochrous 116, which produces two P-450 enzymes. Rates of MTBE degradation by propane-oxidizing strains ranged from 3.9 to 9.2 nmol/min/mg of cell protein at 28 degrees C, whereas TBA was oxidized at a rate of only 1.8 to 2.4 nmol/min/mg of cell protein at the same temperature.


    Gagik Torosyan


    Full Text Available It has been established the possibility for phenol allylation on natural zeolites and them analogs. Here is demonstrated the synthesis of allyl phenol, which has wide industrial applications. The offered method in comparison with the traditional methods has more advantages – higher selectivity, smaller material and power resources consumption. It has been obtained the mixture of allylating phenols (30% in general with allyl phenyl ether (1 with 80% yields. At 600 K is obtained allylphenyl ether, at 700 K beginning the formation of allyl phenols, which is the result of direct C-allylation of the aromatic ring. It has been investigated the possibility of Claisen rearrangement in the same conditions. All of that are established by gas-liquid chromatography and liquid chromatography data.

  16. [Ethylene glycol and propylene glycol ethers - Reproductive and developmental toxicity].

    Starek-Świechowicz, Beata; Starek, Andrzej


    Both ethylene and propylene glycol alkyl ethers (EGAEs and PGAEs, respectively) are widely used, mainly as solvents, in industrial and household products. Some EGAEs demonstrate gonadotoxic, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects in both humans and experimental animals. Due to the noxious impact of these ethers on reproduction and development of organisms EGAEs are replaced for considerably less toxic PGAEs. The data on the mechanisms of testicular, embriotoxic, fetotoxic and teratogenic effects of EGAEs are presented in this paper. Our particular attention was focused on the metabolism of some EGAEs and their organ-specific toxicities, apoptosis of spermatocytes associated with changes in the expression of various genes that code for oxidative stress factors, protein kinases and nuclear hormone receptors.

  17. Synthesis of hydroxylated and methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    ZHENG Ke-wen; GAO Li-ping; CAO Jie; YU Hai-wen; ZHANG Zhang


    Hydroxylated/methoxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH/MeO-PBDEs) are not only detected as natural products, but also regarded as metabolites formed from polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), which are widely used as flame-retardants in various materials. The aim of the present study was to synthesize authentic OH-PBDEs and MeO-PBDEs, as reference standards for environmental exploration. Twenty OH-PBDEs and their corresponding MeO-PBDEs containing three to six bromine atoms were synthesized via a trial of reactions including coupling, oxidation, bromination, methylation, etc. The products were characterized by GC-MS and 1H-NMR spectroscopy in the work. As results show, all compounds synthesized were up to 99% on purity and be reqarded as authentic standards for detecting the chemical pollutants in the emvironment.

  18. Synthesis of Ethers via Reaction of Carbanions and Monoperoxyacetals


    Although transfer of electrophilic alkoxyl (“RO+”) from organic peroxides to organometallics offers a complement to traditional methods for etherification, application has been limited by constraints associated with peroxide reactivity and stability. We now demonstrate that readily prepared tetrahydropyranyl monoperoxyacetals react with sp3 and sp2 organolithium and organomagnesium reagents to furnish moderate to high yields of ethers. The method is successfully applied to the synthesis of alkyl, alkenyl, aryl, heteroaryl, and cyclopropyl ethers, mixed O,O-acetals, and S,S,O-orthoesters. In contrast to reactions of dialkyl and alkyl/silyl peroxides, the displacements of monoperoxyacetals provide no evidence for alkoxy radical intermediates. At the same time, the high yields observed for transfer of primary, secondary, or tertiary alkoxides, the latter involving attack on neopentyl oxygen, are inconsistent with an SN2 mechanism. Theoretical studies suggest a mechanism involving Lewis acid promoted insertion of organometallics into the O–O bond. PMID:26560686


    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; James G.C. Shen; Qisheng Ma


    A novel 1,2-ethanediol, bis(hydrogen sulfate), disodium salt precursor-based solid acid catalyst with a zirconia substrate was synthesized and demonstrated to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) or isobutene from methanol-isobutanol mixtures. The precursor salt was synthesized and provided by Dr. T. H. Kalantar of the M.E. Pruitt Research Center, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI 48674. Molecular modeling of the catalyst synthesis steps and of the alcohol coupling reaction is being carried out. A representation of the methyl transfer from the surface activated methanol molecule (left) to the activated oxygen of the isobutanol molecule (right) to form an ether linkage to yield MIBE is shown.

  20. Structural Study of Mismatched Disila-Crown Ether Complexes

    Kirsten Reuter


    Full Text Available Mismatched complexes of the alkali metals cations Li+ and Na+ were synthesized from 1,2-disila[18]crown-6 (1 and 2 and of K+ from 1,2,4,5-tetrasila[18]crown-6 (4. In these alkali metal complexes, not all crown ether O atoms participate in the coordination, which depicts the coordination ability of the C-, Si/C-, and Si-bonded O atoms. Furthermore, the inverse case—the coordination of the large Ba2+ ion by the relatively small ligand 1,2-disila[15]crown-5—was investigated, yielding the dinuclear complex 5. This structure represents a first outlook on sandwich complexes based on hybrid crown ethers.

  1. Intrinsic Kinetics of Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas

    Zhaoguang Nie; Hongwei Liu; Dianhua Liu; Weiyong Ying; Dingye Fang


    The intrinsic kinetics of dimethyl ether (DME) synthesis from syngas over a methanol synthesis catalyst mixed with methanol dehydration catalyst has been investigated in a tubular integral reactor at 3-7 MPa and 220-260 ℃. The three reactions including methanol synthesis from CO and H2, CO2 and H2, and methanol dehydration were chosen as the independent reactions. The L-H kinetic model was presented for dimethyl ether synthesis and the parameters of the model were obtained by using simplex method combined with genetic algorithm. The model is reliable according to statistical analysis and residual error analysis. The synergy effect of the reactions over the bifunctional catalyst was compared with the effect for methanol synthesis catalyst under the same conditions based on the model. The effects of syngas containing N2 on the reactions were also simulated.

  2. A Facile Synthesis of Two Sesquiterpenes Methyl Ether

    DU Zhen-Ting; ZHANG Yan-Mei; WANG Zi-Kun; WU Tong-Xing; PAN Xin-Fu


    @@ Bisabolane sesquiterpenes are a big family of naturally occurring products with significantly biological activities most of which can be separated from Chinese traditional medicines. Parahigginone (1a) was firstly separated as a bisabolane by Shen Y. C. et al. from the Taiwan marine sponges in 1999, [1] it shows very promising antitumor activity.[1] As far as we know, there is no synthetic report on it. Curcuphenol (2a) was a cytotoxic sesquiterpene which was first discovered in Pseudopterogorgia rigida[2,3] which has been synthesized by Frank[2] and Tsutomu[4] before. In order to study the relationship between the structures and the activities, we have synthesized parahiggi none methyl ether (1) and curcuphenol methyl ether (2) in six steps successfully, and the stereoselective synthesis is carried out in progress.

  3. Numerical investigation on the effect of injection pressure on the internal flow characteristics for diethyl ether, dimethyl ether and diesel fuel injectors using CFD

    Vijayakumar Thulasi


    Full Text Available The spray characteristics of the diesel fuel are greatly affected by the cavitation formed inside the injector due to the high pressure differential across the nozzle. Many researchers across the globe are exploring the potential of using diethyl ether and dimethyl ether as an alternate for diesel fuel to meet the strict emission norms. Due to the variation in the fuel properties the internal flow characteristics in injectors for ether fuels are expected to be different from that of the diesel fuel. In this paper computational technique is used to study and compare the internal flow characteristics of diethyl ether, dimethyl ether and diesel fuel. The two phase flow model considering the fuel as a mixture of liquid and vapor is adopted for the simulation study. The injection pressure is varied from 100 to 400 bar and the flow characteristics of all three fuels are simulated and compared. Results indicate that all three fuels have distinct cavitating patterns owing to different property values. The dimethyl ether is found to be more cavitating than diesel and diethyl ether fuels as expected. The mass of fuel injected are found to be decreasing for the ether fuels when compared with diesel fuel at all injection pressures.


    CHEN Yuanyin; MENG Lingzhi; YIN Yihua; GENG Chengai


    The title polymer was prepared from 5-diethylamino-3-thia-pentyl glycidyl ether and diethylene glycol bisglycidyl ether via ring-opening copolymerization. It was found that this reaction could be catalyzed by sodium, but not Lewis acid. The obtained polymer can coordinate with platinum compound, and the platinum complex is a new kind of catalyst for the hydrosilylation of olefins with triethoxysilane.

  5. EL2595 EtherCAT端子模块



  6. Synthesis and adsorption properties of chitosan-crown ether resins

    彭长宏; 陈艺锋; 唐谟堂


    Two kinds of novel chitosan-crown ether resins, Schiff base type chitosan-benzo-15-crown-5 (CTS-B15)and chitosan-benzo-18-crown-6 (CTS-B18), were synthesized through the reaction between -NH2 in chitosan and -CHO in 4′-formyl benzo-crown ethers. Their structures were characterized by elemental analysis and FT-IR spectra analysis. The elemental analysis results show that the mass fractions of nitrogen in CTS-B15 and CTS-B18 are much lower than those of chitosan. The results of FT-IR spectra of CTS-B15 and CTS-B18 reveal that there exist characteristic peak of C= N, N-H and Ar, and characteristic peak of pyr anoside in the chain of chitosan-crown ether resins, showing that the structures of chitosan-crown ethers are as expected. The adsorption properties of CTS-B15 and CTS-B18 for Pd2+ , Cu2 + and Hg2+ were studied and the experimental results show that these adsorbents have both good adsorption characterization and especially high particular adsorption selectivity for Pd2+ when Cu2+ and Hg2+ are in coexistence, and the coefficients of selectivity of CTS-B15 and CTS-B18 for metal ions are KPd2+/cu2+ =7.56, KPd2+/Hg2+ = 68.00, Kcu2+/Hg2+ = 9.00 and KPd2+/cu2+ = 6.00, KPd2+/Hg2+ = 19. 00, Kcu2+/Hg2+ = 3.00, respectively.

  7. Patch test with ether extracts in salicaceae allergy

    Sawhney M


    Full Text Available A total of 23 cases suggestive of airborne contact dermatitis were patch tested with ether extracts of flowers and leaves of populus sp. and salix sp. in a study conducted in Ladakh at an altitude of 3445 meters above sea level. Overall positivity was found in 12 (52.17%, with populus sp. alone in 7 (30. 43%, salix sp. alone in 4 17.39% and to both in one (8.33%.

  8. Cross sections for electron collisions with dimethyl ether

    Sugohara, RT; Homem, MGP; Iga, I; de Souza, GLC; MACHADO, LE; Ferraz, JR; dos Santos, AS; Brescansin, LM; Lucchese, RR; Lee, MT


    We report a joint theoretical-experimental investigation of electron collision with dimethyl ether (DME) in the low- and intermediate-energy ranges. Experimental absolute differential, integral, and momentum-transfer cross sections for elastic e(-)-DME scattering are reported in the 100-1000 eV energy range. Our measurements were performed using a crossed electron-beam-molecular-beam geometry. The angular distribution of the scattered electrons was converted to absolute cross section using th...

  9. 12-Crown-4 Ether Improves Rechargeable Lithium Cells

    Nagasubramanian, Ganesan; Attia, Alan I.


    Experiments show addition of 12-crown-4 ether (12Cr4) to thin film of polyethylene oxide (PEO) and LiBF4 reduces charge-transfer resistance of film and enhances performance of electrochemical cell in which film is electrolyte, anode is lithium, and cathode is LixCoO2. By increasing conductivity of the electrolyte, 12Cr4 reduces polarization loss; enabling cell to sustain higher current. Result is new type of rechargeable lithium cell.

  10. 高速无线EtherNet/IP模块


    ProSoft Technology专为Control Logix平台设计的高速无线Ether Net/IP模块(MVI56-WA-ElP)使无线以太网连接和编程成为可能。无需打开工厂底层设备箱保护你的设备,并且减少由于弧光的危险带来的停工期。

  11. Study on Synergy Effect in Dimethyl Ether Synthesis from Syngas

    王志良; 刁杰; 王金福; 金涌


    Influence of reaction temperature, pressure and space velocity on the direct synthesis of dimethyl ether (DME) from syngas is studied in an isothermal fixed-bed reactor. The catalyst is a physical mixture of C30 copper-based methanol (MeOH) synthesis catalyst and ZSM-5 dehydration catalyst. The experimental results show that the chemical synergy between methanol synthesis reaction and methanol dehydration reaction is evident. The conversion of carbon monoxide is over 90%.

  12. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr; Schramm, Jesper


    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio...

  13. Diethyl Ether Production Process with Various Catalyst Type



    Full Text Available Several H-zeolite and HZSM-5 catalysts was preparated and their characters have also been investigated. H-zeolit Catalyst was preparated from Natural Zeolite that obtained from Malang District and Gunung Kidul District. Diethyl ether was produced by Ethanol with concentration of 95%. This research use fixed bed reactor that 1 gram of catalyst as bed catalyst, atmospheric pressure and temperature 140oC as the operating condition. Ethanol vapor from vaporization tank was driven by 200 ml/min Nitrogen stream. The responds in this research is liquid product concentration; diethyl ether, ethanol, methanol and water concentration. The results showed that the largest ethanol conversion was produced by the use of 56.44% HZSM-5 and the largest yield of diethyl ether diethyl was produced by the use of alumina and H-zeolite catalyst. The larger ratio between natural zeolite with HCl solvent will produce the larger surface area of catalyst and ethanol conversion. The largest ethanol conversion was produced at reactan ratio 1:20.

  14. Thermolysis of surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether

    Britt, P.F.; Buchanan, A.C. III; Hitsman, V.M.


    Our research has focused on modeling the constraints on free-radical reactions that might be imposed in coal as a consequence of its cross-linked macromolecular structure by covalently bonding diphenylalkanes to an inert silica surface. A surface-immobilized phenethyl phenyl ether ({approx}PhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}POh, or {approx}PPE-3) has been prepared as a model for ether linkages in lignin by the condensation of p-HOPhCH{sub 2}CH{sub 2}OPh with the surface hydroxyls of a high purity fumed silica. Thermolysis of {approx}PPE-3 at saturation surface coverage at 375{degree}C produces {approx}PhCH = CH{sub 2} and PhOH as the major products which are consistent with the proposed free-radical chain mechanism for the decomposition of fluid-phase phenethyl phenyl ether. However, significant quantities of {approx}PhCH{sub 3} and PhCHO (ca. 18% of the products) are produced indicating the emergence of a new reaction pathway on the surface. The mechanism for the decomposition of {approx}PPE-3 will be discussed in light of this new information. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  15. Radical addition-initiated domino reactions of conjugated oxime ethers.

    Ueda, Masafumi


    The application of conjugated oxime ethers to the synthesis of complex chemical scaffolds using domino radical reactions has been described in detail. The triethylborane-mediated hydroxysulfenylation reaction allows for the regioselective construction of a carbon-sulfur bond and a carbon-oxygen bond in a single operation for the formation of β-hydroxy sulfides. This reaction proceeds via a radical pathway involving regioselective thiyl addition and the subsequent trapping of the resulting α-imino radical with O₂, where the imino group enhances the stability of the intermediate radical. Hydroxyalkylation reactions that occur via a carbon radical addition reaction followed by the hydroxylation of the resulting N-borylenamine with O₂ have also been developed. We investigated sequential radical addition aldol-type reactions in detail to explore the novel domino reactions that occur via the generation of N-borylenamine. The radical reaction of a conjugated oxime ether with triethylborane in the presence of an aldehyde affords γ-butyrolactone via sequential processes including ethyl radical addition, the generation of N-borylenamine, an aldol-type reaction with an aldehyde, and a lactonization reaction. A novel domino reaction has also been developed involving the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement of N-boryl-N-phenoxyenamine. The triethylborane-mediated domino reactions of O-phenyl-conjugated oxime ethers afforded the corresponding benzofuro[2,3-b]pyrrol-2-ones via a radical addition/[3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement/cyclization/lactamization cascade.

  16. Preparation and antioxidant activity of tyrosyl and homovanillyl ethers.

    Madrona, A; Pereira-Caro, G; Bravo, L; Mateos, R; Espartero, J L


    Preparation of tyrosyl and homovanillyl lipophilic derivatives was carried out as a response to the food industry's increasing demand for new synthetic lipophilic antioxidants. Tyrosyl and homovanillyl ethers were synthesized in high yields by a three-step procedure starting from tyrosol (Ty) and homovanillic alcohol (HMV). The antioxidant activity of these new series of alkyl tyrosyl and homovanillyl ethers was evaluated by the Rancimat test in a lipophilic food matrix and by the FRAP, ABTS and ORAC assays and compared to free Ty and HMV as well as two antioxidants widely used in the food industry, butylhydroxytoluene (BHT) and α-tocopherol. The results pointed out the higher activity of homovanillyl series in comparison with tyrosyl series with all the assayed methods. However, while both synthetic series were less antioxidant than BHT and α-tocopherol in a lipophilic matrix after their Rancimat test evaluation, homovanillyl alkyl ethers showed the best reducing power and radical scavenging activity of all evaluated compounds. This batch of synthetic lipophilic compounds, derived from biologically active compounds such as Ty and HMV, provide interesting and potentially bioactive compounds.

  17. Enhanced response of microbial fuel cell using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone membrane as a biochemical oxygen demand sensor.

    Ayyaru, Sivasankaran; Dharmalingam, Sangeetha


    The present study is focused on the development of single chamber microbial fuel cell (SCMFC) using sulfonated poly ether ether ketone (SPEEK) membrane to determine the biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) matter present in artificial wastewater (AW). The biosensor produces a good linear relationship with the BOD concentration up to 650 ppm when using artificial wastewater. This sensing range was 62.5% higher than that of Nafion(®). The most serious problem in using MFC as a BOD sensor is the oxygen diffusion into the anode compartment, which consumes electrons in the anode compartment, thereby reducing the coulomb yield and reducing the electrical signal from the MFC. SPEEK exhibited one order lesser oxygen permeability than Nafion(®), resulting in low internal resistance and substrate loss, thus improving the sensing range of BOD. The system was further improved by making a double membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with an increased electrode surface area which provide high surface area for electrically active bacteria.

  18. Rheological and electrical percolation in melt-processed poly(ether ether ketone)/multi-wall carbon nanotube composites

    Bangarusampath, D. S.; Ruckdäschel, Holger; Altstädt, Volker; Sandler, Jan K. W.; Garray, Didier; Shaffer, Milo S. P.


    Multi-wall carbon nanotubes were dispersed homogeneously throughout a poly(ether ether ketone) matrix by melt processing. The influence of nanotube content on both rheological and electrical properties was analysed. The dynamic storage modulus, G', shows a characteristic solid-like behavior above 1 wt% nanotubes. A sharp transition from an electrically insulating to a conductive composite was observed between 1 and 1.5 wt%. By applying a power-law relation, the rheological and electrical percolation thresholds were found to be 0.9 wt%, and 1.3 wt%, respectively. Considering this data, Guth's filler reinforcement theory provides a valuable estimation of the aspect ratio of the nanotubes after processing and indicates substantial length degradation during the dispersion process.

  19. Poly (ether ether ketone) membranes for fuel cells; Membranas de poli (eter eter cetona) sulfonado para celulas a combustivel

    Marrero, Jacqueline C.; Gomes, Ailton de S.; Filho, Jose C.D., E-mail: [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Hui, Wang S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Oliveira, Vivianna S. de [Escola Tecnica Rezende-Rammel, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)


    Polymeric membranes were developed using a SPEEK polymer matrix (sulphonated poly (ether ether ketone)), containing hygroscopic particles of zirconia (Zr) (incorporated by sol-gel method), for use as electrolyte membranes in fuel cells. SPEEK with different sulfonation degrees were used: 63 and 86%. The thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) was carried out to characterize the membranes and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was carried out to evaluating the proton conductivity of the membranes. Additional analysis were underway in order to characterize these membranes, which include: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) in order to evaluate the influence of zirconia and sulfonation degree on the properties of the membranes. (author)

  20. An estimation of fatigue life for a carbon fibre/poly ether ether ketone hip joint prosthesis.

    Akay, M; Aslan, N


    A fracture mechanics approach was applied to estimate the life of a prosthesis injection moulded from short carbon fibre reinforced poly ether ether ketone. Flexural modulus and strength, fracture toughness, fatigue endurance limit, fatigue crack growth rate and threshold stress intensity factor were determined. The dimensions of the test pieces were selected to yield fibre orientation and fibre length distributions similar to those obtained in the prosthesis. Stress levels generated in the prosthesis under different activities were estimated by conducting three-dimensional finite element analysis. It was shown by a fracture mechanics approach that a fatigue failure due to the propagation of an embedded elliptical slit, under these stresses, would be unlikely for a crack length smaller than 1.85 mm. However, the cement would fail under the same conditions, irrespective of the type of the prosthesis employed.

  1. Preparation of poly(ether ether ketone)-based polymer electrolytes for fuel cell membranes using grafting technique

    Hasegawa, Shin; Suzuki, Yasuyuki [Conducting Polymer Materials Group, Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370 1292 (Japan); Maekawa, Yasunari [Conducting Polymer Materials Group, Environment and Industrial Materials Research Division, Quantum Beam Science Directorate, Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA), 1233 Watanuki, Takasaki, Gunma 370 1292 (Japan)], E-mail:


    Poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK)-based polymer electrolyte membranes (PEMs) was successfully prepared by radiation grafting of a styrene monomer into PEEK films and the consequent selective sulfonation of the grafting chains in the film state. Using milder sulfonation, the sulfonation reactions proceeded at the grafted chains in preference to the phenylene rings of PEEK main chains; as a result, the grafted films could successfully transform to a PEM with conductivity of more than 0.1 S/cm. The ion exchange capacity (IEC) and conductivity of the grafted PEEK electrolyte membranes were controlled to the ranges of 1.2-2.9 mmol/g and 0.03-0.18 S/cm by changing the grafting degree. It should be noted that this is the first example of directly transforming super-engineering plastic films into a PEM using radiation grafting.

  2. ETBE (ethyl tert butyl ether) and TAME (tert amyl methyl ether) affect microbial community structure and function in soils.

    Bartling, Johanna; Esperschütz, Jürgen; Wilke, Berndt-Michael; Schloter, Michael


    Ethyl tert butyl ether (ETBE) and tert amyl methyl ether (TAME) are oxygenates used in gasoline in order to reduce emissions from vehicles. The present study investigated their impact on a soil microflora that never was exposed to any contamination before. Therefore, soil was artificially contaminated and incubated over 6 weeks. Substrate induced respiration (SIR) measurements and phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) analysis indicated shifts in both, microbial function and structure during incubation. The results showed an activation of microbial respiration in the presence of ETBE and TAME, suggesting biodegradation by the microflora. Furthermore, PLFA concentrations decreased in the presence of ETBE and TAME and Gram-positive bacteria became more dominant in the microbial community.

  3. Influence of the angle between two crown ether moieties on supramolecular copolymerization of bis(crown ether)s and bisparaquat homoditopic monomers


    Bis(crown ether) homoditopic monomers containing two bis(p-phenylene)-34-crown-10 moieties with different angles(180° for monomer 3,120°for monomer 4,and 60°for monomer 5) and a complementary bisparaquat homoditopic monomer(7) were designed and synthesized.The three bis(crown ether) monomers could organize into linear supramolecular polymers in concentrated solutions in CHCl3/CH3CN with the bisparaquat monomer 7,as demonstrated by 1 H NMR and viscosity studies. The pseudorotaxanes or supramolecular polymers formed from 3+7 and 4+7 had larger values of Ka,p,n,slope 1,and slope 2 than those of 5+7.This result was attributed to the greater steric hindrance of compound 5 than that of 3 and 4,which resulted in less effective formation of linear supramolecular polymers from 5 with compound 7 than those from compounds 3 and 4 with compound 7,as also demonstrated by UV-vis method.

  4. A facile synthesis of highly stable multiblock poly(arylene ether)s based alkaline membranes for fuel cells

    Jasti, Amaranadh; Shahi, Vinod K.


    Herein, we are disclosing simple route for the preparation of alkaline membranes (AMs) based on aminated multiblock poly(arylene ether)s (AMPEs) synthesized by nucleophilic substitution-poly condensation followed by quaternization and alkalization reactions. In this procedure, four quaternary ammonium groups are successfully introduced without use of carcinogenic reagents such as chloromethylmethyl ether (CMME). Hydrophilic/hydrophobic phase separation is responsible for their high hydroxide conductivity (∼150 mS cm-1 at 80 °C) due to development of interconnected ion transport pathway. AMs are exhibiting good alkaline stability due to the presence of two vicinal quaternary ammonium groups and avoid degradation such as Sommelet-Hauser rearrangement and Hofmann elimination. Vicinal quaternary ammonium groups also resist nucleophilic (OH-) attack and suppress the Stevens rearrangement as well as SN2 substitution reaction due to stearic hindrance. Optimized AM (AMPE-M20N15 (55% DCM)) exhibits about 0.95 V open circuit voltage (OCV) and 48.8 mW cm-2 power density at 65 °C in alkaline direct methanol fuel cell (ADMFC) operation. These results suggest promising begin for the preparation of stable and conductive AMs for ADMFC applications and useful for developing hydroxide conductive materials.

  5. Crystallization Kinetics and Melting Behavior of PA1010/Ether-based TPU Blends

    ZHANG Shu-ling; ZHAO Yan; SUN Xiao-bo; JIANG Zhen-hua; WU Zhong-wen; WANG Gui-Bin


    Polyamide 1010(PA1010)/thermoplastic poly(ether urethane) elastomer(ether-based TPU) blends were prepared via melt extrusion. The crystallization kinetics and melting behavior of PA1010/ether-based TPU blends were systematically investigated using differential scanning calorimetry. The crystallization kinetics results show that the addition of ether-based TPU hinders the crystallization of PA1010, and the hindrance effect increases with the increase of the concentration of ether-based TPU. Both pure PA1010 and PA1010/ether-based TPU blends exhibit double melting peaks in the process of nonisothermal crystallization. The double melting peaks change differently with the variation of cooling rate and blend composition. The cooling rate only influences the lower melting peak; however, the blend composition influences not only the lower melting peak but also the higher melting peak. The reason for the phenomenon must be the interaction between the two compositions.

  6. Antimutagenic effect of crown ethers on heavy metal-induced sister chromatid exchanges.

    Cai, M Y; Arenaz, P


    Macrocyclic polyethers (crown ethers) are a family of compounds that possess the ability to complex with and transport metal ions across membranes. Because of their unique ionophoric characteristic, they have wide application in industry and research, chemistry and biology. In the current investigation the relationship between heavy metal mutagenesis and crown ether co-mutagenicity and/or antimutagenicity in mammalian cells has been examined using sister chromatid exchange (SCE) as the cytogenetic end point. Chinese hamster ovary cells were treated with lead or cadmium, with and without selected crown ethers. Several genotoxic end points, including SCEs were scored and statistically compared. We report here that most of the crown ethers studied had little or no influence on lead- or cadmium-induced SCEs or chromosome aberrations. On the other hand, the substituted crown ether dicyclohexyl 21-crown-7 significantly decreased both spontaneous and metal-induced SCE frequencies, suggesting that this crown ether may possess antimutagenic activity.

  7. The Wireless Gateway Design of the Industrial Ethernet EtherCAT Network%工业以太网EtherCAT的无线网关设计

    魏亚鹏; 韩卫光


    The Real-time Ethernet technology is a hot issue in the industrial communication area,and the EtherCAT technology has a bright prospect in such field.The wireless sensor network ZigBee technology can bring forth the convenience of the transmission channel on the deployment and planning,which can reduce many costs and troubles of the network cabling construction.Making a gateway which connects the EtherCAT network with the ZigBee network can expand the range of the industrial communication networks.In this way,the EtherCAT master can achieve a perception of the change in the industrial manufacturing environment.On the basis of further study on these two protocols,an implementation scheme of ZigBee accessing EtherCAT is proposed,and a communication model of an EtherCAT-ZigBee gateway is designed,and the gateway which connects the EtherCAT network and the ZigBee network is designed and realized through using ARM Cortex-A8 and CC2530.After tests,it shows that the EtherCAT network and the ZigBee network can communicate with each other through the gateway,which is able to meet the needs of real-time collection of field data.%实时工业以太网技术是目前工业通信领域研究的热点,EtherCAT技术具有光明的应用前景.无线传感网ZigBee技术可以带来传输通道部署和规划上的便利,可以减少大量布线施工的代价与困扰.开发连接EtherCAT和ZigBee的网关可以拓展工业通信网络的范围,实现对工业制造现场的环境变化的感知.在对两种协议深入研究的基础上,提出了ZigBee接入EtherCAT的实现方案,设计了EtherCAT和ZigBee的网关通信模型,并且采用ARM Cortex-A8和CC2530设计并实现了连接EtherCAT与ZigBee的网关.经过测试表明,该网关实现了EtherCAT与ZigBee网络通信的协议转换功能,能够满足实时采集现场数据的需要.

  8. Thermodynamics of Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether Steam Reforming and Hydrolysis

    T.A. Semelsberger


    The thermodynamic analyses of producing a hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feed from the process of dimethyl ether (DME) steam reforming were investigated as a function of steam-to-carbon ratio (0-4), temperature (100 C-600 C), pressure (1-5 atm), and product species: acetylene, ethanol, methanol, ethylene, methyl-ethyl ether, formaldehyde, formic acid, acetone, n-propanol, ethane and isopropyl alcohol. Results of the thermodynamic processing of dimethyl ether with steam indicate the complete conversion of dimethyl ether to hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide for temperatures greater than 200 C and steam-to-carbon ratios greater than 1.25 at atmospheric pressure (P = 1 atm). Increasing the operating pressure was observed to shift the equilibrium toward the reactants; increasing the pressure from 1 atm to 5 atm decreased the conversion of dimethyl ether from 99.5% to 76.2%. The order of thermodynamically stable products in decreasing mole fraction was methane, ethane, isopropyl alcohol, acetone, n-propanol, ethylene, ethanol, methyl-ethyl ether and methanol--formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetylene were not observed. The optimal processing conditions for dimethyl ether steam reforming occurred at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 1.5, a pressure of 1 atm, and a temperature of 200 C. Modeling the thermodynamics of dimethyl ether hydrolysis (with methanol as the only product considered), the equilibrium conversion of dimethyl ether is limited. The equilibrium conversion was observed to increase with temperature and steam-to-carbon ratio, resulting in a maximum dimethyl ether conversion of approximately 68% at a steam-to-carbon ratio of 4.5 and a processing temperature of 600 C. Thermodynamically, dimethyl ether processed with steam can produce hydrogen-rich fuel-cell feeds--with hydrogen concentrations exceeding 70%. This substantiates dimethyl ether as a viable source of hydrogen for PEM fuel cells.

  9. Integrated catalytic and electrocatalytic conversion of substituted phenols and diaryl ethers

    Song, Yang; Chia, Shao H.; Sanyal, Udishnu; Gutierrez, Oliver Y.; Lercher, Johannes A.


    Electrocatalytic hydrogenation and catalytic thermal hydrogenation of substituted phenols and diaryl ethers were studied on carbon-supported Rh. For electrocatalytic and catalytic thermal hydrogen addition reactions, the dominant reaction pathway is hydrogenation to cyclic alcohols and cycloalkyl ethers. The presence of substituting methyl or methoxy groups led to lower rates compared to unsubstituted phenol or diphenyl ether. Methoxy or benzyloxy groups, however, undergo C-O bond cleavage via hydrogenolysis and hydrolysis (minor pathway).

  10. EtherCAT主导运动控制通信技术



  11. Synthesis and characterization of quaternized poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) for anion-exchange membrane


    Chloromethylated poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (CMPPESK) was prepared from poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (PPESK) using chloromethyl octyl ethers (CMOE) with lower toxicity as chloromethylated regent. CMPPESK was soluble in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMAc) and chloroform. Quatemized poly(phthalazinone ether sulfone ketone) (QAPPESK) was prepared from CMPPESK by quaternization. QAPPESK had excellent solvent resistance,which was only partly soluble in sulfuric acid (98%) and swollen in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF). The vanadium redox flow battery (V-RFB) using QAPPESK anion-exchange membrane had better performance with 88.3% of overall energy efficiency.


    F. H. Chang ، C. R. Yang ، C. Y. Tsai ، W. C. Lin


    Full Text Available This study characterized the airborne exposure of students to thirty polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners inside and outside a computer classroom in a southern Taiwan college. Arithmetic mean values of total indoor and outdoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were 125.0 pg/m3 (89.8 to 203.9 pg/m3 and 110.3 pg/m3 (83.5 to 157.0 pg/m3, respectively. Total indoor polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations were one order of magnitude lower than those detected in homes in Birmingham, United Kingdom and in Ottawa, Canada but were several times higher than those measured in the ambient air in Ottawa, Canada and from the Bohai Sea to the Arctic. The five highest indoor concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ether congeners were decabromodiphenyl ether (23.0 pg/m3, 4,4’-dibromodiphenyl ether (15.9 pg/m3, 2,2’,3,4,4’,5,5’,6-octabromodiphenyl ether (10.6 pg/m3, 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether (10.3 pg/m3 and 2,2’,3,4,4’,5’,6-heptabromodiphenyl ether (10.0 pg/m3. Although indoor and outdoor total polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations did not significantly differ, the indoor concentrations of 2,4-dibromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,4,4’-tribromodiphenyl ether, 2,2’,4,5’-tetrabromodiphenyl ether and 2,3’,4’,6-tetrabromodiphenyl ether were significantly higher than their outdoor concentrations. This study suggests the following measures: 1 to increase the air exchange rate and open classroom doors and windows for several minutes before classes to reduce indoor PBDE concentrations; 2 to reduce polybrominated diphenyl ether emissions from new devices, it’s better to use computer-related products that meet the Restriction of Hazardous Substances Directive adopted by the European Union.

  13. Oxidation of ethyl ether on borate glass: chemiluminescence, mechanism, and development of a sensitive gas sensor.

    Hu, Jing; Xu, Kailai; Jia, Yunzhen; Lv, Yi; Li, Yubao; Hou, Xiandeng


    A gas sensor was developed by using the chemiluminescence (CL) emission from the oxidation of ethyl ether by oxygen in the air on the surface of borate glass. Theoretical calculation, together with experimental investigation, revealed the main CL reactions: ethyl ether is first oxidized to acetaldehyde and then to acetic acid, during which main luminous intermediates such as CH 3CO (*) are generated and emit light with a peak at 493 nm. At a reaction temperature of 245 degrees C, the overall maximal emission was found at around 460 nm, and the linear range of the CL intensity versus the concentration of ethyl ether was 0.12-51.7 microg mL (-1) ( R = 0.999, n = 7) with a limit of detection (3sigma) of 0.04 microg mL (-1). Interference from foreign substances including alcohol (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol), acetone, ethyl acetate, n-hexane, cyclohexane, dichloromethane, or ether ( n-butyl ether, tetrahydrofuran, propylene oxide, isopropyl ether and methyl tert-butyl ether) was not significant except a minimal signal from n-butyl ether (ethyl ether.

  14. Reliability Analysis of Mine Monitoring Network Based on Ether CAT%EtherCAT井下监控网络可靠性分析研究

    王玉梅; 张国治



  15. 工业以太网EtherCAT技术的原理及其实现%The principle of Industry Ethernet-EtherCAT and its implementation




  16. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs): new pollutants-old diseases.

    Siddiqi, Muhammad Akmal; Laessig, Ronald H; Reed, Kurt D


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of recalcitrant and bioaccumulative halogenated compounds that have emerged as a major environmental pollutant. PBDEs are used as a flame-retardant and are found in consumer goods such as electrical equipment, construction materials, coatings, textiles and polyurethane foam (furniture padding). Similar in structure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), PBDEs resist degradation in the environment. Less brominated PBDEs like tetra-, penta- and hexa- demonstrate high affinity for lipids and can accumulate in the bodies of animals and humans. Breast milk from North American women contained much higher amounts of PBDEs than levels in breast milk from Swedish women, indicating that North American exposures to PBDEs may be particularly high. Evidence to date suggests that tetra- and penta-BDEs are likely to be the more toxic and bioaccumulative of the PBDE compounds, compared to octa- and deca-congeners. PBDEs are sold as mixtures, under names such as "pentabromodiphenyl ether" and "octabromodiphenyl ether." The pentabromo product is a mixture of tetra-BDEs and penta-BDEs in approximately equal amounts. Pentabromo consists of PBDEs that are believed to be the most toxic. This mixture has been banned by the European Union, but is still used in North America. The United States is the leading producer and user of pentabromo. In August 2003, the State of California passed a bill to phase out the use of penta- and octa-PBDE by 2008. The toxicology of PBDEs is not well understood, but PBDEs have been associated with tumors, neurodevelopmental toxicity and thyroid hormone imbalance. The neurotoxic effects of PBDEs are similar to those observed for PCBs. Children exposed to PBDEs are prone to subtle but measurable developmental problems. It is presumed that PBDEs are endocrine disruptors, but research in this area is scant. Further studies are imperative in a multitude of health and environmental disciplines to determine the

  17. On the radiation stability of crown ethers in ionic liquids.

    Shkrob, I.; Marin, T.; Dietz, M. (Chemical Sciences and Engineering Division); (Benedictine Univ.); (Univ. of Wisconsin at Milwaukee)


    Crown ethers (CEs) are macrocyclic ionophores used for the separation of strontium-90 from acidic nuclear waste streams. Room temperature ionic liquids (ILs) are presently being considered as replacements for traditional molecular solvents employed in such separations. It is desirable that the extraction efficacy obtained with such solvents should not deteriorate in the strong radiation fields generated by decaying radionuclides. This deterioration will depend on the extent of radiation damage to both the IL solvent and the CE solute. While radiation damage to ILs has been extensively studied, the issue of the radiation stability of crown ethers, particularly in an IL matrix, has not been adequately addressed. With this in mind, we have employed electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy to study the formation of CE-related radicals in the radiolysis of selected CEs in ILs incorporating aromatic (imidazolium and pyridinium) cations. The crown ethers have been found to yield primarily hydrogen loss radicals, H atoms, and the formyl radical. In the low-dose regime, the relative yield of these radicals increases linearly with the mole fraction of the solute, suggesting negligible transfer of the excitation energy from the solvent to the solute; that is, the solvent has a 'radioprotective' effect. The damage to the CE in the loading region of practical interest is relatively low. Under such conditions, the main chemical pathway leading to decreased extraction performance is protonation of the macrocycle. At high radiation doses, sufficient to increase the acidity of the IL solvent significantly, such proton complexes compete with the solvent cations as electron traps. In this regime, the CEs will rapidly degrade as the result of H abstraction from the CE ring by the released H atoms. Thus, the radiation dose to which a CE/IL system is exposed must be maintained at a level sufficiently low to avoid this regime.

  18. Microbial degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether with anaerobic sludge

    Shih, Yang-hsin, E-mail: [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China); Chou, Hsi-Ling [Department of Soil and Environmental Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung 407, Taiwan, ROC (China); Peng, Yu-Huei [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, National Taiwan University, Taipei 106, Taiwan, ROC (China)


    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer BDE-3 was degraded with two anaerobes in different rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Glucose addition augment the debromination efficiencies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hydrogen gas was detected and relative microbes were identified. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Extra-carbon source enhanced degradation partial due to H{sub 2}-generation bacteria. - Abstract: Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used flame retardant additives for many plastic and electronic products. Owing to their ubiquitous distribution in the environment, multiple toxicity to humans, and increasing accumulation in the environment, the fate of PBDEs is of serious concern for public safety. In this study, the degradation of 4-monobrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-3) in anaerobic sludge and the effect of carbon source addition were investigated. BDE-3 can be degraded by two different anaerobic sludge samples. The by-products, diphenyl ether (DE) and bromide ions, were monitored, indicating the reaction of debromination within these anaerobic samples. Co-metabolism with glucose facilitated BDE-3 biodegradation in terms of kinetics and efficiency in the Jhongsing sludge. Through the pattern of amplified 16S rRNA gene fragments in denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), the composition of the microbial community was analyzed. Most of the predominant microbes were novel species. The fragments enriched in BDE-3-degrading anaerobic sludge samples are presumably Clostridium sp. This enrichment coincides with the H{sub 2} gas generation and the facilitation of debromination during the degradation process. Findings of this study provide better understanding of the biodegradation of brominated DEs and can facilitate the prediction of the fate of PBDEs in the environment.


    Kamil Klier; Richard G. Herman; Heock-Hoi Kwon; James G. C. Shen; Qisheng Ma; Robert A. Hunsicker; Andrew P. Butler; Scott J. Bollinger


    A tungstena-zirconia (WZ) catalyst has been investigated for coupling methanol and isobutanol to unsymmetrical ethers, i.e. methyl isobutyl ether (MIBE) and compared with earlier studied sulfated-zirconia (SZ) and Nafion-H catalysts. In all cases, the ether synthesis mechanism is a dual site S{sub N}2 process involving competitive adsorption of reactants on proximal acid sites. At low reaction temperatures, methylisobutylether (MIBE) is the predominant product. However, at temperatures >135 C the WZ catalyst is very good for dehydration of isobutanol to isobutene. The surface acid sites of the WZ catalyst and a Nafion-H catalyst were diagnosed by high resolution X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) of N 1s shifts after adsorption of amines. Using pyridine, ethylenediamine, and triethylamine, it is shown that WZ has heterogeneous strong Broensted acid sites. Theoretical study located the transition state of the alcohol coupling reaction on proximal Broensted acid sites and accounted well for XPS core-level shifts upon surface acid-base interactions. While computations have not been carried out with WZ, it is shown that the SZ catalyst is a slightly stronger acid than CF{sub 3}SO{sub 3}H (a model for Nafion-H) by 1.3-1.4 kcal/mol. A novel sulfated zirconia catalyst having proximal strong Broensted acid sites was synthesized and shown to have significantly enhanced activity and high selectivity in producing MIBE or isobutene from methanol/isobutanol mixtures. The catalyst was prepared by anchoring 1,2-ethanediol bis(hydrogen sulfate) salt precursor onto zirconium hydroxide, followed by calcination to remove the -(CH{sub 2}CH{sub 2})- bridging residues.

  20. Green mechanochemical oxidative decomposition of powdery decabromodiphenyl ether with persulfate

    Huang, Aizhen; Zhang, Zhimin; Wang, Nan [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zhu, Lihua, E-mail: [College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Zou, Jing [School of Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Wuhan Institute of Technology, Wuhan 430073 (China)


    Highlights: • MC process greatly enhanced the decomposition of PS into reactive sulfate radicals. • The mechanochemical (MC) activation of persulfate was applied to degrade BDE209. • This method could achieve a rapid and complete debromination and mineralization of BDE209. • No toxic low brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers were produced and accumulated. • Sulfate radicals were the main oxidizing species for the decomposition of BDE209. - Abstract: A method was developed for efficiently degrading powdery decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE209) by using mechanochemical (MC) activation of persulfate (PS). Characteristic Raman spectra of BDE209 corresponding to C−Br and C−O bonds were decreased in intensity and finally disappeared as the MC reaction proceeded. The BDE209 removal was influenced by the molar ratio of PS to BDE209, the mass ratio of milling ball to reaction mixtures, the ball size, and the ball rotation speed. Under optimal conditions, the new method could achieve a complete degradation, debromination and mineralization of BDE209 within 3 h of milling. However, the degradation removal (or debromination efficiency) was decreased to only 51.7% (15.6%) and 67.8% (31.5%) for the use of CaO and peroxymonosulfate, respectively. The analyses of products demonstrated that once the degradation was initiated, BDE209 molecules were deeply debrominated and fully mineralized in the MC-PS system. The strong oxidizing ability of this system was due to the reactive sulfate radicals generated from the MC-enhanced activation of PS, which was confirmed with electron spin resonance spectroscopy. Because no toxic low brominated polybrominated diphenyl ethers were accumulated as byproducts, the proposed MC oxidative degradation method will have promising applications in the treatment of solid BDE209 at high concentrations.

  1. EtherCAT技术协会精彩亮相



  2. Degradation of β-Aryl Ether Bonds in Transgenic Plants

    Mnich, Ewelina

    of the monolignols coniferyl alcohol, p-coumaryl alcohol and sinapyl alcohol which during radical-mediated oxidative coupling bind together forming different linkage types. Lignin is the main obstacle in biofuel production as it forms a mechanical barrier limiting accessibility for polysaccharide hydrolyzing enzymes...... system to degrade lignin. An important step in this degradation is cleavage of the most abundant lignin linkage type, β-aryl ether. It is cleaved in a three step reaction catalyzed by a dehydrogenase, a glutathione S-transferase and a glutathione lyase. Due to the nature of the enzymatic reactions...

  3. Fluorescence properties of crown ethers with phenylbenzothiozole pendant group

    Kapoor, S.; Sapre, A. V.; Kumar, S.; Mashraqui, S. H.; Mukherjee, T.


    Photophysical characteristics of 2-phenylbenzothiazole (PBT) substituted crown ether (CRE-PBT) molecules have been investigated in various polar protic solvents. Large Stokes' and good solvatochromic shifts have been observed for CRE-PBT molecules. It is seen that in these molecules, the fluorescence lifetimes and quantum yields increase as compared to the pristine PBT molecule. Temperature-dependence studies have been carried out to understand the effect of CRE substitution and the role of C-C single bond rotation on the fluorescence quantum yield and lifetime.

  4. Developments of Catalysts for Hydrogen Production from Dimethyl Ether

    Kaoru; Takeishi


    1 Results Dimethyl ether (DME) is expected as a clean fuel of the 21st century.I have developed new catalysts for hydrogen production by steam reforming of DME.Cu-Zn/Al2O3 catalysts prepared by the sol-gel method produce large quantities of H2 and CO2 by DME steam reforming under lower reaction temperature[1].However,the sol-gel catalysts will be more expensive than general catalysts prepared by impregnation methods and coprecipitation methods,because the precursor,alkoxides are very expensive.For pract...

  5. Dimethyl ether production from methanol and/or syngas

    Dagle, Robert A; Wang, Yong; Baker, Eddie G; Hu, Jianli


    Disclosed are methods for producing dimethyl ether (DME) from methanol and for producing DME directly from syngas, such as syngas from biomass. Also disclosed are apparatus for DME production. The disclosed processes generally function at higher temperatures with lower contact times and at lower pressures than conventional processes so as to produce higher DME yields than do conventional processes. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in reactors providing greater surface to volume ratios than the presently used DME reactors. Certain embodiments of the processes are carried out in systems comprising multiple microchannel reactors.

  6. Synthesis of dimethyl ether from methane mediated by HBr

    Qin You; Zhen Liu; Wensheng Li; Xiaoping Zhou


    Dimethyl ether (DME) was synthesized from methane through a two-step process,in which CH_3 Br was prepared from the oxidative bromination reaction of methane in the presence of HBr and oxygen over a Rh-SiO_2 catalyst and then,in the second step,CH_3Br was hydrolyzed to DME over a silica supported metal chloride catalyst. 12 mol%ZnCl_2/SiO_2 catalyst was found to be the most active,but it deactivated because of Cl- losing.

  7. An aging study of wire chambers with dimethyl ether

    Jibaly, M.; Chrusch, P. Jr.; Hilgenberg, G.; Majewski, S.; Wojcik, R.; Sauli, F.; Gaudaen, J.


    The authors report results on the aging of different types of resistive and non-resistive wires in wire chambers filled with dimethyl ether (DME) of varying degrees of purity. Among the Freon impurities detected in our DME batches, only Freon-11 was found to contribute to the aging process. Of the resistive wires, Nicotin and Stablohm produced fast aging, whereas stainless steel withstood extended irradiation in purified DME (up to 1 C/cm) without any apparent damage. Gold-plated tungsten and molybdenum wires produced results comparable to those of the stainless steel.

  8. Electrochemical Study of Diphenyl Ether Derivatives Used as Herbicides

    Amira Zaouak


    Full Text Available The electrochemical behaviour of five nitro diphenyl ethers used as herbicides is investigated in acetonitrile. A detailed study by cyclic voltammetry and exhaustive electrolysis is carried out for the anodic oxidation of 2-Chloro-6-nitro-3-phenoxyaniline (aclonifen and shows that the major oxidation product is a dimeric compound. A mechanistic scheme involving a coupling process is postulated for the electrochemical oxidation of this compound. Furthermore, the use of differential pulse voltammetry on a glassy carbon electrode permits the selective determination of aclonifen. The limit of detection is 0.6 μg/mL.

  9. Direct dimethyl ether high temperature polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cells

    Vassiliev, Anton; Jensen, Jens Oluf; Li, Qingfeng

    and suffers from low DME solubility in water. When the DME - water mixture is fed as vapour miscibility is no longer a problem. The increased temperature is more beneficial for the kinetics of the direct oxidation of DME than of methanol. The Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) with DME operation was 50 to 100 m......A high temperature polybenzimidazole (PBI) polymer fuel cell was fed with dimethyl ether (DME) and water vapour mixture on the anode at ambient pressure with air as oxidant. A peak power density of 79 mW/cm2 was achieved at 200°C. A conventional polymer based direct DME fuel cell is liquid fed...

  10. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in house dust in Beijing, China.

    Li, K; Fu, S


    Eleven house dust samples were collected in Beijing to quantify 42 different polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Total PBDEs concentrations ranged from 140 to 1,300 ng g(-1). The dominant PBDEs congener identified was BDE 209, which made up more than 70% of all PBDEs congeners. Concentrations of PBDEs in Chinese house dust were lower than in other countries. The most polluted areas were electronics shops and households. It is likely that PBDEs exposure is a potential threat for Beijing residents, particularly toddlers.

  11. Density measurements of compressed-liquid dimethyl ether + pentane mixtures.

    Outcalt, Stephanie L; Lemmon, Eric W


    Compressed-liquid densities of three compositions of the binary mixture dimethyl ether (CAS No. 115-10-6) + pentane (CAS No. 109-66-0) have been measured with a vibrating U-tube densimeter. Measurements were made at temperatures from 270 K to 390 K with pressures from 1.0 MPa to 50 MPa. The overall combined uncertainty (k=2) of the density data is 0.81 kg·m(-3). Data presented here have been used to improve a previously formulated Helmholtz energy based mixture model. The newly derived parameters are given.

  12. Nucleophilic Addition of Organozinc Reagents to 2-Sulfonyl Cyclic Ethers

    Kim, Hyoungsu; Kasper, Amanda C.; Moon, Eui Jung; Park, Yongho; Wooten, Ceshea M.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Hong, Jiyong


    A convergent route to the synthesis of manassantins A and B, potent inhibitors of HIF-1, is described. Central to the synthesis is a stereoselective addition of an organozinc reagent to a 2-benzenesulfonyl cyclic ether to achieve the 2,3-cis-3,4-trans-4,5-cis-tetrahydrofuran of the natural products. Preliminary structure—activity relationships suggested that the (R)-configuration at C-7 and C-7″′ is not critical for HIF-1 inhibition. In addition, the hydroxyl group at C-7 and C-7″′ can be replaced with carbonyl group without loss of activity. PMID:19111058

  13. Synthesis and Characterization of a Novel Cellulose Nonionic Ether

    SHAO Zi-qiang; XU Kun; TIAN Yong-sheng; WANG Fei-jun; WANG Ji-xun


    A kind of novel cellulose ether-trihydroxybutyl cellulose (THBC) was synthesized. The process includes the steam explosion treatment of cotton cellulose, alkalization, etherification and purification. Sweep electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction were used to characterize the cellulose pretreated and the product. The effects of reaction conditions (temperature, time) on the molecular substitution (Sm) were discussed. To obtain a higher degree of molecular substitution, the reaction temperature is 80 ℃, and the reaction time is 4 h.

  14. Structure and Reactivity of Alkyl Ethers Adsorbed on CeO(2)(111) Model Catalysts

    Calaza, Florencia C [ORNL; Chen, Tsung-Liang [ORNL; Mullins, David R [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL


    The effect of surface hydroxyls on the adsorption of ether on ceria was explored. Adsorption of dimethyl ether (DME) and diethyl ether (DEE) on oxidized and reduced CeO{sub 2}(111) films was studied and compared with Ru(0001) using RAIRS and sXPS within a UHV environment. On Ru(0001) the ethers adsorb weakly with the molecular plane close to parallel to the surface plane. On the ceria films, the adsorption of the ethers was stronger than on the metal surface, presumably due to stronger interaction of the ether oxygen lone pair electrons with a cerium cation. This interaction causes the ethers to tilt away from the surface plane compared to the Ru(0001) surface. No pronounced differences were found between oxidized (CeO{sub 2}) and reduced (CeOx) films. The adsorption of the ethers was found to be perturbed by the presence of OH groups on hydroxylated CeOx. In the case of DEE, the geometry of adsorption resembles that found on Ru, and in the case of dimethyl ether DME is in between that one found on clean CeOx and the metal surface. Decomposition of the DEE was observed on the OH/CeOx surface following high DEE exposure at 300 K and higher temperatures. Ethoxides and acetates were identified as adsorbed species on the surface by means of RAIRS and ethoxides and formates by s-XPS. No decomposition of dimethyl ether was observed on the OH/CeOx at these higher temperatures, implying that the dissociation of the C-O bond from ethers requires the presence of {beta}-hydrogen.

  15. Sorption-desorption behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in soils

    Olshansky, Yaniv; Polubesova, Tamara [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Vetter, Walter [Institute of Food Chemistry (170b), University of Hohenheim, Garbenstr. 28, D-70599 Stuttgart (Germany); Chefetz, Benny, E-mail: [Department of Soil and Water Sciences, Robert H. Smith Faculty of Agriculture, Food and Environment, The Hebrew University of Jerusalem, P.O. Box 12, Rehovot 76100 (Israel)


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are flame retardants that are commonly found in commercial and household products. These compounds are considered persistent organic pollutants. In this study, we used 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-15) as a model compound to elucidate the sorption and desorption behavior of PBDEs in soils. The organic carbon-normalized sorption coefficient (K{sub OC}) of BDE-15 was more than three times higher for humin than for bulk soils. However, pronounced desorption hysteresis was obtained mainly for bulk soils. For humin, increasing concentration of sorbed BDE-15 resulted in decreased desorption. Our data illustrate that BDE-15 and probably other PBDEs exhibit high sorption affinity to soils. Moreover, sorption is irreversible and thus PBDEs can potentially accumulate in the topsoil layer. We also suggest that although humin is probably a major sorbent for PBDEs in soils, other humic materials are also responsible for their sequestration. - Highlights: > BDE-15 exhibited pronounced desorption hysteresis. > BDE-15 sowed higher sorption affinity to humin as compared to the bulk soils. > Sequestration of PBDEs depends on soil organic matter constitutes other than humin. - Pronounced desorption hysteresis was observed for BDE-15 in natural soils.

  16. Alkali-crown ether complexes at metal surfaces

    Thontasen, Nicha; Deng, Zhitao; Rauschenbach, Stephan [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Levita, Giacomo [University of Trieste, Trieste (Italy); Malinowski, Nikola [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria); Kern, Klaus [Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research, Stuttgart (Germany); EPFL, Lausanne (Switzerland)


    Crown ethers are polycyclic ethers which, in solution, selectively bind cations depending on the size of the ring cavity. The study of a single host-guest complex is highly desirable in order to reveal the characteristics of these specific interactions at the atomic scale. Such detailed investigation is possible at the surface where high resolution imaging tools like scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) can be applied. Here, electrospray ion beam deposition (ES-IBD) is employed for the deposition of Dibenzo-24-crown-8 (DB24C8)-H{sup +}, -Na{sup +} and -Cs{sup +} complexes on a solid surface in ultrahigh vacuum (UHV). Where other deposition techniques have not been successful, this deposition technique combines the advantages of solution based preparation of the complex ions with a highly clean and controlled deposition in UHV. Single molecular structures and the cation-binding of DB24C8 at the surface are studied in situ by STM and MALDI-MS (matrix assisted laser desorption ionization mass spectrometry). The internal structure of the complex, i.e. ring and cavity, is observable only when alkali cations are incorporated. The BD24C8-H{sup +} complex in contrast appears as a compact feature. This result is in good agreement with theoretical models based on density functional theory calculations.

  17. High octane ethers from synthesis gas-derived alcohols

    Klier, K.; Herman, R.G.; DeTavernier, S.; Johannson, M.; Kieke, M.; Bastian, R.D.


    The temperature dependence of ether synthesis, particularly unsymmetric methylisobutylether (MIBE), was carried out over the Nafion-H microsaddles (MS) catalyst. The principal product formed under the rather severe reaction conditions of 1100 psig pressure and temperatures in the range of 123--157{degree}C was the expected MIBE formed directly by coupling the methanol/isobutanol reactants. In addition, significantly larger quantities of the dimethylether (DME) and hydrocarbon products were observed than were obtained under milder reaction conditions. Deactivation of the Nafion-H MS catalyst was determined by periodically testing the catalyst under a given set of reaction conditions for the synthesis of MIBE and MTBE from methanol/isobutanol = 2/1, i.e. 123{degree}C, 1100 psig, and total GHSV = 248 mol/kg cat/hr. After carrying out various tests over a period of 2420 hr, with intermittant periods of standing under nitrogen at ambient conditions, the yields of MIBE and MTBE had decreased by 25% and 41%, respectively. In order to gain insight into the role of the surface acidity in promoting the selective coupling of the alcohols to form the unsymmetric ether, the strengths of the acid sites on the catalysts are still being probed by calorimetric titrations in non-aqueous solutions. 11 refs., 13 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Evaluating the Swelling, Erosion and Compaction Properties of Cellulose Ethers.

    Ghori, Muhammad U; Grover, Liam M; Asare-Addo, Kofi; Smith, Alan M; Conway, Barbara R


    Swelling, erosion, deformation and consolidation properties can affect the performance of cellulose ethers, the most commonly used matrix former in hydrophilic sustained tablet formulations. The present study was designed to comparatively evaluate the swelling, erosion, compression, compaction and relaxation properties of the cellulose ethers in a comprehensive study using standardised conditions. The interrelationship between various compressional models and the inherent deformation and consolidation properties of the polymers on the derived swelling and erosion parameters are consolidated. The impact of swelling (Kw) on erosion rates (KE) and the inter-relationship between Heckel and Kawakita plasticity constants was also investigated. It is evident from the findings that the increases in both substitution and polymer chain length led to higher Kw, but a lower KE; this was also true for all particle size fractions regardless of polymer grade. Smaller particle size and high substitution levels tend to increase the relative density of the matrix but reduce porosity, yield pressure (Py), Kawakita plasticity parameter (b(-1)) and elastic relaxation. Both KW vs KE (R(2) = 0.949-0.980) and Py vs b(-1) correlations (R(2) = 0.820-0.934) were reasonably linear with regards to increasing hydroxypropyl substitution and molecular size. Hence, it can be concluded that the combined knowledge of swelling and erosion kinetics in tandem with the in and out-of-die compression findings can be used to select a specific polymer grade and further to develop and optimise formulations for oral controlled drug delivery applications.

  19. Developmental toxicity of diphenyl ether herbicides in nestling American kestrels

    Hoffman, D.J.; Spann, J.W.; LeCaptain, L.J.; Bunck, C.M.; Rattner, B.A.


    Beginning the day after hatching, American kestrel (Falco sparverius) nestlings were orally dosed for 10 consecutive days with 5 microliters/g of corn oil (controls) or one of the diphenyl ether herbicides (nitrofen, bifenox, or oxyfluorfen) at concentrations of 10, 50, 250, or 500 mg/kg in corn oil. At 500 mg/kg, nitrofen resulted in complete nestling mortality, bifenox in high (66%) mortality, and oxyfluorfen in no mortality. Nitrofen at 250 mg/kg reduced nestling growth as reflected by decreased body weight, crownrump length, and bone lengths including humerus, radiusulna, femur, and tibiotarsus. Bifenox at 250 mg/kg had less effect on growth than nitrofen, but crownrump, humerus, radiusulna, and femur were significantly shorter than controls. Liver weight as a percent of body weight increased with 50 and 250 mg/kg nitrofen. Other manifestations of impending hepatotoxicity following nitrofen ingestion included increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in all nitrofentreated groups, and increased plasma enzyme activities for ALT, AST, and LDHL in the 250mg/kg group. Bifenox ingestion resulted in increased hepatic GSH peroxidase activity in the 50and 250mg/kg groups. Nitrofen exposure also resulted in an increase in total plasma thyroxine (T4) concentration. These findings suggest that altricial nestlings are more sensitive to diphenyl ether herbicides than young or adult birds of precocial species.

  20. Molecular dynamics simulations of ether- and ester-linked phospholipids.

    Kruczek, James; Saunders, Matthew; Khosla, Meghna; Tu, Yicheng; Pandit, Sagar A


    Dissimilarities in the bulk structure of bilayers composed of ether- vs ester-linked lipids are well-established; however, the atomistic interactions responsible for these differences are not well known. These differences are important in understanding of why archaea have a different bilayer composition than the other domains of life and why humans have larger concentrations of plasmalogens in specialized membranes? In this paper, we simulate two lipid bilayers, the ester linked dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and the ether lined dihexadecylphosphatidylcholine (DHPC), to study these variations. The structural analysis of the bilayers reveals that DPPC is more compressible than DHPC. A closer examination of dipole potential shows DHPC, despite having a smaller dipole potential of the bilayer, has a higher potential barrier than DPPC at the surface. Analysis of water order and dynamics suggests DHPC has a more ordered, less mobile layer of water in the headgroup. These results seem to resolve the issue as to whether the decrease in permeability of DHPC is due to of differences in minimum area per lipid (A0) or diffusion coefficient of water in the headgroup region (Dhead) (Guler et al., 2009) since we have shown significant changes in the order and mobility of water in that region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Photodissociation dynamics of ethyl ethynyl ether: A ketenyl radical precursor

    Krisch, Maria; Miller, Johanna; Butler, Laurie; Su, Hongmei; Bersohn, Richard; Shu, Jinian


    We investigate the photodissociation dynamics of ethyl ethynyl ether at 193.3 nm with crossed laser-molecular beam photofragment translational spectroscopy and laser-induced fluorescence. We establish ethyl ethynyl ether as the first clean precursor to the ketenyl radical, a key species in combustion reactions. One major bond fission channel was observed for the system, cleavage along the HCCO-C2H5 bond, leading to ground state C2H5 (ethyl) radicals and HCCO (ketenyl) radical products in two distinct electronic states. We observed neither cleavage of the other C-O bond nor molecular elimination to form C2H4 + CH2CO (ketene). Ketenyl radicals formed in the higher recoil kinetic energy channel could be either X(^2A") or Ã(^2A') state ketenyl radical. We assign the lower recoil kinetic energy channel to the spin forbidden ã(^4A") state of the ketenyl radical, reached through intersystem crossing. Laser-induced fluorescence from the ketenyl radical peaks after a 20 μs delay, indicating that it is formed with a significant amount of internal energy and subsequently relaxes to the lowest vibrational level of the ground electronic state, a result consistent with the product assignment.

  2. Mechanical properties and chemical stability of pivalolactone-based poly(ether ester)s

    Tijsma, E.J.; Does, van der L.; Bantjes, A.; Vulic, I.


    The processing, mechanical and chemical properties of poly(ether ester)s, prepared from pivalolactone (PVL), 1,4-butanediol (4G) and dimethyl terephthalate (DMT), were studied. The poly(ether ester)s could easily be processed by injection moulding, owing to their favourable rheological and thermal p

  3. Development and validation of a congener-specific photodegradation model for polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Zeng, X.; Simonich, S.L.M.; Robrock, K.R.; Korytar, P.; Alvarez-Cohen, L.; Barofsky, D.F.


    With the phaseout of the manufacture of some polybrominated diphenyl ether ( PBDE) formulations, namely penta-brominated diphenyl ether (BDE) and octa-BDE, and the continued use of the deca-BDE formulation, it is important to be able to predict the photodegradation of the more highly brominated cong

  4. Effects of petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber on central nervous system in mice

    Das S


    Full Text Available The central nervous system activity of the petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber was examined in mice, fed normal as well as healthy conditions. The petroleum ether extract of Amorphophallus paeoniifolius tuber at the doses of 100, 300 and 1000 mg/kg showed significant central nervous system activity in mice.

  5. Crown Ether Complexes with H3O+ and NH4+: Proton Localization and Proton Bridge Formation

    Hurtado, P.; Gamez, F.; Hamad, S.; Martinez-Haya, B.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.


    The complexes formed by crown ethers with hydronium and ammonium cations are of key relevance for the understanding of their supramolecular behavior in protic solvents. In this work, the complexes of the 15-crown-5 (15c5) and 18-crown-6 (18c6) ethers with H3O+ and NH4+ and their deuterated variants

  6. Direct dimethyl ether fueling of a high temperature polymer fuel cell

    Jensen, Jens Oluf; Vassiliev, Anton; Olsen, M.I.


    Direct dimethyl ether (DME) fuel cells suffer from poor DME–water miscibility and so far peak powers of only 20–40 mW cm−2 have been reported. Based on available literature on solubility of dimethyl ether (DME) in water at ambient pressure it was estimated that the maximum concentration of DME at...

  7. Oral 2-oleyl glyceryl ether improves glucose tolerance in mice through the GPR119 receptor

    Hassing, H A; Engelstoft, M S; Sichlau, R M


    abolished the hormone release. Similarly, in isolated primary colonic crypt cultures from WT mice, GPR119 was required for 2-OG-stimulated GLP-1 release while there was no response in crypts from KO mice. In vivo, gavage with 2-oleyl glyceryl ether ((2-OG ether), a stable 2-OG analog with a potency of 5.3 µ...

  8. 76 FR 69659 - Methacrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate-Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether Methacrylate Graft...


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Methacrylic Acid-Methyl Methacrylate-Polyethylene Glycol Monomethyl Ether... residues of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate- polyethylene glycol monomethyl ether methacrylate graft... permissible level for residues of methacrylic acid-methyl methacrylate-polyethylene glycol monomethyl...

  9. A convenient procedure for the synthesis of allyl and benzyl ethers from alcohols and phenols

    H Surya Prakash Rao; S P Senthilkumar


    Allyl and benzyl ethers of alcohols can be prepared conveniently and in high yield with allyl and benzyl bromide in the presence of solid potassium hydroxide without use of any solvent. Phenols can be converted to allyl ethers but are inert to benzylation under above conditions.

  10. Dimethylzinc-Initiated Radical Coupling of β-Bromostyrenes with Ethers and Amines

    Sølvhøj, Amanda Birgitte; Ahlburg, Andreas; Madsen, Robert


    A new coupling reaction has been developed in which β-bromostyrenes react with ethers and tertiary amines to introduce the styryl group in the α-position. The transformation is mediated by Me2Zn/O2 with 10 % MnCl2 and is believed to proceed by a radical addition-elimination mechanism. The ether...

  11. Characterization of the molecular degradation mechanism of diphenyl ethers by Cupriavidus sp. WS.

    Wang, Sheng; Bai, Naling; Wang, Bing; Feng, Zhuo; Hutchins, William C; Yang, Ching-Hong; Zhao, Yuhua


    Commonly used flame retardants, such as polybrominated diphenyl ethers, are extremely persistent in the environment, causing serious environmental risks. Certain strains of bacteria are able to degrade several low brominated congeners of PBDEs aerobically. However, the aerobic degradation pathway is not yet well understood, particularly at the genetic level. In this study, we isolated Cupriavidus sp. WS from the environment that could degrade diphenyl ether (DE), 4-bromodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-bromodiphenyl ether. DE was completely degraded in 6 days without any detectable end-product. Using transposon mutagenesis, several DE degradation-deficient mutants were obtained. Knocking out bphA1, bphA2, and bphA3 eliminated the ability of the Cupriavidus sp. WS bacterium to degrade DE, indicating that the bph genes play a crucial role in DE degradation by this strain. The specific roles of bphA, bphB, and bphC were identified by systematically expressing these genes in Escherichia coli. The dihydrodiol product of BphA was dehydrogenated into 2,3-dihydroxydiphenyl ether by BphB. 2,3-Dihydroxydiphenyl ether was then decomposed into phenol and 2-pyrone-6-carboxylic acid by BphC. Thus, BphA, BphB, and BphC act sequentially in the aerobic degradation of DE, 4-bromodiphenyl ether, and 4,4'-dibromodiphenyl ether by the Cupriavidus sp. WS bacterium.

  12. Reaction Pathways and Energetics of Etheric C–O Bond Cleavage Catalyzed by Lanthanide Triflates

    Assary, Rajeev S.; Atesin, Abdurrahman C.; Li, Zhi; Curtiss, Larry A.; Marks, Tobin J.


    Efficient and selective cleavage of etheric C-O bonds is crucial for converting biomass into platform chemicals and liquid transportation fuels. In this contribution, computational methods at the DFT B3LYP level of theory are employed to understand the efficacy of lanthanide triflate catalysts (Ln(OTf)3, Ln = La, Ce, Sm, Gd, Yb, and Lu) in cleaving etheric C-O bonds. In agreement with experiment, the calculations indicate that the reaction pathway for C-O cleavage occurs via a C-H → O-H proton transfer in concert with weakening of the C-O bond of the coordinated ether substrate to ultimately yield a coordinated alkenol. The activation energy for this process falls as the lanthanide ionic radius decreases, reflecting enhanced metal ion electrophilicity. Details of the reaction mechanism for Yb(OTf)3-catalyzed ring opening are explored in depth, and for 1-methyl-d3-butyl phenyl ether, the computed primary kinetic isotope effect of 2.4 is in excellent agreement with experiment (2.7), confirming that etheric ring-opening pathway involves proton transfer from the methyl group alpha to the etheric oxygen atom, which is activated by the electrophilic lanthanide ion. Calculations of the catalytic pathway using eight different ether substrates indicate that the more rapid cleavage of acyclic versus cyclic ethers is largely due to entropic effects, with the former C-O bond scission processes increasing the degrees of freedom/particles as the transition state is approached.

  13. Crown ether activation of cross-linked subtilisin Carlsberg crystals in organic solvents

    Unen, van Dirk-Jan; Sakodinskaya, Inna K.; Engbersen, Johan F.J.; Reinhoudt, David N.


    The activity of cross-linked subtilisin Carlsberg crystals in the catalysis of peptide bond formation can be significantly enhanced by pretreatment of the enzyme crystals with crown ethers. Soaking of the enzyme crystals in a solution of crown ether in acetonitrile followed by evaporation of the sol


    Diphenyl methyl (DPM) ethers constitute important structural portion of some pharmaceutical entities and also as protective group for hydroxyl groups in synthetic chemistry. DPM ethers are normally prepared using concentrated acids or base as catalysts, which may result in the fo...

  15. 40 CFR 721.7000 - Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl... New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7000 Polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and... substance identified generically as a polymer of disodium maleate, allyl ether, and ethylene oxide (P-91...

  16. Glyceryl ether monooxygenase resembles aromatic amino acid hydroxylases in metal ion and tetrahydrobiopterin dependence.

    Watschinger, Katrin; Keller, Markus A; Hermetter, Albin; Golderer, Georg; Werner-Felmayer, Gabriele; Werner, Ernst R


    Glyceryl ether monooxygenase is a tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent membrane-bound enzyme which catalyses the cleavage of lipid ethers into glycerol and the corresponding aldehyde. Despite many different characterisation and purification attempts, so far no gene and primary sequence have been assigned to this enzyme. The seven other tetrahydrobiopterin-dependent enzymes can be divided in the family of aromatic amino acid hydroxylases - comprising phenylalanine hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and the two tryptophan hydroxylases - and into the three nitric oxide synthases. We tested the influences of different metal ions and metal ion chelators on glyceryl ether monooxygenase, phenylalanine hydroxylase and nitric oxide synthase activity to elucidate the relationship of glyceryl ether monooxygenase to these two families. 1,10-Phenanthroline, an inhibitor of non-heme iron-dependent enzymes, was able to potently block glyceryl ether monooxygenase as well as phenylalanine hydroxylase, but had no effect on inducible nitric oxide synthase. Two tetrahydrobiopterin analogues, N(5)-methyltetrahydrobiopterin and 4-aminotetrahydrobiopterin, had a similar impact on glyceryl ether monooxygenase activity, as has already been shown for phenylalanine hydroxylase. These observations point to a close analogy of the role of tetrahydrobiopterin in glyceryl ether monooxygenase and in aromatic amino acid hydroxylases and suggest that glyceryl ether monooxygenase may require a non-heme iron for catalysis.

  17. Synthesis of imide/arylene ether copolymers for adhesives and composite matrices

    Jensen, B. J.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Bass, R. G.


    A series of imide/arylene ether copolymers were prepared from the reaction of an amorphous arylene ether oligomer and a semi-crystalline imide oligomer. These copolymers were thermally characterized and mechanical properties were measured. One block copolymer was endcapped and the molecular weight was controlled to provide a material that displayed good compression moldability and attractive adhesion and composite properties.

  18. 46 CFR 151.50-40 - Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and ethyl ether.


    ... bisulfide) and ethyl ether. 151.50-40 Section 151.50-40 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND... disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and § 151.50-42 for ethyl ether shall also be observed. ... Special Requirements § 151.50-40 Additional requirements for carbon disulfide (carbon bisulfide) and...

  19. 40 CFR 721.6181 - Fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether...


    ... substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and...-phenol polymer glycidyl ether, substituted proplyamine and polyethylenepolyamines (generic). (a) Chemical... as fatty acid, reaction product with substituted oxirane, formaldehyde-phenol polymer glycidyl...

  20. 伺服驱动器EtherCAT接口设计%Design of Servo Driver Communication Interface Based on EtherCAT Protocol

    李文虎; 李叶松; 王江城


    To apply the industrial ethernet technology in motion control filed, the EtherCAT protocol was generally introduced,mainly described the design procedures of realizing the EtherCAT communication interface on servo driver. It emphasized on the methods of combining the CANopen protocol with EtherCAT protocol and the design of application layer software of servo motion control, the basic frame,flow and points were given to build the software. Finally,practical operation results of this network-based servo drive system were given to verify the validity. The results show that EtherCAT can satisfy the strict requirements of motion control.%为将工业以太网技术应用于运动控制领域,简单介绍了EtherCAT协议,描述了实现伺服驱动器EtherCAT协议通讯接口的设计过程.重点分析了将CANopen相关行规映射到EtherCAT协议的基本方法和针对伺服运动控制的应用层软件设计,给出了软件实现的基本框架、流程和要点.最后给出了网络化伺服驱动系统的实际控制结果,运行结果表明EtherCAT能够很好地满足运动控制领域的高要求.

  1. Poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation


    Poly(aryl-ether-ether-ketone) as a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio...Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation Janet Ho and Marco Olguin Sensors...a Possible Metalized Film Capacitor Dielectric: Accurate Description of the Band Gap Through Ab Initio Calculation 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT

  2. Metabolism of methyl tert-butyl ether and other gasoline ethers in mouse liver microsomes lacking cytochrome P450 2E1.

    Hong, J Y; Wang, Y Y; Bondoc, F Y; Yang, C S; Gonzalez, F J; Pan, Z; Cokonis, C D; Hu, W Y; Bao, Z


    To reduce the production of pollutants in motor vehicle exhaust, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and other ethers such as ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are added to gasoline as oxygenates for more complete combustion. Metabolism of these gasoline ethers is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 (P450) enzymes. P450 2E1, which metabolizes diethyl ether, was suggested to be an enzyme involved. The present study used 2E1 knock-out mice (2E1-/-) to assess the contribution of 2E1 to the metabolism of MTBE, ETBE and TAME. Liver microsomes prepared from the 2E1 knock-out mice lacked 2E1 activity (assayed as N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylation), but were still active in metabolizing all three gasoline ethers. The levels of ether-metabolizing activity (nmol/min per mg) in the liver microsomes from 7 week old female 2E1 knock-out mice were 0.54+/-0.17 for MTBE, 0.51+/-0.24 for ETBE and 1.14+/-0.25 for TAME at a 1 mM substrate concentration. These activity levels were not significantly different from those of the sex- and age-matched C57BL/6N and 129/Sv mice, which are the parental lineage strains of the 2E1 knock-out mice and are both 2E1+/+. Our results clearly demonstrate that 2E1 plays a negligible role in the metabolism of MTBE, ETBE and TAME in mouse livers.

  3. Oil recovery with sulfomethylated poly (lower alkyl vinyl ether/maleic anhydride)

    Norton, C.J.; Falk, D.O.


    Lower alkyl vinyl ether e.g., methyl vinyl ether, propyl vinyl ether, isopropyl vinyl ether, hexyl vinyl ether, is copolymerized conventionally with maleic anhydride, the resulting copolymer is treated with ammonia or ammonium hydroxide to form the partial amide-ammonium salt, and this salt is in turn treated with formaldehyde and thereafter or simultaneously with ammonium or alkali metal salt sulfite (including bisulfites, etc.) to form an at least partially sulfomethylated copolymer. Aqueous solutions of the sulfomethylated copolymer are useful in increasing the viscosity of drive fluids used in the supplemented recovery of petroleum from subterranean formations. In general, enhancing the polyionic character of mobility control agents used in supplemented recovery of petroleum provides enhanced recovery. Achieving this enhancement of polyionic character through use of sulfonate groups provides a mobility control agent with good ability to sustain viscosity in the presence of brine and lime, usually present in the connate waters of petroleum-bearing formations. (7 claims)

  4. Sorbents based on crown ethers: preparation and application for the sorption of strontium

    Bezhin, N. A.; Dovhyi, I. I.


    The key approaches to the synthesis of crown ether-based sorbents, including immobilization both with and without covalent bonding, are reviewed. Examples of sorbent preparation using anodic oxidation, chemical modification of polymers, polycondensation reactions, chemical modification of inorganic supports and radiochemical synthesis for covalent bonding of crown ether moieties are considered. Immobilization methods without covalent bonding including support synthesis in the presence of crown ethers, impregnation of supports with a crown ether solution and the use of powdered crown ether as a sorbent are presented. The applications of sorbents for selective removal of strontium from solutions of radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel, for radiochemical analysis (determination of strontium in water, soil and biological materials) and for separation of strontium and yttrium isotopes are discussed. The bibliography includes 114 references.

  5. Rational Design of Cesium-Selective Ionophores and Chemosensors: Dihydrocalix[4]arene Crown-6 Ethers

    Sachleben, Richard A.; Bryan, Jeffrey C.; Brown, Gilbert M.; Engle, Nancy L.; Haverlock, Tamara J.; Hay, Benjamin P.; Urvoas, Agathe; Moyer, Bruce A.


    Molecular mechanics calculations performed on calix[4]arene crown-6 ethers predict that the 1,3-dihydro derivatives will exhibit greater complementarity for potassium and cesium ions than the parent 1,3-dialkoxy calix crowns. The X-ray crystal structures of 1,3-alt bis-octyloxycalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether, and the cesium nitrate complex of dihydrocalix[4]arene benzocrown-6 ether were determined. The cesium complex structure corresponds closely to the structure predicted by molecular mechanics. The dihydrocalix[4]arene crown-6 ethers exhibit enhanced cesium selectivity in the extraction of alkali metal salts and provide a platform for a highly sensitive and selective cesium chemosensor.

  6. Identification of oxygenated ions in premixed flames of dimethyl ether and oxygen

    Frøsig Østergaard, L.; Egsgaard, H.; Hammerum, S.


    dimethyl ether, (CH3)(2)OH+. The flame-ion m/z 61 is a mixture of the trimethyloxonium ion, (CH3)(3)O+ and lesser amounts of protonated methyl formate and/or protonated ethyl methyl ether. The viability of an ionic mechanism to soot formation for dimethyl ether-oxygen flames is discussed on the background......The structure of characteristic flame-ions in premixed flames of dimethyl ether and oxygen was studied by ion-molecule reactions with ammonia and collision activation with argon. The results obtained show that the flame-ions m/z 45 and m/z 47 are the methoxymethyl cation, CH3OCH2+, and protonated...... of ions present in the dimethyl ether flames and the reactivity of the ions....

  7. Design and Implementation of EtherCAT Master Based on ARM + FPGA%基于ARM+FPGA的EtherCAT主站设计及实现

    徐健; 唐小琦; 宋宝



  8. An Implementation of Open CNC Based on EtherCAT Network%一种基于EtherCAT网络的开放式CNC实现

    李欣; 张彩虹; 梁艺


    文章分析了EtherCAT工业以太网的特点、性能及主从站通信原理。在开放式CNC主站内核中嵌入帧处理函数,从而将EtherCAT与CNC联系起来,实现一种基于EtherCAT协议的开放式网络化CNC系统,为进一步提高CNC系统的开放性和可靠性,降低系统对硬件的依赖性和整机成本开辟了新的思路。%The features, functions and working principles of Ether CAT Network are analyzed. By inserting frame-processing function into the open CNC, EtherCAT is connected with CNC,an open network CNC system based on EtherCAT protocol was implemented. This work opened a new way for further enhancing the openness and reliability of the CNC system, reducing the reliance on hardware and saving the cost of CNC system.

  9. A method of communication between EPICS IOC and EtherCAT devices%EPICS IOC与EtherCAT设备通信的一种方法

    何泳成; 王春红; 吴煊


    EtherCAT (Ethemet Control Automation Technology)是一种用于工业自动化的实时以太网现场总线协议.通过使用OPC (Object Linking and Embedding for Process Control) Gateway驱动程序实现了EPICS(Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System) IOC (Input/Output Controller)与EtherCAT设备的通信,从而使EtherCAT成为加速器控制系统中对实时性要求很高的高速控制系统的一种解决方案.在简要介绍EPICS、EtherCAT、OPC及OPC Gateway的基础上,对使用OPC Gateway驱动程序实现EPICS IOC与EtherCAT设备通信进行了测试.结果表明,EPICS IOC可通过OPC Gateway驱动程序与EtherCAT设备正常通信.

  10. 3'-O-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)ADP ether and ATP ether. Affinity reagents for labeling ATPases.

    Chuan, H; Wang, J H


    The affinity reagents 3'-O-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)ADP ether (FDNP-ADP) and 3'-O-(5-fluoro-2,4-dinitrophenyl)ATP ether (FDNP-ATP) were synthesized and characterized. FDNP[14C]ADP was found to label the active site of mitochondrial F1-ATPase slowly at room temperature but with high specificity. F1 was effectively protected from the labeling reagent by ATP or ADP. An average number of 1.3 covalent label per F1 is sufficient for 100% inhibition of the ATPase. About 73% of the radioactive label was found covalently attached to beta subunits, 9% on alpha, practically none on gamma, delta, and epsilon. Cleavage of the labeled enzyme by pepsin and sequencing of the major radioactive peptide showed that the labeled amino acid residue in beta subunit was Lys beta 162. These results show that Lys beta 162 is indeed at the active site of F1 as assumed in the recently proposed models (Fry, D. C., Kuby, S. A., and Mildvan, A. S. (1986) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 83, 907-911; Duncan, I. M., Parsonage, D., and Senior, A. E. (1986) FEBS Lett. 208, 1-6).

  11. Surface modification of poly(ether ether ketone) with methacryloyl-functionalized phospholipid polymers via self-initiation graft polymerization.

    Kawasaki, Yoshihiro; Iwasaki, Yasuhiko


    To improve blood compatibility of poly(ether ether ketone) (PEEK), surface modification with methacryloyl-functionalized phospholipid polymers was performed through self-initiation graft polymerization. The copolymers (PMA) of 2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine (MPC) and 2-aminoethyl methacrylate hydrochloride were synthesized by conventional free radical polymerization. The PMA was then immobilized with pentafluorophenyl methacrylate to obtain methacryloyl-functionalized MPC polymers (PMAMA). The degree of substitution of the methacryloyl group into the copolymer was nearly completed. The PMAMA was dissolved in 1-butanol and the solution was dropped on PEEK. UV light (350±50 nm) was subsequently irradiated on PEEK for various periods. Elemental analysis of the PEEK surface was performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and phosphorus and nitrogen signals due to the MPC units on PEEK were observed. The surface wettability of PEEK was also improved by immobilization of PMAMA. Plasma protein adsorption was effectively reduced on the PMAMA-immobilized surface regardless of the type of protein. Furthermore, PMAMA immobilization was also useful in reducing platelet adhesion on PEEK. In conclusion, methacryloyl-functionalized MPC polymers could be immobilized on PEEK by simple photo-irradiation, resulting in significant improvement in blood compatibility.

  12. Highly stable ionic-covalent cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Lei, Linfeng; Zhu, Xingye; Xu, Jianfeng; Qian, Huidong; Zou, Zhiqing; Yang, Hui


    A novel ionic cross-linked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) containing equal content of sulfonic acid and pendant tertiary amine groups (TA-SPEEK) has been initially synthesized for the application in direct methanol fuel cells (DMFCs). By adjusting the ratio of p-xylene dibromide to tertiary amine groups of TA-SPEEK, a series of ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes (C-SPEEK-x) with tunable degree of cross-linking are prepared. Compared with the pristine membrane, the ionic and ionic-covalent cross-linked proton exchange membranes (PEMs) exhibit reduced methanol permeability and improved mechanical properties, dimensional and oxidative stability. The proton conductivity and methanol selectivity of protonated TA-SPEEK and C-SPEEK-x at 25 °C is up to 0.109 S cm-1 and 3.88 × 105 S s cm-3, respectively, which are higher than that of Nafion 115. The DMFC incorporating C-SPEEK-25 exhibits a maximum power density as high as 35.3 mW cm-2 with 4 M MeOH at 25 °C (31.8 mW cm-2 for Nafion 115). Due to the highly oxidative stability of the membrane, no obvious performance degradation of the DMFC is observed after more than 400 h operation, indicating such cost-effective ionic-covalent cross-linked membranes have substantial potential as alternative PEMs for DMFC applications.

  13. Effect of surface finishing on friction and wear of Poly-Ether-Ether-Ketone (PEEK under oil lubrication

    Thiago Fontoura de Andrade

    Full Text Available Abstract The tribological properties of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK containing 30% of carbon fiber were studied in an oil-lubricated environment and different surface finishing of the metallic counterbody. Four different finishing processes, commonly used in the automotive industry, were chosen for this study: turning, grinding, honing and polishing. The test system used was tri-pin on disc with pins made of PEEK and counterbody made of steel; they were fully immersed in ATF Dexron VI oil. Some test parameters were held constant, such as the apparent pressure of 2 MPa, linear velocity of 2 m/s, oil temperature at 85 °C, and the time - 120 minutes. The lubrication regime for the apparent pressure of 1 MPa to 7 MPa range was also studied at different sliding speeds. A direct correlation was found between the wear rate, friction coefficient and the lubrication regime, wherein wear under hydrodynamic lubrication was, on average, approximately 5 times lower, and the friction coefficient 3 times lower than under boundary lubrication.

  14. Electrochemical investigation of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/clay nanocomposite membranes for moderate temperature fuel cell applications

    Hasani-Sadrabadi, Mohammad Mahdi [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Dashtimoghadam, Erfan; Sarikhani, Kaveh [Polymer Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Majedi, Fatemeh S. [Biomedical Engineering Department, Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran); Khanbabaei, Ghader [Polymer Science and Technology Division, Research Institute of Petroleum Industry, Tehran (Iran)


    In the present study, polyelectrolyte membranes based on partially sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with various degrees of sulfonation are prepared. The optimum degree of sulfonation is determined according to the transport properties and hydrolytic stability of the membranes. Subsequently, various amounts of the organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) are introduced into the sPEEK matrices via the solution intercalation technique. The proton conductivity and methanol permeability measurements of the fabricated composite membranes reveal a high proton to methanol selectivity, even at elevated temperatures. Membrane based on sPEEK and 1 wt% of MMT, as the optimum nanoclay composition, exhibits a high selectivity and power density at the concentrated methanol feed. Moreover, it is found that the optimum nanocomposite membrane not only provides higher performance compared to the neat sPEEK and Nafion {sup registered} 117 membranes, but also exhibits a high open circuit voltage (OCV) at the elevated methanol concentration. Owing to the high proton conductivity, reduced methanol permeability, high power density, convenient processability and low cost, sPEEK/MMT nanocomposite membranes could be considered as the alternative membranes for moderate temperature direct methanol fuel cell applications. (author)

  15. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/mesoporous silica hybrid membrane for high performance vanadium redox flow battery

    Li, Zhaohua; Dai, Wenjing; Yu, Lihong; Xi, Jingyu; Qiu, Xinping; Chen, Liquan


    Hybrid membranes of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) and mesoporous silica SBA-15 are prepared with various mass ratios for vanadium redox flow battery (VRB) application and investigated in detail. The hybrid membranes are dense and homogeneous with no visible hole as the SEM and EDX images shown. With the increasing of SBA-15 mass ratio, the physicochemical property, VO2+ permeability, mechanical property and thermal stability of hybrid membranes exhibit good trends, which can be attributed to the interaction between SPEEK and SBA-15. The hybrid membrane with 20 wt.% SBA-15 (termed as S/SBA-15 20) shows the VRB single cell performance of CE 96.3% and EE 88.1% at 60 mA cm-2 due to its good balance of proton conductivity and VO2+ permeability, while Nafion 117 membrane shows the cell performance of CE 92.2% and EE 81.0%. Besides, the S/SBA-15 20 membrane shows stable cell performance of highly stable efficiency and slower discharge capacity decline during 120 cycles at 60 mA cm-2. Therefore, the SPEEK/SBA-15 hybrid membranes with optimized mass ratio and excellent VRB performance can be achieved, exhibiting good potential usage in VRB systems.

  16. Low-Temperature Oxidation of Dimethyl Ether to Polyoxymethylene Dimethyl Ethers over CNT-Supported Rhenium Catalyst

    Qingde Zhang


    Full Text Available Due to its excellent conductivity, good thermal stability and large specific surface area, carbon nano-tubes (CNTs were selected as support to prepare a Re-based catalyst for dimethyl ether (DME direct oxidation to polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (DMMx. The catalyst performance was tested in a continuous flow type fixed-bed reactor. H3PW12O40 (PW12 was used to modify Re/CNTs to improve its activity and selectivity. The effects of PW12 content, reaction temperature, gas hourly space velocity (GHSV and reaction time on DME oxidation to DMMx were investigated. The results showed that modification of CNT-supported Re with 30% PW12 significantly increased the selectivity of DMM and DMM2 up to 59.0% from 6.6% with a DME conversion of 8.9%; besides that, there was no COx production observed in the reaction under the optimum conditions of 513 K and 1800 h−1. The techniques of XRD, BET, NH3-TPD, H2-TPR, XPS, TEM and SEM were used to characterize the structure, surface properties and morphology of the catalysts. The optimum amount of weak acid sites and redox sites promotes the synthesis of DMM and DMM2 from DME direct oxidation.

  17. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers Alter Hepatic Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxykinase Enzyme Kinetics in Male Wistar Rats: Implications for Lipid and Glucose Metabolism

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE) are a family of lipophilic brominated flame-retardants consisting of 209 possible congeners. Three PBDE commercially-produced mixtures are decabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. deca-BDE or DE-83R); octabrominated diphenyl ether (e.g. octa-BDE o...

  18. Computational Approach to Diarylprolinol-Silyl Ethers in Aminocatalysis.

    Halskov, Kim Søholm; Donslund, Bjarke S; Paz, Bruno Matos; Jørgensen, Karl Anker


    Asymmetric organocatalysis has witnessed a remarkable development since its "re-birth" in the beginning of the millenium. In this rapidly growing field, computational investigations have proven to be an important contribution for the elucidation of mechanisms and rationalizations of the stereochemical outcomes of many of the reaction concepts developed. The improved understanding of mechanistic details has facilitated the further advancement of the field. The diarylprolinol-silyl ethers have since their introduction been one of the most applied catalysts in asymmetric aminocatalysis due to their robustness and generality. Although aminocatalytic methods at first glance appear to follow relatively simple mechanistic principles, more comprehensive computational studies have shown that this notion in some cases is deceiving and that more complex pathways might be operating. In this Account, the application of density functional theory (DFT) and other computational methods on systems catalyzed by the diarylprolinol-silyl ethers is described. It will be illustrated how computational investigations have shed light on the structure and reactivity of important intermediates in aminocatalysis, such as enamines and iminium ions formed from aldehydes and α,β-unsaturated aldehydes, respectively. Enamine and iminium ion catalysis can be classified as HOMO-raising and LUMO-lowering activation modes. In these systems, the exclusive reactivity through one of the possible intermediates is often a requisite for achieving high stereoselectivity; therefore, the appreciation of subtle energy differences has been vital for the efficient development of new stereoselective reactions. The diarylprolinol-silyl ethers have also allowed for novel activation modes for unsaturated aldehydes, which have opened up avenues for the development of new remote functionalization reactions of poly-unsaturated carbonyl compounds via di-, tri-, and tetraenamine intermediates and vinylogous iminium ions

  19. Single-walled carbon nanotubes as an effective adsorbent in solid-phase microextraction of low level methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether and methyl tert-amyl ether from human urine.

    Rastkari, Noushin; Ahmadkhaniha, Reza; Yunesian, Masud


    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a kind of new carbon-based nano-materials which have drawn great attention in many application fields. The potential single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) as solid-phase microextraction (SPME) adsorbents for the preconcentration of environmental pollutants have been investigated in recent years. The goal of this work was to investigate the feasibility of SWCNTs used as adsorbents for solid-phase microextraction of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) in human urine. SWCNTs were attached onto a stainless steel wire through organic binder. Potential factors affecting the extraction efficiency were optimized, including extraction time, extraction temperature, desorption time, desorption temperature, and salinity. The developed method showed good performance according to the ICH performance criteria for bioanalytical methods. The calibration curves of the ethers were linear (r(2)>or=0.992) in the range from 10 to 5000 ng L(-1). The limits of detection at a signal-to-noise (S/N) ratio of 3 were 10 ng L(-1) for all the analytes. In addition, compared with the commercial carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) fiber, the SWCNT fiber showed better thermal stability (over 350 degrees C) and longer life span (over 150 times). The developed method was applied successfully to determine trace level of the ethers in urine of 10 healthy male volunteers.

  20. Bis[N,N′-bis­(2,6-diisopropyl­phen­yl)ethane-1,2-diimine]-1κ2 N,N′;2κ2 N,N′-tri-μ-trichlorido-1:2κ6 Cl:Cl-chlorido-1κCl-tetra­hydro­furan-2κO-dichromium(II) dichloro­methane 4.5-solvate

    Peitz, Stephan; Peulecke, Normen; Müller, Bernd H.; Spannenberg, Anke; Rosenthal, Uwe


    In the mol­ecular structure of the title compound, [Cr2Cl4(C26H36N2)2(C4H8O)]·4.5CH2Cl2, the two CrII centers are bridged by three Cl atoms, forming a dinuclear complex. Each CrII center is coordinated by one chelating bis­(2,6-diisopropyl­phen­yl)ethane-1,2-diimine ligand via both N atoms. An additional chloride ion binds to one chromium center, whereas an additional tetra­hydro­furan mol­ecule coordinates to the second CrII center. The coordination geometry at each CrII center can be best described as distorted octa­hedral. PMID:21578607

  1. Hydrogen Production with Steam Reforming of Dimethyl Ether

    Kaoru TAKEISHI; Akane ARASE


    @@ 1Introduction Steam reforming of methanol and gasoline is actively researched and developed as hydrogen supply methods for the fuel cells of vehicles and so on. However, these materials have the problems such as the infrastructure, toxicity, difficulty of the reforming, and so forth. Dimethyl ether (DME) does not contain the poisonous substances, and is expected as a clean fuel of the next generation. DME is able to take the place of light oil and LPG, and its physical properties are similar to those of LPG. There is possibility that DME infrastructures will be settled more rapidly than those of hydrogen and methanol, because LPG infrastructures existing are able to use for DME. Then, we have been studying on steam reforming of DME for the hydrogen production.

  2. Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition Combustion of Dimethyl Ether

    Pedersen, Troels Dyhr

    This thesis is based on experimental and numerical studies on the use of dimethyl ether (DME) in the homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion process. The first paper in this thesis was published in 2007 and describes HCCI combustion of pure DME in a small diesel engine. The tests...... a substantial combustion delay in HCCI operation with DME to achieve post TDC combustion. By adding methanol to the inlet port during HCCI combustion of DME, the engine reached 50 percent of its full DI CI load capability without engine knock at 1000 rpm and somewhat less at 1800 rpm. The engine also had EGR...... were designed to investigate the effect of engine speed, compression ratio and equivalence ratio on the combustion timing and the engine performance. It was found that the required compression ratio depended on the equivalence ratio used. A lower equivalence ratio requires a higher compression ratio...

  3. Study of expoxy resins modified by soluble poly (ether ether ketone) and poly (ether ether ketone)%可溶性聚醚醚酮改性环氧树脂的研究

    孙攀; 史翎; 张军营


    A series of epoxy resins modified soluble poly ( ether ether ketone) (s-PEEK) have been prepared by a hot-melt method. The resulting modified epoxy resins were compared with epoxy resins modified with poly ( ether ether ketone) (PEEK). The effect of the type of PEEK and its content on the gelation time, impact strength, flexural properties and fracture morphology of the resulting materials were studied and the glass transition temperatures (Tg) and thermal stabilities of the modified materials were compared. The experimental results showed that the impact properties, flexural properties, Tg and thermal stability were all improved by addition of both types of PEEK. The impact strength of the cured materials (with a mass ratio of epoxy resin to s-PEEK or PEEK of 100: 5) were 42.6 and 46.6 kJ/m2 , respectively, representing increases in the values for the pure epoxy resin of 69.1% and 85.6%, respectively. When the mass ratio of epoxy resin to s-PEEK was 100: 25, the value of Tg was about 179.1 ℃. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the s-PEEK-toughened epoxy resins were homogeneous systems, while the PEEK toughened epoxy resins were granule-enforced systems.%采用热熔法制备了一系列可溶性聚醚醚酮(s-PEEK)改性环氧树脂(EP),并与普通聚醚醚酮(PEEK)改性环氧体系进行比较,探讨了聚醚醚酮类型、用量对改性树脂固化体系的凝胶时间、冲击强度、弯曲性能和断裂形貌的影响,并对含s-PEEK树脂体系的玻璃化转变温度(Tg)和热稳定性进行了分析.结果表明,s-PEEK和PEEK可在提高环氧体系冲击性能的同时,提高材料的弯曲性能、玻璃化温度和热稳定性;当m(s-PEEK):m(E-51)和m(PEEK):m(E-51)均为5:100时,冲击强度达到42.6和46.6 kJ/m2,分别比未改性的环氧体系提高69.1%和85.6%;m(s-PEEK):m(E-51)=25:100时,Tg=179.1℃,比未改性环氧树脂提高20℃左右;且含s-PEEK的体系是均相体系,含s-PEEK的固化物是颗粒增强体系.

  4. Ether lipids from thermophilic archaea; Konetsusei kosaikin no eteru shishitsu

    Sugai, A. [Kitazato Univ., Kanagawa (Japan). Center of Liberal Arts and Sciences


    The lipids of the archaebacteria grown at ambient temperature are fundamentally archaeol in which sn-2 and sn-3 of glycerol are ether linked with C20 phytanol, while the lipids of the archaebacteria grown at high temperature are mainly caldarchaeol of a tetraether type with a structure in which two molecules of confronted diether lipid are linked by condensation of each hydrocarbon terminal or calditocaldarchaeol incorporating calditol instead of one of two glycerol moieties. The thermophilic archaea is classified into two types, i.e., those grown in a strongly acidic condition and others living around neutral condition. The former consists of tetraether type lipids without exception. Main lipids of the archaea belonging to family Sulfolobaceae are calditocaldarchaeol. This characteristic structure probably contribute to the acid resistance and thermal resistance of these archaea. The present status of the studies on the lipids from thermophilic archaea grown around neutral condition under high pressure are also outlined. 39 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Calorimetric study of binding of some disaccharides with crown ethers

    Davydova, Olga I.; Lebedeva, Nataliya Sh.; Parfenyuk, Elena V


    Isothermal titration calorimetry has been applied to the determination of the thermodynamic parameters of binding of {beta}-lactose, {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose and sucrose with 15-crown-5 and 18-crown-6 in water at 298.15 K. The formation of 1:1 molecular associates has been found for the systems studied except 18-crown-6 and {beta}-lactose. The associates are preferentially or completely entropy stabilized. The most stable associate is formed between {alpha},{alpha}-trehalose and 18-crown-6. The obtained values of thermodynamic parameters of binding are discussed from the point of view of solute-solvent interactions as well as conformational and structural peculiarities of the disaccharides (DS) and crown ethers (CE)

  6. Fibril Formation and Phase Separation in Aqueous Cellulose Ethers

    Maxwell, Amanda; Schmidt, Peter; McAllister, John; Lott, Joseph; Bates, Frank; Lodge, Timothy

    Aqueous solutions of many cellulose ethers are known to undergo thermoreversible gelation and phase separation upon heating to form turbid hydrogels, but the mechanism and resulting structures have not been well understood. Turbidity, light scattering and small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) are used to show that hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) chains are dissolved in water below 50 °C and undergo phase separation at higher temperatures. At 70 °C, at sufficiently high concentrations in water, HPMC orders into fibrillar structures with a well-defined radius of 18 +/- 2 nm, as characterized by cryogenic transmission electron microscopy and SANS. The HPMC fibril structure is independent of concentration and heating rate. However, HPMC fibrils do not form a percolating network as readily as is seen in methylcellulose, resulting in a lower hot-gel modulus, as demonstrated by rheology.

  7. New controllable premixed combustion for dimethyl ether engine


    A new concept of the controllable premixed combustion (CPC) system was proposed for dimethyl ether (DME) to explore a new approach to achieving ultra-low NOX emissions with the zero level of particulate matter exhaust emissions. The DME fuel was injected into the premix chamber by means of the electronically controlled low pressure injection system, then the mixture formation and combustion process were controlled with a control-valve set between the main chamber and the premix chamber. The test bench was constructed based on a single diesel engine. Preliminary studies demonstrated that ultra-low NOX emissions had been realized with zero particulate matter emissions under the optimum specifications of the DME engine, NOX emissions were less than 65 × 10-6. According to the engine combustion analysis, it was found that the control-valve played an important role in the pre-mixture formation and ignition timing.

  8. Time resolve study on isopropyl-ether porphyrindiol

    ZHANG; Lianwen; (张连文); YAO; Side; (姚思德); LIN; Weizhen; (林维真); CHEN; Zhilong; (陈志龙)


    A novel fat-soluble porphyrin derivative--isopropyl-ether porphyrindiol (IPEP) has been investigated using the nanosecond laser photolysis and pulse radiolysis. In acetonitrile, IPEP-excited triplet state shows two relative absorption areas peaking at 320 and 430 nm, molar extinction coefficients by energytransfer method (in benzene solution) are proved to be ε(315) = 1.07×105, ε(450) = 3.3×104 L3@mol-1@cm-1 and the excited triplet state quantum yield by comparative method is 0.18. Laser photolysis of IPEP in dGMP-containing solutionshows that the triplet state cannot excite/oxidize dGMP via the energy/electrontransfer process.

  9. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in Mississippi River suspended sediment

    Raff, J.; Hites, R. [Indiana Univ., Bloomington, IN (United States)


    The Mississippi River Basin drains water from 41% of the conterminous U.S. and is a valuable resource that supplies food, transportation, and irrigation to more than 95 million people of the region. Discharge and runoff from industry, agriculture, and population centers have increased the loads of anthropogenic organic compounds in the river. There has been growing concern over the rising levels of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in air, sediment, biota, and humans, but there have been no studies to measure the concentrations of these chemicals in North America's largest river system. The goal of this study was to investigate the occurrence of PBDEs (15 congeners including BDE-209) and to identify possible sources within the Mississippi River Basin. We found PBDEs to be widespread throughout the region, rivaling PCBs in their extent and magnitude of contamination. We have also calculated the total amount of PBDEs released to the Gulf of Mexico in 2002.

  10. Tiny pollutant emissions of a dimethyl ether fuelled engine

    LANG Jing; ZHANG Yu-sheng; ZHOU Xiao-song; WU Hong-wei


    Emissions of dimethyl ether (DME) fuelled engines were investigated by orthogonal experiments on a ZS195 diesel engine. The study mainly focused on the tiny pollutant emissions of formaldehyde (CH2O), methyl formate (CH3OCHO) and formic acid (HCOOH). The presence of CH2O, CH3OCHO and HCOOH are proved in the exhaust by gas chromatograph and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The analysis of variance results indicate that the fuel delivery advance angle is the most important factor for CH2O emission. The fuel delivery advance angle and the interaction of injection pressure and nozzle diameter are considerable factors for unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emission. The mechanism forming tiny pollutants, primarily through CH2O formation, is suggested to be similar to the mechanism forming UHC by DME partial oxidation existing in crevices and boundary zones, and is verified via DME combustion simulation of a multizone chemical kinetic model.

  11. Servo Making Wave Control System Based on EtherCAT%基于EtherCAT网络的伺服造波控制系统

    聂俊杰; 徐东亮; 王龙飞; 陈宗雨


    介绍了TwinCAT和EtherCAT的基本特性。阐述了构建EtherCAT网络伺服造波控制系统的硬件结构和软件流程。该系统采用安装德国 Beckhoff公司的TwinCAT软件的工控机作为主站、基于伦茨EtherCAT的数字伺服驱动器I700作从站、菲仕同步交流伺服电机U725.20.3作执行机构。对EtherCAT 的主从站进行了一系列的配置,编写 TwinCAT PLC 程序,结合驱动器的 PID 算法,实现了造波板的高精度同步。%Introduces the basic characteristics of TwinCAT and EtherCAT. And describes the hardware structure and software of the system. Using Beckoff company's TwinCAT software as soft master device, Lenze EtherCAT-based digital servo drive I700 as slave device, Phase synchronous AC servo motor U725. 20. 3 as actuator, formed the system. The EtherCAT master and slave station conducted a series of configu-ration, and write TwinCAT PLC program, and combined with PID algorithm of the drive, the wave-maker boards have a high-precision synchronization.

  12. Liquid/air partition coefficients of methyl and ethyl T-butyl ethers, T-amyl methyl ether, and T-butyl alcohol.

    Nihlen, A; Lof, A; Johanson, G


    Partition coefficients are essential to a description of the uptake and distribution of volatile substances in humans and in the development of physiologically based pharmacokinetic models. Liquid/air partition coefficients (lambda) of three ethers, methyl t-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl t-butyl ether (ETBE), and t-amyl methyl ether (TAME) were determined in vitro by head space-gas chromatography. These ethers, and especially MTBE, are used in unleaded gasoline to enhance the oxygen and octane content, and to reduce the output of carbon monoxide during combustion. Partition coefficients of t-butyl alcohol (TBA), a metabolite of MTBE, were determined also. The liquids tested were fresh human blood, water (physiological saline), and olive oil. The (lambda)blood/air values were: 17.7 (95% confidence interval 17.0-18.4) for MTBE; 11.7 (11.3-12.1) for ETBE; and 17.9 (17.3-18.5) for TAME. Corresponding (lambda)water/air values were 15.2 (14.9-15.5), 8.39 (8.19-8.59), and 11.9 (11.7-12.1). The ethers have a higher affinity for oil, the values for (lambda)oil/air being 120 (114-125), 190 (183-197), and 337 (320-354), respectively. As expected, the (lambda)blood/air and (lambda)water/air for TBA were much higher than for the ethers, 462 (440-484) and 603 (590-617), respectively. The (lambda)oil/air was 168 (161-174) for TBA. The interindividual variability of the (lambda)blood/air (10 subjects) was calculated as the coefficient of variation, and estimated as: 14% for MTBE, 20% for ETBE, 20% for TAME, and 30% for TBA. No significant difference was seen in the (lambda)blood/air between the sexes.

  13. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL(.)

    Tercero, B; Cernicharo, J; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J-C


    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 10(15) cm(-2) and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2)× 10(15) cm(-2) for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion.

  14. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities

    Jingfeng Lou


    Full Text Available Abstract One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75 µg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50 values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27 µg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18 µg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17 µg/mL and 74.62 µg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

  15. Alternariol 9-methyl ether from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 and its bioactivities.

    Lou, Jingfeng; Yu, Ruiting; Wang, Xiaohan; Mao, Ziling; Fu, Linyun; Liu, Yang; Zhou, Ligang


    One bioactive compound, identified as alternariol 9-methyl ether, was isolated from the crude extract of the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 residing in the roots of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Alternariol 9-methyl ether was active against bacteria with minimum inhibitory concentration values ranging from 25 to 75μg/mL and median inhibitory concentration (IC50) values ranging from 16.00 to 38.27μg/mL. The IC50 value of alternariol 9-methyl ether against spore germination of Magnaporthe oryzae was 87.18μg/mL. Alternariol 9-methyl ether also showed antinematodal activity against Bursaphelenchus xylophilus and Caenorhabditis elegans with IC50 values of 98.17μg/mL and 74.62μg/mL, respectively. This work is the first report on alternariol 9-methyl ether and its biological activities from the endophytic fungus Alternaria sp. Samif01 derived from S. miltiorrhiza Bunge. The results indicate the potential of Alternaria sp. Samif01 as a source of alternariol 9-methyl ether and also support that alternariol 9-methyl ether is a natural compound with high potential bioactivity against microorganisms.

  16. Discrimination against diacylglycerol ethers in lipase-catalysed ethanolysis of shark liver oil.

    Fernández, Óscar; Vázquez, Luis; Reglero, Guillermo; Torres, Carlos F


    Lipase-catalysed ethanolysis of squalene-free shark liver oil was investigated. The mentioned shark liver oil was comprised mainly of diacylglycerol ether and triacylglycerols. In order to test discrimination against diacylglycerol ether, up to 10 different lipases were compared. The ratio of oil to ethanol and lipase stability were also evaluated. Surprisingly, lipase from Pseudomonas stutzeri was the fastest biocatalyst among all assayed, although poor discrimination against diacylglycerol ether was observed. The best results in terms of selectivity and stability were obtained with immobilised lipase from Candida antarctica (Novozym 435). Ethanolysis reaction after 24h in the presence of Novozym 435 produced total disappearance of triacylglycerol and a final reaction mixture comprised mainly of diacylglycerol ethers (10.6%), monoacylglycerol ethers (32.9%) and fatty acid ethyl esters (46.0%). In addition, when an excess of ethanol was used, diacylglycerol ethers completely disappeared after 15 h, giving a final product mainly composed of monoacylglycerol ethers (36.6%) and fatty acid ethyl esters (46.4%).

  17. Furfuryl ethyl ether: important aging flavor and a new marker for the storage conditions of beer.

    Vanderhaegen, Bart; Neven, Hedwig; Daenen, Luk; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Verachtert, Hubert; Derdelinckx, Guy


    Recently, it was reported that furfuryl ethyl ether is an important flavor compound indicative of beer storage and aging conditions. A study of the reaction mechanism indicates that furfuryl ethyl ether is most likely formed by protonation of furfuryl alcohol or furfuryl acetate followed by S(N)2-substitution of the leaving group by the nucleophilic ethanol. For the reaction in beer, a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics was derived. A close correlation was found between the values predicted by the kinetic model and the actual furfuryl ethyl ether concentration evolution during storage of beer. Furthermore, 10 commercial beers of different types, aged during 4 years in natural conditions, were analyzed, and it was found that the furfuryl ethyl ether flavor threshold was largely exceeded in each type of beer. In these natural aging conditions, lower pH, darker color, and higher alcohol content were factors that enhanced furfuryl ethyl ether formation. On the other hand, sulfite clearly reduced furfuryl ethyl ether formation. All results show that the furfuryl ethyl ether concentration is an excellent time-temperature integrator for beer storage.

  18. Performance evaluation of the Switched EtherCAT networks with VLAN tagging

    Knežić Mladen


    Full Text Available EtherCAT technology is one of the most popular Real-Time Ethernet (RTE solutions present on the market at this time. Due to its communication efficiency, EtherCAT is particularly suitable for networks with a large number of devices which demand short cycle times. This paper reviews the application aspects and implementation issues of the Switched EtherCAT networks with VLAN tagging, including their limitations, and provides guidelines for engineering staff in selection of the optimal solution when designing a specific automation system.

  19. EtherCAT已来到中国-访ETG执行Rostan先生



  20. 欧姆龙选用EtherCAT作为运动控制总线


    EtherCAT技术协会(ETG)新闻发布会上,欧姆龙集团运动控制分部的总经理Eiji Ikeno先生宣布,欧姆龙决定选用EtherCAT作为其下一代运动控制总线系统。欧姆龙将在ETG日本和亚洲市场扮演更加活跃的会员角色,其用户可平稳无缝过渡到EtherCAT技术的应用上。

  1. 丰田选择EtherCAT作为其工业以太网技术



  2. EtherCAT技术协会盛装亮相SIAF2012



  3. Evaluation of thermal gelation behavior of different cellulose ether polymers by rheology

    Balaghi, S.; Edelby, Y.; Senge, B.


    Hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and Methylcellulose (MC) are cellulose ethers which can be dispersed in water and used as thickeners, emulsifiers, binders, film formers, and water-retention agents due to their hydrophilic and hydrophobic characteristics. In this study, various types of HPMCs, in comparison with two types of MCs were examined. The formed gels of the different cellulose ethers showed specific and various structural formation and network properties. The degree of methylation (Meth.) and hydroxypropylation (HyPr.) affected drastically the heat-induced gelation of the examined cellulose ethers.

  4. EDTA-type Polymer Based on Diazacrown Ether as the Solubilizer of Barium Sulfate to Water

    Bo ZHOU; Jian Zhang LI; Chun Hong HE; Sheng Ying QIN


    The EDTA dianhydride reacted with diazacrown ethers to obtain the water-soluble EDTA-diazacrown ether polymers 1~3. The effects of crown ether ring in the polymer chains including its cavity size on the solubilization of barium sulfate to water were investigated by comparison with the crown ring-free analogue 4. The result shows that the polymer 2 is the efficient solubilizer of BaSO4 and the highest solubilization efficiency of the BaSO4 to water is up to 72.5%.

  5. Kinetic studies on the etherification of C5-alkenes to fuel ether tame

    Pääkkönen, Päivi


    Tertiary ethers are formed in reactions between alcohols and alkenes and are used in reformulated gasoline as octane-enhancing agents. By blending ethers into the gasoline pool, less ground-level ozone is formed and combustion of the gasoline is more efficient as a result of the oxygen boost. The main goal of this research was to study the synthesis of TAME (tert-amyl methyl ether, 2-methoxy-2-methylbutane) and to formulate a kinetic model as precise as possible for process design purpose...

  6. Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone)/zirconium tricarboxybutylphosphonate composite proton-exchange membranes for direct methanol fuel cells

    Qijun GAO; Mianyan HUANG; Yuxin WANG; Yuquan CAI; Li XU


    Sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (SPEEK) is a very promising alternative membrane material for direct methanol fuel cells. However, with a fairly high degree ofsulfonation (DS), SPEEK membranes can swell excessively and even dissolve at high temperature. This restricts mem-branes from working above a high tolerable temperature to get high proton conductivity. To deal with this contra-dictory situation, insolvable zirconium tricarboxybutyl-phosphonate (Zr(PBTC)) powder was employed to make a composite with SPEEK polymer in an attempt to improve temperature tolerance of the membranes. SPEEK/Zr(PBTC) composite membranes were obtained by casting a homogeneous mixture of Zr(PBTC) and SPEEK in N,N-dimethylacetamide on a glass plate and then evaporating the solvent at 60℃. Many characteristics were investigated, including thermal stability, liquid uptake, methanol permeability and proton conductivity. Results showed significant improvement not only in tem-perature tolerance, but also in methanol resistance of the SPEEK/Zr(PBTC) composite membranes. The mem-branes containing 30 wt-%~40 wt-% of Zr(PBTC) had their methanol permeability around 10-7 cm2·S-1 at room temperature to 80℃, which was one order of magnitudelower than that of Nafion 115. High proton conductivity of the composite membranes, however, could also be achieved from higher temperature applied. At 100% rela-tive humidity, above 90℃ the conductivity of the compo-site membrane containing 40 wt-% of Zr(PBTC) exceeded that of the Nafion 115 membrane and even reached a high value of 0.36 S·cm-1 at 160℃. Improved applicable tem-perature and high conductivity of the composite membrane indicated its promising application in DMFC operations at high temperature.

  7. Dihydrogenimidazole modified silica-sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) hybrid materials as electrolyte membranes for direct ethanol fuel cells

    Roelofs, Kimball S.; Hirth, Thomas [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany); Schiestel, Thomas, E-mail: [Fraunhofer Institute for Interfacial Engineering and Biotechnology, Nobelstr. 12, 70569 Stuttgart (Germany)


    The present study reports on dihydrogenimidazole modified inorganic-organic mixed matrix membranes for possible application as a proton exchange membrane in direct ethanol fuel cells. The polymeric phase consisted mainly of sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (sPEEK) with a sulfonation degree of 55%. The inorganic phase was built up from hydrophilic fumed silica particles interconnected with partially hydrolyzed and condensed tetraethoxysilane with a total inorganic loading of 27.3%. This inorganic phase was further modified with N-(3-triethoxysilylpropyl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole (DHIM), which consists of an hydrolyzable inorganic part and a functional organic group. The influence of the modifier on the mixed matrix system was studied by means of various modifier concentrations in various aqueous-ethanolic systems (water, 2 M and 4 M ethanol). Modifier concentration and ethanol concentration of the ethanol-water mixture exhibited significant but opposite effects on the liquid uptake of the mixed matrix membranes. The proton conductivity as well as the proton diffusion coefficient as a function of modifier content showed a linear decrease. The proton conductivity as a function of temperature showed Arrhenius behavior and the activation energy of the mixed matrix membranes was 43.9 {+-} 2.6 kJ mol{sup -1}. High selectivity of proton diffusion coefficient to ethanol permeability coefficient was obtained with high modifier concentrations. At low modifier concentrations, this selectivity was dominated by ethanol permeation and at high modifier concentrations by proton diffusion. The main electrolyte properties can be optimized by setting the DHIM content in mixed matrix membrane. With this approach, tailor-made membranes can be prepared for possible application in direct ethanol fuel cells.

  8. State of the water in crosslinked sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone). Two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping

    Al Lafi, Abdul G. [Department of Chemistry, Atomic Energy Commission, Damascus, P.O. Box 6091 (Syrian Arab Republic); Hay, James N., E-mail: [The School of Metallurgy and Materials, College of Physical Sciences and Engineering, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT (United Kingdom)


    Highlights: • 2D-DSC mapping was applied to analyze the heat flow responses of hydrated crosslinked sPEEK. • Two types of loosely bond water were observed. • The first was bond to the sulfonic acid groups and increased with ion exchange capacity. • The second was attributed to the polar groups introduced by ions irradiation and increased with crosslinking degree. • DSC combined with 2D mapping provides a powerful tool for polymer structural determination. - Abstract: This paper reports the first application of two-dimensional differential scanning calorimetry correlation mapping, 2D-DSC-CM to analyze the heat flow responses of sulphonated poly(ether ether ketone), sPEEK, films having different ion exchange capacity and degrees of crosslinks. With the help of high resolution and high sensitivity of 2D-DSC-CM, it was possible to locate two types of loosely bound water within the structure of crosslinked sPEEK. The first was bound to the sulfonic acid groups and dependent on the ion exchange capacity of the sPEEK. The second was bound to other polar groups, either introduced by irradiation with ions and dependent on the crosslinking degree or present in the polymer such as the carbonyl groups or terminal units. The results suggest that the ability of the sulfonic acid groups in the crosslinked sPEEK membranes to adsorb water molecules is increased by crosslinking, probably due to the better close packing efficiency of the crosslinked samples. DSC combined with 2D correlation mapping provides a fast and powerful tool for polymer structural determination.

  9. Distributed Measurement and Control System Based on EtherCAT Bus%基于EtherCAT总线的分布式测控系统设计

    赵君; 刘卫国; 彭喆


    介绍一种EtherCAT实时工业以太网现场总线技术,研究EtherCAT工作原理,通信协议及主、从站实现方法;针对一般工业现场测控需求,利用EtherCAT总线技术,设计基于工控机的主站管理软件和基于FPGA的嵌人式从站软硬件;应用结果表明,该分布式测控系统运行稳定可靠,数据丢失率低,实时性好.%A more reliable distributed measurement and control system is introduced. Based on EtherCAT bus-, in this thesis. And They are introduced, the principle, technical characteristic and capability of EtherCAT. According to the most tasks demand of measuring and controU the design method was presented, the process of how to configuring the master node based on IPC and Slave node based on FPGA. And how to managing the system. The application results show that there are low data loss rate and more real-time, and the performance is stable and reliable in this system.

  10. EtherCAT协议芯片与单片机通信系统的研究%The research of communication system based EtherCAT and MCU

    康存锋; 杜斐斐; 马春敏; 黄旭东; 费仁元


    EtherCAT是基于标准的以太网技术,具有灵活的网络拓扑结构,系统配置简单,具有高速、高有效数据率等特点,其有效数据率可达90%以上.PIC系列单片机和EtherCAT协议芯片通过SPI串行通信方式进行连接,实现基于EtherCAT协议通信系统的基本通信功能,解决了传统以太网的介质访问控制方式不能满足工业现场实时性要求的问题.系统测试实验表明,系统通信准确,运行稳定,而且通过分析系统通信过程中的报文可知,系统的通信完全符合EthercAT 协议的要求.%EtherCAT based measured Ethernet technology has flexible framework of topology of network, simple of configure of system, and it has character of high speed and percentage of available date, which can reach ninety percent. It has solved problem of real time of Ethernet. The PIC series MCU was selected to communicated with EtherCAT by SPI connection. The result of experiment show that exact communication and stably system.

  11. Synthesis, Characterization and Performance Study of Phosphosilicate Gel-Sulfonated Poly (Ether Ether Ketone Nanocomposite Membrane for Fuel Cell Application

    S. Ganguly


    Full Text Available Phosphosilicate gel – SPEEK (Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone hybrid nanocomposite membranes are proposed for performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The nanocomposite membranes are synthesized and characterized at 50 and 60 weight percent of inorganic loading. Phosphosilicate gel particles of varying size (sub micro to nanometer are synthesized using sol gel approach followed by grinding using planetary ball mill for different time. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM reveals less than 10 nm particle size for 20 hr grinding. Nano composite membrane having inorganic particles of size less than 10 nm exhibits higher values of proton conductivity, ion exchange capacity and water uptake compared to composite membrane comprising of larger (400 nm and above inorganic particles. The membrane is assembled with the electrode in the unit cell and the polarization characteristics are measured at different operating temperatures. Performance study reveals that between 70 to 80 C the membrane offers best performance in terms of peak power generation and of allowable load current. For the same conditions 40-50 % nano-enhancement of peak power generation is achieved by reducing the average gel particle size from sub micro to less than 10 nm. At medium temperature (between 70 to 80 C the nanocomposite membrane offers more than 100 enhancement of peak power generation compared to that generated by SPEEK membrane. Phosphosilicate gel – SPEEK (Sulfonated Poly Ether Ether Ketone hybrid nanocomposite membranes are proposed for performance enhancement of polymer electrolyte fuel cell. The nanocomposite membranes are synthesized and characterized at 50 and 60 weight percent of inorganic loading. Phosphosilicate gel particles of varying size (sub micro to nanometer are synthesized using sol gel approach followed by grinding using planetary ball mill for different time. Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM reveals less than 10 nm

  12. 一种高速卷烟机EtherCAT从站设计%Design of EtherCAT Slave Station for High Speed Cigarette Machine

    李源源; 张旭



  13. Chemistry and properties of poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole)s and poly(arylene ether 1,2,4-triazole)s

    Connell, J. W.; Hergenrother, P. M.; Wolf, P.


    Poly(arylene ether)s containing l,3,4-oxadiazole and 1,2,4-triazole units were prepared by the aromatic nucleophilic displacement reaction of bisphenol oxadiazole and bisphenol triazole compounds with activated aromatic dihalides. The polymers exhibited glass transition temperatures (Tg) ranging from 182 to 242 C, and several polymers exhibited melting transitions (Tm) ranging from 265 to 390 C. Inherent viscosities ranged from 1.02 to 3.40 dl/g, indicating relatively high molecular weights. Thin films exhibited tensile strengths, moduli, and elongations at 23 C of 90-110 MPa, 2.7-3.6 GPa, and 4-7 percent, respectively. Titanium-to-titanium tensile shear specimens of a poly(arylene ether 1,3,4-oxadiazole) exhibited tensile shear strengths at 23 and 150 C of 22.1 and 17.9 MPa, respectively.

  14. EtherCAT中国巡回研讨会即将启动



  15. EtherCAT中国巡回研讨会即将启动



  16. EtherCAT技术协会举办研发培训活动



  17. Synthesis and biological evaluation of arctigenin ester and ether derivatives as activators of AMPK.

    Shen, Sida; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Yijia; Lei, Min; Chen, Jing; Shen, Xu; Hu, Lihong


    A series of new arctigenin and 9-deoxy-arctigenin derivatives bearing different ester and ether side chains at the phenolic hydroxyl positions are designed, synthesized, and evaluated for activating AMPK potency in L6 myoblasts. Initial biological evaluation indicates that some alkyl ester and phenethyl ether arctigenin derivatives display potential activities in AMPK phosphorylation improvement. Further structure-activity relationship analysis shows that arctigenin ester derivatives 3a, 3h and 9-deoxy-arctigenin phenethyl ether derivatives 6a, 6c, 6d activate AMPK more potently than arctigenin. Moreover, the 2-(3,4-dimethoxyphenyl)ethyl ether moiety of 6c has been demonstrated as a potential functional group to improve the effect of AMPK phosphorylation. The structural optimization of arctigenin leads to the identification of 6c as a promising lead compound that exhibits excellent activity in AMPK activation.

  18. Degradation of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking.

    Siegel, David; Feist, Michael; Proske, Matthias; Koch, Matthias; Nehls, Irene


    The stability of the Alternaria mycotoxins alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, and altenuene upon bread baking was investigated by model experiments using a spiked wholemeal wheat flour matrix. For alternariol and alternariol monomethyl ether, but not for altenuene, degradation products, formed through a sequence of hydrolysis and decarboxylation, could be identified in pilot studies. The simultaneous quantification of alternariol, alternariol monomethyl ether, altenuene, and the degradation products was achieved by a newly developed high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) multimethod. The obtained quantitative data indicate that the Alternaria mycotoxins are barely degraded during wet baking, while significant degradation occurs upon dry baking, with the stability decreasing in the order alternariol monomethyl ether>alternariol>altenuene. The novel degradation products could be detected after the wet baking of flour spiked with alternariol and in a sample survey of 24 commercial cereal based baking products.

  19. Miconidin and miconidin methyl ether from Primula obconica Hance: new allergens in an old sensitizer

    Paulsen, Evy; Christensen, Lars P; Andersen, Klaus Ejner


    of the individual primin reactions, and remained inexplicably negative while testing with miconidin in 96% ethanol and pet., while miconidin methyl ether elicited 7 positive reactions. Although both miconidin and miconidin methyl ether may be allergenic only due to their conversion to primin in the skin......Several chemical and clinical observations have suggested the presence of at least one more allergen in addition to primin in Primula obconica. The aim of this study was to investigate the allergenicity of the primin precursor miconidin and the related miconidin methyl ether, both isolated from P....... obconica. 12 primin-positive persons were patch tested with miconidin 0.01% petrolatum (pet.), miconidin in 96% ethanol incorporated into 0.01% pet., and miconidin methyl ether 1.0% pet. All persons were positive to miconidin 0.01% pet., with the strength of reactions very similar to those...

  20. Oxime Ethers of (E)-11-Isonitrosostrychnine as Highly Potent Glycine Receptor Antagonists

    Mohsen, Amal M Y; Mandour, Yasmine M; Sarukhanyan, Edita


    A series of (E)-11-isonitrosostrychnine oxime ethers, 2-aminostrychnine, (strychnine-2-yl)propionamide, 18-oxostrychnine, and N-propylstrychnine bromide were synthesized and evaluated pharmacologically at human α1 and α1β glycine receptors in a functional fluorescence-based and a whole-cell patch......-clamp assay and in [(3)H]strychnine binding studies. 2-Aminostrychnine and the methyl, allyl, and propargyl oxime ethers were the most potent α1 and α1β antagonists in the series, displaying IC50 values similar to those of strychnine at the two receptors. Docking experiments to the strychnine binding site...... of the crystal structure of the α3 glycine receptor indicated the same orientation of the strychnine core for all analogues. For the most potent oxime ethers, the ether substituent was accommodated in a lipophilic receptor binding pocket. The findings identify the oxime hydroxy group as a suitable attachment...

  1. IRIS Toxicological Review of Ethylene Glycol Mono-Butyl Ether (Egbe) (External Review Draft)

    EPA has conducted a peer review of the scientific basis supporting the human health hazard and dose-response assessment of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether that will appear on the Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS) database.

  2. A versatile pathway to end-functionalized cellulose ethers for click chemistry applications.

    Kamitakahara, Hiroshi; Suhara, Ryo; Yamagami, Mao; Kawano, Haruko; Okanishi, Ryoko; Asahi, Tomoyuki; Takano, Toshiyuki


    This paper describes a versatile pathway to heterobifunctional/telechelic cellulose ethers, such as tri-O-methyl cellulosyl azide and propargyl tri-O-methyl celluloside, having one free C-4 hydroxyl group attached to the glucosyl residue at the non-reducing end for the use in Huisgen 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and copper(I)-catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC). The one-step end-functionalization of cellulose ethers for molecular rod synthesis involves the introduction of two reactive groups at both ends of the cellulose molecule, and can afford linear triblock copolymers via CuAAC and further reactions. We were able to tailor the degree of polymerization of end-functionalized cellulose ethers with controlled amounts of a Lewis acid, namely SnCl4. Chemical structures of the above cellulose ethers and the reaction conditions for controlling molecular length are discussed.

  3. Cholesterol-containing liquid crystal dimmers with ether linkages between the spacer and mesogenic units

    Marcelis, A.T.M.; Koudijs, A.; Karczmarzyk, Z.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.


    Three series of chiral liquid crystalline dimers were investigated, having a cholesteryl and a cyanobiphenylyl, butoxybiphenylyl or hexyloxybiphenylyl group connected to a variable alkyl spacer through ether linkages. Their properties were compared with those of the corresponding ester derivatives.

  4. Cholesterol-containing liquid crystal dimmers with ether linkages between the spacer and mesogenic units

    Marcelis, A.T.M.; Koudijs, A.; Karczmarzyk, Z.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.


    Three series of chiral liquid crystalline dimers were investigated, having a cholesteryl and a cyanobiphenylyl, butoxybiphenylyl or hexyloxybiphenylyl group connected to a variable alkyl spacer through ether linkages. Their properties were compared with those of the corresponding ester derivatives.

  5. Elton Romeo Smilie, the not-quite discoverer of ether anesthesia.

    Stone, Martha E; Meyer, Marlene R; Alston, Theodore A


    Like William T.G. Morton, Elton Romeo Smilie (1819-1889) was raised in Massachusetts, attended medical school in New England, practiced dentistry there, strove for clinical invention, and moved to Boston. In October 1846, both announced that inhaled ethereal preparations achieved reversible insensibility in surgical patients. Smilie published a report in the Boston Med Surg J 3 wk before Bigelow used that forum to broadcast Morton's Ether Day. Smilie's preparation was an ethereal tincture of opium, and, as he mistakenly believed the opium to be volatile and important, he ceded priority to Morton for ether anesthesia. The two authors collaborated on chloroform, but Smilie soon headed off in the Gold Rush to California. It is tempting to speculate that Charles T. Jackson and Morton were indebted in part to Smilie.

  6. Fluorinated 5- and 7-membered carbacycle motifs by reaction of difluorocarbene with acetylene ethers.

    Chia, Poh Wai; Bello, Davide; Slawin, Alexandra M Z; O'Hagan, David


    The reaction of acetylene ethers with difluorocarbene (CF(2)), generated from the Ruppert-Prakash reagent, unexpectedly gave rise to co-produced fluorinated bicyclic [2.1.1]-hex-2-ene and cyclohepta-1,4-diene ring products.

  7. A Study on Antibacterial Activity and Chemical Composition of the Petroleum Ether Extract from Aspergillusniger Mycelia

    Yang; XIAO; Wujuan; LIU; Zhu; LI


    In order to develop natural antibacterial agents,the antibacterial activity of Aspergillusnigerxj was investigated.After being cultured in potato dextrose liquid medium liquid medium,mycelia was under heating reflux extraction with 90% ethanol.Removal of ethanol under reduced pressure gave a residue,to which water was added and then extracted with petroleum ether and ethyl acetate.In vacuo evaporation of the solvents yielded three crude extracts.Then the disc diffusion method was used to measure the antibacterial activity of these extracts.The petroleum ether extract with antibacterial activity was separated by silica gel column chromatography method,then separated and identified by GC-MS after been methyl esterified.At the concentration of 50 mg /mL,the petroleum ether extract of mycelia exhibited inhibitory effect against Staphylococcus aureus.The petroleum ether extract from Aspergillusnigerxj mycelia contained natural substances with antibacterial activity and fatty acids are the main constituents in it.

  8. Researh and Application of Industrial Ethernet Safety Based on EtherCAT%基于EtherCAT的工业以太网安全技术的研究∗

    刘才思; 刘峰; 郑飂默; 尹震宇


    在研究EtherCAT协议栈,以及EtherCAT的软、硬件结构特性和帧结构特点的基础上,分析了EtherCAT工业以太网存在的通信故障错误,及其对应的安全通信机制措施,建立了安全系统体系结构和安全通信协议模型,设计了EtherCAT功能安全通信过程,开发了安全协议层软件。经过试验测试表明,通过在EtherCAT应用层之上添加EtherCAT安全通信,并且对EtherCAT通信报文中用户数据单元进行扩展,来实现关键安全措施,满足了安全相关领域通信的要求,保障了EtherCAT系统的安全性和可靠性。%Under the study of EtherCAT protocol stack and the characteristics of software , hardware and frame of EtherCAT , we analyzed communication faults and errors in the industrial ethernet and the counter safety communication mechanism measures, established the safety system architecture and safety communi-cation protocol model, designed the EtherCAT safety communication process, and developed safety protocol layer software. As the result of experimental test shows, by adding EtherCAT safety layer upon application layer and safety measures into user data unit with some critical safety measures, we made the protocol meet the safety requirements of communication related fields and guarantee the EtherCAT system safety and relia-bility.

  9. Research of robot control bus scheme based on EtherCAT%基于EtherCAT的机器人控制总线方案研究

    刘冬; 闵华松; 杨杰


    In view of the higher demand of communication bandwidth, response speed, real time and other aspects in current robot network control, a robot control bus solution based on EtherCAT is proposed. In the analysis of the robot control requirements and the characteristics of EtherCAT, a research platform is built using a linear topological structure. In the slave STM32 and COMX module are used to design servo controller, while in the master Linux system and RTAI module to are used construct supporting platform, and EtherCAT protocol stack SOEM is transplanted, then combined with the network control model, the distributed control of the robot servo nodes is realized. Through the experiment the feasibility of this system is verified, and the composition of bus delay is analyzed.%针对当前机器人网络化控制对通信带宽、响应速度、实时性等方面的更高要求,提出了基于EtherCAT的机器人控制总线解决方案.通过分析机器人控制的需求和EtherCAT的特点,采用线性拓扑结构来构建研究平台.从站采用STM32和COMX模块设计伺服控制器;主站采用Linux系统和RTAI模块构建支撑平台,并移植EtherCAT协议栈SOEM,结合网络控制模型来实现机器人伺服节点的分布式控制.通过实验验证了方案的可行性,并分析了总线的延时组成.

  10. Pra Desain Pabrik Dimethyl Ether (DME dari Gas Alam

    Ajeng Puspitasari Yudiputri


    Full Text Available Berdasarkan data PT Pertamina (Persero, total konsumsi LPG 2008 mencapai 1,85 juta ton dan 600.000 ton di antaranya untuk program konversi. Pada 2009 kebutuhan LPG akan meningkat menjadi 3,67 juta ton dan 2 juta ton di antaranya untuk program konversi sampai akhir tahun. Namun, sumber pasokan LPG dari dalam negeri diperkirakan tidak akan beranjak dari angka 1,8 juta ton per tahun dalam beberapa tahun mendatang. Sehingga, Indonesia harus menutup kebutuhan dengan mengimpor LPG dalam jumlah cukup besar. Maka dari itu dibutuhkan bahan bakar gas lain yang mampu mengatasi permasalahan yang ditimbulkan tersebut. Dimethyl Ether (DME merupakan senyawa ether yang paling sederhana dengan rumus kimia CH3OCH3. Produksi DME dapat dihasilkan melalui sintesis gas alam. DME berbentuk gas yang tidak berwarna pada suhu ambien, zat kimia yang stabil, dengan titik didih -25,1oC. Tekanan uap DME sekitar 0,6 Mpa pada 25oC dan dapat dicairkan seperti halnya LPG. Viskositas DME 0,12-0,15 kg/ms, setara dengan viskositas propana dan butane (konstituen utama LPG, sehingga infrastruktur untuk LPG dapat juga digunakan untuk DME. Berdasarkan data Departemen ESDM pada Januari 2012, total cadangan gas alam Indonesia tercatat mencapai 150,70 Trillion Square Cubic Feet (TSCF. Berdasarkan jumlah tersebut, sebanyak 103,35 TSCF merupakan gas alam terbukti, sementara 47,35 TSCF sisanya masih belum terbukti. Berdasarkan hal tersebut, diketahui bahwa senyawa DME merupakan senyawa yang sesuai untuk bahan substitusi LPG. Dan ditinjau dari analisa ekonomi, didapatkan besar Investasi : $ 636,447,074.69 ; Internal Rate of Return\t: 20.51%; POT: 4.13 tahun; BEP : 37.36 %; dan NPV 10 year : $ 518,848,692. Dari ketiga parameter sensitifitas yaitu fluktuasi biaya investasi, harga bahan baku, dan harga jual dari produk, terlihat bahwa ketiganya tidak memberikan pengaruh yang cukup signifikan terhadap kenaikan atau penurunan nilai IRR pabrik. Sehingga pabrik DME dari Gas Alam ini layak untuk

  11. Searching for trans ethyl methyl ether in Orion KL⋆

    Tercero, B.; Cernicharo, J.; López, A.; Brouillet, N.; Kolesniková, L.; Motiyenko, R. A.; Margulès, L.; Alonso, J. L.; Guillemin, J.-C.


    We report on the tentative detection of trans ethyl methyl ether (tEME), t-CH3CH2OCH3, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for gauche-trans-n-propanol, Gt-n-CH3CH2CH2OH, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30 m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are ≤(4.0 ± 0.8) × 1015 cm-2 and ≤(1.0 ± 0.2) × 1015 cm-2 for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is ~100 K for both molecules. We also provide maps of CH3OCOH, CH3CH2OCOH, CH3OCH3, CH3OH, and CH3CH2OH to compare the distribution of these organic saturated O-bearing species containing methyl and ethyl groups in this region. Abundance ratios of related species and upper limits to the abundances of non-detected ethers are provided. We derive an abundance ratio N(CH3OCH3)/N(tEME) ≥ 150 in the compact ridge of Orion. This paper makes use of the following ALMA data: ADS/JAO.ALMA#2011.0.00009.SV. ALMA is a partnership of ESO (representing its member states), NSF (USA), and NINS (Japan) with NRC (Canada), NSC, and ASIAA (Taiwan), and KASI (Republic of Korea), in cooperation with the Republic of Chile. The Joint ALMA Observatory is operated by ESO, AUI/NRAO, and NAOJ. This work was also based on observations carried out with the IRAM 30-m telescope. IRAM is supported by INSU/CNRS (France), MPG (Germany), and IGN (Spain).Appendix A is available in electronic form at

  12. EtherCAT技术培训及Workshop课程在广州成功举办



  13. Modular construction of 2-substituted benzo[b]furans from 1,2-dichlorovinyl ethers.

    Geary, Laina M; Hultin, Philip G


    (E)-1,2-Dichlorovinyl ethers and amides are easily accessible from trichloroethylene via nucleophilic addition across in situ synthesized dichloroacetylene. A one-pot, sequential Suzuki-Miyaura coupling/intramolecular direct arylation between dichlorovinyl ethers and organoboronic acids provides easy access to a variety of benzofurans in only two steps from inexpensive commercially available compounds. The method is extendable to the preparation of indoles from the analogous dichlorovinyl amides.

  14. Contact angle measurements of a polyphenyl ether to 190 C on M-50 steel

    Jones, W. R., Jr.


    Contact angle measurements were performed for a polyphenyl ether on steel in nitrogen. A tilting plate and a sessile drop apparatus were used. Surface tension was measured with a maximum bubble pressure apparatus. Critical surface energies of spreading were found to be 30.1 and 31.3 dynes/cm. It was concluded that the polyphenyl ether is inherently autophobic and will not spread on its own surface film.

  15. The Experiment of Michelson and Morley: Experiment That Ruled Out Ether

    Amit Roy


    Light was assumed to propagate in a medium called etherwhich was all pervading and stationary. Earth’s motionthrough ether was expected to have an effect on the velocityof light in the direction of the relative motion by the law ofaddition of velocities. Michelson–Morley experiment used aninterferometric technique to detect this effect and got a nullresult, which was the first strong evidence against existenceof ether and eventually had a natural explanation in specialtheory of relativity.

  16. The action of certain antibiotics and ether on swine enzootic pneumonia.

    Huhn, R G


    The susceptibility of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae to the action of three antibiotics and diethyl ether was determined. Infected swine were used in an in vivo sensitivity detection system. The parameter of susceptibility was lesion prophylaxis. In vivo, Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae appeared to be resistant to diethyl ether, tylosin tartrate, and erythromycin, but was susceptible to the action of chlortetracycline. Chlortetracycline was effective in preventing the development of lesions when given at levels which would be practical in commercial swine operations.

  17. Exposure of German residents to ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in general and after cleaning scenarios.

    Fromme, H; Nitschke, L; Boehmer, S; Kiranoglu, M; Göen, T


    Glycol ethers are a class of semi-volatile substances used as solvents in a variety of consumer products like cleaning agents, paints, cosmetics as well as chemical intermediates. We determined 11 metabolites of ethylene and propylene glycol ethers in 44 urine samples of German residents (background level study) and in urine samples of individuals after exposure to glycol ethers during cleaning activities (exposure study). In the study on the background exposure, methoxyacetic acid and phenoxyacetic acid (PhAA) could be detected in each urine sample with median (95th percentile) values of 0.11 mgL(-1) (0.30 mgL(-1)) and 0.80 mgL(-1) (23.6 mgL(-1)), respectively. The other metabolites were found in a limited number of samples or in none. In the exposure study, 5-8 rooms were cleaned with a cleaner containing ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE), propylene glycol monobutyl ether (PGBE), or ethylene glycol monopropyl ether (EGPE). During cleaning the mean levels in the indoor air were 7.5 mgm(-3) (EGBE), 3.0 mgm(-3) (PGBE), and 3.3 mgm(-3) (EGPE), respectively. The related metabolite levels analysed in the urine of the residents of the rooms at the day of cleaning were 2.4 mgL(-1) for butoxyacetic acid, 0.06 mgL(-1) for 2-butoxypropionic acid, and 2.3 mgL(-1) for n-propoxyacetic acid. Overall, our study indicates that the exposure of the population to glycol ethers is generally low, with the exception of PhAA. Moreover, the results of the cleaning scenarios demonstrate that the use of indoor cleaning agents containing glycol ethers can lead to a detectable internal exposure of residents.

  18. Solid-Phase Organic Synthesis of Aryl Vinyl Ethers Using Sulfone-Linking Strategy

    余腊妹; 汤妮; 盛寿日; 陈茹冰; 刘晓玲; 蔡明中


    A novel facile solid-phase organic synthesis of aryl vinyl ethers by reaction of polystyrene-supported 2-phenylsulfonylethanol with phenols under Mitsunobu conditions and subsequent elimination reaction with DBU has been developed. The advantages of this method include straightforward operation, good yield and high purity of the products. Alternatively, a typical example of Suzuki coupling reaction on-resin was further applied to prepare 4-phenylphenyl vinyl ether for extending this method.

  19. Carbamate-directed benzylic lithiation for the diastereo- and enantioselective synthesis of diaryl ether atropisomers

    Abigail Page


    Full Text Available Diaryl ethers carrying carbamoyloxymethyl groups may be desymmetrised enantio- and diastereoselectively by the use of the sec-BuLi–(−-sparteine complex in diethyl ether. Enantioselective deprotonation of one of the two benzylic positions leads to atropisomeric products with ca. 80:20 e.r.; an electrophilic quench typically provides functionalised atropisomeric diastereoisomers in up to 97:3 d.r.

  20. Study on Molecular Recognition of Crown Ethers to Aniline and Monosaccharides

    QI Li-Ya; TENG Qi-Wen; WU Shi; LIU Zheng-Zheng


    Theoretical study on coordinates between crown ethers and aniline as well as monosaccharides is performed by AM1, MNDO and PM3 methods.It is indicated that crown ethers possess ability to recognize polar guests especially ionic guests and monosaccharides.Electronic spectra of coordinates are computed by the INDO/SCI method.The reason of the blue-shift for UV absorption of complexes relative to that of hosts is discussed and electronic transition is theoretic- cally assigned.

  1. Metal ion complexation by ionizable crown ethers. Final report, January 1, 1988--June 30, 1994

    Bartsch, R.A.


    During the report period a variety of new lipophilic ionizable crown ethers with pendent proton-ionizable groups has been synthesized. The ligands possess one or more ionizable group (carboxylic acid, phosphonic acid monoethyl ester, para-nitrophenol, phosphonic acid) attached to crown ether, monoazacrown ether or diazacrown ether frameworks. These novel chelating agents have either pendent or inward-facing proton-ionizable groups. Such lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ethers are designed for use in multiphase metal ion separations (solvent extraction, liquid membrane transport). In addition a series of proton-ionizable crown ethers without lipophilic groups was prepared to study how structural variations within the ligand influence metal ion complexation in homogeneous media as assessed by NMR spectroscopy or titration calorimetry. A third class of new metal ion-complexing agents is a series of lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids. Competitive solvent extractions of alkali metal and alkaline earth cations and of the mixed species have been conducted to reveal the influence of ring size, nature and attachment site of the lipophilic group, sidearm length, and proton-ionizable group identity and location upon the selectivity and efficiency of metal ion complexation. In addition to such studies of structural variation within the lipophilic proton-ionizable crown ether, the effect of changing the organic solvent and variation of the stripping conditions have been assessed. The influence of structural variations within lipophilic acyclic polyether dicarboxylic acids upon competitive solvent extraction of alkaline earth cations has been probed. Also a new chromogenic, di-ionizable crown ether with extremely high selectivity for Hg{sup 2+} has been discovered.

  2. Influence of the Functionalization Degree of Acidic Ion-Exchange Resins on Ethyl Octyl Ether Formation

    Guilera, J.; Hanková, L. (Libuše); Jeřábek, K.; E Ramírez; Tejero, J.


    Ethyl octyl ether (EOE) can be obtained by the ethylation of 1-octanol by means of ethanol or diethyl carbonate over acidic ion-exchange resins. However, EOE formation has to compete with the less steric demanding formation of diethyl ether, by-product obtained from ethanol dehydration or diethyl carbonate decomposition. In the present work, the influence of the resin functionalization degree on EOE formation has been evaluated. A series of partially sulfonated resins were prepared by the sul...

  3. Heterogeneous reductive dehalogenation of PCB contaminated transformer oil and brominated diphenyl ethers with zero valent iron.

    Habekost, A; Aristov, N


    Reductive dechlorination and debromination of halogenated biphenyls (PCBs) and diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) occurs efficiently at moderately elevated temperatures (350-600 °C) with zero valent iron (iron powder) in a nitrogen atmosphere. The proton donors tested were waste transformer oil, iso-octane, and n-decane. Observation of production of biphenyl and diphenyl ether and their condensation products indicates that the reaction is not simple pyrolysis, but a reduction. No halogenated organic products are observed.

  4. Convenient procedures for the α-metallation of vinylic ethers and thioethers

    Verkruijsse, H.D.; Brandsma, L.; Schleyer, P. von R.


    Ethyl vinyl ether H2C=CHOC2H5 and the analogous cyclic vinylic ethers dehydrofuran and 2,3-dihydropyran can be potassiated at −20°C in the α-position with a 1/1/1 molar mixture of BuLi, t-BuOK and TMEDA in hexane. Methyl vinyl sulfide is potassiated very smoothly by a 1/1 molar mixture of BuLi and t

  5. Synthesis and antimalarial activity of ethylene glycol oligomeric ethers of artemisinin

    Steyn, Minette; N’Da, David D.; Breytenbach, Jaco C; Smith, Peter J.; Meredith, Sandra; Breytenbach, Wilma J.


    Objectives The aim of this study was to synthesize a series of ethylene glycol ether derivatives of the antimalarial drug artemisinin, determine their values for selected physicochemical properties and evaluate their antimalarial activity in vitro against Plasmodium falciparum strains. Methods The ethers were synthesized in a one-step process by coupling ethylene glycol moieties of various chain lengths to carbon C-10 of artemisinin. The aqueous solubility and log D values w...

  6. Determination of low level methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether and methyl tert-amyl ether in human urine by HS-SPME gas chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Scibetta, Licia; Campo, Laura; Mercadante, Rosa; Foà, Vito; Fustinoni, Silvia


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are oxygenated compounds added to gasoline to enhance octane rating and to improve combustion. They may be found as pollutants of living and working environments. In this work a robotized method for the quantification of low level MTBE, ETBE and TAME in human urine was developed and validated. The analytes were sampled in the headspace of urine by SPME in the presence of MTBE-d12 as internal standard. Different fibers were compared for their linearity and extraction efficiency: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene, and polydimethylsiloxane. The first, although highly efficient, was discarded due to deviation of linearity for competitive displacement, and the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber was chosen instead. The analysis was performed by GC/MS operating in the electron impact mode. The method is very specific, with range of linearity 30-4600 ng L(-1), within- and between-run precision, as coefficient of variation, ethers was evaluated analysing the specimens of seven traffic policemen exposed to autovehicular emissions: using the calibration curve and the method of standard additions comparable levels of MTBE (68-528 ng L(-1)), ETBE (<6 ng L(-1)), and TAME (<6 ng L(-1)) were obtained.

  7. Application of Industrial Ethernet Fieldbus EtherCAT%工业以太网现场总线EtherCAT的应用




  8. Effects of humic acids and microorganisms on decabromodiphenyl ether, 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether and anthracene transportation in soil


    In this study, effects of humic acids (HA) and microorganisms on the migration of hydrophobic organic contaminants (HOCs), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE-15) and anthracene, in soils were examined. More soil particles were dispersed into the colloidal phase (0.22-1 μm) in the presence of HA and/or microorganisms as a result of increased erosion and friction. The study suggested that PBDEs (BDE-209 and BDE-15) and anthracene in soils would be transported to other places by soil colloids with surface and underground water flow given the high concentrations of HA and microorganisms in the natural environment.

  9. EtherCAT现场总线的国家标准化研究

    宦卿; 陈坚


    EtherCAT是一种基于以太网的新兴现场总线技术,自从德国倍福公司推出以来,就凭借其实时性和拓扑的灵活性,在现场总线行业树立了新的行业标准。在国际上,EtherCAT依靠自身的技术协会EtherCAT技术协会(EtherCAT Technology Group,缩写为ETG)进行技术推广。在国内,国家标准化管理委员会正在为工业以太网总线EtherCAT技术制定相应的国标,现在已提交送审稿。如此一来,EtherCAT技术在我们必将取得进一步的推动发展和应用。

  10. Modification of sodium and potassium channel gating kinetics by ether and halothane

    Bean, B.P.; Shrager, P.; Goldstein, D.A.


    The effects of ether and halothane on the kinetics of sodium and potassium currents were investigated in the crayfish giant axon. Both general anesthetics produced a reversible, dose-dependent speeding up of sodium current inactivation at all membrane potentials, with no change in the rising phase of the currents. Double-pulse inactivation experiments with ether also showed faster inactivation, but the rate of recovery from inactivation at negative potentials was not affected. Ether shifted the midpoint of the steady-state fast inactivation curve in the hyperpolarizing direction and made the curve steeper. The activation of potassium currents was faster with ether present, with no change in the voltage dependence of steady-state potassium currents. Ether and halothane are known to perturb the structure of lipid bilayer membranes; the alterations in sodium and potassium channel gating kinetics are consistent with the hypothesis that the rats of the gating processes of the channels can be affected by the state of the lipids surrounding the channels, but a direct effect of ether and halothane on the protein part of the channels cannot be ruled out.

  11. Iodine-catalyzed disproportionation of aryl-substituted ethers under solvent-free reaction conditions.

    Jereb, Marjan; Vražič, Dejan


    Iodine was demonstrated to be an efficient catalyst for disproportionation of aryl-substituted ethers under solvent-free reaction conditions. Variously substituted 1,1,1',1'-tetraaryldimethyl ethers were transformed into the corresponding diarylketone and diarylmethane derivatives. I2-catalyzed transformation of 4-methoxyphenyl substituted ethers yielded mono- and dialkylated Friedel-Crafts products as well. Treatment of trityl alkyl and trityl benzyl ethers with a catalytic amount of iodine produced triphenylmethane and the corresponding aldehydes and ketones. The electron-donating substituents facilitated the reaction, while the electron-withdrawing groups retarded it; the difference in reactivity is not very high. Such an observation may be in favour of hydride transfer, predominantly from the less electron rich side of the ether with more stable carbocation formation. With the isotopic studies it was established that a substantial portion of the C-H bond scission took place in the rate-determining step, while the carbonyl oxygen atom originated from the starting ether, and not from the air. The transformation took place under air and under argon, and HI was not a functioning catalyst.

  12. Synthesis and Insecticidal Activity of Novel Nitropyridyl-Based Dichloropropene Ethers.

    Liu, Aiping; Yu, Wanqi; Liu, Minhua; Bai, Jianjun; Liu, Weidong; Liu, Xingping; Pei, Hui; Hu, Li; Huang, Mingzhi; Wang, Xiaoguang


    Dihalopropene ether insecticides are known for good features such as no cross-resistance to other insecticide classes and safety for mammals. Pyridalyl is the only currently commercialized dichloropropene ether insecticide; however, it contains a trifluoromethyl group, the synthesis of which requires harsh reagents and reaction conditions. To search for novel dihalopropene ethers with unique biological activities but without trifluoromethyl groups, a series of nitropyridyl-based dichloropropene ether analogues were synthesized by reacting nitro-based halopyridine with 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenol or 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-hydroxypropyl ether. Bioassay showed that the compounds exhibited potent insecticidal activities against various lepidopteran pests. Particularly, 2,6-dichloro-4-(3,3-dichloroallyloxy)phenyl 3-(5-nitro-2-pyridyloxy)propyl ether (8e) was active against major agricultural pests, and its insecticidal potency was comparable to that of Pyridalyl. Besides the trifluoromethyl group in Pyridalyl, a nitro group on the 5-position of the pyridyl ring is also viable for the development of optimal insecticidal activity.

  13. Atmospheric Oxidation Mechanisms for Diethyl Ether and its Oxidation Products, Ethyl Formate and Ethyl Acetate.

    Orlando, J. J.; Tyndall, G. S.


    Carbon-containing compounds are present in the earth's atmosphere as the result of emissions from natural and anthropogenic sources. Their oxidation in the atmosphere, initiated by such oxidants as OH, ozone, and nitrate radicals, leads to potentially harmful secondary pollutants such as ozone, carbonyl species, organic acids and aerosols. Ethers and esters are two classes of compounds that contribute to the complex array of organic compounds found in anthropogenically-influenced air. Additional ester is present as a result of the oxidation of the ethers. In this paper, the oxidation of diethyl ether and its two main oxidation products, ethyl formate and ethyl acetate, are studied over ranges of temperature, oxygen partial pressure, and NOx concentration, using an environmental chamber / FTIR absorption technique. Major end-products (the esters from diethyl ether; organic acids and anhydrides from the esters) are quantified, and these data are interpreted in terms of the chemistry of the various alkoxy and peroxy radicals generated. Emphasis is placed on the effects of chemical activation on the behavior of the alkoxy radicals, as well as on a novel peroxy radical rearrangement that may contribute to the observed products of ether oxidation under some conditions. Finally, the data are used, in conjunction with data on similar species, to provide a general representation of ether and ester oxidation in the atmosphere.

  14. Negatively charged crown ethers for binding paraquat in water


    A water soluble negatively charged fluorescent 1,4-benzo-1,5-naphtho-36-crown-10-based host has been devised and synthesized.As shown by proton NMR,ESI mass spectrometry and UV-vis spectroscopy,it binds paraquat with a 1:1 stoichiometry and an association constant of 4.50(±0.02) ×103 M-1 in water.Its complexation with paraquat in water was further investigated by fluorescence emission spectroscopy.The results revealed that when paraquat was added to the water solution of the host,the fluorescence emission of the host was quenched by the charge transfer between the crown ether host and paraquat guest.A similar bis-p-phenylene-34-crown-10-based host was synthesized as a contrasting host.Lacking the naphthalene unit,the second host binds paraquat with a 1:1 stoichiometry and a lower association constant,1.04(±0.04) ×103 M-1,in water.This demonstrated that the naphthalene unit could not only act as a strong fluorescence group but also improve the π-πstacking interactions between the host and guest.

  15. Biodegradation of methyl tert-butyl ether by Kocuria sp.

    Kiković Dragan D.


    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE has been used to replace the toxic compounds from gasoline and to reduce emission of air pollutants. Due to its intensive use, MTBE has become one of the most important environment pollutants. The aim of this paper is isolation and identification of the bacteria from wastewater sample of “HIP Petrohemija” Pančevo (Serbia, capable of MTBE biodegradation. The results of the investigation showed that only the bacterial isolate 27/1 was capable of growth on MTBE. The result of sequence analyzes of 16S rDNA showed that this bacterial isolate belongs to the Kocuria sp. After the incubation period of 86 days, the degradation rates of initial MTBE concentration of 25 and 125 μg/ml were 55 and 36%, respectively. These results indicated that bacteria Kocuria sp. is successfully adapted on MTBE and can be potentially used in bioremediation of soils and waters contaminated with MTBE.

  16. Toxicity of methyl-tert-butyl ether to freshwater organisms.

    Werner, I; Koger, C S; Deanovic, L A; Hinton, D E


    Increased input of the fuel oxygenate methyl-tert-butyl ether (MTBE) into aquatic systems has led to concerns about its effect(s) on aquatic life. As part of a study conducted by University of California scientists for the State of California, the Aquatic Toxicology Laboratory, UC Davis, reviewed existing literature on toxicity of MTBE to freshwater organisms, and new information was generated on chronic, developmental toxicity in fish, and potential toxicity of MTBE to California resident species. Depending on time of exposure and endpoint measured, MTBE is toxic to various aquatic organisms at concentrations of 57-> 1000 mg/l (invertebrates), and 388-2600 mg/l (vertebrates). Developmental effects in medaka (Oryzias latipes) were not observed at concentrations up to 480 mg/l, and all fish hatched and performed feeding and swimming in a normal manner. Bacterial assays proved most sensitive with toxicity to Salmonella typhimurium measured at 7.4 mg/l within 48 h. In microalgae, decreased growth was observed at 2400 and 4800 mg/l within 5 days. MTBE does not appear to bioaccumulate in fish and is rapidly excreted or metabolized. Collectively, the available data suggests that at environmental MTBE exposure levels found in surface waters (toxic to aquatic life. However, more information is needed on chronic and sublethal effects before we can eliminate the possibility of risk to aquatic communities at currently detected concentrations.

  17. Children's exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) through mouthing toys.

    Ionas, Alin C; Ulevicus, Jocelyn; Gómez, Ana Ballesteros; Brandsma, Sicco H; Leonards, Pim E G; van de Bor, Margot; Covaci, Adrian


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) have previously been detected in children toys, yet the risk of child exposure to these chemicals through the mouthing of toys or other items is still unknown. We aimed to expand on the current knowledge by investigating the impact of infants' mouthing activities on exposure to PBDEs present in toys. This was established by a leaching model for determining the amount PBDEs that can leach from toys into saliva in simulated conditions. The PBDE migration rate was at its highest for the 15 min low-exposure scenario incubations (198 pg/cm(2) × min) with the ERM EC-591 certified reference material (CRM) (0.17% w/w PBDEs). The leaching process was congener-dependent, since the percentage of lower brominated PBDE congeners that leached out was up to 4.5 times higher than for the heavier PBDEs. To study the scenario in which a child would mouth on a toy flame retarded with BDE 209 alone, a plastic item containing 7% BDE 209 (w/w) was also tested. The BDE 209 amounts leached out in only 15 min were higher than the amounts leached from the CRM after the 16 h incubation. For the Belgian population, the exposure scenario from mouthing on toys containing PBDEs in amounts similar to the REACH threshold was found to be lower than the exposure from mother's milk, but higher than the exposure through diet or even dust.

  18. Hydrogen production from dimethyl ether using corona discharge plasma

    Zou, Ji-Jun; Zhang, Yue-Ping; Liu, Chang-Jun

    Dimethyl ether (DME), with its non-toxic character, high H/C ratio and high-energy volumetric density, is an ideal resource for hydrogen production. In this work, hydrogen production from the decomposition of DME using corona discharge has been studied. The corona discharge plasma decomposition was conducted at ambient conditions. The effects of dilution gas (argon), flow rate, frequency and waveforms on the DME decomposition were investigated. The addition of dilution gas can significantly increase the hydrogen production rate. The highest hydrogen production rate with the lowest energy consumption presents at the flow rate of 27.5 Nml min -1. AC voltage is more favored than DC voltage for the production of hydrogen with less energy input. The optimal frequency is 2.0 kHz. The hydrogen production rate is also affected by the input waveform and decreases as following: sinusoid triangular > sinusoid > ramp > square, whereas the sinusoid waveform shows the highest energy efficiency. The corona discharge decomposition of DME is leading to a simple, easy and convenient hydrogen production with no needs of catalyst and external heating.

  19. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in seafood products of south China.

    Guo, Jian-Yang; Wu, Feng-Chang; Mai, Bi-Xian; Luo, Xiao-Jun; Zeng, Eddy Y


    South China is probably one of the heaviest polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) polluted regions in the world, thanks to the presence of huge and rapidly growing electronics manufacturing industries, as well as several of the world's largest e-waste recycling sites in the region. In the present work, a wide variety of nonfish seafood products collected from South China was analyzed for PBDE residues. The concentrations of PBDEs in seafood products were highly species-specific, and the magnitude of PBDE pollution was moderate in South China compared to the global levels. Congener patterns of PBDEs in seafood samples suggested that seafood products are prone to accumulating low-brominated congeners, and possible metabolic debromination of BDE-99 to BDE-47 could occur in certain organisms, such as crabs and mantis shrimp. Generally, the congener profile was dominated by BDE-209, and to a lesser extent by BDE-47 and BDE-99, which was consistent with the fact that Deca-BDE is mass-produced in China and with previous sediment results from the same area. The occurrence of BDE-209 in aquatic species from South China suggests that BDE-209 appears to be more bioavailable than previously thought, and the environmental fate and safety of BDE-209 require further investigation and call for a thorough reassessment.

  20. Experimental Research on Flash Boiling Spray of Dimethyl Ether

    Peng Zhang


    The high-speed digital imaging technique is applied to observe the developing process of flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether at low ambient pressure, and the effects of nozzle opening pressure and nozzle hole diameter on the spray shape, spray tip penetration and spray angle during the injection are investigated. The experimental results show that the time when the vortex ring structure of flash boiling spray forms and its developing process are determined by the combined action of the bubble growth and breakup in the spray and the air drag on the leading end of spray;with the enhancement of nozzle opening pressure, the spray tip penetration increases and the spray angle decreases. The influence of nozzle hole diameter on the spray tip penetration is relatively complicated, the spray tip penetration is longer with a smaller nozzle hole diameter at the early stage of injection, while the situation is just opposite at the later stage of injection. This paper establishes that the variation of spray angle is consistent with that of nozzle hole diameter.

  1. Characteristics of ultrafine particles emitted from adimethyl ether (DME) engine


    Measurements of exhaust particle number concentration and size distribution from a dimethyl ether (DME) engine at different engine loads and speeds were carried out by using a two-stage dilution system and an SMPS. The results of the DME engine were compared with those of the original diesel engine. The fuel composition had significant effects on the exhaust particle size distribution, the total exhaust particle number and mass concentrations. Compared with those of the DME engine, the particle mass emissions of the diesel engine increased 5.7-17.7 times. At high engine speed (n=2200 r/min),compared with those of the DME engine, the total particle number emissions of the diesel engine increased 0.75-2.2 times, while the total particle number emissions of the diesel engine decreased by about 50%-80% for middle and high loads at middle engine speed (n=1400 r/min). Compared with those of the DME engine, the total exhaust particle number concentrations in the accumulation mode of the diesel engine increased 4.2-62.6 times and the exhaust particle geometric number mean diameters in the accumulation mode increased by about 10-30 nm. This correlated with higher oxygen level and lack of C-C bonds in DME. A lot of nucleation mode particles were emitted from the DME engine, this correlated with the processes of nucleation and condensation of the volatile and semi-volatile compounds in the exhaust gas.

  2. Methyltert-butyl Ether (MTBE Degradation by a Microbial Consortium

    S. B. Mortazavi


    Full Text Available Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE is added to reformulated gasoline to meet the 1990 Clean Air Act directives. Widespread use of MTBE in gasoline has resulted in groundwater contamination. Because of its undesirable effects on drinking water and ecologically harmful effects, MTBE removal has become a public health and environmental concern. In this study, we have isolated a mixed bacterial culture which is capable of degrading the MTBE as a sole carbon and energy source. This consortium was developed from mixed urban and petrochemical activated sludge after 4 month's enrichment. Enrichment was conducted in batch reactor, fitted with a screw cap and butyl rubber septum. MTBE concentration was measured in head space by gas chromatography. Degradation was determined by MTBE removal. MTBE biodegradation was depended to Dissolved Oxygen (DO concentration and not affected by the changes in concentration of trace element solution or other stimulator Substances. Degradation rates were nearly 1.478 mg MTBE h-1 g-1 (wet biomass and didn't change with MTBE concentration (up 500 mg L-1.

  3. Selective pressurized liquid extraction of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in fish.

    Losada, S; Santos, F J; Galceran, M T


    A fast and simple method for the analysis of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in fish samples was developed using a one-step extraction and clean-up by means of pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) combined with gas chromatography-ion trap tandem mass spectrometry (GC-ITMS-MS). The selective PLE method provided to obtain ready-to-analyse extracts without any additional clean-up step, using a sorbent as fat retainer inside the PLE cell. Several PLE operating conditions, such as solvent type, extraction temperature and time, number of cycles and type of fat retainer, were studied. Using Florisil as fat retainer, maximum recoveries of PBDEs (83-108%) with minimum presence of matrix-interfering compounds were obtained using a mixture of n-hexane:dichloromethane 90:10 (v/v) as solvent, an extraction temperature of 100 degrees C and a static extraction time of 5 min in combination with three static cycles. Quality parameters of the method were established using standards and fish samples. Limits of detection and quantification ranged from 10 to 34 pg g(-1) wet weight and between 34 and 68 pg g(-1) wet weight, respectively. In addition, good linearity (between 1 and 500 ng ml(-1)) and high precision (RSD %<15%) were achieved. The method was validated using the standard reference material SRM-1945 (whale blubber) and was then applied to the analysis of PBDEs in fish samples.

  4. Experimental research on flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether

    Zhang, Peng


    The high-speed digital imaging technique is applied to observe the developing process of flash boiling spray of dimethyl ether at low ambient pressure, and the effects of nozzle opening pressure and nozzle hole diameter on the spray shape, spray tip penetration and spray angle during the injection are investigated. The experimental results show that the time when the vortex ring structure of flash boiling spray forms and its developing process are determined by the combined action of the bubble growth and breakup in the spray and the air drag on the leading end of spray; with the enhancement of nozzle opening pressure, the spray tip penetration increases and the spray angle decreases. The influence of nozzle hole diameter on the spray tip penetration is relatively complicated, the spray tip penetration is longer with a smaller nozzle hole diameter at the early stage of injection, while the situation is just opposite at the later stage of injection. This paper establishes that the variation of spray angle is consistent with that of nozzle hole diameter.

  5. Maternal-infant transfer of polybrominated diphenyl ethers

    Hirai, T.; Fujimine, Y.; Watanabe, S. [Otsuka Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Tokushima (Japan); Nakamura, Y. [SRL Nishinihon, Fukuoka (Japan); Shimomura, H. [Shimomura OBGY Clinic, Fukuoka (Japan); Nagayama, J. [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan)


    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are widely used brominated flame retardants (BFRs) in plastics of automobiles, textile industry, television, personal computer, electronic appliances etc. The amount of production world-wide has reached 40,000 tons in 1992. In 1992 world-wide production of PBDEs reached 40,000 tons raising serious concern over the dangers of environmental pollution by BFRs. The toxicity of PBDEs was reported to be an antagonist of thyroid-hormone (T4) and inhibition to aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor. Since PBDEs are structurally similar to PCBs and therefore they work as an antagonist. Polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) demonstrate biological stability and high lipophilicity. As a result, PCBs used in the past and released into the environment, have been transmitted through the food chain and accumlated in the human body over time. In Japan, approximately 58,000 tons of PCBs were produced with the grade name of Kanechlor in between 1954 and 1971. In this study, all PCB congeners and 25 PBDE congeners (17, 25, 28, 30, 32, 33, 35, 37, 47, 49, 66, 71, 75, 77, 85, 99, 100, 116, 119, 126, 138, 153, 154, 155, 166) were analyzed by the method that combines high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS). The purpose of this study was to investigate whether congener-specific PCBs and PBDEs were transferred from pregnant women to their infants.

  6. Bioaccumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers by Tubifex Tubifex.

    Kolar, Boris; Arnuš, Lovro; Križanec, Boštjan; Peijnenburg, Willie; Kos Durjava, Mojca


    The selective uptake of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) by oligochaetes makes it possible to assess the bioaccumulation of individual congeners in commercial mixtures. Twenty-one congeners from three BDE commercial mixtures (TBDE-71, TBDE-79 and TBDE-83R) and as individual congeners (BDE-77, BDE-126, BDE-198 and BDE-204) were tested on Tubifex tubifex in accordance with the OECD TG 315 "Bioaccumulation in Sediment-Dwelling Benthic Oligochaetes". All the congeners that were spiked in the sediment were detected at the end of the uptake phase and at the end of the experiment. The bioaccumulation factor (BAF), the kinetic bioaccumulation factor (BAFK) and the biotasediment accumulation factor (BSAF) were calculated, and indicate a high bioaccumulation potential for tri- to hexa-BDEs and a lower bioaccumulation potential for hepta- to deca-BDEs. The penta-homologues BDE-99 and BDE-100 showed the highest BSAFs of 4.84 and 5.85 (BAFs of 7.34 and 9.01), while the nona- and deca-BDEs exhibit bioaccumulation in up to one-order-lower concentrations. The change in the bioaccumulation potential between the group of trito hexa-BDEs and hepta- to deca-BDEs correlated with the generally accepted molecular-mass threshold for the molecular transition through biological membranes (700 g/mol).

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers in birds of prey from Northern China.

    Chen, Da; Mai, Bixian; Song, Jie; Sun, Quanhui; Luo, Yong; Luo, Xiaojun; Zeng, Eddy Y; Hale, Robert C


    Birds of prey from Northern China (Beijing area) were examined for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). A total of 47 specimens from eight different species were analyzed. Muscle and liver were analyzed separately for each bird. Kidneys were pooled by species. Common kestrels exhibited the highest PBDE levels (mean muscle and liver concentrations of 12300 and 12200 ng/g lipid weight, respectively), with maxima in an individual bird of 31700 in muscle and 40900 ng/g lw in liver. Congener profiles differed between some species, but were generally dominated by the more brominated congeners (e.g., BDE-153, -209, -183, -207). BDE-209 was especially elevated compared to other published reports. Interspecies differences in congener concentrations and profiles may be due to diet, behavior, or biotransformation capacities. BDE-209 was detected in 79.4% of the samples. Common kestrels contained the highest BDE-209 levels (mean/maxima of 2150/6220 in muscle and 2870/12200 ng/g lw in liver). BDE-209 was the dominant congener in tissues from some buzzards, scops owls, and long-eared owls. It was the second most abundant congener in common kestrels. The remarkable levels and dominance of BDE-209 may relate to significant production, usage, or disposal of deca-containing products in China. These observations reinforce the growing view that organisms using terrestrial food chains may have greater exposure to BDE-209.

  8. Uptake, translocation, and debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers in maize

    Moming Zhao; Shuzhen Zhang; Sen Wang; Honglin Huang


    Uptake,translocation and debromination of three polybrominated diphenyl ethers(PBDEs),BDE-28,-47 and-99,in maize were studied in a hydroponic experiment.Roots took up most of the PBDEs in the culture solutions and more highly brominated PBDEs had a stronger uptake capability.PBDEs were detected in the stems and leaves of maize after exposure but rarely detected in the blank control plants.Furthermore,PBDE concentrations decreased from roots to stems and then to leaves,and a very clear decreasing gradient was found in segments upwards along the stem.These altogether provide substantiating evidence for the acropetal translocation of PBDEs in maize.More highly brominated PBDEs were translocated with more difficulty.Radial translocation of PBDEs from nodes to sheath inside maize was also observed.Both acropetal and radial translocations were enhanced at higher transpiration rates,suggesting that PBDE transport was probably driven by the transpiration stream.Debromination of PBDEs occurred in all parts of the maize,and debromination patterns of different parent PBDEs and in different parts of a plant were similar but with some differences.This study for the first time provides direct evidence for the acropetal translocation of PBDEs within plants,elucidates the process of PBDE transport and clarifies the debromination products of PBDEs in maize.

  9. Sex difference in polybrominated diphenyl ether concentrations of walleyes

    Madenjian, Charles P.; Trombka, Autumn W.; Rediske, Richard R.; Jude, David J.; O'Keefe, James P.


    Polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) concentrations were determined for mature male and mature female walleyes (Sander vitreus) sampled from the Saginaw Bay population during 2007. PBDE concentrations in prey fish caught in the Saginaw River, the primary tributary to Saginaw Bay, and in Saginaw Bay during 2005 and 2007 also were determined. Mature male and mature female walleyes averaged 70.3 ng/g and 24.8 ng/g, respectively, in ΣPBDE, which was equal to the sum of concentrations of six PBDE congeners (BDE-28, BDE-47, BDE-99, BDE-100, BDE-153, and BDE-154). This sex difference was likely due to males spending more time in the Saginaw River system than females. Prey fish captured in the Saginaw River were roughly ten times higher in ΣPBDE than those caught in Saginaw Bay. BDE-47 was the predominant congener in both walleyes and prey fish, and this congener contributed about 50%, on average, to ΣPBDE. Congener profiles differed significantly between the two sexes of walleyes. In contrast, congener profiles of the prey fish did not differ significantly between the river-caught fish and the bay-caught fish. One plausible explanation for these congener profile results was that net trophic transfer efficiencies of PBDEs to walleyes from their prey were similar for all congeners except BDE-28, and that diet composition differed between the two sexes of walleyes.

  10. Sesquiterpene amino ether and cytotoxic phenols from Dendrobium wardianum Warner.

    Zhang, Cong; Liu, Shou-Jin; Yang, Liu; Yuan, Ming-Yan; Li, Jin-Yu; Hou, Bo; Li, Hong-Mei; Yang, Xing-Zhi; Ding, Chang-Chun; Hu, Jiang-Miao


    A new bibenzyl derivative, dendrocandin V (1) and a new sesquiterpene amino ether, wardianumine A (2), together with eleven known compounds, including phenanthrenes (denbinobin (3), 9,10-dihydro-denbinobin (4), mostatin (5), loddigesiinols A (6)), bibenzyls (moscatilin (7), 5-hydroxy-3,4'-dimethoxybibenzyl (8), 3,4-dihydroxy-5,4'-dimethoxy bibenzyl (9), dendrocandin A (10), gigantol (11), dendrocandin U (12)) and an alkaloids (dihydroshihunine, 13) were isolated from the EtOH extraction of stems of Dendrobium wardianum Warner. Isolation of the new compound 2 indicated that N,N-dimethylethanolamine as the key adduction in the synthesis of dendroxine and its analogs in Dendrobium species. The hypothetical biosynthetic pathway of 2 was then postulated. Inspired by literature and traditional usage of the herbal medicine, some compounds were sent for cytotoxic activity and the results indicated that compounds 1, 3, 4, 5 showed cytotoxic activities against five human cancer cell lines (HL-60, A-549, SMMC-7721, MCF-7, and SW-480) with IC50 from 2.33-38.48μM. Among those compounds, 3 and 4 showed cell line selectivity with strong activity comparable to DDP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Thermal Behavior and Thermal Safety of Nitrate Glycerol Ether Cellulose

    XU Si-yu; ZHAO Feng-qi; YI Jian-hua; GAO Hong-xu; SHAO Zi-qiang; HAO Hai-xia; HU Rong-zu; PEI Qing


    The thermal behavior,nonisothermal decomposition reaction kinetics and specific heat capacity of nitrate glycerol ether cellulose(NGEC) were determined by thermogravimetric analysis(TGA),differential scanning calorimetry(DSC) and microealorimetry.The apparent activity energy(Ea),reaction mechanism function,quadratic equation of specific heat capacity(Cp) with temperature were obtained.The kinetic parameters of the decomposition reaction are Ea=170.2 kJ/mol and lg(A/s-1)=16.3.The kinetic equation isf(a)=(4/3)(l-a)[-In(l-a)]1/4.The specific heat capacity equation is Cp=1.285-6.276× 10-3T+1.581 × 10-5T2(283 K<T<353 K).With these parameters,the thermal safety properties of NGEC were studied,such as the self-accelerating decomposition temperature(TsADT),critical temperature of thermal explosion(Tb) and adiabatic time-to-explosion(tTlad).The results of the thermal safety evaluation of NGEC are:TSADT=459.6 K,Tb=492.8 K,tTlad=0.8 s.

  12. Crown ethers and phase transfer catalysis in polymer science

    Carraher, Charles


    Phase transfer catalysis or interfacial catalysis is a syn­ thetic technique involving transport of an organic or inorganic salt from a solid or aqueous phase into an organic liquid where reaction with an organic-soluble substrate takes place. Over the past 15 years there has been an enormous amount of effort invested in the development of this technique in organic synthe­ sis. Several books and numerous review articles have appeared summarizing applications in which low molecular weight catalysts are employed. These generally include either crown ethers or onium salts of various kinds. While the term phase transfer catalysis is relatively new, the concept of using a phasetrans­ fer agent (PTA) is much older~ Both Schnell and Morgan employed such catalysts in synthesis of polymeric species in the early 1950's. Present developments are really extensions of these early applications. It has only been within the last several years that the use of phase transfer processes have been employed in polymer synthesis...

  13. Development and evaluation of stavudine niosome by ether injection method

    H. M. Shreedevi


    Full Text Available The main objective of the present study was to encapsulate Stavudine in niosomes for achieving prolonged release & longer duration of action. Niosome are now widely studied as an alternative delivery system to liposome. An increasing number of non ionic surfactant has been found to form vesicles, capable of entrapping hydrophilic and hydrophobic molecules. stavudine drug has shorter half life, Negligible protein binding. This drawback was decreased by formulating it as niosomes. In our present study we incorporated Stavudine into niosome by using ether injection method. In evaluation study the effect of the varying composition of non ionic surfactant and cholesterol on the properties such as zeta potential, drug content, vesicle size and drug release were studied. The result of the physiochemical characterisation and in vitro permeation studies of the prepared vesicles by dialysis membrane to get the idea of drug release. From the present investigation, it can be concluded that the developed niosome formulation of stavudine has shown great potential in the treatment of HIV by providing a prolonged release profile.

  14. Preparation and evaluation of some amide ether carboxylate surfactants

    M.M.A. El-Sukkary


    Full Text Available A homologous series of new mild surfactants, namely: Alkyl amide ether carboxylates surfactants (AEC RCO–NHCH2CH2O (CH2CH2O6CH2COONa, were synthesized by esterification, amidation, ethoxylation and carboxymethylation reaction steps of fatty acids (Lauric, Myristic, palmitic, stearic, oleic or linoleic. The chemical structures of the prepared compounds were confirmed using different spectroscopic techniques, FTIR spectroscopy, mass spectra and HNMR. The surface properties including surface and interfacial tensions, foaming height, emulsification power, calcium ion stability, stability to hydrolysis and critical micelle concentration (cmc were determined. The study of their surface properties showed their stability in hard water and in acidic and alkaline media. These compounds have high calcium ion stability. The low foaming power could have an application in the dyeing auxiliary industry. The lower values of the interfacial tension values indicate the ability of using these surfactants in several applications as corrosion inhibitors and biocides. The data revealed various advantages and potentials as a main surfactant as well as co- surfactants.

  15. Phthalates and polybrominated diphenyl ethers in retail stores

    Xu, Ying; Liang, Yirui; Urquidi, Jorge R.; Siegel, Jeffrey A.


    Retail stores contain a wide range of products that can emit a variety of indoor pollutants. Among these chemicals, phthalate esters and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are two important categories, because they are extensively used as additives in consumer products and associated with serious health concerns. This study measured six phthalate and 14 PBDE compounds inside of 12 retail stores in Texas and Pennsylvania, U.S. Phthalates and PBDEs were widely found in the retail environment, indicating that they are ubiquitous indoor air pollutants. DEP, DnBP, and DEHP were the most abundant phthalates, with DnBP showing the highest concentration (0.23 ± 0.36 μg m-3). PBDEs were dominated by BDE-28, -99, and -209, having concentrations as high as 0.85 ± 1.99 ng m-3 (BDE-99). The levels of phthalates and PBDEs measured in this study are comparable to concentrations found in previous investigations of residential buildings, with phthalates showing lower concentrations and PBDEs exhibiting higher concentrations in retail stores. The potential co-occurrence of phthalates was not as strong as that of PBDEs, suggesting that phthalates might have more diverse sources. Whole building emission rates were calculated and showed similar patterns of variations as indoor air concentrations, suggestion the diversity of indoor sources of phthalates and PBDEs in retail environments.

  16. Searching for Trans Ethyl Methyl Ether in Orion KL

    Tercero, B; López, A; Brouillet, N; Kolesniková, L; Motiyenko, R A; Margulès, L; Alonso, J L; Guillemin, J -C


    We report on the tentative detection of $trans$ Ethyl Methyl Ether (tEME), $t-CH_3CH_2OCH_3$, through the identification of a large number of rotational lines from each one of the spin states of the molecule towards Orion KL. We also search for $gauche$-$trans$-n-propanol, $Gt-n-CH_3CH_2CH_2OH$, an isomer of tEME in the same source. We have identified lines of both species in the IRAM 30m line survey and in the ALMA Science Verification data. We have obtained ALMA maps to establish the spatial distribution of these species. Whereas tEME mainly arises from the compact ridge component of Orion, Gt-n-propanol appears at the emission peak of ethanol (south hot core). The derived column densities of these species at the location of their emission peaks are $\\leq(4.0\\pm0.8)\\times10^{15} cm^{-2}$ and $\\leq(1.0\\pm0.2)\\times10^{15} cm^{-2}$ for tEME and Gt-n-propanol, respectively. The rotational temperature is $\\sim100 K$ for both molecules. We also provide maps of $CH_3OCOH$, $CH_3CH_2OCOH$, $CH_3OCH_3$, $CH_3OH$, a...

  17. 瑞典HMS工业网络有限公司——现成的EtherCAT 接口嵌入式通讯模块快速实现EtherCAT



  18. ARM9-based Design of Industrial Ethernet EtherCAT Slave Station%基于ARM9的工业以太网EtherCAT从站设计

    汪雅楠; 谭南林



  19. ether ether ketone



    Aug 10, 2007 ... within the temperature range of fuel cell application and methanol cross-over lower than ... FTIR spectra were recorded on a Perkin Elmer Paragon 1000 .... from room temperature up to 100 °C. The temperature dependence.

  20. Monte Carlo predictions of phase equilibria and structure for dimethyl ether + sulfur dioxide and dimethyl ether + carbon dioxide.

    Kamath, Ganesh; Ketko, MaryBeth; Baker, Gary A; Potoff, Jeffrey J


    A new force field for dimethyl ether (DME) based on the Lennard-Jones (LJ) 12-6 plus point charge functional form is presented in this work. This force field reproduces experimental saturated liquid and vapor densities, vapor pressures, heats of vaporization, and critical properties to within the statistical uncertainty of the combined experimental and simulation measurements for temperatures between the normal boiling and critical point. Critical parameters and normal boiling point are predicted to within 0.1% of experiment. This force field is used in grand canonical histogram reweighting Monte Carlo simulations to predict the pressure composition diagrams for the binary mixtures DME + SO(2) at 363.15 K and DME + CO(2) at 335.15 and 308.15 K. For the DME + SO(2) mixture, simulation is able to qualitatively reproduce the minimum pressure azeotropy observed experimentally for this mixture, but quantitative errors exist, suggesting that multibody effects may be important in this system. For the DME + CO(2) mixture, simulation is able to predict the pressure-composition behavior within 1% of experimental data. Simulations in the isobaric-isothermal ensemble are used to determine the microstructure of DME + SO(2) and DME + CO(2) mixtures. The DME + SO(2) shows weak pairing between DME and SO(2) molecules, while no specific pairing or aggregation is observed for mixtures of DME + CO(2).

  1. Effect of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE 209) and dibromodiphenyl ether (BDE 15) on soil microbial activity and bacterial community composition

    Liu Lu, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zhu Wei [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Xiao Lin, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Yang Liuyan, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Resource Reuse, School of the Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China)


    There is now increasing concern regarding the effect of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) on the environment. These compounds are widely used as fire retardants and by the electronic industry. Our study examined the effects of adding different doses of BDE 15 and BDE 209 on the soil microbial activities and function by using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and soil enzymatic activity analyses. Soils were spiked with 1, 10, and 100 mg kg{sup -1} BDE 209 and BDE 15, respectively, and incubated for up to 180 days. No degradation of BDE 209 was observed; however, about 40% of the added BDE 15 underwent declining extractable concentration. Bacterial counts were significantly higher in the microcosms amended with BDE 15, while the suppression effect increased as the BDE 209 concentration increased. Pseudomonas, Bacillus and uncultured bacteria dominated the bacterial communities in all soil treatments, and PCA analysis showed that high doses of BDE 209 and BDE 15 altered the soil microbial community structure. This study provides new information on the effect of higher and lower PBDEs on the soil microbial community in an aerobic environment.

  2. EtherCAT总线在伺服运动控制系统中的应用%Application of EtherCAT fieldbus in servo motion control system

    李春木; 章明众; 郑新武; 李寅; 陈永明


    To achieve the application of EtherCAT field bus in servo motion control system, some research and tests were done based on the Gve-axis motion control system. ADX CNC system was used as the master controller, which is a pure software open CNC system designed by Amoy Dynamics (Xiamen )Co., Ltd.. The slave station was consisted by EtherCAT slave controller ET1100 and digital signal processing (DSP). Research results show that the real-time transmission of signal and accurate position control can be achieved using the one-master and one-slave EtherCAT network structure.%为实现EthercAT现场总线在伺服运动控制系统中的具体应用,以五轴运动控制系统的研发为背景做了研究与测试.系统主站控制器采用爱迪纳控制技术(厦门)有限公司的ADX NC纯软件开放式数控系统,从站设备由EtherCAT从站接口控制器ET1100和DSP芯片组成,并由此构建了一主一从的EthercAT网络结构.研究结果表明:该技术可实现系统的实时信号传输和精确位置控制.

  3. Design and Implementation Based on EtherCAT master of DSP and PowerPC%基于DSP和PowerPC的EtherCAT主站控制器设计

    李建峰; 苏金涛


    文章介绍了EtherCAT总线的原理与相关协议,根据协议的内容给出EtherCAT总线主站设计方案,通过对PowerPC处理器MPC5200和DSP信号处理器TMS320C6455的研究,设计出以该器件为核心控制的Ethercat主站硬件平台,并完成主站协议软件在MPC5200的具体实现。%This paper shows the principle of the EtherCAT bus and the agreements. According to the contents of the agreement, the EtherCAT bus master design scheme is achieved. Through the research of the PowerPC processor MPC5200 and DSP signal processor and TMS320C6455, we design Ethercat mainstation hardware platform, and as the core of the device control and com?pile a specific implementation of the master protocol software MPC5200.

  4. Construction of the Embedded Real-Time EtherCAT Master Based on the AM3358 Processer%基于AM3358处理器的嵌入式实时EtherCAT主站的构建∗

    李备备; 栾勇; 王超; 王喆; 郑飂默


    EtherCAT, as an emerging fieldbus technology, is increasingly applied in the field of numerical control, the key technical difficulties of application EtherCAT into CNC system is to build EtherCAT mas-ter. For this reason, a solution of building embedded EtherCAT master based on AM3358 processor is pres-ented. Firstly, using RT Patch implements the embedded real-time Linux system on AM3358 processor plat-form. Then using IgH EtherCAT Master open source components builds embedded EtherCAT master on that system. Finally, the embedded EtherCAT master is been tested in CNC system. The result shows that the embedded EtherCAT master can achieve precise multi axis synchronous control, can meet the requirement of real-time and synchronization of CNC system.%工业以太网现场总线EtherCAT作为新兴的现场总线技术被越来越多的应用到数控领域,其中将EtherCAT总线应用到数控系统中的关键技术难点是构建EtherCAT主站。基于此,文章提出了一种基于AM3358处理器构建嵌入式EtherCAT主站的解决方案。首先采用RT Patch在AM3358处理器平台上实现嵌入式实时Linux系统,然后使用IgH EtherCAT Master开源组件在其上构建嵌入式实时EtherCAT主站。最后在数控系统中对嵌入式EtherCAT主站进行了测试,测试结果表明,构建的嵌入式实时EtherCAT主站可以满足数控系统实时性和多轴控制同步性的要求。

  5. 适用于工业4.0和物联网的EtherCAT——EtherCAT技术协会闪耀2015上海工博会



  6. SmI(2)-induced reductive cyclizations for the synthesis of cyclic ethers and applications in natural product synthesis.

    Nakata, Tadashi


    This tutorial review covers SmI(2)-induced reductive cyclizations of beta-alkoxyacrylate, beta-alkoxyvinyl sulfone, and beta-alkoxyvinyl sulfoxide, as methods for efficient construction of cyclic ethers. These cyclizations were developed as tools to aid in the total synthesis of marine polycyclic ethers, whose complex, synthetically challenging structures and potent bioactivities have attracted the attention of numerous synthetic organic chemists. Applications of the methods to total syntheses of various natural products containing cyclic ether are also described.

  7. Radical cation salts induced domino reaction of anilines with enol ethers: Synthesis of 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinoline derivatives

    Xiao Dong Jia; Yan Ren; Cong Dde Huo; Wen Juan Wang; Xiang Ning Chen; Qiong Fu; Xi Cun Wang


    A domino reaction of anilines with cyclic and acyclic enol ethers induced by catalytic amounts of TBPA+ (5 mol%) was investigated and a series of 2,4-disubstituted-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines were synthesized. Different from cyclic enol ethers, when acyclic enol ethers were used in the reaction, they serve as surrogates of acetaldehyde, producing a series of 2-methyl-4-anilino-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroquinolines. A single electron transfer mechanism was proposed to rationalize the products formation.

  8. Gold-catalyzed intermolecular coupling of sulfonylacetylene with allyl ethers: [3,3]- and [1,3]-rearrangements

    Jungho Jun


    Full Text Available Gold-catalyzed intermolecular couplings of sulfonylacetylenes with allyl ethers are reported. A cooperative polarization of alkynes both by a gold catalyst and a sulfonyl substituent resulted in an efficient intermolecular tandem carboalkoxylation. Reactions of linear allyl ethers are consistent with the [3,3]-sigmatropic rearrangement mechanism, while those of branched allyl ethers provided [3,3]- and [1,3]-rearrangement products through the formation of a tight ion–dipole pair.

  9. Methanol and 2-methyl-1-propanol (isobutanol) coupling to ethers and dehydration over Nafion H: Selectivity, kinetics, and mechanism

    Nunan, J.G.; Klier, K.; Herman, R.G. (Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, PA (United States))


    The dehydration of a mixture of methanol and isobutanol has been studied over the sulfonic acid Nafion H catalyst. Dehydration products consisted of dimethyl ether (DME), di-isobutyl ether (DIBE), methyl-isobutyl ether (MIBE), butenes, octenes, and traces of methyl-tertiarybutyl ether (MTBE). At low temperatures and high alcohol pressures (P [ge] 150 kPa), the dehydration product slate was dominated by ether formation with selectivity within the ethers significantly in favor of the mixed ether, MIBE. The rates of ether and butene formation as a function of alcohol pressure could be described by Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics in which competitive adsorption of the two alcohols on the surface -SO[sub 3]H sites was the dominant feature. The kinetics of isobutanol dehydration to isobutene were consistent with a dual-site mechanism involving the cooperative action of a free surface -SO[sub 3]H site and an adjacent adsorbed alcohol molecule. Dehydration to ethers was consistent with the reaction of two adsorbed alcohols, also by a dual-site mechanism. As a consequence, dehydration to symmetric ethers showed saturation-type kinetics as a function of alcohol pressure, while the rate of isobutene formation went through a distinct maximum. Due to the competitive adsorption of methanol and isobutanol, the mixed ether MIBE was formed at a maximum rate with an optimum ratio of partial pressures of the two alcohols. The high selectivity to MIBE was explained by stronger adsorption of isobutanol on the catalyst surface as compared to methanol. The absence of MTBE and the predominance of products such as MIBE and 2,5-dimethylhexene suggests that dehydration to give free carbenium ions that subsequently rearrange to the more stable tertiary intermediate was not occurring. It was proposed that the alcohols react with the -SO[sub 3]H groups to give oxonium ions or esters. These intermediates couple to give the product ethers or octenes. 24 refs., 13 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Molecular and crystal structure of gossypol tetramethyl ether with an unknown solvate

    Muhabbat Honkeldieva


    Full Text Available The title compound, C34H38O8 (systematic name: 5,5′-diisopropyl-2,2′,3,3′-tetramethoxy-7,7′-dimethyl-2H,2′H-8,8′-bi[naphtho[1,8-bc]furan]-4,4′-diol, has been obtained from a gossypol solution in a mixture of dimethyl sulfate and methanol. The molecule is situated on a twofold rotation axis, so the asymmetric unit contains one half-molecule. In the molecule, the hydroxy groups are involved in intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds, and the two naphthyl fragments are inclined each to other by 83.8 (1°. In the crystal, weak C—H...O and C—H...π interactions consolidate the packing, which exhibits channels with an approximate diameter of 6 Å extending along the c-axis direction. These channels are filled with highly disordered solvent molecules, so their estimated scattering contribution was subtracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE option in PLATON [Spek, A. L. (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18].

  11. Mol-ecular and crystal structure of gossypol tetra-methyl ether with an unknown solvate.

    Honkeldieva, Muhabbat; Talipov, Samat; Mardanov, Rustam; Ibragimov, Bakhtiyar


    The title compound, C34H38O8 (systematic name: 5,5'-diisopropyl-2,2',3,3'-tetra-meth-oxy-7,7'-dimethyl-2H,2'H-8,8'-bi-[naphtho-[1,8-bc]furan]-4,4'-diol), has been obtained from a gossypol solution in a mixture of dimethyl sulfate and methanol. The mol-ecule is situated on a twofold rotation axis, so the asymmetric unit contains one half-mol-ecule. In the mol-ecule, the hy-droxy groups are involved in intra-molecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, and the two naphthyl fragments are inclined each to other by 83.8 (1)°. In the crystal, weak C-H⋯O and C-H⋯π inter-actions consolidate the packing, which exhibits channels with an approximate diameter of 6 Å extending along the c-axis direction. These channels are filled with highly disordered solvent mol-ecules, so their estimated scattering contribution was subtracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE option in PLATON [Spek, A. L. (2015). Acta Cryst. C71, 9-18].

  12. Diluted isoflurane as a suitable alternative for diethyl ether for rat anaesthesia in regular toxicology studies.

    Nagate, Toshiaki; Chino, Tomonobu; Nishiyama, Chizuru; Okuhara, Daisuke; Tahara, Toru; Maruyama, Yoshimasa; Kasahara, Hiroko; Takashima, Kayoko; Kobayashi, Sayaka; Motokawa, Yoshiyuki; Muto, Shin-ichi; Kuroda, Junji


    Despite its explosive properties and toxicity to both animals and humans, diethyl ether is an agent long used in Japan in the anaesthesia jar method of rat anaesthetises. However, in response to a recent report from the Science Council of Japan condemning diethyl ether as acceptable practice, we searched for an alternative rat anaesthesia method that provided data continuous with pre-existing regular toxicology studies already conducted under diethyl ether anaesthesia. For this, we examined two candidates; 30% isoflurane diluted with propylene glycol and pentobarbitone. Whereas isoflurane is considered to be one of the representatives of modern volatile anaesthetics, the method of propylene glycol-diluted 30% isoflurane used in this study was our modification of a recently reported method revealed to have several advantages as an inhalation anaesthesia. Intraperitoneal pentobarbitone has long been accepted as a humane method in laboratory animal anaesthesiology. These 2 modalities were scrutinized in terms of consistency of haematology and blood chemistry with previous results using ether. We found that pentobarbitone required a much longer induction time than diethyl ether, which is suspected to be the cause of fluctuations in several haematological and blood chemical results. Conversely, only calcium ion concentration showed a slight difference from traditional results in the case of 30% isoflurane. Additionally, serum prolactin and corticosterone levels indicated that 30% isoflurane induced less stress than ether, confirming that 30% isoflurane can both provide results consistent with diethyl ether, while at the same time remove its disadvantages. As such 30% isoflurane appears to be a strong alternative anaesthetic agent for future regular toxicology studies in Japan.

  13. Effects of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties and emissions in a diesel engine

    Gomez-Cuenca, F.; Gomez-Marin, M. [Compania Logistica de Hidrocarburos (CLH), Central Laboratory, Mendez Alvaro 44, 28045 Madrid (Spain); Folgueras-Diaz, M.B., E-mail: [Department of Energy, University of Oviedo, Independencia 13, 33004 Oviedo (Spain)


    Highlights: {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel fuel properties. {yields} Effect of ethylene glycol ethers on diesel engine specific consumption and emissions. {yields} Blends with {<=}4 wt.% of oxygen do not change substantially diesel fuel quality. {yields} Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% of oxygen reduce CO and HC emissions, but not smoke. - Abstract: The effect of ethylene glycol ethers on both the diesel fuel characteristics and the exhaust emissions (CO, NO{sub x}, smoke and hydrocarbons) from a diesel engine was studied. The ethers used were monoethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE), monoethylene glycol butyl ether (EGBE), diethylene glycol ethyl ether (DEGEE). The above effect was studied in two forms: first by determining the modification of base diesel fuel properties by using blends with oxygen concentration around 4 wt.%, and second by determining the emission reductions for blends with low oxygen content (1 wt.%) and with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen content. The addition of DEGEE enhances base diesel fuel cetane number, but EGEE and EGBE decrease it. For concentrations of {>=}4 wt.% of oxygen, EGEE and diesel fuel can show immiscibility problems at low temperatures ({<=}0 {sup o}C). Also, every oxygenated compound, according to its boiling point, modifies the distillation curve at low temperatures and the distillate percentage increases. These compounds have a positive effect on diesel fuel lubricity, and slightly decrease its viscosity. Blends with 1 and 2.5 wt.% oxygen concentrations were used in order to determine their influence on emissions at both full and medium loads and different engine speeds. Generally, all compounds help to reduce CO, and hydrocarbon emissions, but not smoke. The best results were obtained for blends with 2.5 wt.% of oxygen. At this concentration, the additive efficiency in decreasing order was EGEE > DEGEE > EGBE for CO emissions and DGEE > EGEE > EGBE for hydrocarbon emissions. For NO{sub x}, both its behaviour and the

  14. Wholly Aromatic Ether-imides. Potential Materials for n-Type Semiconductors

    Dingemans, Theo J.; St.Clair, Terry L.; Samulski, Edward T.; Bushnell, Dennis M. (Technical Monitor)


    We report on the synthesis and characterization of a novel series low-molar-mass ether-imide rod-shaped model compounds. All ether-imides were obtained by terminating the appropriate rigid core dianhydride, i.e. pyromellitic dianhydride (PMDA), 1,4,5,8-naphthalenetetracarboxylic dianhydride (NDA), 3,3',4,4'-biphenyltetracarboxylic dianhydride (BPDA), and 3,3,4,4'-oxydiphthalic dianhydride (ODPA) with three flexible aryl-ether tails of different chain length. The mono-functional aryl-ether amines, i.e. 4-(3-phenoxy-phenoxy)-phenylamine (2) and 4-(3-phenoxy-3-phenoxy-phenoxy)-phenylamine (4), were synthesized using standard fluoro-displacement and Ullmann condensation techniques. The corresponding ether-imide model compounds were obtained in high yields using a one-step solution imidization procedure. Increasing the number of meta-substituted aryl-ether units reduces the melt transition temperatures and at the same time it increases the solubility of the model compounds. Most model compounds are crystalline solids and form isotropic melts upon heating. 2,7-Bis-(-4-phenoxy-phenyl)-benzo[Imn][3,8]phenanthroline1,3,6,8-tetraone (NDA-n0), however, displays a smectic A (SA) when cooled from the isotropic phase, followed by what appears to be either a highly ordered smectic phase or a, columnar phase. This is the first example, known to date, in which a mesophase is detected in a wholly aromatic ether-imide compound. For all compounds we present spectroscopic data and X-ray diffraction data. Cyclic voltammetry was used to determine the redox behavior and pertinent energy levels of the model compounds.

  15. EtherCAT智能从站设计与实现%The design and implementation of the intelligent EtherCAT slave station

    张英杰; 章政


    将计算机网络中的以太网技术应用于工业自动化领域构成工业以太网,是当前工业控制现场总线技术的一个重要发展方向。德国赫优讯自动化系统有限公司开发的comX是支持所有主流实时以太网协议的嵌入式模块。工业以太网系统EtherCAT现在已成为诸多机器人中使用的过程通讯标准。本文针对EtherCAT嵌入式工业以太网进行应用研究并完成了基于comX的EtherCAT高级智能从站设计与实现。%To apply the Ethernet technology of the computer network to the industrial automation to form the industrial ethernet.This is an important development direction of the fieldbus technology in industrial control.The comX is a flush bonding module invented by the Hilscher GmbH which supports the major Real-time Ethernet protocol.The EtherCAT Industrial Ethernet system has become the communication standard in many kinds of robots.The applied research in the embedded ethernet(EtherCAT)and the design of advanced intelligent slave station base on the comX are introduced.


    Elana M. Chapman; Shirish Bhide; Jennifer Stefanik; Howard Glunt; Andre L. Boehman; Allen Homan; David Klinikowski


    The objectives of this research and demonstration program are to convert a campus shuttle bus to operation on dimethyl ether, a potential ultra-clean alternative diesel fuel. To accomplish this objective, this project includes laboratory evaluation of a fuel conversion strategy, as well as, field demonstration of the DME-fueled shuttle bus. Since DME is a fuel with no lubricity (i.e., it does not possess the lubricating quality of diesel fuel), conventional fuel delivery and fuel injection systems are not compatible with dimethyl ether. Therefore, to operate a diesel engine on DME one must develop a fuel-tolerant injection system, or find a way to provide the necessary lubricity to the DME. In this project, they have chosen the latter strategy in order to achieve the objective with minimal need to modify the engine. Their strategy is to blend DME with diesel fuel, to obtain the necessary lubricity to protect the fuel injection system and to achieve low emissions. The bulk of the efforts over the past year were focused on the conversion of the campus shuttle bus. This process, started in August 2001, took until April 2002 to complete. The process culminated in an event to celebrate the launching of the shuttle bus on DME-diesel operation on April 19, 2002. The design of the system on the shuttle bus was patterned after the system developed in the engine laboratory, but also was subjected to a rigorous failure modes effects analysis (FMEA, referred to by Air Products as a ''HAZOP'' analysis) with help from Dr. James Hansel of Air Products. The result of this FMEA was the addition of layers of redundancy and over-pressure protection to the system on the shuttle bus. The system became operational in February 2002. Preliminary emissions tests and basic operation of the shuttle bus took place at the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute's test track facility near the University Park airport. After modification and optimization of the system on

  17. 德国倍福推出EtherCAT系列实时工业以太网



  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ether congener (BDE-100) induces mitochondrial impairment.

    Pereira, Lílian Cristina; de Souza, Alecsandra Oliveira; Dorta, Daniel Junqueira


    Brominated flame retardants are used in various consumer products to increase their resistance to fire and/or high temperatures. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are representatives of this class and among the most widely used congeners, and BDE-100 is produced on a large scale. There is a lack of toxicological data about these compounds, which has recently become a matter of concern to the scientific community. The mitochondria are recognized as the main energy-producing organelles, as well as playing a vital role in the maintenance of many cell functions. Therefore, mitochondria were used in the present work as an experimental model to evaluate the effects of the BDE-100 congeners at concentrations ranging from 0.1 μM to 50 μM. The results showed that high concentrations of BDE-100 were able to induce mitochondrial alterations. It was observed that the substance had an affinity for the hydrophilic portion of the mitochondrial membrane, as monitored by ANS, inhibiting the glutamate + malate-stimulated mitochondrial respiration and also inducing dissipation of the mitochondrial membrane potential, deregulation of calcium homoeostasis and mitochondrial swelling, the latter being insensitive to cyclosporin A (CsA) but partially inhibited by Ruthenium Red and N-ethyl maleimide. In addition, a significant reduction in mitochondrial ATP content was found, but on the other hand, no oxidative stress was observed after exposure of the mitochondria to BDE-100. These results show the key role of mitochondria in the cytotoxicity induced by BDE-100.

  19. Unusual extraction behaviour of crown ether when intercalated in bentonite

    Sivaiah, M.V.; Krishna, R.M.; Murthy, G.S. [Andhra Univ., Nuclear Chemistry Section, Waltair (India); Venkatesan, K.A. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Fuel Chemistry Div., Kapakkam (India); Sasidhar, P. [Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Safety Research Institute, Kalpakkam (India)


    Di-cyclo-hexano-18-crown-6 (DCH18C6) has been intercalated in bentonite and the product, Ben-Crown, characterized by micro-elemental analysis, TG-DTA analysis, X-ray diffraction and IR spectroscopy. The permanent negative charge present in the bentonite layer has been exploited for more efficient extraction of cesium and strontium by Ben-Crown at nitric acid concentrations ({<=} 1.0 M) that gave only a meagre extraction when either DCH18C6 or bentonite alone were employed. The extraction of cesium and strontium has been investigated as a function of time, temperature, and the concentrations of nitric acid, metal ion and sodium nitrate. An unusual extraction phenomenon was observed at low concentrations of nitric acid ({<=} 1.0 M) in the absence of any organo-philic agents. Rapid extraction of the metal ion was followed by the establishment of an equilibrium, which occurred after 150 min. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) of 599 and 1007 ml g{sup -1} were obtained, respectively, for the extraction of cesium and strontium from 0.1 M nitric acid by Ben-Crown; K{sub d} decreased with an increase in the temperature or in the concentrations of nitric acid and sodium nitrate. The extraction data were fitted by the Langmuir adsorption model and the apparent experimental exchange capacity obtained by linear regression analysis was in good agreement with the amount of crown ether (0.22 mmol g{sup -1}) intercalated in bentonite. The enthalpy change ({delta}H{sup 0}) for the extraction of cesium and strontium was found to be exothermic. (authors)

  20. Dimethyl ether oxidation at elevated temperatures (295-600 K).

    Rosado-Reyes, Claudette M; Francisco, Joseph S; Szente, Joseph J; Maricq, M Matti; Frøsig Østergaard, Lars


    Dimethyl ether (DME) has been proposed for use as an alternative fuel or additive in diesel engines and as a potential fuel in solid oxide fuel cells. The oxidation chemistry of DME is a key element in understanding its role in these applications. The reaction between methoxymethyl radicals and O(2) has been examined over the temperature range 295-600 K and at pressures of 20-200 Torr. This reaction has two product pathways. The first produces methoxymethyl peroxy radicals, while the second produces OH radicals and formaldehyde molecules. Real-time kinetic measurements are made by transient infrared spectroscopy to monitor the yield of three main products-formaldehyde, methyl formate, and formic acid-to determine the branching ratio for the CH(3)OCH(2) + O(2) reaction pathways. The temperature and pressure dependence of this reaction is described by a Lindemann and Arrhenius mechanism. The branching ratio is described by f = 1/(1 + A(T)[M]), where A(T) = (1.6(+2.4)(-1.0) x 10(-20)) exp((1800 +/- 400)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1). The temperature dependent rate constant of the methoxymethyl peroxy radical self-reaction is calculated from the kinetics of the formaldehyde and methyl formate product yields, k(4) = (3.0 +/- 2.1) x 10(-13) exp((700 +/- 250)/T) cm(3) molecule(-1) s(-1). The experimental and kinetics modeling results support a strong preference for the thermal decomposition of alkoxy radicals versus their reaction with O(2) under our laboratory conditions. These characteristics of DME oxidation with respect to temperature and pressure might provide insight into optimizing solid oxide fuel cell operating conditions with DME in the presence of O(2) to maximize power outputs.

  1. A Theoretical Study on Reductive Debromination of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers

    Xian-Fei Huang


    Full Text Available Recent progress has been made in the reductive debromination of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs by nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI. To better understand the mechanism of this reaction, seven selected BDE congeners and their anions were investigated at the density functional theory (DFT level using four different methods, including B3LYP/6-31G(d, B3LYP/6-31+G(d, B3LYP/6-31G(d,p and B3LYP/6-311G(d,p. The cleaved C–Br bonds observed in the equilibrium structures of anionic PBDEs were adopted as the probe of the susceptible debromination position of PBDEs in the presence of nZVI, and the proposed major reaction pathways based on our calculations can satisfactorily conform to the reported experimental results. The debromination preference is theoretically evaluated as meta-Br > ortho-Br > para-Br. In addition, both the calculated frontier orbital energies and adiabatic electronic affinities were found to be highly related to their experimental reductive debromination rate constants. The highest linear regression coefficient was observed in the case using the energy of lowest unoccupied molecular orbital as the molecular descriptor obtained from B3LYP/6-31G(d (R2 = 0.961, n = 7 or B3LYP/6-31G(d,p (R2 = 0.961, n = 7. The results clearly showed the evidence of an electron transfer mechanism associated with this reductive debromination reaction.

  2. Microbial electricity generation enhances decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209) degradation.

    Yang, Yonggang; Xu, Meiying; He, Zhili; Guo, Jun; Sun, Guoping; Zhou, Jizhong


    Due to environmental persistence and biotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), it is urgent to develop potential technologies to remediate PBDEs. Introducing electrodes for microbial electricity generation to stimulate the anaerobic degradation of organic pollutants is highly promising for bioremediation. However, it is still not clear whether the degradation of PBDEs could be promoted by this strategy. In this study, we hypothesized that the degradation of PBDEs (e.g., BDE-209) would be enhanced under microbial electricity generation condition. The functional compositions and structures of microbial communities in closed-circuit microbial fuel cell (c-MFC) and open-circuit microbial fuel cell (o-MFC) systems for BDE-209 degradation were detected by a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 4.0, and linked with PBDE degradations. The results indicated that distinctly different microbial community structures were formed between c-MFCs and o-MFCs, and that lower concentrations of BDE-209 and the resulting lower brominated PBDE products were detected in c-MFCs after 70-day performance. The diversity and abundance of a variety of functional genes in c-MFCs were significantly higher than those in o-MFCs. Most genes involved in chlorinated solvent reductive dechlorination, hydroxylation, methoxylation and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in c-MFCs and significantly positively correlated with the removal of PBDEs. Various other microbial functional genes for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycling, as well as energy transformation process, were also significantly increased in c-MFCs. Together, these results suggest that PBDE degradation could be enhanced by introducing the electrodes for microbial electricity generation and by specifically stimulating microbial functional genes.

  3. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Brown, F. Reber; Metayer, Catherine; Park, June-Soo; Does, Monique; Petreas, Myrto X.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.


    We characterized the sources of variability for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust and provided guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PBDEs. We collected repeat dust samples from 292 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001–2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners and measured 22 PBDEs using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Median concentrations for individual PBDEs ranged from <0.1–2,500 ng per g of dust. For each of eight representative PBDEs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variance into regional variability (0–11%), intra-regional between-household variability (17–50%), within-household variability over time (38–74%), and within-sample variability (0–23%) and we used a mixed-effects model to identify determinants of PBDE levels. Regional differences in PBDE dust levels were associated with residential characteristics that differed by region, including the presence of furniture with exposed or crumbling foam and the recent installation of carpets in the residence. Intra-regional differences between households were associated with neighborhood urban density, racial and ethnic characteristics, and to a lesser extent, income. For some PBDEs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PBDE exposures in studies of children’s health (e.g., the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study). PMID:23628589

  4. Microbial electricity generation enhances decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209 degradation.

    Yonggang Yang

    Full Text Available Due to environmental persistence and biotoxicity of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, it is urgent to develop potential technologies to remediate PBDEs. Introducing electrodes for microbial electricity generation to stimulate the anaerobic degradation of organic pollutants is highly promising for bioremediation. However, it is still not clear whether the degradation of PBDEs could be promoted by this strategy. In this study, we hypothesized that the degradation of PBDEs (e.g., BDE-209 would be enhanced under microbial electricity generation condition. The functional compositions and structures of microbial communities in closed-circuit microbial fuel cell (c-MFC and open-circuit microbial fuel cell (o-MFC systems for BDE-209 degradation were detected by a comprehensive functional gene array, GeoChip 4.0, and linked with PBDE degradations. The results indicated that distinctly different microbial community structures were formed between c-MFCs and o-MFCs, and that lower concentrations of BDE-209 and the resulting lower brominated PBDE products were detected in c-MFCs after 70-day performance. The diversity and abundance of a variety of functional genes in c-MFCs were significantly higher than those in o-MFCs. Most genes involved in chlorinated solvent reductive dechlorination, hydroxylation, methoxylation and aromatic hydrocarbon degradation were highly enriched in c-MFCs and significantly positively correlated with the removal of PBDEs. Various other microbial functional genes for carbon, nitrogen, phosphorus and sulfur cycling, as well as energy transformation process, were also significantly increased in c-MFCs. Together, these results suggest that PBDE degradation could be enhanced by introducing the electrodes for microbial electricity generation and by specifically stimulating microbial functional genes.

  5. Synthesis and physicochemical properties of polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers

    Liu, Fu; Zhang, Xuesheng; Qu, Ruijuan; Shi, Jiaqi; Wang, Zunyao, E-mail:


    Highlights: • The experimental pK{sub a1} values of five synthesized PHODEs were determined. • The hydrogen bonds existed in PHODEs were investigated. • There exist close relationships between the thermodynamic properties and N{sub PHOS}. • The relative stability order of PHODE congeners was theoretically proposed. - Abstract: Five polyhydroxylated diphenyl ethers (PHODEs) were synthesized. The first ionization constants (pK{sub a1}) of the synthesized compounds and seven phenolic compounds were determined using potentiometric titration experiments, together with the software ACD/Labs pK{sub a} DB program (version 6.0). The compared results showed that the software could be used to predict the pK{sub a1} of all 209 PHODEs. The thermodynamic properties of 209 PHODEs were calculated using density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-311G** level with Gaussian 09 program. The standard enthalpy of formation (Δ{sub f}H{sup θ}) and the standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ{sub f}G{sup θ}) were obtained. Two types of hydrogen bond were found to exist in the PHODEs’ molecules. The intramolecular hydrogen bond energies were discussed. The relative stability of PHODEs isomers was proposed theoretically with the relative standard Gibbs energy of formation (Δ{sub f}G{sub R}{sup θ}). The relationships of S{sup θ}, Δ{sub f}H{sup θ} and Δ{sub f}G{sup θ} to the number and position of the hydroxyl substitution (N{sub PHOS}) were studied.

  6. Synthesis of Novel Ether Thionocarbamates and Study on Their Flotation Performance for Chalcopyrite

    Gang Zhao


    Full Text Available Novel ether thionocarbamates, O-butoxy isopropyl-N-ethoxycarbonyl thionocarbamate (BIPECTC and O-(2-butoxy-1-methylethoxy isopropyl-N-ethoxycarbonyl thionocarbamate (BMIPECTC, were synthesized in this study. Their collecting efficiencies in the flotation of chalcopyrite were investigated using flotation tests, adsorption measurements, ultraviolet spectra (UV and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and density functional theory (DFT calculations. The synthesized ether thionocarbamates showed better frothing properties than methyl-isobutyl-carbinol (MIBC and stronger affinity to chalcopyrite compared with O-isopropyl-N-ethyl thionocarbamate (IPETC and O-isobutyl-N-ethoxycarbonyl thionocarbamate (IBECTC. UV spectra analysis showed that the ether thionocarbamates react with Cu2+, with the exception of Fe2+, Ni2+, Zn2+ and Pb2+. Additionally, it was further confirmed by FTIR spectra that a chemical reaction occurs between copper ion and BIPECTC and BMIPECTC. The adsorption capacity measurements revealed that chalcopyrite exhibits good adsorption ability for ether thionocarbamates at an approximate pH of 8–10, which agrees with the flotation tests. The quantum chemistry calculation results indicated that the ether thionocarbamates exhibit stronger collecting ability for copper mineral in terms of frontier molecular orbital analysis, binding model simulation with copper ions and the molecular hydrophobicity compared with IPETC and IBECTC. The computational results are in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  7. Synthesis and intrinsic blue fluorescence study of hyperbranched poly(ester-amide-ether)


    A series of hyperbranched poly(ester-amide-ether)s (H-PEAEs) were synthesized via the A2+CB3 approach by the self-transesterification of ethyl ester-amide-ethers end-capped with three hydroxyl groups and ethyl ester group at two terminals.The molecular structures were characterized with 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy.The number average molecular weights were estimated by GPC analysis to possess bimodal wide distribution from 1.57 to 2.09.The strong inherent blue fluorescence was observed at 330 nm for excitation and 390 nm for emission.Moreover,the emission intensity and fluorescence quantum yield increased along with the incorporated ether chain length,as well as almost linearly with the H-PEAE concentration in an aqueous solution.For comparing the fluorescence performance,the linear poly(ester-amide-ether) (L-PEAE) and hyperbranched poly(ester-amide) (H-PEA) were synthesized.The results showed that the coexistence of ether bond and carboxyl group in the molecular chain was essential for generating the strong fluorescence.However,the compact backbone of H-PEAE would be propitious to the enhancement of fluorescence properties.

  8. Human gallbladder morphology after gallstone dissolution with methyl tert-butyl ether.

    vanSonnenberg, E; Zakko, S; Hofmann, A F; D'Agostino, H B; Jinich, H; Hoyt, D B; Miyai, K; Ramsby, G; Moossa, A R


    The effects of methyl tert-butyl ether exposure on the human gallbladder in five patients who were treated for gallstones by contact dissolution is described. Two patients underwent cholecystectomy within 1 week of methyl tert-butyl ether treatment, one patient 2 weeks after, another 10 weeks after, and one 12 weeks after. Indications for cholecystectomy were bilirubinate stones (resistant to methyl tert-butyl ether), catheter dislodgement, bile leakage, and gallstone recurrence (2 patients). Gallstones were dissolved completely in three patients, there was approximately 50% stone reduction in one patient, and no dissolution occurred in the fifth patient. Each gallbladder was examined grossly and histologically. Electron microscopic evaluation was performed in one cases. Typical inflammatory findings of chronic cholecystitis were observed in each gallbladder and were most conspicuous in the submucosa; the mucosal and serosal surfaces were intact. Mild acute inflammatory changes were noted in the submucosa in the two patients with the shortest interval between methyl tert-butyl ether administration and cholecystectomy. There were no ulcerations in the mucosa and no unusual wall thickening or fibrosis in any patient. These observations support the safety of methyl tert-butyl ether perfusion in the human gallbladder; the mild acute changes may be a transient and reversible phenomenon.

  9. Maturation of the inhibitory response of growth hormone secretion to ether stress in postnatal rat.

    Strbák, V; Jurcovicová, J; Vigas, M


    To study the maturation of inhibitory influences on growth hormone (GH) secretion the effect of ether stress on plasma GH levels was studied during postnatal ontogenesis in female rats. Ether stress did not affect plasma GH levels in 1-day-old pups. A distinct decrease of plasma GH was found in 3- and 9-day-old pups, and the response was prevented by treatment of 3-day-old animals with somatostatin antiserum. No effect of ether stress on plasma GH was noted in 12-, 15-, 18- and 21-day-old rats. Treatment of intact 12-day-old pups with the somatostatin antiserum increased plasma GH level under basal conditions. The inhibitory effect of ether stress on plasma GH was noted again at the age 30 days and in adult animals. It is concluded that the hypothalamus of 3-day-old rats is able to release enough somatostatin to inhibit GH secretion after stress. At the period 12-18 days a phase of pituitary refractoriness was noted: ether stress as well as TRH injection (our previous observation) fail to affect plasma GH in female pups, probably due to high somatostatin secretion under basal conditions and (or) low capacity of pituitary to release GH. It is suggested that regulation of GH secretion is not mature until after the 21st day of life.

  10. Discovery of Inhibitors for the Ether Lipid-Generating Enzyme AGPS as Anti-Cancer Agents.

    Piano, Valentina; Benjamin, Daniel I; Valente, Sergio; Nenci, Simone; Marrocco, Biagina; Mai, Antonello; Aliverti, Alessandro; Nomura, Daniel K; Mattevi, Andrea


    Dysregulated ether lipid metabolism is an important hallmark of cancer cells. Previous studies have reported that lowering ether lipid levels by genetic ablation of the ether lipid-generating enzyme alkyl-glycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) lowers key structural and oncogenic ether lipid levels and alters fatty acid, glycerophospholipid, and eicosanoid metabolism to impair cancer pathogenicity, indicating that AGPS may be a potential therapeutic target for cancer. In this study, we have performed a small-molecule screen to identify candidate AGPS inhibitors. We have identified several lead AGPS inhibitors and have structurally characterized their interactions with the enzyme and show that these inhibitors bind to distinct portions of the active site. We further show that the lead AGPS inhibitor 1a selectively lowers ether lipid levels in several types of human cancer cells and impairs their cellular survival and migration. We provide here the first report of in situ-active pharmacological tools for inhibiting AGPS, which may provide chemical scaffolds for future AGPS inhibitor development for cancer therapy.

  11. [Determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry].

    Wang, Ghengyun; Zhang, Weiya; Li, Lixia; Shen, Yalei; Lin, Junfeng; Xie, Tangtang; Chu, Naiqing


    An effective method was established for the simultaneous determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Glycol ethers in leather and leather products were ultrasonically extracted at 45 °C, using ethyl acetate as the extraction solvent. The extracts were purified by solid phase extraction (SPE) columns, and then analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry in selected ion monitoring mode. The content of each analyte was calibrated by external standard method. The limit of detection of ethylene glycol ethyl ether (EGEE) was 0. 10 mg/kg under the condition of signal to noise (S/N) of 3 and the limits of the other 11 glycol ethers were all less than 0.05 mg/kg. The spiked recoveries varied from 81. 2% to 95. 5% at three different spiked levels with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranged from 1.4% to 6. 6%. The proposed method is simple, rapid and accurate, with the limits of detection much less than the requirements of the Regulation Concerning Registration, Evaluation, Authorization and Restriction of Chemicals (REACH) of European Union. It is applicable to the determination of residual glycol ethers in leather and leather products, and provides a reference for the relevant testing standards.

  12. Ether and siloxane functionalized ionic liquids and their mixtures as electrolyte for lithium-ion batteries.

    Chavan, Santosh N; Tiwari, Aarti; Nagaiah, Tharamani C; Mandal, Debaprasad


    The present study deals with an investigation of two novel imidazolium ionic liquids bearing ether-ether (1O2O2-Im-2O1) or ether-siloxane (1O2O2-Im-1SiOSi) functionalities with TFSI anion and their mixtures with propylene carbonate as electrolytes in lithium-ion batteries. The electrochemical stability and conductivity of these novel ILs were analyzed by electrochemical studies, such as cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and impedance measurements. The applicability of these ILs as electrolytes in Li-ion batteries was studied in the presence of a high concentration of LiTFSI (1 mol kg(-1) electrolyte) and the ether-ether IL was shown to possess a high electrochemical stability window (ESW) of 5.9 V and good conductivity of 2.2 mS cm(-1). The electrochemical stability and conductivity were further complimented by self-diffusion of different ions using pulsed gradient spin-echo (PGSE) NMR, viscosity and thermal properties like TGA and DSC analysis. More importantly, we explored the effect of temperature on the electrochemical stability and conductivity of these ILs by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy.

  13. Development of an EtherCAT enabled digital servo controller for the Green Bank Telescope

    Whiteis, Peter G.; Mello, Melinda J.


    EtherCAT (Ethernet for Control Automation Technology) is gaining wide spread popularity in the automation industry as a real time field bus based on low cost, Ethernet hardware. EtherCAT maximizes use of 100Mbps Ethernet hardware by using a collision free ring topology, efficient Ethernet frame utilization (> 95%), and data exchange "on the fly". These characteristics enable EtherCAT to achieve Master to Slave node data exchange rates of > 1000 Hz. The Green Bank Telescope, commissioned in 2000, utilizes an analog control system for motion control of 8 elevation and 16 azimuth motors. This architecture, while sufficient for observations at frequencies up to 50GHz, has significant limitations for the current scientific goals of observing at 115GHz. Accordingly, the Green Bank staff has embarked on a servo upgrade project to develop a digital servo system which accommodates development and implementation of advanced control algorithms. This paper describes how the new control system requirements, use of existing infrastructure and budget constraints led us to define a distributed motion control architecture where EtherCAT real-time Ethernet was selected as the communication bus. Finally, design details are provided that describe how NRAO developed a custom EtherCAT-enabled motor controller interface for the GBT's legacy motor drives in order to provide technical benefits and flexibility not available in commercial products.

  14. Broadband Microwave Spectroscopy as a Tool to Study Intermolecular Interactions in the Diphenyl Ether - Water System

    Fatima, Mariyam; Perez, Cristobal; Schnell, Melanie


    Many biological processes, such as chemical recognition and protein folding, are mainly controlled by the interplay of hydrogen bonds and dispersive forces. This interplay also occurs between organic molecules and solvent water molecules. Broadband rotational spectroscopy studies of weakly bound complexes are able to accurately reveal the structures and internal dynamics of molecular clusters isolated in the gas phase. Amongst them, water clusters with organic molecules are of particular interest. In this work, we investigate the interplay between different types of weak intermolecular interactions and how it controls the preferred interaction sites of aromatic ethers, where dispersive interactions may play a significant role. We present our results on diphenyl ether (C_{12}H_{10}O, 1,1'-Oxydibenzene) complexed with up to three molecules of water. Diphenyl ether is a flexible molecule, and it offers two competing binding sites for water: the ether oxygen and the aromatic π system. In order to determine the structure of the diphenyl ether-water complexes, we targeted transitions in the 2-8 GHz range using broadband rotational spectroscopy. We identify two isomers with one water, one with two water, and one with three water molecules. Further analysis from isotopic substitution measurements provided accurate structural information. The preferred interactions, as well as the observed structural changes induced upon complexation, will be presented and discussed.

  15. Determination of low level methyl tert-butyl ether, ethyl tert-butyl ether and methyl tert-amyl ether in human urine by HS-SPME gas chromatography/mass spectrometry

    Scibetta, Licia [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy); Campo, Laura [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy); Mercadante, Rosa [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy); Foa, Vito [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy); Fustinoni, Silvia [Department of Occupational and Environmental Medicine, University of Milano and Fondazione IRCCS Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Mangiagalli e Regina Elena, Via S. Barnaba, 8-20122 Milan (Italy)]. E-mail:


    Methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE) and tert-amyl methyl ether (TAME) are oxygenated compounds added to gasoline to enhance octane rating and to improve combustion. They may be found as pollutants of living and working environments. In this work a robotized method for the quantification of low level MTBE, ETBE and TAME in human urine was developed and validated. The analytes were sampled in the headspace of urine by SPME in the presence of MTBE-d12 as internal standard. Different fibers were compared for their linearity and extraction efficiency: carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane, polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene, and polydimethylsiloxane. The first, although highly efficient, was discarded due to deviation of linearity for competitive displacement, and the polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene fiber was chosen instead. The analysis was performed by GC/MS operating in the electron impact mode. The method is very specific, with range of linearity 30-4600 ng L{sup -1}, within- and between-run precision, as coefficient of variation, <22 and <16%, accuracy within 20% the theoretical level, and limit of detection of 6 ng L{sup -1} for all the analytes. The influence of the matrix on the quantification of these ethers was evaluated analysing the specimens of seven traffic policemen exposed to autovehicular emissions: using the calibration curve and the method of standard additions comparable levels of MTBE (68-528 ng L{sup -1}), ETBE (<6 ng L{sup -1}), and TAME (<6 ng L{sup -1}) were obtained.

  16. The Application and Research of EtherCAT redundancy in Multi-axis Network Motion Control System%EtherCAT冗余技术在多轴网络运动控制系统中的应用研究

    王国河; 李伟光


    EtherCAT是一种新型实时工业以太网总线.研究了EtherCAT工作原理、通信协议、性能和冗余技术.设计了基于EtherCAT冗余技术的多轴网络运动控制系统,采用TwinCAT作为主站,利用ET1100和TMS320F28335开发了EtherCAT从站设备,构建了一主多从的EtherCAT网络结构,并给出了系统硬件和软件的设计方案,以实现伺服控制和实时数据传输.%EtherCAT is a new real-time industrial Ethernet Fieldbus. The EtherCAT's architecture, the working principle, communication specification, performance and redundancy are studied. Multi-axis network motion control system are designed base on EtherCAT redundancy, together with a slave device by ET1100 and TMS320F28335, and a master by TwinCAT, which can construction a EtherCAT network structure with one-master and more-slaves. The hardware and software design of the servo system is given, which realizes the real-time data transmission and servo control.

  17. Torsionally Excited Dimethyl Ether in the Laboratory and in Space

    Endres, C. P.; Müller, H. S. P.; Lewen, F.; Giesen, T. F.; Schlemmer, S.; Drouin, B. J.; Bisschop, S.; Groner, P.


    Dimethyl ether (DME) is highly abundant in hot cores and numerous transitions within the vibrational ground state have been detected in various interstellar line surveys of sources such as Orion KL. As a nearly prolate asymmetric top with two internal rotors, it shows a complex spectrum with low lying torsional modes. The energy levels of the two lowest torsional states (v11, and v15) lie only 200 and 240 cm-1 above the ground state (barrier height ≈ 915 cm-1), and are thus sufficiently populated in these interstellar sources to exhibit transitions in line surveys due to high excitation temperatures in hot cores. So far, the lack of sufficiently accurate predictions for the two lowest excited torsional states prevented their identification in astronomical spectra. Therefore, we analyzed spectra, which have been recorded within the context of the investigations of the ground state. In total, more than 9500 transitions have been assigned covering the frequency range from 38 up to 1670 GHz. The enlarged splitting of each rotational level into four substates (AA, EE, AE, EA) compared to its size in the ground state and a large number of perturbed transitions hampered not only the line assignment but also the astrophysical modelling. However, the inclusion of interaction terms between both excited states in the model of an effective Hamiltonian for a symmetric two-top rotor, allowed us to model both excited states within a global fit, and also to accurately determine the energy difference between both states. Frequency predictions have been calculated based on this analysis and have been used to unambiguously assign numerous rotational transitions within these excited states in the astronomical line survey of the hot core region G327.3-0.6. P. Schilke, T.D. Groesbeck et al., Astrophys.J.Suppl.Ser., 108,(1997) 301-337 P. Schilke, D.J. Benford, T.R. Hunter et al., Astrophys.J.Suppl.Ser., 132,(2001) 281-364. P. Groner, S. Albert, E. Herbst, and F.C. De Lucia, Astrophys

  18. Differential Self-Assembly of Novel Redox Crown Ethers

    Merithew, Andrew William

    Retinal prosthesis relies on the stimulation of living nerve tissue behind the rods and cones of the eye. The current state of the art relies on electrodes controlled by cameras which directly stimulate the nerve tissue to elicit a response to an image. These types of retinal implants have allowed for short-term crude vision in patients but have had limited long term success due to external battery packs and electroplating of the implanted electrodes. Ionic stimulation is one of the principle mechanisms that sensory neurons utilize in the generation of an action potential. In a complex transduction pathway, ionic gradients are constantly altered inside the neuron by voltage sensors or mechanically controlled gates embedded in the neuronal cell membrane; responsible for the open and close state of these ion channels. It has been demonstrated that local concentration increases of K + by direct injection proximal to the nerve can elicit nerve firing at a concentration of 15-20 mM (3-4X normal concentration) increase in K + concentration. As part of a larger concept of integrating biotechnology with nanofabrication, the materials for the development of potassium selective sequestration/storage and delivery were developed in the form of a redox-gated K+ selective crown ether. The structure of the anthraquinone-based crown was deduced by computational simulation and stoichiometry of the complex confirmed by mass spec. along with 2D diffusion NMR techniques. In this instance, the stoichiometry could be controlled by the addition of different salts to give a 1:1 complex with large, aromatic anions and a 2:1 complex with smaller anions such as triflate. The synthesis of the molecule was optimized by computational modeling and simulations of transport through an artificial membrane. The selectivity of the architecture developed was specific for K+ over Na+, the other major ionic species present in the blood. The mechanism influencing the self-assembly of this class of

  19. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether: a toxicological review.

    McGregor, Douglas


    A number of oxygenated compounds (oxygenates) are available for use in gasoline to reduce vehicle exhaust emissions, reduce the aromatic compound content, and avoid the use of organo-lead compounds, while maintaining high octane numbers. Ethyl tertiary-butyl ether (ETBE) is one such compound. The current use of ETBE in gasoline or petrol is modest but increasing, with consequently similar trends in the potential for human exposure. Inhalation is the most likely mode of exposure, with about 30% of inhaled ETBE being retained by the lungs and distributed around the body. Following cessation of exposure, the blood concentration of ETBE falls rapidly, largely as a result of its metabolism to tertiary-butyl alcohol (TBA) and acetaldehyde. TBA may be further metabolized, first to 2-methyl-1,2-propanediol and then to 2-hydroxyisobutyrate, the two dominant metabolites found in urine of volunteers and rats. The rapid oxidation of acetaldehyde suggests that its blood concentration is unlikely to rise above normal as a result of human exposure to sources of ETBE. Single-dose toxicity tests show that ETBE has low toxicity and is essentially nonirritant to eyes and skin; it did not cause sensitization in a maximization test in guinea pigs. Neurological effects have been observed only at very high exposure concentrations. There is evidence for an effect of ETBE on the kidney of rats. Increases in kidney weight were seen in both sexes, but protein droplet accumulation (with alpha(2u)-globulin involvement) and sustained increases in cell proliferation occurred only in males. In liver, centrilobular necrosis was induced in mice, but not rats, after exposure by inhalation, although this lesion was reported in some rats exposed to very high oral doses of ETBE. The proportion of liver cells engaged in S-phase DNA synthesis was increased in mice of both sexes exposed by inhalation. ETBE has no specific effects on reproduction, development, or genetic material. Carcinogenicity studies

  20. EtherCAT——技术介绍及发展概貌



  1. EtherCAT技术协会成功出展IAS 2012



  2. Preparation and evaluation of novel chiral stationary phases based on quinine derivatives comprising crown ether moieties.

    Wang, Dongqiang; Zhao, Jianchao; Wu, Haixia; Wu, Haibo; Cai, Jianfeng; Ke, Yanxiong; Liang, Xinmiao


    The C9-position of quinine was modified by meta- or para-substituted benzo-18-crown-6, and immobilized on 3-mercaptopropyl-modified silica gel through the radical thiol-ene addition reaction. These two chiral stationary phases were evaluated by chiral acids, amino acids, and chiral primary amines. The crown ether moiety on the quinine anion exchanger provided a ligand-exchange site for primary amino groups, which played an important role in the retention and enantioselectivity for chiral compounds containing primary amine groups. These two stationary phases showed good selectivity for some amino acids. The complex interaction between crown ether and protonated primary amino group was investigated by the addition of inorganic salts such as LiCl, NH4Cl, NaCl, and KCl to the mobile phase. The resolution results showed that the simultaneous interactions between two function moieties (quinine and crown ether) and amino acids were important for the chiral separation.

  3. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    Repetto, Sonia L; Butts, Craig P; Lam, Joseph K W; Ratcliffe, Norman M


    Summary A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII). To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4). We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses. PMID:27559399

  4. Synthesis, complexation, and fluorescence behavior of armed crown ethers carrying naphthyl group.

    Kubo, K; Sakaguchi, S; Sakurai, T


    Armed crown ethers (1-4) bonding through an amine, amide, ether, or ester linkage to naphthyl group were found to display unique photophysical properties in the presence of guest salts. Complexation of PET fluoroionophores (1a and 1b) with Zn(2+) increased the fluorescence intensities of the host by a factor of 2.4 and 2.7, respectively. (1)H and (13)C NMR analyses of this complexation behavior of 1a revealed that Zn(2+) strongly coordinates with the armed crown nitrogen to cause a dramatic decrease in an intramolecular charge-transfer character. The armed crowns (2 and 3), bonding through an ether or ester linkage to a naphthalene, gave fluorescence quenching with guest thiocyanates. While the amide derivative (4) exhibited high Ba(2+) fluorescence selectivity and in the presence of this cation the host fluorescence intensity was by a factor of 3.69.

  5. Influence of ethereal oils extracted from Lamiaceae family plants on some pathogen microorganisms

    Klaus Anita S.


    Full Text Available As pathogen microorganisms can be found in different kinds of food, using of natural antimicrobial compounds, like ethereal oils, could be important in the preservation of different groceries. To evaluate antimicrobial activity of ethereal oils extracted from Lamiaceae family plants - Rosmarinus officinalis L., Thymus vulgaris L., Majorana hortensis M o e n c h, and Salvia officinalis L screening of their effects against food borne bacteria Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella enteritidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and yeasts Candida albicans and Saccharomyces cerevisiae were applied. All investigated concentrations and pure Majorana hortensis and Thymus vulgaris ethereal oils showed microbicidal effect on majority of tested microorganisms.

  6. Arginine-responsive terbium luminescent hybrid sensors triggered by two crown ether carboxylic acids

    Jiang, Lasheng [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Tang, Ke; Ding, Xiaoping [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Qianming, E-mail: [Key Laboratory of Theoretical Chemistry of Environment, Ministry of Education, School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhou, Zhan; Xiao, Rui [School of Chemistry and Environment, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China)


    Crown ether carboxylic acids constitute main building blocks for the synthesis of terbium containing covalent cross-linked luminescent materials. Both the complexes and the hybrid nanomaterials could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water. More importantly, they were found to have a profound effect on the luminescence responses to arginine compared with glutamic acid, histidine, tryptophan, threonine, tyrosine and phenylalanine in aqueous environment. The present study provided the possibility of using a host–guest mechanism as a way of signal transduction based on lanthanide supramolecular hybrid materials. - Highlights: • Crown ether carboxylic acids were found to sensitize terbium ions among a group of ethers. • The complexes and silica hybrid materials were both prepared and characterized. • They could exhibit remarkable green emissions in pure water.

  7. Functionalization of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes with 4-benzo-9-crown-3 ether

    Ardeshir Khazaei; Maryam Kiani Borazjani; Khadijeh Mansouri Moradian


    Functionalization of oxidized single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by a zwitterionic interaction (COO−NH$^{+}_{3}$) between protonated amine on crown ether and an oxyanion from a carboxylic acid group on SWCNT has been described. This ionic interaction has led to a considerable increase in the solubility of SWCNTs in both organic and aqueous solvents such as ethanol, dimethyl sulphoxide, dimethylformamide, and H2O. The highest solubility was attained in DMF and DMSO. The ionic bonded 4-benzo-9-crown-3 ether allowed the hosting of Li+. The ionic bond of crown ether (4-(benzo-9-crown-3)) to SWCNT was identified and confirmed by infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron-microscopy, atomic force microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis methods.

  8. Interaction of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Aerobic Granular Sludge: Biosorption and Microbial Degradation

    Shou-Qing Ni


    Full Text Available As a new category of persistent organic pollutants, polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs have become ubiquitous global environmental contaminants. No literature is available on the aerobic biotransformation of decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209. Herein, we investigated the interaction of PBDEs with aerobic granular sludge. The results show that the removal of BDE-209 from wastewater is mainly via biosorption onto aerobic granular sludge. The uptake capacity increased when temperature, contact time, and sludge dosage increased or solution pH dropped. Ionic strength had a negative influence on BDE-209 adsorption. The modified pseudo first-order kinetic model was appropriate to describe the adsorption kinetics. Microbial debromination of BDE-209 did not occur during the first 30 days of operation. Further study found that aerobic microbial degradation of 4,4′-dibromodiphenyl ether happened with the production of lower BDE congeners.

  9. Propargyl-functional aliphatic polycarbonate obtained from carbon dioxide and glycidyl propargyl ether.

    Hilf, Jeannette; Frey, Holger


    The synthesis of propargyl-functional poly(carbonate)s with different content of glycidyl propargyl ether (GPE) units is achieved via the copolymerization of propargyl glycidyl ether and carbon dioxide. A new type of functional poly(carbonate) synthesized directly from CO(2) and the glycidyl ether is obtained. The resulting polymers show moderate polydispersities in the range of 1.6-2.5 and molecular weights in the range of 7000-10 500 g mol(-1). The synthesized copolymers with varying number of alkyne functionalities and benzyl azide are used for the copper-catalyzed Huisgen-1,3-dipolar addition. Moreover, the presence of vicinal alkyne groups opens a general pathway to produce functional aliphatic poly(carbonate)s from a single polymer scaffold.

  10. Triclosan and Hydroxylated Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Lake and Esturaine Sediments

    Arnold, W. A.; Kerrigan, J. F.; McNeill, K.; Erickson, P. R.; Grandbois, M.


    Halogenated diphenyl ethers are a class of emerging contaminants that includes the antibacterial compound triclosan and the flame retardant polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Both triclosan and hydroxylated polybrominated diphenyl ethers (OH-BDEs) are known to form dioxins when exposed to sunlight in aqueous solution. Thus, it is important to understand the sources and presence of these compounds in the environment, especially because OH-BDEs are breakdown products of PBDEs and also naturally produced compounds. In this work, the levels of OH-BDEs were determined in lake sediments from Minnesota and esturaine sediments from San Francisco Bay. Both surface sediments over a broad spatial area and sediment cores were collected and analyzed. Triclosan was used as a marker of wastewater as a source of the targeted emerging contaminants. The relationship between triclosan and OH-BDE levels provides insight into the importance of natural and anthropogenic influences on the levels of OH-BDEs.

  11. Reaction mechanism of dimethyl ether carbonylation to methyl acetate over mordenite

    Rasmussen, Dominik Bjørn; Christensen, Jakob Munkholt; Temel, B.


    The reaction mechanism of dimethyl ether carbonylation to methyl acetate over mordenite was studied theoretically with periodic density functional theory calculations including dispersion forces and experimentally in a fixed bed flow reactor at pressures between 10 and 100 bar, dimethyl ether...... concentrations in CO between 0.2 and 2.0%, and at a temperature of 438 K. The theoretical study showed that the reaction of CO with surface methyl groups, the rate-limiting step, is faster in the eight-membered side pockets than in the twelve-membered main channel of the zeolite; the subsequent reaction...... of dimethyl ether with surface acetyl to form methyl acetate was demonstrated to occur with low energy barriers in both the side pockets and in the main channel. The present analysis has thus identified a path, where the entire reaction occurs favourably on a single site within the side pocket, in good...

  12. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals.

    Repetto, Sonia L; Costello, James F; Butts, Craig P; Lam, Joseph K W; Ratcliffe, Norman M


    A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII). To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel-water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4). We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of (1)H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  13. The hydrolysis of geminal ethers: a kinetic appraisal of orthoesters and ketals

    Sonia L. Repetto


    Full Text Available A novel approach to protecting jet fuel against the effects of water contamination is predicated upon the coupling of the rapid hydrolysis reactions of lipophilic cyclic geminal ethers, with the concomitant production of a hydrophilic acyclic hydroxyester with de-icing properties (Fuel Dehydrating Icing Inhibitors - FDII. To this end, a kinetic appraisal of the hydrolysis reactions of representative geminal ethers was undertaken using a convenient surrogate for the fuel–water interface (D2O/CD3CN 1:4. We present here a library of acyclic and five/six-membered cyclic geminal ethers arranged according to their hydroxonium catalytic coefficients for hydrolysis, providing for the first time a framework for the development of FDII. A combination of 1H NMR, labelling and computational studies was used to assess the effects that may govern the observed relative rates of hydrolyses.

  14. [Questions on the first operation with ethyl ether as anaesthetic by Dr. Peter Parker].

    Chen, Q


    Ethyl ether was the first accepted effective general anaesthetic. It was introduced into China by an America missionary, Dr. Peter Parker. This was one of the historical events of medical communication between China and the West. In the records of the first operation with ether, however, Dr. Parker unusually omitted the patient's medical record number and the date of the operation, while those of other operations with ether anesthetics were all available. This was very unusual for a doctor like Peter Parker who always recorded every important case in detail in the hospital reports. It seems that he deliberately rather than carelessly omitted the information for some reasons. Based on the analysis of Parker's reports, a conclusion is made that the anesthetic effect of the case was actually ineffective. Furthermore, possible answers to this are outlined and question by discussion based on the situation that Parker faced in the late Qing era.

  15. Scope and mechanism of the iridium-catalyzed cleavage of alkyl ethers with triethylsilane.

    Yang, Jian; White, Peter S; Brookhart, Maurice


    The cationic iridium pincer complex [(POCOP)Ir(H)(acetone)](+)[B(C(6)F(5))(4)](-) {1, POCOP = 2,6-[OP(tBu)(2)](2)C(6)H(3)} was found to be a highly active catalyst for the room-temperature cleavage and reduction of a wide variety of unactivated alkyl ethers including primary, secondary, and tertiary alkyl ethers as well as aryl alkyl ethers by triethylsilane. Mechanistic studies have revealed the full details of the catalytic cycle with the catalyst resting state(s) depending on the basicity of the alkyl ether. During the catalytic reduction of diethyl ether, cationic iridium silane complex, [(POCOP)Ir(H)(eta(1)-Et(3)SiH)](+)[B(C(6)F(5))(4)](-) (3), and Et(2)O are in rapid equilibrium with neutral dihydride, (POCOP)Ir(H)(2) (5) and diethyl(triethylsilyl)oxonium ion, [Et(3)SiOEt(2)](+)[B(C(6)F(5))(4)](-) (7), with 5 + 7 strongly favored. Species 7 has been isolated from the reaction mixture and fully characterized. The turnover-limiting step in this cycle is the reduction of 7 by the neutral dihydride 5. The relative rates of reduction of 7 by dihydride 5 and Et(3)SiH were determined to be approximately 30,000:1. In the cleavage of the less basic ethers anisole and EtOSiEt(3), the cationic iridium silane complex, 3, was found to be the catalyst resting state. The hydride reduction of the intermediate oxonium ion EtO(SiEt(3))(2)(+), 9, occurs via attack by Et(3)SiH. In the case of anisole, the intermediate PhMeOSiEt(3)(+), 10, is reduced by 5 and/or Et(3)SiH.


    A. Mesdaghinia


    Full Text Available The oxygenate methyl tert-butyl ether is added to gasoline to increase the octane level and to reduce carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon emissions by vehicles. The high mobility, water solubility, and resistance to natural attenuation associated with methyl tert-butyl ether may result in contamination of ground and surface waters. In this research the degradation of aqueous methyl tert-butyl ether at relatively high concentrations was investigated by UV-vis/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process. The effect of important operational parameters such as pH, amount of H2O2, catalyst loading, and irradiation time were also studied. Concentrations of methyl tert-butyl ether and intermediates such as tert-butyl formate and tert-butyl alcohol were measured over a 180 min period using a gas chromatograph equipped with flame ionization detector and combined with headspace sampler. Results showed that the time required for complete degradation increased from 30 to 180min, when the initial concentration was increased from 10 to 500mg/L. The first order rate constant for degradation of methyl tert-butyl ether from the hydroxyl radical was estimated to be 0.177 to 0.022 1/min as the concentration increased from 10 to 500mg/L. Study on the overall mineralization monitored by total organic carbon (TOC analysis showed that in the initial concentration of 100mg/L methyl tert-butyl ether, complete mineralization was obtained after 110min under UV-vis/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalytic process.

  17. Design of Control System for Cartesian Coordinate Robot Based on EtherCAT%基于EtherCAT的直角坐标机器人控制系统设计

    黄科程; 文亦骁


    为实现EtherCAT技术在直角坐标机器人中的应用,文章提出了一种使用德国BECKHOFF公司的EtherCAT从站开发板 FB1111-0141 和 TMS320F2812 单片机的设计方案.研究结果表明:EtherCAT技术可以实现直角坐标机器人更快、更稳定、更精确的位置控制.%For the realization of the EtherCAT technology application in the car-tesian coordinate robot, this paper puts forward a kind of schema that uses thedesigning development board FB1111-0141 and TMS320F2812 MCU(micro controling unit).The results show that the EtherCAT technology can achieve car-tesian coordinate robot faster, more stable, more accurate position control.

  18. EtherCAT旋风登录中国”巡演圆满成功




    Zu-yao Shan; Zhen-yi Li


    A new class of poly(ester-imide-ether) multiblock copolymers was synthesized by transes-terification and melt copolymerization of dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) and N-(4-carbomethoxyphenyl)-4-(carbomethoxy)-phthalimide with ethylene glycol (EG) and polytetramethylene glycol (PTMG). The structure of the above copolymers was characterized by 1H-NMR and IR spectroscopy. Some properties of the coplymers were also examined. It was found that their mechanical properties and heat stability, compared with poly(ether-ester) copolymers, were obviously improved.

  20. Synthesis and in vitro assessment of antifungal activity of oximes, oxime ethers and isoxazoles.

    Diaz-Velandia, John; Laboratorio de síntesis orgánica, Departamento de Química. Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.; Durán-Díaz, Natalia; Laboratorio de síntesis orgánica, Departamento de Química. Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.; Robles-Camargo, Jorge; Laboratorio de síntesis orgánica, Departamento de Química. Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia.; Loaiza, Alix Elena; Laboratorio de síntesis orgánica, Departamento de Química. Facultad de Ciencias, Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogotá, D.C., Colombia


    Objective. To synthesize and carry out a preliminary evaluation of the in vitro antifungal activity of oximes, oxime ethers and isoxazoles. Materials and methods. Oximes were synthesized from aldehydes or ketones with NH2OH.HCl and K2CO3. Oxime ethers were prepared by alkylation of oximes with propargyl bromide or 2-bromobenzyl bromide, using NaOH as base and acetone as solvent. The isoxazoles were obtained by 1,3-dipolar cycloadditions using ceric ammonium nitrate (CAN), chloramine T (CA...

  1. Selective cleavage of phenolic tert-butyldimethylsilyl ethers using simple organic nitrogen bases


    Simple organic nitrogen bases,such as Et_3N,pyridine,DBU,etc.,were found to be convenient and useful reagents for deprotection of TBDMS groups on acidic hydroxyl groups.The efficiency of these bases has an apparent order:1°amine>2°amine>3°amine and aliphatic base>aromatic base.In aqueous DMSO and at room temperature,phenolic TBDMS ethers were removed selectively in the presence of alcoholic TBDMS ethers.And catalytic base can make these reactions complete.This method is high-yielding,fast,clean,safe and ...

  2. Gold( i )-catalysed dehydrative formation of ethers from benzylic alcohols and phenols

    Veenboer, Richard M. P.


    © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015. We report the cross-dehydrative reaction of two alcohols to form unsymmetrical ethers using NHC-gold(i) complexes (NHC = N-heterocyclic carbene). Our progress in developing this reaction into a straightforward procedure is discussed in detail. The optimised methodology proceeds under mild reaction conditions and produces water as the sole by-product. The synthetic utility of this environmentally benign methodology is exemplified by the formation of a range of new ethers from readily available phenols bearing electron withdrawing substituents and secondary benzylic alcohols with various substituents. Finally, we present experimental results to account for the chemoselectivity obtained in these reactions.

  3. Conversion from Dimethyl Ether to Dimethoxymethane and Dimethoxyethane Using Dielectric-Barrier Discharge Plasma

    Wang Yu; Liu Changjun; Zhang Yueping


    Experimental investigation was conducted to convert dimethyl ether (DME) in thepresence of steam using dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) at atmospheric pressure and 373 K.The flow rate of DME was 20 ml/min. The introduction of steam resulted in an increase in theDME conversion and the selectivity of oxygenates. Plasma steam-enhanced dimethyl ether (DME)conversion led to a direct synthesis of DMMT and DMET, with a high selectivity of 5.78% and17.99%, respectively. The addition of steam promoted the formation of "plasma aerosol" that wasfavored for the formation of liquid oxygenates. The reaction pathway of plasma DME conversionwas proposed.


    J. C. B. Soares


    Full Text Available This article aimed to conduct a brief rereading as the importance of the ether, from its earliest conception to the present within a historical context to the current scientific knowledge development, focusing on authors who have written on this topic. We believe that for a better learning science a historical approach is necessary to the subject studied, based on this thinking, we aim to reinterpret a textbook used in high school in physics classes, in order to see how the ether is approached in the same.

  5. Preliminary report of clinical application of hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether in photodynamic therapy for alimentary cancers

    Gu, Ying; Li, Junheng; Xu, De-Yu; Zhang, Zi-Qi; Huang, Yingcai; Wang, Kai


    A new sensitizer, hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether (HMME), purified by the Second Military Medical University was used with a gold vapor laser for PDT in 8 cases of alimentary cancers. The results showed that 2 cases of early stage gastric cancer and 1 case of rectal polyps with malignancy revealed CR, SR was obtained in 1 case of esophageal cancer and 4 others were MR. No sunburn occurred within the 8 patients who received 12 doses of HMME at 5 mg/kg 2 - 3 hours prior to laser treatment and who were kept away from sun light only 6 hours. Hematoporphyrin monomethyl ether is an effective single compound and safer for PDT.

  6. Hydrolysis of Carbonyl Sulfide in Binary Mixture of Diethylene Glycol Diethyl Ether and Water

    李新学; 刘迎新; 魏雄辉


    The solubility and hydrolysis of carbonyl sulfide in binary mixture of diethylene glycol diethyl ether and water are studied as a function of composition. The use of an aqueous solution of diethylene glycol diethyl ether enhances the solubility and hydrolysis rate of carbonyl sulfide compared with that in pure water. The composition of the mixture with maximum hydrolysis rate varies with temperature. The thermophysical properties including density, viscosity, and surface tension as a function of composition at 20℃ under atmospheric pressure as well as liquid-liquid equilibrium (LLE) data over the temperature range from 28℃ to 90℃ are also measured for the binary mixture.

  7. Catalyst system and process for benzyl ether fragmentation and coal liquefaction

    Zoeller, Joseph Robert


    Dibenzyl ether can be readily cleaved to form primarily benzaldehyde and toluene as products, along with minor amounts of bibenzyl and benzyl benzoate, in the presence of a catalyst system comprising a Group 6 metal, preferably molybdenum, a salt, and an organic halide. Although useful synthetically for the cleavage of benzyl ethers, this cleavage also represents a key model reaction for the liquefaction of coal; thus this catalyst system and process should be useful in coal liquefaction with the advantage of operating at significantly lower temperatures and pressures.

  8. Estimation of the fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample

    Waul, Christopher Kevin; Arvin, Erik; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye


    The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in reactors is just as important for prediction of removal rates as knowledge of the kinetic parameters. The fraction of biologically active methyl tert-butyl ether degraders in a heterogeneous biomass sample, taken from a packed...

  9. Synthesis and Selective Coloration of Monoaza Crown Ethers Bearing Picrylamino-type Side Arms for Alkali Metal Salts and Methylamine

    Wei ZENG; Zhi Hua MAO; Mi GONG; Chun Chun ZHANG; Sheng Ying QIN; Jun SU


    N-pivot lariat ethers with picrylamino group as a chromophore (1, 2 and 3) have been prepared by reaction of N-(4-aminoaryl)monoaza crown ethers with picryl chrolide, and the selective coloration of 1, 2 and 3 for alkali metal salts and amines has been studied by UV-Vis spectra.

  10. 40 CFR 63.63 - Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants.


    ... 40 Protection of Environment 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl... Quantity Designations, Source Category List § 63.63 Deletion of ethylene glycol monobutyl ether from the list of hazardous air pollutants. The substance ethylene glycol monobutyl ether (EGBE,2-Butoxyethanol...

  11. Influence of aza crown ethers on the electric percolation of AOT/isooctane/water (w/o) microemulsions.

    Dasilva-Carvalhal, J; Fernández-Gándara, D; García-Río, L; Mejuto, J C


    A study was carried out on the influence of different aza crown ethers on the electric percolation of AOT/isooctane/water microemulsions. A dual behavior of the aza crown ethers with regard to the percolative phenomenon was observed: low additive concentration causes an increase in the percolation temperature, whereas at high additive concentration a reduction in the percolation temperature of the system was observed. This dual behavior allowed us to define the compensation concentration, which corresponds the aza crown ether concentration at which there is no effect on the percolative phenomenon. We observed a correlation between the effect exerted by the aza crown ethers and the size of the cavity. This shows the importance of the capacity to complexate Na(+) and solubilize it in the interface and the continuous medium on the electric percolation. We also observed a correlation between the effect of the aza crown ethers on the percolation temperature and their external size. This shows the importance of their inclusion in the interface on the percolative phenomenon. Such an inclusion modifies the properties of the AOT film, facilitating the exchange of matter between droplets. A satisfactory multiparametric correlation between the compensation concentration, the distribution of the aza crown ether between water and 1-octanol, and the number of electron-donor atoms (O and N) in the crown ether was obtained. The effects have been compared with those corresponding to the crown ethers.

  12. Marchantin A, a macrocyclic bisbibenzyl ether, isolated from the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha, inhibits protozoal growth in vitro

    Jensen, Sophie; Omarsdottir, Sesselja; Bwalya, Angela Gono


    In vitro anti-plasmodial activity-guided fractionation of a diethyl ether extract of the liverwort species Marchantia polymorpha, collected in Iceland, led to isolation of the bisbibenzyl ether, marchantin A. The structure of marchantin A (1) was confirmed by NMR and HREIMS. Marchantin A inhibited...

  13. Biaryl ethers as novel non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors with improved potency against key mutant viruses.

    Su, Dai-Shi; Lim, John J; Tinney, Elizabeth; Wan, Bang-Lin; Young, Mary Beth; Anderson, Kenneth D; Rudd, Deanne; Munshi, Vandna; Bahnck, Carolyn; Felock, Peter J; Lu, Meiquing; Lai, Ming-Tain; Touch, Sinoeun; Moyer, Gregory; DiStefano, Daniel J; Flynn, Jessica A; Liang, Yuexia; Sanchez, Rosa; Perlow-Poehnelt, Rebecca; Miller, Mike; Vacca, Joe P; Williams, Theresa M; Anthony, Neville J


    Biaryl ethers were recently reported as potent NNRTIs. Herein we disclose a detailed SAR study that led to the biaryl ether 6. This compound possessed excellent potency against WT RT and key clinically observed RT mutants and had an excellent pharmacokinetic profile in rats, dogs, and rhesus macaques. The compound also exhibited a clean safety profile in preclinical safety studies.

  14. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites.

    Louisse, J.; Bai, Y.; Verwei, M.; van de Sandt, J.J.M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  15. Decrease of intracellular pH as possible mechanism of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    Louisse, J.; Bai, Y.; Verwei, M.; Sandt, J.J.M. van de; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.M.C.M.


    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  16. Decrease of intercellular pH as possible mechanism of action of embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabolites

    Louisse, J.; Yanquin Bai,; Verwei, M.; Sandt, van de J.J.M.; Blaauboer, B.J.; Rietjens, I.


    Embryotoxicity of glycol ethers is caused by their alkoxyacetic acid metabolites, but the mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of these acid metabolites is so far not known. The present study investigates a possible mechanism underlying the embryotoxicity of glycol ether alkoxyacetic acid metabol

  17. Adsorption and reactions of dimethyl and diethyl ethers on Mo 2C/Mo(1 0 0)

    Farkas, A. P.; Solymosi, F.


    The adsorption, desorption and dissociation of dimethyl ether and diethyl ether on Mo 2C/Mo(1 0 0) have been investigated by work function, thermal desorption (TPD) and high resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS). The adsorption of both molecules at 100 K caused a significant decrease in the work function of the Mo 2C/Mo(1 0 0) surface. In the case of dimethyl ether almost 90% of the adsorbed monolayer desorbed intact with a Tp = 286 K. Another part decomposed to CO ( Tp = 330 and 960 K) and H 2 ( Tp = 330 and 400 K). The desorption of diethyl ether at monolayer occurred with Tp = 256 and 340 K. Another fraction underwent decomposition as indicated by the release of CO ( Tp = 336 and 436 K) and H 2 ( Tp = 400 K). In addition, the formation of ethylene ( Tp = 342 K) and a very small amount of methane ( Tp = 380 K) was also observed. HREEL spectra of both ethers confirmed their molecular adsorption at 100 K. From the spectral changes occurred upon increasing the exposures and in off-specular direction some conclusions were drawn on the bonding of the adsorbed molecules. Analysis of the HREEL spectra of the annealed layers suggested that in the primary steps the adsorbed ethers dissociate to methyl and methoxy (dimethyl ether), and to ethyl and ethoxy (diethyl ether) species, which react further to yield the desorption products.

  18. Short-term oral toxicity of butyl ether, ethyl hexyl ether, methyl heptyl ether and 1,6-dimethoxyhexane in male rats and the role of 2-methoxyacetic acid.

    Poon, Raymond; Wade, Michael; Valli, Victor E; Chu, Ih


    A 4-week oral study was conducted in male rats to characterize and compare the toxicity of four aliphatic ethers (butyl ether, BE; ethyl hexyl ether, EHxE; methyl heptyl ether, MHpE; and 1,6-dimethoxyhexane, DMH) which have been proposed as high-cetane diesel additives. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (280+/-20 g) were divided into groups of seven animals each and were administered by gavage low (2mg/kg body weight), medium (20mg/kg) or high (200mg/kg) doses of BE, EHxE, or MHpE, 5 days per week for 4 weeks. Another group of animals was administered DMH at 200mg/kg while the control group received the vehicle (corn oil at 1 ml/100g bw) only. At the end of the treatment period, relative testis weights and thymus weights were significantly decreased in the DMH group but not in animals receiving BE, EHxE, or MHpE. Microscopic examination revealed degeneration of the seminiferous tubules and reduction of sperm density in the epididymides in the DMH treatment group. Urinary creatine/creatinine ratio, a sensitive indicator of testicular damage, was markedly elevated in the DMH treated animals but not in those treated with BE, EHxE, or MHpE. In the bone marrow, DMH caused mild dyserythropoiesis and dysthrombopoiesis, while BE, EHxE, and MHpE produced mild increases in granulocytes and myelocyte/erythrocyte ratio. All four ethers at 200mg/kg caused mild histological changes in the thyroid but no significant modulation in the circulating thyroxin (T4) or triiodothyronine (T3) levels. All four ethers produced hepatic effects at 200mg/kg consisting of mild, adaptive histological changes, increased urinary ascorbic acid output, and elevation in the activities of one or more xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes (benzyloxyresorufin-O-dealkylase, UDP-glucuronosyltransferase, glutathione-S-transferases). The level of 2-methoxyacetic acid (MAA), a known testicular and developmental toxin, was significantly increased in the urine and plasma of animals treated with DMH but not in those

  19. Drinking Water Criteria for the Groundwater Pollutant Diisopropyl Methylphosphonate (DIMP).


    moderate corneal opacity lasting seven days, some conjunctival irritation, but no iritis . The aqueous suspension of DIMP produced no acute irritation...irritation studies conducted by the method of Draize show that technical grade DIMP produces moderate corneal opacity lasting seven days. No iritis was

  20. Effect of Diisopropyl Phosphorofluoridate in Some Aspects of Carbohydrate Metabolism

    A. K. Chatterjee


    Full Text Available An acute dose of DFP equivalent to 50 per cent of the LD50 cause glycogenolysis and hyperglycemia in male albino rats. The hyperglycemic effect can atleast be partially suppressed by the administration of insulin. Under sub-acute dose equivalent to 5 per cent of the LD50, there is glycogenolysis but no change is blood glucose. The action of DFP on carbohydrate metabolism seems to be mediated through adrenal gland. DFP also increases the glycolytic rate, suppresses the LDH activity and is hepatotoxic.

  1. Crosslinked poly(vinyl alcohol)/sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) blend membranes for fuel cell applications - Surface energy characteristics and proton conductivity

    Kanakasabai, P.; Vijay, P.; Deshpande, Abhijit P.; Varughese, Susy [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai 600 036 (India)


    Ionic polymers, their blends and composites are considered potential candidates for application as electrolytes in fuel cells. While developing new materials for membranes, it is important to understand the interactions of these electrolytic materials with electrodes/catalysts and with reactants/products. Some of these interactions can be understood by estimating the surface energy and wettability of the membrane materials. In this work, polyvinyl alcohol with varying degrees of sulfonation and its blend with sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) are prepared and studied for their wettability characteristics using goniometry. The surface energy and its components are estimated using different approaches and compared. Properties such as the ion-exchange capacity, the proton conductivity and the water sorption/desorption behaviour are also investigated to understand the relationship with wettability and surface energy and its components. Among the different methods, the van Oss acid-base and the modified Berthelot approaches yield comparable estimates for the total surface energy. (author)

  2. Acid-base blend membranes based on 2-amino-benzimidazole and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) for direct methanol fuel cells

    Fu, Yongzhu; Manthiram, Arumugam [Materials Science and Engineering Program, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Guiver, Michael D. [Institute for Chemical Process and Environmental Technology, National Research Council of (Canada)


    Direct methanol fuel cells (DMFC) are attractive for portable and automobile power needs, but their commercialization is hampered by high methanol permeability and the high cost of the currently used Nafion membrane. We report here a novel, low-cost blend membrane consisting of polysulfone-2-amide-benzimidazole (a basic polymer) and sulfonated poly(ether ether ketone) (an acidic polymer), which facilitates proton conduction through acid-base interactions while preserving excellent chemical and mechanical stabilities. The blend membrane exhibits performance in DMFC much higher than that of Nafion 115 and similar to that of Nafion 112, but with a remarkably superior long-term performance than Nafion 112 due to significantly reduced methanol crossover, enhancing the commercialization prospects of DMFC. (author)

  3. Synthesis of fluorinated poly(arylene ether)s with dibenzodioxin and spirobisindane units from new bis(pentafluorophenyl)- and bis(nonafluorobiphenyl)-containing monomers

    Tkachenko, Ihor M.; Belov, Nikolay A.; Kobzar, Yaroslav L.


    -substituted compounds were synthesised. Fluorinated poly(arylene ether)s having perfluorinated aromatic units as well as both rigid dibenzodioxin and spirobisindane fragments were successfully obtained by interaction of the synthesized core-fluorinated monomers with 5,5′,6,6′-tetrahydroxy-3,3,3′,3′-tetramethyl-1......(nonafluorophenyl)-containing monomers have higher average molecular masses (Mw) in the range 47,000–88,300 and are able to form robust, solvent-cast films. Good thermal stabilities in air (up to 350 °C) were observed in all fluorinated polymers. The Brunauer–Emmett–Teller specific surface area and the pore size of polymers can...

  4. High-Temperature Shock Tube Measurements of Dimethyl Ether Decomposition and the Reaction of Dimethyl Ether with OH

    Cook, Robert D.; Davidson, David F.; Hanson, Ronald K.


    We measured the first high-temperature rate measurements of two dimethyl ether (DME) reactions, (1) DME + Ar → CH3O + CH3 + Ar and (2) DME + OH → CH3OCH2 + H2O, in a shock tube by monitoring OH radicals. OH was measured with a narrow-line width laser absorption diagnostic using the well-known R1(5) line of the A-X(0,0) transition at 306.7 nm. The rate k1 is in the falloff regime at high temperatures, so it was measured at several pressures from 0.6 to 11.5 atm and temperatures from 1349 to 1790 K. OH radicals were formed by shock-heating mixtures of DME and O2 in Ar. These mixtures take advantage of the rapid decomposition of the product CH3O, forming H-atoms, which react with O2 to form OH. In carefully chosen mixtures, OH concentration is primarily sensitive to k1 and the well-known rate of H + O2 → OH + O. Uncertainty in the k1 measurements was estimated to be ±35%. The rate measurements were then modeled using RRKM theory, which describes the data quite well. Both the rate measurements and the RRKM model were fit from 1000 to 1800 K using the Troe falloff form: k1,∞(T) = (4.38 × 1021)T-1.57 exp(-42 220 K/T) s-1, k1,o = 7.52 × 1015 exp(-21 537 K/T) cm3 mol-1 s-1, and Fcent = 0.454 exp(-T/2510). The rate of k2 was measured at pressures near 1.6 atm and temperatures from 923 to 1423 K. OH radicals were generated by the thermal decomposition of the OH precursor tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), and k2 was inferred from the observed decay of OH with an estimated uncertainty of ±40%. The high-temperature measurements were compared with several rate evaluations and previous low-temperature measurements. The rate evaluation by Curran et al. of k2 = (6.32 × 106)T2 exp(328 K/T) (cm3 mol-1 s-1) was found to be an excellent fit to both the previous low-temperature measurements and this work.

  5. High-temperature shock tube measurements of dimethyl ether decomposition and the reaction of dimethyl ether with OH.

    Cook, Robert D; Davidson, David F; Hanson, Ronald K


    We measured the first high-temperature rate measurements of two dimethyl ether (DME) reactions, (1) DME + Ar --> CH3O + CH3 + Ar and (2) DME + OH --> CH3OCH2 + H2O, in a shock tube by monitoring OH radicals. OH was measured with a narrow-line width laser absorption diagnostic using the well-known R1(5) line of the A-X(0,0) transition at 306.7 nm. The rate k1 is in the falloff regime at high temperatures, so it was measured at several pressures from 0.6 to 11.5 atm and temperatures from 1349 to 1790 K. OH radicals were formed by shock-heating mixtures of DME and O2 in Ar. These mixtures take advantage of the rapid decomposition of the product CH3O, forming H-atoms, which react with O2 to form OH. In carefully chosen mixtures, OH concentration is primarily sensitive to k1 and the well-known rate of H + O2 --> OH + O. Uncertainty in the k1 measurements was estimated to be +/-35%. The rate measurements were then modeled using RRKM theory, which describes the data quite well. Both the rate measurements and the RRKM model were fit from 1000 to 1800 K using the Troe falloff form: k(1,infinity)(T) = (4.38 x 10(21))T(-1.57) exp(-42,220 K/T) s(-1), k(1,o) = 7.52 x 10(15) exp(-21,537 K/T) cm3 mol(-1) s(-1), and F(cent) = 0.454 exp(-T/2510). The rate of k2 was measured at pressures near 1.6 atm and temperatures from 923 to 1423 K. OH radicals were generated by the thermal decomposition of the OH precursor tert-butyl hydroperoxide (TBHP), and k2 was inferred from the observed decay of OH with an estimated uncertainty of +/-40%. The high-temperature measurements were compared with several rate evaluations and previous low-temperature measurements. The rate evaluation by Curran et al. of k2 = (6.32 x 10(6))T2 exp(328 K/T) (cm3 mol(-1) s(-1)) was found to be an excellent fit to both the previous low-temperature measurements and this work.

  6. Pullout performance comparison of novel expandable pedicle screw with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells and cement-augmented pedicle screws.

    Aycan, Mehmet Fatih; Tolunay, Tolga; Demir, Teyfik; Yaman, Mesut Emre; Usta, Yusuf


    Aim of this study is to assess the pullout performance of various pedicle screws in different test materials. Polyurethane foams (Grade 10 and Grade 40) produced in laboratory and bovine vertebrae were instrumented with normal, cannulated (cemented), novel expandable and normal (cemented) pedicle screws. Test samples were prepared according to the ASTM F543 standard testing protocols and surgical guidelines. To examine the screw placement and cement distribution, anteriosuperior and oblique radiographs were taken from each sample after insertion process was completed. Pullout tests were performed in an Instron 3369 testing device. Load versus displacement graphs were recorded and the ultimate pullout force was defined as the maximum load (pullout strength) sustained before failure of screw. Student's t-test was performed on each group whether the differences between pullout strength of pedicle screws were significant or not. While normal pedicle screws have the lowest pullout strength in all test materials, normal pedicle screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate exhibit significantly higher pullout performance than others. For all test materials, there is a significant improvement in pullout strength of normal screws by augmentation. While novel expandable pedicle screws with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells exhibited lower pullout performance than normal screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate, their pullout performances in all groups were higher than the ones of normal and cannulated pedicle screws. For all test materials, although cannulated pedicle screws exhibit higher pullout strength than normal pedicle screws, there are no significant differences between the two groups. The novel expandable pedicle screws with expandable poly-ether-ether-ketone shells may be used instead of normal and cannulated pedicle screws cemented with polymethylmethacrylate due to their good performances.

  7. Application of EtherCAT protocol in CNC system%EtherCAT协议在开放式数控系统中的应用

    张少勋; 郗晓田


    根据数控系统发展趋势提出了基于实时工业以太网的开放式数控系统新架构,详细分析了EtherCAT协议通信原理、EtherCAT协议应用于开放式数控系统的优势及其设计.系统主站采用凌动D520工控机、Linux平台的数控软件EMC2,从站设备选用日本三洋公司的RS系列伺服驱动器及马达.最后,给出实验结果.%According to the development trends of CNC system,it put forward a new architecture of CNC system based on real-time industrial Ethemet.It detailed the theory of EtherCAT protocol,and it' s superiority and design on CNC system.The master of system applied Atom IPC-D520,and CNC softwareEMC2 based on Linux.The slaves applied servo driver and motor of type RS from SANMotion in Japan.Finally,it gave the experimental results.

  8. Tailoring chemical and physical properties of fibrous scaffolds from block copolyesters containing ether and thio-ether linkages for skeletal differentiation of human mesenchymal stromal cells.

    Chen, Honglin; Gigli, Matteo; Gualandi, Chiara; Truckenmüller, Roman; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Lotti, Nadia; Munari, Andrea; Focarete, Maria Letizia; Moroni, Lorenzo


    Bioactive scaffolds for tissue engineering call for demands on new materials which can enhance traditional biocompatibility requirements previously considered for clinical implantation. The current commercially available thermoplastic materials, such as poly(lactic acid) (PLA), poly(glycolic acid) (PGA), poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) and their copolymers, have been used to fabricate scaffolds for regenerative medicine. However, these polymers have limitations including lacking of broadly tuning mechanical and degradable properties, and activation of specific cell-scaffold interactions, which limit their further application in tissue engineering. In the present study, electrospun scaffolds were successfully fabricated from a new class of block poly(butylene succinate)-based (PBS-based) copolyesters containing either butylene thiodiglycolate (BTDG) or butylene diglycolate (BDG) sequences. The polyesters displayed tunable mechanical properties and hydrolysis rate depending on the molecular architecture and on the kind of heteroatom introduced along the polymer backbone. To investigate their potential for skeletal regeneration, human mesenchymal stromal cells (hMSCs) were cultured on the scaffolds in basic, osteogenic and chondrogenic media. Our results demonstrated that PBS-based copolyesters containing thio-ether linkages (i.e. BTDG segments) were more favorable for chondrogenesis of hMSCs than those containing ether linkages (i.e. BDG sequences). In contrast, PBS-based copolyesters containing ether linkages showed enhanced mineralization. Therefore, these new functional scaffolds might hold potential for osteochondral tissue engineering applications.

  9. 40 CFR 721.7700 - Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3...


    ...-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol (3:1). 721.7700 Section 721.7700... Poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl), α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3... substance identified as poly(oxy-1,2-ethanediyl),α-hydro-ω-(oxiranylmethoxy)-, ether with...

  10. 40 CFR 721.5500 - 7-Oxabicyclo[4.1.0]heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro...


    ..., homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1), epoxidized. 721.5500 Section 721...-Oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-pro-pane-diol (3:1... 7-oxabicyclo heptane, 3-ethenyl, homopolymer, ether with 2-ethyl-2(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-propanediol...

  11. Modelling of phase equilibria of glycol ethers mixtures using an association model

    Garrido, Nuno M.; Folas, Georgios; Kontogeorgis, Georgios


    Vapor-liquid and liquid-liquid equilibria of glycol ethers (surfactant) mixtures with hydrocarbons, polar compounds and water are calculated using an association model, the Cubic-Plus-Association Equation of State. Parameters are estimated for several non-ionic surfactants of the polyoxyethylene ...

  12. Sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) degradation by nitrate-reducing bacteria

    Silva Paulo, da Ana; Aydin, Rozelin; Dimitrov, Mauricio R.; Vreeling, Harm; Cavaleiro, Ana J.; García-Encina, Pedro A.; Stams, Fons; Plugge, Caroline M.


    The surfactant sodium lauryl ether sulfate (SLES) is widely used in the composition of detergents and frequently ends up in wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). While aerobic SLES degradation is well studied, little is known about the fate of this compound in anoxic environments, such as denitrifica

  13. Elevated Serum Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers and Alteration of Thyroid Hormones in Children from Guiyu, China

    Xu, Xijin; Liu, Junxiao; Zeng, Xiang; Lu, Fangfang; Chen, Aimin; Huo, Xia


    Informal electronic waste (e-waste) recycling results in serious environmental pollution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and heavy metals. This study explored whether there is an association between PBDEs, heavy metal and key growth-and development-related hormones in children from Guiyu,

  14. Implementation of fault tolerant control for modular multilevel converter using EtherCAT communication

    Burlacu, Paul Dan; Mathe, Laszlo; Rejas, Marcos;


    . This communication platform has to ensure a perfect synchronization between the modules, and it should be also fault tolerant. The analysis of a MMC based on EtherCAT is presented in this paper from implementation and module fault point of view. The experimental tests show that the MMC operates after communication...

  15. Multipodal coordination of a tetracarboxylic crown ether with NH4+: A vibrational spectroscopy and computational study

    Hurtado, P.; Gamez, F.; Hamad, S.; Martinez-Haya, B.; Steill, J. D.; Oomens, J.


    The elucidation of the structural requirements for molecular recognition by the crown ether (18-crown-6)-2,3,11,12-tetracarboxylic acid (18c6H(4)) and its cationic complexes constitutes a topic of current fundamental and practical interest in catalysis and analytical sciences. The flexibility of the

  16. A novel synthesis of 2'-hydroxy-1',3'-xylyl crown ethers

    Leij, van der M.; Oosterink, H.J.; Hall, R.H.; Reinhoudt, D.N.


    Six novel 2' - hydroxy - 1',3' - xylyl crown ethers (8a–e and 13)1 have been synthesized utilizing the allyl group to protect the OH function during the cyclization reaction. The macrocycles 6a-e were formed in yields of 26 to 52%, by intermolecular reaction of 4 - chloro - 2,6 - bis(bromomethyl) -

  17. Optimal design and plantwide control of novel processes for di-n-pentyl ether production

    Bildea, Costin Sorin; Gyorgy, Romuald; Sánchez-Ramírez, Eduardo; Quiroz-Ramírez, Juan José; Segovia-Hernandez, Juan Gabriel; Kiss, Anton A.


    BACKGROUND: Di-n-pentyl ether (DNPE) is a good candidate for diesel fuel formulations due to its blending cetane number, good cold flow properties and effectiveness in reducing diesel exhaust emissions, particulates and smokes. However, novel processes are required in order to drive the production

  18. Global assessment of Dimethyl-ether as an automotive fuel (second edition)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Doorn, A. van; Walwijk, M. van


    This report studies the feasibility of dimethyl-ether (DME) as an automotive fuel. The report is aimed at putting DME in a wide perspective. Subjects included are production of the fuel, emissions, engine design, market introduction, safety and the possible position of DME in the future world-wide e

  19. Global assessment of Dimethyl-ether as an automotive fuel (second edition)

    Verbeek, R.P.; Van Doorn, A.; Walwijk, M. van


    This report studies the feasibility of dimethyl-ether (DME) as an automotive fuel. The report is aimed at putting DME in a wide perspective. Subjects included are production of the fuel, emissions, engine design, market introduction, safety and the possible position of DME in the future world-wide energy supply. DME properties; DME production

  20. Stereospecific nickel-catalyzed cross-coupling reactions of alkyl ethers: enantioselective synthesis of diarylethanes.

    Taylor, Buck L H; Swift, Elizabeth C; Waetzig, Joshua D; Jarvo, Elizabeth R


    Secondary benzylic ethers undergo stereospecific substitution reactions with Grignard reagents in the presence of nickel catalysts. Reactions proceed with inversion of configuration and high stereochemical fidelity. This reaction allows for facile enantioselective synthesis of biologically active diarylethanes from readily available optically enriched carbinols.