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Sample records for diii-d advanced divertor

  1. Advanced divertor experiments on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M.J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Osborne, T.; Petrie, T.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Buchenauer, D.; Hill, D.N.; Klepper, C.C.

    1991-01-01

    The poloidal divertor is presently favored for next-step, high-power tokamaks. The DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) aims to gain increased control over the divertor plasma and tokamak boundary conditions. This paper reports experiments done in the first phase of the ADP. The DIII-D lower divertor was modified by the addition of a toroidally symmetric, graphite-armoured, water-cooled divertor-biasing ring electrode at the entrance to a gas plenum. (In the past DIII-D operated with an open divertor.) The plenum will eventually contain a He cryogenic loop for active divertor pumping. The separatrix 'strike' position is controlled by the lower poloidal field shaping coils and can be varied smoothly from the ring electrode upper surface to the divertor floor far from the entrance aperture. External power, at up to 550 V and 8 kA separately, has been applied to the electrode to date. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs

  2. Advanced divertor experiments on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M.J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Osborne, T.; Petrie, T.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Buchenauer, D.; Hill, D.N.; Klepper, C.C.

    1991-04-01

    The poloidal divertor is presently favored for next-step, high-power tokamaks. The DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) aims to gain increased control over the divertor plasma and tokamak boundary conditions. This paper reports experiments done in the first phase of the ADP. The DIII-D lower divertor was modified by the addition of a toroidally symmetric, graphite-armoured, water-cooled divertor-biasing ring electrode at the entrance to a gas plenum. The plenum will eventually contain a He cryogenic loop for active divertor pumping. The separatrix ''strike'' position is controlled by the lower poloidal field shaping coils and can be varied smoothly from the ring electrode upper surface to the divertor floor far from the entrance aperture. External power, at up to 550 V and 8 kA separately, has been applied to the electrode to date. 5 refs., 5 figs

  3. Design of DIII-D advanced divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.; Schaffer, M.; Thruston, G.

    1989-01-01

    The Advanced Divertor is a modification being designed for the plasma chamber of the DIII-D tokamak in order to optimize the divertor configuration and allow a broader range of experiments to be carried out. The Advanced Divertor will enable two classes of physics experiments to be run in DIII-D: Divertor biasing and Divertor baffing. The Advanced Divertor has two principal components: ( 1) a toroidally symmetric baffle; and (2) a continuous ring electrode. The tokamak can be run in baffle, bias, or standard DIII-D divertor modes by accurate positioning of the outer divertor strike point through the use of the DIII-D plasma control system. The baffle will contain approximately 50,000 l/s pumping for particle removal in the outer bottom corner of the vacuum vessel. The strike point will be positioned at the entrance aperture for the baffle mode. The aperture geometry is designed to facilitate a large particle influx plus a high probability that backstreaming particles will be reionized and redirected to the aperture. Where the baffling plates meet, gas sealing is required to prevent recycling of neutrals back into the plasma. The electrode is a continuous water-cooled ring, armored with graphite. The ring is electrically isolated from the vessel wall and is biasable to 1 kV and 20 kA. The outer leg of the divertor will be positioned on the graphite covered ring during biasing experiments. The supports for the ring are radially flexible to handle the differential thermal growth between the ring and the vessel wall but stiff in the vertical direction to restrain the ring against large disruption forces. The coolant and electrical feeds are designed in a similar manner. 2 refs., 4 figs

  4. Design of DIII-D Advanced Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.; Schaffer, M.; Thurston, G.

    1989-11-01

    The Advanced Divertor is a modification being designed for the plasma chamber of the DIII-D tokamak in order to optimize the divertor configuration and allow a broader range of experiments to be carried out. The Advanced Divertor will enable two classes of physics experiments to be run in DIII-D: Divertor biasing and Divertor baffling. The Advanced Divertor has two principal components: a toroidally symmetric baffle; and a continuous ring electrode. The tokamak can be run in baffle, bias, or standard DIII-D divertor modes by accurate positioning of the outer divertor strike point through the use of the DIII-D plasma control system. The baffle will contain approximately 50,000 l/s pumping for particle removal in the outer bottom corner of the vacuum vessel. The strike point will be positioned at the entrance aperture for the baffle mode. The aperture geometry is designed to facilitate a large particle influx plus a high probability that backstreaming particles will be reionized and redirected to the aperture. Where the baffling plates meet, gas sealing is required to prevent recycling of neutrals back into the plasma. The electrode is a continuous water-cooled ring, armored with graphite. The ring is electrically isolated from the vessel wall and is biasable to 1 kV and 20 kA. The outer leg of the divertor will be positioned on the graphite covered ring during biasing experiments. The supports for the ring are radially flexible to handle the differential thermal growth between the ring and the vessel wall but stiff in the vertical direction to restrain the ring against large disruption forces. The coolant and electrical feeds are designed in a similar manner. All the feeds are supported from and maintain a 5 kV isolation to the vessel wall. 2 refs., 4 figs

  5. Engineering, installation, testing, and initial operation of the DIII-D Advanced Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Smith, J.P.

    1990-09-01

    The Advanced Divertor (AD) for General Atomics tokamak, DIII-D, was installed in the summer of 1990. The AD has enabled two classes of physics experiments to be run: divertor biasing and divertor baffling. Both are new experiments for DIII-D. The AD has two principal components: (1) a continuous ring electrode; and (2) a toroidally symmetric baffle. The tokamak can be run in bias baffle or standard DIII-D divertor modes by accurate positioning of the outer divertor strike point through the use of the DIII-D control system. The paper covers design, analysis, fabrication, installation, instrumentation, testing, initial operation, and future plans for the Advanced Divertor from an engineering viewpoint. 2 refs., 5 figs

  6. Performance characteristics of the DIII-D advanced divertor cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Baxi, C.B.; Campbell, G.L.; Holtrop, K.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Laughon, G.J.; Makariou, C.C.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; Scoville, J.T.; Smith, J.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1993-10-01

    A cryocondensation pump, cooled by forced flow of two-phase helium, has been installed for particle exhaust from the divertor region of the DIII-D tokamak. The Inconel pumping surface is of coaxial geometry, 25.4 mm in outer diameter and 11.65 m in length. Because of the tokamak environment, the pump is designed to perform under relatively high pulsed heat loads (300 Wm -2 ). Results of measurements made on the pumping characteristics for D 2 , H 2 , and Ar are discussed

  7. Features and Initial Results of the DIII-D Advanced Tokamak Radiative Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.C. O'Neill; A.S. Bozek; M.E. Friend; C.B. Baxi; E.E. Reis; M.A. Mahdavi; D.G. Nilson; S.L. Allen; W.P. West

    1999-01-01

    The Radiative Divertor Program of DIII-D is in its final phase with the installation of the cryopump and baffle structure (Phase 1B Divertor) in the upper inner radius of the DIII-D vacuum vessel at the end of this calendar year. This divertor, in conjunction with the Advanced Divertor and the Phase 1A Divertor, located in the lower and upper outer radius of the DIII-D vacuum vessel respectively, provides pumping for density control of the plasma while minimizing the effects on the core confinement. Each divertor consists of a cryobelium cooling ring and a shielded protective structure. The cryo/helium-cooled pumps of all three diverters exhaust helium from the plasma. The protective shielded structure or baffle structure, in the case of the diverters located at the top of the vacuum vessel, provides baffling of neutral charged particles and minimize the flow of impurities back into the core of the plasma. The baffles, which consist of water-cooled panels that allow for the attachment of tiles of various sizes and shapes, house gas puff systems. The intent of the puffing systems is to inject gas in and around the divertor to minimize the heat flux on specific areas on the divertor and its components. The reduction of the heat flux on the divertor minimizes the impurities that are generated from excess heat on divertor components, specifically tiles. Experiments involving the gas puff systems and the divertor structures have shown the heat flux can be spread over a large area of the divertor, reducing the peak heat flux in specific areas. The three diverters also incorporate a variety of diagnostic tools such as halo current monitors, magnetic probes and thermocouples to monitor certain plasma characteristics as well as determine the effectiveness of the cryopumps and baffle configurations. The diverters were designed to optimize pumping performance and to withstand the electromagnetic loads from both halo currents and toroidal induced currents. Incorporated also

  8. Particle control in the DIII-D advanced divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaffer, M.J.; Lippmann, S.I.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Hogan, J.; Klepper, C.C.; Mioduszewski, P.; Owen, L.; Hill, D.N.; Rensink, M.; Buchenauer, D.

    1991-11-01

    A new, electrically biasable, semi-closed divertor was installed and operated in the D3-D lower outside divertor location. The semi-closed divertor has yielded static gas pressure buildups in the pumping plenum in excess of 10 mtorr. (The planned cryogenic pumping is not yet installed). Electrical bias controls the distribution of particle recycle between the inner and outer divertors by rvec E x rvec B drifts. Depending on sign, bias increases or decreases the plenum gas pressure. Bias greatly reduce the sensitivity of plenum pressure to separatrix position. In particular, rvec E x rvec B drifts in the D3-D geometry can direct plasma across a divertor target and then optimally into the pumping aperture. Bias, even without active pumping, has also demonstrated a limited control of ELMing H-mode plasma density. 5 refs., 8 figs

  9. Plasma diagnostics for the DIII-D divertor upgrade (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, D.N.; Futch, A.; Buchenauer, D.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Schmitz, L.; Klepper, C.C.; Menon, M.; Leikind, B.; Lippmann, S.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.; Smith, J.; Salmonson, J.; Watkins, J.

    1990-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak is being upgraded to allow for divertor biasing, baffling, and pumping experiments. This paper gives an overview of the new diagnostics added to DIII-D as part of this advanced divertor program. They include tile current monitors, fast reciprocating Langmuir probes, a fixed probe array in the divertor, fast neutral pressure gauges, and H α measurements with TV cameras and fiber optics coupled to a high-resolution spectrometer

  10. Installation and initial operation of the DIII-D advanced divertor cryocondensation pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Schaubel, K.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Campbell, G.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Laughon, G.J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Sevier, D.L.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Menon, M.M.

    1993-10-01

    Phase two of a divertor cryocondensation pump, the Advanced Divertor Program, is now installed in the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics and complements the phase one biasable ring electrode. The installation consists of a 10 m long cryocondensation pump located in the divertor baffle chamber to study plasma density control by pumping of the divertor. The design is a toroidally electrically continuous liquid helium-cooled panel with 1 m 2 of pumping surface. The helium panel is single point grounded to the nitrogen shield to minimize eddy currents. The nitrogen shield is toroidally continuous and grounded to the vacuum vessel in 24 locations to prevent voltage potentials from building up between the pump and vacuum vessel wall. A radiation/particle shield surrounds the nitrogen-cooled surface to minimize the heat load and prevent water molecules condensed on the nitrogen surface from being released by impact of energetic particles. Large currents (>5000 A) are driven in the helium and nitrogen panels during ohmic coil ramp up and during disruptions. The pump is designed to accommodate both the thermal and mechanical loads due to these currents. A feedthrough for the cryogens allows for both radial and vertical motion of the pump with respect to the vacuum vessel. Thermal performance measured on a prototype verified the analytical model and thermal design of the pump. Characterization tests of the installed pump show the pumping speed in deuterium is 42,000 ell/sec for a pressure of 5 mTorr. Induction heating of the pump (at 300 W) resulted in no degradation of pumping speed. Plasma operations with the cryopump show a 60% lower density in H-mode

  11. Modeling of combined effects of divertor closure and advanced magnetic configuration on detachment in DIII-D by SOLPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, H.; Guo, H. Y.; Covele, B.; Leonard, A. W.; Watkins, J. G.; Thomas, D.; Ding, R.

    2018-05-01

    One of the major challenges facing the design and operation of next-step high-power steady-state fusion devices is to develop a divertor solution for handling power exhaust, while ensuring acceptable divertor target plate erosion, which necessitates access to divertor detachment at relative low main plasma densities compatible with current drive and high plasma confinement. Detailed modeling with SOLPS is carried out to examine the effect of divertor closure on detachment with the normal single null divertor (SD) configuration, as well as one of the advanced divertor configurations, such as x-divertor (XD) respectively. The SOLPS modeling for a high confinement plasma in DIII-D finds that increasing divertor closure with SD reduces the upstream separatrix density at the onset of detachment from 1.18× {{10}19} {{m}-3} to 0.88× {{10}19} {{m}-3} . Moreover, coupling the divertor closure with XD further promotes the onset of divertor detachment at a still lower upstream separatrix density, down to the value of 0.67× {{10}19} {{m}-3} , thus, showing that divertor closure and advanced magnetic configuration can work synergistically to facilitate divertor detachment.

  12. Engineering design of a radiative divertor for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek, A.S.

    1995-10-01

    A new divertor configuration is being developed for the DIII-D tokamak. This divertor will operate in the radiative mode. Experiments and modeling form the basis for the new design. The Radiative Divertor reduces the heat flux on the divertor plates by dispersing the power with radiation in the divertor region. In addition, the Radiative Divertor structure will allow density control in plasma shapes required for advanced tokamak operation. The divertor structure allows for operation in either double-null or single-null plasma configurations. Four independently controlled divertor cryopumps will enable pumping at either the inboard (upper and lower) or the outboard (upper and lower) divertor plates. An upgrade to the DIII-D cryogenic system is part of this project. The increased capabilities of the cryogenic system will allow delivery of liquid helium and nitrogen to the three new cryopumps. The Radiative Divertor design is very flexible, and will allow physics studies of the effects of slot width and length. Radiative Divertor diagnostics are being designed in parallel to provide comprehensive measurements for diagnosing the divertor. The Radiative divertor installation is scheduled for late 1996. Engineering experience gained in the DIII-D Advanced Divertor program form a foundation for the design work on the Radiative Divertor

  13. Verification test for helium panel of cryopump for DIII-D advanced divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Laughon, G.J.; Langhorn, A.R.; Schaubel, K.M.; Smith, J.P.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Menon, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    It is planned to install a cryogenic pump in the lower divertor portion of the DIII-D tokamak with a pumping speed of 50000 ell/s and an exhaust of 2670 Pa-ell/s (20 Torr-ell/s). A coaxial counter flow configuration has been chosen for the helium panel of this cryogenic pump. This paper evaluates cool-down rates and fluid stability of this configuration. A prototypic test was performed at General Atomics (GA) to increase confidence in the design. It was concluded that the helium panel cooldown rate agreed quite well with analytical prediction and was within acceptable limits. The design flow rate proved stable and two-phase pressure drop can be predicted quite accurately

  14. Particle exhaust schemes in the DIII-D advanced divertor configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    For density control in long-pulse operation, the open divertor on the DIII-D tokamak will be equipped with a baffled chamber and a pumping system. The throat of the baffle chamber is sized to provide optimal pumping for the typical plasma equilibrium configuration. Severe limitations on the toroidal conductance of this baffle chamber require the use of in-vessel pumping to achieve the desired particle exhaust of about 25 Torr·l/s. Two separate pumping schemes are considered: an array of titanium getter modules based on the design developed by the Tore Supra team and a cryocondensation pump. The merits and demerits of each scheme are analyzed, and the design considerations introduced by the tokamak environment are brought out. 3 refs., 5 figs

  15. A cryocondensation pump for the DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.; Reis, E.; Sevier, L.

    1992-03-01

    A cryocondensation pump was designed for the baffle chamber of General Atomics DIII-D tokamak and will be installed in the fall of 1992. The purpose of the pump is to study plasma density control by pumping the divertor. The pump is toroidally continuous, approximately 10 m long and located in the lower outer corner of the vacuum chamber of the machine. It consists of a 1 m 2 liquid helium-cooled surface surrounded by a liquid nitrogen-cooled shield to limit the heat load on the helium-cooled surface. The liquid nitrogen-cooled surface is surrounded by a radiation/particle shield to prevent energetic particles from impacting and releasing condensed water molecules. A thermal enhancement coating was applied to the nitrogen shell to lower the maximum temperature of the shell. The coating is non-continuous to keep the toroidal electrical resistance high. The whole pump is supported off the water-cooled vacuum vessel wall. Supports for the pump were designed to accommodate the thermal differences between the 4 K helium surface, the 77 K nitrogen shells, and the 300 K vacuum vessel supporting the pump and to provide a low heat leak structural support. Disruption loading on the pump was analyzed and a finite element structural analysis of the pump was completed. A testing program was completed to evaluate coating techniques to enhance heat transfer and emissivity of the various surfaces. Fabrication tests were performed to determine the best method of attaching the liquid nitrogen flow tubes to their shield surfaces and to determine the best alternative to fabricating the different shells of the pump. A prototype sector of the pump was built to verify fabrication and assembly techniques

  16. VUV Spectroscopy in DIII-D Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkesh Punjabi; Nelson Jalufka

    2004-01-01

    The research carried out on this grant was motivated by the high power emission from the CIV doublet at 155 nm in the DIII-D divertor and to study the characteristics of the radiative divertor. The radiative divertor is designed to reduce the heat load to the target plates of the divertor by reducing the energy in the divertor plasma using upstream scrape-off-layer (SOL) radiation. In some cases, particularly in Partially Detached Divertor (PDD) operations, this emission accounts for more than 50% of the total radiation from the divertor. In PDD operation, produced by neutral gas injection, the particle flow to the target plate and the divertor temperature are significantly reduced. A father motivation was to study the CIV emission distribution in the lower, open divertor and the upper baffled divertor. Two Vacuum Ultra Violet Tangential viewing Television cameras (VUV TTV) were constructed and installed in the upper, baffled and the lower, open divertor. The images recorded by these cameras were then inverted to produce two-dimensional distributions of CIV in the poloidal plane. Results obtained in the project are summarized in this report

  17. Engineering design of a Radiative Divertor for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Allen, S.L.; Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Chin, E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Hill, D.N.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Junge, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Porter, G.D.; Redler, K.; Reis, E.E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Sevier, D.L.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    A new divertor called the Radiative Divertor is presently being designed for the DIII-D tokamak. Input from tokamak experiments and modeling form the basis for the new design. The Radiative Divertor is intended to reduce the heat flux on the divertor plates by dispersing the power with radiation. Gas puffing experiments in the current open divertor have shown a reduction of the divertor heat flux with either deuterium or impurity puffing. However, either the plasma density (D 2 ) or the core Z eff (impurities) increases in these experiments. The radiative divertor uses a slot structure to isolate the divertor plasma region from the area surrounding the core plasma. Modeling has shown that the Radiative Divertor hardware will provide better baffling and particle control and thereby minimize the effect of the gas puffing in the divertor region on the plasma core. In addition, the Radiative Divertor structure will allow density control in plasma shapes with high triangularity (>0.8) required for advanced tokamak operation. The divertor structure allows for operation in either double or single-null plasma configurations. Four independently controlled divertor cryopumps will enable pumping at either the inboard (upper and lower) or the outboard (upper and lower) divertor plates. Biasing is an integral part of the design and is based on experience at the Tokamak de Varennes (TdeV) and DIII-D. Boron nitride tiles electrically insulate the inner and outer strike points and a low current electrode is used to apply a radial electric field to the scrape-off layer. TdeV has shown that biasing can provide particle and impurity control. The design is extremely flexible, and will allow physics studies of the effect of slot width and height. This is extremely important, as the amount of chamber volume needed for the divertor in future machines such as International Thermonuclear Experiment Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) must be determined. (orig./WL)

  18. Divertor erosion in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Brooks, J.N.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.; Buzhinskij, O.I.; Opimach, I.V.

    1998-08-01

    Net erosion rates of carbon target plates have been measured in situ for the DIII-D lower divertor. The principal method of obtaining this data is the DiMES sample probe. Recent experiments have focused on erosion at the outer strike-point (OSP) of two divertor plasma conditions: attached (T e > 40 eV) ELMing plasmas, and detached (T e 2 . In this case, measurements and modeling agree for both gross and net carbon erosion, showing the near-surface transport and redeposition of the carbon is well understood. In the attached cases, physical sputtering (with enhancement from self-sputtering and oblique incidence) is dominant, and the effective sputtering yield, Y, is greater than 10%. In ELM-free discharges, the total OSP net erosion rate is equal to the rate of carbon accumulation in the core plasma. For the detached divertor cases, the cold incident plasma eliminates physical sputtering. Attempts to measure chemically eroded hydrocarbon molecules spectroscopically indicate an upper limit of Y ≤ 0.1% for the chemical sputtering yield. Net erosion is suppressed at the outer strike-point, which becomes a region of net redeposition (∼ 4 cm/exposure-year). The private flux wall is measured to be a region of net redeposition with dense, high neutral pressure, attached divertor plasmas. Leading edges intercepting parallel heat flux (∼ 50 MW/m 2 ) have very high net erosion rates at the OSP of an attached plasma (∼ 10 microm/s > 1,000x erosion rate of aligned surfaces). Leading edge erosion, and subsequent carbon redeposition, caused by tile gaps can account for half of the deuterium codeposition in the DIII-D divertor

  19. Divertor erosion in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Brooks, J.N.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.

    1998-05-01

    Net erosion rates of carbon target plates have been measured in situ for the DIII-D lower divertor. The principal method of obtaining this data is the DiMES sample probe. Recent experiments have focused on erosion at the outer strike-point of two divertor plasma conditions: (1) attached (Te > 40 eV) ELMing plasmas and (2) detached (Te 10 cm/year, even with incident heat flux 2 . In this case, measurements and modeling agree for both gross and net carbon erosion, showing the near-surface transport and redeposition of the carbon is well understood and that effective sputtering yields are > 10%. In ELM-free discharges, this erosion rate can account for the rate of carbon accumulation in the core plasma. Divertor plasma detachment eliminates physical sputtering, while spectroscopically measured chemical erosion yields are also found to be low (Y(C/D + ) ≤ 2.0 x 10 -3 ). This leads to suppression of net erosion at the outer strike-point, which becomes a region of net redeposition (∼ 4 cm/year). The private flux wall is measured to be a region of net redeposition with dense, high neutral pressure, attached divertor plasmas. Leading edges intercepting parallel heat flux (∼ 50 MW/m 2 ) have very high net erosion rates (∼ 10 microm/s) at the OSP of an attached plasma. Leading edge erosion, and subsequent carbon redeposition, caused by tile gaps can account for half of the deuterium codeposition in the DIII-D divertor

  20. Design of the advanced divertor pump cryogenic system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaubel, K.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Campbell, G.L.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Langhorn, A.R.; Laughon, G.J.; Smith, J.P.; Anderson, P.M.; Menon, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    The design of the cryogenic system for the D3-D advanced divertor cryocondensation pump is presented. The advanced divertor incorporates a baffle chamber and bias ring located near the bottom of the D3-D vacuum vessel. A 50,000 l/s cryocondensation pump will be installed underneath the baffle for plasma particle exhaust. The pump consists of a liquid helium cooled tube operating at 4.3 degrees K and a liquid nitrogen cooled radiation shield. Liquid helium is fed by forced flow through the cryopump. Compressed helium gas flowing through the high pressure side of a heat exchanger is regeneratively cooled by the two-phase helium leaving the pump. The cooled high pressure gaseous helium is than liquefied by a Joule-Thomson expansion valve. The liquid is returned to a storage dewar. The liquid nitrogen for the radiation shield is supplied by forced flow from a bulk storage system. Control of the cryogenic system is accomplished by a programmable logic controller

  1. The DIII-D Radiative Divertor Project: Status and plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek, A.S.

    1996-10-01

    New divertor hardware is being designed and fabricated for the Radiative Divertor modification of the DIII-D tokamak. The installation of the hardware has been separated into two phases, the first phase starting in October of 1996 and the second and final phase, in 1998. The phased approach enables the continuation of the divertor characterization research in the lower divertor while providing pumping for density control in high triangularity, single- or double-null advanced tokamak discharges. When completed, the Radiative Divertor Project hardware will provide pumping at all four strike points of a double-null, high triangularity discharge and provide baffling of the neutral particles from transport back to the core plasma. By puffing neutral gas into the divertor region, a reduction in the heat flux on the target plates will be be demonstrated without a large rise in core density. This reduction in heat flux is accomplished by dispersing the power with radiation in the divertor region. Experiments and modeling have formed the basis for the new design. The capability of the DIII-D cryogenic system is being upgraded as part of this project. The increased capability of the cryogenic system will allow delivery of liquid helium and nitrogen to three new cryopumps. Physics studies on the effects of slot width and length can be accomplished easily with the design of the Radiative Divertor. The slot width can be varied by installing graphite tiles of different geometry. The change in slot length, the distance from the X-point to the target plate, requires relocating the structure vertically and can be completed in about 6-8 weeks. Radiative Divertor diagnostics are being designed to provide comprehensive measurements for diagnosing the divertor. Required diagnostic modifications will be minimal for Phase 1, but extensive for Phase 2 installation. These Phase 2 diagnostics will be required to fully diagnose the high triangularity discharges in the divertor slots

  2. FINAL REPORT FOR THE DIII-D RADIATIVE DIVERTOR PROJECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'NEIL, RC; STAMBAUGH, RD

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 FINAL REPORT FOR THE DIII-D RADIATIVE DIVERTOR PROJECT. The Radiative Divertor Project originated in 1993 when the DIII-D Five Year Plan for the period 1994--1998 was prepared. The Project Information Sheet described the objective of the project as ''to demonstrate dispersal of divertor power by a factor of then with sufficient diagnostics and modeling to extend the results to ITER and TPX''. Key divertor components identified were: (1) Carbon-carbon and graphite armor tiles; (2) The divertor structure providing a gas baffle and cooling; and (3) The divertor cryopumps to pump fuel and impurities

  3. Verification test for helium panel of cryopump for DIII-D advanced divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Laughon, G.J.; Langhorn, A.R.; Schaubel, K.M.; Smith, J.P.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Campbell, G.L.; Menon, M.M.

    1991-10-01

    It is planned to install a cryogenic pump in the lower divertor portion of the D3-D tokamak with a pumping speed of 50000 ell/s and an exhaust of 2670 Pa-ell/s (20 Torr-ell s). A coaxial counter flow configuration has been chosen for the helium panel of this cryogenic pump. This paper evaluates cooldown rates and fluid stability of this configuration. A prototypic test was performed at General Atomics (GA) to increase confidence in the design. It was concluded that the helium panel cooldown rate agreed quite well with analytical prediction and was within acceptable limits. The design flow rate proved stable and two-phase pressure drop can be predicted quite accurately. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab

  4. Divertor heat and particle control experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Baker, D.R.; Allen, S.L.

    1994-05-01

    In this paper we present a summary of recent DIII-D divertor physics activity and plans for future divertor upgrades. During the past year, DIII-D experimental effort was focused on areas of active heat and particle control and divertor target erosion studies. Using the DIII-D Advanced Divertor system we have succeeded for the first time to control the plasma density and demonstrate helium exhaust in H-mode plasmas. Divertor heat flux control by means of D 2 gas puffing and impurity injection were studied separately and in, both cases up to a factor of five reduction of the divertor peak heat flux was observed. Using the DiMES sample transfer system we have obtained erosion data on various material samples in well diagnosed plasmas and compared the results with predictions of numerical models

  5. Particle exhaust scheme using an in-vessel cryocondensation pump in the advanced divertor configuration of the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Owen, L.W.; Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Langhorn, A.; Luxon, J.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; "" class="author-name" title=" (General Atomics Co., San Diego, CA (United States))" data-affiliation=" (General Atomics Co., San Diego, CA (United States))" >Smith, J.P>

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a particle exhaust scheme using a cryocondensation pump in the advanced divertor configuration of the DIII-D tokamak is described. In this configuration, the pump is located inside a baffle chamber within the tokamak, designed to receive particles reflected off the divertor strike region. A concentric coaxial loop with forced-convection flow of two-phase helium is selected as the cryocondensation surface. The pumping configuration is optimized by Monte Carlo techniques to provide maximum exhaust efficiency while minimizing the deleterious effects of impingement of energetic plasma particles on cryogenic surfaces. Heat loading contributions from various sources on the cryogenic surfaces are estimated, based on which the cryogenic surfaces are estimated, based on which the cryogenic flow loop for the pump is designed. The mechanical aspects of the pump, designed to meet the many challenging requirements of operating the cryopump internal to the tokamak vacuum and in close proximity with the high-temperature plasma, are also outlined

  6. Development of a radiative divertor for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Campbell, R.B.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Hill, D.N.; Hyatt, A.W.; Knoll, D.; Lasnier, C.J.; Lazarus, E.A.; Leonard, A.W.; Lippmann, S.I.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Maingi, R.; Meyer, W.; Moyer, R.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Porter, G.D.; Rensink, M.E.; Rognlien, T.D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Smith, J.P.; Staebler, G.M.; Stambaugh, R.D.; West, W.P.; Wood, R.D.

    1995-01-01

    We have used experiments and modeling to develop a new radiative divertor configuration for DIII-D. Gas puffing experiments with the existing open divertor have shown the creation of a localized ( similar 10 cm diameter) radiation zone which results in substantial reduction (3-10) in the divertor heat flux while τ E remains similar 2 times ITER-89P scaling. However, n e increases with D 2 puffing, and Z eff increases with neon puffing. Divertor structures are required to minimize the effects on the core plasma. The UEDGE fluid code, benchmarked with DIII-D data, and the DEGAS neutrals transport code are used to estimate the effectiveness of divertor configurations; slots reduce the core ionization more than baffles. The overall divertor shape is set by confinement studies which indicate that high triangularity (δ∼0.8) is important for high τ E VH-modes. Results from engineering feasibility studies, including diagnostic access, will be presented. ((orig.))

  7. The design and fabrication of a toroidally continuous cryocondensation pump for the DIII-D Advanced Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Reis, E.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schaubel, K.M.; Menon, M.M.

    1991-11-01

    A cryocondensation pump will be installed in the baffle chamber of the DIII-D tokamak in the spring of 1992. The design is complete and fabrication of this pump is in progress. The purpose of the pump is to study plasma density control by pumping the divertor. The pump is toroidally continuous, approximately 10 m long, in the lower outer corner of the vacuum vessel interior. It consists of a 1 m 2 liquid helium cooled surface surrounded by a liquid nitrogen cooled shield to limit the heat load on the helium cooled surface. The stainless steel liquid nitrogen shell has a copper coating on it to enhance thermal conductivity, but the coating is broken to keep the toroidal electrical resistance high. The liquid nitrogen cooled surface is surrounded by a radiation/particle shield to prevent energetic particles from impacting and releasing condensed water molecules. The whole pump is supported off the water cooled vacuum vessel wall. Key design considerations were: how to accommodate the temperature differences between the various components, developing low heat leak paths for the various supports, and maintaining electrical insulation in a low pressure environment in the presence of induced voltage spikes. A single point ground for the system was used to limit disruption induced currents and the resulting electro-mechanical forces on the pump. A testing program was used to develop coating techniques to enhance heat transfer and emissivity of the various surfaces. Fabrication tests were done to determine the best method of attaching the liquid nitrogen flow tubes to their shield surfaces. A prototype sector of the pump was built to verify fabrication and assembly techniques

  8. Advances in integrated plasma control on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Hahn, S.H.; Humphreys, D.A.; In, Y.; Johnson, R.D.; Kim, J.S.; La Haye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Welander, A.S.; Xiao, B.

    2007-01-01

    The DIII-D advanced tokamak physics program requires extremely high performance from the DIII-D plasma control system, including simultaneous accurate regulation of plasma shape, stored energy, density and divertor characteristics, as well as coordinated suppression of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. To satisfy these demanding control requirements, we apply the integrated plasma control method, consisting of construction of physics-based plasma and system response models, validation of models against operating experiments, design of integrated controllers that operate in concert with one another, simulation of control action against off-line and actual machine control platforms, and optimization through iteration of the design-test loop. The present work describes progress in development of physics models and development and experimental application of new model-based plasma controllers on DIII-D. We also describe the development of the control software, hardware, and model-based control algorithms for the superconducting EAST and KSTAR tokamaks

  9. Plasma flow in the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedo, J.A.; Porter, G.D.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1998-07-01

    Indications that flows in the divertor can exhibit complex behavior have been obtained from 2-D modeling but so far remain mostly unconfirmed by experiment. An important feature of flow physics is that of flow reversal. Flow reversal has been predicted analytically and it is expected when the ionization source arising from neutral or impurity ionization in the divertor region is large, creating a high pressure zone. Plasma flows arise to equilibrate the pressure. A radiative divertor regime has been proposed in order to reduce the heat and particle fluxes to the divertor target plates. In this regime, the energy and momentum of the plasma are dissipated into neutral gas introduced in the divertor region, cooling the plasma by collisional, radiative and other atomic processes so that the plasma becomes detached from the target plates. These regimes have been the subject of extensive studies in DIII-D to evaluate their energy and particle transport properties, but only recently it has been proposed that the energy transport over large regions of the divertor must be dominated by convection instead of conduction. It is therefore important to understand the role of the plasma conditions and geometry on determining the region of convection-dominated plasma in order to properly control the heat and particle fluxes to the target plates and hence, divertor performance. The authors have observed complex structures in the deuterium ion flows in the DIII-D divertor. Features observed include reverse flow, convective flow over a large volume of the divertor and stagnant flow. They have measured large gradients in the plasma potential across the separatrix in the divertor and determined that these gradients induce poloidal flows that can potentially affect the particle balance in the divertor

  10. Advanced tokamak research in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenfield, C M; Murakami, M; Ferron, J R

    2004-01-01

    Advanced tokamak (AT) research in DIII-D seeks to provide a scientific basis for steady-state high performance operation in future devices. These regimes require high toroidal beta to maximize fusion output and high poloidal beta to maximize the self-driven bootstrap current. Achieving these conditions requires integrated, simultaneous control of the current and pressure profiles and active magnetohydrodynamic stability control. The building blocks for AT operation are in hand. Resistive wall mode stabilization by plasma rotation and active feedback with non-axisymmetric coils allows routine operation above the no-wall beta limit. Neoclassical tearing modes are stabilized by active feedback control of localized electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). Plasma shaping and profile control provide further improvements. Under these conditions, bootstrap supplies most of the current. Steady-state operation requires replacing the remaining inductively driven current, mostly located near the half radius, with non-inductive external sources. In DIII-D this current is provided by ECCD, and nearly stationary AT discharges have been sustained with little remaining inductive current. Fast wave current drive is being developed to control the central magnetic shear. Density control, with divertor cryopumps, of AT discharges with ELMing H-mode edges facilitates high current drive efficiency at reactor relevant collisionalities. An advanced plasma control system allows integrated control of these elements. Close coupling between modelling and experiment is key to understanding the separate elements, their complex nonlinear interactions, and their integration into self-consistent high performance scenarios. This approach has resulted in fully non-inductively driven plasmas with β N ≤ 3.5 and β T ≤ 3.6% sustained for up to 1 s, which is approximately equal to one current relaxation time. Progress in this area, and its implications for next-step devices, will be illustrated by

  11. Development of a radiative divertor for DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Brooks, N.H. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Campbell, R.B. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hill, D.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Knoll, D.; Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lippmann, S.I. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Meyer, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Moyer, R.A. [California Univ., Los Angeles, CA (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Porter, G.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rensink, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Rognlien, T.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States); Schaffer, M.J. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Smith, J.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Staebler, G.M. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Stambaugh, R.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); West, W.P. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Wood, R.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-04-01

    We have used experiments and modeling to develop a new radiative divertor configuration for DIII-D. Gas puffing experiments with the existing open divertor have shown the creation of a localized ( similar 10 cm diameter) radiation zone which results in substantial reduction (3-10) in the divertor heat flux while {tau}{sub E} remains similar 2 times ITER-89P scaling. However, n{sub e} increases with D{sub 2} puffing, and Z{sub eff} increases with neon puffing. Divertor structures are required to minimize the effects on the core plasma. The UEDGE fluid code, benchmarked with DIII-D data, and the DEGAS neutrals transport code are used to estimate the effectiveness of divertor configurations; slots reduce the core ionization more than baffles. The overall divertor shape is set by confinement studies which indicate that high triangularity ({delta}{approx}0.8) is important for high {tau}{sub E} VH-modes. Results from engineering feasibility studies, including diagnostic access, will be presented. ((orig.)).

  12. Structural design of the DIII-D radiative divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.E.; Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek, A.S.; Chin, E.; Hollerbach, M.A.; Laughon, G.J.; Sevier, D.L.

    1996-10-01

    The divertor of the DIII-D tokamak is being modified to operate as a slot type, dissipative divertor. This modification, called the Radiative Divertor Program (RDP) is being carried out in two phases. The design and analysis is complete and hardware is being fabricated for the first phase. This first phase consists of an upper divertor baffle and cryopump to provide some density control for high triangularity, single or double null discharges. Installation of the first phase is scheduled to start in October, 1996. The second phase provides pumping at all four divertor strike points of double null high triangularity discharges and baffling of the neutral particles from transport back to the core plasma. Studies of the effects of varying the slot length and width of the divertor can be easily accomplished with the design of RDP hardware. Static and dynamic analyses of the baffle structures, new cryopumps, and feedlines were performed during the preliminary and final design phases. Disruption loads and differential thermal displacements must be accommodated in the design of these components. With the full RDP hardware installed, the plasma current in DIII-D will be a maximum of 3.0 MA. Plasma disruptions induce toroidal currents in the cryopump, producing complex dynamic loads. Simultaneously, the vacuum vessel vibrations impose a sinusoidal base excitation to the supports for the cryopump. Static and dynamic analyses of the cryopump demonstrate that the stresses due to disruption and thermal loadings satisfy the stress and deflection criteria

  13. Divertor extreme ultraviolet (EUV) survey spectroscopy in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Adam; Allen, Steve; Ellis, Ron; Jarvinen, Aaro; Soukhanovskii, Vlad; Boivin, Rejean; Gonzales, Eduardo; Holmes, Ian; Kulchar, James; Leonard, Anthony; Williams, Bob; Taussig, Doug; Thomas, Dan; Marcy, Grant

    2017-10-01

    An extreme ultraviolet spectrograph measuring resonant emissions of D and C in the lower divertor has been added to DIII-D to help resolve an 2X discrepancy between bolometrically measured radiated power and that predicted by boundary codes for DIII-D, JET and ASDEX-U. With 290 and 450 gr/mm gratings, the DivSPRED spectrometer, an 0.3 m flat-field McPherson model 251, measures ground state transitions for D (the Lyman series) and C (e.g., C IV, 155 nm) which account for >75% of radiated power in the divertor. Combined with Thomson scattering and imaging in the DIII-D divertor, measurements of position, temperature and fractional power emission from plasma components are made and compared to UEDGE/SOLPS-ITER. Mechanical, optical, electrical, vacuum, and shielding aspects of DivSPRED are presented. Work supported under USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344, and by the LLNL Laboratory Directed R&D Program, project #17-ERD-020.

  14. Radiative divertor plasmas with convection in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leornard, A.W.; Porter, G.D.; Wood, R.D.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation of divertor heat flux on DIII-D is shown to greatly exceed the limits imposed by assumptions of energy transport dominated by electron thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field. Approximately 90% of the power flowing into the divertor is dissipated through low Z radiation and plasma recombination. The dissipation is made possible by an extended region of low electron temperature in the divertor. A one-dimensional analysis of the parallel heat flux finds that the electron temperature profile is incompatible with conduction dominated parallel transport. Plasma flow at up to the ion acoustic speed, produced by upstream ionization, can account for the parallel heat flux. Modeling with the two-dimensional fluid code UEDGE has reproduced many of the observed experimental features

  15. Divertor plasma studies on DIII-D: Experiment and modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.P.; Brooks, N.H.; Allen, S.L.

    1996-09-01

    In a magnetically diverted tokamak, the scrape-off layer (SOL) and divertor plasma provides separation between the first wall and the core plasma, intercepting impurities generated at the wall before they reach the core plasma. The divertor plasma can also serve to spread the heat and particle flux over a large area of divertor structure wall using impurity radiation and neutral charge exchange, thus reducing peak heat and particle fluxes at the divertor strike plate. Such a reduction will be required in the next generation of tokamaks, for without it, the divertor engineering requirements are very demanding. To successfully demonstrate a radiative divertor, a highly radiative condition with significant volume recombination must be achieved in the divertor, while maintaining a low impurity content in the core plasma. Divertor plasma properties are determined by a complex interaction of classical parallel transport, anomalous perpendicular transport, impurity transport and radiation, and plasma wall interaction. In this paper the authors describe a set of experiments on DIII-D designed to provide detailed two dimensional documentation of the divertor and SOL plasma. Measurements have been made in operating modes where the plasma is attached to the divertor strike plate and in highly radiating cases where the plasma is detached from the divertor strike plate. They also discuss the results of experiments designed to influence the distribution of impurities in the plasma using enhanced SOL plasma flow. Extensive modeling efforts will be described which are successfully reproducing attached plasma conditions and are helping to elucidate the important plasma and atomic physics involved in the detachment process

  16. Upgraded divertor Thomson scattering system on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glass, F., E-mail: glassf@fusion.gat.com; Carlstrom, T. N.; Du, D.; Taussig, D. A.; Boivin, R. L. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    A design to extend the unique divertor Thomson scattering system on DIII-D to allow measurements of electron temperature and density in high triangularity plasmas is presented. Access to this region is selectable on a shot-by-shot basis by redirecting the laser beam of the existing divertor Thomson system inboard — beneath the lower floor using a moveable, high-damage threshold, in-vacuum mirror — and then redirecting again vertically. The currently measured divertor region remains available with this mirror retracted. Scattered light is collected from viewchords near the divertor floor using in-vacuum, high temperature optical elements and relayed through the port window, before being coupled into optical fiber bundles. At higher elevations from the floor, measurements are made by dynamically re-focusing the existing divertor system collection optics. Nd:YAG laser timing, analysis of the scattered light spectrum via polychromators, data acquisition, and calibration are all handled by existing systems or methods of the current multi-pulse Thomson scattering system. Existing filtered polychromators with 7 spectral channels are employed to provide maximum measurement breadth (T{sub e} in the range of 0.5 eV–2 keV, n{sub e} in the range of 5 × 10{sup 18}–1 × 10{sup 21} m{sup 3}) for both low T{sub e} in detachment and high T{sub e} measurement up beyond the separatrix.

  17. Advanced tokamak physics in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Bray, B.; Burrell, K.H.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Gohil, P.; Greenfield, C.M.; Hsieh, C.-L.; Hyatt, A.W.; La Haye, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Lohr, J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Pinsker, R.I.; Prater, R.; Scoville, J.T.; Staebler, G.M.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.; West, W.P. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA (United States); Wade, M.R.; Lazarus, E.A.; Murakami, M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Allen, S.L.; Casper, T.A.; Jayakumar, R.; Lasnier, C.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Rice, B.W.; Wolf, N.S. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Austin, M.E. [University of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelov, I.; Johnson, L.C.; Okabayashi, M.; Wong, K.-L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Garofalo, A.M.; Navratil, G.A. [Columbia University, New York (United States); Heidbrink, W. [University of California, Irvine, CA (United States); Kinsey, J.E. [Leheigh University, Bethlehem, PA (United States); McKee, G.R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Rettig, C.L.; Rhodes, T.L. [University of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2000-12-01

    Advanced tokamaks seek to achieve a high bootstrap current fraction without sacrificing fusion power density or fusion gain. Good progress has been made towards the DIII-D research goal of demonstrating a high-{beta} advanced tokamak plasma in steady state with a relaxed, fully non-inductive current profile and a bootstrap current fraction greater than 50%. The limiting factors for transport, stability, and current profile control in advanced operating modes are discussed in this paper. (author)

  18. Fabrication and installation of the DIII-D radiative divertor structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerbach, M.A.; Smith, J.P.

    1997-11-01

    Phase 1A of the Radiative Divertor Program (RDP) is now installed in the DIII-D tokamak located at General Atomics. This hardware was added to enhance both the Divertor and Advanced Tokamak research elements of the DIII-D program. This installation consists of a divertor baffle enveloping a cryocondensation pump at the upper outer divertor target of DIII-D. The divertor baffle consists of two toroidally continuous Inconel 625 water-cooled rings and a toroidal array of discontinuous radiatively-cooled plates. The water-cooled rings are each comprised of four quadrants, mechanically formed, chem.-milled, and resistance and TIG welded Inconel 625 panels. The supports attaching the panels to the vessel wall are designed to accommodate the differential thermal expansion between the rings and vessel during bake and to react the electromagnetic loads induced during disruptions. They are made from either Inconel 625 or Inconel 718 depending on the stress levels predicted in Finite Element Analysis. Gas seals are designed to limit the leakage from the baffle chamber back to the core plasma to 2,500 ell/s and incorporate plasma sprayed alumina to minimize currents flowing through them. The bulk of the water-cooled ring fabrication was performed by a vendor, however, the final machining of penetrations in the conical ring for diagnostic access was performed in-house using a unique machining configuration. This configuration, and the machining of the diagnostic cutouts is described. Graphite tiles were machined from ATJ graphite to form a smooth plasma-facing surface. The installation of all divertor components required only four weeks

  19. Visible spectroscopy in the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brooks, N.H.; Fehling, D.; Hillis, D.L.; Klepper, C.C.; Naumenko, N.; Tugarinov, S.; Whyte, D.G.

    1996-06-01

    Spectroscopy measurements in the DIII-D divertor have been carried out with a survey spectrometer which provides simultaneous registration of the visible spectrum over the region 400--900 nm with a resolution of 0.2 nm. Broad spectral coverage is achieved through use of a fiberoptic transformer assembly to map the curved focal plane of a fast (f/3) Rowland spectrograph into a rastered format on the rectangular sensor area of a two-dimensional CCD camera. Vertical grouping of pixels during CCD readout integrates the signal intensity over the height of each spectral segment in the rastered image, minimizing readout time. For the full visible spectrum, readout time is 50 ms. Faster response time (< 10 ms) may be obtained by selecting for readout just a small number of the twenty spectral segments in the image on the CCD. Simultaneous recording of low charge states of carbon, oxygen and injected impurities has yielded information about gas recycling and impurity behavior at the divertor strike points. Transport of lithium to the divertor region during lithium pellet injection has been studied, as well as cumulative deposition of lithium on the divertor targets from pellet injection over many successive discharges

  20. Radiative divertor plasmas with convection in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Porter, G.D.; Wood, R.D.; Allen, S.L.; Boedo, J.; Brooks, N.H.; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Hill, D.N.; Isler, R.C.; Lasnier, C.J.; Lehmer, R.D.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Maingi, R.; Moyer, R.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Schaffer, M.J.; Wade, M.R.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.

    1998-01-01

    The radiation of divertor heat flux on DIII-D [J. Luxon et al., in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), p. 159] is shown to greatly exceed the limits imposed by assumptions of energy transport dominated by electron thermal conduction parallel to the magnetic field. Approximately 90% of the power flowing into the divertor is dissipated through low-Z radiation and plasma recombination. The dissipation is made possible by an extended region of low electron temperature in the divertor. A one-dimensional analysis of the parallel heat flux finds that the electron temperature profile is incompatible with conduction-dominated parallel transport. Plasma flow at up to the ion acoustic speed, produced by upstream ionization, can account for the parallel heat flux. Modeling with the two-dimensional fluid code UEDGE [T. Rognlien, J. L. Milovich, M. E. Rensink, and G. D. Porter, J. Nucl. Mater. 196 endash 198, 347 (1992)] has reproduced many of the observed experimental features. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  1. Effects of divertor geometry and pumping on plasma performance on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Hill, D.N.; Porter, G.D.

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports the status of an ongoing investigation to discern the influence of the divertor and plasma geometry on the confinement of both ELM-free and ELMing discharges in DIII-D. The ultimate goal is to achieve a high-performance core plasma which coexists with an advanced divertor plasma. The divertor plasma must reduce the heat flux to acceptable levels; the current technique disperses the heat flux over a wide area by radiation (a radiative divertor). To date, we have obtained our best performance in double-null (DN) high-triangularity (δ ∼ 0.8) ELM-free discharges. As discussed in detail elsewhere, there are several advantages for both the core and divertor plasma with highly-shaped DN operation. Previous radiative-divertor experiments with D 2 injection in DN high-δ ELMing H-mode have shown that this configuration is more sensitive to gas puffing (τ decreases). Moving the X-point away from the target plate (to ∼15 cm above the plate) decreases this sensitivity. Preliminary measurements also indicate that gas puffing reduces the divertor heat flux but does not reduce the plasma pressure along the field line. The up/down heat flux balance can be varied magnetically (by changing the distance between the separatrices), with a slight magnetic imbalance required to balance the heat flux. The overall mission of the Radiative Divertor Project (RDP) is to install a fully pumped and baffled high-δ DN divertor. To date, however, both the DIII-D divertor diagnostics and pump were optimized for lower single-null (LSN) low-δ (δ∼ 0.4) plasmas, so much of the divertor physics has been performed in LSN; these results are discussed in Section 2. As part of the first phase of the RDP, we have installed a new high-δ USN divertor baffle and pump; these results are discussed in Section 3. Both divertor and core parameters are discussed in each case

  2. Utilization of vanadium alloys in the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Trester, P.W.; Smith, D.; Bloom, E.

    1995-10-01

    Vanadium alloys are attractive candidate structural materials for fusion power plants because of their potential for minimum environmental impact due to low neutron activation and rapid activation decay. They also possess favorable material properties for operation in a fusion environment. General Atomics (GA), in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has developed a plan for the utilization of vanadium alloys as part of the Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade for the DIII-D tokamak. The plan will be carried out in conjunction with General Atomics and the Materials Program of the US Department of Energy (DOE). This application of a vanadium alloy will provide a meaningful step in the development of advanced materials for fusion power devices by: (1) developing necessary materials processing technology for the fabrication of large vanadium alloy components, and (2) demonstrating the in-service behavior of a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) in a tokamak environment. The program consists of three phases: first, small vanadium alloy coupon samples will be exposed in DIII-D at positions in the vessel floor and within the pumping plenum region of the existing divertor structure; second, a small vanadium alloy component will be installed in the existing divertor, and third, during the forthcoming Radiative Divertor modification, scheduled for completion in mid-1997, the upper section of the new double-null, slotted divertor will be fabricated from vanadium alloy product forms. This program also includes research and development (R and D) efforts to support fabrication development and to resolve key issues related to environmental effects

  3. Utilization of vanadium alloys in the DIII-D radiative divertor program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Trester, P.W.; Smith, D.; Bloom, E.

    1996-01-01

    Vanadium alloys are attractive candidate structural materials for fusion power plants because of their potential for minimum environmental impact due to low neutron activation and rapid activation decay. They also possess favorable material properties for operation in a fusion environment. General Atomics in conjunction with Argonne National Laboratory and Oak Ridge National Laboratory has developed a plan for the utilization of vanadium alloys as part of the radiative divertor upgrade for the DIII-D tokamak. The plan will be carried out in conjunction with General Atomics and the Materials Program of the US Department of Energy. This application of a vanadium alloy will provide a meaningful step in the development of advanced materials for fusion power devices by: (1) developing necessary materials processing technology for the fabrication of large vanadium alloy components and (2) demonstrating the in-service behavior of a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) in a tokamak environment. The program consists of three phases: first, small vanadium alloy coupon samples will be exposed in DIII-D at positions in the vessel floor and within the pumping plenum region of the existing divertor structure; second, a small vanadium alloy component will be installed in the existing divertor, and third, during the forthcoming radiative divertor modification, scheduled for completion in mid-1997, the upper section of the new double-null, slotted divertor will be fabricated from vanadium alloy product forms. This program also includes research and development efforts to support fabrication development and to resolve key issues related to environmental effects. (orig.)

  4. Vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Trester, P.W.; Smith, D.; Bloom, E.

    1995-10-01

    Vanadium alloys provide an attractive solution for fusion power plants as they exhibit a potential for low environmental impact due to low level of activation from neutron fluence and a relatively short half-life. They also have attractive material properties for use in a reactor. General Atomics along with Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), has developed a plan to utilize vanadium alloys as part of the Radiative Divertor Project (RDP) modification for the DIII-D tokamak. The goal for using vanadium alloys is to provide a meaningful step towards developing advanced materials for fusion power applications by demonstrating the in-service behavior of a vanadium alloy (V-4Cr-4Ti) in a tokamak in conjunction with developing essential fabrication technology for the manufacture of full-scale vanadium alloy components. A phased approach towards utilizing vanadium in DIII-D is being used starting with small coupons and samples, advancing to a small component, and finally a portion of the new double-null, slotted divertor will be fabricated from vanadium alloy product forms. A major portion of the program is research and development to support fabrication and resolve key issues related to environmental effects

  5. Advances in Integrated Plasma Control on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Humphreys, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    The DIII-D experimental program in advanced tokamak (AT) physics requires extremely high performance from the DIII-D plasma control system (PCS) [B.G.Penaflor, et al., 4 th IAEA Tech. Mtg on Control and Data Acq., San Diego, CA (2003)], including simultaneous and highly accurate regulation of plasma shape, stored energy, density, and divertor characteristics, as well as coordinated suppression of magnetohydrodynamic instabilities. To satisfy these demanding control requirements, we apply the integrated plasma control method, consisting of construction of physics-based plasma and system response models, validation of models against operating experiments, design of integrated controllers that operate in concert with one another as well as with supervisory modules, simulation of control action against off-line and actual machine control platforms, and optimization through iteration of the design-test loop. The present work describes progress in development of physics models and development and experimental application of several new model-based plasma controllers on DIII-D. We discuss experimental use of advanced shape control algorithms containing nonlinear techniques for improving control of steady state plasmas, model-based controllers for optimal rejection of edge localized mode disturbances during resistive wall mode stabilization, model-based controllers for neoclassical tearing mode stabilization, including methods for maximizing stabilization effectiveness with substantial constraints on available power, model-based integrated control of plasma rotation and beta, and initial experience in development of model-based controllers for advanced tokamak current profile modification. The experience gained from DIII-D has been applied to the development of control systems for the EAST and KSTAR tokamaks. We describe the development of the control software, hardware, and model-based control algorithms for these superconducting tokamaks, with emphasis on relevance of

  6. Engineering design of cryocondensation pumps for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bozek, A.S.; Baxi, C.B.; Del Bene, J.V.; Laughon, G.J.; Reis, E.E.; Shatoff, H.D.; Smith, J.P.

    1995-01-01

    A new double-null, slotted divertor configuration will be installed for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program at General Atomics in late 1996. Four cryocondensation pumps, three new and one existing, will be part of this new divertor. The purpose of the pumps is to provide plasma density control and to limit the impurities entering the plasma core by providing pumping at each divertor strike point. The three new pumps are based on the design of the existing pump, installed in 1992 as part of the Advanced Divertor Program. The pump continues to operate successfully. The new pumps require geometry modifications to the original design. Therefore, extensive modal and dynamic analyses were performed to determine the behavior of these pumps and their helium and nitrogen feed lines during disruption events. Thermal and fluid analyses were also performed to characterize the helium two-phase flow regime in the pumps and their feedlines. A flow testing program was completed to test the change in geometry of the pump feed lines with respect to helium flow stability. The results were compared to the helium thermal and fluid analyses to verify predicted flow regimes and flow stability

  7. DIII-D research operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D. (ed.)

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the research on the following topics: DIII-D program overview; divertor and boundary research program; advanced tokamak studies; tokamak physics; operations; program development; support services; contribution to ITER physics R D; and collaborative efforts.

  8. DIII-D research operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the research on the following topics: DIII-D program overview; divertor and boundary research program; advanced tokamak studies; tokamak physics; operations; program development; support services; contribution to ITER physics R ampersand D; and collaborative efforts

  9. Divertor particle exhaust and wall inventory on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Schaffer, M.J.; Wade, M.R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Hogan, J.T.; Klepper, C.C.; Haas, G.

    1995-01-01

    Many tokamaks achieve optimum plasma performance by achieving low recycling; various wall conditioning techniques including helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC) are routinely applied to help achieve low recycling. Many of these techniques allow strong, transient wall pumping, but they may not be effective for long-pulse tokamaks, such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), Tore Supra Continu, and JT-60SU. Continuous particle exhaust using an in-situ pumping scheme may be effective for wall inventory control in such devices. Recent particle balance experiments on the Tore Supra and DIII-D tokamaks demonstrated that the wall particle inventory could be reduced during a given discharge by use of continuous particle exhaust. In this paper the authors report the first results of wall inventory control and good performance with the in-situ DIII-D cryopump, replacing the HeGDC normally applied between discharges

  10. Developing physics basis for the snowflake divertor in the DIII-D tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Ryutov, D. D.; Kolemen, E.; Groebner, R. J.; Hyatt, A. W.; Leonard, A. W.; Osborne, T. H.; Petrie, T. W.; Watkins, J.

    2018-03-01

    Recent DIII-D results demonstrate that the snowflake (SF) divertor geometry (see standard divertor) enables significant manipulation of divertor heat transport for heat spreading and reduction in attached and radiative divertor regimes, between and during edge localized modes (ELMs), while maintaining good H-mode confinement. Snowflake divertor configurations have been realized in the DIII-D tokamak for several seconds in H-mode discharges with heating power P_NBI ≤slant 4 -5 MW and a range of plasma currents I_p=0.8-1.2 MA. In this work, inter-ELM transport and radiative SF divertor properties are studied. Significant impact of geometric properties on SOL and divertor plasma parameters, including increased poloidal magnetic flux expansion, divertor magnetic field line length and divertor volume, is confirmed. In the SF-minus configuration, heat deposition is affected by the geometry, and peak divertor heat fluxes are significantly reduced. In the SF-plus and near-exact SF configurations, divertor peak heat flux reduction and outer strike point heat flux profile broadening are observed. Inter-ELM sharing of power and particle fluxes between the main and additional snowflake divertor strike points has been demonstrated. The additional strike points typically receive up to 10-15% of total outer divertor power. Measurements of electron pressure and poloidal beta βp support the theoretically proposed churning mode that is driven by toroidal curvature and vertical pressure gradient in the weak poloidal field region. A comparison of the 4-4.5 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas with radiative SF divertor and the standard radiative divertor (both induced with additional gas puffing) shows a nearly complete power detachment and broader divertor radiated power distribution in the SF, as compared to a partial detachment and peaked localized radiation in the standard divertor. However, insignificant difference in the detachment onset w.r.t. density between the SF and the standard

  11. The control of divertor carbon erosion/redeposition in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.

    2001-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak has demonstrated an operational scenario where the graphite-covered divertor is free of net erosion. Reduction of divertor carbon erosion is accomplished using a low temperature (detached) divertor plasma that eliminates physical sputtering. Likewise, the carbon source rate arising from chemical erosion is found to be very low in the detached divertor. Near strikepoint regions, the rate of carbon deposition is ∼3 cm/burn-year, with a corresponding hydrogenic codeposition rate >1kg/m 2 /burn-year; rates both problematic for steady-state fusion reactors. The carbon net deposition rate in the divertor is consistent with carbon arriving from the core plasma region. Carbon influx from the main wall is measured to be relatively large in the high-density detached regime and is of sufficient magnitude to account for the deposition rate in the divertor. Divertor redeposition is therefore determined by non-divertor erosion and transport. Despite the success in reducing divertor erosion on DIII-D with detachment, no significant reduction is found in the core plasma carbon density, illustrating the importance of non-divertor erosion and the complex coupling between erosion/redeposition and impurity plasma transport. (author)

  12. Numerical exploration of non-axisymmetric divertor closure in the small angle slot (SAS) divertor at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, H.; Schmitz, O.; Covele, B.; Feng, Y.; Guo, H. Y.; Hill, D.

    2018-05-01

    Numerical simulations of toroidal asymmetries in a tightly baffled small angle slot (SAS) divertor on the DIII-D tokamak show that toroidal asymmetries in divertor closure result in (non-axisymmetric) local onset of detachment within a density window of 10-15% on top of the nominal threshold separatrix density. The SAS divertor is explored at DIII-D for improving access to cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions. The narrow width of the slot divertor coupled with a small magnetic field line-to-target angle facilitates the buildup of neutral density, thereby increasing radiative and neutrals-related (atoms and molecules) losses in the divertor. Small changes in the strike point location can be expected to have a large impact on divertor conditions. The combination of misaligned slot structure and non-axisymmetric perturbations to the magnetic field configuration causes the strike point to move along the divertor target plate, possibly leaving the divertor slot at some locations. The latter extreme case essentially introduces an opening in the divertor slot from where recycling neutrals can easily escape, and thereby degrade the performance of the slot divertor. Such a strike point dislocation is approximated by a finite gap in the divertor baffle for which 3D edge plasma and neutral gas simulations are performed with the EMC3-EIRENE code.

  13. Exposures of tungsten nanostructures to divertor plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D L; Doerner, R P; Baldwin, M J; Boedo, J A; Hollmann, E M; Moyer, R A; Wong, C P C; Chrobak, C P; Guo, H Y; Leonard, A W; Pace, D C; Thomas, D M; Wright, G M; Abrams, T; Briesemeister, A R; McLean, A G; Fenstermacher, M E; Lasnier, C J; Watkins, J G

    2016-01-01

    Tungsten nanostructures (W-fuzz) prepared in the PISCES-A linear device have been found to survive direct exposure to divertor plasmas in DIII-D. W-fuzz was exposed in the lower divertor of DIII-D using the divertor material evaluation system. Two samples were exposed in lower single null (LSN) deuterium H-mode plasmas. The first sample was exposed in three discharges terminated by vertical displacement event disruptions, and the second in two discharges near the lowered X-point. More recently, three samples were exposed near the lower outer strike point in predominantly helium H-mode LSN plasmas. In all cases, the W-fuzz survived plasma exposure with little obvious damage except in the areas where unipolar arcing occurred. Arcing is effective in W-fuzz removal, and it appears that surfaces covered with W-fuzz can be more prone to arcing than smooth W surfaces. (paper)

  14. Characteristics of the Secondary Divertor on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, J. G.; Lasnier, C. J.; Leonard, A. W.; Evans, T. E.; Pitts, R.; Stangeby, P. C.; Boedo, J. A.; Moyer, R. A.; Rudakov, D. L.

    2009-11-01

    In order to address a concern that the ITER secondary divertor strike plates may be insufficiently robust to handle the incident pulses of particles and energy from ELMs, we performed dedicated studies of the secondary divertor plasma and scrape-off layer (SOL). Detailed measurements of the ELM energy and particle deposition footprint on the secondary divertor target plates were made with a fast IR camera and Langmuir probes and SOL profile and transport measurements were made with reciprocating probes. The secondary divertor and SOL conditions depended on changes in the magnetic balance and the core plasma density. Larger density resulted in smaller ELMs and the magnetic balance affected how many ELM particles coupled to the secondary SOL and divertor. Particularly striking are the images from a new fast IR camera that resolve ELM heat pulses and show spiral patterns with multiple peaks during ELMs in the secondary divertor.

  15. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.; Trester, P.W.

    1997-04-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor upgrade. The production of a 1200-kg ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, and processing into final sheet and rod product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor structure, has been completed at Wah Chang (formerly Teledyne Wah Chang) of Albany, Oregon (WCA). Joining of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the RD Program, and research into several joining methods for fabrication of the RD components, including resistance seam, friction, and electron beam welding, is continuing. Preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by electron beam, resistance, and friction welding processes, and to Inconel 625 by friction welding. An effort to investigate the explosive bonding of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy to Inconel 625 has also been initiated, and results have been encouraging. In addition, preliminary tests have been completed to evaluate the susceptibility of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy to stress corrosion cracking in DIII-D cooling water, and the effects of exposure to DIII-D bakeout conditions on the tensile and fracture behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy.

  16. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.; Trester, P.W.

    1997-01-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor upgrade. The production of a 1200-kg ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, and processing into final sheet and rod product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor structure, has been completed at Wah Chang (formerly Teledyne Wah Chang) of Albany, Oregon (WCA). Joining of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the RD Program, and research into several joining methods for fabrication of the RD components, including resistance seam, friction, and electron beam welding, is continuing. Preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by electron beam, resistance, and friction welding processes, and to Inconel 625 by friction welding. An effort to investigate the explosive bonding of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy to Inconel 625 has also been initiated, and results have been encouraging. In addition, preliminary tests have been completed to evaluate the susceptibility of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy to stress corrosion cracking in DIII-D cooling water, and the effects of exposure to DIII-D bakeout conditions on the tensile and fracture behavior of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

  17. Divertor plasma physics experiments on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Allen, S.L.; Evans, T.E.

    1996-10-01

    In this paper we present an overview of the results and conclusions of our most recent divertor physics and development work. Using an array of new divertor diagnostics we have measured the plasma parameters over the entire divertor volume and gained new insights into several divertor physics issues. We present direct experimental evidence for momentum loss along the field lines, large heat convection, and copious volume recombination during detachment. These observations are supported by improved UEDGE modeling incorporating impurity radiation. We have demonstrated divertor exhaust enrichment of neon and argon by action of a forced scrape off layer (SOL) flow and demonstrated divertor pumping as a substitute for conventional wall conditioning. We have observed a divertor radiation zone with a parallel extent that is an order of magnitude larger than that estimated from a 1-D conduction limited model of plasma at coronal equilibrium. Using density profile control by divertor pumping and pellet injection we have attained H-mode confinement at densities above the Greenwald limit. Erosion rates of several candidate ITER plasma facing materials are measured and compared with predictions of a numerical model

  18. DIII-D Advanced Tokamak Research Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    V.S. Chan; C.M. Greenfield; L.L. Lao; T.C. Luce; C.C. Petty; G.M. Staebler

    1999-01-01

    This paper reviews recent progress in the development of long-pulse, high performance discharges on the DIII-D tokamak. It is highlighted by a discharge achieving simultaneously β N H of 9, bootstrap current fraction of 0.5, noninductive current fraction of 0.75, and sustained for 16 energy confinement times. The physics challenge has changed in the long-pulse regime. Non-ideal MHD modes are limiting the stability, fast ion driven modes may play a role in fast ion transport which limits the stored energy and plasma edge behavior can affect the global performance. New control tools are being developed to address these issues

  19. Energy and particle transport in the radiative divertor plasmas of DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.

    1997-06-01

    It has been argued that divertor energy transport dominated by parallel electron thermal conduction, or q parallel = -kT 5/2 2 dT e /ds parallel, leads to severe localization of the intense radiating region and ultimately limits the fraction of energy flux that can be radiated before striking the divertor target. This is due to the strong T 5/2 e dependence of electron heat conduction which results in very short spatial scales of the T e gradient at high power densities and low temperatures where deuterium and impurities radiate most effectively. However, we have greatly exceeded this constraint on DIII-D with deuterium gas puffing which reduces the peak heat flux to the divertor plate a factor of 5 while distributing the divertor radiation over a long length

  20. Design and analysis of the DIII-D radiative divertor water-cooled structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollerbach, M.A.; Smith, J.P.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek, A.S.; Chin, E.; Phelps, R.D.; Redler, K.M.; Reis, E.E.

    1995-01-01

    The Radiative Divertor is a major modification to the divertor of DIII-D and is being designed and fabricated for installation in late 1996. The Radiative Divertor Program (RDP) will enhance the dissipative processes in the edge and divertor plasmas to reduce the heat flux and plasma erosion at the divertor target. This approach will have major implications for the heat removal methods used in future devices. The divertor is of slot-type configuration designed to minimize the flow of sputtered and injected impurities back to the core plasma. The new divertor will be composed of toroidally continuous, Inconel 625 water-cooled rings of sandwich construction with an internal water channel, incorporating seam welding to provide the water-to-vacuum seal as well as structural integrity. The divertor structure is designed to withstand electro-magnetic loads as a result of halo currents and induced toroidal currents. It also accommodates the thermal differences experienced during the 400 C bake used on DIII-D. A low Z plasma-facing surface is provided by mechanically attached graphite tiles. Water flow through the rings will inertially cool these tiles which will be subjected to 38 MW, 10 second pulses. Current schedules call for detailed design in 1996 with installation completed in March 1997. A full size prototype, one-quarter of one ring, is being built to validate manufacturing techniques, machining, roll-forming, and seam welding. The experience and knowledge gained through the fabrication of the prototype is discussed. The design of the electrically isolated (5 kV) vacuum-to-air water feedthroughs supplying the water-cooled rings is also discussed

  1. A tangentially viewing visible TV system for the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Meyer, W.H.; Wood, R.D.; Nilson, D.G.; Ellis, R.; Brooks, N.H.

    1997-01-01

    A video camera system has been installed on the DIII-D tokamak for two-dimensional spatial studies of line emission in the lower divertor region. The system views the divertor tangentially at approximately the height of the X point through an outer port. At the tangency plane, the entire divertor from the inner wall to outside the DIII-D bias ring is viewed with spatial resolution of ∼1 cm. The image contains information from ∼90 deg of toroidal angle. In a recent upgrade, remotely controllable filter changers were added which have produced images from nominally identical discharges using different spectral lines. Software was developed to calculate the response function matrix of the optical system using distributed computing techniques and assuming toroidal symmetry. Standard sparse matrix algorithms are then used to invert the three-dimensional images onto a poloidal plane. Spatial resolution of the inverted images is 2 cm; higher resolution simply increases the size of the response function matrix. Initial results from a series of experiments with multiple identical discharges show that the emission from CII and CIII, which appears along the inner scrape-off layer above and below the X point during ELMing H mode, moves outward and becomes localized near the X point in radiative divertor operation induced by deuterium injection. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  2. INTEGATED ADVANCED TOKAMAK OPERATION ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WADE, M.R.; MURAKAMI, M.; LUCE, T.C.; FERRON, J.R.; PETTY, C.C.; BRENNEN, D.P.; GAROFALO, A.M.; GREENFIELD, C.M.; HYATT, A.W.; JAYAKUMAR, R.; KINSEY, J.E.; La HAYE, R.J.; LAO, L.L.; LOHR, J.; POLITZER, P.A.; PRATER, R.; STRAIT, E.J.; WATKINS, J.G.

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated the ability to sustain plasma conditions that integrate and sustain the key ingredients of Advanced Tokamak (AT) operation: high β with 1.5 min min > 2.0, plasmas with β ∼ 2.9% and 90% of the plasma current driven non-inductively have been sustained for nearly 2 s (limited only by the duration of the ECCD pulse). Negative central magnetic shear is produced by the ECCD, leading to the formation of a weak internal transport barrier even in the presence of Type I ELMs. Separate experiments have demonstrated the ability to sustain a steady current density profile using ECCD for periods as long as 1 s with β = 3.3% and > 90% of the current driven non-inductively. In addition, stable operation well above the ideal no-wall β limit has been sustained for several energy confinement times with the duration only limited by resistive relaxation of the current profile to an unstable state. Stability analysis indicates that the experimental β limit depends on the degree to which the no-wall limit can be exceeded and weakly on the actual no-wall limit. Achieving the necessary density levels required for adequate ECCD efficiency requires active divertor exhaust and reducing the wall inventory buildup prior to the high performance phase. Simulation studies indicate that the successful integration of high β operation with current profile control consistent with these experimental results should result in high β, fully non-inductive plasma operation

  3. Radiative and SOL experiments in open and baffled divertors on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Bastasz, R.

    1998-11-01

    The authors present recent progress towards an understanding of the physical processes in the divertor and scrape-off-layer (SOL) plasmas in DIII-D. This has been made possible by a combination of new diagnostics, improved computational models, and changes in divertor geometry. They have focused primarily on ELMing H-mode discharges. The physics of Partially Detached Divertor (PDD) plasmas, with divertor heat flux reduction by divertor radiation enhancement using D 2 puffing, has been studied in 2-D, and a model of the heat and particle transport has been developed that includes conduction, convection, ionization, recombination, and flows. Plasma and impurity particle flows have been measured with Mach probes and spectroscopy and these flows have been compared with the UEDGE model. The model now includes self-consistent calculations of carbon impurities. Impurity radiation has been increased in the divertor and SOL with puff and pump techniques using SOL D 2 puffing, divertor cryopumping, and argon puffing. The important physical processes in plasma-wall interactions have been examined with a DiMES probe, plasma characterization near the divertor plate, and the REDEP code. Experiments comparing single-null (SN) plasma operation in baffled and open divertors have demonstrated a change in the edge plasma profiles. These results are consistent with a reduction in the core ionization source calculated with UEDGE. Divertor particle control in ELMing H-mode with pumping and baffling has resulted in reduction in H-mode core densities to n e /n gw ∼ 0.25. Divertor particle exhaust and heat flux has been studied as the plasma shape was varied from a lower SN, to a balanced double null (DN), and finally to an upper SN

  4. Scaling of divertor heat flux profile widths in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lasnier, C.J.; Makowski, M.A.; Boedo, J.A.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Hill, D.N.; Leonard, A.W.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.

    2011-01-01

    New scalings of the dependence of divertor heat flux peak and profile width, important parameters for the design of future large tokamaks, have been obtained from recent DIII-D experiments. We find the peak heat flux depends linearly on input power, decreases linearly with increasing density, and increases linearly with plasma current. The profile width has a weak dependence on input power, is independent of density up to the onset of detachment, and is inversely proportional to the plasma current. We compare these results with previously published scalings, and present mathematical expressions incorporating these results.

  5. Deposition of deuterium and metals on divertor tiles in the DIII--D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Jackson, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrogen recycling and impurity influx are important issues in obtaining high confinement discharges in the DIII--D tokamak. To reduce metallic impurities in DIII--D, 40% of the wall area, including the highest heat flux zones, have been covered with graphite tiles. However, erosion, redeposition, and hydrogen retention in the tiles, as well as metal transport from the remaining Inconel walls, can lead to enhanced recycling and impurity influx. Hydrogen and metal retention in divertor floor tiles have been measured using external ion beam analysis techniques following four campaigns where tiles were exposed to several thousand tokamak discharges. The areal density of deuterium retained following exposure to tokamak plasmas was measured with external nuclear reaction analysis. External proton-induced x-ray emission analysis was used to measure the areal densities of metallic impurities deposited upon the divertor tiles either by sputtering of metallic components during discharges or as contamination during tile fabrication. Measurements for both deuterium and metallic impurities were taken on both the tile surfaces which face the operating plasma and the surfaces on the sides of the tiles which form the small gaps separating each of the tiles in the divertor. The highest areal densities of both deuterium (from 2 to 8 x 10 18 atoms/cm 2 ) and metals (from 0.2 to 1 x 10 18 atoms/cm 2 ) were found on the plasma-facing surface near the inner strike point region of each set of divertor tiles. Significant deposits, extending as far as 1 cm from the plasma-facing surface and containing up to 40% of the total divertor deposition, were also observed on the gap-forming surfaces of the tiles

  6. Numerical exploration of non-axisymmetric divertor closure in the small angle slot (SAS) divertor at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerichs, Heinke; Schmitz, Oliver; Covele, Brent; Guo, Houyang; Hill, David; Feng, Yuhe

    2017-10-01

    In the Small Angle Slot (SAS) divertor in DIII-D, the combination of misaligned slot structure and non-axisymmetric perturbations to the magnetic field causes the strike point to vary radially along the divertor slot and even leave it at some toroidal locations. This effect essentially introduces an opening in the divertor slot from where recycling neutrals can easily escape, and thereby degrade performance of the slot divertor. This effect has been approximated by a finite gap in the divertor baffle. Simulations with EMC3-EIRENE show that a toroidally localized loss of divertor closure can result in non-axisymmetric divertor densities and temperatures. This introduces a density window of 10-15% on top of the nominal threshold separatrix density during which a non-axisymmetric onset of local detachment occurs, initially leaving the gap and up to 60 deg beyond that still attached. Conversely, the impact of such toroidally localized divertor perturbations on the toroidal symmetry of midplane separatrix conditions is small. This work has been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy under Early Career Award Grant DE-SC0013911, and Grant DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  7. X-Divertor Geometries for Deeper Detachment Without Degrading the DIII-D H-Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covele, Brent; Kotschenreuther, M. T.; Valanju, P. M.; Mahajan, S. M.; Leonard, A. W.; Hyatt, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Thomas, D. M.; Guo, H. Y.; Watkins, J. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Hill, D. N.

    2015-11-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments comparing the standard divertor (SD) and X-Divertor (XD) geometries show heat and particle flux reduction at the divertor target plate. The XD features large poloidal flux expansion, increased connection length, and poloidal field line flaring, quantified by the Divertor Index. Both SD and XD were pushed deep into detachment with increased gas puffing, until core energy confinement and pedestal pressure were substantially reduced. As expected, outboard target heat fluxes are significantly reduced in the XD compared to the SD under similar upstream plasma conditions, even at low Greenwald fraction. The high-triangularity (floor) XD cases show larger reduction in temperature, heat, and particle flux relative to the SD in all cases, while low-triangularity (shelf) XD cases show more modest reductions over the SD. Consequently, heat flux reduction and divertor detachment may be achieved in the XD with less gas puffing and higher pedestal pressures. Further causative analysis, as well as detailed modeling with SOLPS, is underway. These initial experiments suggest the XD as a promising candidate to achieve divertor heat flux control compatible with robust H-mode operation. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-FG02-04ER54754, and DE-FG02-04ER54742.

  8. Design of the divertor Thomson scattering system on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Foote, J.H.; Nilson, D.G.; Rice, B.W.

    1994-05-01

    Local measurements of n e and T e in the divertor region are necessary for a more complete understanding of divertor physics. We have designed an extension to the existing multipulse Thomson scattering system to measure n e in the range 5 x 10 18 to 5 x 10 20 m -3 and T e 5--500 eV, with 1 cm resolution from 1--21 cm above the floor of the DIII-D vessel, in the region of the X-point for lower single-null diverted plasmas. One of the existing 8, 20 Hz, ND:YAG lasers will be redirected to a separate vertical port, and viewed radially with a specially designed, f/6.8 lens. Fiber optics carry the light to additional polychromators whose interference filters have been optimized for low T e measurements. Other aspect of the system, including the beam path to the vessel, polychromator design, real time data acquisition, laser control, calibration facility, and DIII-D timing and data acquisition interface will be shared with the existing multipulse Thomson system. An in-situ laser alignment monitor will provide alignment information for each laser pulse

  9. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.

    1997-08-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor upgrade. The production of a 1200-kg ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, and processing into final sheet and rod product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program (RDP), has been completed by Wah Chang (formerly Teledyne Wah Chang) of Albany, Oregon (WCA). CVN impact tests on sheet material indicate that the material has properties comparable to other previously-processed V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys. Joining of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the RDP, and research into several joining methods for fabrication of the RDP components, including resistance seam, friction, and electron beam welding, and explosive bonding is being pursued. Preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by resistance, friction, and electron beam welding processes, and to Inconel 625 by friction welding. In addition, an effort to investigate the explosive bonding of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy to Inconel 625, in both tube-to-bar and sheet-to-sheet configurations, has been initiated, and results have been encouraging.

  10. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor upgrade. The production of a 1200-kg ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, and processing into final sheet and rod product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program (RDP), has been completed by Wah Chang (formerly Teledyne Wah Chang) of Albany, Oregon (WCA). CVN impact tests on sheet material indicate that the material has properties comparable to other previously-processed V-4Cr-4Ti and V-5Cr-5Ti alloys. Joining of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the RDP, and research into several joining methods for fabrication of the RDP components, including resistance seam, friction, and electron beam welding, and explosive bonding is being pursued. Preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by resistance, friction, and electron beam welding processes, and to Inconel 625 by friction welding. In addition, an effort to investigate the explosive bonding of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy to Inconel 625, in both tube-to-bar and sheet-to-sheet configurations, has been initiated, and results have been encouraging

  11. Comparison of 2D simulations of detached divertor plasmas with divertor Thomson measurements in the DIII-D tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.D. Rognlien

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A modeling study is reported using new 2D data from DIII-D tokamak divertor plasmas and improved 2D transport model that includes large cross-field drifts for the numerically difficult low anomalous transport regime associated with the H-mode. The data set, which spans a range of plasma densities for both forward and reverse toroidal magnetic field (Bt, is provided by divertor Thomson scattering (DTS. Measurements utilizing X-point sweeping give corresponding 2D profiles of electron temperature (Te and density (ne across both divertor legs for individual discharges. The simulations focus on the open magnetic field-line regions, though they also include a small region of closed field lines. The calculations show the same features of in/out divertor plasma asymmetries as measured in the experiment, with the normal Bt direction (ion ∇B drift toward the X-point having higher ne and lower Te in the inner divertor leg than outer. Corresponding emission data for total radiated power shows a strong inner-divertor/outer-divertor asymmetry that is reproduced by the simulations. These 2D UEDGE transport simulations are enabled for steep-gradient H-mode conditions by newly implemented algorithms to control isolated grid-scale irregularities.

  12. Fabrication of a 1200 kg Ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Vanadium chromium titanium alloys are attractive materials for fusion reactors because of their high temperature capability and their potential for low neutron active and rapid activation decay. A V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected in the U.S. as the current leading candidate vanadium alloy for future use in fusion reactor structural applications. General Atomics (GA), in conjunction with the Department of Energy's (DOE) DIII-D Program, is carrying out a plan for the utilization of this vanadium alloy in the DIII-D tokamak. The plan will culminate in the fabrication, installation, and operation of a V-4Ti alloy structure in the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The deployment of vanadium alloy will provide a meaningful step in the development and technology acceptance of this advanced material for future fusion power devices. Under a GA contract and material specification, an industrial scale 1200 kg heat (ingot) of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been produced and converted into product forms by Wah Chang of Albany, Oregon (WCA). To assure the proper control of minor and trace impurities which affect the mechanical and activation behavior of this vanadium alloy, selected lots of raw vanadium base metal were processed by aluminothermic reduction of high purity vanadium oxide, and were then electron beam melted into two high purity vanadium ingots. The ingots were then consolidated with high purity Cr and Ti, and double vacuum-arc melted to obtain a 1200 kg V-4Cr-4Ti alloy ingot. Several billets were extruded from the ingot, and were then fabricated into plate, sheet, and rod at WCA. Tubing was subsequently processed from plate material. The chemistry and fabrication procedures for the product forms were specified on the basis of experience and knowledge gained from DOE Fusion Materials Program studies on previous laboratory scale heats and a large scale ingot (500 kg)

  13. A tangentially viewing VUV TV system for the DIII-D divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nilson, D.G.; Ellis, R.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Brewis, G.; Jalufka, N.

    1998-07-01

    A video camera system capable of imaging VUV emission in the 120--160 nm wavelength range, from the entire divertor region in the DIII-D tokamak, was designed. The new system has a tangential view of the divertor similar to an existing tangential camera system which has produced two dimensional maps of visible line emission (400--800 nm) from deuterium and carbon in the divertor region. However, the overwhelming fraction of the power radiated by these elements is emitted by resonance transitions in the ultraviolet, namely the C IV line at 155.0 nm and Ly-α line at 121.6 nm. To image the ultraviolet light with an angular view including the inner wall and outer bias ring in DIII-D, a 6-element optical system (f/8.9) was designed using a combination of reflective and refractive optics. This system will provide a spatial resolution of 1.2 cm in the object plane. An intermediate UV image formed in a secondary vacuum is converted to the visible by means of a phosphor plate and detected with a conventional CID camera (30 ms framing rate). A single MgF 2 lens serves as the vacuum interface between the primary and secondary vacuums; a second lens must be inserted in the secondary vacuum to correct the focus at 155 nm. Using the same tomographic inversion method employed for the visible TV, they reconstruct the poloidal distribution of the UV divertor light. The grain size of the phosphor plate and the optical system aberrations limit the best focus spot size to 60 microm at the CID plane. The optical system is designed to withstand 350 C vessel bakeout, 2 T magnetic fields, and disruption-induced accelerations of the vessel

  14. DIII-D research operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.

    1994-05-01

    The DIII-D tokamak research program is carried out by General Atomics (GA) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DIII-D is the most flexible tokamak in the world. The primary goal of the DIII-D tokamak research program is to provide data to develop a conceptual physics blueprint for a commercially attractive electrical demonstration plant (DEMO) that would open a path to fusion power commercialization. In doing so, the DIII-D program provides physics and technology R ampersand D outputs to aid the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Specific DIII-D objectives include the steady-state sustainment of plasma current as well as demonstrating techniques for microwave heating, divertor heat removal, fuel exhaust and tokamak plasma control. The DIII-D program is addressing these objectives in an integrated fashion with high beta and with good confinement. The long-range plan is organized into two major thrusts; the development of an advanced divertor and the development of advanced tokamak concepts. These two thrusts have a common goal: an improved DEMO reactor with lower cost and smaller size than the present DEMO which can be extrapolated from the conventional ITER operational scenario. In order to prepare for the long-range program, in FY93 the DIII-D research program concentrated on three major areas: Divertor and Boundary Physics, Advanced Tokamak Studies, and Tokamak Physics. The major goals of the Divertor and Boundary Physics studies are the control of impurities, efficient heat removal and understanding the strong role that the edge plasma plays in the global energy confinement of the plasma. The advanced tokamak studies initiated the investigation into new techniques for improving energy confinement, controlling particle fueling and increasing plasma beta. The major goal of the Tokamak Physics Studies is the understanding of energy and particle transport in a reactor relevant plasma

  15. Effect of separatrix magnetic geometry on divertor behavior in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, T.W., E-mail: petrie@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratories, P.O. Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Hill, D.N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Holcomb, C.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Moyer, R.A. [University of California–San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute of Aerospace Studies, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-07-15

    We report on recent experiments on DIII-D that examined the effects that variations in the parallel connection length in the scrape-off layer (SOL), L{sub ||}, and the radial location of the outer divertor target, R{sub TAR}, have on divertor plasma properties. Two-point modeling of the SOL plasma predicts that larger values of L{sub ||} and R{sub TAR} should lower temperature and raise density at the outer divertor target for fixed upstream separatrix density and temperature, i.e., n{sub TAR} ∝ [R{sub TAR}]{sup 2}[L{sub ||}]{sup 6/7} and T{sub TAR} ∝ [R{sub TAR}]{sup −2}[L{sub ||}]{sup −4/7}. The dependence of n{sub TAR} and T{sub TAR} on L{sub ||} was consistent with our data, but the dependence of n{sub TAR} and T{sub TAR} on R{sub TAR} was not. The surprising result that the divertor plasma parameters did not depend on R{sub TAR} in the predicted way may be due to convected heat flux, driven by escaping neutrals, in the more open configuration of the larger R{sub TAR} cases. Modeling results using the SOLPS code support this postulate.

  16. High-Z material erosion and its control in DIII-D carbon divertor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ding

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available As High-Z materials will likely be used as plasma-facing components (PFCs in future fusion devices, the erosion of high-Z materials is a key issue for high-power, long pulse operation. High-Z material erosion and redeposition have been studied using tungsten and molybdenum coated samples exposed in well-diagnosed DIII-D divertor plasma discharges. By coupling dedicated experiments and modelling using the 3D Monte Carlo code ERO, the roles of sheath potential and background carbon impurities in determining high-Z material erosion are identified. Different methods suggested by modelling have been investigated to control high-Z material erosion in DIII-D experiments. The erosion of Mo and W is found to be strongly suppressed by local injection of methane and deuterium gases. The 13C deposition resulting from local 13CH4 injection also provides information on radial transport due to E ×B drifts and cross field diffusion. Finally, D2 gas puffing is found to cause local plasma perturbation, suppressing W erosion because of the lower effective sputtering yield of W at lower plasma temperature and for higher carbon concentration in the mixed surface layer.

  17. Hydrogen isotopes retention in divertor tiles of DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorodumov, B.G.; Buzhinskij, O.I.; West, W.P.; Ulanov, V.G.

    1996-01-01

    The absolute concentration of hydrogen isotopes in graphite divertor tiles coated with boron carbide after the exposure in DIII-D during 16 operational weeks of the 1993 campaign was obtained using the 14 MeV neutron-induced recoil detection (NERD) method. It is shown that the absolute concentration of H in tile's surface layers correlates with thickness of the deposited layers. The graphite tile without boron carbide coating had a H concentration similar to that of the tile with the thickest deposited layer. Deuterium and tritium were not detected in any of the investigated tiles. The proposed method can be used for the determination of the thickness of coatings without sample destruction. Thus, the thickness of boron carbide coatings on the tiles obtained with this method varied from 80 to 115 μm, which corresponded well to electron microscope data. (orig.)

  18. Design and Analysis of the Cryopump for the DIII-D Upper Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reis, E.E.; Baxi, C.B.; Bozek, A.S.

    1999-01-01

    A cryocondensation pump for the upper inboard divertor on DIII-D is to be installed in the vacuum vessel in the fall of 1999. The cryopump removes neutral gas particles from the divertor and prevents recycling to the plasma. This pump is designed for a pumping speed of 18,000 ell/s at 0.4 mTorr. The cryopump is toroidally continuous to minimize inductive voltages and avoid electrical breakdown during disruptions. The cryopump consists of a 25 mm Inconel tube cooled by liquid helium and is surrounded by nitrogen cooled shields. A segmented ambient temperature radiation/particle shield protects the nitrogen shields. The pump is subjected to a steady state heat load of less than 10 W due to conduction and radiation heat transfer. The helium tube will be subjected to Joule heating of less than 300 J due to induced current and a particle load of less than 12 W during plasma operation. The thermal design of the cryopump requires that it be cooled by 5 g/s liquid helium at an inlet pressure of 115 kPa and a temperature of 4.35 K. Thermal analysis and tests show that the helium tube can absorb a transient heat load of up to 100 W for 10 s and still pump deuterium at 6.3 K. Disruptions induce toroidal currents in the helium line and nitrogen shields. These currents cross the rapidly changing magnetic fields, applying complex dynamic loads on the cryopump. The forces on the pump are extrapolated from magnetic measurements from DIII-D plasma disruptions and scaled to a 3 MA disruption. The supports for the nitrogen shield consist of a racetrack design, which are stiff for reacting the disruption loads, but are radially flexible to allow differential thermal displacements with the vacuum vessel. Static and dynamic finite element analyses of the cryopump show that the stresses and displacements over a range of disruption and thermal loadings are acceptable

  19. In situ measurement of erosion/deposition in the DIII-D divertor by colorimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weschenfelder, F.; Wienhold, P.; Winter, J.

    1996-01-01

    Colorimetry was introduced into the DIII-D tokamak to measure in situ the growth and erosion of transparent wall coatings (a-C:H) on the divertor. The colorimetric measurement system consisting of a halogen light source, a set of three filters and a black/white camera is described together with a first erosion measurement. An insertable graphite sample with a diameter of 4.7 cm was precoated with a 300 nm thick amorphous carbon film and was exposed in the divertor for several discharges with its surface coplanar to the surrounding graphite tiles. For each of the discharges the plasma strike point was moved onto the sample for 1 s to erode the coating. Between the discharges a camera signal with each filter was recorded and the film thickness was evaluated along a radial line across the DIMES sample. Thus it has been possible for the first time to measure erosion and deposition of divertor material in situ and shot-by-shot. The average peak heat flux with the strike point on DIMES was about 110 W cm -2 . The measurement shows a strong decrease in the film thickness almost over the entire sample with an average erosion rate of ∼ 9 nm s -1 . (Author)

  20. Measurements of flows in the DIII-D divertor by Mach probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedo, J.A.; Lehmer, R.; Moyer, R.A.; Watkins, J.G.; Porter, G.D.; Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; Schaffer, M.J.

    1998-06-01

    First measurements of Mach number of background plasma in the DIII-D divertor are presented in conjunction with temperature T e and density n e using a fast scanning probe array. To validate the probe measurements, the authors compared the T e , n e and J sat data to Thomson scattering data and find good overall agreement in attached discharges and some discrepancy for T e and n e in detached discharges. The discrepancy is mostly due to the effect of large fluctuations present during detached plasmas on the probe characteristic; the particle flux is accurately measured in every case. A composite 2-D map of measured flows is presented for an ELMing H-mode discharge and they focus on some of the details. They have also documented the temperature, density and Mach number in the private flux region of the divertor and the vicinity of the X-point, which are important transition regions that have been little studied or modeled. Background parallel plasma flows and electric fields in the divertor region show a complex structure

  1. INVESTIGATION OF MAIN-CHAMBER AND DIVERTOR RECYCING IN DIII-D USING TANGENTIALLY VIEWING CID CAMERAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GROTH, M.; PORTER, G.D.; PETRIE, T.W.; FENSTERMACHER, M.E.; BROOKS, N.H.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Measurements of the D α emission profiles from the divertor and main chamber region in DIII-D, performed in low-density L-mode, and low and high-density ELMy H-mode plasmas imply that core plasma fueling occurs through the divertor channel. Emission profiles of carbon, combined with UEDGE modeling of the L-mode plasmas, also suggests that chemical sputtering of carbon from the flux surface adjacent to the inner divertor walls, and temperature gradient forces in the scrape-off layer, determine the carbon content of the inner scrape-off layer

  2. Metallurgical Bonding Development of V-4Cr-4Ti Alloy for the DIII-D Radiative Divertor Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Trester, P.W.

    1998-01-01

    General Atomics (GA), in conjunction with the Department of Energy's (DOE) DIII-D Program, is carrying out a plan to utilize a vanadium alloy in the DIII-D tokamak as part of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected in the U.S. as the leading candidate vanadium alloy for fusion applications. This alloy will be used for the divertor fabrication. Manufacturing development with the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy is a focus of the DIII-D RD Program. The RD structure, part of which will be fabricated from V-4Cr-4Ti alloy, will require many product forms and types of metal/metal bonded joints. Metallurgical bonding methods development on this vanadium alloy is therefore a key area of study by GA. Several solid state (non-fusion weld) and fusion weld joining methods are being investigated. To date, GA has been successful in producing ductile, high strength, vacuum leak tight joints by all of the methods under investigation. The solid state joining was accomplished in air, i.e., without the need for a vacuum or inert gas environment to prevent interstitial impurity contamination of the V-4Cr-4Ti alloy

  3. Study of particle pumping characteristics for different pumping geometries in JT-60U and DIII-D divertors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takenaga, H.; Sakasai, A.; Kubo, H.

    2001-01-01

    Particle pumping characteristics were compared between pumping from the inner side private flux region (IPP) and pumping from both sides of the private flux region (BPP) in the JT-60U W shaped divertor, and between JT-60U IPP and pumping in the DIII-D lower baffled divertor. The pumping flux for BPP is smaller than that for IPP by about a factor of 2 with weak in-out asymmetry of recycling neutral flux and by a factor of 3.5-6.5 with strong in-out asymmetry. The reduction of the pumping flux for BPP is consistent with Monte Carlo simulations, where backflow at the outer pumping slot is observed due to in-out recycling asymmetry. The pumping flux in DIII-D at I p =0.8 MA and B T =1.6 T is comparable to or smaller than that for JT-60U IPP at I p =1.0 MA, B T =3.8 T and I p =1.5 MA, B T =3.5 T in the same density regime. In the DIII-D divertor with pumping from the private flux region, the pumping flux decreases with increasing in-out asymmetry. The pumping flux normalized by the integrated D α emission over the whole plasma exhibits a similar dependence on the distance between the pumping slot and the strike point in JT-60U IPP and the DIII-D lower divertor with pumping through the outer divertor plasma region. (author)

  4. An advanced plasma control system for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.R.; Kellman, A.; McKee, E.; Osborne, T.; Petrach, P.; Taylor, T.S.; Wight, J.; Lazarus, E.

    1991-11-01

    An advanced plasma control system is being implemented for the DIII-D tokamak utilizing digital technology. This system will regulate the position and shape of tokamak discharges that range from elongated limiter to single-null divertor and double-null divertor with elongation as high as 2.6. Development of this system is expected to lead to control system technology appropriate for use on future tokamaks such as ITER and BPX. The digital system will allow for increased precision in shape control through real time adjustment of the control algorithm to changes in the shape and discharge parameters such as β p , ell i and scrape-off layer current. The system will be used for research on real time optimization of discharge performance for disruption avoidance, current and pressure profile control, optimization of rf antenna loading, or feedback on heat deposition patterns through divertor strike point position control, for example. Shape control with this system is based on linearization near a target shape of the controlled parameters as a function of the magnetic diagnostic signals. This digital system is unique in that it is designed to have the speed necessary to control the unstable vertical motion of highly elongated tokamak discharges such as those produced in DIII-D and planned for BPX and ITER. a 40 MHz Intel i860 processor is interfaced to up to 112 channels of analog input signals. The commands to the poloidal field coils can be updated at 80 μs intervals for the control of vertical position with a delay between sampling of the analog signal and update of the command of less than 80 μs

  5. Kinetic modeling of divertor heat load fluxes in the Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80303 (United States); Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Park, G. Y. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon, 305-333 (Korea, Republic of); Chang, C. S.; Ku, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Brunner, D.; Hughes, J. W.; LaBombard, B.; Terry, J. L. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    The guiding-center kinetic neoclassical transport code, XGC0 [Chang et al., Phys. Plasmas 11, 2649 (2004)], is used to compute the heat fluxes and the heat-load width in the outer divertor plates of Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D tokamaks. The dependence of the width of heat-load fluxes on neoclassical effects, neutral collisions, and anomalous transport is investigated using the XGC0 code. The XGC0 code includes realistic X-point geometry, a neutral source model, the effects of collisions, and a diffusion model for anomalous transport. It is observed that the width of the XGC0 neoclassical heat-load is approximately inversely proportional to the total plasma current I{sub p.} The scaling of the width of the divertor heat-load with plasma current is examined for an Alcator C-Mod discharge and four DIII-D discharges. The scaling of the divertor heat-load width with plasma current is found to be weaker in the Alcator C-Mod discharge compared to scaling found in the DIII-D discharges. The effect of neutral collisions on the 1/I{sub p} scaling of heat-load width is shown not to be significant. Although inclusion of poloidally uniform anomalous transport results in a deviation from the 1/I{sub p} scaling, the inclusion of the anomalous transport that is driven by ballooning-type instabilities results in recovering the neoclassical 1/I{sub p} scaling. The Bohm or gyro-Bohm scalings of anomalous transport do not strongly affect the dependence of the heat-load width on plasma current. The inclusion of anomalous transport, in general, results in widening the width of neoclassical divertor heat-load and enhances the neoclassical heat-load fluxes on the divertor plates. Understanding heat transport in the tokamak scrape-off layer plasmas is important for strengthening the basis for predicting divertor conditions in ITER.

  6. Characterizing Low-Z erosion and deposition in the DIII-D divertor using aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Chrobak

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We present measurements and modeling of aluminum erosion and redeposition experiments in separate helium and deuterium low power, low density L-mode plasmas at the outer divertor strike point of DIII-D to provide a low-Z material benchmark dataset for tokamak erosion-deposition modeling codes. Coatings of Al ∼100nm thick were applied to ideal (smooth and realistic (rough surfaces and exposed to repeat plasma discharges using the DiMES probe. Redeposition in all cases was primarily in the downstream toroidal field direction, evident from both in-situ spectroscopic and post-mortem non-spectroscopic measurements. The gross Al erosion yield was estimated from film thickness change measurements of small area samples, and was found to be ∼40–70% of the expected erosion yield based on theoretical physical sputtering yields after including sputtering by a 1–3% carbon impurity. The multi-step redeposition and re-erosion process, and hence the measured net erosion yield and material migration patterns, were found to be influenced by the surface roughness and/or porosity. A time-dependent model of material migration accounting for deposit accumulation in hidden areas was developed to reproduce the measurements in these experiments and determine a redeposition probability distribution function for sputtered atoms.

  7. Dynamic divertor control using resonant mixed toroidal harmonic magnetic fields during ELM suppression in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, M.; Sun, Y.; Paz-Soldan, C.; Nazikian, R.; Gu, S.; Liu, Y. Q.; Abrams, T.; Bykov, I.; Cui, L.; Evans, T.; Garofalo, A.; Guo, W.; Gong, X.; Lasnier, C.; Logan, N. C.; Makowski, M.; Orlov, D.; Wang, H. H.

    2018-05-01

    Experiments using Resonant Magnetic Perturbations (RMPs), with a rotating n = 2 toroidal harmonic combined with a stationary n = 3 toroidal harmonic, have validated predictions that divertor heat and particle flux can be dynamically controlled while maintaining Edge Localized Mode (ELM) suppression in the DIII-D tokamak. Here, n is the toroidal mode number. ELM suppression over one full cycle of a rotating n = 2 RMP that was mixed with a static n = 3 RMP field has been achieved. Prominent heat flux splitting on the outer divertor has been observed during ELM suppression by RMPs in low collisionality regime in DIII-D. Strong changes in the three dimensional heat and particle flux footprint in the divertor were observed during the application of the mixed toroidal harmonic magnetic perturbations. These results agree well with modeling of the edge magnetic field structure using the TOP2D code, which takes into account the plasma response from the MARS-F code. These results expand the potential effectiveness of the RMP ELM suppression technique for the simultaneous control of divertor heat and particle load required in ITER.

  8. COMPARISON OF ELM PULSE PROPAGATION IN THE DIII-D SOL AND DIVERTORS WITH AN ION CONVECTION MODEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FENSTERMACHER, ME; PORTER, GD; LEONARD, AW; BROOKS, NH; BOEDO, JA; COLCHIN, RJ; GRAY, DS; GROEBNER, RJ; GROTH, M; HOGAN, JT; HOLLMANN, EM; LASNIER, CJ; OSBORNE, TH; PETRIE, TW; RUDAKOV, DL; SNYDER, PB; TAKAHASHI, H; WATKINS, JG; ZENG, L; DIII-D TEAM

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Results from dedicated ELM experiments, performed in DIII-D with fast diagnostics to measure the evolution of Type-I ELM effects in the SOL and divertor, are compared with a simple ion convection model and with initial time-dependent UEDGE simulations. Delays between ELM effects observed in the inner versus the outer divertor regions in the experiments scale, as a function of density, with the difference in ion convection time along field lines from the outer midplane to the divertor targets. The ELM perturbation was modeled as an instantaneous radially uniform increase of diffusion coefficients from the top of the pedestal to the outer SOL. The perturbation was confined to a low field side poloidal zone ± 40 o from the outer midplane. The delays in the simulations are similar to those observed in the experiments

  9. Observation of Dust in DIII-D Divertor and SOL by Visible Imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D L; West, W P; Groth, M; Yu, J H; Wong, C C; Boedo, J A; Brooks, N H; Evans, T E; Fenstermacher, M E; Hollmann, E M; Hyatt, A W; Lasnier, C J; McLean, A G; Moyer, R A; Pigarov, A; Smirnov, R; Solomon, W M; Watkins, J G

    2007-01-01

    Dust is commonly found in fusion devices. Though generally of no concern in the present day machines, dust may pose serious safety and operational concerns for ITER. Micron-size dust usually dominates the samples collected from tokamaks. During a plasma discharge micron-size dust particles can become highly mobile and travel over distances of a few meters. Once inside the plasma, dust particles heat up to over 3000 K and emit thermal radiation that can be detected by visible imaging techniques. Observations of naturally occurring and artificially introduced dusts have been performed in DIII-D divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) using standard frame rate CMOS cameras, a gated-intensified CID camera, and a fast-framing CMOS camera. In the first 2-3 plasma discharges after a vent with personnel entry inside the vacuum vessel ('dirty vent') dust levels were quite high with thousands of particles observed in each discharge. Individual particles moving at velocities of up to a few hundred m/s and breakup of larger particles into pieces were observed. After about 15 discharges dust was virtually gone during the stationary portion of a discharge, and appeared at much reduced levels during the plasma initiation and termination phases. After a few days of plasma operations (about 70 discharges) dust levels were further reduced to just a few observed events per discharge except in discharges with current disruptions that produced significant amounts of dust. An injection of a few milligram of micron-size (6 micron median diameter) carbon dust into a high-power lower single-null ELMing H-mode discharge with strike points swept across the lower divertor floor was performed. A significant increase of the core carbon radiation was observed for about 250 ms after the injection, as the total radiated power increased twofold. Dust particles from the injection were observed by the fast framing camera in the outboard SOL near the midplane. The amount of dust observed by the fast

  10. DIII-D research advancing the scientific basis for burning plasmas and fusion energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. M. SolomonThe DIII-D Team

    2017-10-01

    The DIII-D tokamak has addressed key issues to advance the physics basis for ITER and future steady-state fusion devices. In work related to transient control, magnetic probing is used to identify a decrease in ideal stability, providing a basis for active instability sensing. Improved understanding of 3D interactions is emerging, with RMP-ELM suppression correlated with exciting an edge current driven mode. Should rapid plasma termination be necessary, shattered neon pellet injection has been shown to be tunable to adjust radiation and current quench rate. For predictive simulations, reduced transport models such as TGLF have reproduced changes in confinement associated with electron heating. A new wide-pedestal variant of QH-mode has been discovered where increased edge transport is found to allow higher pedestal pressure. New dimensionless scaling experiments suggest an intrinsic torque comparable to the beam-driven torque on ITER. In steady-state-related research, complete ELM suppression has been achieved that is relatively insensitive to q 95, having a weak effect on the pedestal. Both high-q min and hybrid steady-state plasmas have avoided fast ion instabilities and achieved increased performance by control of the fast ion pressure gradient and magnetic shear, and use of external control tools such as ECH. In the boundary, experiments have demonstrated the impact of E× B drifts on divertor detachment and divertor asymmetries. Measurements in helium plasmas have found that the radiation shortfall can be eliminated provided the density near the X-point is used as a constraint in the modeling. Experiments conducted with toroidal rings of tungsten in the divertor have indicated that control of the strike-point flux is important for limiting the core contamination. Future improvements are planned to the facility to advance physics issues related to the boundary, transients and high performance steady-state operation.

  11. Overview of recent experimental results from the DIII-D advanced tokamak program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.

    2001-01-01

    The goals of DIII-D Advanced Tokamak (AT) experiments are to investigate and optimize the upper limits of energy confinement and MHD stability in a tokamak plasma, and to simultaneously maximize the fraction of non-inductive current drive. Significant overall progress has been made in the past 2 years, as the performance figure of merit β N H 89P of 9 has been achieved in ELMing H-mode for over 16 τ E without sawteeth. We also operated at β N ∼7 for over 35 τ E or 3 τ R , with the duration limited by hardware. Real-time feedback control of β (at 95% of the stability boundary), optimizing the plasma shape (e.g., δ, divertor strike- and X-point, double/single null balance), and particle control (n e /n GW ∼0.3, Z eff N H 89P of 7. The QDB regime has been obtained to date only with counter neutral beam injection. Further modification and control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) has also been demonstrated with impurity injection (broader barrier), pellets, and ECH (strong electron barrier). The new Divertor-2000, a key ingredient in all these discharges, provides effective density, impurity and heat flux control in the high-triangularity plasma shapes. Discharges at n e /n GW ∼1.4 have been obtained with gas puffing by maintaining the edge pedestal pressure; this operation is easier with Divertor-2000. We are developing several other tools required for AT operation, including real-time feedback control of resistive wall modes (RWMs) with external coils, and control of neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs) with electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). (author)

  12. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D - Annual report input for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1996-10-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The production of a 1200-kg ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been completed at Teledyne Wah Chang of Albany, Oregon (TWCA) to provide {approximately}800-kg of applicable product forms, and two billets have been extruded from the ingot. Chemical compositions of the ingot and both extruded billets were acceptable. Material from these billets will be converted into product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor structure. Joining of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the RD Program, and research into several joining methods for fabrication of the RD components, including resistance seam, friction, and electron beam welding, is continuing. Preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by electron beam, resistance, and friction welding processes and to Inconel 625 by friction welding.

  13. Production and fabrication of vanadium alloys for the radiative divertor program of DIII-D - Annual report input for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.R.; Smith, J.P.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1996-01-01

    V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been selected for use in the manufacture of a portion of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor (RD) upgrade. The production of a 1200-kg ingot of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been completed at Teledyne Wah Chang of Albany, Oregon (TWCA) to provide ∼800-kg of applicable product forms, and two billets have been extruded from the ingot. Chemical compositions of the ingot and both extruded billets were acceptable. Material from these billets will be converted into product forms suitable for components of the DIII-D Radiative Divertor structure. Joining of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy has been identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the RD Program, and research into several joining methods for fabrication of the RD components, including resistance seam, friction, and electron beam welding, is continuing. Preliminary trials have been successful in the joining of V-alloy to itself by electron beam, resistance, and friction welding processes and to Inconel 625 by friction welding

  14. First measurements of the ion energy distribution at the divertor strike point during DIII-D disruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parks, P.B.; Brooks, N.H.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.; Bastasz, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Whyte, D.

    1995-12-01

    Plasma/wall interaction studies are being carried out using the Divertor Materials Exposure System (DiMES) on DIII-D. The objective of the experiment is to determine the kinetic energy and flux of deuterium ions reaching the divertor target during argon-induced radiative disruptions. The experiment utilizes a special slotted ion analyzer mounted over a Si sample to collect the fast charge-exchange (CX) deuterium neutrals emitted within the recycled cold neutral layer (CNL) which serves as a CX target for the incident ions. A theoretical interpretation of the experiment reveals a strong forward pitch-angle dependence in the approaching ion distribution function. The depth distribution of the trapped D in the Si sample was measured using low-energy direct recoil spectroscopy. Comparison with the TRIM code using monoenergetic ions indicated that the best fit to the data was obtained for an ion energy of 100 eV

  15. Dynamic ELM and divertor control using resonant toroidal multi-mode magnetic fields in DIII-D and EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Youwen

    2017-10-01

    A rotating n = 2 Resonant Magnetic Perturbation (RMP) field combined with a stationary n = 3 RMP field has validated predictions that access to ELM suppression can be improved, while divertor heat and particle flux can also be dynamically controlled in DIII-D. Recent observations in the EAST tokamak indicate that edge magnetic topology changes, due to nonlinear plasma response to magnetic perturbations, play a critical role in accessing ELM suppression. MARS-F code MHD simulations, which include the plasma response to the RMP, indicate the nonlinear transition to ELM suppression is optimized by configuring the RMP coils to drive maximal edge stochasticity. Consequently, mixed toroidal multi-mode RMP fields, which produce more densely packed islands over a range of additional rational surfaces, improve access to ELM suppression, and further spread heat loading on the divertor. Beneficial effects of this multi-harmonic spectrum on ELM suppression have been validated in DIII-D. Here, the threshold current required for ELM suppression with a mixed n spectrum, where part of the n = 3 RMP field is replaced by an n = 2 field, is smaller than the case with pure n = 3 field. An important further benefit of this multi-mode approach is that significant changes of 3D particle flux footprint profiles on the divertor are found in the experiment during the application of a rotating n = 2 RMP field superimposed on a static n = 3 RMP field. This result was predicted by modeling studies of the edge magnetic field structure using the TOP2D code which takes into account plasma response from MARS-F code. These results expand physics understanding and potential effectiveness of the technique for reliably controlling ELMs and divertor power/particle loading distributions in future burning plasma devices such as ITER. Work supported by USDOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and NNSF of China under 11475224.

  16. The Design and Use of Tungsten Coated TZM Molybdenum Tile Inserts in the DIII-D Tokamak Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Christopher [General Atomics, San Diego; Nygren, R. E. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Chrobak, C P. [General Atomics, San Diego; Buchenauer, Dean [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Holtrop, Kurt [General Atomics, San Diego; Unterberg, Ezekial A. [ORNL; Zach, Mike P. [ORNL

    2017-08-01

    Future tokamak devices are envisioned to utilize a high-Z metal divertor with tungsten as theleading candidate. However, tokamak experiments with tungsten divertors have seen significantdetrimental effects on plasma performance. The DIII-D tokamak presently has carbon as theplasma facing surface but to study the effect of tungsten on the plasma and its migration aroundthe vessel, two toroidal rows of carbon tiles in the divertor region were modified with high-Zmetal inserts, composed of a molybdenum alloy (TZM) coated with tungsten. A dedicated twoweek experimental campaign was run with the high-Z metal inserts. One row was coated withtungsten containing naturally occurring levels of isotopes. The second row was coated withtungsten where the isotope 182W was enhanced from the natural level of 26% up to greater than90%. The different isotopic concentrations enabled the experiment to differentiate between thetwo different sources of metal migration from the divertor. Various coating methods wereexplored for the deposition of the tungsten coating, including chemical vapor deposition,electroplating, vacuum plasma spray, and electron beam physical vapor deposition. The coatingswere tested to see if they were robust enough to act as a divertor target for the experiment. Testsincluded cyclic thermal heating using a high power laser and high-fluence deuterium plasmabombardment. The issues associate with the design of the inserts (tile installation, thermal stress,arcing, leading edges, surface preparation, etc.), are reviewed. The results of the tests used toselect the coating method and preliminary experimental observations are presented.

  17. ADVANCED TOKAMAK OPERATION USING THE DIII-D PLASMA CONTROL SYSTEM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HUMPHREYS, DA; FERRON, JR; GAROFALO, AM; HYATT, AW; JERNIGAN, TC; JOHNSON, RD; LAHAYE, RJ; LEUER, JA; OKABAYASHI, M; PENAFLOR, BG; SCOVILLE, JT; STRAIT, EJ; WALKER, ML; WHYTE, DG

    2002-01-01

    A271 ADVANCED TOKAMAK OPERATION USING THE DIII-D PLASMA CONTROL SYSTEM. The principal focus of experimental operations in the DIII-D tokamak is the advanced tokamak (AT) regime to achieve, which requires highly integrated and flexible plasma control. In a high performance advanced tokamak, accurate regulation of the plasma boundary, internal profiles, pumping, fueling, and heating must be well coordinated with MHD control action to stabilize such instabilities as tearing modes and resistive wall modes. Sophisticated monitors of the operational regime must provide detection of off-normal conditions and trigger appropriate safety responses with acceptable levels of reliability. Many of these capabilities are presently implemented in the DIII-D plasma control system (PCS), and are now in frequent or routine operational use. The present work describes recent development, implementation, and operational experience with AT regime control elements for equilibrium control, MHD suppression, and off-normal event detection and response

  18. First tests of diagnostic mirrors in a tokamak divertor: An overview of experiments in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litnovsky, A.; Rudakov, D.L.; De Temmerman, G.; Wienhold, P.; Philipps, V.; Samm, U.; McLean, A.G.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.; Brooks, N.H.; Watkins, J.G.; Wampler, W.R.; Stangeby, P.C.; Boedo, J.A.; Moyer, R.A.; Allen, S.L.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Lasnier, C.J.; Boivin, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    Mirrors will be used in ITER in all optical diagnostic systems observing the plasma radiation in the ultraviolet, visible and infrared ranges. Diagnostic mirrors in ITER will suffer from electromagnetic radiation, energetic particles and neutron irradiation. Erosion due to impact of fast neutrals from plasma and deposition of plasma impurities may significantly degrade optical and polarization characteristics of mirrors influencing the overall performance of the respective diagnostics. Therefore, maintaining the best possible performance of mirrors is of the crucial importance for the ITER optical diagnostics. Mirrors in ITER divertor are expected to suffer from deposition of impurities. The dedicated experiment in a tokamak divertor was needed to address this issue. Investigations with molybdenum diagnostic mirrors were made in DIII-D divertor. Mirror samples were exposed at different temperatures in the private flux region to a series of ELMy H-mode discharges with partially detached divertor plasmas. An increase of temperature of mirrors during the exposure generally led to the mitigation of carbon deposition, primarily due to temperature-enhanced chemical erosion of carbon layers by D atoms. Finally, for the mirrors exposed at the temperature of ∼160 o C neither carbon deposition nor degradation of optical properties was detected

  19. Statistical characterization of surface features from tungsten-coated divertor inserts in the DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Jacob; Unterberg, Ezekial; Chrobak, Christopher; Stahl, Brian; Abrams, Tyler

    2017-10-01

    Continuing analysis of tungsten-coated inserts from the recent DIII-D Metal Rings Campaign utilizes a statistical approach to study carbon migration and deposition on W surfaces and to characterize the pre- versus post-exposure surface morphology. A TZM base was coated with W using both CVD and PVD and allowed for comparison between the two coating methods. The W inserts were positioned in the lower DIII-D divertor in both the upper (shelf) region and lower (floor) region and subjected to multiple plasma shots, primarily in H-mode. Currently, the post-exposure W inserts are being characterized using SEM/EDX to qualify the surface morphology and to quantify the surface chemical composition. In addition, profilometry is being used to measure the surface roughness of the inserts both before and after plasma exposure. Preliminary results suggest a correlation between the pre-exposure surface roughness and the level of carbon deposited on the surface. Furthermore, ongoing in-depth analysis may reveal insights into the formation mechanism of nanoscale bumps found in the carbon-rich regions of the W surfaces that have not yet been explained. Work supported in part by US DoE under the Science Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program and under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  20. Recent DIII-D results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, P.I.

    1994-07-01

    This paper summarizes the recent DIII-D experimental results and the development of the relevant hardware systems. The DIII-D program focuses on divertor solutions for next generation tokamaks such as International Thermo-nuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX), and on developing configurations with enhanced confinement and stability properties that will lead to a more compact and economical fusion reactor. The DIII-D program carries out this research in an integrated fashion

  1. Theory of Advanced Magnetic Divertors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotschenreuther, Michael; Valanju, Prashant; Mahajan, Swadesh; Covele, Brent

    2013-10-01

    The magnetic field structure in the SOL is the most important determinant of divertor physics. A comprehensive analytical and numerical methodology is developed to investigate SOL magnetic fields in the backdrop of two advanced divertor geometries- the X-divertor (XD) proposed and discussed in 2004, and the snowflake divertor (SFD) of 2007-2010. The analysis shows that XD and SFD represent very distinct and readily distinguishable magnetic geometries, epitomized through a differentiating metric, the Divertor Index (DI). In terms of this simple metric, the XD (DI > 1) and the SFD (DI XD flux surfaces are less convergent, in fact, divergent (flaring). These different SOL magnetics imply different physics, particularly with respect to detachment dynamics. It is also shown that some experiments on NSTX and DIII-D match both the prescription and the predictions of the 2004 XD paper. Work supported under US-DOE projects DE-FG02-04ER54742 and DE-FG02-04ER54754.

  2. DIII-D research operations. Annual report, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    This report discusses the research on the following topics: DIII-D program overview; divertor and boundary research program; advanced tokamak studies; tokamak physics; operations; program development; support services; contribution to ITER physics R&D; and collaborative efforts.

  3. Advances in the operation of the DIII-D neutral beam computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Busath, J.L.; Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.; Kellman, D.H.; Chiu, H.K.; Hong, R.M.

    1998-02-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam system routinely provides up to 20 MW of deuterium neutral beam heating in support of experiments on the DIII-D tokamak, and is a critical part of the DIII-D physics experimental program. The four computer systems previously used to control neutral beam operation and data acquisition were designed and implemented in the late 1970's and used on DIII and DIII-D from 1981--1996. By comparison to modern standards, they had become expensive to maintain, slow and cumbersome, making it difficult to implement improvements. Most critical of all, they were not networked computers. During the 1997 experimental campaign, these systems were replaced with new Unix compliant hardware and, for the most part, commercially available software. This paper describes operational experience with the new neutral beam computer systems, and new advances made possible by using features not previously available. These include retention and access to historical data, an asynchronously fired ''rules'' base, and a relatively straightforward programming interface. Methods and principles for extending the availability of data beyond the scope of the operator consoles will be discussed

  4. Progress on advanced tokamak and steady-state scenario development on DIII-D and NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, E J [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Greenfield, C M [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kaye, S M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Menard, J E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Murakami, M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bell, R E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ferron, J R [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Gates, D A [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R J; Hyatt, A W; Luce, T C; Petty, C C; Wade, M R; Waltz, R E [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kinsey, J E [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); LeBlanc, B P [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); McKee, G R [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Okabayashi, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Peng, Y-K M [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Advanced tokamak (AT) research seeks to develop steady-state operating scenarios for ITER and other future devices from a demonstrated scientific basis. Normalized target parameters for steady-state operation on ITER are 100% non-inductive current operation with a bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} {>=} 60%, q{sub 95} {approx} 4-5 and G {identical_to}{beta}{sub N}H{sub scaling}/q{sub 95}{sup 2} {>=}0.3. Progress in realizing such plasmas is considered in terms of the development of plasma control capabilities and scientific understanding, leading to improved AT performance. NSTX has demonstrated active resistive wall mode stabilization with low, ITER-relevant, rotation rates below the critical value required for passive stabilization. On DIII-D, experimental observations and GYRO simulations indicate that ion internal transport barrier (ITB) formation at rational-q surfaces is due to equilibrium zonal flows generating high local E ? B shear levels. In addition, stability modelling for DIII-D indicates a path to operation at {beta}{sub N} {>=} 4 with q{sub min} {>=} 2, using broad, hollow current profiles to increase the ideal wall stability limit. Both NSTX and DIII-D have optimized plasma performance and expanded AT operational limits. NSTX now has long-pulse, high performance discharges meeting the normalized targets for an spherical torus-based component test facility. DIII-D has developed sustained discharges combining high beta and ITBs, with performance approaching levels required for AT reactor concepts, e.g. {beta}{sub N} = 4, H{sub 89} = 2.5, with f{sub BS} > 60%. Most importantly, DIII-D has developed ITER steady-state demonstration discharges, simultaneously meeting the targets for steady-state Q {>=} 5 operation on ITER set out above, substantially increasing confidence in ITER meeting its steady-state performance objective.

  5. DiMES Studies of Temperature Dependence of Carbon Erosion and Re-Deposition in the DIII-D Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudakov, D L; Jacob, W; Krieger, K; Litnovsky, A; Philipps, V; West, W P; Wong, C C; Allen, S L; Bastasz, R J; Boedo, J A; Brooks, N H; Boivin, R L; De Temmerman, G; Fenstermacher, M E; Groth, M; Hollmann, E M; Lasnier, C J; McLean, A G; Moyer, R A; Stangeby, P C; Wampler, W R; Watkins, J G; Wienhold, P; Whaley, J

    2007-03-15

    A strong effect of a moderately elevated surface temperature on net carbon deposition and deuterium co-deposition in the DIII-D divertor was observed under detached conditions. A DiMES sample with a gap 2 mm wide and 18 mm deep was exposed to lower-single-null (LSN) L-mode plasmas first at room temperature, and then at 200 C. At the elevated temperature, deuterium co-deposition in the gap was reduced by an order of magnitude. At the plasma-facing surface of the heated sample net carbon erosion was measured at a rate of 3 nm/s, whereas without heating net deposition is normally observed under detachment. In a related experiment three sets of molybdenum mirrors recessed 2 cm below the divertor floor were exposed to identical LSN ELMy H-mode discharges. The first set of mirrors exposed at ambient temperature exhibited net carbon deposition at a rate of up to 3.7 nm/s and suffered a significant drop in reflectivity. In contrast, two other mirror sets exposed at elevated temperatures between 90 C and 175 C exhibited practically no carbon deposition.

  6. First results on fast wave current drive in advanced tokamak discharges in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prater, R.; Cary, W.P.; Baity, F.W.

    1995-07-01

    Initial experiments have been performed on the DIII-D tokamak on coupling, direct electron heating, and current drive by fast waves in advanced tokamak discharges. These experiments showed efficient central heating and current drive in agreement with theory in magnitude and profile. Extrapolating these results to temperature characteristic of a power plant (25 keV) gives current drive efficiency of about 0.3 MA/m 2

  7. Observation of an improved energy-confinement regime in neutral-beam--heated divertor discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.; Ejima, S.; Schissel, D.P.

    1987-01-01

    Tokamak discharges using the expanded boundary divertor in the DIII-D device exhibit H-mode confinement. With neutral-beam power up to 6 MW, energy confinement remains comparable to the Ohmic value at a plasma current of 1 MA. Confinement is also independent of plasma density and toroidal field. Confinement increases with plasma current, but the exact functional dependence is, as yet, uncertain. These results show that the H mode can be achieved in a reactor-compatible open divertor configuration

  8. Comparison of wall/divertor deuterium retention and plasma fueling requirements on the DIII-D, TdeV, and ASDEX-upgrade tokamaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN (United States); Terreault, B. [Inst. National de la Recherche Scientifique, Varennes, Quebec (Canada); Haas, G. [Max Planck Inst. fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching (Germany)] [and others

    1996-06-01

    The authors present a comparison of the wall deuterium retention and plasma fueling requirements of three diverted tokamaks, DIII-D, TdeV, and ASDEX-Upgrade, with different fractions of graphite coverage of stainless steel or Inconel outer walls and different heating modes. Data from particle balance experiments on each tokamak demonstrate well-defined differences in wall retention of deuterium gas, even though all three tokamaks have complete graphite coverage of divertor components and all three are routinely boronized. This paper compares the evolution of the change in wall loading and net fueling efficiency for gas during dedicated experiments without Helium Glow Discharge Cleaning on the DIII-D and TdeV tokamaks. On the DIII-D tokamak, it was demonstrated that the wall loading could be increased by > 1,250 Torr-1 (equivalent to 150 {times} plasma particle content) plasma inventories resulting in an increase in fueling efficiency from 0.08 to 0.25, whereas the wall loading on the TdeV tokamak could only be increased by < 35 Torr-{ell} (equivalent to 50{times} plasma particle content) plasma inventories at a maximum fueling efficiency {approximately} 1. Data from the ASDEX-Upgrade tokamak suggests qualitative behavior of wall retention and fueling efficiency similar to DIII-D.

  9. Development of burning plasma and advanced scenarios in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.

    2005-01-01

    Significant progress in the development of burning plasma scenarios, steady-state scenarios at high fusion performance, and basic tokamak physics has been made by the DIII-D Team. Discharges similar to the ITER baseline scenario have demonstrated normalized fusion performance nearly 50% higher than required for Q = 10 in ITER, under stationary conditions. Discharges that extrapolate to Q ∼ 10 for longer than one hour in ITER at reduced current have also been demonstrated in DIII-D under stationary conditions. Proof of high fusion performance with full noninductive operation has been obtained. Underlying this work are studies validating approaches to confinement extrapolation, disruption avoidance and mitigation, tritium retention, ELM avoidance, and operation above the no-wall pressure limit. In addition, the unique capabilities of the DIII-D facility have advanced studies of the sawtooth instability with unprecedented time and space resolution, threshold behavior in the electron heat transport, and rotation in plasmas in the absence of external torque. (author)

  10. Deposition of deuterium and metals on divertor tiles in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walsh, D.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Jackson, G.L.

    1991-01-01

    Hydrogen recycling and impurity influx are important issues in obtaining high confinement discharges in the D3-D tokamak. To reduce metallic impurities in D3-D, 40% of the wall area, including the highest heat flux zones, have been covered with graphite tiles. However erosion, redeposition and hydrogen retention in the tiles, as well as metal transport from the remaining Inconel walls can lead to enhanced recycling and impurity influx. Hydrogen and metal retention in divertor floor tiles have been measured using external ion beam analysis techniques following four campaigns where tiles were exposed to several thousand tokamak discharges. The areal density of deuterium retained following exposure to tokamak plasmas was measured with external nuclear reaction analysis. External proton-induced x-ray emission analysis was used to measure the areal densities of metallic impurities deposited upon the divertor tiles either by sputtering of metallic components during discharges or as contamination during tile fabrication. Measurements for both deuterium and metallic impurities were taken on both the tile surfaces which face the operating plasma and the surfaces on the side of the tiles which form the small gaps separating each of the tiles in the divertor. The highest areal densities of both deuterium and metals were found on the plasma-facing surface near the inner strike point region of each set of divertor tiles. Significant deposits, extending as fast a 1 cm from the plasma-facing and containing up to forty percent of the total divertor deposition, were also observed on the gap-forming surfaces of the tiles

  11. 2D imaging of helium ion velocity in the DIII-D divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuell, C. M.; Porter, G. D.; Meyer, W. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Allen, S. L.; Briesemeister, A.; Mclean, A. G.; Zeng, L.; Jaervinen, A. E.; Howard, J.

    2018-05-01

    Two-dimensional imaging of parallel ion velocities is compared to fluid modeling simulations to understand the role of ions in determining divertor conditions and benchmark the UEDGE fluid modeling code. Pure helium discharges are used so that spectroscopic He+ measurements represent the main-ion population at small electron temperatures. Electron temperatures and densities in the divertor match simulated values to within about 20%-30%, establishing the experiment/model match as being at least as good as those normally obtained in the more regularly simulated deuterium plasmas. He+ brightness (HeII) comparison indicates that the degree of detachment is captured well by UEDGE, principally due to the inclusion of E ×B drifts. Tomographically inverted Coherence Imaging Spectroscopy measurements are used to determine the He+ parallel velocities which display excellent agreement between the model and the experiment near the divertor target where He+ is predicted to be the main-ion species and where electron-dominated physics dictates the parallel momentum balance. Upstream near the X-point where He+ is a minority species and ion-dominated physics plays a more important role, there is an underestimation of the flow velocity magnitude by a factor of 2-3. These results indicate that more effort is required to be able to correctly predict ion momentum in these challenging regimes.

  12. ACHIEVING AND SUSTAINING STEADY-STATE ADVANCED TOKAMAK CONDITIONS ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WADE, MR; MURAKAMI, M; BRENNAN, DP; CASPER, TA; FERRON, JR; GAROFALO, AM; GREENFIELD, CM; HYATT, AW; JAYAKUMAR, R; KINSEY, JE; LAHAYE, RJ; LAO, LL; LAZARUS, EA; LOHR, J; LUCE, TC; PETTY, CC; POLITZER, PA; PRATER, R; STRAIT, EJ; TURNBULL, AD; WATKINS, JG; WEST, WP

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated the feasibility of sustaining advanced tokamak conditions that combine high fusion power density (β > 4%), high bootstrap current fraction (f BS ∼ 65%), and high non-inductive current fractions (f NI ∼ 85%) for several energy confinement times. The duration of such conditions is limited only by resistive relaxation of the current density profile. Modeling studies indicate that the application of off-axis ECCD will be able to maintain a favorable current density profile for several seconds

  13. Achieving and sustaining steady-state advanced tokamak conditions on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Murakami, M.; Brennan, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have demonstrated the feasibility of sustaining advanced tokamak conditions that combine high fusion power density (β > 4%), high bootstrap current fraction (f BS ∼ 65%), and high non-inductive current fractions (f NI ∼85%) for several energy confinement times. The duration of such conditions is limited only by resistive relaxation of the current density profile. Modeling studies indicate that the application of off-axis ECCD will be able to maintain a favorable current density profile for several seconds. (author)

  14. Modeling of impurity spectroscopy in the divertor and SOL of DIII-D using the 1D multifluid model NEWT1D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.P.; Evans, T.E.; Brooks, N.H.

    1996-10-01

    NEWT1D, a one dimensional multifluid model of the scrape-off layer and divertor plasma, has been used to model the plasma including the distribution of carbon ionization states in the SOL and divertor of ELMing H-mode at two injected power levels in DIII-D. Comparison of the code predictions to the measured divertor and scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma density and temperature shows good agreement. Comparison of the predicted line emissions to the spectroscopic data suggests that physically sputtered carbon from the strike point is not transported up the flux tube; a distributed source of carbon a few centimeters up the flux tube is required to achieve reasonable agreement

  15. Wall conditioning and plasma surface interactions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.L.; Petersen, P.I.; Schaffer, M.S.; Taylor, P.L.; Taylor, T.S.; Doyle, B.L.; Walsh, D.S.; Hill, D.N.; Hsu, W.L.; Winter, J.

    1990-09-01

    Wall conditioning is used in DIII-D for both reduction of impurity influxes and particle control. The methods used include: baking, pulsed discharge cleaning, hydrogen glow cleaning, helium and neon glow conditioning, and carbonization. Helium glow wall conditioning applied before every tokamak discharge has been effective in impurity removal and particle control and has significantly expanded the parameter space in which DIII-D operates to include limiter and ohmic H-mode discharges and higher β T at low q. The highest values of divertor plasma current (3.0 MA) and stored energy (3.6 MJ) and peaked density profiles in H-mode discharges have been observed after carbonization. Divertor physics studies in DIII-D include sweeping the X-point to reduce peak heat loads, measurement of particle and heat fluxes in the divertor region, and erosion studies. The DIII-D Advanced Divertor has been installed and bias and baffle experiments will begin in the fall of 1991. 15 refs., 4 figs

  16. DIII-D research operations. Annual report to the Department of Energy, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.

    1993-05-01

    The DIII-D tokamak research program is carried out by, General Atomics (GA) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DIII-D is the most flexible tokamak in the world. The primary goal of the DIII-D tokamak research program is to provide data needed by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and to develop a conceptual physics blueprint for a commercially attractive electrical demonstration plant (DEMO) that would open a path to fusion power commercialization. Specific DIII-D objectives include the steady-state sustainment of plasma current as well as demonstrating techniques for microwave heating, divertor heat removal, fuel exhaust and tokamak plasma control. The DIII-D program is addressing these objectives in an integrated fashion with high beta and with good confinement. The DIII-D long-range plan is organized into two major thrusts; the development of an advanced divertor and the development of advanced tokamak concepts. These two thrusts have a common goal: an improved DEMO reactor with lower cost and smaller size than the present DEMO which can be extrapolated from the conventional ITER operational scenario. In order to prepare for the long-range program, in FY92 the DIII-D research program concentrated on three major areas: Divertor and Boundary Physics, Advanced Tokamak Studies, and Tokamak Physics

  17. DIII-D research operations. Annual report to the Department of Energy, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Baker, D.

    1993-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak research program is carried out by General Atomics for the U.S. Department of Energy. The DIII-D is the most flexible and best diagnosed tokamak in the world and the second largest tokamak in the U.S. The primary goal of the DIII-D tokamak research program is to provide data needed by ITER and to develop a conceptual physics blueprint for a commercially attractive electrical demonstration plant (DEMO) that would open a path to fusion power commercialization. Specific DIII-D objectives include the steady-state sustainment of plasma current as well as demonstrating techniques for microwave heating, divertor heat removal, fuel exhaust and tokamak plasma control. The DIII-D program is addressing these objectives in an integrated fashion with high beta and with good confinement. The DIII-D long-range plan is organized into two major thrusts; the development of advanced divertor and the development of advanced tokamak concepts. These two thrusts have a common goal: an improved DEMO reactor with lower cost and smaller size than the present DEMO which can be extrapolated from the conventional ITER operational scenario. In order to prepare for the long-range program, in FY92 the DIII-D research program concentrated in three major areas: Tokamak Physics, Divertor and Boundary Physics, and Advanced Tokamak Studies

  18. DIII-D research operations. Annual report to the Department of Energy, October 1, 1991--September 30, 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, D. [ed.

    1993-05-01

    The DIII-D tokamak research program is carried out by, General Atomics (GA) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DIII-D is the most flexible tokamak in the world. The primary goal of the DIII-D tokamak research program is to provide data needed by International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and to develop a conceptual physics blueprint for a commercially attractive electrical demonstration plant (DEMO) that would open a path to fusion power commercialization. Specific DIII-D objectives include the steady-state sustainment of plasma current as well as demonstrating techniques for microwave heating, divertor heat removal, fuel exhaust and tokamak plasma control. The DIII-D program is addressing these objectives in an integrated fashion with high beta and with good confinement. The DIII-D long-range plan is organized into two major thrusts; the development of an advanced divertor and the development of advanced tokamak concepts. These two thrusts have a common goal: an improved DEMO reactor with lower cost and smaller size than the present DEMO which can be extrapolated from the conventional ITER operational scenario. In order to prepare for the long-range program, in FY92 the DIII-D research program concentrated on three major areas: Divertor and Boundary Physics, Advanced Tokamak Studies, and Tokamak Physics.

  19. Understanding and Control of Transport in Advanced Tokamak Regimes in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C.M. Greenfield; J.C. DeBoo; T.C. Luce; B.W. Stallard; E.J. Synakowski; L.R. Baylor; K.H. Burrell; T.A. Casper; E.J. Doyle; D.R. Ernst; J.R. Ferron; P. Gohil; R.J. Groebner; L.L. Lao; M. Makowski; G.R. McKee; M. Murakami; C.C. Petty; R.I. Pinsker; P.A. Politzer; R. Prater; C.L. Rettig; T.L. Rhodes; B.W. Rice; G.L. Schmidt; G.M. Staebler; E.J. Strait; D.M. Thomas; M.R. Wade

    1999-01-01

    Transport phenomena are studied in Advanced Tokamak (AT) regimes in the DIII-D tokamak [Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, 1986 (International Atomics Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. I, p. 159], with the goal of developing understanding and control during each of three phases: Formation of the internal transport barrier (ITB) with counter neutral beam injection takes place when the heating power exceeds a threshold value of about 9 MW, contrasting to CO-NBI injection, where P threshold N H 89 = 9 for 16 confinement times has been accomplished in a discharge combining an ELMing H-mode edge and an ITB, and exhibiting ion thermal transport down to 2-3 times neoclassical. The microinstabilities usually associated with ion thermal transport are predicted stable, implying that another mechanism limits performance. High frequency MHD activity is identified as the probable cause

  20. SELF-CONSISTENT,INTEGRATED,ADVANCED TOKAMAK OPERATION ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WADE, MR; MURAKAMI, M; LUCE, TC; FERRON, JR; PETTY, CC; BRENNAN, DP; GAROFALO, AM; GREENFIELD, CM; HYATT, AW; JAYAKUMAR, R; LAHAYE, RJ; LAO, LL; LOHR, J; POLITZER, PA; PRATER, R; STRAIT, EJ

    2002-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated the ability to sustain plasma conditions that integrate and sustain the key ingredients of Advanced Tokamak (AT) operation: high β with q min >> 1, good energy confinement, and high current drive efficiency. Utilizing off-axis (ρ 0.4) electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) to modify the current density profile in a plasma operating near the no-wall ideal stability limit with q min > 2.0, plasmas with β = 2.9% and 90% of the plasma current driven non-inductively have been sustained for nearly 2 s (limited only by the duration of the ECCD pulse). Separate experiments have demonstrated the ability to sustain a steady current density profile using ECCD for periods as long as 1 s with β = 3.3% and > 90% of the current driven non-inductively

  1. DIII-D research operations. Annual report, October 1, 1992--September 30, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Haye, R.J. [ed.

    1994-05-01

    The DIII-D tokamak research program is carried out by General Atomics (GA) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The DIII-D is the most flexible tokamak in the world. The primary goal of the DIII-D tokamak research program is to provide data to develop a conceptual physics blueprint for a commercially attractive electrical demonstration plant (DEMO) that would open a path to fusion power commercialization. In doing so, the DIII-D program provides physics and technology R&D outputs to aid the Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) and the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Specific DIII-D objectives include the steady-state sustainment of plasma current as well as demonstrating techniques for microwave heating, divertor heat removal, fuel exhaust and tokamak plasma control. The DIII-D program is addressing these objectives in an integrated fashion with high beta and with good confinement. The long-range plan is organized into two major thrusts; the development of an advanced divertor and the development of advanced tokamak concepts. These two thrusts have a common goal: an improved DEMO reactor with lower cost and smaller size than the present DEMO which can be extrapolated from the conventional ITER operational scenario. In order to prepare for the long-range program, in FY93 the DIII-D research program concentrated on three major areas: Divertor and Boundary Physics, Advanced Tokamak Studies, and Tokamak Physics. The major goals of the Divertor and Boundary Physics studies are the control of impurities, efficient heat removal and understanding the strong role that the edge plasma plays in the global energy confinement of the plasma. The advanced tokamak studies initiated the investigation into new techniques for improving energy confinement, controlling particle fueling and increasing plasma beta. The major goal of the Tokamak Physics Studies is the understanding of energy and particle transport in a reactor relevant plasma.

  2. The long range DIII-D plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.

    1993-02-01

    The mission of the DIII-D tokamak research program is to provide data needed by ITER and to develop a conceptual physics blueprint for a commercially attractive electrical demonstration plant (DEMO) that would open a path to fusion power commercialization. The National Energy Strategy calls for the development of magnetic fusion as an energy option with operation of a DEMO by 2025. The DEMO will be based on nuclear technology demonstrated in ITER and the physics and engineering database established in magnetic fusion facilities during the next two decades. On the present path, based on extrapolation of current conventional operating modes, ITER is twice as large as Joint European Tokamak (JET), and DEMO, using the same logic, will be even larger. However, successful development of advanced tokamak operating modes could open the way for significantly improved confinement and stability, leading to a smaller, more commercially attractive DEMO, provided new diverter concepts are developed to handle the accompanying high divertor power density. A smaller and lower cost DEMO opens up the possibility that multiple nations, utilities, and industries could build DEMOs simultaneously and, therefore, more rapidly optimize the tokamak for commercialization. Results from experiments at DIII-D and other tokamaks indicate that plasma and divertor performance can be increased transiently beyond the baseline conceptual design of ITER. A simultaneous long pulse demonstration of such improved tokamak plasma and divertor operation for steady state would establish an advanced physics foundation for the tokamak physics experiment program, provide new operating options for ITER, and open a path to an attractive DEMO. The planned DIII-D program incorporates new theory and technology developments to extend the tokamak experimental physics database toward steady state. This research program will also continue to provide increased understanding in many areas of fusion science and technology

  3. DIII-D research program progress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stambaugh, R.D.

    1990-11-01

    A summary of highlights of the research on the DIII-D tokamak in the last two years is given. At low q, toroidal beta ({beta}{sub T}) has reached 11%. At high q, {epsilon}{beta}{sub p} has reached 1.8. DIII-D data extending from one regime to the other show the beta limit is at least {beta}{sub T}(%) {ge} 3.5 I/aB (MA, m, T). Prospects for using H-mode in future devices have been enhanced. The discovery of negative edge electric fields and associated turbulence suppression have become part of an emerging theory of H-mode. Long pulse (10 second) H-mode with impurity control has been demonstrated. Radial sweeping of the divertor strike points and gas puffing under the X-point have lowered peak divertor plate heat fluxes a factor of 3 and 2 respectively. T{sub i} = 17 keV has been reached in a hot ion H-mode. Electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) has produced up to 70 kA of driven current. Program elements now beginning are fast wave current drive (FWCD) and an advanced divertor program (ADP). 38 refs., 10 figs.

  4. Comment on “Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryutov, D. D.; Cohen, R. H.; Rognlien, T. D.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Umansky, M. V.

    2014-01-01

    In the recently published paper “Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake” [Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)], the authors raise interesting and important issues concerning divertor physics and design. However, the paper contains significant errors: (a) The conceptual framework used in it for the evaluation of divertor “quality” is reduced to the assessment of the magnetic field structure in the outer Scrape-Off Layer. This framework is incorrect because processes affecting the pedestal, the private flux region and all of the divertor legs (four, in the case of a snowflake) are an inseparable part of divertor operation. (b) The concept of the divertor index focuses on only one feature of the magnetic field structure and can be quite misleading when applied to divertor design. (c) The suggestion to rename the divertor configurations experimentally realized on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) and DIII-D (Doublet III-D) from snowflakes to X-divertors is not justified: it is not based on comparison of these configurations with the prototypical X-divertor, and it ignores the fact that the NSTX and DIII-D poloidal magnetic field geometries fit very well into the snowflake “two-null” prescription

  5. The investigation of structure, chemical composition, hydrogen isotope trapping and release processes in deposition layers on surfaces exposed to DIII-D divertor plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buzhinskij, O.I.; Opimach, I.V.; Barsuk, V.A.; Arkhipov, I.I.; Whyte, D.; Wampler, W.R.

    1998-05-01

    The exposure of ATG graphite sample to DIII-D divertor plasma was provided by the DiMES (Divertor Material Evaluation System) mechanism. The graphite sample arranged to receive the parallel heat flux on a small region of the surface was exposed to 600ms of outer strike point plasma. The sample was constructed to collect the eroded material directed downward into a trapping zone onto s Si disk collector. The average heat flux onto the graphite sample during the exposure was about 200W/cm 2 , and the parallel heat flux was about 10 KW/cm 2 . After the exposure the graphite sample and Si collector disk were analyzed using SEM, NRA, RBS, Auger spectroscopy. IR and Raman spectroscopy. The thermal desorption was studied also. The deposited coating on graphite sample is amorphous carbon layer. Just upstream of the high heat flux zone the redeposition layer has a globular structure. The deposition layer on Si disk is composed also from carbon but has a diamond-like structure. The areal density of C and D in the deposited layer on Si disk varied in poloidal and toroidal directions. The maximum D/C areal density ratio is about 0.23, maximum carbon density is about 3.8 x 10 18 cm -2 , maximum D area density is about 3 x 10 17 cm 2 . The thermal desorption spectrum had a peak at 1,250K

  6. New DIII-D tokamak plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.L.; Ferron, J.R.; McKee, E.; Nerem, A.; Smith, T.; Greenfield, C.M.; Pinsker, R.I.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1992-09-01

    A state-of-the-art plasma control system has been constructed for use on the DIII-D tokamak to provide high speed real time data acquisition and feedback control of DIII-D plasma parameters. This new system has increased the precision to which discharge shape and position parameters can be maintained and has provided the means to rapidly change from one plasma configuration to another. The capability to control the plasma total energy and the ICRF antenna loading resistance has been demonstrated. The speed and accuracy of this digital system will allow control of the current drive and heating systems in order to regulate the current and pressure profiles and diverter power deposition in the DIII-D machine. Use of this system will allow the machine and power supplies to be better protected from undesirable operating regimes. The advanced control system is also suitable for control algorithm development for future machines in these areas and others such as disruption avoidance. The DIII-D tokamak facility is operated for the US Department of Energy by General Atomics Company (GA) in San Diego, California. The DIII-D experimental program will increase emphasis on rf heating and current drive in the near future and is installing a cryopumped divertor ring during the fall of 1992. To improve the flexibility of this machine for these experiments, the new shape control system was implemented. The new advanced plasma control system has enhanced the capabilities of the DIII-D machine and provides a data acquisition and control platform that promises to be useful far beyond its original charter

  7. Toroidally Resolved Structure of Divertor Heat Flux in RMP H-mode Discharges on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubowski, M.W.; Evans, T.E.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Lasnier, C.J.; Wolf, R.C.; Baylor, Larry R.; Boedo, J.A.; Burrell, K.H.; DeGrassie, J.S.; Gohil, P.; Mordijck, S.; Laengner, R.; Leonard, A.W.; Moyer, R.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Rhodes, T.L.; Schaffer, M.J.; Schmitz, O.; Snyder, P.B.; Stoschus, H.; Osborne, T.H.; Orlov, D.M.; Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Watkins, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    As shown on DIII-D edge localized modes (ELMs) can be either completely eliminated or mitigated with resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP) fields. Two infrared cameras, separated 105 degrees toroidally, were used to make simultaneous measurements of ELM heat loads with high frame rates. Without the RMP fields ELMs display a variety of different heat load dynamics and a range of toroidal variability that is characteristic of their 3D structure. Comparing radial averages there is no asymmetry between two toroidal locations. With RMP-mitigated ELMs, the variability in the radially averaged power loads is significantly reduced and toroidal asymmetries in power loads are introduced. In addition to RMP ELM suppression scenarios an RMP scenario with only very small ELMs and very good confinement has been achieved.

  8. Mitigation of divertor heat flux by high-frequency ELM pacing with non-fuel pellet injection in DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Bortolon

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments have been conducted on DIII-D investigating high repetition rate injection of non-fuel pellets as a tool for pacing Edge Localized Modes (ELMs and mitigating their transient divertor heat loads. Effective ELM pacing was obtained with injection of Li granules in different H-mode scenarios, at frequencies 3–5 times larger than the natural ELM frequency, with subsequent reduction of strike-point heat flux (Bortolon et al., Nucl. Fus., 56, 056008, 2016. However, in scenarios with high pedestal density (∼6 ×1019m−3, the magnitude of granule triggered ELMs shows a broad distribution, in terms of stored energy loss and peak heat flux, challenging the effectiveness of ELM mitigation. Furthermore, transient heat-flux deposition correlated with granule injections was observed far from the strike-points. Field line tracing suggest this phenomenon to be consistent with particle loss into the mid-plane far scrape-off layer, at toroidal location of the granule injection.

  9. Plasma boundary experiments on DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Brooks, N.; Jackson, G.L.; Langhorn, A.; Leikind, B.; Lippmann, S.; Luxon, J.; Petersen, P.; Petrie, P.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Simonen, T.C.; Staebler, G.; Buchenauer, D.; Futch, A.; Hill, D.N.; Rensink, M.; Hogan, J.; Menon, M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Owen, L.; Matthews, G.

    1990-01-01

    A survey of the boundary physics research on the DIII-D tokamak and an outline of the DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) is presented. We will present results of experiments on impurity control, impurity transport, neutral particle transport, and particle effects on core confinement over a wide range of plasma parameters, I p T < or approx.10.7%, P(auxiliary)< or approx.20 MW. Based on the understanding gained in these studies, we in collaboration with a number of other laboratories have devised a series of experiments (ADP) to modify the core plasma conditions through changes in the edge electric field, neutral recycling, and plasma-surface interactions. (orig.)

  10. Plasma boundary experiments on DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Brooks, N.; Jackson, G.L.; Langhorn, A.; Leikind, B.; Lippmann, S.; Luxon, J.; Petersen, P.; Petrie, T.; Stambaugh, R.D.; Simonen, T.C.; Staebler, G.; Buchenauer, D.; Futch, A.; Hill, D.N.; Rensink, M.; Hogan, J.; Menon, M.; Mioduszewski, P.; Owen, L.; Matthews, G.

    1990-06-01

    A survey of the boundary physics research on the DIII-D tokamak and an outline of the DIII-D Advanced Divertor Program (ADP) is presented. We will present results of experiments on impurity control, impurity transport, neutral particle transport, and particle effects on core confinement over a wide range of plasma parameters, I p approx-lt 3 MA, β T approx-lt 10.7%, P(auxiliary) approx-lt 20 MW. Based on the understanding gained in these studies, we in collaboration with a number of other laboratories have devised a series of experiments (ADP) to modify the core plasma conditions through changes in the edge electric field, neutral recycling, and plasma surface interactions. 41 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab

  11. DIII-D Research Operations annual report to the US Department of Energy, October 1, 1993--September 30, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.

    1995-07-01

    The DIII-D tokamak research program is managed by General Atomics (GA) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). Major program participants include GA, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and the University of California together with several other national laboratories and universities. The DIII-D is a moderate sized tokamak with great flexibility and extremely capable subsystems. The primary goal of the DIII-D tokamak research program is to provide data for development of a conceptual physics blueprint for a commercially attractive fusion power plant. In so doing, the DIII-D program provides physics and technology R ampersand D output to aid the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) and the Princeton Tokamak Physics Experiment (TPX) projects. Specific DIII-D objectives include the achievement of steady-state plasma current as well as the demonstration of techniques for radio frequency heating, divertor heat removal, particle exhaust and tokamak plasma control. The DIII-D program is addressing these objectives in an integrated fashion in plasmas with high beta and with high confinement. The long-range plan is organized with two principal elements, the development of an advanced divertor and the development of advanced tokamak concepts. These two elements have a common goal: an improved demonstration reactor (DEMO) with lower cost and smaller size than present DEMO concepts. In order to prepare for this long-range development, in FY94 the DIII-D research program concentrated on three major areas: Divertor and Boundary Physics, Advanced Tokamak studies, and Tokamak Physics

  12. Advanced divertor concepts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohyabu, N.; Komori, A.; Sagara, A.; Suzuki, H.; Morisaki, T.; Masuzaki, S.; Watanabe, T.; Noda, N.; Motojima, O.

    1996-01-01

    LHD divertor development program has generated various innovative divertor concepts and technologies which will help to improve the plasma performance in both helical and tokamak devices. They are two divertor operational scenarios (confinement improvement by generating high temperature divertor plasma and simultaneous achievement of radiative cooling and H-mode-like confinement improvement). Local island divertor geometry has also been proposed. This new divertor has been successfully tested in the CHS device and is planned to be installed in the LHD device. In addition, technological development of new efficient hydrogen pumping schemes (carbon sheet pump and membrane pump) are being pursued for enhancement of the divertor control capability. 17 refs., 8 figs

  13. Studies of high-δ (baffled) and low-δ (open) pumped divertor operation on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Greenfield, C.M.

    1998-08-01

    The authors report new experimental results with the RDP-OB (Radiative Divertor Project-outer baffle) and cryopump in both upper single-null (USN) and double-null (DN) ELMing H-mode discharges. The baffled divertor reduced the core ionization (∼2--2.5x), in reasonable agreement with predictions from UEDGE/DEGAS modeling (∼3.75x). The upper cryopump achieved density control of n e /n gw ∼ 0.22 (line density/Greenwald density) with Z eff ∼ 2 in high-δ plasmas. The measured exhaust is comparable to the lower pump, except at lower core electron densities (n e 19 m -3 ). Efficient impurity exhaust was obtained with deuterium SOL flow. Preliminary experiments with DN operation has shown that the particle exhaust to the upper pump depends on the up/down magnetic balance. Preliminary experiments indicate that the DN exhaust is roughly 40--50% of the USN exhaust at n e ∼ 4 x 10 19 m -3

  14. Overview of recent experimental results from the DIII-D advanced tokamak program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    The D III-D research program is developing the scientific basis for advanced tokamak (AT) modes of operation in order to enhance the attractiveness of the tokamak as an energy producing system. Since the last International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) meeting, we have made significant progress in developing the building blocks needed for AT operation: 1) We have doubled the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stable tokamak operating space through rotational stabilization of the resistive wall mode; 2) Using this rotational stabilization, we have achieved β N H 89 ≥ 10 for 4 τ E limited by the neoclassical tearing mode; 3) Using real-time feedback of the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) location, we have stabilized the (m,n) = (3,2) neoclassical tearing mode and then increased β T by 60%; 4) We have produced ECCD stabilization of the (2,1) neoclassical tearing mode in initial experiments; 5) We have made the first integrated AT demonstration discharges with current profile control using ECCD; 6) ECCD and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) have been used to control the pressure profile in high performance plasmas; and 7) We have demonstrated stationary tokamak operation for 6.5 s (36 τ E ) at the same fusion gain parameter of β N H 89 /q 95 2 ≅ 0.4 as ITER but at much higher q 95 = 4.2. We have developed general improvements applicable to conventional and advanced tokamak operating modes: 1) We have an existence proof of a mode of tokamak operation, quiescent H-mode, which has no pulsed, ELM heat load to the divertor and which can run for long periods of time (3.8 s or 25 τ E ) with constant density and constant radiated power; 2) We have demonstrated real-time disruption detection and mitigation for vertical disruption events using high pressure gas jet injection of noble gases; 3) We have found that the heat and particle fluxes to the inner strike points of balanced, double-null divertors are much smaller than to the outer strike points. (author)

  15. Collaboration on DIII-D Five Year Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S

    2003-01-01

    This document summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) plan for fusion research on the DIII-D Tokamak, located at General Atomics (GA) in San Diego, California, in the time period FY04-FY08. This document is a companion document to the DIII-D Five-Year Program Plan; which hereafter will be referred to as the ''D3DPP''. The LLNL Collaboration on DIII-D is a task-driven program in which we bring to bear the full range of expertise needed to complete specific goals of plasma science research on the DIII-D facility. This document specifies our plasma performance and physics understanding goals and gives detailed plans to achieve those goals in terms of experimental leadership, code development and analysis, and diagnostic development. Our program is designed to be consistent with the long-term mission of the DIII-D program as documented in the D3DPP. The overall DIII-D Program mission is ''to establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production''. LLNL Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) supports this mission, and we contribute to two areas of the DIII-D program: divertor physics and advanced tokamak (AT) physics. We lead or contribute to the whole cycle of research: experimental planning, diagnostic development, execution of experiments, and detailed analysis. We plan to continue this style in the next five years. DIII-D has identified three major research themes: AT physics, confinement physics, and mass transport. The LLNL program is part of the AT theme: measurement of the plasma current profile, and the mass transport theme: measurement and modeling of plasma flow. In the AT area, we have focused on the measurement and modeling of the current profile in Advanced Tokamak plasmas. The current profile, and it's effect on MHD stability of the high-β ''AT'' plasma are at the heart of the DIII-D program. LLNL has played a key role in the development of the Motional Stark Effect (MSE) diagnostic. Starting

  16. Update on the DIII-D ECH system: experiments, gyrotrons, advanced diagnostics, and controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lohr John

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ECH system on DIII-D is continuing to be upgraded, while simultaneously being operated nearly daily for plasma experiments. The latest major hardware addition is a new 117.5 GHz gyrotron, which generated 1.7 MW for short pulses during factory testing. A new gyrotron control system based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA technology with very high speed system data acquisition has significantly increased the flexibility and reliability of individual gyrotron operation. We have improved the performance of the fast mirror scanning, both by increasing the scan speeds and by adding new algorithms for controlling the aiming using commands generated by the Plasma Control System (PCS. The system is used for transport studies, ELM control, current profile control, non-inductive current generation, suppression of MHD modes, startup assist, plasma density control, and other applications. A program of protective measures, which has been in place for more than two years, has eliminated damage to hardware and diagnostics caused by overdense operation. Other activities not directly related to fusion research have used the ECH system to test components, study methods for improving production of semiconductor junctions and materials, and test the feasibility of using ground based microwave systems to power satellites into orbit.

  17. Update on the DIII-D ECH system: experiments, gyrotrons, advanced diagnostics, and controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohr, John; Brambila, Rigoberto; Cengher, Mirela; Gorelov, Yuri; Grosnickle, William; Moeller, Charles; Ponce, Dan; Torrezan, Antonio; Ives, Lawrence; Reed, Michael; Blank, Monica; Felch, Kevin; Parisuaña, Claudia; LeViness, Alexandra

    2017-08-01

    The ECH system on DIII-D is continuing to be upgraded, while simultaneously being operated nearly daily for plasma experiments. The latest major hardware addition is a new 117.5 GHz gyrotron, which generated 1.7 MW for short pulses during factory testing. A new gyrotron control system based on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology with very high speed system data acquisition has significantly increased the flexibility and reliability of individual gyrotron operation. We have improved the performance of the fast mirror scanning, both by increasing the scan speeds and by adding new algorithms for controlling the aiming using commands generated by the Plasma Control System (PCS). The system is used for transport studies, ELM control, current profile control, non-inductive current generation, suppression of MHD modes, startup assist, plasma density control, and other applications. A program of protective measures, which has been in place for more than two years, has eliminated damage to hardware and diagnostics caused by overdense operation. Other activities not directly related to fusion research have used the ECH system to test components, study methods for improving production of semiconductor junctions and materials, and test the feasibility of using ground based microwave systems to power satellites into orbit.

  18. Recent DIII-D high power heating and current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Jackson, G.L.; Lazarus, E.A.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Politzer, P.A.; Taylor, T.S.

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent DIII-D high power heating and current drive experiments. Described are experiments with improved wall conditioning, divertor particle pumping, radiative divertor experiments, studies of plasma shape and high poloidal β. ((orig.))

  19. Recent DIII-D high power heating and current drive experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Jackson, G.L.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.; Politzer, P.A.; Taylor, T.S.; Lazarus, E.A.

    1994-02-01

    This paper describes recent DIII-D high power heating and current drive experiments. Describes are experiments with improved wall conditioning, divertor particle pumping, radiative divertor experiments, studies of plasma shape and high poloidal beta

  20. Recent DIII-D high power heating and current drive experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T.C. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Jackson, G.L. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mahdavi, M.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Politzer, P.A. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Taylor, T.S. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); DIII-D Team

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes recent DIII-D high power heating and current drive experiments. Described are experiments with improved wall conditioning, divertor particle pumping, radiative divertor experiments, studies of plasma shape and high poloidal {beta}. ((orig.)).

  1. DIII-D edge physics database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jong, R.A.; Porter, G.D.; Hill, D.N.; Buchenauer, D.A.; Bramson, G.

    1992-03-01

    We have developed an edge-physics database containing data for the plasma in the divertor region and the scrape-off layer (SOL) for the DIII-D tokamak. The database provides many of the parameters necessary to model the power flow to the divertor and other plasma processes in the plasma edge. It will also facilitate the analysis of DIII-D data for comparison with other divertor tokamaks. In addition to the core plasma parameters, edge-specific data are included in this database. Initial results using the database show good agreement between the pressure profiles measured by the Langmuir probes and those determined from the Thomson data for the inner strike point, but not for the outer strike point region. We also find that the ratio of separatrix density to average core density, as well as the in/out asymmetry in the SOL power at the divertor in DIII-D do not agree with values currently assumed in modeling the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER)

  2. Status of DIII-D plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Penaflor, B.

    1995-10-01

    A key component of the DIII-D Advanced Tokamak and Radiative Divertor Programs is the development and implementation of methods to actively control a large number of plasma parameters. These parameters include plasma shape and position, total stored energy, density, rf loading resistance, radiated power and more detailed control of the current profile. To support this research goal, a flexible and easily expanded digital control system has been developed and implemented. We have made parallel progress in modeling of the plasma, poloidal coils, vacuum vessel, and power system dynamics and in ensuring the integrity of diagnostic and command circuits used in control. Recent activity has focused on exploiting the mature digital control platform through the implementation of simple feedback controls of more exotic plasma parameters such as enhanced divertor radiation, neutral pressure and Marfe creation and more sophisticated identification and digital feedback control algorithms for plasma shape, vertical position, and safety factor on axis (q 0 ). A summary of recent progress in each of these areas will be presented

  3. The long range DIII-D plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.

    1994-01-01

    The mission of the DIII-D tokamak research program is to provide data needed by ITER and to develop a conceptual physics blueprint for a commercially attractive electrical demonstration plant (DEMO) that would open a path to fusion power commercialization. The National Energy Strategy calls for the development of magnetic fusion as an energy options with operation of a DEMO by 2025. The DEMO will be based on nuclear technology demonstrated in ITER and the physics and engineering database established in magnetic fusion facilities during the next two decades. On the present path, based on extrapolation of current conventional operating modes, ITER is twice as large as Joint European Tokamak (JET), and DEMO, using the same logic, will be even larger. However, successful development of advanced tokamak (AT) operating modes could open the way for significantly improved confinement and stability, leading to a smaller, more commercially attractive DEMO, provided new divertor concepts are developed to handle the accompanying high divertor power density. A smaller and lower cost DEMO opens up the possibility that multiple nations, utilities, and industries could build DEMOs simultaneously and, therefore, more rapidly optimize the tokamak for commercialization

  4. Fast wave direct electron heating in advanced inductive and ITER baseline scenario discharges in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Jackson, G. L.; Luce, T. C.; Politzer, P. A. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Austin, M. E. [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Diem, S. J.; Kaufman, M. C.; Ryan, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Doyle, E. J.; Zeng, L. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Grierson, B. A.; Hosea, J. C.; Nagy, A.; Perkins, R.; Solomon, W. M.; Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Maggiora, R.; Milanesio, D. [Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di Elettronica, Torino (Italy); Porkolab, M. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Turco, F. [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2014-02-12

    Fast Wave (FW) heating and electron cyclotron heating (ECH) are used in the DIII-D tokamak to study plasmas with low applied torque and dominant electron heating characteristic of burning plasmas. FW heating via direct electron damping has reached the 2.5 MW level in high performance ELMy H-mode plasmas. In Advanced Inductive (AI) plasmas, core FW heating was found to be comparable to that of ECH, consistent with the excellent first-pass absorption of FWs predicted by ray-tracing models at high electron beta. FW heating at the ∼2 MW level to ELMy H-mode discharges in the ITER Baseline Scenario (IBS) showed unexpectedly strong absorption of FW power by injected neutral beam (NB) ions, indicated by significant enhancement of the D-D neutron rate, while the intended absorption on core electrons appeared rather weak. The AI and IBS discharges are compared in an effort to identify the causes of the different response to FWs.

  5. System upgrades to the DIII-D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.

    2007-01-01

    Major upgrades to the DIII-D facility have been performed that significantly enhance the capability of both the DIII-D device and the entire facility. The most significant of these include the rotation of a neutral beam line, installation of a new lower divertor, and a significant set of new and enhanced diagnostics. The upgrades and initial results are presented in this paper

  6. Disruption studies in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, A.G.; Evans, T.E.; Cuthbertson, J.W.

    1996-09-01

    Characteristics of disruptions in the DIII-D tokamak including the current decay rate, halo current magnitude and toroidal asymmetry, and heat pulse to the divertor are described. Neon and argon pellet injection is shown to be an effective method for mitigating the halo currents and the heat pulse with a 50% reduction in both quantities achieved. The injection of these impurity pellets frequently gives rise to runaway electrons

  7. Helium Exhaust Studies in H-Mode Discharges in the DIII-D Tokamak Using an Argon-Frosted Divertor Cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Hillis, D.L.; Hogan, J.T.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Maingi, R.; West, W.P.; Brooks, N.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Jackson, G.L.; Klepper, C.C.; Laughon, G.; Menon, M.M.; Mioduszewski, P.K.

    1995-01-01

    The first experiments demonstrating exhaust of thermal helium in a diverted, H-mode deuterium plasma have been performed on the DIII-D tokamak. The helium, introduced via gas puffing, is observed to reach the plasma core, and then is readily removed from the plasma with a time constant of ∼10--20 energy-confinement times by an in-vessel cryopump conditioned with argon frosting. Detailed analysis of the helium profile evolution suggests that the exhaust rate is limited by the exhaust efficiency of the pump (∼5%) and not by the intrinsic helium-transport properties of the plasma

  8. Heat flux management via advanced magnetic divertor configurations and divertor detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolemen, E., E-mail: ekolemen@princeton.edu [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Allen, S.L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Bray, B.D. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Humphreys, D.A.; Hyatt, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Maingi, R.; Nazikian, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Unterberg, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The snowflake divertor (SFD) control and detachment control to manage the heat flux at the divertor are successfully demonstrated at DIII-D. Results of the development and implementation of these two heat flux reduction control methods are presented. The SFD control algorithm calculates the position of the two null-points in real-time and controls shaping coil currents to achieve and stabilize various snowflake configurations. Detachment control stabilizes the detachment front fixed at specified distance between the strike point and the X-point throughout the shot.

  9. Control of the Resistive Wall Mode in Advanced Tokamak Plasmas on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, A.M.; Strait, E.J.; Bialek, J.; Frederickson, E.; Gryaznevich, M.; Jensen, T.H.; Johnson, L.C.; La Haye, R.J.; Navratil, G.A.; Lazarus, E.A.; Luce, T.C.; Makowski, M.; Okabayashi, M.; Rice, B.W.; Scoville, J.T.; Turnbull, A.D.; Walker, M.L.

    1999-01-01

    Resistive wall mode (RWM) instabilities are found to be a limiting factor in advanced tokamak (AT) regimes with low internal inductance. Even small amplitude modes can affect the rotation profile and the performance of these ELMing H-mode discharges. Although complete stabilization of the RWM by plasma rotation has not yet been observed, several discharges with increased beam momentum and power injection sustained good steady-state performance for record time extents. The first investigation of active feedback control of the RWM has shown promising results: the leakage of the radial magnetic flux through the resistive wall can be successfully controlled, and the duration of the high beta phase can be prolonged. The results provide a comparative test of several approaches to active feedback control, and are being used to benchmark the analysis and computational models of active control

  10. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory DIII-D cooperation: 1987 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, S.L.; Calderon, M.O.; Ellis, R.M.

    1988-01-01

    This report summarizes the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) DIII-D cooperation during FY87. The LLNL participation in DIII-D concentrated on three principal areas: ECH and current-drive physics, divertor and edge physics, and tokamak operations. These topics are dicussed in this report. 27 refs., 11 figs

  11. Currents in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azari, A.; Eidietis, N. W.

    2012-10-01

    Loss of vertical control of an elongated tokamak plasma results in a vertical displacement event (VDE) which can induce large currents on open field lines and exert high JxB forces on in-vessel components. An array of first-wall tile current monitors on DIII-D provides direct measurement of the poloidal halo currents. These measurements are analyzed to create a database of halo current magnitude and asymmetry, which are found to lie within the ranges seen by numerous other tokamaks in the ITPA Disruption Database. In addition, an analysis of halo asymmetry rotation is presented, as rotation at the resonance frequencies of in-vessel components could lead to significant amplification of the halo forces. Halo current rotation is found to be far more prevalent in old (1997-2002) DIII-D halo current data than recent data (2009), perhaps due to a change in divertor geometry over that time.

  12. Boundary and PMI Diagnostics for the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D. M.; Bray, B. D.; Chrobak, C.; Leonard, A. W.; Allen, S. L.; Lasnier, C. J.; McLean, A. G.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Boedo, J. A.; Elder, D.; Watkins, J. G.

    2014-10-01

    The Boundary and Plasma Materials Interaction Center is planning an improved set of boundary and divertor diagnostics for DIII-D in order to develop and validate robust heat flux solutions for future fusion devices on a timescale relevant to the design of FNSF. We intend to develop and test advanced divertor configurations on DIII-D using high performance plasma scenarios that are compatible with advanced tokamak operations in FNSF as well as providing a comprehensive testbed for modeling. Simultaneously, candidate PFC material solutions can be easily tested in these scenarios. Additional diagnostic capability is vital to help understand and validate these solutions. We will describe a number of desired measurements and our plans for deployment. These include better accounting of divertor radiation, including species identification and spatial distribution, divertor/SOL main ion temperature and neutral pressure, fuller 2D Te /ne imaging, and toroidally separated 3D heat flux measurements. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-AC52-07NA27344, DE-AC05-00OR22725, DE-FG02-07EAR54917, and DE-AC04-94AL85000.

  13. DIII-D UPGRADE PROJECT FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1993 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    STAMBAUGH, RD

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Under DOE Contracts DE-AC03-89ER51114 and DE-AC03-99ER54463 to General Atomics (GA), three ''capital project'' upgrade projects were accomplished on DIII-D from FY93 to FY03 at a total GA cost of $27.2M. These projects included the Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) Upgrade ($8.2M), the Radiative Divertor Upgrade ($7.2M) and the Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) Upgrade ($11.8M). The ECH and FWCD upgrades provided DIII-D rf and microwave power for electron heating, driving plasma current, controlling the plasma current profile, controlling tearing mode instabilities, and modulated transport studies.The divertor provided adequate density and impurity control for high triangularity single null plasmas in the Advanced Tokamak (AT) Program and information for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor design. These upgrades provide the power and density control required to initiate the active control of advanced tokamak discharges, which is the key element in the DIII-D program

  14. DIII-D YPGRADE PROJECT FINAL REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OCTOBER 1, 1993 THROUGH MAY 31, 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STAMBAUGH, RD

    2003-06-01

    OAK-B135 Under DOE Contracts DE-AC03-89ER51114 and DE-AC03-99ER54463 to General Atomics (GA), three ''capital project'' upgrade projects were accomplished on DIII-D from FY93 to FY03 at a total GA cost of $27.2M. These projects included the Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) Upgrade ($8.2M), the Radiative Divertor Upgrade ($7.2M) and the Electron Cyclotron Heating (ECH) Upgrade ($11.8M). The ECH and FWCD upgrades provided DIII-D rf and microwave power for electron heating, driving plasma current, controlling the plasma current profile, controlling tearing mode instabilities, and modulated transport studies.The divertor provided adequate density and impurity control for high triangularity single null plasmas in the Advanced Tokamak (AT) Program and information for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor design. These upgrades provide the power and density control required to initiate the active control of advanced tokamak discharges, which is the key element in the DIII-D program.

  15. Data-driven robust control of the plasma rotational transform profile and normalized beta dynamics for advanced tokamak scenarios in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, W.; Wehner, W.P.; Barton, J.E.; Boyer, M.D. [Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Schuster, E., E-mail: schuster@lehigh.edu [Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA 18015 (United States); Moreau, D. [CEA, IRFM, F-13018 St Paul lez Durance (France); Walker, M.L.; Ferron, J.R.; Luce, T.C.; Humphreys, D.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Johnson, R.D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA 92121 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    A control-oriented, two-timescale, linear, dynamic, response model of the rotational transform ι profile and the normalized beta β{sub N} is proposed based on experimental data from the DIII-D tokamak. Dedicated system-identification experiments without feedback control have been carried out to generate data for the development of this model. The data-driven dynamic model, which is both device-specific and scenario-specific, represents the response of the ι profile and β{sub N} to the electric field due to induction as well as to the heating and current drive (H&CD) systems during the flat-top phase of an H-mode discharge in DIII-D. The control goal is to use both induction and the H&CD systems to locally regulate the plasma ι profile and β{sub N} around particular target values close to the reference state used for system identification. A singular value decomposition (SVD) of the plasma model at steady state is carried out to decouple the system and identify the most relevant control channels. A mixed-sensitivity robust control design problem is formulated based on the dynamic model to synthesize a stabilizing feedback controller without input constraints that minimizes the reference tracking error and rejects external disturbances with minimal control energy. The feedback controller is then augmented with an anti-windup compensator, which keeps the given controller well-behaved in the presence of magnitude constraints in the actuators and leaves the nominal closed-loop system unmodified when no saturation is present. The proposed controller represents one of the first feedback profile controllers integrating magnetic and kinetic variables ever implemented and experimentally tested in DIII-D. The preliminary experimental results presented in this work, although limited in number and constrained by actuator problems and design limitations, as it will be reported, show good progress towards routine current profile control in DIII-D and leave valuable lessons

  16. Investigation of electron parallel pressure balance in the scrape-off layer of deuterium-based radiative divertor discharges IN DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Allen, S.L.

    1996-10-01

    Electron density, temperature, and parallel pressure measurements at several locations along field lines connecting the midplane scrapeoff layer (SOL) with the outer divertor are presented for both attached and partially-detached divertor cases: I p = 1.4 MA, q 95 = 4.2, and P input ∼ 6.7 MW under ELMing H-mode conditions. At the onset of the Partially Detached Divertor (PDD), a high density, low temperature plasma forms in the divertor SOL (divertor MARFE). The electron pressure drops by a factor of ∼ 2 between the midplane separatrix and the X-point, and then an additional ∼3--5 times between the X-point and the outboard separatrix strike point. These results are in contrast to the attached (non-PDD) case, where electron pressure in the SOL is reduced by, at most, a factor of two between the midplane and the divertor target. Divertor MARFEs generally have only marginal adverse impact on important H-mode characteristics, such as confinement time. In fact, PDD discharges at low input power maintains good H-mode characteristics until a high density, low temperature plasma abruptly forms inside the separatrix near the X-point (X-point MARFE). Concurrent with the appearance of this X-point MARFE is a degradation in both energy confinement and the plasma fueling rate, and an increase in the carbon impurity concentration inside the core plasma. The formation of the X-point MARFE is consistent with a thermal instability resulting from the temperature dependence of the carbon radiative cooling rate in the range ∼ 7--30 eV

  17. Scrape-off layer and divertor theory meeting: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-03-01

    This report contains viewgraphs on the following topics: fluid modelling of neutrals in the SOL and divertor; instabilities of gas-fueled divertors: theory and adaptive simulations; stability of ionization fronts of gaseous divertor plasmas; monte carlo calculation of heat transport; reduced charge model for edge impurity flows; thermally collapsed solutions for gaseous/radiative divertors; adaptive grid methods in transport simulation; advanced numerical solution algorithms applied to the multispecies edge plasma equations; two-dimensional edge plasma simulation using the multigrid method; neutral behavior and the effects of neutral-neutral and neutral-ion elastic scattering in the ITER gaseous divertor; particle throughput in the TPX divertor; marfes in tokamaks; a comparative study of the limiter and divertor edge plasmas in TEXT-U; issues of toroidal tokamak-type divertor simulators; ASDEX upgrade; the ITER divertor; the DIII-D divertor program and TPX divertor; DEGAS 2: a transmission/escape probabilities model for neutral particle transport: comparison with DEGAS 2; a collisional radiative model of hydrogen for high recycling divertors; comparison of fluid and non- fluid neutral models in B2.5; DIII-D radiative divertor simulations; 3-D fluid simulations of turbulence from conducting wall mode; turbulence and drifts in SOL plasmas; recent results for 1 1/2-D ITER gas target divertor modelling; evaluation of pumping and fueling in coupled core, SOL, and divertor chamber calculations; and ITER gas target divertors: comparison of volume recombination and large radial transport scenarios using DEGAS

  18. An overview of the DIII-D program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxon, J.L.

    1996-10-01

    The DIII-D program focuses on developing fusion physics in an integrated program of tokamak concept improvement. The intent is both to support the present ITER physics R and D and to develop more efficient concepts for the later phases of ITER and eventual power plants. Progress in this effort can be best summarized by recent results for a diverted deuterium discharge with negative central shear which reached a performance level of Q DT = 0.32. The ongoing development of the tools needed to carry out this program of understanding and optimization continues to be crucial to its success. Control of the plasma cross-sectional shape and the internal distributions of plasma current, density, and rotation has been essential to optimizing plasma performance. Advanced divertor concepts provide edge power and particle control for future devices such as ITER and provide techniques to help manage the edge power and particle flows for advanced tokamak concepts. New divertor diagnostics and improved modeling are developing excellent divertor understanding. Many of the plasma physics issues being posed by ITER are being addressed. Scrapeoff layer power flow is being characterized to provide an accurate basis for the design of reactor devices. Ongoing studies of the density limit focus on identifying ways in which ITER can achieve the required densities in excess of the Greenwald limit. Better understanding of disruptions is crucial to the design of future reactors

  19. Cooperative program on DIII-D (FY93)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1994-01-01

    This is a proposal to continue support of the authors cooperative research program on DIII-D, under Department of Energy contract DE-FG03-89ER51116. The proposal describes work carried out recently in support of DIII-D data analysis and modeling, with a focus on divertors, edge physics and transport phenomena linking edge and core physics. Proposed work will continue to focus on edge physics, instabilities, the further development of codes to model the plasma, and data analysis in support of related experimental work

  20. Metastable beta limit in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.; Callen, J.D.; Gianakon, T.A.

    1997-06-01

    The long-pulse, slowly evolving single-null divertor (SND) discharges in DIII-D with H-mode, ELMs, and sawteeth are found to be limited significantly below (factor of 2) the predicted ideal limit β N = 4l i by the onset of tearing modes. The tearing modes are metastable in that they are explained by the neoclassical bootstrap current (high β θ ) destabilization of a seed island which occurs even if Δ' θ , there is a region of the modified Rutherford equation such that dw/dt > 0 for w larger than a threshold value; the plasma is metastable, awaiting the critical perturbation which is then amplified to the much larger saturated island. Experimental results from a large number of tokamaks indicate that the high beta operational envelope of the tokamak is well defined by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The highest beta values achieved have historically been obtained in fairly short pulse discharges, often <1-2 sawteeth periods and < 1-2 energy replacement times. The maximum operational beta in single-null divertor (SND), long-pulse discharges in DIII-D with a cross-sectional shape similar to the proposed ITER tokamak is found to be limited significantly below the threshold for ideal instabilities by the onset of resistive MHD instabilities

  1. 2-D tomography with bolometry in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Meyer, W.H.; Geer, B.; Behne, D.M.; Hill, D.N.

    1994-07-01

    We have installed a 48-channel platinum-foil bolometer system on DIII-D achieve better spatial and temporal resolution of the radiated power in diverted discharges. Two 24-channel arrays provide complete plasma coverage with optimized views of the divertor. We have measured the divertor radiation profile for a series of radiative divertor and power balance experiments. We observe a rapid change in the magnitude and distribution of divertor radiation with heavy gas puffing. Unfolding the radiation profile with only two views requires us to treat the core and divertor radiation separately. The core radiation is fitted to a function of magnetic flux and is then subtracted from the divertor viewing chords. The divertor profile is then fit to a 2-D spline as a function of magnetic flux and poloidal angle

  2. Pumping Characteristics of the DIII-D Cryopump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.S. Bozek; C.B. Baxi; R.W. Callis; M.A. Mahdavi; R.C. O'Neill; E.E. Reis

    1999-01-01

    Beginning in 1992, the first of the DIII-D divertor baffles and cryocondensation pumps was installed. This open divertor configuration, located on the outermost floor of the DIII-D vessel, includes a cryopump with a predicted pumping speed of 50,000 ell/s excluding obstructions such as support hardware. Taking the pump structural and support characteristics into consideration, the corrected pumping speed for D 2 is 30,000 ell/s [1]. In 1996, the second divertor baffle and cryopump were installed. This closed divertor structure, located on the outermost ceiling of the DIII-D vessel, has a cryopump with a predicted pumping speed of 32,000 ell/s. In the fall of 1999, the third divertor baffle and cryopump will be installed. This divertor structure will be located on the 45 o angled corner on the innermost ceiling of the DIII-D vessel, known as the private flux region of the plasma configuration. With hardware supports factored into the pumping speed calculation, the private flux cryopump is expected to have a pumping speed of 15,000 ell/s. There was question regarding the effectiveness of the private flux cryopump due to the close proximity of the private flux baffle. This led to a conductance calculation study of the impact of rotating the cryopump aperture by 180 o to allow for greater particle and gas exhaust into the cryopump's helium panel. This study concluded that the cost and schedule impact of changing the private flux cryopump orientation and design did not warrant the possible 20% (3,000 ell/s) increase in pumping ability gained by rotating the cryopump aperture 180 o . The comparison of pumping speed of the first two cryocondensation pumps with the measured results will be presented as well as the calculation of the pumping speed for the private flux cryopump now being installed

  3. Advances towards high performance low-torque qmin > 2 operations with large-radius ITB on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, G. S.; Solomon, W. M.; Garofalo, A. M.; Ferron, J. R.; Hyatt, A. W.; Wang, Q.; Yan, Z.; McKee, G. R.; Holcomb, C. T.; EAST Team

    2015-11-01

    A joint DIII-D/EAST experiment was performed aimed at extending a fully noninductive scenario with high βP and qmin > 2 to inductive operation at lower torque and higher Ip (0.6 --> 0.8 MA) for better performance. Extremely high confinement was obtained, i.e., H98y2 ~ 2.1 at βN ~ 3, which was associated with a strong ITB at large minor radius (ρ ~ 0.7). Alfvén Eigenmodes and broadband turbulence were significantly suppressed in the core, and fast-ion confinement was improved. ITB collapses at 0.8 MA were induced by ELM-triggered n = 1 MHD modes at the ITB location, which is different from the ``relaxation oscillations'' associated with the steady-state plasmas at lower current (0.6 MA). This successful joint experiment may open up a new avenue towards high performance low-torque qmin > 2 plasmas with large-radius ITBs, which will be demonstrated on EAST in the near future. Work supported by NMCFSP 2015GB102000, 2015GB110001 and the US DOE under DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-FG02-89ER53296 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  4. DIII-D research operations. Annual report to the US Department of Energy, October 1, 1994--September 30, 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The DIII-D research program funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is aimed at developing the knowledge base for an economically and environmentally attractive energy source for the nation and the world. The DIII-D program mission is to advance fusion energy science understanding and predictive capability and improve the tokamak concept. The DIII-D scientific objectives are: (1) Advance understanding of fusion plasma physics and contribute to the physics base of ITER through extensive experiment and theory iteration in the following areas of fusion science - Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability - Plasma turbulence and transport - Wave-particle interactions - Boundary physics plasma neutral interaction (2) Utilize scientific understanding in an integrated manner to show the tokamak potential to be - More compact by increasing plasma stability and confinement to increase the fusion power density (Βτ) - Steady-state through disruption control, handling of divertor heat and particle loads and current drive (3) Acquire understanding and experience with environmentally attractive low activation material in an operating tokamak. This report contains the research conducted over the past year in search of these scientific objectives

  5. Performance of V-4Cr-4Ti material exposed to DIII-D tokamak environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, H.; Chung, H.M.; Smith, D.L. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)] [and others

    1997-04-01

    Test specimens made with the 832665 heat of V-4Cr-4Ti alloy were exposed in the DIII-D tokamak environment to support the installation of components made of a V-4Cr-4Ti alloy in the radiative divertor of the DIII-D. Some of the tests were conducted with the Divertor Materials Evaluation System (DiMES) to study the short-term effects of postvent bakeout, when concentrations of gaseous impurities in the DIII-D chamber are the highest. Other specimens were mounted next to the chamber wall behind the divertor baffle plate, to study the effects of longer-term exposures. By design, none of the specimens directly interacted with the plasma. Preliminary results from testing the exposed specimens indicate only minor degradation of mechanical properties. Additional testing and microstructural characterization are in progress.

  6. Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2013-01-01

    Advanced divertors are magnetic geometries where a second X-point is added in the divertor region to address the serious challenges of burning plasma power exhaust. Invoking physical arguments, numerical work, and detailed model magnetic field analysis, we investigate the magnetic field structure of advanced divertors in the physically relevant region for power exhaust—the scrape-off layer. A primary result of our analysis is the emergence of a physical “metric,” the Divertor Index DI, which quantifies the flux expansion increase as one goes from the main X-point to the strike point. It clearly separates three geometries with distinct consequences for divertor physics—the Standard Divertor (DI = 1), and two advanced geometries—the X-Divertor (XD, DI > 1) and the Snowflake (DI < 1). The XD, therefore, cannot be classified as one variant of the Snowflake. By this measure, recent National Spherical Torus Experiment and DIIID experiments are X-Divertors, not Snowflakes

  7. Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2013-10-15

    Advanced divertors are magnetic geometries where a second X-point is added in the divertor region to address the serious challenges of burning plasma power exhaust. Invoking physical arguments, numerical work, and detailed model magnetic field analysis, we investigate the magnetic field structure of advanced divertors in the physically relevant region for power exhaust—the scrape-off layer. A primary result of our analysis is the emergence of a physical “metric,” the Divertor Index DI, which quantifies the flux expansion increase as one goes from the main X-point to the strike point. It clearly separates three geometries with distinct consequences for divertor physics—the Standard Divertor (DI = 1), and two advanced geometries—the X-Divertor (XD, DI > 1) and the Snowflake (DI < 1). The XD, therefore, cannot be classified as one variant of the Snowflake. By this measure, recent National Spherical Torus Experiment and DIIID experiments are X-Divertors, not Snowflakes.

  8. Effect of heating scheme on SOL width in DIII-D and EAST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Joint DIII-D/EAST experiments in the radio-frequency (RF heated H-mode scheme with comparison to that of neutral beam (NB heated H-mode scheme were carried out on DIII-D and EAST under similar conditions to examine the effect of heating scheme on scrape-off layer (SOL width in H-mode plasmas for application to ITER. A dimensionally similar plasma equilibrium was used to match the EAST shape parameters. The divertor heat flux and SOL widths were measured with infra-red camera in DIII-D, while with divertor Langmuir probe array in EAST. It has been demonstrated on both DIII-D and EAST that RF-heated plasma has a broader SOL than NB-heated plasma when the edge electrons are effectively heated in low plasma current and low density regime with low edge collisionality. Detailed edge and pedestal profile analysis on DIII-D suggests that the low edge collisionality and ion orbit loss effect may account for the observed broadening. The joint experiment in DIII-D has also demonstrated the strong inverse dependence of SOL width on the plasma current in electron cyclotron heated (ECH H-mode plasmas.

  9. Density limit studies on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)] [and others

    1998-08-01

    The authors have studied the processes limiting plasma density and successfully achieved discharges with density {approximately}50% above the empirical Greenwald density limit with H-mode confinement. This was accomplished by density profile control, enabled through pellet injection and divertor pumping. By examining carefully the criterion for MARFE formation, the authors have derived an edge density limit with scaling very similar to Greenwald scaling. Finally, they have looked in detail at the first and most common density limit process in DIII-D, total divertor detachment, and found that the local upstream separatrix density (n{sub e}{sup sep,det}) at detachment onset (partial detachment) increases with the scrape-off layer heating power, P{sub heat}, i.e., n{sub e}{sup sep,det} {approximately} P{sub heat}{sup 0.76}. This is in marked contrast to the line-average density at detachment which is insensitive to the heating power. The data are in reasonable agreement with the Borass model, which predicted that the upstream density at detachment would increase as P{sub heat}{sup 0.7}.

  10. Density limit studies on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.

    1998-08-01

    The authors have studied the processes limiting plasma density and successfully achieved discharges with density ∼50% above the empirical Greenwald density limit with H-mode confinement. This was accomplished by density profile control, enabled through pellet injection and divertor pumping. By examining carefully the criterion for MARFE formation, the authors have derived an edge density limit with scaling very similar to Greenwald scaling. Finally, they have looked in detail at the first and most common density limit process in DIII-D, total divertor detachment, and found that the local upstream separatrix density (n e sep,det ) at detachment onset (partial detachment) increases with the scrape-off layer heating power, P heat , i.e., n e sep,det ∼ P heat 0.76 . This is in marked contrast to the line-average density at detachment which is insensitive to the heating power. The data are in reasonable agreement with the Borass model, which predicted that the upstream density at detachment would increase as P heat 0.7

  11. Dust Studies in DIII-D and TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.L.; Litnovsky, A.; West, W.P.; Yu, J.H.; Boedo, J.A.; Bray, B.D.; Brezinsek, S.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Hollmann, E.M.; Huber, A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Lasnier, C.J.; Moyer, R.A.; Pigarov, A.Y.; Philipps, V.; Pospieszczyk, A.; Smirnov, R.D.; Sharpe, J.P.; Solomon, W.M.; Watkins, J.G.; Wong, C.C.

    2009-01-01

    Studies of naturally occurring and artificially introduced carbon dust are conducted in DIII-D and TEXTOR. In DIII-D, dust does not present operational concerns except immediately after entry vents. Submicron sized dust is routinely observed using Mie scattering from a Nd:Yag laser. The source is strongly correlated with the presence of Type I edge localized modes (ELMs). Larger size (0.005-1 mm diameter) dust is observed by optical imaging, showing elevated dust levels after entry vents. Inverse dependence of the dust velocity on the inferred dust size is found from the imaging data. Direct heating of the dust particles by the neutral beam injection (NBI) and acceleration of dust particles by the plasma flows are observed. Energetic plasma disruptions produce significant amounts of dust. Large flakes or debris falling into the plasma may result in a disruption. Migration of pre-characterized carbon dust is studied in DIII-D and TEXTOR by introducing micron-size dust in plasma discharges. In DIII-D, a sample holder filled with ∼30 mg of dust is introduced in the lower divertor and exposed to high-power ELMing H-mode discharges with strike points swept across the divertor floor. After a brief exposure (∼0.1 s) at the outer strike point, part of the dust is injected into the plasma, raising the core carbon density by a factor of 2-3 and resulting in a twofold increase of the radiated power. In TEXTOR, instrumented dust holders with 1-45 mg of dust are exposed in the scrape-off layer 0-2 cm radially outside of the last closed flux surface in discharges heated with neutral beam injection (NBI) power of 1.4 MW. At the given configuration of the launch, the dust did not penetrate the core plasma and only moderately perturbed the edge plasma, as evidenced by an increase of the edge carbon content.

  12. Thermal analysis of a coaxial helium panel of a cryogenic vacuum pump for advanced divertor of DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Langhorn, A.; Schaubel, K.; Smith, J.

    1991-08-01

    It is planned to install a 50,000 1/s cryogenic pump for particle removal in the D3-D tokamak. A critical component of this cryogenic pump will be a helium panel which has to be maintained at a liquid helium temperature. The outer surface area of the helium panel has an area of 1 m 2 and consists of a 2.5 cm diameter, 10 m long tube. From design considerations, a coaxial geometry is preferable since it requires a minimum number of welds. However, the coaxial geometry also results in a counter flow heat exchanger arrangement, where the outgoing warm fluid will exchange heat with incoming cold fluid. This is of concern since the helium panel must be cooled from liquid nitrogen temperature to liquid helium temperature in less than 5 minutes for successful operation of the cryogenic pump. In order to analyze the thermal performance of the coaxial helium panel, a finite difference computer model of the geometry was prepared. The governing equations took into account axial as well as radial conduction through the tube walls. The variation of thermal properties was modeled. The results of the analysis showed that although the coaxial geometry behaves like a counter flow heat exchanger, within the operating range of the cryogenic pump a rapid cooldown of the helium panel from liquid nitrogen temperature to the operating temperature is feasible. A prototypical experiment was also performed at General Atomics (GA) which verified the concept and the analysis. 4 refs., 8 figs

  13. Recent results from the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, P.I.

    1998-02-01

    The DIII-D national fusion research program focuses on establishing the scientific basis for optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production. The symbiotic development of research, theory, and hardware continues to fuel the success of the DIII-D program. During the last year, a radiative divertor and a second cryopump were installed in the DIII-D vacuum vessel, an array of central and boundary diagnostics were added, and more sophisticated computer models were developed. These new tools have led to substantial progress in the understanding of the plasma. The authors now have a better understanding of the divertor as a means to manage the heat, particle, and impurity transport pumping of the plasma edge using the in situ divertor cryopumps effectively controls the plasma density. The evolution of diagnostics that probe the interior of the plasma, particularly the motional Stark effect diagnostic, has led to a better understanding of the core of the plasma. This understanding, together with tools to control the profiles, including electron cyclotron waves, pellet injection, and neutral beam injection, has allowed them to progress in making plasma configurations that give rise to both low energy transport and improved stability. Most significant here is the use of transport barriers to improve ion confinement to neoclassical values. Commissioning of the first high power (890 kW) 110 GHz gyrotron validates an important tool for managing the plasma current profile, key to maintaining the transport barriers. An upgraded plasma control system, ''isoflux control,'' which exploits real time MHD equilibrium calculations to determine magnetic flux at specified locations within the tokamak vessel and provides the means for precisely controlling the plasma shape and, in conjunction with other heating and fueling systems, internal profiles

  14. Status and near-term plans for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, L.G.; Callis, R.W.; Luxon, J.L.; Stambaugh, R.D.

    1987-10-01

    The DIII-D tokamak at GA Technologies began plasma operation in February of 1986 and is dedicated to the study of highly non-circular plasmas. High beta operation with enhanced energy confinement is paramount among the goals of the DIII-D research program. Commissioning of the device and facility has verified the design capability including coil and vessel loading, volt-second consumption, bakeout temperature, vessel armor, and neutral beamline thermal integrity and control systems performance. Initial experimental results demonstrate the DIII-D is capable of attaining high confinement (H-mode) discharges in a divertor configuration using modest neutral beam heating or ECH. Record values of I/sub p/aB/sub T/ have been achieved with ohmic heating as a first step toward operation at high values of toroidal beta and record values of beta have been achieved using neutral beam heating. This paper summarizes results to date and gives the near term plans for the facility. 13 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  15. Quiescent double barrier regime in the DIII-D tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, C M; Burrell, K H; DeBoo, J C; Doyle, E J; Stallard, B W; Synakowski, E J; Fenzi, C; Gohil, P; Groebner, R J; Lao, L L; Makowski, M A; McKee, G R; Moyer, R A; Rettig, C L; Rhodes, T L; Pinsker, R I; Staebler, G M; West, W P

    2001-05-14

    A new sustained high-performance regime, combining discrete edge and core transport barriers, has been discovered in the DIII-D tokamak. Edge localized modes (ELMs) are replaced by a steady oscillation that increases edge particle transport, thereby allowing particle control with no ELM-induced pulsed divertor heat load. The core barrier resembles those usually seen with a low (L) mode edge, without the degradation often associated with ELMs. The barriers are separated by a narrow region of high transport associated with a zero crossing in the E x B shearing rate.

  16. A DESIGN RETROSPECTIVE OF THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LUXON, J.L

    2001-06-01

    OAK-B135 The DIII-D tokamak evolved from the earlier Doublet III device in 1986. Since then, the facility has undergone a number of changes including the installation of divertor baffles and pumping chambers in the vacuum vessel, the addition of a radiation shield, the development of extensive neutral beam and rf heating systems, and the addition of a comprehensive plasma control system. The facility has become the focus of a broad fusion plasma science research program. This paper gives an integrated picture of the facility and its capabilities

  17. Ion Bernstein wave antenna design for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phelps, R.D.; Mayberry, M.J.; Pinsker, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    An array of two toroidal loop antennas has been designd and installed on the DIII-D tokamak to carry out Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW) heating experiments. The antenna will operate at the 2 MW level and provide direct excitation of the IBW over the frequency range of 30-60 MHz. This device will permit the study of coupling th IBW to divertor plasmas and will provide a menas for improving the confinement and stability of high beta plasmas through localized off-axis heating. This paper describes both the mechanical and electromagnetic design of the IBW antenna. (author). 2 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  18. Dust Studies in DIII-D and TEXTOR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.; Litnovsky, A.; West, W.; Yu, J.; Boedo, J.; Bray, B.; Brezinsek, S.; Brooks, N.; Fenstermacher, M.; Groth, M.; Hollmann, E.; Huber, A.; Hyatt, A.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Lasnier, C.; Moyer, R.; Pigarov, A.; Philipps, V.; Pospieszezyk, A.; Smirnov, R.; Sharpe, J.; Solomon, W.; Watkins, J.; Wong, C.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of naturally occurring and artificially introduced carbon dust are conducted in DIII-D and TEXTOR. In DIII-D, dust does not present operational concerns except immediately after entry vents. Energetic plasma disruptions produce significant amounts of dust. However, dust production by disruptions alone is insufficient to account for the estimated in-vessel dust inventory in DIII-D. Submicron sized dust is routinely observed using Mie scattering from a Nd:Yag laser. The source is strongly correlated with the presence of Type I edge localized modes (ELMs). Larger size (0.005-1 mm diameter) dust is observed by optical imaging, showing elevated dust levels after entry vents. Inverse dependence of the dust velocity on the inferred dust size is found from the imaging data. Migration of pre-characterized carbon dust is studied in DIII-D and TEXTOR by injecting micron-size dust in plasma discharges. In DIII-D, a sample holder filled with ∼30 mg of dust is introduced in the lower divertor and exposed to high-power ELMing H-mode discharges with strike points swept across the divertor floor. After a brief exposure (∼0.1 s) at the outer strike point, part of the dust is injected into the plasma, raising the core carbon density by a factor of 2-3 and resulting in a twofold increase of the radiated power. Individual dust particles are observed moving at velocities of 10-100 m/s, predominantly in the toroidal direction, consistent with the drag force from the deuteron flow and in agreement with modeling by the 3D DustT code. In TEXTOR, instrumented dust holders with 1-45 mg of dust are exposed in the scrape-off layer 0-2 cm radially outside of the last closed flux surface in discharges heated with neutral beam injection (NBI) power of 1.4 MW. Dust is launched either in the beginning of a discharge or at the initiation of NBI, preferentially in a direction perpendicular to the toroidal magnetic field. At the given configuration of the launch, the dust did not penetrate

  19. DIII-D power supply, design, and development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nerem, A.

    1995-02-01

    An overview of the DIII-D power supply system with information details concerning the configuration, power ratings, acquisition costs, and cost scaling relevant to the design of ITER and other tokamaks is presented. The power supplies for the DIII-D tokamak were installed and commissioned during the late 1970's and the beginning of the 1980's. Several upgrades have been implemented during the last two years to solve increasing reliability problems encountered as the equipment aged, to provide enhanced operational flexibilities, and to enable operation at the higher power levels needed to provide experimental data relevant to the ITER and TPX design activities. These upgrades ranged from redesign of the power supply control systems to the replacement of vacuum circuit breakers which had become unreliable in service. A new interlock and protection system has also been implemented using the latest programmable logic controllers (PLC) and computer technology. These upgrades have been highly successful and are described to provide insight to many issues in the specification of high power converters. Power supply models used in the design of the DIII-D Plasma Control System are also described along with model verification test data. These models are being used in the development of a new advanced plasma control system for the DIII-D tokamak. Recent operational experience and results are presented

  20. DIII-D DATA MANAGEMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHARG, B.B; BURUSS, J.R. Jr.; FREEMAN, J.; PARKER, C.T.; SCHACHTER, J.; SCHISSEL, D.P.

    2001-08-01

    OAK-B135 The DIII-D tokamak at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility routinely acquires ∼ 500 Megabytes of raw data per pulse of the experiment through a centralized data management system. It is expected that in FY01, nearly one Terabyte of data will be acquired. In addition there are several diagnostics, which are not part of the centralized system, which acquire hundreds of megabytes of raw data per pulse. There is also a growing suite of codes running between pulses that produce analyzed data, which add ∼ 10 Megabytes per pulse with total disk usage of about 100 Gigabytes. A relational database system has been introduced which further adds to the overall data load. In recent years there has been an order of magnitude increase in magnetic disk space devoted to raw data and a Hierarchical Storage Management system (HSM) was implemented to allow 7 x 24 unattended access to raw data. The management of all of the data is a significant and growing challenge as the quantities of both raw and analyzed data are expected to continue to increase in the future. This paper will examine the experiences of the approaches that have been taken in management of the data and plans for the continued growth of the data quantity

  1. Small angle slot divertor concept for long pulse advanced tokamaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, H. Y.; Sang, C. F.; Stangeby, P. C.; Lao, L. L.; Taylor, T. S.; Thomas, D. M.

    2017-04-01

    SOLPS-EIRENE edge code analysis shows that a gas-tight slot divertor geometry with a small-angle (glancing-incidence) target, named the small angle slot (SAS) divertor, can achieve cold, dissipative/detached divertor conditions at relatively low values of plasma density at the outside midplane separatrix. SAS exhibits the following key features: (1) strong enhancement of the buildup of neutral density in a localized region near the plasma strike point on the divertor target; (2) spreading of the cooling front across the divertor target with the slot gradually flaring out from the strike point, thus effectively reducing both heat flux and erosion on the entire divertor target surface. Such a divertor may potentially provide a power and particle handling solution for long pulse advanced tokamaks.

  2. Investigation of density limit processes in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-02-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in DIII-D to investigate density-limiting processes. The authors have studied divertor detachment and MARFEs on closed field lines and find semi-quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations of onset conditions. They have shown that the critical density for MARFE onset at low edge temperature scales as I p /a 2 , i.e. similar to Greenwald scaling. They have also shown that the scaling of the critical separatrix density with heating power at partial detachment onset agrees with Borass' model. Both of these processes yield high edge density limits for reactors such as ITER. By using divertor pumping and pellet fueling they have avoided these and other processes and accessed densities > 1.5x Greenwald limit scaling with H-mode confinement, demonstrating that the Greenwald limit is not a fundamental limit on the core density

  3. Investigation of density limit processes in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Baylor, L.R.; Jernigan, T.

    2001-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in DIII-D to investigate density-limiting processes. We have studied divertor detachment and MARFEs on closed field lines and find semi-quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations of onset conditions. We have shown that the critical density for MARFE onset at low edge temperature scales as I p /a 2 , i.e. similar to Greenwald scaling. We have also shown that the scaling of the critical separatrix density with heating power at partial detachment onset agrees with Borass' model. Both of these processes yield high edge density limits for reactors such as ITER. By using divertor pumping and pellet fueling we have avoided these and other processes and accessed densities >1.5x Greenwald limit scaling with H-mode confinement, demonstrating that the Greenwald limit is not a fundamental limit on the core density. (author)

  4. Investigation of density limit processes in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Petrie, T.W.

    1999-01-01

    A series of experiments has been conducted in DIII-D to investigate density-limiting processes. We have studied divertor detachment and MARFEs on closed field lines and find semi-quantitative agreement with theoretical calculations of onset conditions. We have shown that the critical density for MARFE onset at low edge temperature scales as I p /a 2 , i.e. similar to Greenwald scaling. We have also shown that the scaling of the critical separatrix density with heating power at partial detachment onset agrees with Borass' model. Both of these processes yield high edge density limits for reactors such as ITER. By using divertor pumping and pellet fueling we have avoided these and other processes and accessed densities > 1.5x Greenwald limit scaling with H-mode confinement, demonstrating that the Greenwald limit is not a fundamental limit on the core density. (author)

  5. The DIII-D cryogenic system upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaubel, K.M.; Laughon, G.J.; Campbell, G.L.; Langhorn, A.R.; Stevens, N.C.; Tupper, M.L.

    1993-10-01

    The original DIII-D cryogenic system was commissioned in 1981 and was used to cool the cryopanel arrays for three hydrogen neutral beam injectors. Since then, new demands for liquid helium have arisen including: a fourth neutral beam injector, ten superconducting magnets for the electron cyclotron heating gyrotrons, and more recently, the advanced diverter cryopump which resides inside the tokamak vacuum vessel. The original cryosystem could not meet these demands. Consequently, the cryosystem was upgraded in several phases to increase capacity, improve reliability, and reduce maintenance. The majority of the original system has been replaced with superior equipment. The capacity now exists to support present as well as future demands for liquid helium at DIII-D including a hydrogen pellet injector, which is being constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Upgrades to the cryosystem include: a recently commissioned 150 ell/hr helium liquefier, two 55 g/sec helium screw compressors, a fully automated 20-valve cryogen distribution box, a high efficiency helium wet expander, and the conversion of equipment from manual or pneumatic to programmable logic controller (PLC) control. The distribution box was designed and constructed for compactness due to limited space availability. Overall system efficiency was significantly improved by replacing the existing neutral beam reliquefier Joule-Thomson valve with a reciprocating wet expander. The implementation of a PLC-based automatic control system has resulted in increased efficiency and reliability. This paper will describe the cryosystem design with emphasis on newly added equipment. In addition, performance and operational experience will be discussed

  6. The DIII-D cryogenic system upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaubel, K.M.; Laughon, G.J.; Campbell, G.L.; Langhorn, A.R.; Stevens, N.C.; Tupper, M.L.

    1993-10-01

    The original DIII-D cryogenic system was commissioned in 1981 and was used to cool the cryopanel arrays for three hydrogen neutral beam injectors. Since then, new demands for liquid helium have arisen including: a fourth neutral beam injector, ten superconducting magnets for the electron cyclotron heating gyrotrons, and more recently, the advanced diverter cryopump which resides inside the tokamak vacuum vessel. The original cryosystem could not meet these demands. Consequently, the cryosystem was upgraded in several phases to increase capacity, improve reliability, and reduce maintenance. The majority of the original system has been replaced with superior equipment. The capacity now exists to support present as well as future demands for liquid helium at DIII-D including a hydrogen pellet injector, which is being constructed by Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Upgrades to the cryosystem include: a recently commissioned 150 {ell}/hr helium liquefier, two 55 g/sec helium screw compressors, a fully automated 20-valve cryogen distribution box, a high efficiency helium wet expander, and the conversion of equipment from manual or pneumatic to programmable logic controller (PLC) control. The distribution box was designed and constructed for compactness due to limited space availability. Overall system efficiency was significantly improved by replacing the existing neutral beam reliquefier Joule-Thomson valve with a reciprocating wet expander. The implementation of a PLC-based automatic control system has resulted in increased efficiency and reliability. This paper will describe the cryosystem design with emphasis on newly added equipment. In addition, performance and operational experience will be discussed.

  7. Disruptions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiman, A.; Taylor, P.; Kellman, A.; LaHaye, R.

    1996-01-01

    We report on the results of a statistical analysis of the DIII-D disruption data base, and on an examination of a selected subset of the shots to determine the likely causes of disruptions. The statistical analysis focuses on the dependence of the disruption rate on key dimensionless parameters. We find that the disruption frequency is high at modest values of the parameters, and that it can be relatively low at operational limits. For example, the disruption frequency in an ITER relevant regime (β N /l i ∼ 2, 3 G > 0.6, where n G is the Greenwald limit) is approximately 23%. For this range of q, the disruption frequency rises only modestly to about 35% at the β limit, consistent with previous observations of a soft β limit for this q regime. For the range 6 95 G G < .9) in all q regimes we have studied. The location of the minimum moves to higher density with increasing q

  8. Advanced divertor configurations with large flux expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A., E-mail: vlad@llnl.gov [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaye, S.; Kolemen, E.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); McLean, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Menard, J.E.; Paul, S.F.; Podesta, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ryutov, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Scotti, F.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mueller, D.M.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Reimerdes, H.; Canal, G.P. [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Centre de Recherches en Physique des Plasmas, Association Euratom Confédération Suisse, Lausanne (Switzerland); and others

    2013-07-15

    Experimental studies of the novel snowflake divertor concept (D. Ryutov, Phys. Plasmas 14 (2007) 064502) performed in the NSTX and TCV tokamaks are reviewed in this paper. The snowflake divertor enables power sharing between divertor strike points, as well as the divertor plasma-wetted area, effective connection length and divertor volumetric power loss to increase beyond those in the standard divertor, potentially reducing heat flux and plasma temperature at the target. It also enables higher magnetic shear inside the separatrix, potentially affecting pedestal MHD stability. Experimental results from NSTX and TCV confirm the predicted properties of the snowflake divertor. In the NSTX, a large spherical tokamak with a compact divertor and lithium-coated graphite plasma-facing components (PFCs), the snowflake divertor operation led to reduced core and pedestal impurity concentration, as well as re-appearance of Type I ELMs that were suppressed in standard divertor H-mode discharges. In the divertor, an otherwise inaccessible partial detachment of the outer strike point with an up to 50% increase in divertor radiation and a peak divertor heat flux reduction from 3–7 MW/m{sup 2} to 0.5–1 MW/m{sup 2} was achieved. Impulsive heat fluxes due to Type-I ELMs were significantly dissipated in the high magnetic flux expansion region. In the TCV, a medium-size tokamak with graphite PFCs, several advantageous snowflake divertor features (cf. the standard divertor) have been demonstrated: an unchanged L–H power threshold, enhanced stability of the peeling–ballooning modes in the pedestal region (and generally an extended second stability region), as well as an H-mode pedestal regime with reduced (×2–3) Type I ELM frequency and slightly increased (20–30%) normalized ELM energy, resulting in a favorable average energy loss comparison to the standard divertor. In the divertor, ELM power partitioning between snowflake divertor strike points was demonstrated. The NSTX

  9. Effects of particle exhaust on neutral compression ratios in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colchin, R.J.; Maingi, R.; Wade, M.R.; Allen, S.L.; Greenfield, C.M.

    1998-08-01

    In this paper, neutral particles in DIII-D are studied via their compression in the plenum and via particle exhaust. The compression of gas in the plena is examined in terms of the magnetic field configuration and wall conditions. DIII-D compression ratios are observed in the range from 1 to ≥ 1,000. Particle control ultimately depends on the exhaust of neutrals via plenum or wall pumping. Wall pumping or outgassing is calculated by means of a detailed particle balance throughout individual discharges, and its effect on particle control is discussed. It is demonstrated that particle control through wall conditioning leads to lower normalized densities. A two-region model shows that the gas compression ratio (C div = divertor plenum neutral pressure/torus neutral pressure) can be interpreted in relation to gas flows in the torus and divertor including the pumping speed of the plenum cryopumps, plasma pumping, and the pumping or outgassing of the walls

  10. UEDGE code comparisons with DIII-D bolometer data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, J.M.

    1994-12-01

    This paper describes the work done to develop a bolometer post processor that converts volumetric radiated power values taken from a UEDGE solution, to a line integrated radiated power along chords of the bolometers in the DIII-D tokamak. The UEDGE code calculates plasma physics quantities, such as plasma density, radiated power, or electron temperature, and compares them to actual diagnostic measurements taken from the scrape off layer (SOL) and divertor regions of the DIII-D tokamak. Bolometers are devices measuring radiated power within the tokamak. The bolometer interceptors are made up of two complete arrays, an upper array with a vertical view and a lower array with a horizontal view, so that a two dimensional profile of the radiated power may be obtained. The bolometer post processor stores line integrated values taken from UEDGE solutions into a file in tabular format. Experimental data is then put into tabular form and placed in another file. Comparisons can be made between the UEDGE solutions and actual bolometer data. Analysis has been done to determine the accuracy of the plasma physics involved in producing UEDGE simulations.

  11. Upgrade of the DIII-D RF systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; O'Neill, R.C.

    1995-10-01

    The DIII-D Advanced Tokamak Program requires the ability to modify the current density profile for extended time periods in order to achieve the improved plasma conditions now achieved with transient means. To support this requirement DIII-D has just completed a major addition to its ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) systems. This upgrade project added two new fast wave current drive (FWCD) systems, with each system consisting of a 2 MW, 30 to 120 MHz transmitter, an all ceramic insulated transmission line, and water-cooled four-strap antenna. With this addition of 4 MW of FWCD power to the original 2 MW, 30 to 60 MHz capability, experiments can be performed with centrally localized current drive enhancement. For off-axis current modification, plans are in place to add 110 GHz electron cyclotron heating (ECH) power to DIII-D. Initially, 3 MW of power will be available with plans to increase the power to 6 MW and to 10 MW

  12. Using AORSA to simulate helicon waves in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, C.; Blazevski, D.; Green, D. L.; Murakami, M.; Park, J. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A.; Bertelli, N.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.

    2015-01-01

    Recent efforts have shown that helicon waves (fast waves at > 20ω ci ) may be an attractive option for driving efficient off-axis current drive during non-inductive tokamak operation for DIII-D, ITER and DEMO. For DIII-D scenarios, the ray tracing code, GENRAY, has been extensively used to study helicon current drive efficiency and location as a function of many plasma parameters. The full wave code, AORSA, which is applicable to arbitrary Larmor radius and can resolve arbitrary ion cyclotron harmonic order, has been recently used to validate the ray tracing technique at these high cyclotron harmonics. If the SOL is ignored, it will be shown that the GENRAY and AORSA calculated current drive profiles are comparable for the envisioned high beta advanced scenarios for DIII-D, where there is high single pass absorption due to electron Landau damping and minimal ion damping. AORSA is also been used to estimate possible SOL effects on helicon current drive coupling and SOL absorption due to collisional and slow wave effects

  13. Using AORSA to simulate helicon waves in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, C., E-mail: lauch@ornl.gov; Blazevski, D.; Green, D. L.; Murakami, M.; Park, J. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jaeger, E. F.; Berry, L. A. [XCEL Engineering, Inc., 1066 Commerce Park Dr., Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bertelli, N. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Recent efforts have shown that helicon waves (fast waves at > 20ω{sub ci}) may be an attractive option for driving efficient off-axis current drive during non-inductive tokamak operation for DIII-D, ITER and DEMO. For DIII-D scenarios, the ray tracing code, GENRAY, has been extensively used to study helicon current drive efficiency and location as a function of many plasma parameters. The full wave code, AORSA, which is applicable to arbitrary Larmor radius and can resolve arbitrary ion cyclotron harmonic order, has been recently used to validate the ray tracing technique at these high cyclotron harmonics. If the SOL is ignored, it will be shown that the GENRAY and AORSA calculated current drive profiles are comparable for the envisioned high beta advanced scenarios for DIII-D, where there is high single pass absorption due to electron Landau damping and minimal ion damping. AORSA is also been used to estimate possible SOL effects on helicon current drive coupling and SOL absorption due to collisional and slow wave effects.

  14. Results from core-edge experiments in high Power, high performance plasmas on DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.W. Petrie

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Significant challenges to reducing divertor heat flux in highly powered near-double null divertor (DND hybrid plasmas, while still maintaining both high performance metrics and low enough density for application of RF heating, are identified. For these DNDs on DIII-D, the scaling of the peak heat flux at the outer target (q⊥P ∝ [PSOL x IP] 0.92 for PSOL= 8−19MW and IP= 1.0–1.4MA, and is consistent with standard ITPA scaling for single-null H-mode plasmas. Two divertor heat flux reduction methods were tested. First, applying the puff-and-pump radiating divertor to DIII-D plasmas may be problematical at high power and H98 (≥ 1.5 due to improvement in confinement time with deuterium gas puffing which can lead to unacceptably high core density under certain conditions. Second, q⊥P for these high performance DNDs was reduced by ≈35% when an open divertor is closed on the common flux side of the outer divertor target (“semi-slot” but also that heating near the slot opening is a significant source for impurity contamination of the core.

  15. Monte-Carlo Impurity transport simulations in the edge of the DIII-D tokamak using the MCI code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Sager, G.T.; West, W.P.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Meyer, W.H.; Porter, G.D.

    1995-07-01

    A Monte-Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport code is used to follow trace impurities through multiple ionization states in realistic 2-D tokamak geometries. The MCI code is used to study impurity transport along the open magnetic field lines of the Scrape-off Layer (SOL) and to understand how impurities get into the core from the SOL. An MCI study concentrating on the entrainment of carbon impurities ions by deuterium background plasma into the DIII-D divertor is discussed. MCI simulation results are compared to experimental DIII-D carbon measurements

  16. The development of an in-vessel cryopump system for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaubel, K.M.; Baxi, C.B.; Campbell, G.L.; Laughon, G.J.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Makariou, C.C.; Smith, J.P.; Schaffer, M.J.; Menon, M.M.

    1993-07-01

    The design, testing and initial operation of the DIII-D advanced divertor cryocondensation pumping system is presented. The pump resides inside the tokamak plasma containment vessel where it provides particle exhaust pumping, and it is subjected to Joule heating and hot particle heat loads during each 10 second discharge. In addition, the pump must withstand plasma disruption induced electromagnetic forces and 400 degrees C bake-out temperatures. Cooling is accomplished by forced flow liquid helium with the two-phase helium exhaust passing through a reliquefier for thermal efficiency. A prototype pump was constructed to study surface temperature rise as a function of flow geometry, applied heat load, helium mass flow rate, and pump outlet conditions. Prototype testing led to the development of a special geometry which was demonstrated to enhance two-phase flow stability and overall heat transfer. During initial operation, deuterium pumping speeds of 32,000 L/s at 2 mTorr pressure were achieved with a helium flow rate of 5 g/s. This speed was maintained during 300 W, 8 s long test beat pulses which meets operational goals

  17. Thermal design, analysis, and experimental verification for a DIII-D cryogenic pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Anderson, P.; Langhorn, A.; Schaubel, K.; Smith, J.

    1991-01-01

    As part of the advanced divertor program, it is planned to install a 50 m 3 /s capacity cryopump for particle removal in the DIII-D tokamak. The cryopump will be located in the outer bottom corner of the vacuum vessel. The pump will consist of a surface at liquid helium temperature (helium panel) with a surface area of about 1 m 2 , a surface at liquid nitrogen temperature (nitrogen shield) to reduce radiation heat load on the helium panel, and a secondary shield around the nitrogen shield. The cryopump design poses a number of thermal hydraulic problems such as estimation of heat loads on helium and nitrogen panels, stability of the two-phase helium flow, performance of the pump components during high temperature bakeout, and cooldown performance of the helium panel from ambient temperatures. This paper presents the thermal analysis done to resolve these issues. A prototypic experiment performed at General Atomics verified the analysis and increased the confidence in the design. The experimental results are also summarized in this paper. (orig.)

  18. Overview of Recent DIII-D Experimental Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Max

    2015-11-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments have added to the ITER physics basis and to physics understanding for extrapolation to future devices. ELMs were suppressed by RMPs in He plasmas consistent with ITER non-nuclear phase conditions, and in steady state hybrid plasmas. Characteristics of the EHO during both standard high torque, and low torque enhanced pedestal QH-mode with edge broadband fluctuations were measured, including edge localized density fluctuations with a microwave imaging reflectometer. The path to Super H-mode was verified at high beta with a QH-mode edge, and in plasmas with ELMs triggered by Li granules. ITER acceptable TQ mitigation was obtained with low Ne fraction Shattered Pellet Injection. Divertor ne and Te data from Thomson Scattering confirm predicted drift-driven asymmetries in electron pressure, and X-divertor heat flux reduction and detachment were characterized. The crucial mechanisms for ExB shear control of turbulence were clarified. In collaboration with EAST, high beta-p scenarios were obtained with 80 % bootstrap fraction, high H-factor and stability limits, and large radius ITBs leading to low AE activity. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. Initial results of high resolution L-H transition studies on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G; Rhodes, T L; Doyle, E J; Peebles, W A; Zeng, L; Burrell, K H; McKee, G R; Groebner, R J; Evans, T E

    2004-01-01

    Understanding the L-H transition in tokamaks has been an important area of research for more than two decades. High time resolution diagnostics on DIII-D allow detailed characterization of the L-H transition and, therefore, testing and benchmarking of theoretical models. An experiment was performed in DIII-D utilizing a novel, high temporal and spatial resolution reflectometer density profile system to measure densities from the SOL to the inside separatrix. Initial data analysis indicates different density profile evolution during L-H transitions in upper single-null and lower single-null divertor configuration plasmas. A detailed comparison of the density gradient and fluctuation changes is presented for these two cases

  20. Initial results of high resolution L-H transition studies on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, G [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Rhodes, T L [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Doyle, E J [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Peebles, W A [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Zeng, L [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); McKee, G R [University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1500 Engineering Drive, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Evans, T E [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    Understanding the L-H transition in tokamaks has been an important area of research for more than two decades. High time resolution diagnostics on DIII-D allow detailed characterization of the L-H transition and, therefore, testing and benchmarking of theoretical models. An experiment was performed in DIII-D utilizing a novel, high temporal and spatial resolution reflectometer density profile system to measure densities from the SOL to the inside separatrix. Initial data analysis indicates different density profile evolution during L-H transitions in upper single-null and lower single-null divertor configuration plasmas. A detailed comparison of the density gradient and fluctuation changes is presented for these two cases.

  1. 110GHz ECH on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, W.P.; Allen, J.C.; Callis, R.W.; Doane, J.L.; Harris, T.E.; Moetler, C.P.; Neren, A.; Prater, P.; Rensen, D.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on a new high power electron cyclotron heating (ECH) system which has been introduced on DIII-D. This system is designed to operate at 110 GHz with a total output power of 2 MW. The system consists of four Varian VGT-8011 gyrotrons (output power of 500 kW), and their associated support equipment. All components have been designed for up to a 10 second pulse duration. The 110 GHz system is intended to further progress in rf current drive experiments on DIII-D when used in conjunction with the existing 60 GHz ECH (1. 6 MW) , and the 30-60 MHz ICH (2MW) systems. H-mode physics, plasma stabilization experiments and transport studies are also to be conducted at 110 GHz

  2. DIII-D physics analysis database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bramson, G.; Schissel, D.P.; DeBoo, J.C.; St John, H.

    1990-10-01

    Since June 1986 the DIII-D tokamak has had over 16000 discharges accumulating more than 250 Gigabytes of raw data (currently over 30 Mbytes per discharge). The centralized DIII-D databases and the associated support software described earlier provide the means to extract, analyze, store, and display reduced sets of data for specific physics issues. The confinement, stability, transition, and cleanliness databases consist of more than 7500 records of basic reduced diagnostic data datasets. Each database record corresponds to a specific snapshot in time for a selected discharge. Recently some profile datasets have been implemented. Diagnostic data are fit by a cubic spline or a parabola by the in-house ENERGY code to provide density, temperature, radiated power, effective charge (Z eff ), and rotation velocity profiles. These fits are stored in the profile datasets which are inputs for the ONETWO code which computes transport data. 3 refs., 4 figs

  3. A decade of DIII-D research. Final report for the period of work, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-03-01

    During the ten-year DIII-D tokamak operating period of 1989 through 1998, major scientific advances and discoveries were made and facility upgrades and improvements were implemented. Each year, annual reports as well as journal and international conference proceedings document the year-by-year advances (summarized in Section 7). This final contract report, provides a summary of these historical accomplishments. Section 2 encapsulates the 1998 status of DIII-D Fusion Science research. Section 3 summarizes the DIII-D facility operations. Section 4 describes the major upgrades to the DIII-D facility during this period. During the ten-year period, DIII-D has grown from predominantly a General Atomics program to a national center for fusion science with participants from over 50 collaborating institutions and 300 users who spend more than one week annually at DIII-D to carry out experiments or data analysis. In varying degrees, these collaborators participate in formulating the research program directions. The major collaborating institution programs are described in Section 6

  4. A decade of DIII-D research. Final report for the period of work, October 1, 1989--September 30, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    During the ten-year DIII-D tokamak operating period of 1989 through 1998, major scientific advances and discoveries were made and facility upgrades and improvements were implemented. Each year, annual reports as well as journal and international conference proceedings document the year-by-year advances (summarized in Section 7). This final contract report, provides a summary of these historical accomplishments. Section 2 encapsulates the 1998 status of DIII-D Fusion Science research. Section 3 summarizes the DIII-D facility operations. Section 4 describes the major upgrades to the DIII-D facility during this period. During the ten-year period, DIII-D has grown from predominantly a General Atomics program to a national center for fusion science with participants from over 50 collaborating institutions and 300 users who spend more than one week annually at DIII-D to carry out experiments or data analysis. In varying degrees, these collaborators participate in formulating the research program directions. The major collaborating institution programs are described in Section 6.

  5. DIII-D research operations annual report to the U.S. Department of Energy, October 1, 1995--September 30, 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-07-01

    The mission of the DIII-D research program is to advance fusion energy science understanding and predictive capability and to improve and optimize the tokamak concept. A long term goal remains to integrate these products into a demonstration of high confinement, high plasma pressure (plasma β), sustained long pulse operation with fusion power plant relevant heat and particle handling capability. The DIII-D program is a world recognized leader in tokamak concept improvement and a major contributor to the physics R and D needs of the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). The scientific objectives of the DIII-D program are given in Table 1-2. The FY96 DIII-D research program was highly successful, as described in this report. A moderate sized tokamak, DIII-D is a world leader in tokamak innovation with exceptional performance, measured in normalized parameters

  6. Automated Calculation of DIII-D Neutral Beam Availability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Hong, R.M.; Scoville, B.G.

    1999-01-01

    The neutral beam systems for the DIII-D tokamak are an extremely reliable source of auxiliary plasma heating, capable of supplying up to 20 MW of injected power, from eight separate beam sources into each tokamak discharge. The high availability of these systems for tokamak operations is sustained by careful monitoring of performance and following up on failures. One of the metrics for this performance is the requested injected power profile as compared to the power profile delivered for a particular pulse. Calculating this was a relatively straightforward task, however innovations such as the ability to modulate the beams and more recently the ability to substitute an idle beam for one which has failed during a plasma discharge, have made the task very complex. For example, with this latest advance it is possible for one or more beams to have failed, yet the delivered power profile may appear perfect. Availability used to be manually calculated. This paper presents the methods and algorithms used to produce a system which performs the calculations based on information concerning the neutral beam and plasma current waveforms, along with post-discharge information from the Plasma Control System, which has the ability to issue commands for beams in real time. Plots representing both the requested and actual power profiles, along with statistics, are automatically displayed and updated each shot, on a web-based interface viewable both at DIII-D and by our remote collaborators using no-cost software

  7. Impurity enrichment and radiative enhancement using induced SOL flow in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; West, W.P.; Wood, R.D.

    1998-07-01

    Experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated the efficacy of using induced scrap-off-layer (SOL) flow to preferentially enrich impurities in the divertor plasma. This SOL floe is produced through simultaneous deuterium gas injection at the midplane and divertor exhaust. Using this SOL flow, an improvement in enrichment (defined as the ratio of impurity fraction in the divertor to that in the plasma core) has been observed for all impurities in trace-level experiments (i.e., impurity level is non-perturbative), with the degree of improvement increasing with impurity atomic number. In the case of argon, exhaust gas enrichment using modest SOL flow is as high as 17. Using this induced SOL flow technique and argon injection, radiative plasmas have been produced that combine high radiation losses (P rad /P input > 70%), low core fuel dilution (Z eff E > 1.0 τ E,ITER93H )

  8. UEDGE simulations of He transport in DIII-D progress report FY 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M. E.; Hill, D.N.

    1997-01-01

    In this report we present the status of numerical simulations of helium exhaust efficiency in the DIII-D tokamak. These computations are intended to serve eventually as a benchmark for simulations carried out for the ITER divertor geometry. Helium ash removal is an important issue for ITER since the helium ash can dilute the central fuel concentration and reduce the fusion power. Present experiments have shown that helium transport in the core plasma is sufficiently rapid to limit the ash buildup to acceptable levels if sufficient helium pumping can be maintained in the divertor. The question of pumping helium gas from the divertor has also been addressed in tokamak experiments, where it was found that the helium concentration in the divertor was about 5-10x lower than in the core plasma (deenrichment). Even so, the exhaust rate was adequate to meet the ITER requirements for central helium concentration. However, the experiments did not reproduce the anticipated ITER divertor geometry or operating conditions. Therefore, the predicted helium exhaust for ITER is still based on numerical simulation. In order to increase the confidence level in the simulations of helium exhaust in ITER, we decided to test the ability of the UEDGE code to simulate the measured enrichment of divertor helium in the DIII-D pumping plenum. Section II presents a description of the experimental discharge used for comparison with the present UEDGE simulations. The UEDGE runs which most closely match the data are presented in Section III including simulations with and without carbon impurity. Section IV presents UEDGE simulations of helium transport and comparison with the helium measurements for these discharges. Conclusions and plans for future work, to complete the detailed benchmarking of UEDGE helium transport models, are given in Section V. 6 refs., 26 figs., 1 tab

  9. Recent results from the DIII-D tokamak and implications for future devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luxon, J.L.

    1995-02-01

    Improvements to the DIII-D tokamak have led to significant new research results and enhanced performance. These results provide important inputs to the design of next generation divertor systems including the upgrade of the DIII-D divertor. The use of graphite for the plasma facing components and careful wall preparation has enabled the routine achievement of regimes of enhanced energy confinement. In elongated discharges, triangularity has been found to be important in attaining good discharge performance as measured by the product of the normalized plasma pressure and the energy confinement time, βτ E This constrains the design of the divertor configuration (X-point location). Active pumping of the divertor region using an in-situ toroidal cryogenic pump has demonstrated control of the plasma density in H-mode discharges and allowed the dependence of confinement on plasma density and current to be separately determined. Helium removal from the plasma edge sufficient to achieve effective ash removal in reactor discharges has also been demonstrated using this pumping configuration. The reduction of the heat flux to the divertor plates has been demonstrated using two different techniques to increase the radiation in the boundary regions of the plasma and thus reduce the heat flux to the divertor plates; deuterium gas injection has been used to create a strongly radiating localized zone near the X-point, and impurity (neon) injection to enhance the radiation from the plasma mantle. Precise shaping of the plasma current profile has been found to be important in achieving enhanced tokamak performance. Transiently shaped current profiles have been used to demonstrate regimes of plasmas with high beta and good confinement. Control of the current profile also is important to sustaining the plasma in the Very High (VH)-mode of energy confinement

  10. Measurements and modeling of intra-ELM tungsten sourcing and transport in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrams, T.; Leonard, A. W.; Thomas, D. M.; McLean, A. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Wang, H. Q.; Unterberg, E. A.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Rudakov, D. L.; Bykov, I.; Donovan, D.

    2017-10-01

    Intra-ELM tungsten erosion profiles in the DIII-D divertor, acquired via W I spectroscopy with high temporal and spatial resolution, are consistent with SDTrim.SP sputtering modeling using measured ion saturation currents and impact energies during ELMs as input and an ad-hoc 2% C2+ impurity flux. The W sputtering profile peaks close to the OSP both during and between ELMs in the favorable BT direction. In reverse BT the W source peaks close to the OSP between ELMs but strongly broadens and shifts outboard during ELMs, heuristically consistent with radially outward ion transport via ExB drifts. Ion impact energies during ELMs (inferred taking the ratio of divertor heat flux to the ion saturation current) are found to be approximately equal to Te,ped, lower than the 4*Te,ped value predicted by the Fundamenski/Moulton free streaming model. These impact energies imply both D main ions and C impurities contribute strongly to W sputtering during ELMs on DIII-D. This work represents progress towards a predictive model to link upstream conditions (i.e., pedestal height) and SOL impurity levels to the ELM-induced W impurity source at both the strike-point and far-target regions in the ITER divertor. Correlations between ELM size/frequency and SOL W fluxes measured via a midplane deposition probe will also be presented. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  11. Fabrication development and usage of vanadium alloys in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.P.; Johnson, W.R.; Reis, E.E.

    1996-10-01

    GA is procuring material, designing components, and developing fabrication techniques for use of V alloy into the DIII-D divertor as elements of the Radiative Divertor Project modification. This program was developed to assist in the development of low activation alloys for fusion use by demonstrating the fabrication and installation of V alloy components in an operating tokamak. Along with fabrication development, the program includes multiple steps starting with small coupons installed in DIII-D to measure the environmental effects on V. This is being done in collaboration with DOE Fusion Materials Program (particularly at ANL and ORNL). Procurement of the material has been completed; the world's largest heat of V alloy (1200 kg V-4Cr-4Ti) was produced and converted into various products. Manufacturing process is described and chemistry results presented. Research into potential fabrication methods is being performed. Joining of V alloys was identified as the most critical fabrication issue for its use in the Radiative Divertor program. Successful welding trials were done using resistance, friction, and electron beam methods; metallography and mechanical tests were done to evaluate the welds

  12. Symplectic homoclinic tangles of the ideal separatrix of the DIII-D from type I ELMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Punjabi, Alkesh; Ali, Halima

    2012-10-01

    The ideal separatrix of the divertor tokamaks is a degenerate manifold where both the stable and unstable manifolds coincide. Non-axisymmetric magnetic perturbations remove the degeneracy; and split the separatrix manifold. This creates an extremely complex topological structure, called homoclinic tangles. The unstable manifold intersects the stable manifold and creates alternating inner and outer lobes at successive homoclinic points. The Hamiltonian system must preserve the symplectic topological invariance, and this controls the size and radial extent of the lobes. Very recently, lobes near the X-point have been experimentally observed in MAST [A. Kirk et al, PRL 108, 255003 (2012)]. We have used the DIII-D map [A. Punjabi, NF 49, 115020 (2009)] to calculate symplectic homoclinic tangles of the ideal separatrix of the DIII-D from the type I ELMs represented by the peeling-ballooning modes (m,n)=(30,10)+(40,10). The DIII-D map is symplectic, accurate, and is in natural canonical coordinates which are invertible to physical coordinates [A. Punjabi and H. Ali, POP 15, 122502 (2008)]. To our knowledge, we are the first to symplectically calculate these tangles in physical space. Homoclinic tangles of separatrix can cause radial displacement of mobile passing electrons and create sheared radial electric fields and currents, resulting in radial flows, drifts, differential spinning, and reduction in turbulence, and other effects. This work is supported by the grants DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  13. ICRH coupling in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, D.J.; Baity, F.W.; Bryan, W.E.; Jaeger, E.F.; Owens, T.L.; Remsen, D.B.; Luxon, J.; Rawls, J.M.

    1986-01-01

    A 9-MW ion cyclotron resonant frequency (ICRF) experiment has been proposed to heat the Doublet III-D (DIII-D) plasma. DIII-D is a 2.2-T, 3.5-MA tokamak at GA Technologies with a major radius of 1.67 m and minor radius of 67 cm (elongation approx.2). The device was recommissioned in early 1986. The initial experimental program includes ohmic plasma and neutral beam studies; high-power rf experiments will follow in later years. Compact loop antennas (which fit completely in a 35- by 50-cm port) have been chosen to convey this power because of their inherent ease of maintenance, high efficiency, and versatility. In order to verify that the antenna will have sufficient loading, a prototype low-power (2-MW) antenna has been designed and installed. Measurements will be made through September 1986. The antenna is a cavity antenna that will operate from approximately 30 to 80 MHz with a 50-Ω match for a load resistance of approx.1 Ω. It is surrounded by a fixed graphite-covered frame and can be extended from 3 cm behind this frame to 2 cm in front. This can be used to adjust coupling to the plasma. The electrical, mechanical, and thermal characteristics of this antenna system (and its extrapolation to ignited tokamaks) are discussed. In addition to experimental exploration of coupling, we have investigated wave propagation and absorption in DIII-D by using a cold collisional plasma model in straight tokamak geometry with rotation transform. Loading and power deposition profiles as a function of frequency, density, and species mix are presented

  14. Motional stark effect upgrades on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rice, B.W.; Nilson, D.G.; Wroblewski, D.

    1994-04-01

    The measurement and control of the plasma current density profile (or q profile) is critical to the advanced tokamak program on DIII-D. A complete understanding of the stability and transport properties of advanced operating regimes requires detail poloidal field measurements over the entire plasma radius from the core to the edge. In support of this effort, the authors have recently completed an upgrade of the existing MSE diagnostic, increasing the number of channels from 8 to 16. A new viewing geometry has been added to the outer edge of the plasma which improves the radial resolution in this region from 10 cm to < 4 cm. This view requires the use of a reflector that has been designed to minimize polarization amplitude and phase effects. Vacuum-compatible polarizers have also been added to the instrument for in-situ calibration. Future use of the MSE diagnostic for feedback control of the q profile will also be discussed

  15. Thermal deposition analysis during disruptions on DIII-D using infrared scanners

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; Kellman, A.G.; Taylor, P.L.; Lasnier, C.J.

    1995-12-01

    The DIII-D tokamak generates plasma discharges with currents up to 3 MA and auxiliary input power up to 20 MW from neutral beams and 4 MW from radio frequency systems. In a disruption, a rapid loss of the plasma current and internal thermal energy occurs and the energy is deposited onto the torus graphite wall. Quantifying the spatial and temporal characteristics of the heat deposition is important for engineering and physics-related issues, particularly for designing future machines such as ITER. Using infrared scanners with a time resolution of 120 micros, measurements of the heat deposition onto the all-graphite walls of DIII-D during two types of disruptions have been made. Each scanner contains a single point detector sensitive to 8--12 microm radiation, allowing surface temperatures from 20 C to 2,000 C to be measured. A zinc selenide window that transmits in the infrared is used as the vacuum window. Views of the upper and lower divertor regions and the centerpost provide good coverage of the first wall for single and double null divertor discharges. During disruptions, the thermal energy is not deposited evenly onto the inner surface of the tokamak, but is deposited primarily in the divertor region when operating diverted discharges. Analysis of the heat deposition during a radiative collapse disruption of a 1.5 MA discharge revealed power densities of 300--350 MW/m 2 in the divertor region. During the thermal quench of the disruption, the energy deposited onto the divertor region was more than 70% of the stored thermal energy in the discharge prior to the disruption. The spatial distribution and temporal behavior of power deposition during high β disruptions will also be presented

  16. Conceptual design of a divertor Thomson scattering diagnostic for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A. G., E-mail: mclean@fusion.gat.com; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Carlstrom, T. N. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); LeBlanc, B. P.; Ono, M.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A conceptual design for a divertor Thomson scattering (DTS) diagnostic has been developed for the NSTX-U device to operate in parallel with the existing multipoint Thomson scattering system. Higher projected peak heat flux in NSTX-U will necessitate application of advanced magnetics geometries and divertor detachment. Interpretation and modeling of these divertor scenarios will depend heavily on local measurement of electron temperature, T{sub e}, and density, n{sub e}, which DTS provides in a passive manner. The DTS design for NSTX-U adopts major elements from the successful DIII-D DTS system including 7-channel polychromators measuring T{sub e} to 0.5 eV. If implemented on NSTX-U, the divertor TS system would provide an invaluable diagnostic for the boundary program to characterize the edge plasma.

  17. Recent results from DIII-D and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent DIII-D tokamak experimental results, describes new hardware being implemented to carry out the DIII-D 1990's tokamak research program, and discusses their implications for engineering designs for next generation tokamaks, such as ITER

  18. Global Alfven Eigenmodes in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turnbull, A.D.; Chu, M.S.; Strait, E.J.; Lao, L.L.; Greene, J.M.; Taylor, T.S.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Duong, H.; Chance, M.S.

    1992-06-01

    Global Alfven modes, such as the Toroidicity-Induced Alfven Eigenmode (TAE), pose a serious threat for strongly-heated tokamaks since they can result in saturation of the achievable beam β at moderate levels and they may also cause serious α-particle losses in future ignited devices. The DIII-D tokamak has a unique capability for study of the resonant excitation of these instabilities by energetic beam ions. TAE modes have now been observed in DIII-D over a wide range of operating conditions, including both circular cross-section and elongated (κ ∼ 1.8) discharges. Equilibrium reconstructions of several representative discharges, using all available external magnetic and internal profile data, have been done and analyzed in detail. The computed real mode frequencies of the TAE modes are in good agreement with the experimentally observed mode frequencies and differ significantly from the estimated kinetic ballooning mode frequencies. The TAE calculations include coupling to the Alfven and acoustic continuum branches of the MHD spectrum and generally indicate that the simplified circular cross-section, large aspect-ratio assumptions made in analytic calculations are poor approximations to the actual TAE mode structures. In particular, the global TAE modes are almost always coupled to one or more continuum branches by toroidicity, poloidal shaping, and finite β effects. Estimates of the various resonant excitation and damping mechanisms, including continuum damping, have been made and the total is found to be in reasonable agreement with the experimental threshold

  19. OEDGE modeling of the DIII-D double null (CH4)-C-13 puffing experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, J.D.; Wampler, W.R.; McLean, A.G.; Stangeby, P.C.; Allen, S.L.; Bray, B.D.; Brooks, N.H.; Leonard, A.W.; Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Watkins, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    Unbalanced double null ELMy H-mode configurations in DIII-D are used to simulate the situation in ITER high triangularity, burning plasma magnetic equilibria, where the second X-point lies close to the top of the vacuum vessel, creating a secondary divertor region at the upper blanket modules. The measured plasma conditions in the outer secondary divertor closely duplicated those projected for ITER. (CH4)-C-13 was injected into the secondary outer divertor to simulate sputtering there. The majority of the C-13 found was in the secondary outer divertor. This material migration pattern is radically different than that observed for main wall (CH4)-C-13 injections into single null configurations where the deposition is primarily at the inner divertor. The implications for tritium codeposition resulting from sputtering at the secondary divertor in ITER are significant since release of tritium from Be co-deposits at the main wall bake temperature for ITER, 240 degrees C, is incomplete. The principal features of the measured C-13 deposition pattern have been replicated by the OEDGE interpretive code.

  20. Fast wave current drive on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGrassie, J.S.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.

    1995-01-01

    The physics of electron heating and current drive with the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on DIII-D, in reasonable agreement with theoretical modeling. A recently completed upgrade to the fast wave capability should allow full noninductive current drive in steady state advanced confinement discharges and provide some current density profile control for the Advanced Tokamak Program. DIII-D now has three four-strap fast wave antennas and three transmitters, each with nominally 2 MW of generator power. Extensive experiments have been conducted with the first system, at 60 MHz, while the two newer systems have come into operation within the past year. The newer systems are configured for 60 to 120 MHz. The measured FWCD efficiency is found to increase linearly with electron temperature as γ = 0.4 x 10 18 T eo (keV) [A/m 2 W], measured up to central electron temperature over 5 keV. A newly developed technique for determining the internal noninductive current density profile gives efficiencies in agreement with this scaling and profiles consistent with theoretical predictions. Full noninductive current drive at 170 kA was achieved in a discharge prepared by rampdown of the Ohmic current. Modulation of microwave reflectometry signals at the fast wave frequency is being used to investigate fast wave propagation and damping. Additionally, rf pick-up probes on the internal boundary of the vessel provide a comparison with ray tracing codes, with dear evidence for a toroidally directed wave with antenna phasing set for current drive. There is some experimental evidence for fast wave absorption by energetic beam ions at high cyclotron harmonic resonances

  1. Fast wave current drive on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    deGrassie, J.S.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Forest, C.B.; Ikezi, H.; Prater, R.; Baity, F.W.; Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Chiu, S.C.; Doyle, E.J.; Ferguson, S.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Jaeger, E.F.; Kim, K.W.; Lee, J.H.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Murakami, M.; ONeill, R.C.; Porkolab, M.; Rhodes, T.L.; Swain, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The physics of electron heating and current drive with the fast magnetosonic wave has been demonstrated on DIII-D, in reasonable agreement with theoretical modeling. A recently completed upgrade to the fast wave capability should allow full noninductive current drive in steady state advanced confinement discharges and provide some current density profile control for the Advanced Tokamak Program. DIII-D now has three four-strap fast wave antennas and three transmitters, each with nominally 2 MW of generator power. Extensive experiments have been conducted with the first system, at 60 MHz, while the two newer systems have come into operation within the past year. The newer systems are configured for 60 to 120 MHz. The measured FWCD efficiency is found to increase linearly with electron temperature as γ=0.4x10 18 T e0 (keV) [A/m 2 W], measured up to central electron temperature over 5 keV. A newly developed technique for determining the internal noninductive current density profile gives efficiencies in agreement with this scaling and profiles consistent with theoretical predictions. Full noninductive current drive at 170 kA was achieved in a discharge prepared by rampdown of the Ohmic current. Modulation of microwave reflectometry signals at the fast wave frequency is being used to investigate fast wave propagation and damping. Additionally, rf pick-up probes on the internal boundary of the vessel provide a comparison with ray tracing codes, with clear evidence for a toroidally directed wave with antenna phasing set for current drive. copyright 1996 American Institute of Physics

  2. Monte Carlo impurity transport modeling in the DIII-D transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Finkenthal, D.F.

    1998-04-01

    A description of the carbon transport and sputtering physics contained in the Monte Carlo Impurity (MCI) transport code is given. Examples of statistically significant carbon transport pathways are examined using MCI's unique tracking visualizer and a mechanism for enhanced carbon accumulation on the high field side of the divertor chamber is discussed. Comparisons between carbon emissions calculated with MCI and those measured in the DIII-D tokamak are described. Good qualitative agreement is found between 2D carbon emission patterns calculated with MCI and experimentally measured carbon patterns. While uncertainties in the sputtering physics, atomic data, and transport models have made quantitative comparisons with experiments more difficult, recent results using a physics based model for physical and chemical sputtering has yielded simulations with about 50% of the total carbon radiation measured in the divertor. These results and plans for future improvement in the physics models and atomic data are discussed

  3. OEDGE modeling of DIII-D density scan discharges leading to detachment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J. D.; Stangeby, P. C.; Bray, B. D.; Brooks, N.; Leonard, A. W.; McLean, A. G.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J. G.

    2015-08-01

    The OEDGE code is used to model the outer divertor plasma for discharges from a density scan experiment on DIII-D with the objective of assessing EIRENE and ADAS hydrogenic emission atomic physics data for Dα, Dβ and Dγ for values of Te and ne characteristic of the range of divertor plasma conditions from attached to weakly detached. Confidence in these values is essential to spectroscopic interpretation of any experiment or modeling effort. Good agreement between experiment and calculated emissions is found for both EIRENE and ADAS calculated emission profiles, confirming their reliability for plasma conditions down to ∼1 eV. For the cold dense plasma conditions characteristic of detachment, it is found that the calculated emissions are especially sensitive to Te.

  4. OEDGE modeling of DIII-D density scan discharges leading to detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J. D. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); Stangeby, P. C. [Univ. of Toronto, ON (Canada); General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Bray, B. D. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); Brooks, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Leonard, A. W. [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States); McLean, A. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Unterberg, Ezekial A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Watkins, J. G. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Here, we study the OEDGE code that is used to model the outer divertor plasma for discharges from a density scan experiment on DIII-D with the objective of assessing EIRENE and ADAS hydrogenic emission atomic physics data for Dα, Dβ and Dγ for values of Te and ne characteristic of the range of divertor plasma conditions from attached to weakly detached. Confidence in these values is essential to spectroscopic interpretation of any experiment or modeling effort. Good agreement between experiment and calculated emissions is found for both EIRENE and ADAS calculated emission profiles, confirming their reliability for plasma conditions down to ~1 eV. Lastly, for the cold dense plasma conditions characteristic of detachment, it is found that the calculated emissions are especially sensitive to Te.

  5. OEDGE modeling of DIII-D density scan discharges leading to detachment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elder, J.D., E-mail: david@starfire.utias.utoronto.ca [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); Stangeby, P.C. [University of Toronto Institute for Aerospace Studies, Toronto M3H 5T6 (Canada); General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Bray, B.D. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Brooks, N. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Unterberg, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratories, P.O. Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratories, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The OEDGE code is used to model the outer divertor plasma for discharges from a density scan experiment on DIII-D with the objective of assessing EIRENE and ADAS hydrogenic emission atomic physics data for D{sub α}, D{sub β} and D{sub γ} for values of T{sub e} and n{sub e} characteristic of the range of divertor plasma conditions from attached to weakly detached. Confidence in these values is essential to spectroscopic interpretation of any experiment or modeling effort. Good agreement between experiment and calculated emissions is found for both EIRENE and ADAS calculated emission profiles, confirming their reliability for plasma conditions down to ∼1 eV. For the cold dense plasma conditions characteristic of detachment, it is found that the calculated emissions are especially sensitive to T{sub e}.

  6. Disruption mitigation studies in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Evans, T.E.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the discharge behavior, thermal loads, halo currents, and runaway electrons have been obtained in disruptions on the DIII-D tokamak. These experiments have also evaluated techniques to mitigate the disruptions while minimizing runaway electron production. Experiments injecting cryogenic impurity killer pellets of neon and argon and massive amounts of helium gas have successfully reduced these disruption effects. The halo current generation, scaling, and mitigation are understood and are in good agreement with predictions of a semianalytic model. Results from killer pellet injection have been used to benchmark theoretical models of the pellet ablation and energy loss. Runaway electrons are often generated by the pellets and new runaway generation mechanisms, modifications of the standard Dreicer process, have been found to explain the runaways. Experiments with the massive helium gas puff have also effectively mitigated disruptions without the formation of runaway electrons that can occur with killer pellets

  7. Scrape-off layer transport and deposition studies in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.; Allen, S. L.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; Lasnier, C. J.; Porter, G. D.; Rensink, M. E.; Rognlien, T. D.; Boedo, J. A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Brooks, N. H.; Groebner, R. J.; Leonard, A. W.; West, W. P.; Elder, J. D.; McLean, A. G.; Lisgo, S.; Stangeby, P. C.; Wampler, W. R.; Watkins, J. G.; Whyte, D. G.

    2007-01-01

    Trace 13 CH 4 injection experiments into the main scrape-off layer (SOL) of low density L-mode and high-density H-mode plasmas have been performed in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] to mimic the transport and deposition of carbon arising from a main chamber sputtering source. These experiments indicated entrainment of the injected carbon in plasma flow in the main SOL, and transport toward the inner divertor. Ex situ surface analysis showed enhanced 13 C surface concentration at the corner formed by the divertor floor and the angled target plate of the inner divertor in L-mode; in H-mode high surface concentration was found both at the corner and along the surface bounding the private flux region inboard of the outer strike point. Interpretative modeling was made consistent with these experimental results by imposing a parallel carbon ion flow in the main SOL toward the inner target, and a radial pinch toward the separatrix. Predictive modeling carried out to better understand the underlying plasma transport processes suggests that the deuterium flow in the main SOL is related to the degree of detachment of the inner divertor leg. These simulations show that carbon ions are entrained with the deuteron flow in the main SOL via frictional coupling, but higher charge-state carbon ions may be suspended upstream of the inner divertor X-point region due to balance of the friction force and the ion temperature gradient force

  8. Implications of wall recycling and carbon source locations on core plasma fueling and impurity content in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groth, M.; Porter, G.D.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Lasnier, C.J.; Meyer, W.M.; Rensink, M.E.; Wolf, N.S.; Boedo, J.A.; Moyer, R.A.; Rudakov, D.L.; Brooks, N.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Petrie, T.W.; Owen, L.W.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Watkins, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Measurement and modeling of the 2-D poloidal D α intensity distribution in DIII-D low and medium density L-mode and ELMy H-mode plasmas indicate that hydrogen neutrals predominantly fuel the core from the divertor X-point region. The 2-D distribution of neutral deuterium and low-charge-state carbon were measured in the divertor and the high-field side midplane scrape-off layer (SOL) using tangentially viewing cameras. The emission in the high-field SOL at the equatorial plane was found to be three to four orders of magnitude lower than at the strike points in the divertor, suggesting a strong divertor particle source. Modeling using the UEDGE/DEGAS codes predicted the poloidal fueling distribution to be dependent on the direction of the ion Bx∇B drift. In plasmas with the Bx∇B drift into the divertor stronger fueling from the inner divertor than from the outer is predicted, due to a lower-temperature and higher-density plasma in the inner leg. UEDGE simulations with carbon produced by both physical and chemical sputtering at the divertor plates and walls only are in agreement with a large set of diagnostic data. The simulations indicate flow reversal in the inner divertor that augments the leakage of carbon ions from the divertor into the core. (author)

  9. DIII-D tokamak long range plan. Revision 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-08-01

    The DIII-D Tokamak Long Range Plan for controlled thermonuclear magnetic fusion research will be carried out with broad national and international participation. The plan covers: (1) operation of the DIII-D tokamak to conduct research experiments to address needs of the US Magnetic Fusion Program; (2) facility modifications to allow these new experiments to be conducted; and (3) collaborations with other laboratories to integrate DIII-D research into the national and international fusion programs. The period covered by this plan is 1 November 19983 through 31 October 1998

  10. ALPS - advanced limiter-divertor plasma-facing systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, J. P.; Bastasz, R.; Brooks, J. N.; Evans, T.; Hassanein, A.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Mattas, R. F.; McCarthy, K.; Mioduszewski, P.; Mogahed, E.; Moir, R.; Molokov, S.; Morely, N.; Nygren, R.; Reed, C.; Rognlien, T.; Ruzic, D.; Sviatoslavsky, I.; Sze, D.; Tillack, M.; Ulrickson, M.; Wade, P. M.; Wong, C.; Wooley, R.

    1999-01-01

    The Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems (ALPS) program was initiated in order to evaluate the potential for improved performance and lifetime for plasma-facing systems. The main goal of the program is to demonstrate the advantages of advanced limiter/divertor systems over conventional systems in terms of power density capability, component lifetime, and power conversion efficiency, while providing for safe operation and minimizing impurity concerns for the plasma. Most of the work to date has been applied to free surface liquids. A multi-disciplinary team from several institutions has been organized to address the key issues associated with these systems. The main performance goals for advanced limiters and diverters are a peak heat flux of >50 MW/m 2 ,elimination of a lifetime limit for erosion, and the ability to extract useful heat at high power conversion efficiency (approximately40%). The evaluation of various options is being conducted through a combination of laboratory experiments, modeling of key processes, and conceptual design studies. The current emphasis for the work is on the effects of free surface liquids on plasma edge performance

  11. ROLE OF NEUTRALS IN CORE FUELING AND PEDESTAL STRUCTURE IN H-MODE DIII-D DISCHARGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WOLF, NS; PETRIE, TW; PORTER, GD; ROGNLIEN, TD; GROEBNER, RJ; MAKOWSKI, MA

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 ROLE OF NEUTRALS IN CORE FUELING AND PEDESTAL STRUCTURE IN H-MODE DIII-D DISCHARGES. The 2-D fluid code UEDGE was used to analyze DIII-D experiments to determine the role of neutrals in core fueling, core impurities, and also the H-mode pedestal structure. The authors compared the effects of divertor closure on the fueling rate and impurity density of high-triangularity, H-mode plasmas. UEDGE simulations indicate that the decrease in both deuterium core fueling (∼ 15%-20%) and core carbon density (∼ 15%-30%) with the closed divertor compared to the open divertor configuration is due to greater divertor screening of neutrals. They also compared UEDGE results with a simple analytic model of the H-mode pedestal structure. The model predicts both the width and gradient of the transport barrier in n e as a function of the pedestal density. The more sophisticated UEDGE simulations of H-mode discharges corroborate the simple analytic model, which is consistent with the hypothesis that fueling processes play a role in H-mode transport barrier formation

  12. Automated Fault Detection for DIII-D Tokamak Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.L.; Scoville, J.T.; Johnson, R.D.; Hyatt, A.W.; Lee, J.

    1999-01-01

    An automated fault detection software system has been developed and was used during 1999 DIII-D plasma operations. The Fault Identification and Communication System (FICS) executes automatically after every plasma discharge to check dozens of subsystems for proper operation and communicates the test results to the tokamak operator. This system is now used routinely during DIII-D operations and has led to an increase in tokamak productivity

  13. Active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes in EAST towards advanced steady state operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, L., E-mail: lwang@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China); Guo, H.Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); General Atomics, P. O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186 (United States); Li, J.; Wan, B.N.; Gong, X.Z.; Zhang, X.D.; Hu, J.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Liang, Y. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Association EURATOM-FZJ, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Xu, G.S. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zou, X.L. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance (France); Loarte, A. [ITER Organization, Route de Vinon sur Verdon, 13115 St Paul Lez Durance (France); Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Luo, G.N.; Gao, X.; Hu, L.Q.; Gan, K.F.; Liu, S.C.; Wang, H.Q.; Chen, R. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2015-08-15

    Significant progress has been made in EAST towards advanced steady state operations by active control of divertor heat and particle fluxes. Many innovative techniques have been developed to mitigate transient ELM and stationary heat fluxes on the divertor target plates. It has been found that lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) can lead to edge plasma ergodization, striation of the stationary heat flux and lower ELM transient heat and particle fluxes. With multi-pulse supersonic molecular beam injection (SMBI) to quantitatively regulate the divertor particle flux, the divertor power footprint pattern can be actively modified. H-modes have been extended over 30 s in EAST with the divertor peak heat flux and the target temperature being controlled well below 2 MW/m{sup 2} and 250 °C, respectively, by integrating these new methods, coupled with advanced lithium wall conditioning and internal divertor pumping, along with an edge coherent mode to provide continuous particle and power exhaust.

  14. Disruption Physics and Mitigation on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyte, D.G.; Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.

    2005-01-01

    The contributions of the DIII-D tokamak toward the understanding and control of disruptions are reviewed. Disruptions are found to be deterministic, and the underlying causes of disruption can therefore be predicted and avoided. With sufficiently rapid detection, possible damage from disruptions can be mitigated using an understanding of disruption phenomenology and plasma physics. Regimes of high β are readily available in DIII-D and provide access to relatively high energy density disruptions, despite DIII-D's moderate magnetic field and size. DIII-D, with all-graphite wall armor and wall conditioning between discharges, has proven highly resilient to the deleterious effects that disruptions can have on plasma operations. Simultaneously, exploitation and adaptation of DIII-D's extensive core and edge plasma diagnostic set have allowed for unique plasma measurements during disruptions. These measurements have tied into the development of several physical models used to understand aspects of disruptions, such as magnetohydrodynamic growth at the disruption onset, radiation energy balance through the thermal quench, and halo currents during the current quench. Based on this fundamental understanding, DIII-D has developed techniques to mitigate the harmful effects of disruptions by radiative dissipation of the plasma energy and extrapolated these techniques for possible use on larger devices like ITER

  15. Simulation of enhanced tokamak performance on DIII-D using fast wave current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, J.S. de; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Chan, V.S.; Prater, R.; John, H. St.; Baity, F.W.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    The fast magnetosonic wave is now recognized to be a leading candidate for noninductive current drive for the tokamak reactor due to the ability of the wave to penetrate to the hot dense core region. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) experiments on DIII-D have realized up to 120 kA of rf current drive, with up to 40% of the plasma current driven noninductively. The success of these experiments at 60 MHz with a 2 MW transmitter source capability has led to a major upgrade of the FWCD system. Two additional transmitters, 30 to 120 MHz, with a 2 MW source capability each, will be added together with two new four-strap antennas in early 1994. Another major thrust of the DIII-D program is to develop advanced tokamak modes of operation, simultaneously demonstrating improvements in confinement and stability in quasi-steady-state operation. In some of the initial advanced tokamak experiments on DIII-D with neutral beam heated (NBI) discharges it has been demonstrated that energy confinement time can be improved by rapidly elongating the plasma to force the current density profile to be more centrally peaked. However, this high-l i phase of the discharge with the commensurate improvement in confinement is transient as the current density profile relaxes. By applying FWCD to the core of such a κ-ramped discharge it may be possible to sustain the high internal inductance and elevated confinement. Using computational tools validated on the initial DIII-D FWCD experiments we find that such a high-l i advanced tokamak discharge should be capable of sustainment at the 1 MA level with the upgraded capability of the FWCD system. (author) 16 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Lower-hybrid counter current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Nevins, W.M.; Porkolab, M.; Bonoli, P.T.; Harvey, R.W.

    1994-01-01

    Each of the Advanced Tokamak operating modes in DIII-D is thought to have a distinctive current density profile. So far these modes have only been achieved transiently through experiments which ramp the plasma current and shape. Extension of these modes to steady state requires non-inductive current profile control, e.g., with lower hybrid current drive (LHCD). Calculations of LHCD have been done for DIII-D using the ACCOME and CQL3D codes, showing that counter driven current at the plasma edge can cancel some of the undesirable edge bootstrap current and potentially extend the VH-mode. Results will be presented for scenarios using 2.45 GHz LH waves launched from both the midplane and off-axis ports. The sensitivity of the results to injected power, n e and T e , and launched wave spectrum will also be shown

  17. PROGRESS TOWARD FULLY NONINDUCTIVE, HIGH BETA DISCHARGES IN DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GREENFIELD, CM; FERRON, JR; MURAKAMI, M; WADE, MR; BUDNY, RV; BURRELL, KH; CASPER, TA; DeBOO, JC; DOYLE, EJ; GAROFALO, AM; JAYAKUMAR, RJ; KESSEL, C; LAO, LL; LOHR, J; LUCE, TC; MAKOWSKI, MA; MENARD, JE; PETRIE, TW; PETTY, CC; PINSKER, RI; PRATER, R; POLITZER, PA; St JOHN, HE; TAYLOR, TS; WEST, WP; DIII-D NATIONAL TEAM

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 Advanced Tokamak (AT) research in DIII-D focuses on developing a scientific basis for steady-state, high performance operation. For optimal performance, these experiments routinely operate with β above the n = 1 no-wall limit, enabled by active feed-back control. The ideal wall β limit is optimized by modifying the plasma shape, current and pressure profile. Present DIII-D AT experiments operate with f BS ∼ 50%-60%, with a long-term goal of ∼ 90%. Additional current is provided by neutral beam and electron cyclotron current drive, the latter being localized well away from the magnetic axis (ρ ∼ 0.4-0.5). Guided by integrated modeling, recent experiments have produced discharges with β ∼ 3%, β N ∼ 3, f BS ∼ 55% and noninductive fraction f NI ∼ 90%. Additional control is anticipated using fast wave current drive to control the central current density

  18. Alfven Eigenmode Control in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W.; Olofsson, E.; Welander, A.; van Zeeland, M.; Collins, C.; Heidbrink, W.

    2017-10-01

    Alfven eigenmodes (AE) driven by fast ions from neutral beam and ion cyclotron heating are common in present day tokamak plasmas and are expected to be destabilized by alpha particles in future burning plasma experiments. Because these waves have been shown to cause loss and redistribution of fast ions which can impact plasma performance and potentially device integrity, developing control techniques for AEs is of paramount importance. In the DIII-D plasma control system, spectral analysis of real-time ECE data is used as a monitor of AE amplitude, frequency, and location. These values are then used for feedback control of the neutral beam power to control Alfven waves and reduce fast ion loss. This work describes tests of AE control experiments in the current ramp up phase, during which multiple Alfven eigenmodes are typically unstable and fast ion confinement is degraded significantly. Comparisons of neutron emission and confined fast ion profiles with and without active AE control will be made. Work supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy under Award Number DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  19. Interpretive modeling of simple-as-possible-plasma discharges on DIII-D using the OEDGE code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.C.; Elder, J.D.; Boedo, J.A.; Bray, B.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Isler, R.C.; Lao, L.L.; Lisgo, S.; Porter, G.D.; Reiter, D.; Rudakov, D.L.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Whyte, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Recently a number of major, unanticipated effects have been reported in tokamak edge research raising the question of whether we understand the controlling physics of the edge. This report is on the first part - here focused on the outer divertor - of a systematic study of the simplest possible edge plasma - no ELMs, no detachment, etc. - for a set of 10 repeat, highly diagnosed, single-null, divertor discharges in DIII-D. For almost the entire, extensive data set so far evaluated, the matches of experiment and model are so close as to imply that the controlling processes at the outer divertor for these simple plasma conditions have probably been correctly identified and quantitatively characterized in the model. The principal anomaly flagged so far relates to measurements of T e near the target, potentially pointing to a deficiency in our understanding of sheath physics in the tokamak environment

  20. Gas jet disruption mitigation studies on Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granetz, R.S.; Hollmann, E.M.; Whyte, D.G.; Izzo, V.A.; Antar, G.Y.; Bader, A.; Bakhtiari, M.; Biewer, T.; Boedo, J.A.; Evans, T.E.; Hutchinson, I.H.; Jernigan, T.C.; Gray, D.S.; Groth, M.; Humphreys, D.A.; Lasnier, C.J.; Moyer, R.A.; Parks, P.B.; Reinke, M.L.; Rudakov, D.L.; Strait, E.J.; Terry, J.L.; Wesley, J.; West, W.P.; Wurden, G.; Yu, J.

    2007-01-01

    High-pressure noble gas jet injection is a mitigation technique which potentially satisfies the requirements of fast response time and reliability, without degrading subsequent discharges. Previously reported gas jet experiments on DIII-D showed good success at reducing deleterious disruption effects. In this paper, results of recent gas jet disruption mitigation experiments on Alcator C-Mod and DIII-D are reported. Jointly, these experiments have greatly improved the understanding of gas jet dynamics and the processes involved in mitigating disruption effects. In both machines, the sequence of events following gas injection is observed to be quite similar: the jet neutrals stop near the plasma edge, the edge temperature collapses and large MHD modes are quickly destabilized, mixing the hot plasma core with the edge impurity ions and radiating away the plasma thermal energy. High radiated power fractions are achieved, thus reducing the conducted heat loads to the chamber walls and divertor. A significant (2 x or more) reduction in halo current is also observed. Runaway electron generation is small or absent. These similar results in two quite different tokamaks are encouraging for the applicability of this disruption mitigation technique to ITER

  1. Particle control in DIII-D with helium glow discharge conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.L.; Taylor, T.S.; Taylor, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Helium glow discharge conditioning of DIII-D is routinely used before every tokamak discharge to desorb hydrogen from the graphite tiles, which are the plasma facing surfaces for the floor, inner wall and top of the vessel. In addition to reducing hydrogen fuelling of the plasma by the graphite surfaces, helium glow discharges are also effective in removing low-Z impurities, primarily in the form of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and this has permitted higher current divertor operation and more rapid recovery from tokamak disruptions. Since the implementation of repetitive helium glow wall conditioning, the parameter space in which tokamak discharges in DIII-D can be obtained has been expanded to include the first observations of limiter H-mode confinement, the Ohmic H-mode with periods of up to 150 ms that are free of edge localized modes, more reliable low q operation with volume averaged beta of up to 9.3%, improved control over locked modes and plasma discharges at lower electron density. (author). 37 refs, 12 figs, 1 tab

  2. DIII-D Integrated plasma control solutions for ITER and next-generation tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Humphreys, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Hyatt, A.W.; La Haye, R.J.; Leuer, J.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Walker, M.L.; Welander, A.S.; In, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Plasma control design approaches and solutions developed at DIII-D to address its control-intensive advanced tokamak (AT) mission are applicable to many problems facing ITER and other next-generation devices. A systematic approach to algorithm design, termed 'integrated plasma control,' enables new tokamak controllers to be applied operationally with minimal machine time required for tuning. Such high confidence plasma control algorithms are designed using relatively simple ('control-level') models validated against experimental response data and are verified in simulation prior to operational use. A key element of DIII-D integrated plasma control, also required in the ITER baseline control approach, is the ability to verify both controller performance and implementation by running simulations that connect directly to the actual plasma control system (PCS) that is used to operate the tokamak itself. The DIII-D PCS comprises a powerful and flexible C-based realtime code and programming infrastructure, as well as an arbitrarily scalable hardware and realtime network architecture. This software infrastructure provides a general platform for implementation and verification of realtime algorithms with arbitrary complexity, limited only by speed of execution requirements. We present a complete suite of tools (known collectively as TokSys) supporting the integrated plasma control design process, along with recent examples of control algorithms designed for the DIII-D PCS. The use of validated physics-based models and a systematic model-based design and verification process enables these control solutions to be directly applied to ITER and other next-generation tokamaks

  3. DIII-D RESEARCH OPERATIONS ANNUAL REPORT TO THE U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    EVANS,TE

    2003-12-01

    OAK-B135 The mission of the DIII-D research program is: ''To establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production. The program is focused on developing the ultimate potential of the tokamak by building a better fundamental understanding of the physics of plasma confinement, stability, current drive and heating in high performance discharges while utilizing new scientific discoveries and improvements in their knowledge of these basic areas to create more efficient control systems, improved plasma diagnostics and to identify new types of enhanced operating regimes with improved stability properties. In recent years, this development path has culminated in the advanced tokamak (AT) approach. An approach that has shown substantial promise for improving both the fusion yield and the energy density of a burning plasma device. While the challenges of increasing AT plasma performance levels with greater stability for longer durations are significant, the DIII-D program has an established plan that brings together both the critical resources and the expertise needed to meet these challenges. The DIII-D research staff is comprised of about 300 individuals representing 60 institutions with many years of integrated research experience in tokamak physics, engineering and technology. The DIII-D tokamak is one of the most productive, flexible and best diagnosed magnetic fusion research devices in the world. It has significantly more flexibility than most tokamaks and continues to pioneer the development of sophisticated new plasma feedback control tools that enable the explorations of new frontiers in fusion science and engineering.

  4. DIII-D RESEARCH OPERATIONS ANNUAL REPORT October 1, 2001 through September 30, 2002

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EVANS, T.E.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The mission of the DIII-D research program is: ''To establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production. The program is focused on developing the ultimate potential of the tokamak by building a better fundamental understanding of the physics of plasma confinement, stability, current drive and heating in high performance discharges while utilizing new scientific discoveries and improvements in their knowledge of these basic areas to create more efficient control systems, improved plasma diagnostics and to identify new types of enhanced operating regimes with improved stability properties. In recent years, this development path has culminated in the advanced tokamak (AT) approach. An approach that has shown substantial promise for improving both the fusion yield and the energy density of a burning plasma device. While the challenges of increasing AT plasma performance levels with greater stability for longer durations are significant, the DIII-D program has an established plan that brings together both the critical resources and the expertise needed to meet these challenges. The DIII-D research staff is comprised of about 300 individuals representing 60 institutions with many years of integrated research experience in tokamak physics, engineering and technology. The DIII-D tokamak is one of the most productive, flexible and best diagnosed magnetic fusion research devices in the world. It has significantly more flexibility than most tokamaks and continues to pioneer the development of sophisticated new plasma feedback control tools that enable the explorations of new frontiers in fusion science and engineering

  5. An algorithm to provide real time neutral beam substitution in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.; Greene, K.L.; Hyatt, A.W.; McHarg, B.B. Jr.; Penaflor, B.G.

    1999-06-01

    A key component of the DIII-D tokamak fusion experiment is a flexible and easy to expand digital control system which actively controls a large number of parameters in real-time. These include plasma shape, position, density, and total stored energy. This system, known as the PCS (plasma control system), also has the ability to directly control auxiliary plasma heating systems, such as the 20 MW of neutral beams routinely used on DIII-D. This paper describes the implementation of a real-time algorithm allowing substitution of power from one neutral beam for another, given a fault in the originally scheduled beam. Previously, in the event of a fault in one of the neutral beams, the actual power profile for the shot might be deficient, resulting in a less useful or wasted shot. Using this new real-time algorithm, a stand by neutral beam may substitute within milliseconds for one which has faulted. Since single shots can have substantial value, this is an important advance to DIII-D's capabilities and utilization. Detailed results are presented, along with a description not only of the algorithm but of the simulation setup required to prove the algorithm without the costs normally associated with using physics operations time

  6. Computational Study of Anomalous Transport in High Beta DIII-D Discharges with ITBs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankin, Alexei; Garofalo, Andrea; Grierson, Brian; Kritz, Arnold; Rafiq, Tariq

    2015-11-01

    The advanced tokamak scenarios require a large bootstrap current fraction and high β. These large values are often outside the range that occurs in ``conventional'' tokamak discharges. The GLF23, TGLF, and MMM transport models have been previously validated for discharges with parameters associated with ``conventional'' tokamak discharges. It has been demonstrated that the TGLF model under-predicts anomalous transport in high β DIII-D discharges [A.M. Garofalo et al. 2015 TTF Workshop]. In this research, the validity of MMM7.1 model [T. Rafiq et al. Phys. Plasmas 20 032506 (2013)] is tested for high β DIII-D discharges with low and high torque. In addition, the sensitivity of the anomalous transport to β is examined. It is shown that the MMM7.1 model over-predicts the anomalous transport in the DIII-D discharge 154406. In particular, a significant level of anomalous transport is found just outside the internal transport barrier. Differences in the anomalous transport predicted using TGLF and MMM7.1 are reviewed. Mechanisms for quenching of anomalous transport in the ITB regions of high-beta discharges are investigated. This research is supported by US Department of Energy.

  7. An exploration of advanced X-divertor scenarios on ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covele, B.; Valanju, P.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Mahajan, S.

    2014-07-01

    It is found that the X-divertor (XD) configuration (Kotschenreuther et al 2004 Proc. 20th Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy (Vilamoura, Portugal, 2004) (Vienna: IAEA) CD-ROM file [IC/P6-43] www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/fec/fec2004/datasets/index.html, Kotschenreuther et al 2006 Proc. 21st Int. Conf. on Fusion Energy 2006 (Chengdu, China, 2006) (Vienna: IAEA), CD-ROM file [IC/P7-12] www-naweb.iaea.org/napc/physics/FEC/FEC2006/html/index.htm, Kotschenreuther et al 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 072502) can be made with the conventional poloidal field (PF) coil set on ITER (Tomabechi et al and Team 1991 Nucl. Fusion 31 1135), where all PF coils are outside the TF coils. Starting from the standard divertor, a sequence of desirable XD configurations are possible where the PF currents are below the present maximum design limits on ITER, and where the baseline divertor cassette is used. This opens the possibility that the XD could be tested and used to assist in high-power operation on ITER, but some further issues need examination. Note that the increased major radius of the super-X-divertor (Kotschenreuther et al 2007 Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 53 11, Valanju et al 2009 Phys. Plasmas 16 5, Kotschenreuther et al 2010 Nucl. Fusion 50 035003, Valanju et al 2010 Fusion Eng. Des. 85 46) is not a feature of the XD geometry. In addition, we present an XD configuration for K-DEMO (Kim et al 2013 Fusion Eng. Des. 88 123) to demonstrate that it is also possible to attain the XD configuration in advanced tokamak reactors with all PF coils outside the TF coils. The results given here for the XD are far more encouraging than recent calculations by Lackner and Zohm (2012 Fusion Sci. Technol. 63 43) for the Snowflake (Ryutov 2007 Phys. Plasmas 14 064502, Ryutov et al 2008 Phys. Plasmas 15 092501), where the required high PF currents represent a major technological challenge. The magnetic field structure in the outboard divertor SOL (Kotschenreuther 2013 Phys. Plasmas 20 102507) in the recently created

  8. A remote control room at DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G.; Schissel, D.P.; Penaflor, B.G.; Wallace, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a remote control room built at DIII-D to support remote participation activities of DIII-D research staff. In order to create a persistent, efficient, and reliable remote participation environment for DIII-D scientists, a remote control room has been built in a 640-ft 2 dedicated area. The purpose of this room is to experiment and define a remote control room framework that can facilitate the remote participation needs of current and future fusion experiments such as ITER. A variety of hardware equipment has been installed and several remote participation and collaboration technologies have been deployed. Objectivity and practical consideration has been the key while designing the room and deploying the technologies. Although, the DIII-D remote control room is still a work in progress and new software tools are being implemented, it has been already useful for a number of international remote participation activities. For example, it has been used for remote support of the EAST Tokamak in China during the start up operation and proven effective for other collaborative experiment activities. The description of the remote control room design is given along with technologies deployed for remote collaboration needs. We will also discuss our recent experiences involving the DIII-D remote control room as well as future plans for improvements

  9. Simulation of DIII-D Flat q Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Garofalo, A.; Terpstra, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Advanced Tokamak plasma configuration has significant potential for the economical production of fusion power. Research on various tokamak experiments are pursuing these plasmas to establish high β, high bootstrap current fraction, 100% noninductive current, and good energy confinement, in a quasi-stationary state. One candidate is the flat q discharge produced in DIII-D, where the safety factor varies from 2.0 on axis, to slightly below 2.0 at the minimum, and then rises to about 3.5 at the 95% surface. This plasma is prototypical of those studied for power plants in the ARIES tokamak studies. The plasma is produced by ramping up the plasma current and ramping down the toroidal field throughout the discharge. The plasma current reaches 1.65 MA, and the toroidal field goes from 2.25 to 1.6 T. The q min remains high and at large radius, ρ ∼ 0.6. The plasma establishes an internal transport barrier in the ion channel, and transitions to H-mode. The free-boundary Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) is being used to model the discharge and project the impact of changes in the plasma current, toroidal field, and injected power programming

  10. Enhanced DIII-D Data Management Through a Relational Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burruss, J. R.; Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Schissel, D. P.; Terpstra, T. B.

    2000-10-01

    A relational database is being used to serve data about DIII-D experiments. The database is optimized for queries across multiple shots, allowing for rapid data mining by SQL-literate researchers. The relational database relates different experiments and datasets, thus providing a big picture of DIII-D operations. Users are encouraged to add their own tables to the database. Summary physics quantities about DIII-D discharges are collected and stored in the database automatically. Meta-data about code runs, MDSplus usage, and visualization tool usage are collected, stored in the database, and later analyzed to improve computing. Documentation on the database may be accessed through programming languages such as C, Java, and IDL, or through ODBC compliant applications such as Excel and Access. A database-driven web page also provides a convenient means for viewing database quantities through the World Wide Web. Demonstrations will be given at the poster.

  11. The DIII-D Computing Environment: Characteristics and Recent Changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarg, B.B. Jr.

    1999-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak national fusion research facility along with its predecessor Doublet III has been operating for over 21 years. The DIII-D computing environment consists of real-time systems controlling the tokamak, heating systems, and diagnostics, and systems acquiring experimental data from instrumentation; major data analysis server nodes performing short term and long term data access and data analysis; and systems providing mechanisms for remote collaboration and the dissemination of information over the world wide web. Computer systems for the facility have undergone incredible changes over the course of time as the computer industry has changed dramatically. Yet there are certain valuable characteristics of the DIII-D computing environment that have been developed over time and have been maintained to this day. Some of these characteristics include: continuous computer infrastructure improvements, distributed data and data access, computing platform integration, and remote collaborations. These characteristics are being carried forward as well as new characteristics resulting from recent changes which have included: a dedicated storage system and a hierarchical storage management system for raw shot data, various further infrastructure improvements including deployment of Fast Ethernet, the introduction of MDSplus, LSF and common IDL based tools, and improvements to remote collaboration capabilities. This paper will describe this computing environment, important characteristics that over the years have contributed to the success of DIII-D computing systems, and recent changes to computer systems

  12. Relationship Between Locked Modes and Disruptions in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Ryan

    This thesis is organized into three body chapters: (1) the first use of naturally rotating tearing modes to diagnose intrinsic error fields is presented with experimental results from the EXTRAP T2R reversed field pinch, (2) a large scale study of locked modes (LMs) with rotating precursors in the DIII-D tokamak is reported, and (3) an in depth study of LM induced thermal collapses on a few DIII-D discharges is presented. The amplitude of naturally rotating tearing modes (TMs) in EXTRAP T2R is modulated in the presence of a resonant field (given by the superposition of the resonant intrinsic error field, and, possibly, an applied, resonant magnetic perturbation (RMP)). By scanning the amplitude and phase of the RMP and observing the phase-dependent amplitude modulation of the resonant, naturally rotating TM, the corresponding resonant error field is diagnosed. A rotating TM can decelerate and lock in the laboratory frame, under the effect of an electromagnetic torque due to eddy currents induced in the wall. These locked modes often lead to a disruption, where energy and particles are lost from the equilibrium configuration on a timescale of a few to tens of milliseconds in the DIII-D tokamak. In fusion reactors, disruptions pose a problem for the longevity of the reactor. Thus, learning to predict and avoid them is important. A database was developed consisting of ˜ 2000 DIII-D discharges exhibiting TMs that lock. The database was used to study the evolution, the nonlinear effects on equilibria, and the disruptivity of locked and quasi-stationary modes with poloidal and toroidal mode numbers m = 2 and n = 1 at DIII-D. The analysis of 22,500 discharges shows that more than 18% of disruptions present signs of locked or quasi-stationary modes with rotating precursors. A parameter formulated by the plasma internal inductance li divided by the safety factor at 95% of the toroidal flux, q95, is found to exhibit predictive capability over whether a locked mode will

  13. Recycling and particle control in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.L.

    1991-11-01

    Particle control of both hydrogen and impurity atoms is important in obtaining reproducible discharges with a low fraction of radiated power in the DIII-D tokamak. The main DIII-D plasma facing components are graphite tiles and Inconel. Hydrogenic species desorbed from graphite during a tokamak discharge can be a major fueling source, especially in unconditioned graphite where these species can saturate the surface regions. In this case the recycling coefficient can exceed unity, leading to an uncontrolled density rise. In addition to removing volatile hydrocarbons and oxygen, DIII-D vessel conditioning efforts have been directed at the reduction of particle fueling from the graphite tiles. Conditioning techniques include: baking to ≤ 400 degrees C, low power pulsed discharge cleaning, and glow discharges in deuterium, helium, neon, or argon. Helium glow wall conditioning, is now routinely performed before every tokamak discharge. The effects of these techniques on hydrogen recycling and impurity influxes will be presented. The Inconel walls, while not generally exposed to high heat fluxes, nevertheless represent a source of metal impurities which can lead to impurity accumulation in the discharge and a high fraction of radiated power, particularly in H-mode discharges at higher plasma currents, I p > 1.5 MA. To reduce metal influx a thin (∼100 nm) low Z film has been applied on all plasma facing surfaces in DIII-D. The application of the boron film, referred to as boronization has the additional benefit over a carbon film of further reducing the oxygen influx. Following the first boronization in DIII-D a regime of very high confinement (VH-mode) was observed, characterized by low ohmic target density, low Z eff , and low radiated power

  14. Cooperative program on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1991-01-01

    The main contribution of the Berkeley group to data has concerned ion temperature profile data reduction and transport analysis using this data. In addition, our graduate students have worked on fundamental aspects of transport theory, under the guidance of the Principal Investigator, to prepare them for productive participation in the D3-D program. One of these students, Q. Nguyen, has written a paper with Drs. Stambaugh and Fowler on divertor design, a subject of increasing urgency for ITER and an area of increasing importance in the D3-D program. Finally, work has been completed on determining upper bounds on fluctuation levels and growth constants, relevant to core plasma transport calculations, using thermodynamic methods. This report contains a brief summary of this work, with emphasis on the accomplishments during the past year

  15. Environmental Assessment for the proposed modification and continued operation of the DIII-D facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-07-01

    The EA evaluates the proposed action of modifying the DIII-D fusion facility and conducting related research activities at the GA San Diego site over 1995-1999 under DOE contract number DE-ACO3-89ER51114. The proposed action is need to advance magnetic fusion research for future generation fusion devices such as ITER and TPX. It was determined that the proposed action is not a major action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment according to NEPA; therefore a finding of no significant impact is made and an environmental impact statement is not required

  16. Environmental Assessment for the proposed modification and continued operation of the DIII-D facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The EA evaluates the proposed action of modifying the DIII-D fusion facility and conducting related research activities at the GA San Diego site over 1995-1999 under DOE contract number DE-ACO3-89ER51114. The proposed action is need to advance magnetic fusion research for future generation fusion devices such as ITER and TPX. It was determined that the proposed action is not a major action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment according to NEPA; therefore a finding of no significant impact is made and an environmental impact statement is not required.

  17. CHANGES IN EDGE AND SCRAPE-OFF LAYER PLASMA BEHAVIOE DUE TO VAARIATION IN MAGNETIC BALANCE IN DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETRIE, T.W.; WATKINS, J.G.; BAYLOR, L.R.; BROOKS, N.H.; FENSTERMACHER, M.E.; HYATT, A.W.; JACKSON, G.L.; LASNIER, C.J.; LEONARD, A.W.; PIGAROV, A.YU.; RENSINK, M.E.; ROGNLIEN, T.D.; SCHAFFER, M.J.; WOLF, N.S.

    2002-01-01

    Changes in the divertor magnetic balance in DIII-D H-mode plasmas affects core, edge, and divertor plasma behavior. Both the pedestal density n e,PED and plasma stored energy W T were sensitive to changes in magnetic balance near the double-null (DN) configuration, e.g., both decreased 20%-30% when the DN shifted to a slightly unbalanced DN, where the B x (del)B drift direction pointed away from the main X-point. Recycling at each of the four divertor targets was sensitive to changes in magnetic balance and the B x (del)B drift direction. The poloidal distribution of the recycling in DN is in qualitative agreement with the predictions of UEDGE modeling with particle drifts included. The particle flux at the inner divertor target is shown to be much more sensitive to magnetic balance than the particle flux at the outer divertor target near the DN shape. These results suggest possible advantages and drawbacks for balanced DN operation

  18. OEDGE Modeling of Collector Probe measurements in L-mode from the DIII-D tungsten ring campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elder, J. D.; Stangeby, P. C.; Unterberg, Z.; Donovan, D.; Wampler, W. R.; Watkins, J.; Abrams, T.; McLean, A. G.

    2017-10-01

    During the tungsten ring campaign on DIII-D, a collector probe system with multiple diameter, dual-facing collector rods was inserted into the far scrape off layer (SOL) near the outer midplane to measure the plasma tungsten content. For most probes more tungsten was observed on the side connected along field lines to the inner divertor, with the larger probes showing largest divertor-facing asymmetries The OEDGE code is used to model the tungsten erosion, transport and deposition. It has been enhanced with (i) a peripheral particle transport and deposition model to record the impurity content in the peripheral region outside the regular mesh, and (ii) a collector probe model. The OEDGE results approximately reproduce both the divertor-facing asymmetries and the radial decay of each collector probe profile. The effect of changing impurity transport assumptions and wall location are examined. The measured divertor-facing asymmetries imply a higher tungsten density in the plasma upstream of the probe; this was expected theoretically from the effect of the parallel ion temperature gradient force driving upstream transport of tungsten from the outer divertor and was also found in the code analysis. Work supported by the US Department of Energy under DE-FC02-04ER54698, DE-NA0003525, DE-AC05-00OR22725, and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  19. The Bootstrap Current and Neutral Beam Current Drive in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Politzer, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Noninductive current drive is an essential part of the implementation of the DIII-D Advanced Tokamak program. For an efficient steady-state tokamak reactor, the plasma must provide close to 100% bootstrap fraction (f bs ). For noninductive operation of DIII-D, current drive by injection of energetic neutral beams [neutral beam current drive (NBCD)] is also important. DIII-D experiments have reached ∼80% bootstrap current in stationary discharges without inductive current drive. The remaining current is ∼20% NBCD. This is achieved at β N [approximately equal to] β p > 3, but at relatively high q 95 (∼10). In lower q 95 Advanced Tokamak plasmas, f bs ∼ 0.6 has been reached in essentially noninductive plasmas. The phenomenology of high β p and β N plasmas without current control is being studied. These plasmas display a relaxation oscillation involving repetitive formation and collapse of an internal transport barrier. The frequency and severity of these events increase with increasing β, limiting the achievable average β and causing modulation of the total current as well as the pressure. Modeling of both bootstrap and NBCD currents is based on neoclassical theory. Measurements of the total bootstrap and NBCD current agree with calculations. A recent experiment based on the evolution of the transient voltage profile after an L-H transition shows that the more recent bootstrap current models accurately describe the plasma behavior. The profiles and the parametric dependences of the local neutral beam-driven current density have not yet been compared with theory

  20. Review of DIII-D H-Mode Density Limit Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.

    2005-01-01

    Density limit studies over the past 10 yr on DIII-D have successfully identified several processes that limit plasma density in various operating modes. The recent focus of these studies has been on maintenance of the high-density operational window with good H-mode level energy confinement. We find that detachment and onset of multifaceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE), fueling efficiency, particle confinement, and magnetohydrodynamic activity can impose density limits in certain regimes. By studying these processes, we have devised techniques with either pellets or gas fueling and divertor pumping to achieve line average density above Greenwald scaling, relying on increasing the ratio of pedestal to separatrix density, as well as density profile peaking. The scaling of several of these processes to next-step devices (e.g., the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) has indicated that sufficiently high pedestal density can be achieved with conventional fueling techniques while ensuring divertor partial detachment needed for heat flux reduction. One density limit process requiring further study is neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) onset, and techniques for avoidance/mitigation of NTMs need additional development in present-day devices operated at high density

  1. Methane penetration in DIII-D ELMing H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, W.P.; Lasnier, C.J.; Whyte, D.G.; Isler, R.C.; Evans, T.E.; Jackson, G.L.; Rudakov, D.; Wade, M.R.; Strachan, J.

    2003-01-01

    Carbon penetration into the core plasma during midplane and divertor methane puffing has been measured for DIII-D ELMing H-mode plasmas. The methane puffs are adjusted to a measurable signal, but global plasma parameters are only weakly affected (line average density, e > increases by E , drops by 6+ density profiles in the core measured as a function of time using charge exchange recombination spectroscopy. The methane penetration factor is defined as the difference in the core content with the puff on and puff off, divided by the carbon confinement time and the methane puffing rate. In ELMing H-mode discharges with ion ∇B drift direction into the X-point, increasing the line averaged density from 5 to 8x10 19 m -3 dropped the penetration factor from 6.6% to 4.6% for main chamber puffing. The penetration factor for divertor puffing was below the detection limit (<1%). Changing the ion ∇B drift to away from the X-point decreased the penetration factor by more than a factor of five for main chamber puffing

  2. Evaluation of an improved atomic data basis for carbon in UEDGE emission modeling for L-mode plasmas in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz Burgos, J.M., E-mail: munozj@fusion.gat.com [Oak Ridge Institute for Science and Education, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-0117 (United States); Leonard, A.W. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Loch, S.D.; Ballance, C.P. [Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    New scaled carbon atomic electron-impact excitation data is utilized to evaluate comparisons between experimental measurements and fluid emission modeling of detached plasmas at DIII-D. The C I and C II modeled emission lines for 909.8 and 514.7 nm were overestimated by a factor of 10–20 than observed experimentally for the inner leg, while the outer leg was within a factor of 2. Due to higher modeled emissions, a previous study using the UEDGE code predicted that a higher amount of carbon was required to achieve a detached outboard divertor plasma in L-mode at DIII-D. The line emission predicted by using the new scaled carbon data yields closer results when compared against experiment. We also compare modeling and measurements of D{sub α} emission from neutral deuterium against predictions from newly calculated R-Matrix with pseudostates data available at the ADAS database.

  3. High Field Side Lower Hybrid Current Drive Launcher Design for DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, G. M.; Leccacori, R.; Doody, J.; Vieira, R.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wukitch, S. J.; Holcomb, C.; Pinsker, R. I.

    2017-10-01

    Efficient off-axis current drive scalable to reactors is a key enabling technology for a steady-state tokamak. Simulations of DIII-D discharges have identified high performance scenarios with excellent lower hybrid (LH) wave penetration, single pass absorption and high current drive efficiency. The strategy was to adapt known launching technology utilized in previous experiments on C-Mod (poloidal splitter) and Tore Supra (bi-junction) and remain within power density limits established in JET and Tore Supra. For a 2 MW source power antenna, the launcher consists of 32 toroidal apertures and 4 poloidal rows. The aperture is 60 mm x 5 mm with 1 mm septa and the peak n| | is 2.7+/-0.2 for 90□ phasing. Eight WR187 waveguides are routed from the R-1 port down under the lower cryopump, under the existing divertor, and up the central column with the long waveguide dimension along the vacuum vessel. Above the inner strike point region, each waveguide is twisted to orient the long dimension perpendicular to the vacuum vessel and splits into 4 toroidal apertures via bi-junctions. To protect the waveguide, the inner wall radius will need to increase by 2.5 cm. RF, disruption, and thermal analysis of the latest design will be presented. Work supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, using User Facility DIII-D, under Award Number DE-FC02-04ER54698 and by MIT PSFC cooperative agreement DE-SC0014264.

  4. Software upgrade for the DIII-D neutral beam control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cummings, J.W.; Thurgood, P.A.

    1991-11-01

    The neutral beams are used to heat the plasma in the DIII-D tokamak, a fusion energy research experiment operated by General Atomics (GA) and funded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The experiment is dedicated to demonstrating noninductive current drive of high beta high temperature divertor plasma with good confinement. The neutral beam heating system for the DIII-D tokamak uses four MODCOMP Classic computers for data acquisition and control of the four beamlines. The Neutral Beam Software Upgrade project was launched in early 1990. The major goals were to upgrade the MAX IV operating system to the latest revision (K.1), use standard MODCOMP software (as much as possible), and to develop a very ''user friendly,'' versatile system. Accomplishing these goals required new software to be developed and modifications to existing applications software to make it compatible with the latest operating system. The custom operating system modules to handle the message service and interrupt handling were replaced by the standard MODCOMP Inter Task Communication (ITC) and interrupt routines that are part of the MAX IV operating system. The message service provides the mechanism for doing shot task sequencing (task scheduling). The interrupt routines are used to connect external interrupts to the system. The new software developed consists of a task dispatcher, screen manager, and interrupt tasks. The existing applications software had to be modified to be compatible with the MODCOMP ITC services and consists of the Modcomp Infinity Data Base Manager, a multi-user system, and menu-driven operating system interface routines using the Infinity Data Base Manager

  5. Critical need for MFE: the Alcator DX advanced divertor test facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Wolf, S.; Bonoli, P.; Fiore, C.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hutchinson, I.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Parker, R.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M.; Rice, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Theiler, C.; Wallace, G.; White, A.; Whyte, D.; Wukitch, S.

    2013-10-01

    Three critical challenges must be met before a steady-state, power-producing fusion reactor can be realized: how to (1) safely handle extreme plasma exhaust power, (2) completely suppress material erosion at divertor targets and (3) do this while maintaining a burning plasma core. Advanced divertors such as ``Super X'' and ``X-point target'' may allow a fully detached, low temperature plasma to be produced in the divertor while maintaining a hot boundary layer around a clean plasma core - a potential game-changer for magnetic fusion. No facility currently exists to test these ideas at the required parallel heat flux densities. Alcator DX will be a national facility, employing the high magnetic field technology of Alcator combined with high-power ICRH and LHCD to test advanced divertor concepts at FNSF/DEMO power exhaust densities and plasma pressures. Its extended vacuum vessel contains divertor cassettes with poloidal field coils for conventional, snowflake, super-X and X-point target geometries. Divertor and core plasma performance will be explored in regimes inaccessible in conventional devices. Reactor relevant ICRF and LH drivers will be developed, utilizing high-field side launch platforms for low PMI. Alcator DX will inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of next-step fusion facilities.

  6. The Resistive Wall Mode Feedback Control System on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.T. Scoville; D.H. Kellman; S.G.E. Pronko; A. Nerem; R. Hatcher; D. O'Neill; G. Rossi; M. Bolha

    1999-01-01

    One of the primary instabilities limiting the performance of the plasma in advanced tokamak operating regimes is the resistive wall mode (RWM) [1]. The most common RWM seen in the DIII-D tokamak is originated by an n=1 ideal external kink mode which, in the presence of a resistive wall, is converted to a slowly growing RWM. The mode causes a reduction in plasma rotation, a loss of stored energy, and sometimes leads to plasma disruption. It routinely limits the performance of a tokamak operating near reactor relevant parameter levels. A system designed to actively control the RWM has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak for the control of low m n=1 modes. In initial experiments, the control system has been capable of delaying the onset of RWMs in energetic discharges for several hundred milliseconds. The feedback control system consists of detector coils connected via control software to high power current amplifiers driving the excitation coils. The three pairs of excitation coils are each driven by a current amplifier and a DC power supply. The control signal is derived from a set of six sensor coils that measure radial flux as low as one Gauss. The signals are digitally processed by realtime software in the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) to create a command that is sent to the current amplifier, with a cycle time of approximately 100 micros. The amplifiers, designed and fabricated by Robicon Corporation to a specification developed by PPPL and GA, are bipolar devices capable of ±5 kA at 300 V, with an operating bandwidth of approximately 800 Hz (-3 dB)

  7. DIII-D research operations annual report to the U.S. Department of Energy, October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-10-01

    The main goals of the DIII-D experiments in 1997 were, by extending and integrating the understanding of fusion science, to make progress in the tokamak concept improvements as delineated in the DIII-D Long Range Plan and to make substantial contributions to urgently needed R and D for the ITER Engineering Design Activity. For these purposes, the authors modified the top divertor to include pumping with baffling of high triangularity shaped plasmas and brought into operation two megawatt-level-gyrotrons for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and off-axis current drive. The elements of the DIII-D experimental program and its objectives are organized into five topical areas: Stability and Disruption Physics, Transport and Turbulence Physics, Divertor and Boundary Physics, Wave-Particle Physics, and Integrated Fusion Science and Innovative Concept Improvement. The resulting DIII-D fusion science accomplishments are described in detail in this report. This year was characterized by a number of important activities, most notably, two 110 GHz ECH gyrotrons were installed and commissioned, the upper RDP cryopump and baffle was installed, and the ohmic heating coil lead was successfully reinforced to allow return to the design coil configuration and an increase to 7.5 V-s next year. Real-time ``Isoflux`` plasma control was implemented to control the shape and position of the plasma. This system solves the MHD equilibrium equation in real time to accurately determine the location of the plasma boundary. At the same time, the authors were able to improve their safety record with three minor accidents and no lost time accidents. The staff available for operations tasks was substantially reduced owing to recent budget reductions and this impacted a number of activities.

  8. DIII-D research operations annual report to the U.S. Department of Energy, October 1, 1996 through September 30, 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-10-01

    The main goals of the DIII-D experiments in 1997 were, by extending and integrating the understanding of fusion science, to make progress in the tokamak concept improvements as delineated in the DIII-D Long Range Plan and to make substantial contributions to urgently needed R and D for the ITER Engineering Design Activity. For these purposes, the authors modified the top divertor to include pumping with baffling of high triangularity shaped plasmas and brought into operation two megawatt-level-gyrotrons for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) and off-axis current drive. The elements of the DIII-D experimental program and its objectives are organized into five topical areas: Stability and Disruption Physics, Transport and Turbulence Physics, Divertor and Boundary Physics, Wave-Particle Physics, and Integrated Fusion Science and Innovative Concept Improvement. The resulting DIII-D fusion science accomplishments are described in detail in this report. This year was characterized by a number of important activities, most notably, two 110 GHz ECH gyrotrons were installed and commissioned, the upper RDP cryopump and baffle was installed, and the ohmic heating coil lead was successfully reinforced to allow return to the design coil configuration and an increase to 7.5 V-s next year. Real-time ''Isoflux'' plasma control was implemented to control the shape and position of the plasma. This system solves the MHD equilibrium equation in real time to accurately determine the location of the plasma boundary. At the same time, the authors were able to improve their safety record with three minor accidents and no lost time accidents. The staff available for operations tasks was substantially reduced owing to recent budget reductions and this impacted a number of activities

  9. PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETTY, C.C.; PRATER, R.; LUCE, T.C.; ELLIS, R.A.; HARVEY, R.W.; KINSEY, J.E.; LAO, L.L.; LOHR, J.; MAKOWSKI, M.A.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 PHYSICS OF ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. Recent experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have focused on determining the effect of trapped particles on the electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) efficiency. The measured ECCD efficiency increases as the deposition location is moved towards the inboard midplane or towards smaller minor radius for both co and counter injection. The measured ECCD efficiency also increases with increasing electron density and/or temperature. The experimental ECCD is compared to both the linear theory (Toray-GA) as well as a quasilinear Fokker-Planck model (CQL3D). The experimental ECCD is found to be in better agreement with the more complete Fokker-Planck calculation, especially for cases of high rf power density and/or loop voltage

  10. High Field Side Lower Hybrid Current Drive Simulations for Off- axis Current Drive in DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wukitch S.J.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Efficient off-axis current drive scalable to reactors is a key enabling technology for developing economical, steady state tokamak. Previous studies have focussed on high field side (HFS launch of lower hybrid current drive (LHCD in double null configurations in reactor grade plasmas and found improved wave penetration and high current drive efficiency with driven current profile peaked near a normalized radius, ρ, of 0.6-0.8, consistent with advanced tokamak scenarios. Further, HFS launch potentially mitigates plasma material interaction and coupling issues. For this work, we sought credible HFS LHCD scenario for DIII-D advanced tokamak discharges through utilizing advanced ray tracing and Fokker Planck simulation tools (GENRAY+CQL3D constrained by experimental considerations. For a model and existing discharge, HFS LHCD scenarios with excellent wave penetration and current drive were identified. The LHCD is peaked off axis, ρ∼0.6-0.8, with FWHM Δρ=0.2 and driven current up to 0.37 MA/MW coupled. For HFS near mid plane launch, wave penetration is excellent and have access to single pass absorption scenarios for variety of plasmas for n||=2.6-3.4. These DIII-D discharge simulations indicate that HFS LHCD has potential to demonstrate efficient off axis current drive and current profile control in DIII-D existing and model discharge.

  11. FWCD (fast wave current drive) and ECCD (electron cyclotron current drive) experiments on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prater, R.; Austin, M.; Baity, F.W.

    1994-01-01

    Fast wave current drive and electron cyclotron current drive experiments have been performed on the DIII-D tokamak as part of the advanced tokamak program. The goal of this program is to develop techniques for controlling the profile of the current density in order to access regimes of improved confinement and stability. The experiments on fast wave current drive used a four strap antenna with 90deg phasing between straps. A decoupler was used to help maintain the phasing, and feedback control of the plasma position was used to keep the resistive loading constant. RF pickup loops demonstrate that the directivity of the antenna is as expected. Plasma currents up to 0.18 MA were driven by 1.5 MW of fast wave power. Electron cyclotron current drive experiments at 60 GHz have shown 0.1 MA of plasma current driven by 1 MW of power. New fast wave and electron cyclotron heating systems are in development for DIII-D, so that the goals of the advanced tokamak program can be carried out. (author)

  12. Demonstration of ITER operational scenarios on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Luce, T.C.; Osborne, T.H.; Politzer, P.A.; Groebner, R.J.; Hyatt, A.W.; La Haye, R.J.; Petrie, T.W.; Petty, C.C.; Murakami, M.; Park, J.-M.; Reimerdes, H.; Budny, R.V.; Casper, T.A.; Holcomb, C.T.; Challis, C.D.; McKee, G.R.

    2010-01-01

    The DIII-D programme has recently initiated an effort to provide suitably scaled experimental evaluations of four primary ITER operational scenarios. New and unique features of this work are that the plasmas incorporate essential features of the ITER scenarios and anticipated operating characteristics; e.g. the plasma cross-section, aspect ratio and value of I/aB of the DIII-D discharges match the ITER design, with size reduced by a factor of 3.7. Key aspects of all four scenarios, such as target values for β N and H 98 , have been replicated successfully on DIII-D, providing an improved and unified physics basis for transport and stability modelling, as well as for performance extrapolation to ITER. In all four scenarios, normalized performance equals or closely approaches that required to realize the physics and technology goals of ITER, and projections of the DIII-D discharges are consistent with ITER achieving its goals of ≥400 MW of fusion power production and Q ≥ 10. These studies also address many of the key physics issues related to the ITER design, including the L-H transition power threshold, the size of edge localized modes, pedestal parameter scaling, the impact of tearing modes on confinement and disruptivity, beta limits and the required capabilities of the plasma control system. An example of direct influence on the ITER design from this work is a modification of the physics requirements for the poloidal field coil set at 15 MA, based on observations that the inductance in the baseline scenario case evolves to a value that lies outside the original ITER specification.

  13. Performance of the DIII-D neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, J.; Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Cummings, J.; Glad, A.S.; Gootgeld, A.M.; Haskovec, J.S.; Hong, R.; Kellman, D.H.; Langhorn, A.R.

    1987-01-01

    During the upgrade of the Doublet III tokamak, the neutral beam injection system as also modified to accommodate long pulse sources and to utilize the larger entrance apertures to the torus vessel. All four beamlines on DIII-D are now in operation with a total of eight common long pulse sources. These have exhibited easier conditioning and good reproducibility. Performance results of the beamlines and supporting systems are presented, and the observed beam properties are discussed

  14. Demonstration of ITER Operational Scenarios on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Budny, R.V.; DeBoo, J.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Luce, T.C.; Murakami, M.; Osborne, T.H.; Park, J.; Politzer, P.A.; Reimerdes, H.; Casper, T.A.; Challis, C.D.; Groebner, R.J.; Holcomb, C.T.; Hyatt, A.W.; La Haye, R.J.; McKee, G.R.; Petrie, T.W.; Petty, C.C.; Rhodes, T.L.; Shafer, M.W.; Snyder, P.B.; Strait, E.J; Wade, M.R.; Wang, G.; West, W.P.; Zeng, L.

    2008-01-01

    The DIII-D program has recently initiated an effort to provide suitably scaled experimental evaluations of four primary ITER operational scenarios. New and unique features of this work are that the plasmas incorporate essential features of the ITER scenarios and anticipated operating characteristics; e.g., the plasma cross-section, aspect ratio and value of I/aB of the DIII-D discharges match the ITER design, with size reduced by a factor of 3.7. Key aspects of all four scenarios, such as target values for β N and H 98 , have been replicated successfully on DIII-D, providing an improved and unified physics basis for transport and stability modeling, as well as for performance extrapolation to ITER. In all four scenarios normalized performance equals or closely approaches that required to realize the physics and technology goals of ITER, and projections of the DIII-D discharges are consistent with ITER achieving its goals of (ge) 400 MW of fusion power production and Q (ge) 10. These studies also address many of the key physics issues related to the ITER design, including the L-H transition power threshold, the size of ELMs, pedestal parameter scaling, the impact of tearing modes on confinement and disruptivity, beta limits and the required capabilities of the plasma control system. An example of direct influence on the ITER design from this work is a modification of the specified operating range in internal inductance at 15 MA for the poloidal field coil set, based on observations that the measured inductance in the baseline scenario case lay outside the original ITER specification

  15. RESEARCH PROGRESS AND HARDWARE SYSTEMS AT DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    PETERSEN,P.I; THE DIII-D TEAM

    2003-10-01

    OAK-B135 During the last two years significant progress has been made in the scientific understanding of DIII-D plasmas. Much of this progress has been enabled by the addition of new hardware systems. The electron cyclotron (EC) system has been upgraded from 3 MW to 6 MW, by adding three 1 MW gyrotrons with diamond windows and three steerable launchers (PPPL). The new gyrotrons have been tested to 1.0 MW for 5 s. The system has been used to control the 3/2 and 2/1 neoclassical tearing modes and to locally heat the plasma and thereby indirectly control the current density. Electron cyclotron current drive ECCD has been used to directly affect the current density. A Li-beam diagnostic has been brought on-line for measuring the edge current density using Zeeman splitting. A set of 12 coils (1-coils), consisting of six picture frame coils each above and below the midplane, with a capability of 7 kA for 10 s has been installed inside the DIII-D vessel. These coils, along with the existing six C-coils, are used to apply non-axisymmetric fields to the plasma for both exciting and controlling plasma instabilities. The DIII-D digital plasma control system is now used to not just control the shape and location of the plasma but also the electron temperature, density, the NTMs, RWMs, plasma beta and disruption mitigation. Plasma disruption experiments are extended to mitigation of real time detected disruptions on DIII-D.

  16. Overview of the DIII-D program computer systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarg, B.B. Jr.

    1997-11-01

    Computer systems pervade every aspect of the DIII-D National Fusion Research program. This includes real-time systems acquiring experimental data from data acquisition hardware; cpu server systems performing short term and long term data analysis; desktop activities such as word processing, spreadsheets, and scientific paper publication; and systems providing mechanisms for remote collaboration. The DIII-D network ties all of these systems together and connects to the ESNET wide area network. This paper will give an overview of these systems, including their purposes and functionality and how they connect to other systems. Computer systems include seven different types of UNIX systems (HP-UX, REALIX, SunOS, Solaris, Digital UNIX, Ultrix, and IRIX), OpenVMS systems (both BAX and Alpha), MACintosh, Windows 95, and more recently Windows NT systems. Most of the network internally is ethernet with some use of FDDI. A T3 link connects to ESNET and thus to the Internet. Recent upgrades to the network have notably improved its efficiency, but the demand for bandwidth is ever increasing. By means of software and mechanisms still in development, computer systems at remote sites are playing an increasing role both in accessing and analyzing data and even participating in certain controlling aspects for the experiment. The advent of audio/video over the interest is now presenting a new means for remote sites to participate in the DIII-D program

  17. Interprocess communication within the DIII-D plasma control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piglowski, D.A.; Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.

    1999-06-01

    The DIII-D tokamak fusion research experiment's real-time digital plasma control system (PCS) is a complex and ever evolving system. During a plasma experiment, it is tasked with some of the most crucial functions at DIII-D. Key responsibilities of the PCS involve sub-system control, data acquisition/storage, and user interface. To accomplish these functions, the PCS is broken down into individual components (both software and hardware), each capable of handling a specific duty set. Constant interaction between these components is necessary prior, during and after a standard plasma cycle. Complicating the matter even more is that some components, mostly those which deal with user interaction, may exist remotely, that is to say they are not part of the immediate hardware which makes up the bulk of the PCS. The four main objectives of this paper are to (1) present a brief outline of the PCS hardware/software and how they relate to each other; (2) present a brief overview of a standard DIII-D plasma cycle (a shot); (3) using three sets of PCS sub-systems, describe in more detail the communication processes; and (4) evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of said systems

  18. Real-time identification of the resistive-wall-mode in DIII-D with Kalman filter ELM discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edgell, D.H.; Fransson, C.M.; Humphreys, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Garofalo, A.M.; Kim, J.S.; La Haye, R.J.; Okabayashi, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Strait, E.J.; Turnbull, A.D.

    2004-01-01

    The resistive-wall-mode (RWM) is a major performance-limiting instability in present-day tokamaks. Active control and stabilization of the mode will almost certainly be essential for the success of advanced tokamaks and for the economic viability of tokamak fusion reactors. High performance tokamak plasmas often experience edge-localized-modes (ELMs) which can interfere with RWM identification and control. If the RWM control scheme reacts to an ELM the RWM may be driven unstable instead of controlled. An algorithm for real-time identification of the RWM with discrimination of ELMs in the DIII-D tokamak has been developed using a combination of matched filter and Kalman filter methods. The algorithm has been implemented in DIII-D's real-time plasma control system (PCS) and is available to drive active mode control schemes

  19. ADX: A high Power Density, Advanced RF-Driven Divertor Test Tokamak for PMI studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whyte, Dennis; ADX Team

    2015-11-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment, ADX; a divertor test tokamak dedicated to address critical gaps in plasma-material interactions (PMI) science, and the world fusion research program, on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. Basic ADX design features are motivated and discussed. In order to assess the widest range of advanced divertor concepts, a large fraction (>50%) of the toroidal field volume is purpose-built with innovative magnetic topology control and flexibility for assessing different surfaces, including liquids. ADX features high B-field (>6 Tesla) and high global power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) in order to access the full range of parallel heat flux and divertor plasma pressures foreseen for reactors, while simultaneously assessing the effect of highly dissipative divertors on core plasma/pedestal. Various options for efficiently achieving high field are being assessed including the use of Alcator technology (cryogenic cooled copper) and high-temperature superconductors. The experimental platform would also explore advanced lower hybrid current drive and ion-cyclotron range of frequency actuators located at the high-field side; a location which is predicted to greatly reduce the PMI effects on the launcher while minimally perturbing the core plasma. The synergistic effects of high-field launchers with high total B on current and flow drive can thus be studied in reactor-relevant boundary plasmas.

  20. Prospects for Off-axis Current Drive via High Field Side Lower Hybrid Current Drive in DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wukitch, S. J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Wallace, G. M.; Bonoli, P. T.; Holcomb, C.; Park, J. M.; Pinsker, R. I.

    2017-10-01

    An outstanding challenge for an economical, steady state tokamak is efficient off-axis current drive scalable to reactors. Previous studies have focused on high field side (HFS) launch of lower hybrid waves for current drive (LHCD) in double null configurations in reactor grade plasmas. The goal of this work is to find a HFS LHCD scenario for DIII-D that balances coupling, power penetration and damping. The higher magnetic field on the HFS improves wave accessibility, which allows for lower n||waves to be launched. These waves penetrate farther into the plasma core before damping at higher Te yielding a higher current drive efficiency. Utilizing advanced ray tracing and Fokker Planck simulation tools (GENRAY+CQL3D), wave penetration, absorption and drive current profiles in high performance DIII-D H-Mode plasmas were investigated. We found LH scenarios with single pass absorption, excellent wave penetration to r/a 0.6-0.8, FWHM r/a=0.2 and driven current up to 0.37 MA/MW coupled. These simulations indicate that HFS LHCD has potential to achieve efficient off-axis current drive in DIII-D and the latest results will be presented. Work supported by U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Sciences, using User Facility DIII-D, under Award No. DE-FC02-04ER54698 and Contract No. DE-FC02-01ER54648 under Scientific Discovery through Advanced Computing Initiative.

  1. OEDGE modeling for the planned tungsten ring experiment on DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.D. Elder

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The OEDGE code is used to model tungsten erosion and transport for experiments with toroidal rings of high-Z metal tiles in the DIII-D tokamak. Such modeling is needed for both experimental and diagnostic design to have estimates of the expected core and edge tungsten density and to understand the various factors contributing to the uncertainties in these calculations. OEDGE simulations are performed using the planned experimental magnetic geometries and plasma conditions typical of both L-mode and inter-ELM H-mode discharges in DIII-D. OEDGE plasma reconstruction based on specific representative discharges for similar geometries is used to determine the plasma conditions applied to tungsten plasma impurity simulations. A new model for tungsten erosion in OEDGE was developed which imports charge-state resolved carbon impurity fluxes and impact energies from a separate OEDGE run which models the carbon production, transport and deposition for the same plasma conditions as the tungsten simulations. These values are then used to calculate the gross tungsten physical sputtering due to carbon plasma impurities which is then added to any sputtering by deuterium ions; tungsten self-sputtering is also included. The code results are found to be dependent on the following factors: divertor geometry and closure, the choice of cross-field anomalous transport coefficients, divertor plasma conditions (affecting both tungsten source strength and transport, the choice of tungsten atomic physics data used in the model (in particular ionization rate for W-atoms, and the model of the carbon flux and energy used for calculating the tungsten source due to sputtering. Core tungsten density is found to be of order 1015m−3 (excluding effects of any core transport barrier and with significant variability depending on the other factors mentioned with density decaying into the scrape off layer. For the typical core density in the plasma conditions examined of 2 to 4

  2. Investigation of Physical Processes Limiting Plasma Density in DIII--D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maingi, R.

    1996-11-01

    Understanding the physical processes which limit operating density is crucial in achieving peak performance in confined plasmas. Studies from many of the world's tokamaks have indicated the existence(M. Greenwald, et al., Nucl. Fusion 28) (1988) 2199 of an operational density limit (Greenwald limit, n^GW_max) which is proportional to the plasma current and independent of heating power. Several theories have reproduced the current dependence, but the lack of a heating power dependence in the data has presented an enigma. This limit impacts the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) because the nominal operating density for ITER is 1.5 × n^GW_max. In DIII-D, experiments are being conducted to understand the physical processes which limit operating density in H-mode discharges; these processes include X-point MARFE formation, high core recycling and neutral pressure, resistive MHD stability, and core radiative collapse. These processes affect plasma properties, i.e. edge/scrape-off layer conduction and radiation, edge pressure gradient and plasma current density profile, and core radiation, which in turn restrict the accessible density regime. With divertor pumping and D2 pellet fueling, core neutral pressure is reduced and X-point MARFE formation is effectively eliminated. Injection of the largest-sized pellets does cause transient formation of divertor MARFEs which occasionally migrate to the X-point, but these are rapidly extinguished in pumped discharges in the time between pellets. In contrast to Greenwald et al., it is found that the density relaxation time after pellets is largely independent of the density relative to the Greenwald limit. Fourier analysis of Mirnov oscillations indicates the de-stabilization and growth of rotating, tearing-type modes (m/n= 2/1) when the injected pellets cause large density perturbations, and these modes often reduce energy confinement back to L-mode levels. We are examining the mechanisms for de

  3. DIII-D tokamak control and neutral beam computer system upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; McHarg, B.B.; Piglowski, D.A.; Pham, D.; Phillips, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    This paper covers recent computer system upgrades made to the DIII-D tokamak control and neutral beam computer systems. The systems responsible for monitoring and controlling the DIII-D tokamak and injecting neutral beam power have recently come online with new computing hardware and software. The new hardware and software have provided a number of significant improvements over the previous Modcomp AEG VME and accessware based systems. These improvements include the incorporation of faster, less expensive, and more readily available computing hardware which have provided performance increases of up to a factor 20 over the prior systems. A more modern graphical user interface with advanced plotting capabilities has improved feedback to users on the operating status of the tokamak and neutral beam systems. The elimination of aging and non supportable hardware and software has increased overall maintainability. The distinguishing characteristics of the new system include: (1) a PC based computer platform running the Redhat version of the Linux operating system; (2) a custom PCI CAMAC software driver developed by general atomics for the kinetic systems 2115 serial highway card; and (3) a custom developed supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) software package based on Kylix, an inexpensive interactive development environment (IDE) tool from borland corporation. This paper provides specific details of the upgraded computer systems

  4. Prospects for Edge Current Density Determination Using LIBEAM on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D.M. Thomas; A.S. Bozek; T.N. Carlstrom; D.K. Finkenthal; R. Jayakumar; M.A. Makowski; D.G. Nilson; T.H. Osborne; B.W. Rice; R.T. Snider

    2000-01-01

    The specific size and structure of the edge current profile has important effects on the MHD stability and ultimate performance of many advanced tokamak (AT) operating modes. This is true for both bootstrap and externally driven currents that may be used to tailor the edge shear. Absent a direct local measurement of j(r), the best alternative is a determination of the poloidal field. Measurements of the precision (0.1-0.01 o in magnetic pitch angle and 1-10 ms) necessary to address issues of stability and control and provide constraints for EFIT are difficult to do in the region of interest (ρ = 0.9-1.1). Using Zeeman polarization spectroscopy of the 2S-2P lithium resonance line emission from the DIII-D LIBEAM, measurements of the various field components may be made to the necessary precision in exactly the region of interest to these studies. Because of the negligible Stark mixing of the relevant atomic levels, this method of determining j(r) is insensitive to the large local electric fields typically found in enhanced confinement (H-mode) edges, and thus avoids an ambiguity common to Motional Stark Effect (MSE) measurements of B. Key issues for utilizing this technique include good beam quality, an optimum viewing geometry, and a suitable optical pre-filter to isolate the polarized emission line. A prospective diagnostic system for the DIII-D AT program will be described

  5. Long pulse high performance discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Wade, M.R.; Politzer, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Significant progress in obtaining high performance discharges lasting many energy confinement times in the DIII-D tokamak has been realized in recent experimental campaigns. Normalized performance ∼10 has been sustained for more than 5τ E with q min >1.5. (The normalized performance is measured by the product β N H 89 , indicating the proximity to the conventional β limits and energy confinement quality, respectively.) These H mode discharges have an ELMing edge and β min >1. The global parameters were chosen to optimize the potential for fully non-inductive current sustainment at high performance, which is a key program goal for the DIII-D facility. Measurement of the current density and loop voltage profiles indicate that ∼75% of the current in the present discharges is sustained non-inductively. The remaining ohmic current is localized near the half-radius. The electron cyclotron heating system is being upgraded to replace this remaining current with ECCD. Density and β control, which are essential for operating advanced tokamak discharges, were demonstrated in ELMing H mode discharges with β N H 89 ∼ 7 for up to 6.3 s or ∼34τ E . These discharges appear to have stationary current profiles with q min ∼1.05, in agreement with the current profile relaxation time ∼1.8 s. (author)

  6. Stability of negative central magnetic shear discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strait, E.J.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    Discharges with negative central magnetic shear (NCS) hold the promise of enhanced fusion performance in advanced tokamaks. However, stability to long wavelength magnetohydrodynamic modes is needed to take advantage of the improved confinement found in NCS discharges. The stability limits seen in DIII-D experiments depend on the pressure and current density profiles and are in good agreement with stability calculations. Discharges with a strongly peaked pressure profile reach a disruptive limit at low beta, β N = β (I/aB) -1 ≤ 2.5 (% m T/MA), caused by an n = 1 ideal internal kink mode or a global resistive instability close to the ideal stability limit. Discharges with a broad pressure profile reach a soft beta limit at significantly higher beta, β N = 4 to 5, usually caused by instabilities with n > 1 and usually driven near the edge of the plasma. With broad pressure profiles, the experimental stability limit is independent of the magnitude of negative shear but improves with the internal inductance, corresponding to lower current density near the edge of the plasma. Understanding of the stability limits in NCS discharges has led to record DIII-D fusion performance in discharges with a broad pressure profile and low edge current density

  7. Divertor characterization experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Allen, S.; Fenstermacher, M.; Hill, D.; Brown, M.; Jong, R.A.; Rognlien, T.; Rensink, M.; Smith, G.; Stambaugh, R.; Mahdavi, M.A.; Leonard, A.; West, P., Evans, T.

    1996-01-01

    Recent DIII-D experiments with enhanced Scrape-off Layer (SOL) diagnostics permit detailed characterization of the SOL and divertor plasma under various operating conditions. We observe two distinct plasma modes: attached and detached divertor plasmas. Detached plasmas are characterized by plate temperatures of only 1 to 2 eV. Simulation of detached plasmas using the UEDGE code indicate that volume recombination and charge exchange play an important role in achieving detachment. When the power delivered to the plate is reduced by enhanced radiation to the point that recycled neutrals can no longer be efficiently ionized, the plate temperature drops from around 10 eV to 1-2 eV. The low temperature region extends further off the plate as the power continues to be reduced, and charge exchange processes remove momentum, reducing the plasma flow. Volume recombination becomes important when the plasma flow is reduced sufficiently to permit recombination to compete with flow to the plate

  8. Edge radial electric field structure in quiescent H-mode plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burrell, K H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); West, W P [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Doyle, E J [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); DeGrassie, J S [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Gohil, P [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Greenfield, C M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551-9900 (United States); Kaplan, D H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lao, L L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Leonard, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M A [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551-9900 (United States); McKee, G R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706-1687 (United States); Solomon, W M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Thomas, D M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Wade, M R [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Wang, G [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Watkins, J G [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Zeng, L [University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)

    2004-05-01

    H-mode operation is the choice for next step tokamak devices based on either conventional or advanced tokamak physics. This choice, however, comes at a significant cost for both the conventional and advanced tokamaks because of the effects of edge localized modes (ELMs). ELMs can produce significant erosion in the divertor and can affect the {beta} limit and reduced core transport regions needed for advanced tokamak operation. Experimental results from DIII-D over the past four years have demonstrated a new operating regime, the quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) regime, that solves these problems. QH-mode plasmas have now been run for over 4 s (>30 energy confinement times). Utilizing the steady-state nature of the QH-mode edge allows us to obtain unprecedented spatial resolution of the edge ion profiles and the edge radial electric field, E{sub r}, by sweeping the edge plasma slowly past the view points of the charge exchange spectroscopy system. We have investigated the effects of direct edge ion orbit loss on the creation and sustainment of the QH-mode. Direct loss of ions injected into the velocity-space loss cone at the plasma edge is not necessary for creation or sustainment of the QH-mode. The direct ion orbit loss has little effect on the edge E{sub r} well. The E{sub r} at the bottom of the well in these cases is about -100 kV m{sup -1} compared with -20 to -30 kV m{sup -1} in the standard H-mode. The well is about 1 cm wide, which is close to the diameter of the deuteron gyro-orbit. We also have investigated the effect of changing edge triangularity by changing the plasma shape from upwardly biased single null to magnetically balanced double null. We have now achieved the QH-mode in these double-null plasmas. The increased triangularity allows us to increase pedestal density in QH-mode plasmas by a factor of about 2.5 and overall pedestal pressure by a factor of 2. Pedestal {beta} and {nu}{sup *} values matching the values desired for ITER have been achieved. In

  9. Development of a Closed Loop Simulator for Poloidal Field Control in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.A. Leuer; M.L. Walker; D.A. Humphreys; J.R. Ferron; A. Nerem; B.G. Penaflor

    1999-01-01

    The design of a model-based simulator of the DIII-D poloidal field system is presented. The simulator is automatically configured to match a particular DIII-D discharge circuit. The simulator can be run in a data input mode, in which prior acquired DIII-D shot data is input to the simulator, or in a stand-alone predictive mode, in which the model operates in closed loop with the plasma control system. The simulator is used to design and validate a multi-input-multi-output controller which has been implemented on DIII-D to control plasma shape. Preliminary experimental controller results are presented

  10. Recent advances towards a lithium vapor box divertor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.J. Goldston

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Fusion power plants are likely to require near complete detachment of the divertor plasma from the divertor target plates, in order to have both acceptable heat flux at the target to avoid prompt damage and also acceptable plasma temperature at the target surface, to minimize long-term erosion. However hydrogenic and impurity puffing experiments show that detached operation leads easily to x-point MARFEs, impure plasmas, degradation in confinement, and lower helium pressure at the exhaust. The concept of the Lithium Vapor Box Divertor is to use local evaporation and strong differential pumping through condensation to localize low-Z gas-phase material that absorbs the plasma heat flux and so achieve detachment while avoiding these difficulties. The vapor localization has been confirmed using preliminary Navier–Stokes calculations. We use ADAS calculations of εcool, the plasma energy lost per injected lithium atom, to estimate the lithium vapor pressure, and so temperature, required for detachment, taking into account power balance. We also develop a simple model of detachment to evaluate the required upstream density, based on further taking into account dynamic pressure balance. A remarkable general result is found, not just for lithium-vapor-induced detachment, that the upstream density divided by the Greenwald-limit density scales as nup/nGW ∝ (P5/8/B3/8 Tdet1/2/(εcool+γTdet, with no explicit size scaling. Tdet is the temperature just before strong pressure loss, assumed to be ∼ ½ of the ionization potential of the dominant recycling species, and γ is the sheath heat transmission factor.

  11. Avoidance of Tearing Mode Locking and Disruption with Electro-Magnetic Torque Introduced by Feedback-based Mode Rotation Control in DIII-D and RFX-mod

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okabayashi, M. [PPPL; Zanca, P. [Euratom-ENEA; Strait, E. J. [General Atomics

    2014-09-01

    Disruptions caused by tearing modes (TMs) are considered to be one of the most critical roadblocks to achieving reliable, steady-state operation of tokamak fusion reactors. Here we have demonstrated a very promising scheme to avoid such disruptions by utilizing the electro-magnetic (EM) torque produced with 3D coils that are available in many tokamaks. In this scheme, the EM torque to the modes is created by a toroidal phase shift between the externally-applied field and the excited TM fields, compensating for the mode momentum loss due to the interaction with the resistive wall and uncorrected error fields. Fine control of torque balance is provided by a feedback scheme. We have explored this approach in two vastly different devices and plasma conditions: DIII-D and RFX-mod operated in tokamak mode. In DIII-D, the plasma target was high βN plasmas in a non-circular divertor tokamak. In RFX-mod, the plasma was ohmically-heated plasma with ultralow safety factor in a circular limiter discharge of active feedback coils outside the thick resistive shell. The DIII-D and RFX-mod experiments showed remarkable consistency with theoretical predictions of torque balance. The application to ignition-oriented devices such as International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) would expand the horizon of its operational regime. The internal 3D coil set currently under consideration for edge localized mode suppression in ITER would be well suited to this purpose.

  12. High beta tokamak operation in DIII-D limited at low density/collisionality by resistive tearing modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    The maximum operational high beta in single-null divertor (SND) long pulse tokamak discharges in the DIII-D tokamak with a cross-sectional shape similar to the proposed International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) device is found to be limited by the onset of resistive instabilities that have the characteristics of neoclassically destabilized tearing modes. There is a soft limit due to the onset of an m/n=3/2 rotating tearing mode that saturates at low amplitude and a hard limit at slightly higher beta due to the onset of an m/n=2/1 rotating tearing mode that grows, slows down and locks. By operating at higher density and thus collisionality, the practical beta limit due to resistive tearing modes approaches the ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) limit. (author). 15 refs, 4 figs

  13. Neutral beam current drive scaling in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, G.D.; Bhadra, D.K.; Burrell, K.H.

    1989-03-01

    Neutral beam current drive scaling experiments have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics. These experiments were performed using up to 10 MW of 80 keV hydrogen beams. Previous current drive experiments on DIII-D have demonstrated beam driven currents up to 340 kA. In the experiments reported here we achieved beam driven currents of at least 500 kA, and have obtained operation with record values of poloidal beta (εβ/sub p/ = 1.4). The beam driven current reported here is obtained from the total plasma current by subtracting an estimate of the residual Ohmic current determined from the measured loop voltage. In this report we discuss the scaling of the current drive efficiency with plasma conditions. Using hydrogen neutral beams, we find the current drive efficiency is similar in Deuterium and Helium target plasmas. Experiments have been performed with plasma electron temperatures up to T/sub e/ = 3 keV, and densities in the range 2 /times/ 10 19 m/sup /minus/3/ 19 m/sup /minus/3/. The current drive efficiency (nIR/P) is observed to scale linearly with the energy confinement time on DIII-D to a maximum of 0.05 /times/ 10 20 m/sup /minus/2/ A/W. The measured efficiency is consistent with a 0-D theoretical model. In addition to comparison with this simple model, detailed analysis of several shots using the time dependent transport code ONETWO is discussed. This analysis indicates that bootstrap current contributes approximately 10--20% of the the total current. Our estimates of this effect are somewhat uncertain due to limited measurements of the radial profile of the density and temperatures. 4 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  14. IMPROVEMENTS TO THE CRYOGENIC CONTROL SYSTEM ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HOLTROP, K.L; ANDERSON, P.M; MAUZEY, P.S.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 The cryogenic facility that is part of the DIII-D tokamak system supplies liquid nitrogen and liquid helium to the superconducting magnets used for electron cyclotron heating, the D 2 pellet injection system, cryopumps in the DIII-D vessel, and cryopanels in the neutral beam injection system. The liquid helium is liquefied on site using a Sulzer liquefier that has a 150 l/h liquefaction rate. Control of the cryogenic facility at DIII-D was initially accomplished through the use of three different programmable logic controllers (PLCs). Recently, two of those three PLCs, a Sattcon PLC controlling the Sulzer liquefier and a Westinghouse PLC, were removed and all their control logic was merged into the remaining PLC, a Siemens T1555. This replacement was originally undertaken because the removed PLCs were obsolete and unsupported. However, there have been additional benefits from the replacement. The replacement of the RS-232 serial links between the graphical user interface and the PLCs with a high speed Ethernet link allows for real-time display and historical trending of nearly all the cryosystem's data. this has greatly increased the ability to troubleshoot problems with the system, and has permitted optimization of the cryogenic system's performance because of the increased system integration. To move the control logic of the Sattcon control loops into the T1555, an extensive modification of the basic PID control was required. These modifications allow for better control of the control loops and are now being incorporated in other control loops in the system

  15. Far SOL transport and main wall plasma interaction in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.L.; Boedo, J.A.; Moyer, R.A.; Doerner, R.P.; Hollmann, E.M.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Stangeby, P.C.; McLean, A.G.; Watkins, J.G.; Wampler, W.R.; Whyte, D.G.; McKee, G.R.; Zeng, L.; Wang, G.; Brooks, N.H.; Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; Mahdavi, M.A.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.P.C.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Lasnier, C.J.

    2005-01-01

    Far scrape-off layer (SOL) and near-wall plasma parameters in DIII-D depend strongly on the discharge parameters and confinement regime. In L-mode discharges cross-field transport increases with the average discharge density and flattens far SOL profiles, thus increasing plasma-wall contact. In H-mode between edge localized modes (ELMs), plasma-wall contact is generally weaker than in L-mode. During ELMs plasma fluxes to the wall increase to, or above the L-mode levels. Depending on the discharge conditions ELMs are responsible for 30-90% of the ion flux to the outboard chamber wall. Cross-field fluxes in far SOL are dominated by large amplitude intermittent transport events that may propagate all the way to the outer wall and cause sputtering. A Divertor Material Evaluation System (DiMES) probe containing samples of several ITER-relevant materials including carbon, beryllium and tungsten was exposed to a series of upper single null (USN) discharges as a proxy to measure the first wall erosion. (author)

  16. Wide-angle ITER-prototype tangential infrared and visible viewing system for DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lasnier, C. J., E-mail: lasnier@LLNL.gov; Allen, S. L.; Ellis, R. E.; Fenstermacher, M. E.; McLean, A. G.; Meyer, W. H.; Morris, K.; Seppala, L. G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94551-0808 (United States); Crabtree, K. [College of Optics, University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721 (United States); Van Zeeland, M. A. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    An imaging system with a wide-angle tangential view of the full poloidal cross-section of the tokamak in simultaneous infrared and visible light has been installed on DIII-D. The optical train includes three polished stainless steel mirrors in vacuum, which view the tokamak through an aperture in the first mirror, similar to the design concept proposed for ITER. A dichroic beam splitter outside the vacuum separates visible and infrared (IR) light. Spatial calibration is accomplished by warping a CAD-rendered image to align with landmarks in a data image. The IR camera provides scrape-off layer heat flux profile deposition features in diverted and inner-wall-limited plasmas, such as heat flux reduction in pumped radiative divertor shots. Demonstration of the system to date includes observation of fast-ion losses to the outer wall during neutral beam injection, and shows reduced peak wall heat loading with disruption mitigation by injection of a massive gas puff.

  17. Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrassie, J.S.; Baker, D.R.; Burrell, K.H.

    1999-05-01

    In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current

  18. Experiments at high elongations in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Turnbull, A.D.; Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Helton, F.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leuer, J.A.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1990-06-01

    In this paper we discuss the limitation to elongation observed in D-shaped plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. We find that as the triangularity is increased and ell i is decreased that the n = 0 mode takes on an increasingly non-rigid character. Our analysis shows two aspects of the behavior; first, an increasing variation of the m/n = 1/0 component across flux surfaces and second, an increase in the relative amplitude of a m/n = 3/0 component which couples to the m/n = 1/0 component and further destabilizes the mode

  19. Design of the vacuum control system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, G.L.; Callis, R.W.; Haskovec, J.S.; Heckman, E.J.; Moore, C.D.; Scoville, J.T.

    1986-01-01

    The vacuum control and instrumentation for the DIII-D upgrade was designed using a new large programmable controller with color graphic operator interfaces and intelligent distributed devices. Remote, optically isolated input and output is used as well as optical isolation for the operator and programming consoles. Gate valves between experimental equipment and the vacuum vessel are interlocked for machine safety by an intelligent interface based upon a commercially available microcontroller card. Complete automatic operation with capability for remote operator intervention was one goal of this design effort. The design of the system with emphasis on the graphics, optical isolation and microcontroller implementation will be discussed

  20. Plasma rotation and rf heating in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grassie, J. S. de; Baker, D. R.; Burrell, K. H.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Luce, T. C.; Petty, C. C.; Prater, R.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Rice, B. W.

    1999-01-01

    In a variety of discharge conditions on DIII-D it is observed that rf electron heating reduces the toroidal rotation speed and core ion temperature. The rf heating can be with either fast wave or electron cyclotron heating and this effect is insensitive to the details of the launched toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date all target discharges have rotation first established with co-directed neutral beam injection. A possible cause is enhanced ion momentum and thermal diffusivity due to electron heating effectively creating greater anomalous viscosity. Another is that a counter directed toroidal force is applied to the bulk plasma via rf driven radial current. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  1. Progress Towards Increased Understanding and Control of Internal Transport Barriers on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, E. J. [University of California, Los Angeles; Greenfield, C. M. [General Atomics; Austin, M. E. [University of Texas, Austin; Baylor, Larry R [ORNL; Burrell, K. H. [General Atomics; Casper, T. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); DeBoo, J. C. [General Atomics; Ernst, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Fenzi, C. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Gohil, P. [General Atomics; Groebner, R. J. [General Atomics; Heidbrink, W. W. [University of California, Irvine; Jackson, G. L. [General Atomics; Jernigan, Thomas C [ORNL; Kinsey, J. E. [Lehigh University, Bethlehem, PA; Lao, L. L. [General Atomics; Makowski, M. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Mckee, G. R. [University of Wisconsin, Madison; Murakami, Masanori [ORNL; Peebles, W. A. [University of California, Los Angeles; Prater, R. [General Atomics; Rettig, C. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Rhodes, T. L. [University of California, Los Angeles; Rost, J. C. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Staebler, G. M. [General Atomics; Stallard, B. W. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); Strait, E. J. [General Atomics; Synakowski, E. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL); Thomas, D. M. [General Atomics; Wade, Mickey R [ORNL; Waltz, R. E. [General Atomics; Zeng, L. [University of California, Los Angeles

    2001-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made towards both understanding and control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) on DIII-D, resulting in the discovery of a new sustained high performance operating mode termed the Quiescent Double-Barrier (QDB) regime. The QDB regime combines core transport barriers with a quiescent, ELM-free H-mode edge (termed QH-mode), giving rise to separate (double) core and edge transport barriers. The core and edge barriers are mutually compatible and do not merge, resulting in broad core profiles with an edge pedestal. The QH-mode edge is characterized by ELM-free behavior with continuous multiharmonic MHD activity in the pedestal region, and has provided density and impurity control for 3.5 s (>20 τE) with divertor pumping. QDB plasmas are long-pulse high-performance candidates, having maintained a βNH89 product of 7 for 5 energy confinement times (Ti ≤ 16 keV, βN ≤ 2.9, H89 ≤ 2.4, τE ≤ 150 ms, DD neutron rate Sn ≤ 4x1015 s-1). The QDB regime has only been obtained in counter-NBI discharges (injection anti-parallel to plasma current) with divertor pumping. Other results include successful expansion of the ITB radius using (separately) both impurity injection and counter-NBI, and the formation of ITBs in the electron thermal channel using both ECH and strong negative central shear (NCS) at high power. These results are interpreted within a theoretical framework in which turbulence suppression is the key to ITB formation and control, and a decrease in core turbulence is observed in all cases of ITB formation.

  2. Progress towards increased understanding and control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Greenfield, C.M.; Austin, M.E.

    2001-01-01

    Substantial progress has been made towards both understanding and control of internal transport barriers (ITBs) on DIII-D, resulting in the discovery of a new sustained high performance operating mode termed the Quiescent Double-Barrier (QDB) regime. The QDB regime combines core transport barriers with a quiescent, ELM-free H-mode edge (termed QH-mode), giving rise to separate (double) core and edge transport barriers. The core and edge barriers are mutually compatible and do not merge, resulting in broad core profiles with an edge pedestal. The QH-mode edge is characterized by ELM-free behavior with continuous multiharmonic MHD activity in the pedestal region, and has provided density and impurity control for 3.5 s (>20 τ E ) with divertor pumping. QDB plasmas are long-pulse high-performance candidates, having maintained a β N H 89 product of 7 for 5 energy confinement times (T i ≤16 keV, β N ≤2.9, H 89 ≤2.4, τ E ≤150 ms, DD neutron rate S n ≤4x10 15 s -1 ). The QDB regime has only been obtained in counter-NBI discharges (injection anti-parallel to plasma current) with divertor pumping. Other results include successful expansion of the ITB radius using (separately) both impurity injection and counter-NBI, and the formation of ITBs in the electron thermal channel using both ECH and strong negative central shear (NCS) at high power. These results are interpreted within a theoretical framework in which turbulence suppression is the key to ITB formation and control, and a decrease in core turbulence is observed in all cases of ITB formation. (author)

  3. Effect of variation in equilibrium shape on ELMing H-mode performance in DIII-D diverted plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Osborne, T.H.; Petrie, T.W.

    2001-01-01

    The changes in the performance of the core, pedestal, scrape-off-layer (SOL), and divertor plasmas as a result of changes in triangularity, δ, up/down magnetic balance, and secondary divertor volume were examined in shape variation experiments using ELMing H mode plasmas on DIII-D. In moderate density, unpumped plasmas, high δ∼0.7 increased the energy in the H mode pedestal and the global energy confinement of the core, primarily due to an increase in the margin by which the edge pressure gradient exceeded the value which would have been expected had it been limited by infinite-n ideal ballooning modes. In addition, a nearly balanced double-null (DN) shape was effective for sharing the peak heat flux in the divertor in these attached plasmas. For detached plasmas good heat flux sharing was obtained for a substantial range of unbalanced DN shapes. Finally, the presence of a second X-point in unbalanced DN shapes did not degrade the plasma performance if it was sufficiently far inside the vacuum vessel. These results indicate that a high δ unbalanced DN shape has some advantages over a single null shape for future high power tokamak operation. (author)

  4. Homoclinic tangle of the ideal separatrix in the DIII-D tokamak from (30, 10) + (40, 10) perturbation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Punjabi, Alkesh

    2014-01-01

    Trajectories of magnetic field lines are a 1½ degree of freedom Hamiltonian system. The perturbed separatrix in a divertor tokamak is radically different from the unperturbed one. This is because magnetic asymmetries cause the separatrix to form extremely complicated structures called homoclinic tangles. The shape of flux surfaces in the edge region of divertor tokamaks such as the DIII (J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)) is fundamentally different from near-circular. Recently, a new method is developed to calculate the homoclinic tangle and lobes of the separatrix of divertor tokamaks in physical space (A. Punjabi and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 378, 2410 (2014)). This method is based on three elements: preservation of the two invariants—symplectic and topological neighborhood—and a new set of canonical coordinates called the natural canonical coordinates. The very complicated shape of edge surfaces can be represented very accurately and very realistically in these new coordinates (A. Punjabi and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 122502 (2008); A. Punjabi, Nucl. Fusion 49, 115020 (2009)). A symplectic map in the new coordinates can advance the separatrix manifold forward and backward in time. Every time the two manifolds meet in a fixed poloidal plane, they intersect and form homoclinic tangle to preserve the two invariants. The new coordinates can be mapped to physical space and the dynamical evolution of the homoclinic tangle can be seen and pictured in physical space. Here, the new method is applied to the DIII-D tokamak to study the basic features of the homoclinic tangle of the unperturbed separatrix from two Fourier components, which represent the peeling-ballooning modes of equal amplitude and no radial dependence, and the results are analyzed. Homoclinic tangle has a very complicated structure and becomes extremely complicated for as the lines take more toroidal turns, especially near the X-point. Homoclinic tangle is the most

  5. Homoclinic tangle of the ideal separatrix in the DIII-D tokamak from (30, 10) + (40, 10) perturbation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Punjabi, Alkesh [Hampton University, Hampton, Virginia 23668 (United States)

    2014-12-15

    Trajectories of magnetic field lines are a 1½ degree of freedom Hamiltonian system. The perturbed separatrix in a divertor tokamak is radically different from the unperturbed one. This is because magnetic asymmetries cause the separatrix to form extremely complicated structures called homoclinic tangles. The shape of flux surfaces in the edge region of divertor tokamaks such as the DIII (J. L. Luxon and L. G. Davis, Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)) is fundamentally different from near-circular. Recently, a new method is developed to calculate the homoclinic tangle and lobes of the separatrix of divertor tokamaks in physical space (A. Punjabi and A. Boozer, Phys. Lett. A 378, 2410 (2014)). This method is based on three elements: preservation of the two invariants—symplectic and topological neighborhood—and a new set of canonical coordinates called the natural canonical coordinates. The very complicated shape of edge surfaces can be represented very accurately and very realistically in these new coordinates (A. Punjabi and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 122502 (2008); A. Punjabi, Nucl. Fusion 49, 115020 (2009)). A symplectic map in the new coordinates can advance the separatrix manifold forward and backward in time. Every time the two manifolds meet in a fixed poloidal plane, they intersect and form homoclinic tangle to preserve the two invariants. The new coordinates can be mapped to physical space and the dynamical evolution of the homoclinic tangle can be seen and pictured in physical space. Here, the new method is applied to the DIII-D tokamak to study the basic features of the homoclinic tangle of the unperturbed separatrix from two Fourier components, which represent the peeling-ballooning modes of equal amplitude and no radial dependence, and the results are analyzed. Homoclinic tangle has a very complicated structure and becomes extremely complicated for as the lines take more toroidal turns, especially near the X-point. Homoclinic tangle is the most

  6. A phase contrast interferometer on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coda, S.; Porkolab, M.; Carlstrom, T.N.

    1992-04-01

    A novel imaging diagnostic has recently become operational on the DIII-D tokamak for the study of density fluctuations at the outer edge of the plasma. The phase contrast imaging approach overcomes the limitations of conventional scattering techniques in the spectral range of interest for transport-related phenomena, by allowing detection of long wavelength modes (up to 7.6 cm) with excellent spatial resolution (5 mm) in the radial direction. Additional motivation for the diagnostic is provided by wave-plasma interactions during heating and current drive experiments in the Ion Cyclotron range of frequencies. Density perturbations of 4 x 10 7 cm -3 with a 1 MHz bandwidth can be resolved. The diagnostic employs a 7.6 cm diameter CO 2 laser beam launched vertically across the plasma edge. An image of the plasma is then created on a 16-element detector array: the detector signals are directly proportional to the density fluctuations integrated along each chord. Wavelengths and correlation lengths can be inferred from the spatial mapping. The phase contrast method and its application to DIII-D are described and tests and first plasma data are presented

  7. Tritium in the DIII-D carbon tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Lee, R.L.

    1993-06-01

    The amount of tritium in the carbon tiles used as a first wall in the DIII-D tokamak was measured recently when the tiles were removed and cleaned. The measurements were made as part of the task of developing the appropriate safety procedures for processing of the tiles. The surface tritium concentration on the carbon tiles was surveyed and the total tritium released from tile samples was measured in test bakes. The total tritium in all the carbon tiles at the time the tiles were removed for cleaning is estimated to be 15 mCi and the fraction of tritium retained in the tiles from DIII-D operations has a lower bound of 10%. The tritium was found to be concentrated in a narrow surface layer on the plasma facing side of the tile, was fully released when baked to 1,000 degree C, and was released in the form of tritiated gas (DT) as opposed to tritiated water (DTO) when baked

  8. The ground-fault detection system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scoville, J.T.; Petersen, P.I.

    1987-10-01

    This paper presents a discussion of the ground-fault detection systems on the DIII-D tokamak. The subsystems that must be monitored for an inadvertent ground include the toroidal and poloidal coil systems, the vacuum vessel, and the coil support structures. In general, one point of each coil is tied to coil/power supply ground through a current limiting resistor. For ground protection the current through this resistor is monitored using a dynamically feedback balanced Hall probe transducer from LEM Industries. When large inductive currents flow in closed loops near the tokamak, the result is undesirable magnetic error fields in the plasma region and noise generation on signal cables. Therefore, attention must be paid to avoid closed loops in the design of the coil and vessel support structure. For DIII-D a concept of dual insulating breaks and a single-point ground for all structure elements was used to satisfy this requirement. The integrity of the support structure is monitored by a system which continuously attempts to couple a variable frequency waveform onto these single-point grounds. The presence of an additional ground completes the circuit resulting in current flow. A Rogowski coil is then used to track the unwanted ground path in order to eliminate it. Details of the ground fault detection circuitry, and a description of its operation will be presented. 2 refs., 7 figs

  9. A fast scanning probe for DIII--D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J.G.; Salmonson, J.; Moyer, R.; Doerner, R.; Lehmer, R.; Schmitz, L.; Hill, D.N.

    1992-01-01

    A fast reciprocating probe has been developed for DIII--D which can penetrate the separatrix during H mode with up to 5 MW of NBI heating. The probe has been designed to carry various sensor tips into the scrape-off layer at a velocity of 3 m/s and dwell motionless for a programmed period of time. The driving force is provided by a pneumatic cylinder charged with helium to facilitate greater mass flow. The first series of experiments have been done using a Langmuir probe head with five graphite tips to measure radial profiles of n e , T e , φ f , n e , and φ f . The amplitude and phase of the fluctuating quantities are measured by using specially constructed vacuum compatible 5-kV coaxial transmission lines which allow us to extend the measurements into the MHz range. TTZ ceramic bearings and fast stroke bellows were also specially designed for the DIII--D probe. Initial measurements will be presented

  10. The back transition and hysteresis effects in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Osborne, T.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.

    1997-09-01

    The back transition from H-mode to L-mode has been studied on DIII-D as a part of the investigation of the L-H transition power threshold scaling. Based on a density-dependent scaling for the H-mode power threshold, ITER will require substantial hysteresis in this parameter to remain in H-mode as n e rises. Defining the hysteresis in terms of the ratio of sustaining to threshold power, P HL /P LH may need to be as small as 50% for ITER. Operation of DIII-D at injection powers slightly above the H-mode threshold results in an oscillatory behavior with multiple forward-backward transitions in the course of a discharge. These discharges represent a unique system for studying various control parameters that may influence the H↔L state transition. Careful analysis of the power flow through the edge gives values for the sustaining power which are well below the corresponding threshold powers (P HL /P LH = 35--70%), indicating substantial hysteresis can be achieved in this parameter. Studies of other control parameter candidates such as edge temperature during the back transitions are less clear: the amount of hysteresis seen in these parameters, if any, is primarily dependent on the nature (ELMing, ELM-free) of the parent H-state

  11. Remote collaboration and data access at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.

    1998-09-01

    As the number of on-site and remote collaborators has increased, the demands on the DIII-D National Program's computational infrastructure has become more severe. The Director of the DIII-D Program recognized the increased importance of computers in carrying out the DIII-D mission and in late 1997 formed the Data Analysis Programming Group. Utilizing both software and hardware improvements, this new group has been charged with increasing the DIII-D data analysis throughput and data retrieval rate. Understanding the importance of the remote collaborators, this group has developed a long term plan that will allow for fast 24 hour data access (7x24) with complete documentation and a set of data viewing and analysis tools that can be run either on the collaborators' or DIII-D's computer systems. This paper presents the group's long term plan and progress to date

  12. Experiment and Modeling of ITER Demonstration Discharges in the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jin Myung; Doyle, E. J.; Ferron, J.R.; Holcomb, C.T.; Jackson, G.L.; Lao, L.L.; Luce, T.C.; Owen, Larry W.; Murakami, Masanori; Osborne, T.H.; Politzer, P.A.; Prater, R.; Snyder, P.B.

    2011-01-01

    DIII-D is providing experimental evaluation of 4 leading ITER operational scenarios: the baseline scenario in ELMing H-mode, the advanced inductive scenario, the hybrid scenario, and the steady state scenario. The anticipated ITER shape, aspect ratio and value of I/αB were reproduced, with the size reduced by a factor of 3.7, while matching key performance targets for β N and H 98 . Since 2008, substantial experimental progress was made to improve the match to other expected ITER parameters for the baseline scenario. A lower density baseline discharge was developed with improved stationarity and density control to match the expected ITER edge pedestal collisionality (ν* e ∼ 0.1). Target values for β N and H 98 were maintained at lower collisionality (lower density) operation without loss in fusion performance but with significant change in ELM characteristics. The effects of lower plasma rotation were investigated by adding counter-neutral beam power, resulting in only a modest reduction in confinement. Robust preemptive stabilization of 2/1 NTMs was demonstrated for the first time using ECCD under ITER-like conditions. Data from these experiments were used extensively to test and develop theory and modeling for realistic ITER projection and for further development of its optimum scenarios in DIII-D. Theory-based modeling of core transport (TGLF) with an edge pedestal boundary condition provided by the EPED1 model reproduces T e and T i profiles reasonably well for the 4 ITER scenarios developed in DIII-D. Modeling of the baseline scenario for low and high rotation discharges indicates that a modest performance increase of ∼ 15% is needed to compensate for the expected lower rotation of ITER. Modeling of the steady-state scenario reproduces a strong dependence of confinement, stability, and noninductive fraction (f NI ) on q 95 , as found in the experimental I p scan, indicating that optimization of the q profile is critical to simultaneously achieving the

  13. Progress toward fully noninductive, high beta conditions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.; Greenfield, C.M.; Luce, T.C.; Ferron, J.R.; St John, H.E.; DeBoo, J.C.; Osborne, T.H.; Petty, C.C.; Politzer, P.A.; Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Gorelov, I.A.; Groebner, R.J.; Hyatt, A.W.; Kajiwara, K.; La Haye, R.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leonard, A.W.; Lohr, J.

    2006-01-01

    The DIII-D Advanced Tokamak (AT) program in the DIII-D tokamak [J. L. Luxon, Plasma Physics and Controlled Fusion Research, 1986, Vol. I (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), p. 159] is aimed at developing a scientific basis for steady-state, high-performance operation in future devices. This requires simultaneously achieving 100% noninductive operation with high self-driven bootstrap current fraction and toroidal beta. Recent progress in this area includes demonstration of 100% noninductive conditions with toroidal beta, β T =3.6%, normalized beta, β N =3.5, and confinement factor, H 89 =2.4 with the plasma current driven completely by bootstrap, neutral beam current drive, and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD). The equilibrium reconstructions indicate that the noninductive current profile is well aligned, with little inductively driven current remaining anywhere in the plasma. The current balance calculation improved with beam ion redistribution that was supported by recent fast ion diagnostic measurements. The duration of this state is limited by pressure profile evolution, leading to magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instabilities after about 1 s or half of a current relaxation time (τ CR ). Stationary conditions are maintained in similar discharges (∼90% noninductive), limited only by the 2 s duration (1τ CR ) of the present ECCD systems. By discussing parametric scans in a global parameter and profile databases, the need for low density and high beta are identified to achieve full noninductive operation and good current drive alignment. These experiments achieve the necessary fusion performance and bootstrap fraction to extrapolate to the fusion gain, Q=5 steady-state scenario in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) [R. Aymar et al., Fusion Energy Conference on Controlled Fusion and Plasma Physics, Sorrento, Italy (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), paper IAEA-CN-77/OV-1]. The modeling tools that have

  14. Advances in optical thermometry for the ITER divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lott, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France)], E-mail: fraser.lott@gmail.com; Netchaieff, A. [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (LNE), ZA de Trappes-Elancourt, 29 avenue Roger Hennequin, 78197 TRAPPES Cedex (France); Escourbiac, F. [CEA, IRFM, F-13108 St Paul lez Durance (France); Jouvelot, J.-L.; Constans, S. [AREVA NP, Centre Technique-FE200, Porte Magenta BP 181, 71205 Le Creusot (France); Hernandez, D. [Procedes, Materiaux et Energie Solaire (PROMES), Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), B.P. 5, 66125 Font-Romeu Cedex (France)

    2010-01-15

    Thermography will be an important diagnostic on the ITER tokamak, but the inclusion of reflective materials such as tungsten in the design for ITER's first wall and divertor region presents problems for optical temperature measurement. The ongoing testing of ITER plasma facing components (PFCs) provides an excellent opportunity to resolve such problems. This has focused on the variation of PFC emissivity with temperature and time, as well as environmental influence on thermography. The sensitivity of these systems to ambient temperature, due primarily to modification of the transmission of the optical path, has been established and minimised. The accuracy of the system is then sufficient to measure the variation of emissivity in heated material samples, by comparing its front-face luminance measured with an infrared camera to the temperature given by an implanted thermocouple. Measurements on both tungsten and carbon fibre composite are in broad agreement with theory, and thus give the material's function of emissivity with temperature at the start of its life. To determine its evolution, a bicolour pyroreflectometer was then installed. This uses two lasers to measure the reflectivity in addition to the luminance at two wavelengths, and thus the true temperature can be calculated. This was validated against the instrumented sample, then used along with the camera to observe an ITER mock-up during {approx}50,000 s of 5 MW/m{sup 2} testing. Emissivity was seen to vary little in the 500 deg. C region. Higher temperature tests are ongoing.

  15. Experiments at high elongations in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Turnbull, A.D.; Kellman, A.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Helton, F.J.; Lao, L.L.; Leuer, J.A.; Strait, E.J.; Taylor, T.S.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the limitation to elongation observed in D-shaped plasmas in the DIII-D tokamak. We find that as the triangularity is increased and ell i is decreased that the n = O mode takes on an increasingly non-rigid character. Our analysis shows two aspects of the behavior: first, an increasing variation of the m/n = 1/0 component across flux surfaces and second, an increase in the relative amplitude of a m/n = 3/0 component which couples to the m/n = 1/0 component and further destabilizes the mode. In previous work we have reported on study of vertical control and the implementation of those results on DIII-D. In that study we used a single filament, with properties consistent with the radial force balance, to represent the plasma and employed an eigenmode description of the passive shell in order to allow time-ordering of the problem. The most important result of this study was that the active control coil must be positioned in the poloidal plane so as to minimize its interaction with the stabilizing shell currents. As a consequence of plasma toroidicity, these currents flow primarily in the outboard regions of the shell. Thus, control coils on the inboard side of the shell, near the midplane, are required. With such a spatial arrangement we can have radial fields from the active coil penetrating the shell on a time scale faster than the decay of the stabilizing shell currents. In accordance with these model calculations the control system for DIII-D tokamak has been modified resulting in operation to within a few percent of the ideal MHD limit for axisymmetric stability. In this work we refer to the ideal MHD limit as that of the plasma-shell system. The ideal limit can actually be reduced by a poor choice of the active control coils, however that is not the case for work discussed here. 7 refs., 6 figs

  16. Long-pulse high-performance discharges in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Wade, M.R.; Politzer, P.A.

    2001-01-01

    Significant progress in obtaining high performance discharges for many energy confinement times in the DIII-D tokamak has been realized since the previous IAEA meeting. In relation to previous discharges, normalized performance ∼10 has been sustained for >5τ E with q min >1.5. (The normalized performance is measured by the product β N H 89 indicating the proximity to the conventional β limits and energy confinement quality, respectively.) These H-mode discharges have an ELMing edge and β≤5%. The limit to increasing β is a resistive wall mode, rather than the tearing modes previously observed. Confinement remains good despite the increase in q. The global parameters were chosen to optimize the potential for fully non-inductive current sustainment at high performance, which is a key program goal for the DIII-D facility in the next two years. Measurement of the current density and loop voltage profiles indicate ∼75% of the current in the present discharges is sustained non-inductively. The remaining ohmic current is localized near the half radius. The electron cyclotron heating system is being upgraded to replace this remaining current with ECCD. Density and β control, which are essential for operating advanced tokamak discharges, were demonstrated in ELMing H-mode discharges with β N H 89 ∼7 for up to 6.3 s or ∼34 τ E . These discharges appear to be in resistive equilibrium with q min ∼1.05, in agreement with the current profile relaxation time of 1.8 s. (author)

  17. LONG-PULSE, HIGH-PERFORMANCE DISCHARGES IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    T.C. LUCE; M.R. WADE; P.A. POLITZER; S.L. ALLEN; M E. AUSTIN; D.R. BAKER; B.D. BRAY; D.P. BRENNAN; K.H. BURRELL; T.A. CASPER; M.S. CHU; J.D. De BOO; E.J. DOYLE; J.R. FERRON; A.M. GAROFALO; P.GOHIL; I.A. GORELOV; C.M. GREENFIELD; R.J. GROEBNER; W.W. HEIBRINK; C.-L. HSIEH; A.W. HYATT; R.JAYAKUMAR; J.E.KINSEY; R.J. LA HAYE; L.L. LAO; C.J. LASNIER; E.A. LAZARUS; A.W. LEONARD; Y.R. LIN-LIU; J. LOHR; M.A. MAKOWSKI; M. MURAKAMI; C.C. PETTY; R.I. PINSKER; R. PRATER; C.L. RETTIG; T.L. RHODES; B.W. RICE; E.J. STRAIT; T.S. TAYLOR; D.M. THOMAS; A.D. TURNBULL; J.G. WATKINS; W.P.WEST; K.-L. WONG

    2000-01-01

    Significant progress in obtaining high performance discharges for many energy confinement times in the DIII-D tokamak has been realized since the previous IAEA meeting. In relation to previous discharges, normalized performance ∼10 has been sustained for >5 τ E with q min >1.5. (The normalized performance is measured by the product β N H 89 indicating the proximity to the conventional β limits and energy confinement quality, respectively.) These H-mode discharges have an ELMing edge and β ∼(le) 5%. The limit to increasing β is a resistive wall mode, rather than the tearing modes previously observed. Confinement remains good despite the increase in q. The global parameters were chosen to optimize the potential for fully non-inductive current sustainment at high performance, which is a key program goal for the DIII-D facility in the next two years. Measurement of the current density and loop voltage profiles indicate ∼75% of the current in the present discharges is sustained non-inductively. The remaining ohmic current is localized near the half radius. The electron cyclotron heating system is being upgraded to replace this remaining current with ECCD. Density and β control, which are essential for operating advanced tokamak discharges, were demonstrated in ELMing H-mode discharges with β N H 89 ∼ 7 for up to 6.3 s or ∼ 34 τ E . These discharges appear to be in resistive equilibrium with q min ∼ 1.05, in agreement with the current profile relaxation time of 1.8 s

  18. Progress Toward Long Pulse, High Performance Plasmas in the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P.A. Politzer; T.C. Luce; M.E. Austin; J.R. Ferron, A.M. Garofalo; C.M. Greenfield; A.W. Hyatt; R.J. La Haye; L.L. Lao; E.A. Lazarus; M.A. Makowski; M. Murakami; C.C. Petty; R.I. Pinsker; B.W. Rice; E.J. Strait, M.R. Wade; J.G. Watkins

    2000-01-01

    A major portion of the research program of the DIII-D tokamak collaboration is devoted to the development and demonstration of high performance advanced tokamak plasmas, with profiles as close as possible to those anticipated for steady-state operation. The work during the 1999 campaign has resulted in significant progress toward this goal. High normalized performance ((beta)(sub N)(approx) 4 and(beta)(sub N) H(sub 89)(approx) 9) discharges have been sustained for up to 2 s. These plasmas are in H-mode with rapid ELMs. The most common limiting phenomena are resistive wall modes (RWMs) rather than neoclassical tearing modes (NTMs). NTMs do occur, apparently triggered by the RWMs. The observed pressure is well above the calculated beta limit without a wall, and(beta)(sub N) and gt; 4(ell)(sub i) throughout the high performance phase. The bootstrap current is estimated to be and gt;50% of the total, and measurements of the internal loop voltage show that only about 25% of the current is inductively driven. The central q profile is flat, as is the calculated bootstrap current profile, due to the absence of any localized pressure gradients. The residual inductive current is localized around r/a(approx) 0.5. To demonstrate quasi-stationary operation, it will be necessary to replace the residual inductive current with ECCD at the same minor radius. To effectively apply ECH and ECCD to these discharges, density control will be needed. Preliminary experiments using the DIII-D cryopump have reduced the density by(approx)20%. A new EC power system and a new private flux cryopump will be available for the 2000 campaign

  19. The 110 GHz Gyrotron System on DIII-D: Gyrotron Tests and Physics Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, J.; Calahan, P.; Callis, R.W.

    1999-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak has installed a system with three gyrotrons at the 1 MW level operating at 110 GHz. Physics experiments on electron cyclotron current drive, heating, and transport have been performed. Good efficiency has been achieved both for on-axis and off-axis current drive with relevance for control of the current density profile leading to advanced regimes of tokamak operation, although there is a difference between off-axis ECCD efficiency inside and outside the magnetic axis. Heating efficiency is excellent and electron temperatures up to 10 keV have been achieved. The gyrotron system is versatile, with poloidal scan and control of the polarization of the injected rf beam. Phase correcting mirrors form a Gaussian beam and focus it into the waveguide. Both perpendicular and oblique launch into the tokamak have been used. Three different gyrotron designs are installed and therefore unique problems specific to each have been encountered, including parasitic oscillations, mode hops during modulation and polarization control problems. Two of the gyrotrons suffered damage during operations, one due to filament failure and one due to a vacuum leak. The repairs and subsequent testing will be described. The transmission system uses evacuated, windowless waveguide and the three gyrotrons have output windows of three different materials. One gyrotron uses a diamond window and generates a Gaussian beam directly. The development of the system and specific tests and results from each of the gyrotrons will be presented. The DIII-D project has committed to an upgrade of the system, which will add three gyrotrons in the 1 MW class, all using diamond output windows, to permit operation at up to ten seconds per pulse at one megawatt output for each gyrotron

  20. Comparison of heat flux measurement techniques during the DIII-D metal ring campaign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J. L.; Nygren, R. E.; Unterberg, E. A.; Watkins, J. G.; Makowski, M. A.; Moser, A.; Rudakov, D. L.; Buchenauer, D.

    2017-12-01

    The heat fluxes expected in the ITER divertor raise concerns about the damage tolerances of tungsten, especially due to thermal transients caused by edge localized modes (ELMs) as well as frequent temperature cycling from high to low extremes. Therefore we are motivated to understand the heat flux conditions that can cause not only enhanced erosion but also bulk thermo-mechanical damage to a tungsten divertor. For the metal ring campaign in DIII-D, tungsten-coated TZM tile inserts were installed making two toroidal arrays of metal tile inserts in the lower divertor. This study examines the deposited heat flux on these rings with embedded thermocouples (TCs) sampling at 10 kHz and compares them to Langmuir probe (LP) and infrared thermography (IRTV) heat flux measurements. We see agreement of the TC, LP, and IRTV data within 20% of the heat flux averaged over the entire discharge, and that all three diagnostics suggest parallel heat flux at the OSP location increases linearly with input heating power. The TC and LP heat flux time traces during the discharge trend together during large changes to the average heat flux. By subtracting the LP measured inter-ELM heat flux from TC data, using a rectangular ELM energy pulse shape, and taking the relative size and duration of each ELM from {{D}}α measurements, we extract the ELM heat fluxes from TC data. This over-estimates the IRTV measured ELM heat fluxes by a factor of 1.9, and could be due to the simplicity of the TC heat flux model and the assumed ELM energy pulse shape. ELM heat fluxes deposited on the inserts are used to model tungsten erosion in this campaign. These TC ELM heat flux estimates are used in addition to IRTV, especially in cases where the IRTV view to the metal ring is obstructed. We observe that some metal inserts were deformed due to exposed leading edges. The thermal conditions on these inserts are investigated with the thermal modeling code ABAQUS using our heat flux measurements when these edges

  1. Tangles of the ideal separatrix from low mn perturbation in the DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Talisa; Crank, Willie; Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2010-11-01

    The equilibrium EFIT data for the DIII-D shot 115467 at 3000 ms is used to construct the equilibrium generating function for magnetic field line trajectories in the DIII-D tokamak in natural canonical coordinates [A. Punjabi, and H. Ali, Phys. Plasmas 15, 122502 (2008); A. Punjabi, Nucl. Fusion 49, 115020 (2009)]. The generating function represents the axisymmetric magnetic geometry and the topology of the DIII-D shot very accurately. A symplectic map for field line trajectories in the natural canonical coordinates in the DIII-D is constructed. We call this map the DIII-D map. The natural canonical coordinates can be readily inverted to physical coordinates (R,φ,Z). Low mn magnetic perturbation with mode numbers (m,n)=(1,1)+(1,-1) is added to the generating function of the map. The amplitude for the low mn perturbation is chosen to be 6X10-4, which is the expected value of the amplitude in tokamaks. The forward and backward DIII-D maps with low mn perturbation are used to calculate the tangles of the ideal separatrix from low mn perturbation in the DIII-D. This work is supported by US Department of Energy grants DE-FG02-07ER54937, DE-FG02-01ER54624 and DE-FG02-04ER54793.

  2. Current status of DIII-D real-time digital plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Piglowski, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.

    1999-06-01

    This paper describes the current status of real-time digital plasma control for the DIII-D tokamak. The digital plasma control system (PCS) has been in place at DIII-D since the early 1990s and continues to expand and improve in its capabilities to monitor and control plasma parameters for DIII-D fusion science experiments. The PCs monitors over 200 tokamak parameters from the DIII-D experiment using a real-time data acquisition system that acquires a new set of samples once every 60 micros. This information is then used in a number of feedback control algorithms to compute and control a variety of parameters including those affecting plasma shape and position. A number of system related improvements has improved the usability and flexibility of the DIII-D PCS. These include more graphical user interfaces to assist in entering and viewing the large and ever growing number of parameters controlled by the PCS, increased interaction and accessibility from other DIII-D applications, and upgrades to the computer hardware and vended software. Future plans for the system include possible upgrades of the real-time computers, further links to other DIII-D diagnostic measurements such as real-time Thomson scattering analysis, and joint collaborations with other tokamak experiments including the NSTX at Princeton

  3. PC application in DIII-D neutral beam operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladd, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    An IBM PC/AT has been implemented to improve operation of the DIII-D neutral beams. The PC system provides centralization of all beam data with reasonable access for online shot-to-shot control and analysis. The PC hardware was configured to interface all four neutral beam host mini-computers, support multi-tasking, and provide storage for approximately one month's accumulation of beam data. The PC software is composed of commercial packages used for performance and statistical analysis (i.e. LOTUS 123, PC PLOT, etc.) host communications software (i.e. PCLINK, KERMIT, etc.) and applications developed software utilizing FORTRAN and BASIC. The objectives of this paper are to describe the implementation of the PC system, the methods of integrating the various software packages, and the scenario for online control and analysis

  4. Wall stabilization of high beta plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, T.S.; Strait, E.J.; Lao, L.L.; Turnbull, A.D.; Burrell, K.H.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J.; La Haye, R.J.; Mauel, M.

    1995-02-01

    Detailed analysis of recent high beta discharges in the DIII-D tokamak demonstrates that the resistive vacuum vessel can provide stabilization of low n magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes. The experimental beta values reaching up to β T = 12.6% are more than 30% larger than the maximum stable beta calculated with no wall stabilization. Plasma rotation is essential for stabilization. When the plasma rotation slows sufficiently, unstable modes with the characteristics of the predicted open-quotes resistive wallclose quotes mode are observed. Through slowing of the plasma rotation between the q = 2 and q = 3 surfaces with the application of a non-axisymmetric field, the authors have determined that the rotation at the outer rational surfaces is most important, and that the critical rotation frequency is of the order of Ω/2π = 1 kHz

  5. Magnetic Transport Barriers in the DIII-D Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, J.; Volpe, F.; Evans, T. E.; Ali, H.; Punjabi, A.

    2009-11-01

    Large overlapping magnetic islands generate chaotic fields. However, a previous work [1] showed that second or third order perturbations of special topology and strength can also generate magnetic diffusion ``barriers" in the middle of stochastic regions. In the present study, we numerically assess their experimental feasibility at DIII-D. For this, realistic I- and C-coils perturbations are superimposed on the equilibrium field and puncture plots are generated with a field-line tracer. A criterion is defined for the automatic recognition of barriers and successfully tested on earlier symplectic maps in magnetic coordinates. The criterion is systematically applied to the new puncture plots in search for dependencies, e.g. upon the edge safety factor q95, which might be relevant to edge localized mode (ELM) stability, as well as to assess the robustness of barriers against fluctuations of the plasma parameters and coil currents. 8pt [1] H. Ali and A. Punjabi, Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49, 1565 (2007).

  6. Personal computer applications in DIII-D neutral beam operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.

    1986-01-01

    An IBM PC AT has been implemented to improve operation of the DIII-D neutral beams. The PC system provides centralization of all beam data with reasonable access for on-line shot-to-shot control and analysis. The PC hardware was configured to interface all four neutral beam host minicomputers, support multitasking, and provide storage for approximately one month's accumulation of beam data. The PC software is composed of commercial packages used for performance and statistical analysis (i.e., LOTUS 123, PC PLOT, etc.), host communications software (i.e., PCLink, KERMIT, etc.), and applications developed software utilizing fortran and basIc. The objectives of this paper are to describe the implementation of the PC system, the methods of integrating the various software packages, and the scenario for on-line control and analysis

  7. Optimized Baking of the DIII-D Vessel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, P.M.; Kellman, A.G.

    1999-01-01

    The DIII-D tokamak vacuum vessel baking system is used to heat the vessel walls and internal hardware to an average temperature of 350 C to allow rapid conditioning of the vacuum surfaces. The system combines inductive heating and a circulating hot air system to provide rapid heating with temperature uniformity required by stress considerations. In recent years, the time to reach 350 C had increased from 9 hrs to 14 hrs. To understand and remedy this sluggish heating rate, an evaluation of the baking system was recently performed. The evaluation indicated that the mass of additional in-vessel hardware (50% increase in mass) was primarily responsible. This paper reports on this analysis and the results of the addition of an electric air heater and procedural changes that have been implemented. Preliminary results indicate that the time to 350 C has been decreased to 4.5 hours and the temperature uniformity has improved

  8. Physics analysis database for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Bramson, G.; DeBoo, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    The authors report on a centralized database for handling reduced data for physics analysis implemented for the DIII-D tokamak. Each database record corresponds to a specific snapshot in time for a selected discharge. Features of the database environment include automatic updating, data integrity checks, and data traceability. Reduced data from each diagnostic comprises a dedicated data bank (a subset of the database) with quality assurance provided by a physicist. These data banks will be used to create profile banks which will be input to a transport code to create a transport bank. Access to the database is initially through FORTRAN programs. One user interface, PLOTN, is a command driven program to select and display data subsets. Another user interface, PROF, compares and displays profiles. The database is implemented on a Digital Equipment Corporation VAX 8600 running VMS

  9. Stability in high gain plasmas in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.; Houlberg, W.A.; Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.

    1996-10-01

    Fusion power gain has been increased by a factor of 3 in DIII-D plasmas through the use of strong discharge shaping and tailoring of the pressure and current density profiles. H-mode plasmas with weak or negative central magnetic shear are found to have neoclassical ion confinement throughout most of the plasma volume. Improved MHD stability is achieved by controlling the plasma pressure profile width. The highest fusion power gain Q (ratio of fusion power to input power) in deuterium plasmas was 0.0015, which extrapolates to an equivalent Q of 0.32 in a deuterium-tritium plasma and is similar to values achieved in tokamaks of larger size and magnetic fields

  10. Overview of H-mode studies in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.; Baker, D.R,; Allen, S.L.

    1994-01-01

    A major portion of the DIII-D program includes studies of the L-H transition, of the VH-mode, of particle transport and control and of the power-handling capability of a diverter. Significant progress has been made in all of these areas and the purpose of this paper is to summarize the major results obtained during the last two years. An increased understanding of the origin of improved confinement in H-mode and in VH-mode discharges has been obtained, good impurity control has been achieved in several operating scenarios, studies of helium transport provide encouraging results from the point of view of reactor design, an actively pumped diverter chamber has controlled the density in H-mode discharges and a radiative diverter is a promising technique for controlling the heat flux from the main plasma

  11. Improved edge charge exchange recombination spectroscopy in DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrystal, C; Burrell, K H; Grierson, B A; Haskey, S R; Groebner, R J; Kaplan, D H; Briesemeister, A

    2016-11-01

    The charge exchange recombination spectroscopy diagnostic on the DIII-D tokamak has been upgraded with the addition of more high radial resolution view chords near the edge of the plasma (r/a > 0.8). The additional views are diagnosed with the same number of spectrometers by placing fiber optics side-by-side at the spectrometer entrance with a precise separation that avoids wavelength shifted crosstalk without the use of bandpass filters. The new views improve measurement of edge impurity parameters in steep gradient, H-mode plasmas with many different shapes. The number of edge view chords with 8 mm radial separation has increased from 16 to 38. New fused silica fibers have improved light throughput and clarify the observation of non-Gaussian spectra that suggest the ion distribution function can be non-Maxwellian in low collisionality plasmas.

  12. Recent DIII-D neutral beam calibration results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wight, J.; Hong, R.M.; Phillips, J.

    1991-10-01

    Injected DIII-D neutral beam power is estimated based on three principle quantities: the fraction of ion beam that is neutralized in the neutralizer gas cell, the beamline transmission efficiency, and the fraction of beam reionized in the drift duct. System changes in the past few years have included a new gradient grid voltage operating point, ion source arc regulation, routine deuterium operations and new neutralizer gas flow controllers. Additionally, beam diagnostics have been improved and better calibrated. To properly characterize the beams the principle quantities have been re-measured. Two diagnostics are primarily used to measure the quantities. The beamline waterflow calorimetry system measures the neutralization efficiency and the beamline transmission efficiency, and the target tile thermocouples measure the reionization loss. An additional diagnostic, the target tile pyrometer, confirmed the reionization loss measurement. Descriptions and results of these measurements will be presented. 4 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs

  13. DIII-D ICRF high voltage power supply regulator upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cary, W.P.; Burley, B.L.; Grosnickle, W.H.

    1997-11-01

    For reliable operation and component protection, of the 2 MW 30--120 MHz ICRF Amplifier System on DIII-D, it is desirable for the amplifier to respond to high VSWR conditions as rapidly as possible. This requires a rapid change in power which also means a rapid change in the high voltage power supply current demands. An analysis of the power supply's regulator dynamics was needed to verify its expected operation during such conditions. Based on this information it was found that a new regulator with a larger dynamic range and some anticipation capability would be required. This paper will discuss the system requirements, the as-delivered regulator performance, and the improved performance after installation of the new regulator system. It will also be shown how this improvement has made the amplifier perform at higher power levels more reliably

  14. Pedestal performance dependence upon plasma shape in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonard, A.W.; Casper, T.A.; Groebner, R.J.; Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B.; Thomas, D.M.

    2007-01-01

    Higher moments of the plasma shape than triangularity are found to significantly affect the pedestal pressure and the edge localized mode (ELM) characteristics in DIII-D. The shape dependence of the pedestal pressure was experimentally examined by varying the squareness in the proposed ITER configuration while holding the triangularity fixed. Over this scan the pedestal pressure increased by ∼50% from highest squareness to lowest squareness. The variation of pedestal energy is found to be consistent with the stability analysis of the measured profiles. The ELM energy also varied with the shape to maintain a nearly constant fraction of the pedestal energy. Stability analysis using model shapes and pressure profiles indicates that much of the advantage of high triangularity for high pedestal pressure can be achieved in lower triangularity shapes by optimizing squareness and/or the distance of the secondary upper separatrix from the primary separatrix. In high beta discharges an increase in pedestal pressure is observed with higher global stored energy. The greatest pedestal pressure increase is at low squareness due to an increase in both the pressure gradient stability limit and the width of the pedestal. The variation in pedestal pressure with squareness was also used to optimize 'hybrid' discharges in DIII-D where a lower pedestal pressure was required for an improved overall performance. In the 'hybrid' regime low squareness resulted in a high pedestal pressure with large infrequent ELMs that eventually triggered an internal 2/1 tearing mode that locked, resulting in a disruption. At higher squareness the pedestal pressure was reduced with smaller and more rapid ELMs, resulting in the maintenance of a steady beneficial internal 3/2 tearing mode and good confinement. For all the cases studied, an increase in the pedestal width at low squareness appears to be a significant factor in the increase in the total pedestal pressure

  15. The upgrade of the DIII-D EC system using 120 GHz ITER gyrotrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Lohr, J.; Gorelov, I.A.; Ponce, D.; Kajiwara, K.; Tooker, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    The planned growth in the EC system on DIII-D over the next few years requires the installation of two depressed collector gyrotrons, a high voltage power supply, two low loss transmission lines, and the required support equipment. This new DIII-D EC equipment could be made identical to the ITER EC system requirements. By building the DIII-D hardware to the ITER specifications, it will allow ITER to gain beneficial prototyping experience on a working tokamak, prior to committing to building the hardware for delivery to ITER

  16. A system to deposit boron films (boronization) in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodapp, T.R.; Jackson, G.L.; Phillips, J.; Holtrop, K.L.; Peterson, P.L.; Winters, J.

    1992-01-01

    A system has been added to the DIII-D tokamak to coat its plasma facing surfaces with a film of boron using diborane gas. The system includes special health and safety equipment for handling the diborane gas which is toxic and inflammable. The purpose f the boron film is to reduce the levels of impurity atoms in the DIII-D plasmas. Experiments following the application of the boron film in DIII-D have led to significant reductions in plasma impurity levels and the observation of a new, very high confinement regime

  17. Fast-ion transport in qmin>2, high-β steady-state scenarios on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holcomb, C. T.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Collins, C.; Ferron, J. R.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Garofalo, A. M.; Bass, E. M.; Luce, T. C.; Pace, D. C.; Solomon, W. M.; Mueller, D.; Grierson, B.; Podesta, M.; Gong, X.; Ren, Q.; Park, J. M.; Kim, K.; Turco, F.

    2015-01-01

    Results from experiments on DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 828 (2005)] aimed at developing high β steady-state operating scenarios with high-q min confirm that fast-ion transport is a critical issue for advanced tokamak development using neutral beam injection current drive. In DIII-D, greater than 11 MW of neutral beam heating power is applied with the intent of maximizing β N and the noninductive current drive. However, in scenarios with q min >2 that target the typical range of q 95 = 5–7 used in next-step steady-state reactor models, Alfvén eigenmodes cause greater fast-ion transport than classical models predict. This enhanced transport reduces the absorbed neutral beam heating power and current drive and limits the achievable β N . In contrast, similar plasmas except with q min just above 1 have approximately classical fast-ion transport. Experiments that take q min >3 plasmas to higher β P with q 95 = 11–12 for testing long pulse operation exhibit regimes of better than expected thermal confinement. Compared to the standard high-q min scenario, the high β P cases have shorter slowing-down time and lower ∇β fast , and this reduces the drive for Alfvénic modes, yielding nearly classical fast-ion transport, high values of normalized confinement, β N , and noninductive current fraction. These results suggest DIII-D might obtain better performance in lower-q 95 , high-q min plasmas using broader neutral beam heating profiles and increased direct electron heating power to lower the drive for Alfvén eigenmodes

  18. ADX: a high field, high power density, advanced divertor and RF tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaBombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Terry, J. L.; Vieira, R.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; Baek, S.; Beck, W.; Bonoli, P.; Brunner, D.; Doody, J.; Ellis, R.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Freidberg, J. P.; Golfinopoulos, T.; Granetz, R.; Greenwald, M.; Hartwig, Z. S.; Hubbard, A.; Hughes, J. W.; Hutchinson, I. H.; Kessel, C.; Kotschenreuther, M.; Leccacorvi, R.; Lin, Y.; Lipschultz, B.; Mahajan, S.; Minervini, J.; Mumgaard, R.; Nygren, R.; Parker, R.; Poli, F.; Porkolab, M.; Reinke, M. L.; Rice, J.; Rognlien, T.; Rowan, W.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, D.; Theiler, C.; Titus, P.; Umansky, M.; Valanju, P.; Walk, J.; White, A.; Wilson, J. R.; Wright, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-05-01

    The MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center and collaborators are proposing a high-performance Advanced Divertor and RF tokamak eXperiment (ADX)—a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research programme on the pathway to next-step devices: fusion nuclear science facility (FNSF), fusion pilot plant (FPP) and/or demonstration power plant (DEMO). This high-field (⩾6.5 T, 1.5 MA), high power density facility (P/S ˜ 1.5 MW m-2) will test innovative divertor ideas, including an ‘X-point target divertor’ concept, at the required performance parameters—reactor-level boundary plasma pressures, magnetic field strengths and parallel heat flux densities entering into the divertor region—while simultaneously producing high-performance core plasma conditions that are prototypical of a reactor: equilibrated and strongly coupled electrons and ions, regimes with low or no torque, and no fuelling from external heating and current drive systems. Equally important, the experimental platform will test innovative concepts for lower hybrid current drive and ion cyclotron range of frequency actuators with the unprecedented ability to deploy launch structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-magnetic-field side—the latter being a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and favourable RF wave physics leads to efficient current drive, current profile control, heating and flow drive. This triple combination—advanced divertors, advanced RF actuators, reactor-prototypical core plasma conditions—will enable ADX to explore enhanced core confinement physics, such as made possible by reversed central shear, using only the types of external drive systems that are considered viable for a fusion power plant. Such an integrated demonstration of high-performance core-divertor operation with steady-state sustainment would pave the way towards an attractive pilot plant, as envisioned in the ARC concept

  19. Real time software for the control and monitoring of DIII-D system interlocks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broesch, J.D.; Penaflor, B.G.; Coon, R.M.; Harris, J.J.; Scoville, J.T.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the real time, multi-tasking, multi-user software and communications of the E-Power Supply System Integrated Controller (EPSSIC) for the DIII-D tokamak. EPSSIC performs the DIII-D system wide go/no-go determination for the plasma sequencing. This paper discusses the data module handling, task work load balancing, and communications requirements. Operational experience with the new EPSSIC and recent improvements to this system are also described

  20. Enhanced Computational Infrastructure for Data Analysis at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Tepstra, T.B.; Casper, T.A.; Freeman, J.; Jong, R.; Keith, K.M.; McHarg, B.B. Jr; Meyer, W.H.; Parker, C.T.; Warner, A.M.

    1999-01-01

    The DIII-D National Team consists of about 120 operating staff and 100 research scientists drawn from 9 U.S. National Laboratories, 19 foreign laboratories, 16 universities, and 5 industrial partnerships. This multi-institution collaboration carries out the integrated DIII-D program mission which is to establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production. Presently, about two-thirds of the research physics staff are from the national and international collaborating institutions

  1. Model-based dynamic resistive wall mode identification and feedback control in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In, Y.; Kim, J.S.; Edgell, D.H.; Strait, E.J.; Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M.L.; Jackson, G.L.; Chu, M.S.; Johnson, R.; La Haye, R.J.; Okabayashi, M.; Garofalo, A.M.; Reimerdes, H.

    2006-01-01

    A new model-based dynamic resistive wall mode (RWM) identification and feedback control algorithm has been developed. While the overall RWM structure can be detected by a model-based matched filter in a similar manner to a conventional sensor-based scheme, it is significantly influenced by edge-localized-modes (ELMs). A recent study suggested that such ELM noise might cause the RWM control system to respond in an undesirable way. Thus, an advanced algorithm to discriminate ELMs from RWM has been incorporated into this model-based control scheme, dynamic Kalman filter. Specifically, the DIII-D [J. L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] resistive vessel wall was modeled in two ways: picture frame model or eigenmode treatment. Based on the picture frame model, the first real-time, closed-loop test results of the Kalman filter algorithms during DIII-D experimental operation are presented. The Kalman filtering scheme was experimentally confirmed to be effective in discriminating ELMs from RWM. As a result, the actuator coils (I-coils) were rarely excited during ELMs, while retaining the sensitivity to RWM. However, finding an optimized set of operating parameters for the control algorithm requires further analysis and design. Meanwhile, a more advanced Kalman filter based on a more accurate eigenmode model has been developed. According to this eigenmode approach, significant improvement in terms of control performance has been predicted, while maintaining good ELM discrimination

  2. Enhanced computational infrastructure for data analysis at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Terpstra, T.B.; Casper, T.A.; Freeman, J.; Jong, R.; Keith, K.M.; McHarg, B.B.; Meyer, W.H.; Parker, C.T.

    2000-01-01

    Recently a number of enhancements to the computer hardware infrastructure have been implemented at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility. Utilizing these improvements to the hardware infrastructure, software enhancements are focusing on streamlined analysis, automation, and graphical user interface (GUI) systems to enlarge the user base. The adoption of the load balancing software package LSF Suite by Platform Computing has dramatically increased the availability of CPU cycles and the efficiency of their use. Streamlined analysis has been aided by the adoption of the MDSplus system to provide a unified interface to analyzed DIII-D data. The majority of MDSplus data is made available in between pulses giving the researcher critical information before setting up the next pulse. Work on data viewing and analysis tools focuses on efficient GUI design with object-oriented programming (OOP) for maximum code flexibility. Work to enhance the computational infrastructure at DIII-D has included a significant effort to aid the remote collaborator since the DIII-D National Team consists of scientists from nine national laboratories, 19 foreign laboratories, 16 universities, and five industrial partnerships. As a result of this work, DIII-D data is available on a 24x7 basis from a set of viewing and analysis tools that can be run on either the collaborators' or DIII-D's computer systems. Additionally, a web based data and code documentation system has been created to aid the novice and expert user alike

  3. QUIESCENT H-MODE, AN ELM-FREE HIGH-CONFINEMENT MODE ON DIII-D WITH POTENTIAL FOR STATIONARY STATE OPERATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WEST, WP; BURRELL, KH; DeGRASSIE, JS; DOYLE, EJ; GREENFIELD, CM; LASNIER, CJ; SNYDER, PB; ZENG, L.

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D α time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with β N *H 89L product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved

  4. QUIESCENT H-MODE, AN ELM-FREE HIGH-CONFINEMENT MODE ON DIII-D WITH POTENTIAL FOR STATIONARY STATE OPERATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WEST,WP; BURRELL,KH; deGRASSIE,JS; DOYLE,EJ; GREENFIELD,CM; LASNIER,CJ; SNYDER,PB; ZENG,L

    2003-08-01

    OAK-B135 The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) is an ELM-free and stationary state mode of operation discovered on DIII-D. This mode achieves H-mode levels of confinement and pedestal pressure while maintaining constant density and radiated power. The elimination of edge localized modes (ELMs) and their large divertor loads while maintaining good confinement and good density control is of interest to next generation tokamaks. This paper reports on the correlations found between selected parameters in a QH-mode database developed from several hundred DIII-D counter injected discharges. Time traces of key plasma parameters from a QH-mode discharge are shown. On DIII-D the negative going plasma current (a) indicates that the beam injection direction is counter to the plasma current direction, a common feature of all QH-modes. The D{sub {alpha}} time behavior (c) shows that soon after high powered beam heating (b) is applied, the discharge makes a transition to ELMing H-mode, then the ELMs disappear, indicating the start of the QH period that lasts for the remainder of the high power beam heating (3.5 s). Previously published work showing density and temperature profiles indicates that long-pulse, high-triangularity QH discharges develop an internal transport barrier in combination with the QH edge barrier. These discharges are known as quiescent, double-barrier discharges (QDB). The H-factor (d) and stored energy (c) rise then saturate at a constant level and the measured axial and minimum safety factors remain above 1.0 for the entire QH duration. During QDB operation the performance of the plasma can be very good, with {beta}{sub N}*H{sub 89L} product reaching 7 for > 10 energy confinement times. These discharges show promise that a stationary state can be achieved.

  5. Optimization of DIII-D discharges to avoid AE destabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varela, Jacobo; Spong, Donald; Garcia, Luis; Huang, Juan; Murakami, Masanori

    2017-10-01

    The aim of the study is to analyze the stability of Alfven Eigenmodes (AE) perturbed by energetic particles (EP) during DIII-D operation. We identify the optimal NBI operational regimes that avoid or minimize the negative effects of AE on the device performance. We use the reduced MHD equations to describe the linear evolution of the poloidal flux and the toroidal component of the vorticity in a full 3D system, coupled with equations of density and parallel velocity moments for the energetic particles, including the effect of the acoustic modes. We add the Landau damping and resonant destabilization effects using a closure relation. We perform parametric studies of the MHD and AE stability, taking into account the experimental profiles of the thermal plasma and EP, also using a range of values of the energetic particles β, density and velocity as well the effect of the toroidal couplings. We reproduce the AE activity observed in high poloidal β discharge at the pedestal and reverse shear discharges. This material based on work is supported both by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Science, under Contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with UT-Battelle, LLC. Research sponsored in part by the Ministerio de Economia y Competitividad of Spain under the project.

  6. DIII-D Neutral Beam control system operator interface

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, J.J.; Campbell, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    A centralized graphical user interface has been added to the DIII-D Neutral Beam (NB) control systems for status monitoring and remote control applications. This user interface provides for automatic data acquisition, alarm detection and supervisory control of the four NB programmable logic controllers (PLC) as well as the Mode Control PLC. These PLCs are used for interlocking, control and status of the NB vacuum pumping, gas delivery, and water cooling systems as well as beam mode status and control. The system allows for both a friendly user interface as well as a safe and convenient method of communicating with remote hardware that formerly required interns to access. In the future, to enable high level of control of PLC subsystems, complete procedures is written and executed at the touch of a screen control panel button. The system consists of an IBM compatible 486 computer running the FIX DMACS trademark for Windows trademark data acquisition and control interface software, a Texas Instruments/Siemens communication card and Phoenix Digital optical communications modules. Communication is achieved via the TIWAY (Texas Instruments protocol link utilizing both fiber optic communications and a copper local area network (LAN). Hardware and software capabilities will be reviewed. Data and alarm reporting, extended monitoring and control capabilities will also be discussed

  7. An interior vessel viewing system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senior, R.

    1989-11-01

    It was anticipated that there could be damage to the interior walls of the vacuum vessel during operations of the DIII-D tokamak. A method of viewing the inside of the vessel from the outside was required, that would allow the interior walls to be inspected visually for damage and to locate any debris resulting from operations. A miniature closed circuit television color camera system was developed which could be inserted into one of several ports of the vessel during a 'clean' vent, i.e., vented to inert gas. The system has pan, tilt and zoom capability and carries its own lighting. The use of this system allows a quick assessment of the condition of the vessel to be made under 'clean' vent conditions. This precludes the need for the permit process and manned entry into the vessel which would allow air inside the vessel. A permanent record of the inspection can then be made on video tape. The design and configuration of this camera system is presented and its use as a diagnostic tool discussed. 2 refs., 5 figs

  8. The DIII-D Tokamak trouble report database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petersen, P.I.; Miller, S.M.

    1992-01-01

    Operation of the DIII-D tokamak at General Atomics involves many groups which work on the various subsystems. To overview and speed the solution to trouble or problem areas that limit machine availability, a common trouble report system was established. The TROUBLE database automates the recording of trouble reports and eases analysis of problem areas. It contains information on equipment affected, description of problem, cause of problem, solution to problem, and machine downtime (if any). It was created using S1032 from Compuserve Data Technologies and runs on a VAX 8650. The data is used to find the major problem areas so they can be solved and improve the tokamak availabilty. The data is available to Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). They are using the data with data from other tokamaks to develop a Fusion Failure Experience Data Collection. The authors' experience is that a few failures are often the cause of a major part of the downtime. In this paper, the authors will discuss these failures and the actions taken to correct them. The data base also will be used to determine the preventive maintenance schedule for different components

  9. The DIII-D 3 MW, 110 GHz ECH System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Lohr, J.; Ponce, D.; O'Neill, R.C.; Prater, R.; Luce, T.C.

    1999-01-01

    Three 110 GHz gyrotrons with nominal output power of 1 MW each have been installed and are operational on the DIII-D tokamak. One gyrotron is built by Gycom and has a nominal rating of 1 MW and a 2 s pulse length, with the pulse length being determined by the maximum temperature allowed on the edge cooled Boron Nitride window. The second and third gyrotrons were built by Communications and Power Industries (CPI). The first CPI gyrotron uses a double disc FC-75 cooled sapphire window which has a pulse length rating of 0.8 s at 1 MW, 2s at 0.5 MW and 10s at 0.35 MW. The second CPI gyrotron, utilizes a single disc chemical-vapor-deposition diamond window, that employs water cooling around the edge of the disc. Calculation predict that the diamond window should be capable of full 1 MW cw operation. All gyrotrons are connected to the tokamak by a low-loss-windowless evacuated transmission line using circular corrugated waveguide for propagation in the HEl 1 mode. Each waveguide system incorporates a two mirror launcher which can steer the rf beam poloidally from the center to the outer edge of the plasma. Central current drive experiments with the two gyrotrons with 1.5 MW of injected power drove about 0.17 MA. Results from using the three gyrotron systems will be reported as well as the plans to upgrade the system to 6 MW

  10. Computerized operation of the DIII-D neutral beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glad, A.S.; Tooker, J.F.

    1986-01-01

    Operation of the DIII-D neutral beams utilizes computerized control to provide routine tokamak beam heating shots and an effective method for automatic ion source operation. Computerized control reduces operational complexity, thus providing consistent reliability and availability of beams and a significant reduction in the the costs of routine operation. The objectives in implementing computerized control for operation were: (1) to improve operator efficiency for controlling multiple beam lines and increasing beam availability through standard procedures, (2) to provide a simplified scheme that operators and coordinators can construct and maintain, and (3) to provide a single integrated mechanism for both tokamak operation and automatic source conditioning. The years of experience in operating neutral beams at Doublet III provided the data necessary to meet the objectives. The method for computerized control consisted of three integrated functions: (1) a structured command language was implemented to provide the mechanism for automatically sequencing beams, (2) a historical file was constructed from the operational parameters to characterize the ion source, and consists of data from approximately 100,000 beam shots, and (3) procedures were developed integrating the language to the historical file for normal operation and source conditioning. This paper describes the method for sequencing beams automatically, the structure of the historical data file, and the procedures which integrate the historical data with tokamak operation and automatic source conditioning

  11. Fast wave current drive in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Callis, R.W.; Chiu, S.C.; deGrassie, J.S.; Forest, C.B.; Freeman, R.L.; Gohil, P.; Harvey, R.W.; Ikezi, H.; Lin-Liu, Y.-R.

    1995-02-01

    The non-inductive current drive from fast Alfven waves launched by a directional four-element antenna was measured in the DIII-D tokamak. The fast wave frequency (60 MHz) was eight times the deuterium cyclotron frequency at the plasma center. An array of rf pickup loops at several locations around the torus was used to verify the directivity of the four-element antenna. Complete non-inductive current drive was achieved using a combination of fast wave current drive (FWCD) and electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) in discharges for which the total plasma current was inductively ramped down from 400 to 170 kA. For discharges with steady plasma current, up to 110 kA of FWCD was inferred from an analysis of the loop voltage, with a maximum non-inductive current (FWCD, ECCD, and bootstrap) of 195 out of 310 kA. The FWCD efficiency increased linearly with central electron temperature. For low current discharges, the FWCD efficiency was degraded due to incomplete fast wave damping. The experimental FWCD was found to agree with predictions from the CURRAY ray-tracing code only when a parasitic loss of 4% per pass was included in the modeling along with multiple pass damping

  12. Electron cyclotron current drive experiments on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, R.A.; Giruzzi, G.; Gentile, B. de; Rodriguez, L.; Fyaretdinov, A.; Gorelov, Yu.; Trukhin, V.; Harvey, R.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Matsuda, K.; Politzer, P.; Prater, R.; Snider, R.; Janz, S.

    1990-05-01

    Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have been performed using 60 GHz waves launched from the high field side of the torus. Preliminary analysis indicates rf driven currents between 50 and 100 kA in discharges with total plasma currents between 200 and 500 kA. These are the first ECCD experiments with strong first pass absorption, localized deposition of the rf power, and τ E much longer than the slowing-down time of the rf generated current carriers. The experimentally measured profiles for T e , η e and Z eff are used as input for a 1D transport code and a multiply-ray, 3D ray tracing code. Comparisons with theory and assessment of the influence of the residual electric field, using a Fokker-Planck code, are in progress. The ECH power levels were between 1 and 1.5 MW with pulse lengths of about 500 msec. ECCD experiments worldwide are motivated by issues relating to the physics and technical advantages of the use of high frequency rf waves to drive localized currents. ECCD is accomplished by preferentially heating electrons moving in one toroidal direction, reducing their collisionality and thereby producing a non-inductively driven toroidal current. 6 refs., 4 figs

  13. Gamma ray imager on the DIII-D tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pace, D. C., E-mail: pacedc@fusion.gat.com; Taussig, D.; Eidietis, N. W.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Watkins, M. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Cooper, C. M. [Oak Ridge Associated Universities, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37830 (United States); Hollmann, E. M. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States); Riso, V. [State University of New York-Buffalo, 12 Capen Hall, Buffalo, New York 14260-1660 (United States)

    2016-04-15

    A gamma ray camera is built for the DIII-D tokamak [J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42, 614 (2002)] that provides spatial localization and energy resolution of gamma flux by combining a lead pinhole camera with custom-built detectors and optimized viewing geometry. This diagnostic system is installed on the outer midplane of the tokamak such that its 123 collimated sightlines extend across the tokamak radius while also covering most of the vertical extent of the plasma volume. A set of 30 bismuth germanate detectors can be secured in any of the available sightlines, allowing for customizable coverage in experiments with runaway electrons in the energy range of 1–60 MeV. Commissioning of the gamma ray imager includes the quantification of electromagnetic noise sources in the tokamak machine hall and a measurement of the energy spectrum of background gamma radiation. First measurements of gamma rays coming from the plasma provide a suitable testbed for implementing pulse height analysis that provides the energy of detected gamma photons.

  14. HIGH PERFORMANCE STATIONARY DISCHARGES IN THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Wade, M.R.; Ferron, J.R.; Politzer, P.A.; Hyatt, A.W.; Sips, A.C.C.; Murakami, M.

    2003-01-01

    Recent experiments in the DIII-D tokamak [J.L. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42,614 (2002)] have demonstrated high β with good confinement quality under stationary conditions. Two classes of stationary discharges are observed--low q 95 discharges with sawteeth and higher q 95 without sawteeth. The discharges are deemed stationary when the plasma conditions are maintained for times greater than the current profile relaxation time. In both cases the normalized fusion performance (β N H 89P /q 95 2 ) reaches or exceeds the value of this parameter projected for Q fus = 10 in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) design [R. Aymar, et al., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 44, 519 (2002)]. The presence of sawteeth reduces the maximum achievable normalized β, while confinement quality (confinement time relative to scalings) is largely independent of q 95 . Even with the reduced β limit, the normalized fusion performance maximizes at the lowest q 95 . Projections to burning plasma conditions are discussed, including the methodology of the projection and the key physics issues which still require investigation

  15. ELM-Induced Plasma Wall Interactions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rudakov, D.L.; Boedo, J.A.; Yu, J.H.; Brooks, N.H.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Hollmann, E.M.; Lasnier, C.J.; McLean, A.G.; Moyer, R.A.; Stangeby, P.C.; Tynan, G.R.; Wampler, W.R.; Watkins, J.G.; West, W.P.; Wong, C.C.; Zeng, L.; Bastasz, R.J.; Buchenauer, D.; Whaley, J.

    2008-01-01

    Intense transient fluxes of particles and heat to the main chamber components induced by edge localized modes (ELMs) are of serious concern for ITER. In DIII-D, plasma interaction with the outboard chamber wall is studied using Langmuir probes and optical diagnostics including a fast framing camera. Camera data shows that ELMs feature helical filamentary structures localized at the low field side of the plasma and aligned with the local magnetic field. During the nonlinear phase of an ELM, multiple filaments are ejected from the plasma edge and propagate towards the outboard wall with velocities of 0.5-0.7 km/s. When reaching the wall, filaments result in 'hot spots'--regions of local intense plasma-material interaction (PMI) where the peak incident particle and heat fluxes are up to 2 orders of magnitude higher than those between ELMs. This interaction pattern has a complicated geometry and is neither toroidally nor poloidally symmetric. In low density/collisionality H-mode discharges, PMI at the outboard wall is almost entirely due to ELMs. In high density/collisionality discharges, contributions of ELMs and inter-ELM periods to PMI at the wall are comparable. A Midplane Material Evaluation Station (MiMES) has been recently installed in order to conduct in situ measurements of erosion/redeposition at the outboard chamber wall, including those caused by ELMs

  16. Electron cyclotron current drive experiments on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, R.A. (Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (USA)); Giruzzi, G.; Gentile, B. de; Rodriguez, L. (Association Euratom-CEA, Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires de Cadarache, 13 - Saint-Paul-les-Durance (France)); Fyaretdinov, A.; Gorelov, Yu.; Trukhin, V. (Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (USSR)); Harvey, R.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Matsuda, K.; Politzer, P.; Prater, R.; Snider, R. (General Atomics, San Di

    1990-05-01

    Electron Cyclotron Current Drive (ECCD) experiments on the DIII-D tokamak have been performed using 60 GHz waves launched from the high field side of the torus. Preliminary analysis indicates rf driven currents between 50 and 100 kA in discharges with total plasma currents between 200 and 500 kA. These are the first ECCD experiments with strong first pass absorption, localized deposition of the rf power, and {tau}{sub E} much longer than the slowing-down time of the rf generated current carriers. The experimentally measured profiles for T{sub e}, {eta}{sub e} and Z{sub eff} are used as input for a 1D transport code and a multiply-ray, 3D ray tracing code. Comparisons with theory and assessment of the influence of the residual electric field, using a Fokker-Planck code, are in progress. The ECH power levels were between 1 and 1.5 MW with pulse lengths of about 500 msec. ECCD experiments worldwide are motivated by issues relating to the physics and technical advantages of the use of high frequency rf waves to drive localized currents. ECCD is accomplished by preferentially heating electrons moving in one toroidal direction, reducing their collisionality and thereby producing a non-inductively driven toroidal current. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  17. State transitions, hysteresis, and control parameters on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Carlstrom, T.N.; Osborne, T.H.; Petrie, T.W.

    1998-07-01

    The theory of turbulence decorrelation by ExB velocity shear is the leading candidate to explain the changes in turbulence and transport that are seen at the plasma edge at the L to H transition. Based on this, a key question is: What are the conditions or control parameters needed to begin the formation of the E r shear layer and thus trigger the L to H transition? On the DIII-D tokamak, the authors are attacking this question both through direct tests of the various theories and by trying to gain insight into the fundamental physics by investigating the control parameters which have a major effect on the power threshold. In this paper the authors describe results of studies on oscillating discharges where the plasma transitions continuously between L and H states. By following the dynamics of the plasma state through the forward and back transitions, they can represent the evolution of various control parameter candidates as a trajectory in various parametric spaces. The shape of these control curves can illustrate the specific nonlinearities governing the L-H transition problem, and under the proper conditions may be interpreted in the context of various phase-transition based models. In particular, the hysteresis exhibited in the various curves may help to clarify causality (what are the critical parameters) and may serve as tests of the models, given sufficient experimental accuracy. At present they are looking at T e , E r and ballooning/diamagnetic parameters as possible control parameter candidates

  18. Operations Studies of the Gyrotrons on DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storment, Stephen; Lohr, John; Cengher, Mirela; Gorelov, Yuri; Ponce, Dan; Torrezan, Antonio

    2017-10-01

    The gyrotrons are high power vacuum tubes used in fusion research to provide high power density heating and current drive in precisely localized areas of the plasma. Despite the increasing experience with both the manufacture and operation of these devices, individual gyrotrons with similar design and manufacturing processes can exhibit important operational differences in terms of generated rf power, efficiency and lifetime. This report discusses differences in the performance of several gyrotrons in operation at DIII-D and presents the results of a series of measurements that could lead to improved the performance of single units based on a better understanding of the causes of these differences. The rf power generation efficiency can be different from gyrotron to gyrotron. In addition, the power loading of the collector can feature localized hot spots, where the collector can locally be close to the power deposition limits. Measurements of collector power loading provide maps of the power deposition and can provide understanding of the effect of modulation of the output rf beam on the total loading, leading to improved operational rules increasing the safety margins for the gyrotrons under different operational scenarios. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FC02-04ER54698.

  19. ELMs IN DIII-D HIGH PERFORMANCE DISCHARGES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TURNBULL, A.D; LAO, L.L; OSBORNE, T.H; SAUTER, O; STRAIT, E.J; TAYLOR, T.S; CHU, M.S; FERRON, J.R; GREENFIELD, C.M; LEONARD, A.W; MILLER, R.L; SNYDER, P.B; WILSON, H.R; ZOHM, H

    2003-01-01

    A new understanding of edge localized modes (ELMs) in tokamak discharges is emerging [P.B. Snyder, et al., Phys. Plasmas, 9, 2037 (2002)], in which the ELM is an essentially ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) instability and the ELM severity is determined by the radial width of the linearly unstable MHD kink modes. A detailed, comparative study of the penetration into the core of the respective linear instabilities in a standard DIII-D ELMing, high confinement mode (H-mode) discharge, with that for two relatively high performance discharges shows that these are also encompassed within the framework of the new model. These instabilities represent the key, limiting factor in extending the high performance of these discharges. In the standard ELMing H-mode, the MHD instabilities are highly localized in the outer few percent flux surfaces and the ELM is benign, causing only a small temporary drop in the energy confinement. In contrast, for both a very high confinement mode (VH-mode) and an H-mode with a broad internal transport barrier (ITB) extending over the entire core and coalesced with the edge transport barrier, the linearly unstable modes penetrate well into the mid radius and the corresponding consequences for global confinement are significantly more severe. The ELM accordingly results in an irreversible loss of the high performance

  20. Multivariable shape control development on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.

    1997-11-01

    In this paper, the authors describe recent work on plasma shape and position control at DIII-D. This control consists of two equally challenging problems--the problem of identifying what the plasma actually looks like in real time, i.e. measuring the parameters to be controlled, and the task of determining the feedback algorithm which best controls these plasma parameters in a multiple input-output system. Recent implementation of the EFIT plasma equilibrium reconstruction algorithm in real time code which produces a new equilibrium estimate every 1.5 ms seems to solve the longstanding problem of obtaining sufficiently accurate plasma shape and position estimation. Stabilization of the open-loop unstable vertical motion is also viewed as a solved problem. The primary remaining problem appears to be how best to command the power supplies to achieve a desired shaping control response. They will describe the effort to understand and apply linearized models of plasma evolution to development and implementation of multivariable plasma controllers

  1. Characterization of wall conditions in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtrop, K.L.; Jackson, G.L.; Kellman, A.G.; Lee, R.L.; West, W.P.; Wood, R.D.; Whyte, D.G.

    1996-10-01

    Wall conditioning in DIII-D is one of the most important factors in achieving reproducible high confinement discharges. For example, the very high confinement mode (VH-mode) was only discovered after boronization, a CVD technique to deposit a thin boron film over the entire surface of the tokamak. In order to evaluate wall conditions and provide a data base to correlate these wall conditions with tokamak discharge performance, a series of nominally identical reference VH-mode discharges (1.6 MA, 2.1 T, double-null diverted) were taken at various times during a series of experimental campaigns with evolving wall conditions. These reference discharges have allowed a quantitative determination of how the wall conditions have evolved. For instance, core carbon and oxygen levels in the VH-mode phase remains at historically low levels during the 1995 run year and there was also a steady decrease in the oxygen levels at plasma initiation during this period. The authors discuss the long term changes in low Z impurities and the effect of wall conditioning techniques such as boronization and baking on these impurities. In addition, the evolution of the deuterium recycling rates will be discussed

  2. DIII-D dust particulate characterization (June 1998 Vent)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carmack, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    Dust is a key component of fusion power device accident source term. Understanding the amount of dust expected in fusion power devices and its physical and chemical characteristics is needed to verify assumptions currently used in safety analyses. An important part of this safety research and development work is to characterize dust from existing experimental tokamaks. In this report, the authors present the collection, data analysis methods used, and the characterization of dust particulate collected from various locations inside the General Atomics DIII-D vacuum vessel following the June 1998 vent. The collected particulate was analyzed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). Two methods were used to collect particulate with the goal of preserving the particle size distribution and physical characteristics of the particulate. Choice of collection technique is important because the sampling method used can bias the particle size distribution collected. Vacuum collection on substrates and adhesion removal with metallurgical replicating tape were chosen as non-intrusive sampling methods. Seventeen samples were collected including plasma facing surfaces in lower, upper, and horizontal locations, surfaces behind floor tiles, surfaces behind divert or tiles, and surfaces behind ceiling tiles. The results of the analysis are presented

  3. Integrated core-edge-divertor modeling studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stacey, W.M.

    2001-01-01

    An integrated calculation model for simulating the interaction of physics phenomena taking place in the plasma core, in the plasma edge and in the SOL and divertor of tokamaks has been developed and applied to study such interactions. The model synthesises a combination of numerical calculations (1) the power and particle balances for the core plasma, using empirical confinement scaling laws and taking into account radiation losses (2), the particle, momentum and power balances in the SOL and divertor, taking into account the effects of radiation and recycling neutrals, (3) the transport of feeling and recycling neutrals, explicitly representing divertor and pumping geometry, and (4) edge pedestal gradient scale lengths and widths, evaluation of theoretical predictions (5) confinement degradation due to thermal instabilities in the edge pedestals, (6) detachment and divertor MARFE onset, (7) core MARFE onsets leading to a H-L transition, and (8) radiative collapse leading to a disruption and evaluation of empirical fits (9) power thresholds for the L-H and H-L transitions and (10) the width of the edge pedestals. The various components of the calculation model are coupled and must be iterated to a self-consistent convergence. The model was developed over several years for the purpose of interpreting various edge phenomena observed in DIII-D experiments and thereby, to some extent, has been benchmarked against experiment. Because the model treats the interactions of various phenomena in the core, edge and divertor, yet is computationally efficient, it lends itself to the investigation of the effects of different choices of various edge plasma operating conditions on overall divertor and core plasma performance. Studies of the effect of feeling location and rate, divertor geometry, plasma shape, pumping and over 'edge parameters' on core plasma properties (line average density, confinement, density limit, etc.) have been performed for DIII-D model problems. A

  4. The strongest magnetic barrier in the DIII-D tokamak and comparison with the ASDEX UG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Halima; Punjabi, Alkesh

    2013-05-01

    Magnetic perturbations in tokamaks lead to the formation of magnetic islands, chaotic field lines, and the destruction of flux surfaces. Controlling or reducing transport along chaotic field lines is a key challenge in magnetically confined fusion plasmas. A local control method was proposed by Chandre et al. [Nucl. Fusion 46, 33-45 (2006)] to build barriers to magnetic field line diffusion by addition of a small second-order control term localized in the phase space to the field line Hamiltonian. Formation and existence of such magnetic barriers in Ohmically heated tokamaks (OHT), ASDEX UG and piecewise analytic DIII-D [Luxon, J.L.; Davis, L.E., Fusion Technol. 8, 441 (1985)] plasma equilibria was predicted by the authors [Ali, H.; Punjabi, A., Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49, 1565-1582 (2007)]. Very recently, this prediction for the DIII-D has been corroborated [Volpe, F.A., et al., Nucl. Fusion 52, 054017 (2012)] by field-line tracing calculations, using experimentally constrained Equilibrium Fit (EFIT) [Lao, et al., Nucl. Fusion 25, 1611 (1985)] DIII-D equilibria perturbed to include the vacuum field from the internal coils utilized in the experiments. This second-order approach is applied to the DIII-D tokamak to build noble irrational magnetic barriers inside the chaos created by the locked resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) (m, n)=(3, 1)+(4, 1), with m and n the poloidal and toroidal mode numbers of the Fourier expansion of the magnetic perturbation with amplitude δ. A piecewise, analytic, accurate, axisymmetric generating function for the trajectories of magnetic field lines in the DIII-D is constructed in magnetic coordinates from the experimental EFIT Grad-Shafranov solver [Lao, L, et al., Fusion Sci. Technol. 48, 968 (2005)] for the shot 115,467 at 3000 ms in the DIII-D. A symplectic mathematical map is used to integrate field lines in the DIII-D. A numerical algorithm [Ali, H., et al., Radiat. Eff. Def. Solids Inc. Plasma Sc. Plasma Tech. 165, 83

  5. ECH system developments including the design of an intelligent fault processor on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.; Lohr, J.; Tooker, J.F.; O'Neill, R.C.; Moeller, C.P.; Doane, J.L.; Noraky, S.; Dubovenko, K.; Gorelov, Y.A.; Cengher, M.; Penaflor, B.G.; Ellis, R.A.

    2011-01-01

    A new generation fault processor is in development which is intended to increase fault handling flexibility and reduce the number of incomplete DIII-D shots due to gyrotron faults. The processor, which is based upon a field programmable gate array device, will analyze signals for aberrant operation and ramp down high voltage to try to avoid hard faults. The processor will then attempt to ramp back up to an attainable operating point. The new generation fault processor will be developed during an expansion of the electron cyclotron heating (ECH) areas that will include the installation of a depressed collector gyrotron and associated equipment. Existing systems will also be upgraded. Testing of real-time control of the ECH launcher poloidal drives by the DIII-D plasma control system will be completed. The ECH control system software will be upgraded for increased scalability and to increase operator productivity. Resources permitting, all systems will receive an extra layer of interlocks for the filament and magnet power supplies, added shielding for the tank electronics, programmable filament boost shape for long pulses, and electronics upgrades for the installation of the advanced fault processor.

  6. Improved charge-coupled device detectors for high-speed, charge exchange spectroscopy studies on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; Kaplan, D.H.; Robinson, J.I.; Solomon, W.M.

    2004-01-01

    Charge exchange spectroscopy is one of the key ion diagnostics on the DIII-D tokamak. It allows determination of ion temperature, poloidal and toroidal velocity, impurity density, and radial electric field E r throughout the plasma. For the 2003 experimental campaign, we replaced the intensified photodiode array detectors on the central portion of the DIII-D charge exchange spectroscopy system with advanced charge-coupled device (CCD) detectors mounted on faster (f/4.7) Czerny-Turner spectrometers equipped with toroidal mirrors. The CCD detectors are improved versions of the ones installed on our edge system in 1999. The combination improved the photoelectron signal level by about a factor of 20 and the signal to noise by a factor of 2-8, depending on the absolute signal level. The new cameras also allow shorter minimum integration times while archiving to PC memory: 0.552 ms for the slower, lower-read noise (15 e) readout mode and 0.274 ms in the faster, higher-read noise (30 e) mode

  7. ADX: a high field, high power density, Advanced Divertor test eXperiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, R.; Labombard, B.; Marmar, E.; Irby, J.; Shiraiwa, S.; Terry, J.; Wallace, G.; Whyte, D. G.; Wolfe, S.; Wukitch, S.; ADX Team

    2014-10-01

    The MIT PSFC and collaborators are proposing an advanced divertor experiment (ADX) - a tokamak specifically designed to address critical gaps in the world fusion research program on the pathway to FNSF/DEMO. This high field (6.5 tesla, 1.5 MA), high power density (P/S ~ 1.5 MW/m2) facility would utilize Alcator magnet technology to test innovative divertor concepts for next-step DT fusion devices (FNSF, DEMO) at reactor-level boundary plasma pressures and parallel heat flux densities while producing high performance core plasma conditions. The experimental platform would also test advanced lower hybrid current drive (LHCD) and ion-cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) actuators and wave physics at the plasma densities and magnetic field strengths of a DEMO, with the unique ability to deploy launcher structures both on the low-magnetic-field side and the high-field side - a location where energetic plasma-material interactions can be controlled and wave physics is most favorable for efficient current drive, heating and flow drive. This innovative experiment would perform plasma science and technology R&D necessary to inform the conceptual development and accelerate the readiness-for-deployment of FNSF/DEMO - in a timely manner, on a cost-effective research platform. Supported by DE-FC02-99ER54512.

  8. Application of divertor cryopumping to H-mode density control in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahdavi, M.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Hyatt, A.W.

    1993-11-01

    In this paper we describe the method and the results of experiments where a unique in-vessel cryopump-baffle system was used to control density of H-mode plasmas. We were able to independently regulate current and density of ELMing H-mode plasmas, each over a range of factor two, and measure the H-mode confinement scaling with plasma density and current. With a modest pumping speed of ∼40 kl/s, particle exhaust rates as high as 2 x 10 22 atom/s -1 have been observed

  9. Effects of neutrals on plasma rotation in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monier-Garbet, P.; Burrell, K.H.; Hinton, F.L.; Kim, J.; Garbet, X.; Groebner, R.J.

    1997-01-01

    Friction due to charge exchange with cold neutral atoms in the edge is investigated as a candidate to govern the poloidal rotation in the edge of a tokamak plasma. The Hirshman and Sigmar neoclassical moment approach is used to determine the rotation velocities of the main plasma ions and of one impurity species, when charge exchange friction is included. It is found that the poloidal rotation of the main plasma ions is controlled by charge exchange friction with neutrals. The impurity ion poloidal rotation is governed by the balance between the impurity viscous force and the main-ion-impurity-ion friction force. The results of the calculation are compared with the measurements obtained in the edge of a DIII-D high (H) mode plasma, using charge exchange recombination (CER) spectroscopy. It is found that the measured main ion poloidal rotation can be accurately predicted by the neoclassical theory including the effect of neutrals, assuming a neutral density n > = 3 x 10 17 m -3 at the separatrix, decreasing exponentially inside the plasma with an e-folding length of 0.012 m, and peaking near the X point region with a poloidal peaking parameter y ≡ n > 2 >/ n B 2 > = 1.5. However, for the impurity ions, the neoclassical theory including a single impurity charge state, and regardless of the effect of the neutrals, gives a prediction that has the correct sign, but whose value is a factor of 5 or 6 different from the experimental value. (author). 12 refs, 7 figs, 1 tab

  10. Development of improved methods for remote access of DIII-D data and data analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greene, K.L.; McHarg, B.B. Jr.

    1997-11-01

    The DIII-D tokamak is a national fusion research facility. There is an increasing need to access data from remote sites in order to facilitate data analysis by collaborative researchers at remote locations, both nationally and internationally. In the past, this has usually been done by remotely logging into computers at the DIII-D site. With the advent of faster networking and powerful computers at remote sites, it is becoming possible to access and analyze data from anywhere in the world as if the remote user were actually at the DIII-D site. The general mechanism for accessing DIII-D data has always been via the PTDATA subroutine. Substantial enhancements are being made to that routine to make it more useful in a non-local environment. In particular, a caching mechanism is being built into PTDATA to make network data access more efficient. Studies are also being made of using Distributed File System (DFS) disk storage in a Distributed Computing Environment (DCE). A data server has been created that will migrate, on request, shot data from the DIII-D environment into the DFS environment

  11. Magnetic barriers and their q95 dependence at DIII-D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volpe, F. A.; Kessler, J.; Ali, H.; Evans, T. E.; Punjabi, A.

    2012-05-01

    It is well known that externally generated resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can form islands in the plasma edge. In turn, large overlapping islands generate stochastic fields, which are believed to play a role in the avoidance and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) at DIII-D. However, large coalescing islands can also generate, in the middle of these stochastic regions, KAM surfaces effectively acting as ‘barriers’ against field-line dispersion and, indirectly, particle diffusion. It was predicted in Ali and Punjabi (2007 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49 1565-82) that such magnetic barriers can form in piecewise analytic DIII-D plasma equilibria. In this work, the formation of magnetic barriers at DIII-D is corroborated by field-line tracing calculations using experimentally constrained EFIT (Lao et al 1985 Nucl. Fusion 25 1611) DIII-D equilibria perturbed to include the vacuum field from the internal coils utilized in the experiments. According to these calculations, the occurrence and location of magnetic barriers depend on the edge safety factor q95. It was thus suggested that magnetic barriers might contribute to narrowing the edge stochastic layer and play an indirect role in the RMPs failing to control ELMs for certain values of q95. The analysis of DIII-D discharges where q95 was varied, however, does not show anti-correlation between barrier formation and ELM suppression.

  12. Magnetic barriers and their q95 dependence at DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volpe, F.A.; Kessler, J.; Ali, H.; Punjabi, A.; Evans, T.E.

    2012-01-01

    It is well known that externally generated resonant magnetic perturbations (RMPs) can form islands in the plasma edge. In turn, large overlapping islands generate stochastic fields, which are believed to play a role in the avoidance and suppression of edge localized modes (ELMs) at DIII-D. However, large coalescing islands can also generate, in the middle of these stochastic regions, KAM surfaces effectively acting as ‘barriers’ against field-line dispersion and, indirectly, particle diffusion. It was predicted in Ali and Punjabi (2007 Plasma Phys. Control. Fusion 49 1565–82) that such magnetic barriers can form in piecewise analytic DIII-D plasma equilibria. In this work, the formation of magnetic barriers at DIII-D is corroborated by field-line tracing calculations using experimentally constrained EFIT (Lao et al 1985 Nucl. Fusion 25 1611) DIII-D equilibria perturbed to include the vacuum field from the internal coils utilized in the experiments. According to these calculations, the occurrence and location of magnetic barriers depend on the edge safety factor q 95 . It was thus suggested that magnetic barriers might contribute to narrowing the edge stochastic layer and play an indirect role in the RMPs failing to control ELMs for certain values of q 95 . The analysis of DIII-D discharges where q 95 was varied, however, does not show anti-correlation between barrier formation and ELM suppression. (paper)

  13. Enhanced Computational Infrastructure for Data Analysis at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schissel, D.P.; Peng, Q.; Schachter, J.; Terpstra, T.B.; Casper, T.A.; Freeman, J.; Jong, R.; Keith, K.M.; Meyer, W.H.; Parker, C.T.; McCharg, B.B.

    1999-01-01

    Recently a number of enhancements to the computer hardware infrastructure have been implemented at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility. Utilizing these improvements to the hardware infrastructure, software enhancements are focusing on streamlined analysis, automation, and graphical user interface (GUI) systems to enlarge the user base. The adoption of the load balancing software package LSF Suite by Platform Computing has dramatically increased the availability of CPU cycles and the efficiency of their use. Streamlined analysis has been aided by the adoption of the MDSplus system to provide a unified interface to analyzed DIII-D data. The majority of MDSplus data is made available in between pulses giving the researcher critical information before setting up the next pulse. Work on data viewing and analysis tools focuses on efficient GUI design with object-oriented programming (OOP) for maximum code flexibility. Work to enhance the computational infrastructure at DIII-D has included a significant effort to aid the remote collaborator since the DIII-D National Team consists of scientists from 9 national laboratories, 19 foreign laboratories, 16 universities, and 5 industrial partnerships. As a result of this work, DIII-D data is available on a 24 x 7 basis from a set of viewing and analysis tools that can be run either on the collaborators' or DIII-Ds computer systems. Additionally, a Web based data and code documentation system has been created to aid the novice and expert user alike

  14. SYSTEM DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE FOR THE RECENT DIII-D NEUTRAL BEAM COMPUTER UPGRADE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PHILLIPS, J.C; PENAFLOR, B.G; PHAM, N.Q; PIGLOWSKI, D.A.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 This operating year marks an upgrade to the computer system charged with control and data acquisition for neutral beam injection system's heating at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility, funded by the US Department of Energy and operated by General Atomics (GA). This upgrade represents the third and latest major revision to a system which has been in service over twenty years. The first control and data acquisition computers were four 16 bit mini computers running a proprietary operating system. Each of the four controlled two ion source over dedicated CAMAC highway. In a 1995 upgrade, the system evolved to be two 32 bit Motorola mini-computers running a version of UNIX. Each computer controlled four ion sources with two CAMAC highways per CPU. This latest upgrade builds on this same logical organization, but makes significant advances in cost, maintainability, and the degree to which the system is open to future modification. The new control and data acquisition system is formed of two 2 GHz Intel Pentium 4 based PC's, running the LINUX operating system. Each PC drives two CAMAC serial highways using a combination of Kinetic Systems PCI standard CAMAC Hardware Drivers and a low-level software driver written in-house expressly for this device. This paper discusses the overall system design and implementation detail, describing actual operating experience for the initial six months of operation

  15. Comparison of H-mode pedestals in different confinement regimes in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groebner, R J [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Leonard, A W [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Luce, T C [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Fenstermacher, M E [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States); Jackson, G L [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Osborne, T H [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Thomas, D M [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States); Wade, M R [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California, 92186-5608 (United States)

    2006-05-15

    A survey of global performance parameters and their correlation with pedestal parameters is performed for standard H-mode, QH-mode and the enhanced confinement regimes of VH-mode, hybrid and advanced tokamak in the DIII-D tokamak. This study shows that there is a trend for global confinement quality or global beta to increase as the pedestal electron pressure or beta increases. However, there are also improvements in core confinement and beta, observed at fixed pedestal pressure or beta, which indicate that factors other than pedestal parameters also contribute to the best core performance. Several other pedestal structure parameters are found to be similar among these regimes. The scale lengths for electron pressure in the pedestal are in the range 0.8-1.6 cm at the outer midplane, most {eta}{sub e} values are in the range 1-3 in the middle of the T{sub e} pedestal and the T{sub e} and n{sub e} pedestals tend to penetrate the same distance into the plasma.

  16. Core and edge aspects of quiescent double barrier operation on DIII-D, with relevance to critical ITB physics issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Casper, T.A.; Burrell, K.H.

    2003-01-01

    Recent results from DIII-D address critical internal transport barrier (ITB) research issues relating to sustainability, impurity accumulation and ITB control, and have also demonstrated successful application of general profile control tools. In addition, substantial progress has been made in understanding the physics of the Quiescent Double Barrier (QDB) regime, increasing the demonstrated operating space for the regime and improving performance. Highlights include: (1) A clear demonstration of q-profile modification using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD); (2) Successful use of localized profile control using electron cyclotron heating (ECH) or ECCD to reduce central high-Z impurity accumulation associated with density peaking; (3) Theory based modeling codes are now being used to design experiments; (4) The operating space for Quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) has been substantially broadened, in particular higher density operation has been achieved; (5) Both absolute (β≤ 3.8%, neutron rate S n ≤ 5.5x10 15 s -1 ) and relative (β N H 89 = 7 for 10τ E ) performance has been increased; (6) With regard to sustainment, QDB plasmas have been run for 3.8 s or 26 τ E . These results emphasize that it is possible to produce sustained high quality H-mode performance with an edge localized mode (ELM)-free edge, directly addressing a major issue in fusion research, of how to ameliorate or eliminate ELM induced pulsed divertor particle and heat loads. (author)

  17. Suppression of large edge localized modes with a stochastic magnetic boundary in high confinement DIII-D plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Moyer, R.A.; Watkins, J.G.

    2005-01-01

    Large sub-millisecond heat pulses due to Type-I ELMs have been eliminated reproducibly in DIII.D for periods approaching 7 energy confinement times with small dc currents driven in a simple magnetic perturbation coil. The current required to eliminate all but a few isolated Type-I ELM impulses during a coil pulse is less than 0.4% of plasma current. Based on vacuum magnetic field line modeling, the perturbation fields resonate strongly with plasma flux surfaces across most of the pedestal region (0.9 ≤ Ψ N ≤ 1.0) when q 95 = 3.7±0.2 creating small remnant magnetic islands surrounded by weakly stochastic field lines. The stored energy, β N , H-mode quality factor and global energy confinement time are unaltered. Although some isolated ELM-like events typically occur, long periods free of large Type-I ELMs (Δt > 4-6 τ E ) have been reproduced numerous times, on multiple experimental run days including cases matching the ITER scenario 2 flux surface shape. Since large Type-I ELM impulses represent a severe constraint on the survivability of the divertor target plates in future fusion devices such as ITER, a proven method of eliminating these impulses is critical for the development of tokamak reactors. Results presented in this paper indicate that non-axisymmetric edge magnetic perturbations could be a promising option for controlling ELMs in future tokamaks such as ITER. (author)

  18. Suppression of large edge localized modes with edge resonant magnetic fields in high confinement DIII-D plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.R.; Becoulet, M.; Evans, T.E.; Osborne, T.H.; Groebner, R.J.; Jackson, G.L.; Haye, R.J. La; Schaffer, M.J.; West, W.P.; Moyer, R.A.; Rhodes, T.L.; Rudakov, D.L.; Watkins, J.G.; Boedo, J.A.; Doyle, E.J.; Wang, G.; Zeng, L.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Groth, M.; Lasnier, C.J.; Finken, K.H.; Harris, J.H.; Pretty, D.G.; Masuzaki, S.; Ohyabu, N.; Reimerdes, H.; Wade, M.R.

    2005-01-01

    Large divertor heat pulses due to Type-I edge localized modes (ELMs) have been eliminated reproducibly in DIII-D with small dc currents driven in a simple magnetic perturbation coil. The current required to eliminate all but a few isolated Type-I ELMs, during a coil pulse, is less than 0.4% of plasma current. Modelling shows that the perturbation fields resonate with plasma flux surfaces across most of the pedestal region (0.9 ≤ N ≤ 1.0), when q95 = 3.7±0.2 creating small remnant magnetic islands surrounded by weakly stochastic field lines. The stored energy, N , H-mode quality factor and global energy confinement time are unaltered by the magnetic perturbation. At high collisionality (ν* ∼0.5-1), there is no obvious effect of the perturbation on the edge profiles and yet ELMs are suppressed, nearly completely, for up to 9τ E . At low collisionality (ν* <0.1), there is a density pump-out and complete ELM suppression, reminiscent of the DIIID QH- mode. Other differences, specifically in the resonance condition and the magnetic fluctuations, suggest that different mechanisms are at play in the different collisionality regimes. In addition to a description and interpretation of the DIIID data, the application of this method to ELM control on other machines, such as JET and ITER will be discussed. (author)

  19. Application of the radiating divertor approach to innovative tokamak divertor concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrie, T.W., E-mail: petrie@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Allen, S.L.; Fenstermacher, M.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Groebner, R.J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Holcomb, C.T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); La Haye, R.J. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Lasnier, C.J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Leonard, A.W.; Luce, T.C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Moyer, R.A. [University of California San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, CA 92093-0417 (United States); Solomon, W.M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 700 East Ave, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Turco, F. [Columbia University, 2960 Broadway, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Watkins, J.G. [Sandia National Laboratory, PO Box 5800, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    We survey the results of recent DIII-D experiments that tested the effectiveness of three innovative tokamak divertor concepts in reducing divertor heat flux while still maintaining acceptable energy confinement under neon/deuterium-based radiating divertor (RD) conditions: (1) magnetically unbalanced high performance double-null divertor (DND) plasmas, (2) high performance double-null “Snowflake” (SF-DN) plasmas, and (3) single-null H-mode plasmas having different isolation from their divertor targets. In general, all three concepts adapt well to RD conditions, achieving significant reduction in divertor heat flux (q{sub ⊥p}) and maintaining high performance metrics, e.g., 50–70% reduction in peak divertor heat flux for DND and SF-DN plasmas that are characterized by β{sub N} ≅ 3.0 and H{sub 98(y,2)} ≈ 1.35. It is also demonstrated that q{sub ⊥p} could be reduced ≈50% by extending the parallel connection length (L{sub ||-XPT}) in the scrape-off layer between the X-point and divertor targets over a variety of the RD and non-RD environments tested.

  20. Extending the capabilities of the DIII-D Plasma Control System for worldwide fusion research collaborations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; Ferron, J.R.; Walker, M.L.; Humphreys, D.A.; Leuer, J.A.; Piglowski, D.A.; Johnson, R.D.; Xiao, B.J.; Hahn, S.H.; Gates, D.A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will discuss the recent enhancements which have been made to the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) in order to further extend its usefulness as a shared tool for worldwide fusion research. The PCS developed at General Atomics is currently being used in a number of fusion research experiments worldwide, including the DIII-D Tokamak Facility in San Diego, and most recently the KSTAR Tokamak in South Korea. A number of enhancements have been made to support the ongoing needs of the DIII-D Tokamak in addition to meeting the needs of other PCS users worldwide. Details of the present PCS hardware and software architecture along with descriptions of the latest enhancements will be given.

  1. Performance, diagnostics, controls and plans for the gyrotron system on the DIII-D tokamak

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce D.M.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The DIII-D ECH complex is being upgraded with three new depressed collector gyrotrons. The performance of the existing system has been very good. As more gyrotrons having higher power are added to the system, diagnostics of gyrotron operation, optimization of the performance and qualification of components for higher power become more important. A new FPGA-based gyrotron control system is being installed, additional capabilities for rapid real time variation of the rf injection angles by the DIII-D Plasma Control System are being tested and infrastructure enhancements are being completed. Longer term plans continue to include ECH as a major component in the DIII-D heating and current drive capabilities.

  2. Increasing the Tokamak Pressure Limit: Tearing Mode Experiments in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.

    2005-01-01

    Since its reconfiguration in 1986, DIII-D has performed a number of experiments involving resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability. These were and are directed to understand the conditions in which confinement and beta reducing tearing mode islands form, how to avoid them, and if unavoidable, how to stabilize them. Coils for correction of toroidal nonaxisymmetry have been developed to avoid error field locked mode islands. Basic classical tearing mode stability physics has been confirmed with a state-of-the-art ensemble of profile diagnostics, MHD equilibrium reconstruction, and stability code analysis. Neoclassical tearing mode thresholds and seeding are now much better understood with future large higher field devices expected to be 'metastable'. DIII-D is the leader in sophisticated real-time alignment of stabilizing electron cyclotron current drive on otherwise unstable rational surfaces. In all, DIII-D experiments are showing how higher stable beta with good confinement can be maintained without tearing mode islands limiting the plasma pressure

  3. Regime of very high confinement in the boronized DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.L.; Winter, J.; Taylor, T.S.; Burrell, K.H.; DeBoo, J.C.; Greenfield, C.M.; Groebner, R.J.; Hodapp, T.; Holtrop, K.; Lazarus, E.A.; Lao, L.L.; Lippmann, S.I.; Osborne, T.H.; Petrie, T.W.; Phillips, J.; James, R.; Schissel, D.P.; Strait, E.J.; Turnbull, A.D.; West, W.P.; DIII-D Team

    1991-01-01

    Following boronization, tokamak discharges in DIII-D have been obtained with confinement times up to a factor of 3.5 above the ITER89-P L-mode scaling and 1.8 times greater than the DIII-D/JET H-mode scaling relation. Very high confinement phases are characterized by relatively high central density with n e (0)∼1x10 20 m -3 , and central ion temperatures up to 13.6 keV at moderate plasma currents (1.6 MA) and heating powers (12.5--15.3 MW). These discharges exhibit a low fraction of radiated power, P≤25%, Z eff (0) close to unity, and lower impurity influxes than comparable DIII-D discharges before boronization

  4. GYRO Simulations of Core Momentum Transport in DIII-D and JET Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.V.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    Momentum, energy, and particle transport in DIII-D and JET ELMy H-mode plasmas is simulated with GYRO and compared with measurements analyzed using TRANSP. The simulated transport depends sensitively on the nabla(T(sub)i) turbulence drive and the nabla(E(sub)r) turbulence suppression inputs. With their nominal values indicated by measurements, the simulations over-predict the momentum and energy transport in the DIII-D plasmas, and under-predict in the JET plasmas. Reducing |nabla(T(sub)i)| and increasing |nabla(E(sub)r)| by up to 15% leads to approximate agreement (within a factor of two) for the DIII-D cases. For the JET cases, increasing |nabla(T(sub)i)| or reducing |nabla(E(sub)r)| results in approximate agreement for the energy flow, but the ratio of the simulated energy and momentum flows remains higher than measurements by a factor of 2-4

  5. DIII-D Research Operations annual report to the US Department of Energy, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T.C.; Evans, T.E. (eds.)

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Doublet-3 research operations: DIII-D Program Overview; Boundary Plasma Research Program/Scientific Progress; Radio Frequency Heating and Current Drive; Core Physics; DIII-D Operations; Program Development; Support Services; ITER Contributions; Burning Plasma Experiment Contributions; and Collaborative Efforts.

  6. DIII-D Research Operations annual report to the US Department of Energy, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simonen, T.C.; Evans, T.E.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Doublet-3 research operations: DIII-D Program Overview; Boundary Plasma Research Program/Scientific Progress; Radio Frequency Heating and Current Drive; Core Physics; DIII-D Operations; Program Development; Support Services; ITER Contributions; Burning Plasma Experiment Contributions; and Collaborative Efforts

  7. ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE IN DIII-D: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PRATER, R; PETTY, CC; LUCE, TC; HARVEY, RW; CHOI, M; LAHAYE, RJ; LIN-LIU, Y-R; LOHR, J; MURAKAMI, M; WADE, MR; WONG, K-L

    2003-01-01

    A271 ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE IN DIII-D: EXPERIMENT AND THEORY. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak in which the measured off-axis electron cyclotron current drive has been compared systematically to theory over a broad range of parameters have shown that the Fokker-Planck code CQL3D provides an excellent model of the relevant current drive physics. This physics understanding has been critical in optimizing the application of ECCD to high performance discharges, supporting such applications as suppression of neoclassical tearing modes and control and sustainment of the current profile

  8. Analysis of toroidal rotation data for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    St John, H.; Stroth, U.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.J.; DeBoo, J.C.; Gohil, P.

    1989-01-01

    Both poloidal and toroidal rotation are observed during routine neutral beam heating operation of the DIII-D tokamak. Poloidal rotation results and the empirical techniques used to measure toroidal and poloidal rotation speeds are described by Groebner. Here we concentrate on the analysis of recent measurements of toroidal rotation made during diverted, H-mode operation of the DIII-D tokamak during co- and counter-neutral beam injection of hydrogen into deuterium plasmas. Our results are based on numerical inversions using the transport code ONETWO, modified to account for the radial diffusion of toroidal angular momentum. 13 refs., 4 figs

  9. Analysis of toroidal rotation data for the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, H.St.; Burrell, K.H.; Groebner, R.; DeBoo, J.; Gohil, P.

    1989-01-01

    Both poloidal and toroidal rotation are observed during routine neutral beam heating operation of the DIII-D tokamak. Poloidal rotation results and the empirical techniques used to measure toroidal and poloidal rotation speeds are described by Groebner et al. Here we concentrate on the analysis of recent measurements of toroidal rotation made during diverted, H-mode operation of the DIII-D tokamak during co- and counter-neutral beam injection of hydrogen into deuterium plasmas. Similar studies have been previously reported for Doublet III, ASDEX, TFTR, JET and other tokamaks. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs

  10. CURRENT DRIVE AND PRESSURE PROFILE MODIFICATION WITH ELECTRON CYCLOTRON POWER IN DIII-D QUIESCENT DOUBLE BARRIER EXPERIMENTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CASPER, TA; BURRELL, KH; DOYLE, EJ; GOHIL, P; GREENFIELD, CM; GROEBNER, RJ; JAYAKUMAR, RJ; MAKOWSKI, MA; RHODES, TL; WEST, WP

    2003-01-01

    OAK-B135 High confinement mode (H-mode) operation is a leading scenario for burning plasma devices due to its inherently high energy-confinement characteristics. The quiescent H-mode (QH-mode) offers these same advantages with the additional attraction of more steady edge conditions where the highly transient power loads due to edge localized mode (ELM) activity is replaced by the steadier power and particle losses associated with an edge harmonic oscillation (EHO). With the addition of an internal transport barrier (ITB), the capability is introduced for independent control of both the edge conditions and the core confinement region giving potential control of fusion power production for an advanced tokamak configuration. The quiescent double barrier (QDB) conditions explored in DIII-D experiments exhibit these characteristics and have resulted in steady plasma conditions for several confinement times (∼ 26 τ E ) with moderately high stored energy, β N H 89 ∼ 7 for 10 τ E

  11. 13C-Tracer Experiments in DIII-D Preliminary to Thermal Oxidation Experiments to Understand Tritium Recovery in DIII-D, JET, C-Mod, and MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stangeby, P.; Allen, S.; Bekris, N.; Brooks, N.; Christie, K.; Chrobak, C.; Coad, J.; Counsell, G.; Davis, J.; Elder, J.; Fenstermacher, M.; Groth, M.; Haasz, A.; Likonen, J.; Lipschultz, B.; McLean, A.; Philipps, V.; Porter, G.; Rudakov, D.; Shea, J.; Wampler, W.; Watkins, J.; West, W.; Whyte, D.

    2006-01-01

    Retention of tritium in carbon co-deposits is a serious concern for ITER. Developing a reliable in-situ removal method of the co-deposited tritium would allow the use of carbon plasma-facing components which have proven reliable in high heat flux conditions and compatible with high performance plasmas. Thermal oxidation is a potential solution, capable of reaching even hidden locations. It is necessary to establish the least severe conditions to achieve adequate tritium recovery, minimizing damage and reconditioning time. The first step in this multi-machine project is 13 C-tracer experiments in DIII-D, JET, C-Mod and MAST. In DIII-D and JET, 13 CH 4 has been (and in C-Mod and MAST, will be) injected toroidally symmetrically, facilitating quantification and interpretation of the results. Tiles have been removed, analyzed for 13 C content and will next be evaluated in a thermal oxidation test facility in Toronto with regard to the ability of different severities of oxidation exposure to remove the different types of (known and measured) 13 C co-deposit. Removal of D/T from B on Mo tiles from C-Mod will also be tested. OEDGE interpretive code analysis of the 13 C deposition patterns is used to generate the understanding needed to apply findings to ITER. First results are reported here for the 13 C injection experiments IN DIII-D

  12. Compatibility of detached divertor operation with robust edge pedestal performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard, A.W., E-mail: leonard@fusion.gat.com [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Makowski, M.A.; McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Osborne, T.H.; Snyder, P.B. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The compatibility of detached radiative divertor operation with a robust H-mode pedestal is examined in DIII-D. A density scan produced low temperature plasmas at the divertor target, T{sub e} ⩽ 2 eV, with high radiation leading to a factor of ⩾4 drop in peak divertor heat flux. The cold radiative plasma was confined to the divertor and did not extend across the separatrix in X-point region. A robust H-mode pedestal was maintained with a small degradation in pedestal pressure at the highest densities. The response of the pedestal pressure to increasing density is reproduced by the EPED pedestal model. However, agreement of the EPED model with experiment at high density requires an assumption of reduced diamagnetic stabilization of edge Peeling–Ballooning modes.

  13. High temperature outgassing tests on materials used in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holtrop, K.L.; Hansink, M.J.

    2006-01-01

    This article is a continuation of previous work on determining the outgassing characteristics of materials used in the DIII-D magnetic fusion tokamak [K. L. Holtrop, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 17, 2064 (1999)]. Achievement of high performance plasma discharges in the DIII-D tokamak requires careful control of impurity levels. Among the techniques used to control impurities are routine bakes of the vacuum vessel to an average temperature of 350 deg. C. Materials used in DIII-D must release only very small amounts of impurities (below 2x10 -6 mole) at this temperature that could be transferred to the first wall materials and later contaminate plasma discharges. To better study the behavior of materials proposed for use in DIII-D at elevated temperatures, the initial outgassing test chamber was improved to include an independent heating control of the sample and a simple load lock chamber. The goal was to determine not only the total degassing rate of the material during baking, but to also determine the gas species composition and to obtain a quantitative estimate of the degassing rate of each species by the use of a residual gas analyzer. Initial results for aluminum anodized using three different processes, stainless steel plated with black oxide and black chrome, and a commercially available fiber optic feedthrough will be presented

  14. 60 MHz fast wave current drive experiment for DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, M.J.; Chiu, S.C.; Porkolab, M.; Chan, V.; Freeman, R.; Harvey, R.; Pinsker, R. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (USA))

    1989-07-01

    The DIII-D facility provides an opportunity to test fast wave current drive appoach. Efficient FWCD is achieved by direct electron absorption due to Landa damping and transit time magnetic pumping. To avoid competing damping mechamisms we seek to maximize the single-pass asorption of the fast waves by electrons. (AIP)

  15. Cooperative program to analyze heat and particle transport at high beta in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, T.K.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is to collaborate with the General Atomics staff and the LLNL staff at General Atomics in the analysis of transport data from DIII-D. The Berkeley effort is integrated into the ongoing efforts at GA to help expedite progress in the fundamental understanding of transport phenomena in tokamaks

  16. Physics of turbulence control and transport barrier formation in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doyle, E.J.; Burrell, K.H.; Carlstrom, T.N.

    1996-10-01

    This paper describes the physical mechanisms responsible for turbulence control and transport barrier formation on DIII-D as determined from a synthesis of results from different enhanced confinement regimes, including quantitative and qualitative comparisons to theory. A wide range of DIII-D data support the hypothesis that a single underlying physical mechanism, turbulence suppression via E x B shear flow is playing an essential, though not necessarily unique, role in reducing turbulence and transport in all of the following improved confinement regimes: H-mode, VH-mode, high-ell i modes, improved performance counter-injection L-mode discharges and high performance negative central shear (NCS) discharges. DIII-D data also indicate that synergistic effects are important in some cases, as in NCS discharges where negative magnetic shear also plays a role in transport barrier formation. This work indicates that in order to control turbulence and transport it is important to focus on understanding physical mechanisms, such as E x B shear, which can regulate and control entire classes of turbulent modes, and thus control transport. In the highest performance DIII-D discharges, NCS plasmas with a VH-mode like edge, turbulence is suppressed at all radii, resulting in neoclassical levels of ion transport over most of the plasma volume

  17. Data analysis software tools for enhanced collaboration at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, J.; Peng, Q.; Schissel, D.P.

    2000-01-01

    Data analysis at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility is simplified by the use of two software packages in analysis codes. The first is 'GAPlotObj', an IDL-based object-oriented library used in visualization tools for dynamic plotting. GAPlotObj gives users the ability to manipulate graphs directly through mouse and keyboard-driven commands. The second software package is 'MDSplus', which is used at DIII-D as a central repository for analyzed data. GAPlotObj and MDSplus reduce the effort required for a collaborator to become familiar with the DIII-D analysis environment by providing uniform interfaces for data display and retrieval. Two visualization tools at DIII-D that benefit from them are 'ReviewPlus' and 'EFITviewer'. ReviewPlus is capable of displaying interactive 2D and 3D graphs of raw, analyzed, and simulation code data. EFITviewer is used to display results from the EFIT analysis code together with kinetic profiles and machine geometry. Both bring new possibilities for data exploration to the user, and are able to plot data from any fusion research site with an MDSplus data server

  18. Comparison of calculated neutral beam shine through with measured shine-through in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiu, H.K.; Hong, R.

    1997-11-01

    A comparison of the calculated shine through of neutral particle beams in the DIII-D plasma to measured values inferred from the target temperature rise is reported. This provides an opportunity to verify the shine through calculations and makes them more reliable in those cases where the shine through can not be measured. The DIII-D centerpost neutral beam target tiles are safe-guarded against excessive beam shine-through by pyrometry and thermocouple (TC) arrays on the tiles. Shine-through beam power is calculated from the measured temperature changes reported by the target tile TC array. These measurements are performed at the beginning of each operational year at DIII-D. Theoretically, the beam energy deposited into the plasma can be expressed as a function of the change in beam density. Neutral beam energy deposition in plasma (of known density) is inferred by comparing the results of a series of shine-through measurements for the 1997 campaign at DIII-D to the expected shine-through given by theory

  19. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE 110 GHz ELECTRON CYCLOTRON INSTATLLATION ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PONCE, D.; CALLIS, R.W.; CARY, W.P.; FERRON, J.R.; GREEN, M.; GRUNLOH, H.J.; GORELOV, Y.; LOHR, J.; ELLIS, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    OAK A271 RECENT DEVELOPMENTS ON THE 110 GHZ ELECTRON CYCLOTRON INSTALLATION ON THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. Significant improvements are being implement4ed to the capability of the 110 GHz electron cyclotron system on the DIII-D tokamak. Chief among these is the addition of the fifth and sixth 1 MW class gyrotrons, increasing the power available for auxiliary heating and current drive by nearly 60%. These tubes use artificially grown diamond rf output windows to obtain high power with long pulse capability. The beams from these tubes are nearly Gaussian, facilitating coupling to the waveguide. A new fully articulating dual launcher capable of high speed spatial scanning has been designed and tested. The launcher has two axis independent steering for each waveguide. the mirrors can be rotated at up to 100 o /s. A new feedback system linking the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) with the gyrotron beam voltage waveform generators permits real-time feedback control of some plasma properties such as electron temperature. The PCS can use a variety of plasma monitors to generate its control signal, including electron cyclotron emission and Mirnov probes. Electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive (ECH and ECCD) were used during this year's DIII-D experimental campaign to control electron temperature, density, and q profiles, induce an ELM-free H-mode, and suppress the m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode. The new capabilities have expanded the role of EC systems in tokamak plasma control

  20. RECENT DEVELOPMENTS IN ALTERNATIVES TO CAMAC FOR DATA ACQUISITION AT DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KELLMAN, D.H.; CAMPBELL, G.L.; FERRON, J.R.; PIGLOWSKI, D.A.; AUSTIN, M.E.; MCKEE, G.R.

    2004-03-01

    OAK-B135 For over twenty years, data acquisition hardware at DIII-D has been based on the CAMAC platform. These rugged and reliable systems, however, are gradually becoming obsolete due to end-of-life issues, ever-decreasing industry support of older hardware, and the availability of modern alternative hardware with superior performance. Efforts are underway at DIII-D to adopt new data acquisition solutions which exploit modern technologies and surpass the limitations of the CAMAC standard. These efforts have involved the procurement and development of data acquisition systems based on the PCI and Compact-PCI platform standards. These systems are comprised of rack-mount computers containing data acquisition boards (digitizers), Ethernet connectivity, and the drivers and software necessary for control. Each digitizer contains analog-to-digital converters, control circuitry, firmware and memory to collect, store, and transfer waveform data acquired using internal or external triggers and clocks. Software has been developed which allows DIII-D computers to program the operational parameters of the digitizers, as well as to upload acquired data into the DIII-D acquisition database. All communication between host computers and the new acquisition systems occurs via standard Ethernet connections, a vast improvement over the slower, serial loop highways used for control and data transfer with CAMAC systems. In addition, the capabilities available in modern integrated and printed circuit manufacture result in digitizers with high channel count and memory density. Cost savings are also realized by utilizing a platform based on standards of the personal computer industry. Details of the new systems at DIII-D are presented, along with initial experience with their use, and plans for future expansion and improvement

  1. Lower hybrid current drive for edge current density modification in DIII-D: Final status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porkolab, M.

    1993-01-01

    Application of Lower Hybrid (LH) Current Drive (CD) in the DIII-D tokamak has been studied at LLNL, off and on, for several years. The latest effort began in February 1992 in response to a letter from ASDEX indicating that the 2.45 GHz, 3 MW system there was available to be used on another device. An initial assessment of the possible uses for such a system on DIII-D was made and documented in September 1992. Multiple meetings with GA personnel and members of the LH community nationwide have occurred since that time. The work continued through the submission of the 1995 Field Work Proposals in March 1993 and was then put on hold due to budget limitations. The purpose of this document is to record the status of the work in such a way that it could fairly easily be restarted at a future date. This document will take the form of a collection of Appendices giving both background and the latest results from the FY 1993 work, connected by brief descriptive text. Section 2 will describe the final workshop on LHCD in DIII-D held at GA in February 1993. This was an open meeting with attendees from GA, LLNL, MIT and PPPL. Summary documents from the meeting and subsequent papers describing the results will be included in Appendices. Section 3 will describe the status of work on the use of low frequency (2.45 GHZ) LH power and Parametric Decay Instabilities (PDI) for the special case of high dielectric in the edge regions of the DIII-D plasma. This was one of the critical issues identified at the workshop. Other potential issues for LHCD in the DIII-D scenarios are: (1) damping of the waves on fast ions from neutral beam injection, (2) runaway electrons in the low density edge plasma, (3) the validity of the WKB approximation used in the ray-tracing models in the steep edge density gradients

  2. Heat pulse propagation studies on DIII-D and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Austin, M. E.; Groebner, R.; Manickam, J.; Rice, B.; Schmidt, G.; Snider, R.

    2000-12-01

    Sawtooth phenomena have been studied on DIII-D and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) [D. Meade and the TFTR Group, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion, Washington, DC, 1990 (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1991), Vol. 1, pp. 9-24]. In the experiments the sawtooth characteristics were studied with fast electron temperature (ECE) and soft x-ray diagnostics. For the first time, measurements of a strong ballistic electron heat pulse were made in a shaped tokamak (DIII-D) [J. Luxon and DIII-D Group, in Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Plasma Physics and Controlled Nuclear Fusion Research, Kyoto (International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna, 1987), Vol. 1, p. 159] and the "ballistic effect" was stronger than was previously reported on TFTR. Evidence is presented in this paper that the ballistic effect is related to the fast growth phase of the sawtooth precursor. Fast, 2 ms interval, measurements on DIII-D were made of the ion temperature evolution following sawteeth and partial sawteeth to document the ion heat pulse characteristics. It is found that the ion heat pulse does not exhibit the very fast, "ballistic" behavior seen for the electrons. Further, for the first time it is shown that the electron heat pulses from partial sawtooth crashes (on DIII-D and TFTR) are seen to propagate at speeds close to those expected from the power balance calculations of the thermal diffusivities whereas heat pulses from fishbones propagate at rates more consistent with sawtooth induced heat pulses. These results suggest that the fast propagation of sawtooth-induced heat pulses is not a feature of nonlinear transport models, but that magnetohydrodynamic events can have a strong effect on electron thermal transport.

  3. Tools for remote collaboration on the DIII-D national fusion facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarg, B.B. Jr.; Greenwood, D.

    1999-01-01

    The DIII-D national fusion facility, a tokamak experiment funded by the US Department of Energy and operated by General Atomics (GA), is an international resource for plasma physics and fusion energy science research. This facility has a long history of collaborations with scientists from a wide variety of laboratories and universities from around the world. That collaboration has mostly been conducted by travel to and participation at the DIII-D site. Many new developments in the computing and technology fields are now facilitating collaboration from remote sites, thus reducing some of the needs to travel to the experiment. Some of these developments include higher speed wide area networks, powerful workstations connected within a distributed computing environment, network based audio/video capabilities, and the use of the world wide web. As the number of collaborators increases, the need for remote tools become important options to efficiently utilize the DIII-D facility. In the last two years a joint study by GA, Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has introduced remote collaboration tools into the DIII-D environment and studied their effectiveness. These tools have included the use of audio/video for communication from the DIII-D control room, the broadcast of meetings, use of inter-process communication software to post events to the network during a tokamak shot, the creation of a DCE (distributed computing environment) cell for creating a common collaboratory environment, distributed use of computer cycles, remote data access, and remote display of results. This study also included sociological studies of how scientists in this environment work together as well as apart. (orig.)

  4. Response to “Comment on ‘Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake’ ” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2014-01-01

    Relying on coil positions relative to the plasma, the “Comment on ‘Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake’ ” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)], emphasizes a criterion for divertor characterization that was critiqued to be ill posed [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)]. We find that no substantive physical differences flow from this criteria. However, using these criteria, the successful NSTX experiment by Ryutov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)] has the coil configuration of an X-divertor (XD), rather than a snowflake (SF). On completing the divertor index (DI) versus distance graph for this NSTX shot (which had an inexplicably missing region), we find that the DI is like an XD for most of the outboard wetted divertor plate. Further, the “proximity condition,” used to define an SF [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)], does not have a substantive physics basis to override metrics based on flux expansion and line length. Finally, if the criteria of the comment are important, then the results of NSTX-like experiments could have questionable applicability to reactors

  5. Response to “Comment on ‘Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake’ ” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Relying on coil positions relative to the plasma, the “Comment on ‘Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake’ ” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)], emphasizes a criterion for divertor characterization that was critiqued to be ill posed [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)]. We find that no substantive physical differences flow from this criteria. However, using these criteria, the successful NSTX experiment by Ryutov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)] has the coil configuration of an X-divertor (XD), rather than a snowflake (SF). On completing the divertor index (DI) versus distance graph for this NSTX shot (which had an inexplicably missing region), we find that the DI is like an XD for most of the outboard wetted divertor plate. Further, the “proximity condition,” used to define an SF [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)], does not have a substantive physics basis to override metrics based on flux expansion and line length. Finally, if the criteria of the comment are important, then the results of NSTX-like experiments could have questionable applicability to reactors.

  6. Stability of DIII-D high-performance, negative central shear discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, J. M.; Berkery, J. W.; Bialek, J.; Clement, M.; Ferron, J. R.; Garofalo, A. M.; Holcomb, C. T.; La Haye, R. J.; Lanctot, M. J.; Luce, T. C.; Navratil, G. A.; Olofsson, K. E. J.; Strait, E. J.; Turco, F.; Turnbull, A. D.

    2017-05-01

    Tokamak plasma experiments on the DIII-D device (Luxon et al 2005 Fusion Sci. Tech. 48 807) demonstrate high-performance, negative central shear (NCS) equilibria with enhanced stability when the minimum safety factor {{q}\\text{min}} exceeds 2, qualitatively confirming theoretical predictions of favorable stability in the NCS regime. The discharges exhibit good confinement with an L-mode enhancement factor H 89  =  2.5, and are ultimately limited by the ideal-wall external kink stability boundary as predicted by ideal MHD theory, as long as tearing mode (TM) locking events, resistive wall modes (RWMs), and internal kink modes are properly avoided or controlled. Although the discharges exhibit rotating TMs, locking events are avoided as long as a threshold minimum safety factor value {{q}\\text{min}}>2 is maintained. Fast timescale magnetic feedback control ameliorates RWM activity, expanding the stable operating space and allowing access to {β\\text{N}} values approaching the ideal-wall limit. Quickly growing and rotating instabilities consistent with internal kink mode dynamics are encountered when the ideal-wall limit is reached. The RWM events largely occur between the no- and ideal-wall pressure limits predicted by ideal MHD. However, evaluating kinetic contributions to the RWM dispersion relation results in a prediction of passive stability in this regime due to high plasma rotation. In addition, the ideal MHD stability analysis predicts that the ideal-wall limit can be further increased to {β\\text{N}}>4 by broadening the current profile. This path toward improved stability has the potential advantage of being compatible with the bootstrap-dominated equilibria envisioned for advanced tokamak (AT) fusion reactors.

  7. Effect of low density H-mode operation on edge and divertor plasma parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Mioduszewski, P.K.; Cuthbertson, J.W.

    1994-07-01

    We present a study of the impact of H-mode operation at low density on divertor plasma parameters on the DIII-D tokamak. The line-average density in H-mode was scanned by variation of the particle exhaust rate, using the recently installed divertor cryo-condensation pump. The maximum decrease (50%) in line-average electron density was accompanied by a factor of 2 increase in the edge electron temperature, and 10% and 20% reductions in the measured core and divertor radiated power, respectively. The measured total power to the inboard divertor target increased by a factor of 3, with the major contribution coming from a factor of 5 increase in the peak heat flux very close to the inner strike point. The measured increase in power at the inboard divertor target was approximately equal to the measured decrease in core and divertor radiation

  8. Modification of adhered dust on plasma-facing surfaces due to exposure to ELMy H-mode plasma in DIII-D

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Bykov

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Transient heat load tests have been conducted in the lower divertor of DIII-D using DiMES manipulator in order to study the behavior of dust on tungsten Plasma Facing Components (PFCs during ELMy H-mode discharges. Samples with pre-adhered, pre-characterized dust have been exposed at the outer strike point (OSP in a series of discharges with varied intra-(inter- ELM heat fluxes. We used C dust because of its high sublimation temperature and non-metal properties. Al dust as a surrogate for Be and W dust were employed as relevant to that in the ITER divertor. The poor initial thermal contact between the substrate and the particles led to overheating, sublimation and shrinking of the carbon dust, and wetting induced coagulation of Al dust. Little modification of the W dust was observed. An enhanced surface adhesion and improvement of the thermal contact of C and Al dust were the result of exposure. A post mortem “adhesive tape” sampling showed that 70% of Al, <5% of W and C particles could not be removed from the surface owing to the improved adhesion. Al and C but not W particles that could be lifted had W inclusions indicating damage to the substrate. This suggests that non destructive methods may be inefficient for removal of dust in ITER.

  9. Role of E x B Shear and Magnetic Shear in the Formation of Transport Barriers in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burrell, K.H.

    2005-01-01

    Development of the E x B shear stabilization model to explain the formation of transport barriers in magnetic confinement devices is a major achievement of fusion research. This concept has the universality needed to explain the H-mode edge transport barriers seen in limiter and divertor tokamaks, stellarators, and mirror machines; the broader edge transport barrier seen in VH-mode plasmas; and the core transport barriers formed in tokamaks with low or negative magnetic shear. These examples of confinement improvement are of considerable physical interest; it is not often that a system self-organizes to reduce transport when an additional source of free energy is applied to it. The transport decrease associated with E x B velocity shear is also of great practical benefit to fusion research. The fundamental physics involved in transport reduction is the effect of E x B shear on the growth, radial extent, and phase correlation of turbulent eddies in the plasma. The same basic transport reduction process can be operational in various portions of the plasma because there are a number of ways to change the radial electric field E r . An important theme in this area is the synergistic effect of E x B velocity shear and magnetic shear. Although the E x B velocity shear appears to have an effect on broader classes of microturbulence, magnetic shear can mitigate some potentially harmful effects of E x B velocity shear and facilitate turbulence stabilization. The experimental results on DIII-D and other devices are generally consistent with the basic theoretical models

  10. COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE m=2/n-1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PETTY, CC; LAHAYE, LA; LUCE, TC; HUMPHREYS, DA; HYATT, AW; PRATER, R; STRAIT, EJ; WADE, MR

    2003-01-01

    A271 COMPLETE SUPPRESSION OF THE M=2/N-1 NEOCLASSICAL TEARING MODE USING ELECTRON CYCLOTRON CURRENT DRIVE ON DIII-D. The first suppression of the important and deleterious m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is reported using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) to replace the ''missing'' bootstrap current in the island O-point. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak verify the maximum shrinkage of the m=2/n=1 island occurs when the ECCD location coincides with the q = 2 surface. The DIII-D plasma control system is put into search and suppress mode to make small changes in the toroidal field to find and lock onto the optimum position, based on real time measurements of dB θ /dt, for complete m=2/n=1 NTM suppression by ECCD. The requirements on the ECCD for complete island suppression are well modeled by the modified Rutherford equation for the DIII-D plasma conditions

  11. Variation of particle exhaust with changes in divertor magnetic balance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrie, T.W.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.H.

    2006-01-01

    Recent experiments on DIII-D point to the importance of two factors in determining how effectively the deuterium particle inventory in a tokamak plasma can be controlled through pumping at the divertor target(s): (1) the divertor magnetic balance, i.e. the degree to which the divertor topology is single-null or double-null (DN) and (2) the direction of the of B x ∇B ion drift with respect to the X-point(s). Changes in divertor magnetic balance near the DN shape have a much stronger effect on the particle exhaust rate at the inner divertor target(s) than on the particle exhaust rate at the outer divertor target(s). The particle exhaust rate for the DN shape is strongest at the outer strike point opposite the B x ∇B ion particle drift direction. Our data suggests that the presence of B x ∇B and E x B ion particle drifts in the scrape-off layer and divertor(s) play an important role in the particle exhaust rates of DN and near-DN plasmas. Particle exhaust rates are shown to depend strongly on the edge (pedestal) density. These results have implications for particle control in ITER and other future tokamaks

  12. Edge density fluctuation diagnostic for DIII-D using lithium beams: 1992 annual report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D.M.

    1994-01-01

    During the past several months the Lithium beam diagnostic was commissioned of DIII-D and began yielding useful information. The author developed the remote control and monitoring of the ion source operation and beam formation and focussing, and integrated the control system and data acquisition into the DIII-D operating system. Several detector types were fabricated, and fluorescence data were collected using several differing detector arrangements. Beam-gas measurements were conducted to analyze the intrinsic beam fluctuations and stability. Fluorescence data was then obtained on a number of Tokamak discharges under varying discharge conditions. Analysis of this initial data is proceeding but has already yielded some interesting features. These include changes in the edge plasma density behavior during the l- to h-transition, disruptions, and edge localized modes (ELMs). Based on the quality of data obtained the author proceeded with the design and construction of the full 16-channel detection system which will be completed and tested shortly

  13. Reduction of recycling in DIII-D by degassing and conditioning of the graphite tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.L.; Taylor, T.S.; Allen, S.L.

    1988-05-01

    Reduced recycling, reduced edge neutral pressure, improved density control, and improved discharge reproducibility have been achieved in the DIII-D tokamak by in situ helium conditioning of the graphite tiles. An improvement in energy confinement has been observed in hydrogen discharges with hydrogen beam injection after helium preconditioning. After the graphite wall coverage in DIII-D was increased to 40%, helium glow wall conditioning, routinely applied before each tokamak discharge, has been necessary to reduce recycling and obtain H-mode. The utilization of helium glow wall conditioning was an important factor in the achievement of an ohmic H-mode, i.e. no auxillary heating, with significant improvement in ohmic energy confinement. 16 refs., 8 figs

  14. Feedback Control of Resistive Wall Modes in Slowly Rotating DIII-D Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okabayashi, M.; Chance, M. S.; Takahashi, H.; Garofalo, A. M.; Reimerdes, H.; in, Y.; Chu, M. S.; Jackson, G. L.; La Haye, R. J.; Strait, E. J.

    2006-10-01

    In slowly rotating plasmas on DIII-D, the requirement of RWM control feedback have been identified, using a MHD code along with measured power supply characteristics. It was found that a small time delay is essential for achieving high beta if no rotation stabilization exists. The overall system delay or the band pass time constant should be in the range of 0.4 of the RWM growth time. Recently the control system was upgraded using twelve linear audio amplifiers and a faster digital control system, reducing the time-delay from 600 to 100 μs. The advantage has been clearly observed when the RWMs excited by ELMs were effectively controlled by feedback even if the rotation transiently slowed nearly to zero. This study provides insight on stability in the low- rotation plasmasw with balanced NBI in DIII-D and also in ITER.

  15. Handling and archiving of magnetic fusion data at DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    VanderLaan, J.F.; Miller, S.; McHarg, B.B. Jr.; Henline, P.A.

    1995-10-01

    Recent modifications to the computer network at DIII-D enhance the collection and distribution of newly acquired and archived experimental data. Linked clients and servers route new data from diagnostic computers to centralized mass storage and distribute data on demand to local and remote workstations and computers. Capacity for data handling exceeds the upper limit of DIII-D Tokamak data production of about 4 GBytes per day. Network users have fast access to new data stored on line. An interactive program handles requests for restoration of data archived off line. Disk management procedures retain selected data on line in preference to other data. Redundancy of all components on the archiving path from the network to magnetic media has prevented loss of data. Older data are rearchived as dictated by limited media life

  16. The production and confinement of runaway electrons with impurity ''killer'' pellets in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, T.E.; Taylor, P.L.; Whyte, D.G.

    1998-12-01

    Prompt runaway electron bursts, generated by rapidly cooling DIII-D plasmas with argon killer pellets, are used to test a recent knock-on avalanche theory describing the growth of multi-MeV runaway electron currents during disruptions in tokamaks. Runaway current amplitudes, observed during some but not all DIII-D current quenches, are consistent with growth rates predicted by the theory assuming a pre-current quench runaway electron density of approximately 10 15 m -3 . Argon killer pellet modeling yields runaway densities of between 10 15 --10 16 m -3 in these discharges. Although knock-on avalanching appears to agree rather well with the measurements, relatively small avalanche amplification factors combined with uncertainties in the spatial distribution of pellet mass and cooling rates make it difficult to unambiguously confirm the proposed theory with existing data

  17. Scintillator-based diagnostic for fast ion loss measurements on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, R. K.; Van Zeeland, M. A.; Pace, D. C.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Muscatello, C. M.; Zhu, Y. B.; Garcia-Munoz, M.

    2010-01-01

    A new scintillator-based fast ion loss detector has been installed on DIII-D with the time response (>100 kHz) needed to study energetic ion losses induced by Alfven eigenmodes and other MHD instabilities. Based on the design used on ASDEX Upgrade, the diagnostic measures the pitch angle and gyroradius of ion losses based on the position of the ions striking the two-dimensional scintillator. For fast time response measurements, a beam splitter and fiberoptics couple a portion of the scintillator light to a photomultiplier. Reverse orbit following techniques trace the lost ions to their possible origin within the plasma. Initial DIII-D results showing prompt losses and energetic ion loss due to MHD instabilities are discussed.

  18. Dimensionally similar discharges with central rf heating on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Luce, T.C.; Pinsker, R.I.

    1993-04-01

    The scaling of L-mode heat transport with normalized gyroradius is investigated on the DIII-D tokamak using central rf heating. A toroidal field scan of dimensionally similar discharges with central ECH and/or fast wave heating show gyro-Bohm-like scaling both globally and locally. The main difference between these restats and those using NBI heating on DIII-D is that with rf heating the deposition profile is not very sensitive to the plasma density. Therefore central heating can be utilized for both the low-B and high-B discharges, whereas for NBI the power deposition is decidedly off-axis for the high-B discharge (i.e., high density)

  19. Experimental survey of the L-H transition conditions in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlstrom, T.N.; Gohil, P.; Watkins, J.C.

    1994-01-01

    We present the global analysis of a recent survey of the H-mode power threshold in DIII-D using D o → D + NBI after boronization of the vacuum vessel. Single parameter scans of B T , I p , density, and plasma shape have been carried out on the DIII-D tokamak for neutral beam heated single-null and double-null diverted plasmas. In single-null discharges, the power threshold is found to increase approximately linearly with B T and n e but remains independent of I p . In double-null discharges, the power threshold is found to be approximately independent of both B T and n e . Various shape parameters such as plasma-wall gaps had only a weak effect on the power threshold. Imbalancing the double null configuration resulted in a large increase in the threshold power

  20. Operational upgrades to the DIII-D 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, T.E.; Cary, W.P.

    1993-10-01

    One of the primary components of the DIII-D radio frequency (rf) program over the past seven years has been the 60 GHz electron cyclotron resonant heating (ECRH) system. The system now consists of eight units capable of operating and controlling eight Varian VGE-8006 60 GHz, 200 kW gyrotrons along with their associated waveguide components. This paper will discuss the operational upgrades and the overall system performance. Many modifications were instituted to enhance the system operation and performance. Modifications discussed in this paper include an improved gyrotron tube-fault response network, a computer controlled pulse-timing and sequencing system, and an improved high-voltage power supply control interface. The discussion on overall system performance will include operating techniques used to improve system operations and reliability. The techniques discussed apply to system start-up procedures, operating the system in a conditioning mode, and operating the system during DIII-D plasma operations

  1. Faraday-effect polarimeter diagnostic for internal magnetic field fluctuation measurements in DIII-D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Ding, W X; Brower, D L; Finkenthal, D; Muscatello, C; Taussig, D; Boivin, R

    2016-11-01

    Motivated by the need to measure fast equilibrium temporal dynamics, non-axisymmetric structures, and core magnetic fluctuations (coherent and broadband), a three-chord Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system with fast time response and high phase resolution has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. A novel detection scheme utilizing two probe beams and two detectors for each chord results in reduced phase noise and increased time response [δb ∼ 1G with up to 3 MHz bandwidth]. First measurement results were obtained during the recent DIII-D experimental campaign. Simultaneous Faraday and density measurements have been successfully demonstrated and high-frequency, up to 100 kHz, Faraday-effect perturbations have been observed. Preliminary comparisons with EFIT are used to validate diagnostic performance. Principle of the diagnostic and first experimental results is presented.

  2. Faraday-effect polarimeter diagnostic for internal magnetic field fluctuation measurements in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, J.; Ding, W. X.; Brower, D. L.; Finkenthal, D.; Muscatello, C.; Taussig, D.; Boivin, R.

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the need to measure fast equilibrium temporal dynamics, non-axisymmetric structures, and core magnetic fluctuations (coherent and broadband), a three-chord Faraday-effect polarimeter-interferometer system with fast time response and high phase resolution has recently been installed on the DIII-D tokamak. A novel detection scheme utilizing two probe beams and two detectors for each chord results in reduced phase noise and increased time response [δb ∼ 1G with up to 3 MHz bandwidth]. First measurement results were obtained during the recent DIII-D experimental campaign. Simultaneous Faraday and density measurements have been successfully demonstrated and high-frequency, up to 100 kHz, Faraday-effect perturbations have been observed. Preliminary comparisons with EFIT are used to validate diagnostic performance. Principle of the diagnostic and first experimental results is presented.

  3. Non-inductive current drive experiments on DIII-D, and future plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prater, R.; Austin, M.; Baity, F.W.; Callis, R.W.; Chiu, S.C.; DeGrassie, J.S.; Freeman, R.L.; Forest, C.B.; Goulding, R.H.; Harvey, R.W.; Hoffman, D.J.; Ikezi, H.; Lohr, J.; James, R.A.; Kupfer, K.; Lin-Liu, Y.R.; Luce, T.C.; Moeller, C.P.; Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Porkolab, M.; Squire, J.; Trukhin, V.

    1995-01-01

    Experiments on DIII-D (and other tokamaks) have shown that improved performance can follow from optimization of the current density profile. Increased confinement of energy and a higher limit on β have both been found in discharges in which the current density profile is modified through transient means, such as ramping of current or elongation. Peaking of the current distribution to obtain discharges with high internal inductance l i has been found to be beneficial. Alternatively, discharges with broader profiles, as in the VH mode or with high β poloidal, have shown improved performance. Non-inductive current drive is a means to access these modes of improved confinement on a steady state basis. Accordingly, experiments on non-inductive current drive are underway on the DIII-D tokamak using fast waves and electron cyclotron waves. Recent experiments on fast wave current drive have demonstrated the ability to drive up to 180kA of non-inductive current using 1.5MW of power at 60MHz, including the contribution from 1MW of ECCD and the bootstrap current. Higher power r.f. current drive systems are needed to affect strongly the current profile on DIII-D. An upgrade to the fast wave current drive system is underway to increase the total power to 6MW, using two additional antennas and two new 30-120MHz transmitters. Additionally, a 1MW prototype ECH system at 110GHz is being developed (with eventual upgrade to 10MW). With these systems, non-inductive current drive at the 1MA level will be available for experiments on profile control in DIII-D. ((orig.))

  4. Initial assessment of lower hybrid current drive in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenstermacher, M.E.; Porkolab, M.

    1992-01-01

    In this report we discuss the choice of rf frequency for LHCD in DIII-D, and its consequences for the operating regimes. We also discuss some Brambilla code results for particular launcher geometry, as well as edge density requirements for efficient coupling by the launcher. We present results of the ACCOME code modelling for selected frequency spectra. Finally, a summary is given, as well as suggestions for future studies

  5. 2 MW 110 GHz ECH heating system for DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, C.; Prater, R.; Callis, R.; Remsen, D.; Doane, J.; Cary, W.; Phelps, R.; Tupper, M.

    1990-09-01

    A 2 MW 110 GHz ECH system using Varian 0.5 MW gyrotrons is under construction for use on the DIII-D tokamak by late 1991. Most of the components are being design and fabricated at General Atomics, including the gyrotron tanks, superconducting magnets, and transmission line. These components are intended for operation with 10 second pulses and, in the future, with 1 MW gyrotrons. 6 refs., 5 figs

  6. Stability and control of resistive wall modes in high beta, low rotation DIII-D plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garofalo, A.M.; Jackson, G.L.; Haye, R.J. La; Okabayashi, M.; Reimerdes, H.; Strait, E.J.; Ferron, J.R.; Groebner, R.J.; In, Y.; Lanctot, M.J.; Matsunaga, G.; Navratil, G.A.; Solomon, W.M.; Takahashi, H.; Takechi, M.; Turnbull, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Recent high-β DIII-D (Luxon J.L. 2002 Nucl. Fusion 42 64) experiments with the new capability of balanced neutral beam injection show that the resistive wall mode (RWM) remains stable when the plasma rotation is lowered to a fraction of a per cent of the Alfven frequency by reducing the injection of angular momentum in discharges with minimized magnetic field errors. Previous DIII-D experiments yielded a high plasma rotation threshold (of order a few per cent of the Alfven frequency) for RWM stabilization when resonant magnetic braking was applied to lower the plasma rotation. We propose that the previously observed rotation threshold can be explained as the entrance into a forbidden band of rotation that results from torque balance including the resonant field amplification by the stable RWM. Resonant braking can also occur naturally in a plasma subject to magnetic instabilities with a zero frequency component, such as edge localized modes. In DIII-D, robust RWM stabilization can be achieved using simultaneous feedback control of the two sets of non-axisymmetric coils. Slow feedback control of the external coils is used for dynamic error field correction; fast feedback control of the internal non-axisymmetric coils provides RWM stabilization during transient periods of low rotation. This method of active control of the n = 1 RWM has opened access to new regimes of high performance in DIII-D. Very high plasma pressure combined with elevated q min for high bootstrap current fraction, and internal transport barriers for high energy confinement, are sustained for almost 2 s, or 10 energy confinement times, suggesting a possible path to high fusion performance, steady-state tokamak scenarios

  7. Dependence of {beta} {center_dot} {tau} on plasma shape in DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazarus, E.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1993-12-31

    In this paper we discuss the observed variation in plasma performance with plasma shape, in particular, we shall compare single and double null diverted plasmas. The product {beta} {center_dot} {tau} has been used as a figure-of-merit for comparing different toroidal magnetic configurations. Here we shall use it as the figure-of-merit for comparing differing configurations within the DIII-D tokamak. (author) 5 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Dependence of β·τ on plasma shape in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazarus, E.A.

    1993-05-01

    In this paper we discuss the observed variation in plasma performance with plasma shape, in particular, we shall compare single and double null diverted plasmas. The product β·τ has been used as a figure-of-merit for comparing different toroidal magnetic configurations. Here we shall use it as the figure-of-merit for comparing differing configurations within the DIII-D tokamak

  9. Characterization and Modification of Edge-Driven Instabilities in the DIII-D Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferron, J.R.; Lao, L.L.; Osborne, T.H.; Strait, E.J.; Turnbull, A.D.; Miller, R.L.; Taylor, T.S.; Doyle, E.J.; Rice, B.W.; Zhang, C.; Chen, L.; Baylor, L.R.; Murakami, M.; Wade, M.R.

    1999-01-01

    The character of edge localized modes (ELMs) and the height of the edge pressure pedestal in DIII-D tokamak H-mode discharges have been modified by varying the discharge shape (triangularity and squareness) and the safety factor, increasing the edge radiation, and injecting deuterium pellets. Changes in the ELM frequency and amplitude, and the magnitude of the edge pressure gradient, and changes in the calculated extent of the region of access to the ballooning mode second stability regime are observed

  10. System control and data acquisition of the two new FWCD RF systems at DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, T.E.; Allen, J.C.; Cary, W.P. Petty, C.C.

    1995-10-01

    The Fast Wave Current Drive (FWCD) system at DIII-D has increased its available radio frequency (RF) power capabilities with the addition of two new high power transmitters along with their associated transmission line systems. A Sun Sparc-10 workstation, functioning as the FWCD operator console, is being used to control transmitter operating parameters and transmission line tuning parameters, along with acquiring data and making data available for integration into the DIII-D data acquisition system. Labview, a graphical user interface application, is used to manage and control the above processes. This paper will discuss the three primary branches of the FWCD computer control system: transmitter control, transmission line tuning control, and FWCD data acquisition. The main control program developed uses VXI, GPIB, CAMAC, Serial, and Ethernet protocols to blend the three branches together into one cohesive system. The control of the transmitters utilizes VXI technology to communicate with the transmitter's digital interface. A GPIB network allows for communication with various instruments and CAMAC crate controllers. CAMAC crates are located at each phase-shifter/stub-tuner station and are used to digitize transmission line parameters along with transmission line fault detection during RF transmission. The phase-shifter/stub-tuner stations are located through out the DIII-D facility and are controlled from the FWCD operator console via the workstation's Serial port. The Sun workstation has an Ethernet connection allowing for the utilization of the DIII-D data acquisition open-quotes Open Systemclose quotes architecture and of course providing communication with the rest of the world

  11. A neural network for the analysis of DIII-D charge exchange recombination data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, D.R.; Groebner, R.J.; Burrell, K.H.

    1994-01-01

    A neural network of the multiple-layer perceptron (MLP) type, named CERNEUR, has been created for the task of analysing the charge exchange recombination data from DIII-D for the purpose of providing control-room ion temperatures and rotation velocities between shots and, in the future, to provide initial guesses for the standard curve-fitting code. CERNEUR provides very useful 'control-room' in-between shot analysis of the rotation velocity and ion temperature profiles. (author)

  12. Recent improvements to the DIII-D neutral beam instrumentation and control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kellman, D.H.; Hong, R.

    1997-11-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam (NB) instrumentation and control (I and C) system provides for operational control and synchronization of the eight DIII-D neutral beam injection systems, as well as for pertinent data acquisition and safety interlocking. Recently, improvements were made to the I and C system. With the replacement of the NB control computers, new signal interfacing was required to accommodate the elimination of physical operator panels, in favor of graphical user interface control pages on computer terminal screens. The program in the mode control (MC) programmable logic controller (PLC), which serves as a logic-processing interface between the NB control computers and system hardware, was modified to improve the availability of NB heating of DIII-D plasmas in the event that one or more individual beam systems suddenly become unavailable while preparing for a tokamak experimental shot sequences. An upgraded computer platform was adopted for the NB control system operator interface and new graphical user interface pages were developed to more efficiently display system status data. A failure mode of the armor tile infrared thermometers (pyrometers), which serve to terminate beam pulsing if beam shine-through overheats wall thermal shielding inside the DIII-D tokamak, was characterized such that impending failures can be detected and repairs effected to mitigate beam system down-time. The hardware that controls gas flow to the beamline neutralizer cells was upgraded to reduce susceptibility to electromagnetic interference (EMI), and interlocking was provided to terminate beam pulsing in the event of insufficient neutralizer gas flow. Motivation, implementation, and results of these improvements are presented

  13. Thermal-stress analysis and testing of DIII-D armor tiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxi, C.B.; Anderson, P.M.; Reis, E.E.; Smith, J.P.; Smith, P.D.; Croesmann, C.; Watkins, J.; Whitley, J.

    1987-10-01

    It is planned to install about 1500 new armor tiles in the DIII-D tokamak. The armor tiles currently installed in DIII-D are made by brazing Poco AXF-5Q graphite onto Inconel X-750 stock. A small percentage of these have failed by breakage of graphite. These failures were believed to be related to significant residual stress remaining in graphite after brazing. Hence, an effort was undertaken to improve the design with all-graphite tiles. Three criteria must be satisfied by the armor tiles and the hardware used to attach the tiles to the vessel walls: tiles should not structurally fail, peak tile temperature must be less than 2500 K, and peak vessel stresses must be below acceptable levels. A number of alternate design concepts were first analyzed with the two-dimensional finite element codes TOPAZ2D and NIKE2D. Promising designs were optimized for best parameters such as thicknesses, etc. The two best designs were further analyzed for thermal stresses with the three-dimensional codes P/THERMAL and P/STRESS. Prototype tiles of a number of materials were fabricated by GA and tested at the Plasma Materials Test Facility of the Sandia National Laboratory at Albuquerque. The tests simulated the heat flux and cooling conditions in DIII-D. This paper describes the 2-D and 3-D thermal stress analyses, the test results and logic which led to the selected design of the DIII-D armor tiles. 5 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  14. Extending DIII-D Neutral Beam Modulated Operations with a Camac Based Total on Time Interlock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baggest, D.S.; Broesch, J.D.; Phillips, J.C.

    1999-01-01

    A new total-on-time interlock has increased the operational time limits of the Neutral Beam systems at DIII-D. The interlock, called the Neutral Beam On-Time-Limiter (NBOTL), is a custom built CAMAC module utilizing a Xilinx 9572 Complex Programmable Logic Device (CPLD) as its primary circuit. The Neutral Beam Injection Systems are the primary source of auxiliary heating for DIII-D plasma discharges and contain eight sources capable of delivering 20MW of power. The delivered power is typically limited to 3.5 s per source to protect beam-line components, while a DIII-D plasma discharge usually exceeds 5 s. Implemented as a hardware interlock within the neutral beam power supplies, the NBOTL limits the beam injection time. With a continuing emphasis on modulated beam injections, the NBOTL guards against command faults and allows the beam injection to be safely spread over a longer plasma discharge time. The NBOTL design is an example of incorporating modern circuit design techniques (CPLD) within an established format (CAMAC). The CPLD is the heart of the NBOTL and contains 90% of the circuitry, including a loadable, 1 MHz, 28 bit, BCD count down timer, buffers, and CAMAC communication circuitry. This paper discusses the circuit design and implementation. Of particular interest is the melding of flexible modern programmable logic devices with the CAMAC format

  15. Customizable scientific web-portal for DIII-D nuclear fusion experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abla, G; Kim, E N; Schissel, D P

    2010-01-01

    Increasing utilization of the Internet and convenient web technologies has made the web-portal a major application interface for remote participation and control of scientific instruments. While web-portals have provided a centralized gateway for multiple computational services, the amount of visual output often is overwhelming due to the high volume of data generated by complex scientific instruments and experiments. Since each scientist may have different priorities and areas of interest in the experiment, filtering and organizing information based on the individual user's need can increase the usability and efficiency of a web-portal. DIII-D is the largest magnetic nuclear fusion device in the US. A web-portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services for users to select. Each individual user can create a unique working environment to fit his own needs and interests. Customizable services are: real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access, interactive data analysis and visualization. The web-portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing collaborative logbook, and online instant announcement services. The DIII-D web-portal development utilizes multi-tier software architecture, and Web 2.0 technologies and tools, such as AJAX and Django, to develop a highly-interactive and customizable user interface.

  16. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brookman, M. W.; Austin, M. E.; Petty, C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T e measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D

  17. Model-based control of the resistive wall mode in DIII-D: A comparison study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalessio, J.; Schuster, E.; Humphreys, D.A.; Walker, M.L.; In, Y.; Kim, J.-S.

    2009-01-01

    One of the major non-axisymmetric instabilities under study in the DIII-D tokamak is the resistive wall mode (RWM), a form of plasma kink instability whose growth rate is moderated by the influence of a resistive wall. One of the approaches for RWM stabilization, referred to as magnetic control, uses feedback control to produce magnetic fields opposing the moving field that accompanies the growth of the mode. These fields are generated by coils arranged around the tokamak. One problem with RWM control methods used in present experiments is that they predominantly use simple non-model-based proportional-derivative (PD) controllers requiring substantial derivative gain for stabilization, which implies a large response to noise and perturbations, leading to a requirement for high peak voltages and coil currents, usually leading to actuation saturation and instability. Motivated by this limitation, current efforts in DIII-D include the development of model-based RWM controllers. The General Atomics (GA)/Far-Tech DIII-D RWM model represents the plasma surface as a toroidal current sheet and characterizes the wall using an eigenmode approach. Optimal and robust controllers have been designed exploiting the availability of the RWM dynamic model. The controllers are tested through simulations, and results are compared to present non-model-based PD controllers. This comparison also makes use of the μ structured singular value as a measure of robust stability and performance of the closed-loop system.

  18. Non-linear instability of DIII-D to error fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.; Scoville, J.T.

    1991-10-01

    Otherwise stable DIII-D discharges can become nonlinearly unstable to locked modes and disrupt when subjected to resonant m = 2, n = 1 error field caused by irregular poloidal field coils, i.e. intrinsic field errors. Instability is observed in DIII-D when the magnitude of the radial component of the m = 2, n = 1 error field with respect to the toroidal field is B r21 /B T of about 1.7 x 10 -4 . The locked modes triggered by an external error field are aligned with the static error field and the plasma fluid rotation ceases as a result of the growth of the mode. The triggered locked modes are the precursors of the subsequent plasma disruption. The use of an ''n = 1 coil'' to partially cancel intrinsic errors, or to increase them, results in a significantly expanded, or reduced, stable operating parameter space. Precise error field measurements have allowed the design of an improved correction coil for DIII-D, the ''C-coil'', which could further cancel error fields and help to avoid disruptive locked modes. 6 refs., 4 figs

  19. Customizable scientific web-portal for DIII-D nuclear fusion experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abla, G; Kim, E N; Schissel, D P, E-mail: abla@fusion.gat.co [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Increasing utilization of the Internet and convenient web technologies has made the web-portal a major application interface for remote participation and control of scientific instruments. While web-portals have provided a centralized gateway for multiple computational services, the amount of visual output often is overwhelming due to the high volume of data generated by complex scientific instruments and experiments. Since each scientist may have different priorities and areas of interest in the experiment, filtering and organizing information based on the individual user's need can increase the usability and efficiency of a web-portal. DIII-D is the largest magnetic nuclear fusion device in the US. A web-portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services for users to select. Each individual user can create a unique working environment to fit his own needs and interests. Customizable services are: real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access, interactive data analysis and visualization. The web-portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing collaborative logbook, and online instant announcement services. The DIII-D web-portal development utilizes multi-tier software architecture, and Web 2.0 technologies and tools, such as AJAX and Django, to develop a highly-interactive and customizable user interface.

  20. Fast wave current drive experiment on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; Pinsker, R.I.; Chiu, S.C.; deGrassie, J.S.; Harvey, R.W.; Lohr, J.; Luce, T.C.; Mayberry, M.J.; Prater, R.; Porkolab, M.; Baity, F.W.; Goulding, R.H.; Hoffman, J.D.; James, R.A.; Kawashima, H.

    1992-06-01

    One method of radio-frequency heating which shows theoretical promise for both heating and current drive in tokamak plasmas is the direct absorption by electrons of the fast Alfven wave (FW). Electrons can directly absorb fast waves via electron Landau damping and transit-time magnetic pumping when the resonance condition ω - κ parallele υ parallele = O is satisfied. Since the FW accelerates electrons traveling the same toroidal direction as the wave, plasma current can be generated non-inductively by launching FW which propagate in one toroidal direction. Fast wave current drive (FWCD) is considered an attractive means of sustaining the plasma current in reactor-grade tokamaks due to teh potentially high current drive efficiency achievable and excellent penetration of the wave power to the high temperature plasma core. Ongoing experiments on the DIII-D tokamak are aimed at a demonstration of FWCD in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF). Using frequencies in the ICRF avoids the possibility of mode conversion between the fast and slow wave branches which characterized early tokamak FWCD experiments in the lower hybrid range of frequencies. Previously on DIII-D, efficient direct electron heating by FW was found using symmetric (non-current drive) antenna phasing. However, high FWCD efficiencies are not expected due to the relatively low electron temperatures (compared to a reactor) in DIII-D

  1. Software development on the DIII-D control and data acquisition computers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Penaflor, B.G.; McHarg, B.B. Jr.; Piglowski, D.

    1997-11-01

    The various software systems developed for the DIII-D tokamak have played a highly visible and important role in tokamak operations and fusion research. Because of the heavy reliance on in-house developed software encompassing all aspects of operating the tokamak, much attention has been given to the careful design, development and maintenance of these software systems. Software systems responsible for tokamak control and monitoring, neutral beam injection, and data acquisition demand the highest level of reliability during plasma operations. These systems made up of hundreds of programs totaling thousands of lines of code have presented a wide variety of software design and development issues ranging from low level hardware communications, database management, and distributed process control, to man machine interfaces. The focus of this paper will be to describe how software is developed and managed for the DIII-D control and data acquisition computers. It will include an overview and status of software systems implemented for tokamak control, neutral beam control, and data acquisition. The issues and challenges faced developing and managing the large amounts of software in support of the dynamic and everchanging needs of the DIII-D experimental program will be addressed

  2. Comparison of discharges with core transport barriers on DIII-D and JET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Alper, B.; Challis, C.D.

    1997-07-01

    The basic phenomenology of discharges with core transport barriers is the same for DIII-D and JET. The limitations on performance in both cases are well described by MHD stability calculations. Since the discharge behavior of the two machines is so similar, it seems reasonable to apply a simple parameterization of fusion performance which describes well the best performance discharges on DIII-D. The highest fusion performance shot on JET has Q DD = 3.1 10 -3 at 3.2 MA. Scaling from the highest Q DD DIII-D single-null discharge would predict Q DD = 4.2 10 -3 for JET. Raising the plasma current to 4.0 MA would increase the projection to 6.6 10 -3 . Realization of such performance would require significant effort to develop lower q plasmas with an H-mode edge. Because the performance is so closely tied to the current profile, this class of discharges also shows significant potential for steady state if current profile control can be demonstrated

  3. Modeling and experimental studies of the DIII-D neutral beam system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crowley, B., E-mail: crowleyb@fusion.gat.com; Rauch, J.; Scoville, J.T.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • The issues surrounding proposals to increase neutral beam power are evaluated. • A tetrode version of the DIII-D ion source is modeled. • A neutralization efficiency of the DIII-D neutral beam is measured. • A power loading model of the neutral beam line is presented. - Abstract: In this paper, we present the results of beam physics experimental and modeling efforts aimed at learning from and building on the experience of the DIII-D off-axis neutral beam upgrade and other neutral beam system upgrades such as those at JET. The modeling effort includes electrostatic accelerator modeling (using a Poisson solver), gas dynamics modeling for the neutralizer and beam transport models for the beamline. Experimentally, spectroscopic and calorimetric techniques are used to evaluate the system performance. We seek to understand and ameliorate problems such as anomalous power deposition, originating from misdirected or excessively divergent beam particles, on a number of beamline components. We qualitatively and quantitatively evaluate possible project risks such as neutralization efficiency deficit and high voltage hold off associated with increasing the beam energy up to 105 keV.

  4. Progress towards a predictive model for pedestal height in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groebner, R.J.; Leonard, A.W.; Snyder, P.B.; Osborne, T.H.; Petty, C.C.; Maggi, C.F.; Fenstermacher, M.E.; Owen, L.W.

    2009-01-01

    Recent DIII-D pedestal studies provide improved characterization of pedestal scaling for comparison with models. A new pedestal model accurately predicts the maximum achieved pedestal width and height in type I ELMing discharges over a large range of DIII-D operational space, including ITER demonstration discharges. The model is a combination of the peeling-ballooning theory for the MHD stability limits on the pedestal with a simple pedestal width scaling in which the width is proportional to the square root of the pedestal poloidal beta. Width scalings based on the ion toroidal or poloidal gyroradius are much poorer descriptions of DIII-D data. A mass scaling experiment in H and D provides support for a poloidal beta scaling and is not consistent with an ion poloidal gyroradius scaling. Studies of pedestal evolution during the inter-ELM cycle provide evidence that both the pedestal width and height increase during pedestal buildup. Model studies with a 1D kinetic neutrals calculation show that the temporal increase in density width cannot be explained in terms of increased neutral penetration depth. These studies show a correlation of pedestal width with both the square root of the pedestal poloidal beta and the square root of the pedestal ion temperature during the pedestal buildup.

  5. Customizable scientific web-portal for DIII-D nuclear fusion experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abla, G.; Kim, E. N.; Schissel, D. P.

    2010-04-01

    Increasing utilization of the Internet and convenient web technologies has made the web-portal a major application interface for remote participation and control of scientific instruments. While web-portals have provided a centralized gateway for multiple computational services, the amount of visual output often is overwhelming due to the high volume of data generated by complex scientific instruments and experiments. Since each scientist may have different priorities and areas of interest in the experiment, filtering and organizing information based on the individual user's need can increase the usability and efficiency of a web-portal. DIII-D is the largest magnetic nuclear fusion device in the US. A web-portal has been designed to support the experimental activities of DIII-D researchers worldwide. It offers a customizable interface with personalized page layouts and list of services for users to select. Each individual user can create a unique working environment to fit his own needs and interests. Customizable services are: real-time experiment status monitoring, diagnostic data access, interactive data analysis and visualization. The web-portal also supports interactive collaborations by providing collaborative logbook, and online instant announcement services. The DIII-D web-portal development utilizes multi-tier software architecture, and Web 2.0 technologies and tools, such as AJAX and Django, to develop a highly-interactive and customizable user interface.

  6. Recent developments on the 110 GHz electron cyclotron installation on the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponce, D.; Callis, R.W.; Cary, W.P.; Ferron, J.R.; Green, M.; Grunloh, H.J.; Gorelov, Y.; Lohr, J.; Ellis, R.A.

    2003-01-01

    Significant improvements are being implemented to the capability of the 110 GHz electron cyclotron system on the DIII-D tokamak. Chief among these is the addition of the fifth and sixth 1 MW class gyrotrons, increasing the power available for auxiliary heating and current drive by nearly 60%. These tubes use artificially grown diamond r.f. output windows to obtain high power with long pulse capability. The beams from these tubes are nearly Gaussian, facilitating coupling to the waveguide. A new fully articulating dual launcher capable of high speed spatial scanning has been designed and tested. The launcher has two axis independent steering for each waveguide. The mirrors can be rotated at up to 100 deg./s. A new feedback system linking the DIII-D Plasma Control System (PCS) with the gyrotron beam voltage waveform generators permits real-time feedback control of some plasma properties such as electron temperature. The PCS can use a variety of plasma monitors to generate its control signal, including electron cyclotron emission and Mirnov probes. Electron cyclotron heating and electron cyclotron current drive were used during this year's DIII-D experimental campaign to control electron temperature, density, and q profiles, induce an ELM-free H-mode, and suppress the m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode. The new capabilities have expanded the role of EC systems in tokamak plasma control

  7. AORSA full wave calculations of helicon waves in DIII-D and ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, C.; Jaeger, E. F.; Bertelli, N.; Berry, L. A.; Green, D. L.; Murakami, M.; Park, J. M.; Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R.

    2018-06-01

    Helicon waves have been recently proposed as an off-axis current drive actuator for DIII-D, FNSF, and DEMO tokamaks. Previous ray tracing modeling using GENRAY predicts strong single pass absorption and current drive in the mid-radius region on DIII-D in high beta tokamak discharges. The full wave code AORSA, which is valid to all order of Larmor radius and can resolve arbitrary ion cyclotron harmonics, has been used to validate the ray tracing technique. If the scrape-off-layer (SOL) is ignored in the modeling, AORSA agrees with GENRAY in both the amplitude and location of driven current for DIII-D and ITER cases. These models also show that helicon current drive can possibly be an efficient current drive actuator for ITER. Previous GENRAY analysis did not include the SOL. AORSA has also been used to extend the simulations to include the SOL and to estimate possible power losses of helicon waves in the SOL. AORSA calculations show that another mode can propagate in the SOL and lead to significant (~10%–20%) SOL losses at high SOL densities. Optimizing the SOL density profile can reduce these SOL losses to a few percent.

  8. Data Analysis Software Tools for Enhanced Collaboration at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schachter, J.; Peng, Q.; Schissel, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    Data analysis at the DIII-D National Fusion Facility is simplified by the use of two software packages in analysis codes. The first is GAP1otObj, an IDL-based object-oriented library used in visualization tools for dynamic plotting. GAPlotObj gives users the ability to manipulate graphs directly through mouse and keyboard-driven commands. The second software package is MDSplus, which is used at DIED as a central repository for analyzed data. GAPlotObj and MDSplus reduce the effort required for a collaborator to become familiar with the DIII-D analysis environment by providing uniform interfaces for data display and retrieval. Two visualization tools at DIII-D that benefit from them are ReviewPlus and EFITviewer. ReviewPlus is capable of displaying interactive 2D and 3D graphs of raw, analyzed, and simulation code data. EFITviewer is used to display results from the EFIT analysis code together with kinetic profiles and machine geometry. Both bring new possibilities for data exploration to the user, and are able to plot data from any fusion research site with an MDSplus data server

  9. Finding evidence for density fluctuation effects on electron cyclotron heating deposition profiles on DIII-D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brookman, M. W., E-mail: brookmanmw@fusion.gat.com; Austin, M. E. [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, MS 13-505, 3483 Dunhill St, San Diego, CA 92121-1200 (United States); Petty, C. C. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States)

    2015-12-10

    Theoretical work, computation, and results from TCV [J. Decker “Effect of density fluctuations on ECCD in ITER and TCV,” EPJ Web of Conf. 32, 01016 (2012)] suggest that density fluctuations in the edge region of a tokamak plasma can cause broadening of the ECH deposition profile. In this paper, a GUI tool is presented which is used for analysis of ECH deposition as a first step towards looking for this broadening, which could explain effects seen in previous DIII-D ECH transport studies [K.W. Gentle “Electron energy transport inferences from modulated electron cyclotron heating in DIII-D,” Phys. Plasmas 13, 012311 (2006)]. By applying an FFT to the T{sub e} measurements from the University of Texas’s 40-channel ECE Radiometer, and using a simplified thermal transport equation, the flux surface extent of ECH deposition is determined. The Fourier method analysis is compared with a Break-In-Slope (BIS) analysis and predictions from the ray-tracing code TORAY. Examination of multiple Fourier harmonics and BIS fitting methods allow an estimation of modulated transport coefficients and thereby the true ECH deposition profile. Correlations between edge fluctuations and ECH deposition in legacy data are also explored as a step towards establishing a link between fluctuations and deposition broadening in DIII-D.

  10. Controlling marginally detached divertor plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eldon, D.; Kolemen, E.; Barton, J. L.; Briesemeister, A. R.; Humphreys, D. A.; Leonard, A. W.; Maingi, R.; Makowski, M. A.; McLean, A. G.; Moser, A. L.; Stangeby, P. C.

    2017-06-01

    A new control system at DIII-D has stabilized the inter-ELM detached divertor plasma state for H-mode in close proximity to the threshold for reattachment, thus demonstrating the ability to maintain detachment with minimal gas puffing. When the same control system was instead ordered to hold the plasma at the threshold (here defined as T e  =  5 eV near the divertor target plate), the resulting T e profiles separated into two groups with one group consistent with marginal detachment, and the other with marginal attachment. The plasma dithers between the attached and detached states when the control system attempts to hold at the threshold. The control system is upgraded from the one described in Kolemen et al (2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186) and it handles ELMing plasmas by using real time D α measurements to remove during-ELM slices from real time T e measurements derived from divertor Thomson scattering. The difference between measured and requested inter-ELM T e is passed to a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) controller to determine gas puff commands. While some degree of detachment is essential for the health of ITER’s divertor, more deeply detached plasmas have greater radiative losses and, at the extreme, confinement degradation, making it desirable to limit detachment to the minimum level needed to protect the target plate (Kolemen et al 2015 J. Nucl. Mater. 463 1186). However, the observed bifurcation in plasma conditions at the outer strike point with the ion B   ×  \

  11. Design of an advanced bundle divertor for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Lee, A.Y.; Ruck, G.W.; Prevenslik, T.V.; Smeltzer, G.

    1979-01-01

    The conclusion of this work is that a bundle divertor, using an improved method of designing the magnetic field configuration, is feasible for the Demonstration Tokamak Hybrid Reactor (DTHR) investigated by Westinghouse. The most significant achievement of this design is the reduction in current density (1 kA/cm 2 ) in the divertor coils in comparison to the overall averaged current densities per tesla of field to be nulled for DITE (25 kA/cm 2 ) and for ISX-B 2 (11 kA/cm 2 ). Therefore, superconducting magnets can be built into the tight space available with a sound mechanical structure

  12. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barr, W.L.

    1987-10-16

    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  13. The edge plasma and divertor in TIBER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barr, W.L.

    1987-01-01

    An open divertor configuration has been adopted for TIBER. Most recent designs, including DIII-D, NET and CIT use open configurations and rely on a dense edge plasma to shield the plasma from the gas produced at the neutralizer plate. Experiments on ASDEX, PDX, D-III, and recently on DIII-D have shown that a dense edge plasma can be produced by re-ionizing most of the gas produced at the plate. This high recycling mode allows a large flux of particles to carry the heat to the plate, so that the mean energy per particle can be low. Erosion of the plate can be greatly reduced if the average impact energy of the ions at the plate can be reduced to near or below the threshold for sputtering of the plate material. The present configuration allows part of the flux of edge plasma ions to be neutralized at the entrance to the pumping duct so that helium is pumped as well as hydrogen. 7 refs., 3 figs

  14. Increased power delivery from the DIII-D neutral beam injection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colleraine, A.P.; Callis, R.W.; Hong, R.M.; Kellman, D.H.; Kim, J.; Langhorn, A.R.; Lee, R.; Phillips, J.C.; Wight, J.J.

    1989-12-01

    The neutral beam system installed on the DIII-D tokamak employs eight 80 kV Long Pulse Sources (LPS) mounted on four beamlines and was originally designed to deliver a nominal 12 MW of H degree power to a plasma for pulses of up to 5 sec duration. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory designed the LPS for the US Fusion Program to fill the requirements of both the DIII-D and the TFTR machines. Essentially all source components are of a common design; the DIII-D version is therefore conservative in its rated parameters. Recently a neutron shield has been constructed around the torus hall allowing D degree injection to become routine. Because deuterium beams have a better neutralization efficiency, the nominal power delivery per source has been measured to be approximately 2 MW (for a total of 16 MW) without any modifications. However, by reoptimizing the voltage gradients in the source, the perveance can be increased without degrading the optics. A change of gradient grid voltage from 0.83 V accel to 0.79 V accel raises the perveance from 2.5 to 3.0 μPerv with a corresponding gain in beam power of about 20%. The arc power required also must be increased to the range of 100 to 120 kW but this is well within the design limits of the LPS. Further studies of our systems are now underway to assess the possibilities of raising V accel above 80 kV. An additional gain in power is possible by this technique. 6 refs., 6 figs

  15. Implementation of a quasi-realtime display of DIII-D neutral beam heating waveforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, J.C.

    1993-10-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam system employs eight 80 keV ion sources mounted on four beamlines to provide plasma heating to the DIII-D tokamak. The neutral beam system is capable of injecting over 20 MW of deuterium power with flexibility in terms of timing and modulation of the individual neutral beams. To maintain DIII-D's efficient tokamak shot cycle and make informed control decisions, it is important to be able to determine which beams fired, and exactly when, by the time the tokamak shot is over. Previously this information was available in centralized form only after a several minute wait. A cost-effective alternative to the traditional eight-channel storage oscilloscope has been implemented using off the shelf PC hardware and software. The system provides a real time display of injected neutral beam accelerator voltages and tokamak plasma current, as well an a summation waveform indicative of the total injected power as a function of time. The hardware consists of a Macintosh Centris 650 PC with a Motorola 68040 microprocessor. Data acquisition is accomplished using a National Instrument's 16-channel analog to digital conversion board for the Macintosh. The color displays and functionality were developed using National Instruments' LabView environment. Because the price of PCs has been decreasing rapidly and their capabilities increasing, this system is far less expensive than an eight-channel storage oscilloscope. As a flexible combination of PC and software, the system also provides much more capability than a dedicated oscilloscope, acting as the neutral beam coordinator's logbook, recording comments and availability statistics. Data such as shot number and neutral beam parameters are obtained over the local network from other computers and added to the display. Waveforms are easily archived to disk for future recall. Details of the implementation will be discussed along with samples of the displays and a description of the system's function and capabilities

  16. Pedestal width and ELM size identity studies in JET and DIII-D; implications for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beurskens, M N A; Lomas, P; Saarelma, S; Balboa, I; Flanagan, J; Giroud, C; Kempenaars, M [EURATOM/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Sc. Centre, Abingdon, OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Osborne, T H; Groebner, R; Leonard, A; Snyder, P B; Bray, B [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Horton, L D [JET-EFDA, Culham Science Centre, OX14 3DB, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Frassinetti, L [Association EURATOM-VR, Alfven Laboratory, School of Electrical Engineering, KTH, Stockholm (Sweden); Nunes, I [Centro de Fusao Nuclear, Associacao EURATOM-IST, Lisboa (Portugal); Crombe, K [Department of Applied Physics, Ghent University, Rozier 44, 9000 Gent (Belgium); Giovannozzi, E [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA Sulla Fusione, Consorzio RFX Padova (Italy); Kohen, N [Association EURATOM-CEA, CEA/DSM/DRFC-Cadarache 13108, St Paul Durance (France); Loarte, A [ITER Organization, CS 90 046, F-13067 Saint Paul lez Durance Cedex (France); Loennroth, J, E-mail: Marc.Beurskens@jet.u [Association EURATOM-Tekes, Helsinki University of Technology (Finland)

    2009-12-15

    The dependence of the H-mode edge transport barrier width on normalized ion gyroradius (rho* = rho/a) in discharges with type I ELMs was examined in experiments combining data for the JET and DIII-D tokamaks. The plasma configuration as well as the local normalized pressure (beta), collisionality (nu*), Mach number and the ratio of ion and electron temperature at the pedestal top were kept constant, while rho* was varied by a factor of four. The width of the steep gradient region of the electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) pedestals normalized to machine size showed no or only a weak trend with rho*. A rho{sup 1/2} or rho{sup 1} dependence of the pedestal width, given by some theoretical predictions, is not supported by the current experiments. This is encouraging for the pedestal scaling towards ITER as it operates at lower rho* than existing devices. Some differences in pedestal structure and ELM behaviour were, however, found between the devices; in the DIII-D discharges, the n{sub e} and T{sub e} pedestal were aligned at high rho* but the n{sub e} pedestal shifted outwards in radius relative to T{sub e} as rho* decreases, while on JET the profiles remained aligned while rho* was scanned by a factor of two. The energy loss at an ELM normalized to the pedestal energy increased from 10% to 40% as rho* increased by a factor of two in the DIII-D discharges but no such variation was observed in the case of JET. The measured pedestal pressures and widths were found to be consistent with the predictions from modelling based on peeling-ballooning stability theory, and are used to make projections towards ITER

  17. Upgrade of DIII-D toroidal magnetic field power supply controls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petrach, P.M.; Rouleau, A.R.; McNulty, R.D.; Patrick, D.B.; Walin, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    The toroidal magnetic field power supply for the DIII-D tokamak is of the 12 pulse line commutated variety. It consists of four individual modules and a main system control cabinet which are combined to deliver 127,000 A and 1000 V to the toroidal field coil. The modules are connected in a series-parallel configuration but can be run alone or two at a time as well. Normally on DIII-D experiments, the series-parallel configuration is required. The original design provided each individual module with its own voltage and current control loop and a main control loop. A problem with this design was that the individual control loops would cause a current sharing imbalance in the parallel modules if the calibrated loops drifted by the slightest amount. It was determined that individual control loops were not needed and a single phase lock firing circuit was employed in the system cabinet with fiber optic links to the modules for gate drive signals. Since all four modules have to be on line for DIII-D to operate, a problem in any of the five E ampersand I control loops resulted in the supply, and, therefore, the tokamak, being idled. By reducing the number of control loops to one, the sharing problem was eliminated, as well as 4 out of 5 potential control failures. The original supply employed relay logic for sequence control and fault monitoring. There were over 130 relays in each module plus an additional 100 in the system cabinet. The combination of the number of relays with the required interconnecting wiring, the age of the supply, the vibrations of the cabinets and the harsh environment, resulted in a continuously escalating number of phantom, and often intermittent, faults. The fault and sequence logic relays were replaced by a new Programmable Logic Controller (PLC). All existing interconnect wire was removed and replaced with multiconductor cables that connect directly from fault sensors and input devices to the PLC

  18. Implementation of a quasi-realtime display of DIII-D neutral beam heating waveforms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, J.C.

    1993-10-01

    The DIII-D neutral beam system employs eight 80 keV ion sources mounted on four beamlines to provide plasma heating to the DIII-D tokamak. The neutral beam system is capable of injecting over 20 MW of deuterium power with flexibility in terms of timing and modulation of the individual neutral beams. To maintain DIII-D`s efficient tokamak shot cycle and make informed control decisions, it is important to be able to determine which beams fired, and exactly when, by the time the tokamak shot is over. Previously this information was available in centralized form only after a several minute wait. A cost-effective alternative to the traditional eight-channel storage oscilloscope has been implemented using off the shelf PC hardware and software. The system provides a real time display of injected neutral beam accelerator voltages and tokamak plasma current, as well an a summation waveform indicative of the total injected power as a function of time. The hardware consists of a Macintosh Centris 650 PC with a Motorola 68040 microprocessor. Data acquisition is accomplished using a National Instrument`s 16-channel analog to digital conversion board for the Macintosh. The color displays and functionality were developed using National Instruments` LabView environment. Because the price of PCs has been decreasing rapidly and their capabilities increasing, this system is far less expensive than an eight-channel storage oscilloscope. As a flexible combination of PC and software, the system also provides much more capability than a dedicated oscilloscope, acting as the neutral beam coordinator`s logbook, recording comments and availability statistics. Data such as shot number and neutral beam parameters are obtained over the local network from other computers and added to the display. Waveforms are easily archived to disk for future recall. Details of the implementation will be discussed along with samples of the displays and a description of the system`s function and capabilities.

  19. Experiments on ion cyclotron damping at the deuterium fourth harmonic in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R.I.; Petty, C.C.; Baity, F.W.; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Mau, T.K.; Porkolab, M.

    1999-05-01

    Absorption of fast Alfven waves by the energetic ions of an injected beam is evaluated in the DIII-D tokamak. Ion cyclotron resonance absorption at the fourth harmonic of the deuteron cyclotron frequency is observed with deuterium neutral beam injection (f = 60 MHz, B T = 1.9 T). Enhanced D-D neutron rates are evidence of absorption at the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance. Characteristics of global energy confinement provide further proof of substantial beam acceleration by the rf. In many cases, the accelerated deuterons cause temporary stabilization of the sawtooth (monster sawteeth), at relatively low rf power levels of ∼1 MW

  20. Experiments on ion cyclotron damping at the deuterium fourth harmonic in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R. I.; Baity, F. W.; Bernabei, S.; Greenough, N.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Mau, T. K.; Petty, C. C.; Porkolab, M.

    1999-01-01

    Absorption of fast Alfven waves by the energetic ions of an injected beam is evaluated in the DIII-D tokamak. Ion cyclotron resonance absorption at the fourth harmonic of the deuteron cyclotron frequency is observed with deuterium neutral beam injection (f=60 MHz, B T =1.9 T). Enhanced D-D neutron rates are evidence of absorption at the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance. Characteristics of global energy confinement provide further proof of substantial beam acceleration by the rf. In many cases, the accelerated deuterons cause temporary stabilization of the sawtooth (''monster sawteeth''), at relatively low rf power levels of ∼1 MW. (c) 1999 American Institute of Physics

  1. Low-Z impurity transport in DIII-D - observations and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wade, M.R.; Houlberg, W.A.; Baylor, L.R.; West, W.P.; Baker, D.R.

    2001-01-01

    Impurity transport studies on DIII-D have revealed transport phenomena that are qualitatively consistent with that expected from turbulence transport theory in some cases and neoclassical transport theory in other cases. The transport model proposed here, which assumes that the total impurity transport is a linear sum of turbulence-driven transport and neoclassical transport, is shown to reproduce many of these observed features. This transport model is then applied to burn condition calculations, revealing that profile effects associated with neoclassical transport have a large effect on the maximum allowable impurity fraction in machines based on achieving neoclassical transport levels

  2. An overview of the DIII-D long pulse neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Hong, R.M.; Langhorn, A.R.; Lee, R.L.; Kim, J.; Phillips, J.C.; Wight, J.J.

    1988-09-01

    The four beamlines on the DIII-D tokamak have been upgraded to long pulse operation with the addition of eight 80 kV, 80 A, 5 sec long pulse sources. The eight sources have proven to be very reliable and have performed well. Up to 12 MW of H 0 has been injected into a plasma. Inertially cooled beam absorbers have proven capable of handling multi-second pulses. General performance characteristics and some recent long-pulse physics results are presented. 12 refs., 7 figs

  3. An overview of the DIII-D long pulse neutral beam system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callis, R.W.; Colleraine, A.P.; Hong, R.-M.; Langhorn, A.R.; Lee, R.L.; Kim, J.; Phillips, J.C.; Wight, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    The four beamlines on the DIII-D tokamak have been upgraded to long pulse operation with the addition of eight 80 kV, 80 A, 5 sec long pulse sources. The eight sources have proven to be very reliable and have performed well. Up to 12 MW of H 0 has been injected into a plasma. Inertially cooled beam absorbers have proven capable of handling multi-second pulses. General performance characteristics and some recent long-pulse physics results are presented. (author). 12 refs.; 7 figs.; 1 tab

  4. Analysis of plasma coupling with the prototype DIII-D ICRF antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.M.; Hoffman, D.J.; Bigelow, T.S.; Baity, F.W.; Gardner, W.L.; Mayberry, M.J.; Rothe, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Coupling to plasma in the H-mode is essential to the success of future ignited machines such as CIT. To ascertain voltage and current requirements for high-power second harmonic heating (2 MW in a 35- by 50-cm port), coupling to the DIII-D tokamak with a prototype compact loop antenna has been measured. The results show good loading for L-mode and limiter plasmas, but coupling 2 MW to an H-mode plasma demands voltages and currents near the limit of present technology. We report the technological analysis and progress that allow coupling of these power densities. 5 refs., 4 figs

  5. DIII-D Edge Plasma, Disruptions, and Radiative Processes. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boedo, J. A.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Moyer, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of the UCSD-DIII-D Collaboration during this period was to understand the coupling of the core plasma to the plasma-facing components through the plasma boundary (edge and scrape-off layer). To achieve this goal, UCSD scientists studied the transport of particles, momentum, energy, and radiation from the plasma core to the plasma-facing components under normal (e.g., L-mode, H-mode, and ELMs), and off-normal (e.g., disruptions) operating conditions.

  6. DIII-D Edge Plasma, Disruptions, and Radiative Processes. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boedo, J. A.; Luckhardt, S.C.; Moyer, R. A.

    2001-01-01

    The scientific goal of the UCSD-DIII-D Collaboration during this period was to understand the coupling of the core plasma to the plasma-facing components through the plasma boundary (edge and scrape-off layer). To achieve this goal, UCSD scientists studied the transport of particles, momentum, energy, and radiation from the plasma core to the plasma-facing components under normal (e.g., L-mode, H-mode, and ELMs), and off-normal (e.g., disruptions) operating conditions

  7. TSC plasma halo simulation of a DIII-D vertical displacement episode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayer, R.O.; Peng, Y.K.M.; Jardin, S.C.

    1993-01-01

    A benchmark of the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) plasma halo model has been achieved by calibration against a DIII-D vertical displacement episode (VDE) consisting of vertical drift, thermal quench and current quench. With a suitable halo surrounding the main plasma, the TSC predictions are in good agreement with experimental results for the plasma current decay, plasma trajectory, toroidal and poloidal vessel currents, and for the magnetic probe and flux loop values for the entire VDE. Simulations with no plasma halo yield much faster vertical motion and significantly worse agreement with the magnetics and flux loop data than do halo simulations. (author). 12 refs, 13 figs

  8. Complete Suppression of the m=2/n=1 NTM Using ECCD on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petty, C.C.; La Haye, R.J.; Luce, T.C.; Humphreys, D.A.; Lohr, J.; Prater, R.; Austin, M.E.; Harvey, R.W.; Wade, M.R.

    2003-01-01

    Complete suppression of the m=2/n=1 neoclassical tearing mode (NTM) is reported for the first time using electron cyclotron current drive (ECCD) to noninductively generate current at the radius of the island O-point. Experiments on the DIII-D tokamak show that the maximum shrinkage of the m=2/n=1 island amplitude occurs when the ECCD location coincides with the q=2 surface. Estimates of the ECCD radial profile width from the island shrinkage are consistent with ray tracing calculations but may allow for a factor-of-1.5 broadening from electron radial transport

  9. Analysis of plasma coupling with the prototype DIII-D ICRF antenna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, P.M.; Hoffman, D.J.; Bigelow, T.S.; Baity, F.W.; Gardner, W.L.; Mayberry, M.J.; Rothe, K.E.

    1988-01-01

    Coupling to plasma in the H-mode is essential to the success of future ignited machines such as CIT. To ascertain voltage and current requirements for high-power second harmonic heating (2 MW in a 35- by 50-cm port), coupling to the DIII-D tokamak with a prototype compact loop antenna has been measured. The results show good loading for L-mode and limiter plasmas, but coupling 2 MW to an H-mode plasma demands voltages and currents near the limit of present technology. We report the technological analysis and progress that allow coupling of these power densities. 5 refs., 4 figs.

  10. Embedded calibration system for the DIII-D Langmuir probe analog fiber optic links

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watkins, J. G.; Rajpal, R.; Mandaliya, H.; Watkins, M.; Boivin, R. L.

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes a generally applicable technique for simultaneously measuring offset and gain of 64 analog fiber optic data links used for the DIII-D fixed Langmuir probes by embedding a reference voltage waveform in the optical transmitted signal before every tokamak shot. The calibrated data channels allow calibration of the power supply control fiber optic links as well. The array of fiber optic links and the embedded calibration system described here makes possible the use of superior modern data acquisition electronics in the control room.

  11. Textor bundle divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Wan, A.; Gierszewski, P.; Rapperport, E.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary bundle divertor conceptual design for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak. An advanced cascade T-shaped coil configuration is used. This divertor design has the following important characteristics: (1) the current density in the conductor is less than 6 kAmp/cm 2 , and the maximum field is less than 6 Tesla; (2) the divertor can be operated at steady-state either for copper or superconducting conductors; (3) the power consumption is about 7 MW for a normal conductor; (4) the divertor can be inserted into the existing geometry of TEXTOR; (5) the ripple on axis is only 0.3% and the mirror ratio is 2 to 4; (6) the stagnation axis is concave toward the plasma, therefore q/sub D/ is smaller, the acceptance angle is larger, and the efficiency may be better than the conventional circular coil design

  12. TEXTOR bundle divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, T.F.; Wan, A.; Gierszewski, P.; Rapperport, E.; Montgomery, D.B.

    1982-01-01

    This report presents a preliminary bundle divertor conceptual design for installation on the TEXTOR tokamak. An advanced cascade T-shaped coil configuration is used. This divertor design has the following important characteristics: (1) the current density in the conductor is less than 6 kAmp/cm 2 , and the maximum field is less than 6 Tesla; (2) the divertor can be operated at steady-state either for copper or superconducting conductors; (3) the power consumption is about 7 MW for a normal conductor; (4) the divertor can be inserted into the existing geometry of TEXTOR; (5) the ripple on axis is only 0.3% and the mirror ratio is 2 to 4; (6) the stagnation axis is concave toward the plasma, therefore q/sub D/ is smaller, the acceptance angle is larger, and the efficiency may be better than the conventional circular coil design

  13. Comparing 1.5D ONETWO and 2D SOLPS analyses of inter-ELM H-mode plasma in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Larry W.; Canik, John; Groebner, R.; Callen, J.D.; Bonnin, X.; Osborne, T.H.

    2010-01-01

    A DIII-D inter-ELM H-mode plasma that is in approximate transport equilibrium is analysed with the 1.5D ONETWO core code and the 2D SOLPS code. In order to investigate the importance of core-edge coupling and 2D effects, including divertor fuelling across the X-point and poloidal asymmetries that are not explicitly included in ONETWO, the domain of SOLPS is extended to very near the magnetic axis. Two principal objectives are (1) to determine whether poloidal asymmetries in the plasma distributions are large enough to vitiate a core-type interpretive plasma transport analysis and (2) to determine whether the interpretive transport coefficients and neutral beam power and particle sources from ONETWO, when used in 2D SOLPS full plasma simulations, yield the same quality fits to the measured upstream density and temperature profiles as obtained with ONETWO. Results show that only a small increase in the separatrix value of the particle diffusion coefficient, and no change in the thermal diffusivities from ONETWO was needed to get excellent agreement of the upstream SOLPS density and temperature profiles and the Thomson scattering and CER data. Good agreement of the ONETWO and SOLPS flux surface averaged distributions of the core electron and D+ densities and temperatures are also obtained. Likewise the C6+ density, with a simple chemical sputtering model based on a constant fraction of the divertor D+ flux, the core heat and particle fluxes and the neutral density reveal no 2D effects in the core/pedestal region that would vitiate a 1.5D treatment of the inter-ELM H-mode plasma.

  14. DIII-D Research Operations annual report to the US Department of Energy, October 1, 1990--September 30, 1991. Magnetic Fusion Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simonen, T.C.; Evans, T.E. [eds.

    1992-03-01

    This report discusses the following topics on Doublet-3 research operations: DIII-D Program Overview; Boundary Plasma Research Program/Scientific Progress; Radio Frequency Heating and Current Drive; Core Physics; DIII-D Operations; Program Development; Support Services; ITER Contributions; Burning Plasma Experiment Contributions; and Collaborative Efforts.

  15. Neoclassical tearing modes in DIII-D and calculations of the stabilizing effects of localized electron cyclotron current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prater, R.; La Haye, R. J.; Lin-Liu, Y. R.; Lohr, J.; Perkins, F. W.; Bernabei, S.; Wong, K.-L.; Harvey, R. W.

    1999-01-01

    Neoclassical tearing modes are found to limit the achievable beta in many high performance discharges in DIII-D. Electron cyclotron current drive within the magnetic islands formed as the tearing mode grows has been proposed as a means of stabilizing these modes or reducing their amplitude, thereby increasing the beta limit by a factor around 1.5. Some experimental success has been obtained previously on Asdex-U. Here we examine the parameter range in DIII-D in which this effect can best be studied

  16. Signal processing techniques for lithium beam polarimetry on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, D. M.; Leonard, A. W.

    2006-01-01

    On the DIII-D tokamak the LIBEAM diagnostic provides precise measurements of the local magnetic field direction by combined polarimetry/ spectroscopy of the Zeeman-split 2S-2P lithium resonance line. Using these measurements we are able to determine the behavior of the edge toroidal current density j φ (r), a parameter of critical interest for edge stability and performance. For a successful measurement, analysis of the polarization state of the spectrally filtered fluorescence must be done with high precision in the presence of nonideal filtering, beam intensity evolution, and dynamically varying background light. This is accomplished by polarization modulation of the collected emission, followed by digital demodulation at various harmonics of the modulation frequency. Either lock-in or fast Fourier transform techniques can be used to determine the various Stokes parameters and reconstruct the field directions based on accurate spatial and polarization efficiency calibrations. Details of the specific techniques used to analyze various DIII-D discharges are described, along with a discussion of the present limitations and some possible avenues towards improving the analysis

  17. Absorption of fast waves at moderate to high ion cyclotron harmonics on DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinsker, R.I.; Porkolab, M.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Luo, Y.; Petty, C.C.; Prater, R.; Choi, M.; Schaffner, D.A.; Baity, F.W.; Fredd, E.; Hosea, J.C.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.; Murakami, M.; Zeeland, M.A. Van

    2006-01-01

    The absorption of fast Alfven waves (FW) by ion cyclotron harmonic damping in the range of harmonics from 4th to 8th is studied theoretically and with experiments in the DIII-D tokamak. A formula for linear ion cyclotron absorption on ions with an arbitrary distribution function which is symmetric about the magnetic field is used to estimate the single-pass damping for various cases of experimental interest. It is found that damping on fast ions from neutral beam injection can be significant even at the 8th harmonic if the fast ion beta, the beam injection energy and the background plasma density are high enough and the beam injection geometry is appropriate. The predictions are tested in several L-mode experiments in DIII-D with FW power at 60 MHz and at 116 MHz. It is found that 4th and 5th harmonic absorption of the 60 MHz power on the beam ions can be quite strong, but 8th harmonic absorption of the 116 MHz power appears to be weaker than expected. The linear modelling predicts a strong dependence of the 8th harmonic absorption on the initial pitch-angle of the injected beam, which is not observed in the experiment. Possible explanations of the discrepancy are discussed

  18. Access to DIII-D data located in multiple files and multiple locations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHarg, B.B. Jr.

    1993-10-01

    The General Atomics DIII-D tokamak fusion experiment is now collecting over 80 MB of data per discharge once every 10 min, and that quantity is expected to double within the next year. The size of the data files, even in compressed format, is becoming increasingly difficult to handle. Data is also being acquired now on a variety of UNIX systems as well as MicroVAX and MODCOMP computer systems. The existing computers collect all the data into a single shot file, and this data collection is taking an ever increasing amount of time as the total quantity of data increases. Data is not available to experimenters until it has been collected into the shot file, which is in conflict with the substantial need for data examination on a timely basis between shots. The experimenters are also spread over many different types of computer systems (possibly located at other sites). To improve data availability and handling, software has been developed to allow individual computer systems to create their own shot files locally. The data interface routine PTDATA that is used to access DIII-D data has been modified so that a user's code on any computer can access data from any computer where that data might be located. This data access is transparent to the user. Breaking up the shot file into separate files in multiple locations also impacts software used for data archiving, data management, and data restoration

  19. TRANSPORT BY INTERMITTENCY IN THE BOUNDARY OF THE DIII-D TOKAMAK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BOEDO, JA; RUDAKOV, DL; MOYER, RA; MCKEE, GR; COLCHIN, RJ; SCHAFFER, MJ; STANGEBY, PG; WEST, WP; ALLEN, SL; EVANS, TE; FONCK, RJ; HOLLMANN, EM; KRASHENINNIKOV, S; LEONARD, AW; NEVINS, W; MAHDAVI, MA; PORTER, GD; TYNAN, GR; WHYTE, DG; XU, X

    2002-01-01

    A271 TRANSPORT BY INTERMITTENCY IN THE BOUNDARY OF THE DIII-D TOKAMAK. Intermittent plasma objectives (IPOs) featuring higher pressure than the surrounding plasma, are responsible for ∼ 50% of the E x B T radial transport in the scrape off layer (SOL) of the DIII-D tokamak in L- and H-mode discharges. Conditional averaging reveals that the IPOs are positively charged and feature internal poloidal electric fields of up to 4000 V/m. The IPOs move radially with E x B T /B 2 velocities of ∼ 2600 m/s near the last closed flux surface (LCFS), and ∼ 330 m/s near the wall. The IPOs slow down as they shrink in radial size from 4 cm at the LCFS to 0.5 cm near the wall. The skewness (i.e. asymmetry of fluctuations from the average) of probe and beam emission spectroscopy (BES) data indicate IPO formation at or near the LCFS and the existence of positive and negative IPOs which move in opposite directions. The particle content of the IPOs at the LCFS is linearly dependent on the local density and decays over ∼ 3 cm into the SOL while their temperature decays much faster (∼ 1 cm)

  20. High spatial resolution upgrade of the electron cyclotron emission radiometer for the DIII-D tokamak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, D D; Austin, M E

    2014-11-01

    The 40-channel DIII-D electron cyclotron emission (ECE) radiometer provides measurements of Te(r,t) at the tokamak midplane from optically thick, second harmonic X-mode emission over a frequency range of 83-130 GHz. The frequency spacing of the radiometer's channels results in a spatial resolution of ∼1-3 cm, depending on local magnetic field and electron temperature. A new high resolution subsystem has been added to the DIII-D ECE radiometer to make sub-centimeter (0.6-0.8 cm) resolution Te measurements. The high resolution subsystem branches off from the regular channels' IF bands and consists of a microwave switch to toggle between IF bands, a switched filter bank for frequency selectivity, an adjustable local oscillator and mixer for further frequency down-conversion, and a set of eight microwave filters in the 2-4 GHz range. Higher spatial resolution is achieved through the use of a narrower (200 MHz) filter bandwidth and closer spacing between the filters' center frequencies (250 MHz). This configuration allows for full coverage of the 83-130 GHz frequency range in 2 GHz bands. Depending on the local magnetic field, this translates into a "zoomed-in" analysis of a ∼2-4 cm radial region. Expected uses of these channels include mapping the spatial dependence of Alfven eigenmodes, geodesic acoustic modes, and externally applied magnetic perturbations. Initial Te measurements, which demonstrate that the desired resolution is achieved, are presented.

  1. Dependence of the DIII-D beta limit on the current profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strait, E.J.; Chu, M.S.; Ferron, J.R.; Lao, L.L.; Osborne, T.H.; Taylor, T.S.; Turnbull, A.D. (General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)); Lazarus, E.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1991-01-01

    The maximum beta values achieved in DIII-D are not fully described by the simple scaling law [beta][sub max][proportional to]I/aB. There is, in addition, a dependence on the form of the current profile as parameterized by the safety factor q and internal inductance l[sub i]. The maximum experimentally achieved value of normalized beta [beta][sub N] = [beta]/(I/aB) varies from 3.5 at low safety factor q (q[sub 95]<3) to 5 at higher values of q. At low q, discharges are terminated by disruptions at high [beta][sub N] and at both the low and high l[sub i] boundaries of the stable range. These disruptions are attributed to external and global kink modes. At higher q, such disruptions are much less frequent, and beta is limited by slowly growing resistive modes, fishbones, and possibly by ballooning modes. At each value of q, the maximum beta tends to increase with internal inductance l[sub i]. A numerical study of kink mode stability has shown a similar trend for optimized pressure profiles. These observations have suggested a new scaling law for the operational beta limit: [beta][sub max]=4l[sub i](I/aB), which fits the DIII-D data well. (author) 13 refs., 4 figs.

  2. Active and passive spectroscopic imaging in the DIII-D tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Zeeland, M A; Brooks, N H; Burrell, K H; Groebner, R J; Hyatt, A W; Luce, T C; Wade, M R; Yu, J H; Pablant, N; Heidbrink, W W; Solomon, W M

    2010-01-01

    Wide-angle, 2D imaging of Doppler-shifted, Balmer alpha (D α ) emission from high energy injected neutrals, charge exchange recombination (CER) emission from neutral beam interaction with thermal ions and fully stripped impurity ions and visible bremsstrahlung (VB) from the core of DIII-D plasmas has been carried out. Narrowband interference filters were used to isolate the specific wavelength ranges of visible radiation for detection by a tangentially viewing, fast-framing camera. Measurements of the D α emission from fast neutrals injected into the plasma from the low field side reveal the vertical distribution of the beam, its divergence and the variation in its radial penetration with density. Modeling of this emission using both a full Monte Carlo collisional radiative code as well as a simple beam attenuation code coupled to Atomic Data and Analysis Structure emissivity lookup tables yields qualitative agreement, however the absolute magnitudes of the emissivities in the predicted distribution are larger than those measured. Active measurements of carbon CER brightness are in agreement with those made independently along the beam midplane using DIII-D's multichordal, CER spectrometer system, confirming the potential of this technique for obtaining 2D profiles of impurity density. Passive imaging of VB, which can be inverted to obtain local emissivity profiles, is compared with measurements from both a calibrated filter/photomultiplier array and the standard multichordal CER spectrometer system.

  3. Global Particle Balance Measurements in DIII-D H-mode Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Unterberg, Ezekial A.; Allen, S.L.; Brooks, N.; Evans, T.E.; Leonard, A.W.; McLean, A.; Watkins, J.G.; Whyte, D.G.

    2011-01-01

    Experiments are performed on the DIII-D tokamak to determine the retention rate in an all graphite first-wall tokamak. A time-dependent particle balance analysis shows a majority of the fuel retention occurs during the initial Ohmic and L-mode phase of discharges, with peak fuel retention rates typically similar to 2 x 10(21) D/s. The retention rate can be zero within the experimental uncertainties (<3 x 10(20) D/s) during the later stationary phase of the discharge. In general, the retention inventory can decrease in the stationary phase by similar to 20-30% from the initial start-up phase of the discharge. Particle inventories determined as a function of time in the discharge, using a 'dynamic' particle balance analysis, agree with more accurate particle inventories directly measured after the discharge, termed 'static' particle balance. Similarly, low stationary retention rates are found in discharges with heating from neutral-beams, which injects particles, and from electron cyclotron waves, which does not inject particles. Detailed analysis of the static and dynamic balance methods provide an estimate of the DIII-D global co-deposition rate of <= 0.6-1.2 x 10(20) D/s. Dynamic particle balance is also performed on discharges with resonant magnetic perturbation ELM suppression and shows no additional retention during the ELM-suppressed phase of the discharge.