Sample records for digitalis

  1. Risorse digitali

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di


    Full Text Available Segnalazione di risorse digitali. Making history. The changing face of the profession in Britain[12/09] Dictionary of Art Historians. A Biographical Dictionary of Historic Scholars, Museum Professionals and Academic Historians of Art [12/09] Prosopography of Anglo-Saxon England [12/09] Prosopography of the Byzantine World [12/09] du Cange, et al., Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis [12/09] Adriano Cappelli, Dizionario di abbreviature latine e italiane [12/09] Adriano Cappelli, Dizionario di abbreviature latine e italiane [12/09] Adriano Cappelli, Dizionario di abbreviature latine e italiane [12/09] La Cour de France du Moyen Age au XIXe siécle [12/09] Sculpture médiévale dans les Alpes [12/09] Associazione culturale Ad fontes [12/09] Sistema informativo degli Archivi di Stato [12/09] Archivio di Stato di Firenze [12/09] CODEX - Inventario dei manoscritti medievali della Toscana [12/09] Banche dati per la storia di Venezia dalle origini al XIX secolo [12/09] Opera di Santa Maria del Fiore, Firenze. Gli anni della Cupola. 1417-1436 [12/09] La casa delle Compere e dei Banchi di San Giorgio. 1407-1805 [12/09] Oratorio dei disciplinanti di Moneglia [12/09] Decretales di Gregorio IX [12/09] Corpus iuris canonici [12/09] Atlante della documentazione comunale (secoli XII-XIV [12/09

  2. Digitalis poisoning: historical and forensic aspects.

    Burchell, H B


    Since the introduction of digitalis into therapy approximately 200 years ago, there have been continuing admonitions concerning its toxicity. Over 400 years ago, herbalists listed the plant as being poisonous. In fiction, the homicidal use of digitalis has appeared in the writings of Mary Webb, Dorothy Sayers and Agatha Christie. Ten instances in real life of alleged homicide by digitalis and trials of the accused are listed. The drug has been used with suicidal intent rather infrequently, compared with other medications. Possibly, it is more commonly used for such a purpose in France than in England or the United States. The fraudulent use of digitalis in the support of claims for disability because of heart disease has occurred, and one large conspiracy of physicians and lawyers in the swindle of insurance companies during the 1930s is a shameful episode in the record of these professions. Although innocent, one professor of medicine who was involved committed suicide. Two pharmaceutical (manufacturing) blunders that occurred in Belgium and Holland with mislabeling are mentioned. These resulted in numerous deaths and the profession seemed rather slow to recognize the nature of these small epidemics of poisoning. Instances of psychiatric illness with digitalis seem well documented. The story of digitalis toxicity continues into the present and physicians should be vigilant regarding the drug's potential for poisoning that can result from prescribing digitalis with ignorance of proper dosage, pharmacodynamics or drug interactions, as well as from accidental overdose as in children and use with self-destructive or homicidal intent.

  3. On the differences between ouabain and digitalis glycosides.

    Fuerstenwerth, Hauke


    Digoxin and digitoxin are widely used in the treatment of heart diseases. The exact mechanism of action of these drugs has remained an enigma. Ouabain has become the standard tool to investigate the mode of action of cardiotonic steroids, and results with ouabain are regarded as generally valid for all cardiac glycosides. However, there are marked differences between the effects of ouabain and digitalis glycosides. Ouabain has a different therapeutic profile from digitalis derivatives. Unlike digitalis glycosides, ouabain has a fast onset of action and stimulates myocardial metabolism. The inotropic effect of cardiotonic steroids is not related to inhibition of the Na-K-ATPase. Ouabain and digitalis derivatives develop their effects in different cellular spaces. Digitalis glycosides increase the intracellular calcium concentration by entering the cell interior and acting on the ryanodine receptors and by forming transmembrane calcium channels. Ouabain, by activation of the Na-K-ATPase from the extracellular side, triggers release of calcium from intracellular stores via signal transduction pathways and activates myocardial metabolism. These data no longer support the concept that all cardiotonic steroids exhibit their therapeutic effects by partial inhibition of the ion-pumping function of the Na-K-ATPase. Hence, it is suggested that this deeply rooted dogma be revised.

  4. Interaction of digitalis-like compounds with p-glycoprotein

    Gozalpour, E.; Wittgen, H.G.M.; Heuvel, J.J. van den; Greupink, R.; Russel, F.G.M.; Koenderink, J.B.


    Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs), or cardiac glycosides, are produced and sequestered by certain plants and animals as a protective mechanism against herbivores or predators. Currently, the DLCs digoxin and digitoxin are used in the treatment of cardiac congestion and some types of cardiac

  5. Lesson Seventeen Digitalis Effect and Intoxication on the Electrocardiogram

    鲁端; 王劲


    @@ Effect of Digitalis on the Electrocardiogram: ①ST segment depression, ②Decreased amplitude of the T wave,which may become diphasic (negative-positive) or negative,③Shortening of the Q-T interval,④Increase of the U-wave amplitude.

  6. Circuiti ad impulsi e digitali volume di aggiornamento

    Millman, Jacob


    Questo terzo volume "Circuiti ad impulsi e digitali" contiene la traduzione di parte degli argomenti trattati nel volume "Pulse, digital and switching waveforms" degli autori J. Millman e H. Taub edito dalla Mc Graw-Hill Book Company nel 1965. Gli autori nella presentazione del volume inglese dichiarano di averlo originariamente previsto come una seconda edizione di "Pulse and digital circuits" di cui i primi due volumi delle Edizioni Bizzarri sono la traduzione.

  7. Optimizing Growth Conditions for Digoxin Production in Digitalis lanata Ehrh

    Herman A. van Wietmarschen


    Full Text Available Objective: Digoxin is a therapeutic cardenolide widely used to treat various heart conditions such as atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation and heart failure in both Western as well as Chinese medicine. Digoxin is extracted from cultivated Digitalis lanata Ehrh. plants, known as Mao Hua Yang Di Huang in Chinese medicine. This manuscript presents two studies that were conducted to optimize the cultivation conditions for digoxin production in the TCM Mao Hua Yan Di Huang in a greenhouse under GAP conditions.

  8. Treatment of digitalis intoxication with emphasis on the clinical use of digoxin immune Fab.

    Allen, N M; Dunham, G D


    Many studies and cases of digitalis intoxication have been reported since the time of William Withering's first publication in 1785. Recognition and management of digitalis toxicity is challenging. Before digoxin immune Fab was commercially available, treatment consisted of managing the signs and symptoms of toxicity until the digitalis was eliminated. Digoxin immune Fab offers a safe, effective, and specific method of quickly reversing digitalis toxicity. Factors that must be considered with the clinical use of this agent include the dosage calculation, administration technique, postdose monitoring, pharmacokinetics, mechanism of action, interference with commercially available digoxin assays, partial neutralizing dosing, rebound of free digoxin, and indications for use. For severe, life-threatening toxicity, digoxin immune Fab is the treatment of choice.

  9. Optimizing Growth Conditions for Digoxin Production in Digitalis lanata Ehrh

    Herman A. van Wietmarschen; Hansjo¨ rg Hagels; Ron Peters; Jolanda Heistek; Jan van der Greef; Mei Wang


    Objective: Digoxin is a therapeutic cardenolide widely used to treat various heart conditions such as atrial flutter, atrial fibrillation and heart failure in both Western as well as Chinese medicine. Digoxin is extracted from cultivated Digitalis lanata Ehrh. plants, known as Mao Hua Yang Di Huang in Chinese medicine. This manuscript presents two studies that were conducted to optimize the cultivation conditions for digoxin production in the TCM Mao Hua Yan Di Huang in a greenhouse under GAP conditions. Methods: Two experiments were designed in which 4 growth conditions were compared. Levels of digoxin, gitoxin, digitoxin, α-acetyl-digoxin,β-acetyl-digoxin were measured using HPLC-UV and compared between the conditions. Results: Normal soil, no CO2 enrichment combined with a cold shock was found to be the optimal condition for producing digoxin in the first experiment. Gitoxin content was significantly lower in plants grown in this condition. Mechanical stress as well as the time of harvesting showed no statistically significant differences in the production of cardenolides. In the second experiment the optimal condition was found to be a combination of cold nights, sun screen, fertilizer use and no milled soil. Conclusion: This study shows that digoxin production can be increased by controlling the growth conditions of D. lanata Ehrh. The effect of cold was important in both experiments for improving digoxin production. Cultivating Chinese herbal medicines in optimized greenhouse conditions might be an economically attractive alternative to regular open air cultivation.




    Digitalis intoxication is one of the most common adverse drug reactions. Although some arrhythmias are seen more frequently than others, virtually any rhythm disturbance, including ventricular tachycardia, may occur. However, to our knowledge, exercise-induced ventricular tachycardia as a complicati

  11. Specklinia lugduno-batavae (Pleurothallidinae: Orchidaceae), a new species in the S. digitalis group

    Karremans, A.P.; Bogarín, D.; Gravendeel, B.


    Specklinia lugduno-batavae from the Caribbean lowlands of Nicaragua and Costa Rica is formally described and illustrated. The new species belongs to the Specklinia digitalis group and can be recognised by the creeping habit, purple spotted abaxial surface of the leaf and the almost immaculate whitis

  12. Human skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors (Na,K-ATPase)--importance during digitalization.

    Schmidt, T A; Holm-Nielsen, P; Kjeldsen, K


    The aims of the present study were to evaluate in humans the putative importance of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors (Na,K-ATPase) in the volume of distribution of digoxin and to assess whether therapeutic digoxin exposure might cause digitalis receptor upregulation in skeletal muscle. Samples of the vastus lateralis were obtained postmortem from 11 long-term (9 months to 9 years) digitalized (125-187.5 micrograms daily) and eight undigitalized subjects. In intact samples from digitalized patients, vanadate-facilitated 3H-ouabain binding increased 15% (p 0.30) before and after washing in specific digoxin antibody fragments, respectively. Thus, the present study indicates a approximately 13% occupancy of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptors with digoxin during digitalization. In light of the large skeletal muscle contribution to body mass, this indicates that the skeletal muscle Na,K-ATPase pool constitutes a major volume of distribution for digoxin during digitalization. The results gave no indication of skeletal muscle digitalis glycoside receptor upregulation in response to digoxin treatment. On the contrary, there was evidence of significantly lower (37%, p digitalized patients, which may be of importance for skeletal muscle incapacity in heart failure.

  13. [Long-term digitalis therapy of elderly patients. Is digitalization unnecessary in the majority of cases?].

    Häcki, M A; Angehrn, W; Cavegn, H R; Brändli, O


    More than 40% of patients hospitalized in the Wald Altitude Clinic of Zürich are already on long-term digitalis therapy upon admission. During a 6 month period long-term digoxin therapy was discontinued in 97 patients (age 74 +/- 9 years) with stable cardiac insufficiency (NYHA class I-III) and sinus rhythm. During the hospitalization (37 +/- 20 days), clinical signs and symptoms, body weight, radiological heart size, and systolic time intervals were monitored. After an observation period of one week, digoxin was discontinued in all patients. Body weight, cardio-thoracic ratio and left ventricular ejection time remained unchanged after cessation of digoxin therapy during hospitalization. The pre-ejection period showed a significant increase from 89 +/- 17 to 95 +/- 19 msec. Six patients were re-instituted on digoxin therapy, 3 due to progressive cardiac insufficiency, 2 due to atrial fibrillation, and 1 at his own request. After telephone follow-up six months later with the family physician an additional 20 patients were put back on digitalis. Among the total of 26 patients requiring further digitalization an absolute indication was found only in 12 (14%), 8 due to progressive cardiac insufficiency and 4 due to atrial fibrillation. In this study digitalis therapy could be discontinued without ill effects in 86% of elderly clinically stable patients in sinus rhythm. The authors therefore recommend a more cautious use of long-term digitalis therapy and, in already digitalized patients in sinus rhythm, a controlled trial period of discontinuation.

  14. Studies on magnesium's mechanism of action in digitalis-induced arrhythmias.

    Specter, M J; Schweizer, E; Goldman, R H


    The mechanism by which magnesium affects digitalis-induced arrhythmias was studied in dogs with and without beta-receptor blockade. Digoxin was infused at a rate of 2.5mug/kg/min until ventricular tachycardia developed, then half the animals were given MgSO4, the other half saline. In animals given MgSO4, sinus rhythm was immediately re-established; in animals given saline, ventricular tachycardia persisted. In animals with beta-receptor blockade, MgSO4 was as effective in abolishing ventricular tachycardia as in those without beta-receptor blockade. We found no evidence that magnesium re-activated digoxin-inhibited (Na+, K+)-ATPase, altered myocardial or microsomal digoxin binding, or acted via the autonomic nervous system. Magnesium's direct effect on calcium and potassium fluxes across the myocardial cell membrane may be the mechanism of its antiarrhythmic action in digitalis-toxic arrhythmias.

  15. Bidirectional Tachycardia after an Acute Intravenous Administration of Digitalis for a Suicidal Gesture

    Diletta Sabatini


    Full Text Available Acute digoxin intoxication is a life-threating condition associated with severe cardiotoxicity. Female gender, age, low lean body mass, hypertension, and renal insufficiency may worsen the prognosis. Arrhythmias caused by digitalis glycosides are characterized by an increased automaticity coupled with concomitant conduction delay. Bidirectional tachycardia is pathognomonic of digoxin intoxication, but it is rarely observed. An 83-year-old woman was admitted to the Emergency Department after self-administration of 5 mg of digoxin i.v. for suicidal purpose. Her digoxin serum concentration was 17.4 ng/mL. The patient developed a bidirectional tachycardia and the Poison Control Center of the hospital provided digoxin immune fab. Bidirectional tachycardia quickly reversed and the patient remained stable throughout the hospital stay. This case shows that a multiple disciplinary approach, involving cardiologists and toxicologists, is essential for the management of digoxin intoxication. The optimal treatment of this rare event depends on the clinical conditions and on the serum drug concentration of the patient. Digoxin immune fab represents a safe, effective, and specific method for rapidly reversing digitalis cardiotoxicity and should be started as soon as the diagnosis is defined.

  16. Production of cadiotonic glycosides in Digitalis purpurea using temporary immersion systems

    Naivy Pérez-Alonso


    Full Text Available Digitalis purpurea, is an example of cardiotonic drug. Digoxin and digitoxin are glycosides produced by this plant which are cardiac stimulants with a wide use in the treatment of heart problems. The objective of this investigation was to study the effect of temporary immersion on biomass production and the content of cardiotonic glycosides (digitoxin and digoxin, determined by Liquid Cromatography. Biomass production was favoured by increasing the frequency of immersions. The highest value of fresh weight (106.2 g and lower porcentage of hyperhydricity (27 % were obtained with immersions of 2 minutes every 4 hours. The content of digoxin was always lower than digitoxin. However, the concentration of digoxin increases with 6 and 8 immersions per day, while the accumulation of digitoxin was stable in all treatments. The aeration rates did not increase the biomasss and the concentration of digoxine was nule, nevertheless the concentration of digitoxine increased up to 111μg g.DW. The effect of temporary immersion on glycosides accumulation in shoots of Digitalis purpurea presented in this paper has not been described in the literature till now. temporary immersion Keywords: digitoxin, digoxin, secondary metabolites,

  17. Charles Darwin (1758-1778) and the history of the early use of digitalis. 1934.

    Fulton, J F


    The evidence which I have just summarized establishes priority of publication concerning the action of digitalis for Erasmus Darwin, but on every other ground, Withering deserves full credit for the discovery. Charles Darwin, the medical student, had been informed of its action by his father and had attempted to account for it on the basis of improvement of lymphatic drainage. But the work, accomplished by the first Charles Darwin is less significant than the abundant evidence of his intellectual ability and precocity, and I have ventured to lay the details of his career before you because of their intrinsic interest and in the hope that the information will serve in a small way to clarify the unsolved problem of the relation of nature to nurture in establishing mental traits and capacities.

  18. Spherical oligo-silicic acid SOSA disclosed as possible endogenous digitalis-like factor

    Franz eKerek


    Full Text Available Na+/K+-ATPase is a membrane ion-transporter protein, specifically inhibited by digitalis glycosides used in cardiac-therapy. The existence in mammals of some endogenous digitalis-like factors (EDLF as presumed ATPase ligands is generally accepted. But the chemical structure of these factors remained elusive because no weighable amounts of pure EDLF have been isolated. Recent high resolution crystal structure data of Na+/K+-ATPase have located the hydrophobic binding pocket of the steroid glycoside ouabain. Our recently disclosed spherical oligo-silicic acids (SOSA fulfill the main criteria to be identified with the presumed EDL factor. SOSA was found as a very potent inhibitor of the Na+/K+-ATPase, Ca2+-ATPase, H+/K+-ATPase and of K-dp-ATPase, with IC50 values between 0.2-0.5µg/ml. These findings are even more astonishing while so far, neither mono silicic acid nor its poly-condensed derivatives have been remarked biologically active. With the diameter ϕ between 1 - 3nm, SOSA still belong to molecular species definitely smaller than silica nano-particles with ϕ >5nm. In SOSA molecules almost all Si-OH bonds are displayed on the external shell which facilitates the binding to hydrophilic ATPase domains. SOSA is stable for long-term in solution but is sensitive to freeze-drying which could explain the failure of countless attempts to isolate pure EDLF. There is a strong resemblance between SOSA and vanadates, the previously known general inhibitors of P-type ATPases. SOSA may be generated endogenously by spherical oligomerization of the mono-silicic acid ubiquitously present in animal cells and fluids. Based on the finding that the SOSA structure is sensitive to the concentration and nature of the cationic species a presumably archaic mechanism to regulate the activity of the ATPase pumps is proposed.

  19. Risorse digitali

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di


    Full Text Available Bibliotheca Latinitatis Mediaevalis (circa VII sec. - XIV sec. IntraText Digital Library [01/06] Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum. A digital library of Latin literature by David Camden [01/06] Fonti disponibili online concernenti la vita religiosa medievale Rete Vitae Religiosae Mediaevalis Studia Conectens [01/06] Fuentes del Medievo Hispanico Instituto de Historia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas [01/06] Latin Literature Forum Romanum [01/06] Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Dissertazioni sopra le antichità italiane, 1751 Biblioteca dei Classici Italiani di Giuseppe Bonghi [01/06] Medieval Latin The Latin Library [01/06] Médiévales Presses Universitaires de Vincennes - [01/06] Regesta imperii Deutsche Kommission für die Bearbeitung der Regesta Imperii e.V. [01/06] Suda On Line Byzantine Lexicography [01/06

  20. Digitalis toxicity

    ... eds. Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2015:chap 110. Cole JB, Roberts DJ. ... Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2013:chap 152. Goldberger AL, Goldberger ZD, ...

  1. La lingua2 nel Web. Prospettive digitali per la didattica dell’italiano a stranieri

    Roberto Quaggia


    Full Text Available L'articolo si compone di due parti. Nella prima si espongono alcuni punti focali del dibattito sul rapporto tra glottodidattica e tecnologie digitali (dai dispositivi mobili ai software per la comunicazione, fino agli attuali socialnetwork. In particolare l’attenzione è rivolta sul fatto che la lingua della comunicazione digitale costituisce una varietà linguistica dal confronto con la quale l’insegnamento di una L2 non può ormai prescindere, e che le tecnologie digitali della comunicazione, se correttamente adottate fuori e dentro la classe, consentono di ridurre il confine tra apprendimento guidato e acquisizione spontanea di una lingua seconda. Filo conduttore della riflessione è il concetto di “competenza comunicativa digitale”, che si aggiunge alle componenti della competenza linguistico-comunicativa indicate dal Quadro Comune Europeo di Riferimento per le Lingue. Nella seconda parte del lavoro, dal taglio più didattico, si presenta una serie di strumenti e di esperienze di insegnamento/apprendimento della L2 con l’uso delle tecnologie digitali. In particolare ci si sofferma sulle opportunità offerte dal Web 2.0, simulando la creazione di una piattaforma per l’insegnamento/apprendimento dell’italiano L2 completamente online. Non si tratta di una semplice piattaforma per l’e-learning (o d-learning, ma di una vera e propria rete per l’insegnamento, l’apprendimento, la comunicazione e la formazione che trasforma il modo in cui si usa, si apprende e si insegna una L2. L2 on the Web. Digital perspectives for teaching italian to foreignersThe article consists of two parts. In the first we illustrate some focal points in the debate on the relationship between language teaching and digital technologies (from mobile devices to communication software and current social networks. In particular, we focus on the fact that the language of digital communication is a linguistic variety which L2 teaching can no longer ignore, and

  2. Quality Assessment of Serially Ultradiluted and Agitated Drug Digitalis purpurea by Emission Spectroscopy and Clinical Analysis of Its Effect on the Heart Rate of Indian Bufo melanostictus

    Anup Sharma


    Full Text Available The investigation of ultradiluted (homeopathic drugs is extremely interesting and challenging, and from that point of view this study shows novelty. A study of in vivo changes in heart rate of the Indian Bufo melanostictus caused by commercially available serially ultra-diluted and agitated extract of Digitalis purpurea has been tried in order to understand their pharmacological role. RR interval (of ECG was compared after intraperitoneal administration of serially diluted and agitated Digitalis purpurea extract, diluent rectified spirit, and Digoxin in anesthetized animals. The study revealed statistically significant changes in the heart rate after application of these drugs except in case of Digoxin and the 200th serial dilution of Digitalis purpurea. The duration of RR intervals after application of the drugs was corroborative of the effect of Digoxin and Digitalis purpurea extract up to 30th dilution. Emission spectra were obtained for the experimental ultra-diluted Digitalis purpurea extract and Digoxin to identify and characterize them. The observed RR pattern and emission spectra show an association. The quality assessment of the commercial ultra-diluted organic drugs obtained from natural products may be initiated by monitoring in vivo studies on animal models.

  3. Biologic and physical characteristics of the non-peptidic, non-digitalis-like natriuretic hormone.

    Bricker, N S; Zea, L; Shapiro, M; Sanclemente, E; Shankel, S


    At least three independent groups of natriuretic hormones have been isolated over the past ten years. Two, atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), are proteins and the third is made up of digitalis-like substances (DLS). The present report concerns the isolation, substantial purification and biologic actions of an entirely different natriuretic hormone (NH) which appears to be steroidal in nature and an isomer of cortisone. The source of NH was uremic urine. Purification involved successive chromatographic steps including gel filtration and multiple HPLC runs through C-18 resins. A translucent crystal ultimately was obtained. The product was examined using mass spectroscopy with trimethylsilyl derivatization. Only one compound was identifiable. The characteristics of the molecule include: a molecular weight, 360.4; a molecular formula, C21H28O5; a steroidal nucleus; UV absorption at 220 and 290 nm; and intrinsic fluorescence. The onset of action occurs within minutes both in the rat and, as previously shown, in several in vitro systems including the frog skin, toad bladder, fibroblasts and renal tubular epithelial cells grown in culture and isolated perfused cortical collecting tubules. In contrast to DLS, NH has been previously shown not to cross react with digoxin antibodies. Moreover, when given to intact rats, it produces a profound natriuresis but little or no kaliuresis. In contrast to ANF and BNP the compound is active orally as well as intravenously. It is clearly different from cortisone, based both on its biologic and mass spectroscopic characteristics.

  4. "The Lower Threshold" phenomenon in tumor cells toward endogenous digitalis-like compounds: Responsible for tumorigenesis?

    Heidrun Weidemann


    Full Text Available Since their first discovery as potential anti-cancer drugs decades ago, there is increasing evidence that digitalis-like compounds (DLC have anti-tumor effects. Less is known about endogenous DLC (EDLC metabolism and regulation. As stress hormones synthesized in and secreted from the adrenal gland, they likely take part in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA axis. In a previous study, we revealed reduced EDLC concentrations in plasma and organs from immune-compromised animals and proposed that a similar situation of a deregulated HPA axis with "adrenal EDLF exhaustion" may contribute to tumorigenesis in chronic stress situations. Here, we put forward the hypothesis that a lowered EDLC response threshold of tumor cells as compared with normal cells increases the risk of tumorigenesis, especially in those individuals with reduced EDLC plasma concentrations after chronic stress exposure. We will evaluate this hypothesis by (a summarizing the effects of different DLC concentrations on tumor as compared with normal cells and (b reviewing some essential differences in the Na/K-ATPase of tumor as compared with normal cells (isoform pattern, pump activity, mutations of other signalosome receptors. We will conclude that (1 tumor cells, indeed, seem to have their individual "physiologic" EDLC response range that already starts at pmolar levels and (2 that individuals with markedly reduced (pmolar EDLC plasma levels are predisposed to cancer because these EDLC concentrations will predominantly stimulate the proliferation of tumor cells. Finally, we will summarize preliminary results from our department supporting this hypothesis.

  5. Cat assay for the emetic action of digitalis and related glycosides (digitoxin, digoxin, lanatoside C, ouabain and calactin).

    Parsons, J A; Summers, R J


    1. A titration assay with two end points is described for comparison of the emetic and lethal potencies of digitalis-like drugs.2. A drug was infused at constant rate to a conscious, unrestrained cat, through an indwelling venous cannula. At the moment of vomiting the cat was rapidly anaesthetized and infusion continued at the same rate until the moment of cardiac arrest.3. With very slow and very fast infusions, the emetic and lethal doses tended to rise. In the range between these extremes (which varied from drug to drug) they were independent of time.4. The observations could be accounted for by analogue computation, assuming that the drugs entered an initial pool and were distributed at finite rates to receptors in the CNS (vomiting centre) and heart.5. Half times of metabolic loss derived from this computation for digitoxin, digoxin and ouabain (17, 9.9 and 1.8 h, respectively) were in the same ratio as the threefold longer half times reported for these drugs in man.6. When measured with infusion rates in the time independent range, the ratio of lethal to emetic doses did not vary between the drugs studied. All caused vomiting at 40% of the lethal dose.7. From a review of the literature, the emetic and cardiotoxic actions of digitalis-like drugs appear inseparable and probably share a common biochemical mechanism.8. It is concluded that foreseeable improvements in digitalis-like drugs are small and would depend on the elimination of any local emetic effect on gut receptors which they may have.

  6. Cellular basis for the species differences in sensitivity to cardiac glycosides (digitalis).

    Gupta, R S; Chopra, A; Stetsko, D K


    ouabain and digitoxin in comparison to the enzyme from human cells, and a good correlation is observed between these concentrations and those reported for inhibition of the enzyme from isolated heart muscles of the same species. These results provide strong evidence that the species-related differences in sensitivity to digitalis have a cellular basis and that the cultured cells from various mammalian species provide a useful model system for investigating the mechanism of action of cardiac glycosides.

  7. [Plants regeneration from genetically transformed root and callus cultures of periwinkle Vinca minor L. and foxglove purple Digitalis purpurea L].

    Leshina, L G; Bulko, O V


    Plants regenerated from hairy roots and calluses of foxglove purple and periwinkle have been obtained. It was found that organogenesis in hairy root culture occurs spontaneously on hormone-free medium but with different efficiencies. The frequency of direct shoot formation from root cultures was up to 60% in Digitalis and 3.7% in Vinca. Addition of 1 mg/l BA, 0.1 mg/l NAA and 5% sucrose to B5 medium increased regenerative capacity of Vinca roots up to 19.1%. Regenerated plants showed morphological features typically seen in Ri-transgenic plants. They include growth and plagiotropism of the root system, increased shoot formation, changed leaf morphology and short internodes.

  8. No adaptation to digitalization as evaluated by digitalis receptor (Na,K-ATPase) quantification in explanted hearts from donors without heart disease and from digitalized recipients with end-stage heart failure.

    Schmidt, T A; Allen, P D; Colucci, W S; Marsh, J D; Kjeldsen, K


    Speculations about development of tolerance to the inotropic effect of digitalis have been engendered since studies in various in vitro systems and tissues not representative of the heart have shown up-regulation of sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) when exposed to digitalis. Moreover the digitalis receptor (i.e., Na,K-ATPase) concentration in the normal, vital human left ventricle has not been previously determined. On this basis, digitalis receptor concentration was quantified in the left ventricle of explanted hearts from subjects without heart disease and from patients with end-stage heart failure who had received digitalis therapy. This was performed using vanadate-facilitated 3H-ouabain binding to intact tissue samples giving values of 728 +/- 58 (n = 5) and 467 +/- 55 pmol/g wet weight (n = 6) (mean +/- SEM) (p digitalization was associated with occupancy of digitalis receptors in the failing human heart of 24% (p < 0.02).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Estimulación de cardenólidos en brotes de Digitalis purpurea L. cultivados in vitro mediante elicitores

    Naivy Lisbet Pérez-Alonso


    Full Text Available Título en ingles: Stimulation of cardenolides production in Digitalis purpurea L. shoot cultures by elicitors additionTítulo corto: Elicitores en la producción de cardenólidosResumen: Digitalis purpurea L. es una de las principales fuentes de cardenólidos tales como digoxina y digitoxina. Estos fármacos son ampliamente usados en la disfunción cardíaca y para regular las arritmias del corazón. El presente trabajo se realizó con el objetivo de estudiar el efecto de tres elicitores en el cultivo de brotes de Digitalis purpurea var. Roter Berggold para incrementar la producción in vitro de cardenólidos. La elicitación es una estrategia para incrementar la producción de biomasa y metabolitos secundarios en el cultivo in vitro. Los elicitores evaluados fueron ChitoPlant (0,001; 0,01; 0,1 g.L-1; SilioPlant (0,01; 0,1; 1,0 g.L-1 y Jasmonato de metilo (60, 80 y 100 µM, descritos por primera vez para el incremento de cardenólidos. Se demostró que la elicitación es una estrategia viable para el incremento de cardenólidos en brotes de D. purpurea. El ChitoPlant®, redujo la altura sin afectación en el resto de las variables morfológicas evaluadas. Además indujo un incremento significativo en el contenido de cardenólidos. El SilioPlant® (0,01 g.L-1 no provocó afectaciones en la biomasa e incrementó significativamente la síntesis de cardenólidos en los brotes en 3,6 y 6,9 veces el contenido de digoxina y digitoxina respectivamente. La elicitación con el jasmonato de metilo provocó una reducción de la biomasa. Los contenidos de digoxina y digitoxina se incrementaron ligera y significativamente con 80 y 100 µM de jasmonato de metilo respectivamente. El mejor resultado integral se obtuvo con 0,01 g.L-1 de SilioPlant, el cual indujo la mayor producción neta de cardenólidos por frasco de cultivo (4,72 µg digoxina y 88,27 µg digitoxina. Palabras clave: chitoplant, digitoxina, digoxina, jasmonato de metilo, silioplantAbstract:  Digitalis

  10. The bumblebee Bombus hortorum is the main pollinating visitor to Digitalis purpurea (Common Foxglove in a U.K. population

    Arthur Broadbent


    Full Text Available Specialization in plant-pollinator systems represents an important issue for both the ecological understanding and conservation of these systems. We investigated the extent to which the bumblebee Bombus hortorum (Linnaeus is the main potential pollinator of Common Foxglove, Digitalis purpurea L. Twenty D. purpurea patches were selected in North Yorkshire, U.K., ten each in woodland and garden or park habitat. All insects visiting D. purpurea within the patches were recorded over seventy 30-min bouts. The relative frequency of insect visitors to other flowering plant species within 15 m of each patch was also determined. B. hortorum and B. pascuorum were the two most frequent visitors to D. purpurea, accounting for 82 - 92% and 3 -17%, respectively, of all insect visits (n = 1682, depending on habitat. B. hortorum showed a significant preference for visiting D. purpurea relative to its frequency of visits to other available plant species. The relationship of D. purpurea with B. hortorum, which pollinates several plant species with long corollas, therefore represents a potential case of asymmetric specialization, albeit one that may vary spatially. Because D. purpurea reproduction appears dependent on insect pollination, B. hortorum and B. pascuorum may help underpin the viability of D. purpurea populations.

  11. Digitalis and the sick sinus syndrome. Clinical and electrophysiologic documentation of severe toxic effect on sinus node function.

    Margolis, J R; Strauss, H C; Miller, H C; Gilbert, M; Wallace, A G


    Digoxin, in a common clinical dose and at a low serum level, brought out severe manifestations of sinus node dysfunction in a patient who had previously undergone successful mitral valve replacement. This report presents the results of extensive clinical and electrophysiologic studies of this patient before and after a digoxin challenge. In the absence of cardiac glycoside, the only demonstrable abnormalities of sinus node function were mild resting sinus bradycardia and failure to respond to atropine administration. Responses to isoproterenol administration, programmed premature atrial stimulation, and overdrive pacing at several cycle lengths were normal. Following the administration of intravenous digoxin, 1.025 mg/24 hrs, the resting sinus cycle length increased and the response to overdrive pacing became markedly abnormal. The latter was followed by sinus pauses in excess of six seconds, even at relatively slow overdrive pacing rates. The electrophysiologic and clinical implications of these data are discussed. It is suggested that despite previous reports that digitalis preparations are relatively well tolerated by patients with sick sinus syndrome, caution should be used when administering these drugs to this group of patients.

  12. 艾司洛尔与洋地黄控制房颤心室率的疗效比较分析%Efficacy Comparison of Esmolol and Digitalis on Ventricular Rate Controlling in Atrial Fibrillation



    Objective: To compare the efficacies of esmolol and digitalis on controlling ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation (AF). Methods: A total of 80 patients with atrial fibrillation were randomly divided into esmolol group (n =40) and digitalis group (n =40). In the esmolol group, esmolol was injected intravenously; in the digitalis group, cedilanid 0.4 mg was injected intravenously, after the onset, oral digoxin 0.125 ~0.25 qd was followed. The onset time and the controlling of ventricular rate at rest and exercise were observed. Results: The onset times in esmolol group and digitalis group were immediate ~5 min and 20-30 min, respectively, the total effective rates were 92.5% and 75.0%, respectively (P<0.05). The efficacies of the two groups were significantly different (P<0.01), with esmolol being better than digitalis. The incidences of adverse events were 2.5% and 15%, respectively. Conclusion: In the absence of severe cardiac dysfunction, esmolol is superior to digitalis with rapid onset and less obvious side effects on controlling ventricular rate in atrial fibrillation at rest and activity.%比较静注艾司洛尔和洋地黄对房颤的疗效.结果:静注艾司洛尔组(40例)起效快(0~5 min),有效率高(92.5%),副作用发生率低(2.5%),静息和运动时心室率减慢.口服洋地黄组(40例)起效慢(20~30 min),有效率低(75.0%),副作用发生率高(15%).

  13. Per una retorica intermediale: corpo femminile, pubblicità e ideologia nelle opere digitali di Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries

    Beatrice Seligardi


    Full Text Available L'articolo si propone di analizzare, in prospettiva intermediale, due opere digitali di Young-Hae Chang Heavy Industries: "Cunnilingus in North Korea" e "Samsung Means To Come". Si tratta di animazioni in Adobe Flash che combinano testi e musica jazz, e sono visibili da parte di qualunque utente sul sito web del gruppo L’attenzione si concentrerà sulle scelte retoriche e stilistiche degli artisti attraverso cui viene problematizzato in maniera controversa il rapporto fra corpo femminile, tecnologia e poteri dominanti.

  14. “Sensing” il “city model” per incrementare l’efficacia e l’usabilità delle risorse digitali

    Massimiliano Condotta


    Full Text Available L’attuale modo di gestire la conoscenza, basato su sistemi ICT, ha raggiunto un elevato livello prestazionale nel modo di utilizzare e gestire le informazioni degli archivi digitali. Tuttavia, ci sono ancora notevoli potenzialità inespresse nel modo di accedere e di usufruire la conoscenza, soprattutto in ragione delle possibili correlazioni con le informazioni non-digitali. Queste potenzialità sono ancora più rilevanti nel settore dei dati urbani e territoriali per i quali sono a disposizione numerose tecnologie di carattere innovativo che possono essere utilizzate nella gestione delle informazioni relative alla città, soprattutto se orientate alla grande sfida rappresentata dall’implementazione del modello smart cities. Il presente articolo illustra una di queste potenzialità: l’uso dei concetti della tassonomia semiotica per aumentare l’efficacia delle informazioni legate a una rappresentazione digitale della città. L’ambizione di quest’articolo è di stimolare una possibile attività congiunta tra istituzioni e utenti di Internet verso la creazione di una nuova risorsa di conoscenza condivisa, strutturata, semanticamente correlata e basata su un substrato di informazioni che rappresenta, in modo virtuale, l’ambiente fisico reale.

  15. E-book per la formazione. L’esperienza del Master “Le nuove competenze digitali: open education, social e mobile learning”

    Laura Menichetti


    Full Text Available Il Master “Le nuove competenze digitali: open education, social e mobile learning”, organizzato dall’Università degli Studi di Firenze, si propone di sviluppare competenze relative alla progettazione, alla realizzazione, alla erogazione di interventi formativi sostenuti dalle nuove tecnologie e in linea con i modelli istruttivi maggiormente condivisi per un apprendimento efficace.I corsisti completano il Master con la realizzazione di un prodotto ad uso didattico, che può consistere in un corso o in un e-book.Quasi metà dei corsisti che hanno partecipato all’edizione conclusasi a marzo 2014 hanno prodotto degli e-book, che sono stati utilizzati nella formazione degli adulti o nella scuola. Il presente contributo intende presentare una rassegna degli e-book che le autrici e gli autori hanno acconsentito a rendere visibili.

  16. Insegnanti e nativi digitali

    Guglielmo Trentin


    Full Text Available Il level of change in their communication habits and 'almost always related to age' registry and varies in a range that goes from the "shocking" for adults and little by technology, the absolute normality 'for so-called digital natives, that is, those Chesio born in an already 'heavily steeped in technology, especially mobile communications.

  17. The central mechanism underlying hypertension: a review of the roles of sodium ions, epithelial sodium channels, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, oxidative stress and endogenous digitalis in the brain.

    Takahashi, Hakuo; Yoshika, Masamichi; Komiyama, Yutaka; Nishimura, Masato


    The central nervous system has a key role in regulating the circulatory system by modulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, pituitary hormone release, and the baroreceptor reflex. Digoxin- and ouabain-like immunoreactive materials were found >20 years ago in the hypothalamic nuclei. These factors appeared to localize to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and the nerve fibers at the circumventricular organs and supposed to affect electrolyte balance and blood pressure. The turnover rate of these materials increases with increasing sodium intake. As intracerebroventricular injection of ouabain increases blood pressure via sympathetic activation, an endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) was thought to regulate cardiovascular system-related functions in the brain, particularly after sodium loading. Experiments conducted mainly in rats revealed that the mechanism of action of ouabain in the brain involves sodium ions, epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) and the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), all of which are affected by sodium loading. Rats fed a high-sodium diet develop elevated sodium levels in their cerebrospinal fluid, which activates ENaCs. Activated ENaCs and/or increased intracellular sodium in neurons activate the RAAS; this releases EDLF in the brain, activating the sympathetic nervous system. The RAAS promotes oxidative stress in the brain, further activating the RAAS and augmenting sympathetic outflow. Angiotensin II and aldosterone of peripheral origin act in the brain to activate this cascade, increasing sympathetic outflow and leading to hypertension. Thus, the brain Na(+)-ENaC-RAAS-EDLF axis activates sympathetic outflow and has a crucial role in essential and secondary hypertension. This report provides an overview of the central mechanism underlying hypertension and discusses the use of antihypertensive agents.

  18. 地黄饮子治疗帕金森病的机理与临床探讨%Research on Mechanism and Practice of Digitalis YinZi Treatment of Parkinson' s Disease

    杨海燕; 李燕梅


    Objective: To pick to TCM classic square digitalis YinZi treatment of Parkinson' s disease is analyzed theoretically and clinical observation. Methods:To analyze the traditional in Parkinson' s disease pathogenesis of understanding, and combined with our many years clinical observation, discover of Parkinson' s disease pathogenesis for this empty mark true, the deficiency in kidney empty is given priority, kidney Yin deficiency, kidney Yang deficiency, marking real is wind, sputum primarily. Tonifying Yin and Yang, and resolving phlegm and,just fits of Parkinson' s disease pathogenesis, clinical application of treatment of Parkinson' s disease. Results:Radix Rehmanniae YinZi treatment of Parkinson' s disease clinical curative effect is good. Conclusion: Parkinson' s disease pathogenesis in kidney empty for this,the wind phlegm for marking, radix rehmanniae YinZi treatment of Parkinson' s disease clinical efficacy precise.%目的:对中医经典名方地黄饮子治疗帕金森病进行理论分析和临床观察.方法:分析历代医家对帕金森病的病因病机认识,结合临床观察,发现帕金森病的病机为本虚标实,本虚以肾虚为主,肾阴、肾阳亏虚,标实以风、痰为主.地黄饮子滋阴、补阳、化痰并用,恰合帕金森病的病机,故临床应用地黄饮子治疗帕金森病.结果:地黄饮子治疗帕金森病临床疗效较好.结论:帕金森病的病机以肾虚为本,风痰为标,地黄饮子治疗帕金森病临床疗效确切.

  19. Cantor Digitalis: chironomic parametric synthesis of singing

    Feugère, Lionel; d’Alessandro, Christophe; Doval, Boris; Perrotin, Olivier


    .... The sound generation system is based on a parametric synthesizer that features a spectral voice source model, a vocal tract model consisting of parallel filters for vocalic formants and cascaded...

  20. Nuovi sensori digitali per aerofotogrammetria classica Camere digitali a confronto in assenza di specifiche normative

    Renzo Carlucci


    Full Text Available In questa situazione risulta difficile comprendere come sipossa richiedere un volo aerofotogrammetrico digitale ecollaudarlo con le consuete raccomandazioni in uso da tempo.L’epoca d’oro dell’ aerofotogrammetria è ormai lontana, ciò nonostante non si cessa di dettare condizioni e specifiche sicure che mettano al riparo dagli imprevisti del cambiotecnologico. Basti pensare che in alcuni settori si prescrive l’uso del restitutore analitico e non è ammesso l’uso del digitale. Figuriamoci se in tali situazioni sarà accettata unacamera digitale senza che siano dettate specifiche di capitolato per i collaudi, certificate da un’autorità competente che purtroppo al momento in Italia è soppressa

  1. Is there a role for digitalis in chronic heart failure?

    Carmen Rain


    Full Text Available Resumen El uso de digitálicos, en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica que persisten con síntomas moderados a graves pese al uso de terapia estándar, ha sido recomendado en las principales guías clínicas, a pesar de que existe controversia sobre su eficacia y seguridad. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 13 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Se concluye que los digitálicos podrían no disminuir la mortalidad, pero sí el riesgo de hospitalizaciones por cualquier causa y deterioro clínico en este grupo de pacientes. Sin embargo, la certeza de la evidencia es baja.

  2. Melka Kunture: tecniche digitali per l’archeologia preistorica

    Leonardo Carmigiani


    Full Text Available La musealizzazione del sito di Melka Kunture rappresenta la conclusione di 40 anni di ricerche e scavi compiuti dalla Missione Archeologica Francese diretta da Jean Chavaillon tra il 1965 e il 1995 e dalla Missione Archeologica Italiana dell’Università di Roma “La Sapienza” e del Ministero degli Affari Esteri, diretta da Marcello Piperno a partire dal 1999 e tuttora in corso. L’estensione del sito, la sua lunga sequenza culturale (1.7-0.2 milioni di anni insieme alla molteplicità e varietà delle situazioni archeologiche presenti nelle sue diverse fasi fanno di Melka Kunture un complesso straordinario e unico, paragonabile soltanto alla Gola di Olduvai in Tanzania.

  3. Flipped classroom: innovare la scuola con le tecnologie digitali

    Graziano Cecchinato


    Full Text Available New media are pervading the everyday lives of young people, leading to emergent cultural scenarios that call for a rethink of educational strategies in school. Increased production and sharing of open content is steadily opening up access to digital resources and facilitating their reuse in school contexts. A practice that is gaining popularity in the teaching community is “flipping the classroom”, i.e. inverting the classic sequence of classroom lecture and individual study. The widespread availability of video lessons, multimedia products and tools for online interaction means that content can now be accessed outside the school walls, while the phases of exercise, application and processing can take place at school in a collaborative environment designed and managed by the teacher. The pedagogical implications of this double inversion are twofold: personalition of learning in the first inversion, and active and peer learning in the second. This lays the foundations for the transformation of instructionist teaching into more constructivist and social practices. This contribution analyses the psycho-pedagogical assumptions, key issues, educational practices and operational tools involved in this strategy.

  4. [Behaviour of serum CPK curves in acute myocardial infarction treated with digitalis, verapamil and combined verapamil-digitalis (author's transl)].

    Vincenzi, M; Allegri, P; Cappelletti, F; Comacchio, G; De Lio, U; Morlino, T; Ometto, R; Zanchetta, M; Maiolino, P


    In order to compare the effectiveness of different therapeutic regimens in reducing infarct size serial determinations of CPK activity (at 4 hourly intervals in the first 48 hours from the admission to CCU, at the 72th and at 120th hours) were performed in 100 patients with transmural AMI (53 anterior and 47 inferior) with no obvious evidence of LV failure and basal CPK levels lower than 50 U/L. 20 patients (control group) have been treated with glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK). 20 patients have been treated with GIK plus Verapamil (GIK + V). Verapamil was administered at the dose of 50 mg in continuous drip. 20 patients received GIK plus digoxin at the dose of 0.25 mg b.i.d. (GIK + D). 40 patients received GIK, Verapamil and digoxin at the above doses (GIK + V + D). Different values of CKr and infarct size (IS.) show a statistically significant difference between the various regimens, which is more evident if we consider the whole series. Infarct size was greater in patients treated with digoxin with respect to controls, while it was smaller in patients treated with Verapamil. Combined Verapamil-digoxin therapy is associated to an enzymatic behaviour not different from controls. Authors emphasize that in uncomplicated AMI digoxin causes an increase in infarct size while Verapamil reduces significantly it. Association of Verapamil allows the use of digoxin, if clinically justified, without increase in infarct size.

  5. Measurement facilities and accuracy limits of sampling digital interferometers. Meresi lehetoesegek es hibaanalizis digitalis mintavetelezoe interferometeren

    Czitrovszky, A.; Jani, P.; Szoter, L.


    We discuss the measurement facilities of a recently development sampling digital interferometer for machine tool testing. As opposed to conventional interferometers the present device provides possibilities for the digital storage up to 4 kHz of the complete information of the motion so that displacement, velocity, acceleration and power density spectrum measurement can be performed. An estimation is given for the truncation, round-off, jitter and frequency-aliasing sources of error of the reconstructed motion parameters. On the basis of the Shannon sampling theory optimal conditions of measurement parameters are defined for the case when the accuracy of the reconstructed part of motion and vibration is equal to the resolution of the conventional interferometer. 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Rappresentazioni digitali al tratto: tecniche visuali per un utilizzo avanzato del CAD

    Simone Garagnani


    Full Text Available Il vasto panorama esistente di prodotti software destinati al mondo del disegno architettonico, rischia di compromettere quell'individualità che distingue lo stile di rappresentazione del progettista puro. La consuetudine moderna alla rappresentazione tridimensionale fotorealistica a tutti i costi, dove tessiture di materiali e contrasti di luci ed ombre sono a volte talmente esasperati da avere ben poco del fotografico, ha condotto a trascurare le più tradizionali visualizzazioni al tratto, ancora importanti per la loro intrinseca chiarezza esplicativa e visuale delle forme. Non sono pochi infatti i software di nuova produzione che implementano con discutibile disinvoltura motori di rendering più o meno realistici, ma che non sono in grado di presentare disegni prospettici od assonometrici formalmente corretti e gradevoli. Il tracciamento assistito tuttavia può essere un valido strumento di sviluppo anche per tecniche visuali più classiche; in questo breve scritto verranno analizzati due metodi per ottenere questo tipo di elaborati con un pacchetto di disegno digitale standard come AutoCAD.

  7. The COVAX project; Intelligenza artificiale per i beni culturali e le biblioteche digitali. Atti del Workshop

    Bordoni, L. [ENEA, Dipt. Studi, Rome (Italy)


    In this paper the COVAX (Contemporary Culture Virtual Archive in XML) is presented. The main purpose of COVAX is to test the use of XML to combine document descriptions and digitised surrogates of cultural documents to build a global system for search and retrieval, increasing accessibility via the Internet to electronic resources, regardless of their location.

  8. Is there a role for digitalis in chronic heart failure? - First update

    Carmen Rain


    Full Text Available Este resumen Epistemonikos (Living FRISBEE: Living FRIendly Summary of the Body of Evidence using Epistemonikos es una actualización del resumen publicado en Abril de 2015, basado en una nueva revisión sistemática aparecida en mayo de 2015. El uso de digitálicos en pacientes con insuficiencia cardiaca crónica que persisten con síntomas moderados a severos pese al uso de terapia estándar ha sido recomendado por las principales guías clínicas, sin embargo existe controversia sobre su eficacia y seguridad. Utilizando la base de datos Epistemonikos, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en 30 bases de datos, identificamos cuatro revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyen 13 estudios aleatorizados. Realizamos un metanálisis y tablas de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. Se concluye que existe incertidumbre sobre si los digitálicos disminuyen o aumentan la mortalidad. Podrían disminuir el riesgo de hospitalizaciones por cualquier causa y el deterioro clínico en este grupo de pacientes, sin embargo, la certeza de la evidencia es baja.

  9. Association of cord blood digitalis-like factor and necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Graves, Steven W


    Endogenous digoxin-like factor (EDLF) has been linked to vasoconstriction, altered membrane transport, and apoptosis. Our objective was to determine whether increased EDLF in the cord sera of preterm infants was associated with an increased incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC).

  10. Estimulacion de cardenolidos en brotes de Digitalis purpurea L. cultivados in vitro mediante elicitores

    Perez-Alonso, Naivy Lisbet; Arana Labrada, Franklyn; Capote Perez, Alina; Perez Perez, Anabel; Sosa, Rafael; Mollineda, Angel; Jimenez Gonzalez, Elio


    .... Roter Berggold para incrementar la produccion in vitro de cardenolidos. La elicitacion es una estrategia para incrementar la produccion de biomasa y metabolitos secundarios en el cultivo in vitro...

  11. Verso una pedagogia innovativa della lettura: codici testuali e codici digitali

    Stefania Carioli


    Full Text Available This paper presents a reflection on the subject of traditional reading and digital reading, and focuses on the pedagogical implications when moving from print to a digital reading environment. It stresses out the differences between the digital reading of the texts, such as the e-books, and the digital reading on the Internet. Based on the acquisitions coming mainly from the neuroscientific scope, it suggests the complexity of online reading is not favorable to the readers who are at the beginning of their path of literacy. The paper notes that for the novice read- ers is more appropriate to read both on printed page and on digital content that maintain largely the printing features - such as stability, linearity, the fulfillment of the content. These features attract the full attention of the reader and encour-age the development of cognitive processes at the base of a deep reading. These processes must be strengthened expecially at the beginning of the reading learning process. The online reading can be addressed later, using metacognitive techniques and self-regulated strategies that accustom the reader to stop on a text and to monitor his/her comprehension, to resist a superficial reading, and to engage the research for a deeper meaning. The article emphasizes the importance of integrating the two forms of reading and to promote the best of both literacies.

  12. Percorsi digitali per le immagini del fondo Supino: tra tutela, didattica e critica d’arte

    Irene Di Pietro


    Full Text Available Supino’s extraordinary legacy, presented as a collection of documents in 1952 by the Critic’s heirs to the Istituto di Storia dell’Arte of Bologna University, contains his photographic collection composed of approximately 8.200 images: those photos were necessary tools which Supino chose during the whole of his life according to his personal studies.Thus, in the Critic’s education, photography is a subject matter and becomes an important source of increasing knowledge, developing different ways of art criticism and preserving artistic heritage.The strategic importance of creating a photographic collection, in the heart of what is called today Department of Arts, has allowed the transmission of the abovementioned characteristics of Supino’s experience: art criticism, preservation of artistic heritage, and education. Thanks to the generosity of his heirs, new generations of scholars can follow Supino’s methodology. The collection has regularly been organized to allow consultation: in 2005, within the project for the evaluation of the Department photographic asset, a campaign aiming at the digital filing of images was started according to the standard criteria of ICCD but never came to an end due to the lack of funds. However, this project must necessarily be accomplished, both by completing the filing and by identifying present objectives, that is the creation of digital paths for our research which must be accessible to all users, so that, Supino’s experience of knowledge can be celebrated through the new methodology of digital fruition. The contextualizing aspect in the study of artworks within a vast heritage has, however, revealed to be a distinctive feature of Supino’s methodology. We need to proceed in the same direction and, through the contextualization of his study images, offer cross-paths to interdisciplinary dialogue suitable to provide an effective answer to the educational vocation of Supino’s photos with the aid of the numerous possibilities offered by new technology.

  13. Na/K ATPase inhibition by digitalis-like factors in neonates

    Bottorff, M.B.; Songu-Mize, E.; Hoon, T.J.; Phelps, S.J.; Kamper, C.A.


    At the authors institution, 48% of neonates < 1 month of age had false-positive digoxin immunoassay determinations while not receiving digoxin, presumably due to an endogenous digoxin-like immunoreactive substance (DLIS) in the plasma. Plasma from 3 neonates positive for DLIS by fluorescence polarization immunoassay (FPIA) was evaluated for inhibitory activity on human red blood cell (RBC) Na/K ATPase. Neonatal plasma aliquots containing DLIS concentrations (conc) of 0.24, 0.37, 0.43, 0.49 and 0.61 ng/ml (3.07 - 7.81 x 10/sup -10/M) were incubated with human RBC and /sup 86/Rb in order to measure /sup 86/Rb uptake inhibition with respect to DLIS negative neonatal plasma. /sup 86/Rb uptake inhibition by digoxin-spiked human serum (1.07 x 10/sup -10/ - 4.57 x 10/sup -6/M) was also measured. Percent inhibition vs. log molar conc plots for DLIS and digoxin were compared. DLIS inhibited Na/K ATPase in a linear fashion over the range studied. Comparing the linear portions of the conc-inhibition curves for digoxin and DLIS, the molar conc of digoxin producing 40% inhibition of /sup 86/Rb uptake is 333 times greater than the molar conc of DLIS producing similar inhibition. Therefore, DLIS in neonatal serum as measured by FPIA has approximately 300 times greater inhibitory activity than digoxin. The presence of circulating DLIS may reflect an adaptive or maladaptive response to some, as yet unknown, process early in life.

  14. Promuovere, formare e certificare le competenze digitali di insegnanti e educatori

    Stefania Lovece


    Full Text Available The discovery of the importance and the role that today digital skills take in every aspect of individual and social life of the citizens of the knowledge society has initiated an important process that should lead to diffusion of the critical and conscious use of ICT in every context. Many are, in fact, the actions related to the current regulatory landscape and scenarios that are pushing in that direction. In this complex process is proposed as a more urgent attention on the training of digital skills of teachers and educators because ICT be included by design in didactic and training of innovative nature. Starting from the consideration of long-established university teaching experience and more recent studies and research projects are here advanced work hypothesis to offer educational courses specifically aimed at the training of digital skills in education and teaching.

  15. Role of digitalis-like substance in the hypertension of streptozotocin-induced diabetes and simulated weightlessness in rats

    Pamnani, M. B.; Chen, S.; Haddy, F. J.; Yuan, C.; Mo, Z.


    We have examined the role of plasma Na+-K+ pump inhibitor (SPI) in the hypertension of streptozotocin induced insulin dependent diabetes (IDDM) in reduced renal mass rats. The increase in blood pressure (BP) was associated with an increase in extracellular fluid volume (ECFV), and SPI and a decrease in myocardial Na+,K+ATPase (NKA) activity, suggesting that increased SPI, which inhibits cardiovascular muscle (CVM) cell NKA activity, may be involved in the mechanism of IDDM-hypertension. In a second study, using prolonged suspension resulted in a decrease in cardiac NKA activity, suggesting that cardiovascular deconditioning following space flight might in part result from insufficient SPI.

  16. Tutela del diritto di proprieta' delle immagini digitali: Implementazione di un algoritmo di watermark mediante funzioni wavelet

    Prestipino, D


    Full Text Available Protection of copyright of the digital images is a critical element for the multimedia Web applications, e-books, virtual picture gallery. This problem is today receiving growing attention due to the pervasive diffusion of Internet technology. This work shows the watermark as solution to this problem and describes a new wavelet-based algorithm, called WM1.0, which is invisible, private, strong. WM1.0 watermaks a subset of digital images building the ecclesiastic on-line art collection. The Owner of the images and related information is the Italian Episcopal Conference, whereas the Publisher is I.D.S., an ICT company located in Messina.

  17. Le edizioni digitali di Vico curate dall’ISPF e il “Portale Vico”. Una presentazione

    Pica Ciamarra, Leonardo


    Full Text Available A presentation illustrating the state of the digitalization of Vico’s critical and facsimile editions between 2004 and 2009 and introducing to the new ISPF web portal devoted to Vico’s works and resources online

  18. Un rilievo sotto sopra Modelli digitali 3D ad alta definizione sia dei fondali che delle coste

    Codevintec Italiana Srl Codevintec Italiana Srl


    Full Text Available An upside down survey: shores and sea bed hi-res 3D digital models Laser scanning and interferometric bathymetry represent the cutting edge of coastal survey technology and can be very beneficial for mapping complicated waterside areas. The similarity of the data provided by the two systems (point cloud and intensity value make it easy to integrate the two surveys using PolyWorks commercial software. The final product is a single 3D model made up of bathymetry and topography. Since 2004 Codevintec tested the integration of these two methodologies, carrying out a number of high resolution surveys, generating a complete and accurate digital model of areas both above and below water level, a result inimitable by any other topographical survey method. The 3D-laser scanner was an Optech ILRIS-ER that allows scanning in dynamic from the boat while a SEA SWATHplus-H wide swathsonar system was used to collect underwater topography. A combined GPS and inertial platform (Applanix POS/MV 320 is used to measure position and 3D attitude of the two sensors during the survey.

  19. I metadati nelle biblioteche digitali: concetti chiave e prospettive Metadata issues in Digital Libraries: key concepts and perspectives

    Iryna Solodovnik


    Full Text Available

    L'articolo si propone di esaminare il significato, il ruolo e le implicazioni di alcuni approcci utilizzati nella gestione della biblioteca digitale.

    L'innovazione nella gestione delle risorse online e il miglioramento della loro interoperabilità si può ottenere con una normalizzazione degli schemi di metadati attraverso l'uso di standard interoperabili e vocabolari internazionali e condivisi, e con l'arricchimento dato da ontologie e linked data, che sono alla base delle riflessioni sul web semantico e sulla costruzione di livelli semantici sulle descrizioni dei metadati.

    Attraverso l'esame di alcune metodologie innovative di rappresentazione dell'informazione (LODe-BD, SWAP, l'articolo mostra alcune modalità di creazione della conoscenza in ambiente digitale, con particolare riferimento ai dati bibliografici.

    The article sets out to investigate the meaning, role and implications of some information management approaches used in Digital Library practice. A greater focus on innovation in managing online resources and on improving their interoperability can be achieved by normalizing metadata schemas through interoperable standards, world-wide accepted controlled vocabularies as well as by their enrichment through qualitatively constructed ontologies and linked data, which are key to the expansion of the semantic reasoning on the web through building and connection of additional semantic layers on top of metadata descriptions. Reviewing some innovative methods of information representation (LODe-BD, SWAP, the paper tries to lead the reader to discover some new ways of knowledge creation in digital information environment, in particular what concerns digital bibliographic records.

  20. Reconstructions of archaeological contexts in OpenGl environments; Intelligenza artificiale per i beni culturali e le biblioteche digitali. Atti del Workshop

    Forte, M. [Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, National Research Council, Institute of Technologies Applied to Cultural Heritage, Monterotondo, Rome (Italy); Pietroni, E.; Rufa, C. [Aracnet, Rome (Italy); Bizzarro, A.; Tilia, A.; Tilia, S. [Treerre Srl, Rome (Italy)


    DVR project concerns the creation of a virtual reality OpenGL system for desktop applications in archaeology. The main goal is the creation of a 3D information system using the real time interaction of OpenGL environments. The first case study implemented is the Vettii House, one of the most important and outstanding monuments in Pompei. The virtual reconstruction of these architectural models is based on very detailed photogrammetric surveys and it is connected with information layers and archaeometric data-bases regarding the state of conservation of walls, structures and any type of materials of the monument. A full 3D interface characterizes the system, comprising a high resolution texturing with detailed volumetric and geometric data. Finally, for the future, the project plans to fit the system for scientific and end users through the installation of stations on site.

  1. Cartografie digitali, Web-GIS e modelli interattivi: verso un sistema “globale” di referenziamento dei dati di rilievo architettonico

    Simone Garagnani


    Full Text Available Geomatic grants today a critical approach to the digital representation of territory. In this paper, the potential of this informative representation through Multimedia Informative Archives’ (A.I.M. in Italian language definition has been introduced, proving their versatility collecting, managing and visualizing knowledge architectural element at the different scale of building and town. Structure and formalisation of A.I.M.s allows use of hyperlinks to cartography up to georeference analysis and survey information. Leaving aside commercial web-oriented S.I.T. systems, free software packages available on web have been inquired in order to carry out database hosting thematic maps as provided in A.I.M. framework. The pipeline developed allows territorial and architectural survey’s results management and georeferencing, even if they were carryed out in different times, in order to create an updated database.

  2. Management of Cultural Heritage Material. The COLLATE project; Intelligenza artificiale per i beni culturali e le biblioteche digitali. Atti del Workshop

    Ferilli, S. [Bari Univ., Bari (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica


    Many important historic and cultural sources are fragile and distributed in various national archives, which raises problems of laborious and expensive document access and deficient community organization. The COLLATE project faces such problems by exploiting the WWW both as a standard communication platform for such communities and as a gateway for document-centered digital library applications.

  3. A user-centered system for improved web information filtering on the cultural heritage domain; Intelligenza artificiale per i beni culturali e le biblioteche digitali. Atti del Workshop

    Gentili, G.; Sciarrone, F. [S.T.E. SpA, Artificial Intelligence Research Lab., Pomezia, Rome (Italy); Micarelli, A. [Rome Univ. Roma Tre, Rome (Italy). Dipt. di Informatica e Automazione, Lab. di Intelligenza Artificiale


    The awesome growth of the World Wide Web makes it increasingly necessary to develop new tools for the research and filtering of documents on the web, capable of selecting documents that are effectively useful to system users. In this paper it is presented General Retriever, an Information Filtering system, which is able to filter relevant text and HTML documents, for users, from the Web. This system features a User Modelling module for the construction of the specific profile corresponding to each user and utilises a relevance feedback mechanism to update the user models. It was tested at ENEA, in the Cultural Heritage domain by means of a controlled experiment that gave positive results.

  4. Digital Sources and Research Practices. Review of Stefano Vitali, Passato digitale Le fonti digitali e le pratiche della ricerca. Recensione a Stefano Vitali, Passato digitale

    Roberto Delle Donne


    Full Text Available The article deals with the question if how practices of historical research are driven by sedimentation processes of archival sources in digital formats.Il contributo indaga in che modo i processi di sedimentazione delle fonti in formato digitale condizionano le pratiche del sapere storico e, in particolare, il rapporto con la documentazione.

  5. Il progetto National Bibliography Number Italia (NBN:IT. Un identificatore persistente a supporto del deposito legale nazionale delle risorse digitali

    Emanuele Bellini


    Full Text Available L’associazione di un identificatore persistente a una risorsa digitale è considerata oggi una best practice che contribuisce alla risoluzione del problema del reperimento affidabile delle risorse in rete. Attualmente si stanno affermando diverse tecnologie e standard come DOI, Handle e Cool URI con differenti peculiarità e livelli di servizio offerti. Tuttavia, all’interno delle comunità scientifiche e culturali e nel nascente semantic web, persiste la necessità di garantire l'autenticità, la provenienza e in particolare la conservazione delle risorse nel tempo. Il National Bibliography Number (NBN nasce nel contesto del ruolo e delle responsabilità che le biblioteche nazionali hanno nel campo del controllo bibliografico universale ed è orientato verso l’identificazione di risorse che devono essere conservate nel lungo periodo. Il progetto coordinato dalle biblioteche nazionali di Firenze, Roma e Venezia, dalla Fondazione Rinascimento Digitale e dalla CRUI non è alternativo ai sistemi di PI attualmente in uso, ma ne completa l’offerta.

  6. Alignment and articular orientation of lower limbs: manual vs computer-aided measurements on digital radiograms; Allineamento ed orientamento articolare degli arti inferiori: confronto tra misure manuali e computerizzate su radiogrammi digitali

    Rozzanigo, Umberto; Caudana, Roberto [Azienda Ospedaliera Carlo Poma, Mantova (Italy). Dipartimento di Diagnostica per Immagini; Pizzoli, Andrea [Azienda Ospedaliera Carlo Poma, Mantova (Italy). Divisione di Ortopedia e Traumatologia; Minari, Chiara [Azienda Ospedaliera Carlo Poma, Mantova (Italy). Servizio di Fisica Sanitaria


    Purpose: To compare the manual measurements of lower limbs on digital images with those obtained with dedicated software. Materials and methods: Forty patients with a clinical suspicion of lower limb deformity were enrolled. Eighty digital radiographs were produced with a remote-controlled radiography system (Philips Omnidia-gnost). The measurements were taken separately by an Orthopaedic Surgeon and by a Radiologist, by hand and with the aid of software, respectively. Five parameters were assessed: femoral length, tibial length, distal-medial femoral angle, proximal-medial tibial angle and tibial-femoral angle. The statistical analysis of the comparison was based on Student's-test. The inter-observer variability of the methods, manual and computer-aided, was evaluated with Fisher's F-test on a sample of measurements (20 lower limbs), taken by 5 different Orthopaedic Surgeons and Radiologists, respectively. Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the measurements taken with the manual and computer-aided methods (p>0.05). The overall reproducibility of both methods was similar; conversely, the separate evaluation of angles and lengths showed that the computer-aided method was less variable in the measurements of lengths than the manual method. Conclusions: The computer-aided evaluation of the alignment and articular orientation parameters of lower limbs is as accurate and reliable as the traditional manual method, but is faster and allows better-quality images.

  7. The central mechanism underlying hypertension: a review of the roles of sodium ions, epithelial sodium channels, the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, oxidative stress and endogenous digitalis in the brain


    The central nervous system has a key role in regulating the circulatory system by modulating the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems, pituitary hormone release, and the baroreceptor reflex. Digoxin- and ouabain-like immunoreactive materials were found >20 years ago in the hypothalamic nuclei. These factors appeared to localize to the paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei and the nerve fibers at the circumventricular organs and supposed to affect electrolyte balance and blood press...

  8. A simple system based on fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks to determine travertine provenance from ancient buildings; Intelligenza artificiale per i beni culturali e le biblioteche digitali. Atti del Workshop

    Petrelli, M.; Perugini, D.; Moroni, B.; Poli, G. [Perugia Univ., Perugia (Italy). Dept. of Earth Sciences


    This work is focused on determining provenance of travertines from some of the most important monuments in Umbria (Italy) using a new approach based on a simple system implemented coupling concepts and algorithms belonging to fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks. Results show that, for each monument, most of samples belong to quarries occurring in the vicinity of each monument evidencing that, most of building stones were extracted from quarries close to monuments locations. These results are in agreement with previous studies on travertine provenance from the same monuments and fit well also with historical data.

  9. 侧脑室注射血管紧张素Ⅱ促进内源性洋地黄样因子释放%Intracerebroventricular administration of angiotensin Ⅱ triggers release of endogenous digitalis-like factor

    张成标; 王勇; 陈远寿; 魏振宇; 王箐; 任伟



  10. Fungal diversity notes 1-110: Taxonomic and phylogenetic contributions to fungal species

    Liu, J.K.; Hyde, K.D.; Jones, E.B.G.; Ariyawansa, H.A.; Bhat, D.J.; Boonmee, S.; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Phookamsak, R.; Phukhamsakda, C.; Shenoy, B.D.;

    gregariascomum, Paraconiothyrium nelloi, P thysanolaenae, Paradictyoarthrinium tectonicola, Paralecia pratorum, Paraphaeosphaeria spartii, Pestalotiopsis digitalis, P dracontomelon, P italiana, Phaeoisaria pseudoclematidis, Phragmocapnias philippinensis...

  11. The digital archive: an example of long-term preservation. The state of the Universities of Spain

    Pepita Raventós


    Full Text Available Questo articolo presenta il lavoro svolto dalla Conferenza degli Archivisti delle università spagnole in tema di conservazione a lungo termine e di accesso ai record digitali prodotti dalle università per mezzo di archivi digitali sicuri. Vengono illustrate, inoltre, le modalità di gestione dello schema di metadati utilizzato per garantire la long-term digital preservation.

  12. [A dangerous "risotto"].

    Cardano, Sergio; Beldì, Federico; Bignoli, Cristina; Monteverde, Anna; Uglietti, Enrica


    We report an unusual digitalis poisoning case, with a positive result, caused by the swallowing of digitalis purpurea leaves. They were taken for borage leaves, usually used to prepare "risotto". Be careful not to eat vegetables you don't usually eat, because some of them may have different toxicity levels.

  13. Convallatoxin: A new P-glycoprotein substrate

    Gozalpour, E.; Greupink, R.; Bilos, A.; Verweij, V.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Masereeuw, R.; Russel, F.G.; Koenderink, J.B.


    Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs), such as digoxin and digitoxin that are derived from digitalis species, are currently used to treat heart failure and atrial fibrillation, but have a narrow therapeutic index. Drug-drug interactions at the transporter level are frequent causes of DLCs toxicity. P-glyc

  14. Convallatoxin : a new P-glycoprotein substrate

    Gozalpour, Elnaz; Greupink, Rick; Bilos, Albert; Verweij, Vivienne; van den Heuvel, Jeroen J M W; Masereeuw, R.; Russel, Frans G M; Koenderink, Jan B


    Digitalis-like compounds (DLCs), such as digoxin and digitoxin that are derived from digitalis species, are currently used to treat heart failure and atrial fibrillation, but have a narrow therapeutic index. Drug-drug interactions at the transporter level are frequent causes of DLCs toxicity. P-glyc

  15. Darnton's paradigm. Reflections on the social role of digital library

    Andrea Capaccioni


    Full Text Available L'interesse per le biblioteche digitali ha avuto inizio negli Stati Uniti nei primi anni Novanta. Al principio la discussione ha coinvolto solo qualche ingegnere informatico e pochi bibliotecari. Superate le prime incertezze terminologiche (biblioteca "elettronica", "virtuale" etc., le biblioteche digitali sono diventate a tutti gli effetti oggetto di studi interdisciplinari e costituiscono un ambito di ricerca consolidato della biblioteconomia e delle scienze dell'informazione, ambito che ha visto nel corso degli anni una continua evoluzione di argomenti correlati e approcci.L'interesse iniziale prevalente, incentrato sulla gestione e sugli aspetti tecnologici delle biblioteche digitali, si è evoluto nella necessità di riscoprire il ruolo delle biblioteche digitali nella società. Questo saggio esamina con attenzione sul recente dibattito internazionale sul valore sociale delle biblioteche digitali.

  16. Uued heliseadmed toovad Paidesse väärtfilme / Tiit Reinberg

    Reinberg, Tiit, 1975-


    Paide kultuurikeskuse saal, kus näidatakse ka kino, sai Kultuuriministeeriumi maakinode sihtotstarbelise toetusprogrammi raames 150 000 krooni, mis koos linnavalitsuse ja kohalike ettevõtjate toetusega võimaldas hankida korralikud Dolby Digitali heliseadmed

  17. Uued heliseadmed toovad Paidesse väärtfilme / Tiit Reinberg

    Reinberg, Tiit, 1975-


    Paide kultuurikeskuse saal, kus näidatakse ka kino, sai Kultuuriministeeriumi maakinode sihtotstarbelise toetusprogrammi raames 150 000 krooni, mis koos linnavalitsuse ja kohalike ettevõtjate toetusega võimaldas hankida korralikud Dolby Digitali heliseadmed

  18. [Inhibitory action of peruvoside and neriifolin on Na+, K(+)-ATPase].

    Ye, Y X; Yang, X R


    Effects of peruvoside and neriifolin, main components of neriperside, a tevetoside extracted from Thevitia neriifolia Juss, on Na+, K(+)-ATPase activities and on [3H] ouabain binding to the Na+, K(+)-ATPase isolated from hearts of guinea pigs, dogs and cats and kidneys of guinea pigs and cats were compared with digoxin and ouabain. It was found that peruvoside and neriifolin inhibited Na+, K(+)-ATPase activities and they showed a strong competitive inhibition on [3H] ouabain binding to the enzymes isolated from various tissues. A marked species difference existed as great as that of digitalis. The mechanism of action of these 2 drugs may be similar to that of digitalis. Their inhibitory effects on the enzyme activity were stronger than their positive inotropic effects, while both actions of digitalis were parallel quantitatively. There may be some differences in the modulation of the intracellular Ca2+ between neripersides and digitalis.

  19. Patterns of nucleotide substitution in angiosperm cpDNA trnL (UAA)-F(GAA) regions

    Bakker, F.T.; Culham, A.; Gomez-Martinez, R.; Carvalho, J.; Compton, J.; Dawtrey, R.; Gibby, M.


    Patterns of substitution in chloroplast encoded trnL-F regions were compared between species of Actaea (Ranunculales), Digitalis (Scrophulariales), Drosera (Caryophyllales), Panicoideae (Poales), the small chromosome species clade of Pelargonium (Geraniales), each representing a different order of f

  20. Antiarrhythmics

    ... Receptor Blockers Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors Anticoagulants Antiplatelet Therapy Aspirin Beta-Blockers Blood Thinners Calcium Channel Blockers Digitalis Medicines Diuretics Inotropic Agents Nitrates Statins, Cholesterol-Lowering Medicines Antiarrhythmics Disclaimer The ...

  1. Nitrates

    ... Blockers Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors Antiarrhythmics Anticoagulants Antiplatelet Therapy Aspirin Beta-Blockers Blood Thinners Calcium Channel Blockers Digitalis Medicines Diuretics Inotropic Agents Statins, Cholesterol-Lowering Medicines Nitrates Disclaimer The information ...

  2. Anticoagulants

    ... Receptor Blockers Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) Inhibitors Antiarrhythmics Antiplatelet Therapy Aspirin Beta-Blockers Blood Thinners Calcium Channel Blockers Digitalis Medicines Diuretics Inotropic Agents Nitrates Statins, Cholesterol-Lowering Medicines Anticoagulants Related terms: ...

  3. Informatiebundel kruidenteelt 1990

    Verenigde Nederlandse Kruidencoöperatie u.a.,


    drie jaar teelttechnisch onderzoek naar medicinale kruidengewassen; citroenmelisse, digitalis, smalle weegbree, dille, paardenbloem, franse dragon en wortelgewaskruiden; angelica, lavas en valeriaan. Opkomstverbetering, teeltmaatregelen, teeltoptimalisatie en teeltperspectieven van deze kruidengewas

  4. Lack of correlation between the antiarrhythmic effect of L-propionylcarnitine on reoxygenation-induced arrhythmias and its electrophysiological properties.

    Barbieri, M.; Carbonin, P. U.; Cerbai, E.; Gambassi, G; Lo Giudice, P.; Masini, I.; Mugelli, A.; Pahor, M.


    1. The antiarrhythmic effect of L-propionylcarnitine (L-PC) was evaluated in the guinea-pig isolated heart; arrhythmias were induced with hypoxia followed by reoxygenation and by digitalis intoxication. 2. L-PC 1 microM, was found to be the minimal but effective antiarrhythmic concentration against reoxygenation-induced ventricular fibrillation. No antiarrhythmic effect was observed against digitalis-induced arrhythmias. D-Propionylcarnitine, L-carnitine and propionic acid did not exert antia...

  5. Vasodilator drugs.

    Gould, L; Gopalaswamy, C


    This article demonstrates conclusively that systemic vasodilator therapy is an important new medical treatment for acute and chronic heart failure. Initially, vasodilators were used only when digitalis and diuretics could not adequately treat congestive heart failure. Now many clinicians view the vasodilators as equal or even better alternatives than digitalis and diuretics. There is no doubt that vasodilator therapy is one of the major advances in the treatment of heart failure.

  6. Fare storia contemporanea nell’età digitale: il caso italiano in chiave comparata

    Enrico Acciai


    Full Text Available Tra il 16 e il 18 maggio 2013, presso il Dipartimento di economia e dell’impresa dell’Università degli studi della Tuscia (Viterbo, si è tenuto il convegno Una “nuova” storia contemporanea? Le riviste digitali e lo studio del passato. La redazione di “E-Review” ha chiesto a due relatori un resoconto dell’evento, domandando loro quale impatto stia avendo il diffondersi di esperienze digitali sull’uso pubblico della storia.

  7. Ludoteca .it: dalla fase 1.0 alla fase 2.0. - Metodi e strumenti

    Bassi, Giorgia; Lami, Beatrice; Scanu, Gian Mario


    Questa pubblicazione descrive le basi teoriche e metodologiche del progetto Ludoteca .it. Nella prima parte sono riportati dati recenti sul rapporto tra media digitali e minori, con particolare attenzione alle abitudini e modalit? di fruizione. Si approfondisce in seguito il concetto di "nativo digitale", soprattutto dal punto di vista degli stili di apprendimento. La pubblicazione affronta quindi il difficile tema del rapporto tra scuola e media digitali, con riferimento alla situazione attu...

  8. A New Genus and a New Species of the Subfamily Macropsinae (Homoptera :Cicadellidae)%广头叶蝉亚科一新属一新种(同翅目:叶蝉科)

    刘振江; 张雅林


    记述广头叶蝉亚科1新属--指突叶蝉属Digitalis,并记述1新种:横纹指突叶蝉Digitalis striolatus, sp.nov.,模式标本分别保存于西北农林科技大学昆虫博物馆(NWSUAF)和中国科学院动物研究所(IZAS).

  9. The Increase of Endogenous Digitalis-like Factor Release and Inhabitation of Renal Cortical Na+-K+ ATPase with Intracerebroventricular Administration of Pilocarpin%侧脑室注射匹罗卡品引起内源性洋地黄素释放抑制肾皮质Na+-K+ ATP酶

    王勇; 张成标


    目的:探讨激活SD大鼠脑内胆碱能M受体对内源性洋地黄素(EDLF)释放及肾皮质Na+-K+ ATP酶活性的影响.方法:侧脑室注射M受体激动剂匹罗卡品,放射免疫法测定血清EDLF水平,化学比色法测定肾皮质Na+-K+ ATP酶活性.结果:①侧脑室注射匹罗卡品引起大鼠血清EDLF水平显著升高(P<0.01),肾皮质Na+-K+ ATP酶活性抑制(P<0.01).②侧脑室注射阿托品可阻断匹罗卡品引起的血清EDLF水平升高和肾皮质Na+-K+ ATP酶活性抑制效应.结论:脑内胆碱能系统可通过M受体介导参与EDLF释放的调节.

  10. Digoxin and its related endogenous factors.

    Jortani, S A; Valdes, R


    The digitalis drugs are plant-derived cardenolide compounds used medicinally for several hundred years. These drugs elicit inotropic and chronotropic effects on the heart, but they also affect many other tissues. The mechanism of action involves inhibition of the ion-transport activity of a membrane-associated protein called Na, K-ATPase (sodium pump). Present theory holds that the sodium pump is the principal molecular receptor for the digitalis drugs. Recent evidence indicates the presence of naturally occurring digitalis-like compounds in mammals. It is believed these compounds, collectively known as either digitalis-like (DLF) or ouabain-like (OLF) factors, may be endogenous hormones regulating the biological activity of the sodium pump and its isoforms. The presence of deglycosylated and other congeners of one specific DLF, the digoxin-like immunoreactive factor (DLIF), has very recently been described in humans. Digoxin as a drug is the most widely prescribed digitalis in the U.S., and its measurement in serum has established a model for present-day therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). Historically, the accurate measurement of digoxin in blood has been difficult. This article focuses on the present understanding of the clinical use of digoxin, factors that affect the accuracy of measuring digoxin, the principle of measuring metabolically active species of digoxin, and the effects of DLIF and other interfering substances in digoxin immunoassay.

  11. Edizione digitale di fonti diplomatiche: esperienze, modelli testuali, priorità

    Michele Ansani


    Full Text Available L'impiego di standard digitali per la codifica testuale (per esempio XML o TEI ha realmente significato un progresso nel metodo scientifico e nell'edizione dei documenti diplomatici? Negli ultimi anni è cresciuta al riguardo una certa fiducia, soprattutto fra i giovani studiosi, ma la concreta pratica delle edizioni e la relativa progettazione non pare abbia finora mantenuto le promesse. In questo contributo sono fissati alcuni punti circa il contesto e la specificità di questo tipo di documentazione, allo scopo di restituire una corretta dimensione al significato e all'utilità delle edizioni digitali.

  12. (Multiletramento(s digital(is e teoria do posicionamento: análise das práticas discursivas de professoras que se relacionaram com as tecnologias da informação e comunicação no ensino público Digital (multiliteracy(ies and positioning theory: analysis of discursive practices of teachers involved with information and communication technologies in the public education

    Fabiano Santos Saito


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar as práticas discursivas de três professoras que se relacionaram direta e indiretamente com as Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TICs no processo de ensino-aprendizagem de uma escola pública na cidade de Juiz de Fora - MG. Para cumprir com esse objetivo, utilizamos o modelo de Multiletramentos Digitais (SELBER, 2004 no que se refere aos usos e práticas sociais da Era Digital. Para enriquecer a análise deste estudo, trouxemos também as contribuições da Teoria do Posicionamento (HARRÉ; VAN LANGENHOVE, 1999, para podermos compreender como as professoras assumiam posições em um contexto de ensino que faz uso das tecnologias digitais. Esta pesquisa de abordagem qualitativo-interpretativista configurou-se metodologicamente como um estudo de caso etnográfico aliado a uma análise do discurso. Os resultados apontam que, embora as professoras assumam em um primeiro momento uma posição tecnófila (ou seja, uma posição favorável ao uso das TICs em ambiente educacional, essa posição é rejeitada pelas professoras indiretamente relacionadas à sala de informática em posicionamentos (tomadas de posição discursiva posteriores, em que é possível identificar posições tecnofóbicas (de medo ou resistência às tecnologias, que são indícios de falta de formação docente que tornem o uso das TICs mais eficiente e situado. Além disso, as posições e posicionamentos assumidos pelas professoras indicam um modelo de Letramento Digital Funcional na escola investigada, que é motivado por problemas de infraestrutura informacional e forças institucionais de instâncias sociais superiores à escola. Assim, uma das contribuições teórico-metodológicas deste estudo é relacionar a Teoria do Posicionamento com o Modelo de Multiletramentos Digitais para explicar os discursos que atravessam o contexto em que as TICs são usadas. Além do mais, esperamos contribuir para uma abordagem mais crítica e questionadora desses contextos educacionais, considerando a formação docente como essencial para a apropriação e o uso situado das TICs. Também é nosso intento levantar discussões transdisciplinares nas áreas de Linguística, Ensino e Tecnologia.The aim of this work is to analyze the discursive practices of three teachers involved both direct and indirectly with Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in the teaching-learning process of a public school situated in the city of Juiz de Fora - State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. To accomplish our goal, we used the theoretical model of Digital Multiliteracies (SELBER, 2004, regarding the uses and social practices of Digital Era. To enrich the analyses of this study, we also brought the theoretical contributions of Positioning Theory (HARRÉ; VAN LANGENHOVE, 1999, in order to understand how teachers take positions within a teaching context that uses digital technologies. This is a qualitative-interpretivist research methodologically set as ethnographic case study allied to a discourse analysis. The results points that, although in a first moment all the teachers take a technophile position (i.e., a position in favor of use of ICTs in educational environment, this position is rejected by some teachers indirectly involved with Computer Lab in later positionings (discursive positions takings, in which it is possible to identify technophobic positions (fear or resistance to digital technologies, that are indices of lack of teacher training oriented for more effective and situated use of ICTs in classrooms. Furthermore, the positions and positionings taken by teachers indicate a Functional Digital Literacy model in the school investigated, which is motivated by informational infrastructure troubles and institutional forces from social instances above the school. One of theoretic-methodological contributions of this study is to relate the Position Theory to the model of Digital Multiliteracies to explain the traversing discourses in the context where ICTs are used. In addition, we hope to contribute focusing on a more critical and questioning approach to these educational settings, highlighting that teacher training is essential for a right appropriation of ICTs and their situated uses. It is also our intent to raise transdisciplinary discussions on Technology, Teaching and Linguistic fields.

  13. (Multiletramento(s digital(is e teoria do posicionamento: análise das práticas discursivas de professoras que se relacionaram com as tecnologias da informação e comunicação no ensino público Digital (multiliteracy(ies and positioning theory: analysis of discursive practices of teachers involved with information and communication technologies in the public education

    Fabiano Santos Saito


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho é analisar as práticas discursivas de três professoras que se relacionaram direta e indiretamente com as Tecnologias da Informação e Comunicação (TICs no processo de ensino-aprendizagem de uma escola pública na cidade de Juiz de Fora - MG. Para cumprir com esse objetivo, utilizamos o modelo de Multiletramentos Digitais (SELBER, 2004 no que se refere aos usos e práticas sociais da Era Digital. Para enriquecer a análise deste estudo, trouxemos também as contribuições da Teoria do Posicionamento (HARRÉ; VAN LANGENHOVE, 1999, para podermos compreender como as professoras assumiam posições em um contexto de ensino que faz uso das tecnologias digitais. Esta pesquisa de abordagem qualitativo-interpretativista configurou-se metodologicamente como um estudo de caso etnográfico aliado a uma análise do discurso. Os resultados apontam que, embora as professoras assumam em um primeiro momento uma posição tecnófila (ou seja, uma posição favorável ao uso das TICs em ambiente educacional, essa posição é rejeitada pelas professoras indiretamente relacionadas à sala de informática em posicionamentos (tomadas de posição discursiva posteriores, em que é possível identificar posições tecnofóbicas (de medo ou resistência às tecnologias, que são indícios de falta de formação docente que tornem o uso das TICs mais eficiente e situado. Além disso, as posições e posicionamentos assumidos pelas professoras indicam um modelo de Letramento Digital Funcional na escola investigada, que é motivado por problemas de infraestrutura informacional e forças institucionais de instâncias sociais superiores à escola. Assim, uma das contribuições teórico-metodológicas deste estudo é relacionar a Teoria do Posicionamento com o Modelo de Multiletramentos Digitais para explicar os discursos que atravessam o contexto em que as TICs são usadas. Além do mais, esperamos contribuir para uma abordagem mais crítica e questionadora desses contextos educacionais, considerando a formação docente como essencial para a apropriação e o uso situado das TICs. Também é nosso intento levantar discussões transdisciplinares nas áreas de Linguística, Ensino e Tecnologia.The aim of this work is to analyze the discursive practices of three teachers involved both direct and indirectly with Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in the teaching-learning process of a public school situated in the city of Juiz de Fora - State of Minas Gerais in Brazil. To accomplish our goal, we used the theoretical model of Digital Multiliteracies (SELBER, 2004, regarding the uses and social practices of Digital Era. To enrich the analyses of this study, we also brought the theoretical contributions of Positioning Theory (HARRÉ; VAN LANGENHOVE, 1999, in order to understand how teachers take positions within a teaching context that uses digital technologies. This is a qualitative-interpretivist research methodologically set as ethnographic case study allied to a discourse analysis. The results points that, although in a first moment all the teachers take a technophile position (i.e., a position in favor of use of ICTs in educational environment, this position is rejected by some teachers indirectly involved with Computer Lab in later positionings (discursive positions takings, in which it is possible to identify technophobic positions (fear or resistance to digital technologies, that are indices of lack of teacher training oriented for more effective and situated use of ICTs in classrooms. Furthermore, the positions and positionings taken by teachers indicate a Functional Digital Literacy model in the school investigated, which is motivated by informational infrastructure troubles and institutional forces from social instances above the school. One of theoretic-methodological contributions of this study is to relate the Position Theory to the model of Digital Multiliteracies to explain the traversing discourses in the context where ICTs are used. In addition, we hope to contribute focusing on a more critical and questioning approach to these educational settings, highlighting that teacher training is essential for a right appropriation of ICTs and their situated uses. It is also our intent to raise transdisciplinary discussions on Technology, Teaching and Linguistic fields.

  14. Effect of ouabain, digoxin and digitoxigenin on potassium uptake and histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells

    Knudsen, T; Ferjan, I; Johansen, Torben


    Rat peritoneal mast cells were used to study the effects of digitalis glycosides on potassium uptake and histamine release induced by compound 48/80, substance P and egg-albumin (immunological release). In the absence of calcium all glycosides inhibited potassium uptake. Ouabain and digoxin...

  15. Paroxysmal atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter : current concepts and new strategies

    Suttorp, Maarten Jan


    Ondanks het feit dat al meer dan een eeuw geneesmiddelen worden voorgeschreven ter behandeling en preventie van boezemfibrilleren en boezemflutter, zoals het aloude digitalis en kinidine, beschikken wij pas sinds kort over een groeiende reeks van nieuwe en veelbelovende antiaritmica. Met het onderzo

  16. Digitaliseerimise demopäev


    8. XI tarbekunstimuuseumis, 10. XI rahvusraamatukogus digitaliseerimise demopäev koostöös OÜ Art Digitali, Eesti Kultuuriministeeriumi, Tarbekunstimuuseumi ja Eesti Rahvusraamatukoguga. OÜ Art Digital (asutasid 1998. a. Rein Tammik, Mauri Gross) skaneeris 1999. a. suvel Eesti Kunstimuuseumis 2400 graafilist lehte ja maali. Eesti digikeskuse loomisest, ülesannetest

  17. ECG (Electrocardiogram) Interpretation Training Program - Reference Manual


    may indicate hypercalcemia, hyperkalemia or Digitalis toxicity. The QT by itself is not a highly useful interval because of its variability...again the preferred treatment. All you can do is give good CPR, Oxygen, correct acidosis , give lidocaine and epinephrine and hope the rhythm

  18. Chemotaxonomic Markers in Digitalideae (Plantaginaceae)

    Taskova, Rilka Mladenova; Gotfredsen, Charlotte Held; Jensen, Søren Rosendal


    glycosides (CPGs) and main sugars. Digitalis and Isoplexis were found to lack iridoid glucosides but contained sorbitol, cornoside and a number of other phenylethanoid glycosides including the new tyrosol b-D-mannopyranoside, sceptroside. Erinus contained mainly glucose, the new 8,9-double bond iridoid...

  19. Long-term Administration of Angiotension-Converting Enzyme Inhibitor Improves the Outcome of Chronic Heart Failure in Senile Patients

    陈学林; 张劲农; 柯琴梅; 张银环; 刘承云


    Summary: One hundred and sixteen senile patients (older than 65 years) with chronic heart failure (CHF) were analyzed retrospectively in order to verify if old patients with CHF would benefit from long-term (one year) angiotension-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) treatment. The frequency of drugs (including ACEI, digitalis and diuretic) used was stratified into four degrees accordingly. Development of the CHF was scored with regard to relapse rate and severity of this disease. Stepwise regression analysis was applied to explore the relationship between the scored outcome of CHF and the frequency of individual drug administra tion. A significant relationship of the scored outcome of CHF to the frequency of ACEI usage but not to digitalis nor to diuretics was found (partial coefficient of the correlation r=0. 42, P=0. 002). It was concluded that the longterm administration of ACEI improves the outcome of CHF in senile patients.

  20. Digital collaboration: forme sociali in evoluzione

    Fortunato Sorrentino


    Full Text Available La collaborazione digitale, nel contesto di un’incalzante presenza di tutta una gamma di tecnologie digitali nella vita di tutti i giorni, è l’argomento del Capitolo 3 del libro “Orizzonti di conoscenza. Strumenti digitali, metodi e prospettive per l’uomo del terzo millennio” di Fortunato Sorrentino e Maria Chiara Pettenati, edito da Firenze University Press, 2014. Mantenendo fisso il punto focale del libro – la conoscenza nelle sue nuove forme, la sua creazione e condivisione nel mondo contemporaneo – questa modalità di collaborazione, sempre più adottata dal knowledge worker moderno, viene discussa nei vari scenari d’uso e osservata da molteplici punti di vista. Ricevono particolare attenzione gli strumenti per la collaborazione digitale, una generazione di applicazioni software innovative, i cosiddetti “spazi di lavoro virtuali condivisi”, insieme alla discussione delle abilità e delle attitudini richieste per avvalersi efficacemente di tali dispositivi.

  1. [Pharmacology of inotropic agents].

    Pastelín Hernández, Gustavo


    High-risk patients, during anesthesia and after surgery present changes in pharmacokinetics (biotransformation reactions, renal clearance, drug interactions, etc.) modifying the usefulness of most drugs, cardiac inotropics included. This group of substances is formed by adrenergic agents, phospodiesterase inhibitors and digitalis compounds. Adrenergic agents are the catecholamines, adrenaline (A), noradrenaline (NA) and dopamine (D), plus dopaminergic agonists as dobutamine and pirbuterol. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors, as amrinone and milrinone, produce their inotropic action by preserving cyclic adenosine monophosphate (AMPc) from its intracellular catabolism. Recent studies on the utility of digitalis compounds demonstrated the valuable applicability of digoxin in chronic and acute heart failure. Another group of substances whose mechanism of action differs from that of the inotropics, offers future utility in high risk patients, they include: inhibitors of nitric oxide sintases, natriuretic atrial peptide inhibitors, Q-10 coenzyme, endothelin antagonists, and anti-tumoral necrosis factor.

  2. Digital literacies at school. Students' digital profiles

    Valentina Pennazio


    Full Text Available L’articolo presenta una ricerca volta a focalizzare le modalità in cui la Digital Literacy si traduce a scuola. Lo studio ha inteso sottolineare le molteplici dimensioni della Digital Literacy: Information Technology Literacy; Information Literacy; Visual Literacy e Media Literacy ed è stato effettuato nelle scuole primarie e secondarie di primo grado in Liguria. Sono state organizzate settimane di attività di ricerca, analisi e rielaborazione di informazioni, in classe e in rete, individualmente e in gruppo. Dalle autovalutazione degli studenti, svolte al termine di ogni attività, sono emersi i profili digitali che gli studenti tendono ad assumere quando utilizzano le tecnologie digitali. Tali profili possono essere utilizzati dagli insegnanti per progettare in maniera più mirata e significativa le attività con le tecnologie a scuola.

  3. Some brief thoughts on digital literacy and digital competence

    Giorgio Olimpo


    Full Text Available Viene tracciata una linea evolutiva della relazione tra educazione e tecnologie digitali che sfocia in un modello integrato per la competenza digitale che viene a configurarsi come un’area che esiste e si sviluppa nella relazione con altre aree di competenza e non come un’area a se stante. Una delle implicazioni educative di questo modello integrato è che la competenza digitale non può essere perseguita compiutamente a livello di iniziative condotte nell’ambito di singoli insegnamenti, ma si configura piuttosto come una scelta di sistema. Si considera infine il rapporto fra competenza digitale e Technology Enhanced Learning (TEL e si propone una prospettiva unificante secondo cui TEL, visto nella prospettiva della capacità individuale di arricchire il proprio apprendimento autonomo con l’uso delle tecnologie digitali, fa parte a pieno titolo della competenza digitale.

  4. In situ genomic DNA extraction for PCR analysis of regions of interest in four plant species and one filamentous fungi

    Luis E. Rojas


    Full Text Available The extraction methods of genomic DNA are usually laborious and hazardous to human health and the environment by the use of organic solvents (chloroform and phenol. In this work a protocol for in situ extraction of genomic DNA by alkaline lysis is validated. It was used in order to amplify regions of DNA in four species of plants and fungi by polymerase chain reaction (PCR. From plant material of Saccharum officinarum L., Carica papaya L. and Digitalis purpurea L. it was possible to extend different regions of the genome through PCR. Furthermore, it was possible to amplify a fragment of avr-4 gene DNA purified from lyophilized mycelium of Mycosphaerella fijiensis. Additionally, it was possible to amplify the region ap24 transgene inserted into the genome of banana cv. `Grande naine' (Musa AAA. Key words: alkaline lysis, Carica papaya L., Digitalis purpurea L., Musa, Saccharum officinarum L.

  5. Digital Games as Tools for Stimulating and Assessing Reasoning Skills

    Rosa Maria Bottino


    Full Text Available This paper offers some thoughts on the use of educational digital logic games. Specifically refers to a number of research experiments conducted by ITD-CNR, which have highlighted the significant potential of digital games to help develop and/or consolidation of logical thinking and reasoning skills in students of primary and secondary school level. It offers a brief overview of four research experiences carried out by multidisciplinary teams coordinated by ITD-CNR since the early 2000s These experiences have highlighted the high potential of digital games to develop and strengthen logical thinking skills and have shown the positive impact of their use even on school performance. Verificare e stimolare le abilità di ragionamento con i giochi digitaliQuesto contributo propone alcune riflessioni sull’uso educativo dei giochi logici digitali. In particolare fa riferimento ad alcune esperienze di ricerca condotte dall’Istituto di Tecnologie Didattiche - Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche (ITD-CNR che hanno evidenziato le interessanti potenzialità dei giochi digitali per contribuire allo sviluppo e/o al consolidamento del pensiero logico e delle abilità di ragionamento in studenti di scuola primaria e secondaria di primo grado. Si propone un breve excursus su quattro esperienze di ricerca svolte da equipe multidisciplinari coordinate da ITD-CNR a partire dai primi anni Duemila. Tali esperienze hanno messo in luce l’alto potenziale dei giochi digitali per sviluppare e potenziare abilità di pensiero logico ed hanno evidenziato il positivo impatto del loro uso anche sul rendimento scolastico.

  6. The Trade-off Between Dietary Salt and Cardiovascular Disease; a role for Na/K-ATPase signaling?

    Joe eXie; Anna Pearl Shapiro; Joseph Isaac Shapiro


    It has been postulated for some time that endogenous digitalis-like substances, also called cardiotonic steroids (CTS), exist, and that these substances are involved in sodium handling. Within the past 20 years, these substances have been unequivocally identified and measurements of circulating and tissue concentrations have been made. More recently, it has been identified that CTS also mediate signal transduction through the Na/K-ATPase, and consequently been implicated in profibrotic pathwa...

  7. Subjective Voice and Ethnographic Presence. Some Notes About Direct Cinema and Visual Ethnography in a Historic-Anthropological Perspective

    Felice Tiragallo


    Full Text Available Il saggio, attraverso la discussione di alcuni casi di studio, intende compiere una riflessione esplorativa sulle conseguenze di lunga durata dell’introduzione del suono labiale sincrono nel cinema documentario, in rapporto alle pratiche di documentazione etnografica e ai modi in cui l’accoglimento della presenza sensoriale dell’altro abbia permesso la costruzione di oggetti documentali digitali partecipativi e non-lineari.

  8. Protherics公司获得Roche公司的洋地黄解毒剂的销售权



    英国生物药公司Protherics说,它已获得了Roche公司治疗洋地黄中毒的洋地黄解毒剂(Digitalis Antidote)的销售权。它补充说,这项交易是两家公司寻求在2007年初用Protherics公司自己的DigiFab替代该药的总协议中的一部分。

  9. PUMA-PUblication MAnagement: sistemi per la gestione delle pubblicazioni degli enti di ricerca

    Biagioni, Stefania


    Lo scopo di questa presentazione ? quello di illustrare i) come ? stato realizzato un ciclo gestionale completo dell'informazione: dall'inserimento dei metadati e dei documenti digitali alla restituzione degli stessi all'utente finale; ii) come sono stati resi accessibili via web, a livelli diversi e secondo viste diverse l'informazione prodotta; iii) come siano stati creati servizi differenti utilizzando gli stessi oggetti. Vengono illustrati i sistemi utilizzati presso il CNR di Pisa per la...

  10. Convenzione fra: ISTI-CNR e Infologic S.R.L.

    Biagioni, Stefania


    Viene presentata la Biblioteca dell'ISTI e la convenzione stipulata con Infologic S.r.l. Viene presentato l'interesse comune a realizzare una collaborazione volta allo sviluppo di un centro di riferimento per la formazione e la manutenzione riguardante il software di automazione bibliotecaria LIBERO e, a valutare le potenzialit? e lo stato dell'arte di sistemi commerciali per Biblioteche Digitali.

  11. In vitro placental self and cross pollination in some species

    Azza Shehata


    Full Text Available Excised placentae with ovules of Primula pubescens, P. auricula, Scopolia carniolica, Digitalis purpurea, Torenia fournieri and Chionodoxa luciliae were self pollinated in vitro and the development of seeds was observed. The same method was used for obtaining hybrid globular embryos from crosses between: P. pubescens x P. auricula, Scopolia carniolica x Physochlaina praealta, Melandrium album x Silene saxifraga and M. album x Arenaria pungens.

  12. Il Disegno per i Concorsi d’Architettura: un ritorno all’antico? Rivisitazioni stereoscopiche di disegni della prima metà del ‘900.

    Garagnani, Simone; Manferdini, Anna Maria; Mingucci, Roberto


    Lo scopo di questo contributo è la presentazione dell’evoluzione subita dagli elaborati di progetto presenti ai concorsi di idee, in parallelo con l’evoluzione delle tecniche grafiche (da quelle al tratto a quelle digitali), oltre alla documentazione di archivi di disegni di concorso, resi disponibili in rete per la diffusione della loro conoscenza e per la formulazione di una loro nuova veste, digitale e stereoscopica. La tecnica della visualizzazione di immagini e disegni in stereoscopia...

  13. [Digitalic therapy. Historical outline].

    de Micheli-Serra, A


    The action of medical drugs obtained from many vegetables aroused a great interest of naturalists and physicians in all time. Moreover, it was always required that those persons destined to medical practice have a good knowledge of botany. Among the medicinal plants utilized by ancient peoples of the Anahuac, yoloxochitl or heart flower (Talauma mexicana) is mentioned, which seems to have a digitalis-like action. Research in our century demonstrated a positive inotropic and bradycardic effect of the leavels of Magnolia grandiflora or Talauma mexicana extract. Since the end of the XVIII century, digitalis was employed. It was considered initially as a diuretic and later as a cardiotonic agent. The action of digitalic glycosides upon the cardiac tissues was studied experimentally in Mexico. At the present-time there are positive inotropic agents derived from pyridine, as is the case of Milrinone, which have a beneficial action on the failing human myocardium. However, following the opinion of distinguished pharmacologists, "in the case of heart failure associated to atrial fibrillation, digitalis cannot be substituted".

  14. Use of an indicator to evaluate physician adherence to prescription guidelines for the treatment of heart failure

    Márcio Galvão Oliveira


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to use indicators to evaluate physician adherence to prescription guidelines for heart failure treatment in a university hospital. This was a prospective cohort study conducted in a university hospital. The information collected at the time of patient admission, including therapeutic indication, absolute contra indications and intolerance, was utilised for the formulation of a guideline adherence indicator (GAI. This indicator was calculated as follows: (the number of patients who used the medication/the number of eligible patients x 100. The percentage of eligible patients was calculated using the following formula: (the number of eligible patients/the total number patients x 100. The GAI was applied to a population of 53 patients. Inhibitors of angiotensin-converting enzyme/angiotensin receptor blocker (ACE-I/ARB combination therapy were used in the greatest percentage of eligible patients (92.4% and demonstrated the largest GAI value (73.5%. The percentages of patients who were eligible for beta-blockers, spironolactone and digitalis treatments were 81.1%, 52.8% and 60.4%, respectively. The GAI values for the use of beta-blockers, spironolactone and digitalis were 60.4%, 57.1% and 56.2%, respectively. For the studied patient population, the GAI was consistent with the proportion of patients who were eligible to receive digitalis and spironolactone.

  15. Morphological study of the hoof in yak.

    Yang, X; Ren, X; Yu, S; Cui, Y


    The fore- and hindlimb of yak have been studied by the gross anatomical methods and standard histological techniques. The artery of ungula was also determined by X-ray and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene casting. Anatomical features of the forelimb of yak resemble those of hindlimb, including hoof periphery, hoof coronal, hoof wall, hoof sole, and hoof sphere. The forelimb and hindlimb are almost the same in histological structure. The epidermis comprised all 5 strata: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basale. The papillary layers and dermal lamellae contained a variable amount of capillary as well as collagen and elastic fibres. Many venules and arteriovenous anastomosis were distributed among the reticular layer. Subcutaneous tissue was composed of rich adipose and connective tissue in hoof periphery, hoof coronal, and, especially, hoof sphere. Major arteria in forelimb of yak include arteria digitalis palmaris communis III and arteriae digitales palmares propriae III and IV axialis. Those in hindlimb include arteria digitalis plantaris communis III and arteria digitalis plantaris propria III and IV axialis. Our findings highlight the main morphological features of yak and provide a morphological basis useful to researchers using yak hoof.

  16. [Digitalization without saturation dose using methyldigoxin. Experiences with 29 patients].

    Salvadè, G; Tartini, R; Moccetti, T


    The indications and performance of oral digitalization without saturation dose are evaluated on the basis of clinical parameters and plasma digitalis levels. A group of patients with evident cardiac insufficiency received a daily maintenance dosage of digitalis (2 tablets of 0.1 mg methyldigoxin) from the outset. After 7, 15 and 30 days the plasma concentration of methyldigoxin was measured. Objective and subjective signs of cardiac insufficiency were noted. In 28 of 29 patients the therapeutic plasma level (0.8-2.0 ng/ml) was achieved with a mean plasma digitalis concentration of 1.47 +/- 0.4 ng/ml. A clinical improvement was observed in 18 patients. On the 15th and 30th day of treatment the mean plasma level of methyldigoxin showed no significant difference: X15 = 1.51 +/- 0.57 ng/ml and X30 = 1.40 +/- 0.46 ng/ml. The measured plasma values were not influenced by the patient's weight or age. In 6 patients with renal insufficiency a clear correlation between the plasma level of methyldigoxin and the creatinine level was observed. The evaluation of ECG signs showed only minimal alterations of conduction and repolarisation. On the basis of these results conclusions are drawn with regard to the clinical value and use of this therapy.

  17. Clinical observation of amiodarone in the treatment of atrial fibril ation%胺碘酮在心房颤动治疗中的疗效观察



    Objective Comparative Study on efficacy of amiodarone and digitalis drug treatment of atrial fibril ation to control ventricular rate.Methods October 2009 to October 2011, 110 cases of hospitalization of patients with atrial fibril ation in hospital medicine as a research object,The patients were randomly divided into 2 groups,Amiodarone group 54 cases,Digitalis group of 56 cases, Intravenous administration.Results Amiodarone group the total effective rate was 85.2%(46/54),Digitalis group, the total effective rate was 57.1%(32/56),Two groups of patients with total efficiency,Statistical y significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion Intravenous bolus of amiodarone in the treatment of atrial fibril ation effective than digitalis drugs,Superior to digitalis drugs in the control of ventricular rate.%目的对比研究胺碘酮与洋地黄类药物治疗房颤控制心室率的疗效。方法以2009年10月至2011年10月在本院内科住院110例房颤患者为研究对象,患者随机分成2组,胺碘酮组54例,洋地黄组56例,分别静脉给药胺碘酮和毛花苷C。结果胺碘酮组的总有效率为85.2%(46/54),洋地黄组的总有效率为57.1%(32/56),两组患者的总有效率比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论静脉推注胺碘酮治疗房颤的疗效优于洋地黄类药物,在控制心室率方面也优于洋地黄类药物。

  18. I big data e gli strumenti di visualizzazione analitica: interazioni e studi induttivi per le P.A.

    Giuseppe Roccasalva


    Full Text Available Il saggio presenta alcuni risultati di una collaborazione tra Politecnico di Torino e il CSI Piemonte (Società di servizi Informatizzati partecipata dalla Regione Piemonte. Sono stati selezionati e studiati diversi strumenti di visualizzazione dei dati scientifici (Gapminder, ManyEyes, Open eXplorer e Fineo al fine di individuare quello più utile per una lettura induttiva di grandi quantità di dati informativi (big data. Lo sfruttamento intelligente dei dati digitali può portare a uno sviluppo conoscitivo ma anche a un profitto, le cui soglie di sfruttamento possono essere misurate in un sistema economico. Nell’irreversibile fenomeno di crescita dei dati digitali, la disciplina del “Data Visualization” diventa cruciale per accedere e comprendere informazioni complesse. Few, guru della comunicazione visiva, scrive che “scopriamo il mondo attraverso gli occhi”; le forme di comunicazione e interpretazione tradizionali dei dati hanno puntato sulla dimensione visuale per migliorare la comprensione e hanno permesso sia agli analisti sia agli utenti la sperimentazione di nuove interazioni (“story-telling”. Come urbanisti e cittadini, ci affidiamo alla vista che gestisce molti dei sensori (70% legati alla percezione, alle mappe cognitive, agli errori e ai nuovi pensieri. L’ipotesi di fondo di questo articolo vuole generare delle riflessioni sui Big Data come strategia importante per le imprese pubbliche e private che intendono imparare a cambiare dalle informazioni digitali di cui oggi disponiamo. Attraverso l’uso di uno strumento analitico di visualizzazione dei dati informativi, si descrive un recente caso di studio in un contesto territoriale come quello dei nuovi consorzi amministrativi (Unione dei Comuni NordEst Torino. In questo esperimento torna a essere attuale la necessità di pianificare le scelte in modo sistematico anche cercando di utilizzare in modo nuovo e semplice i sistemi informativi territoriali già disponibili.

  19. Il progetto Linked Heritage

    Marzia Piccininno


    Full Text Available ItLinked Heritage è uno dei progetti di punta finanziati dalla Commissione europea per alimentare Europeana, il portale dei contenuti culturali digitali europei. Linked Heritage raccoglie, sotto il coordinamento dell’ICCU, un consorzio molto vasto i cui partner provengono da quasi tutti i paesi dell’Unione più Russia e Israele; essi forniranno a Europeana ben 3 milioni di risorse digitali. Oltre al tema dell’aggregazione di contenuti culturali digitali, Linked Heritage sta esplorando altri temi fondamentali per Europeana come il multilinguismo, i linked data e il rapporto con possibili partner commerciali. Linked Heritage è l’ultimo in ordine di tempo di una serie di iniziative progettuali avviate da un consorzio europeo di istituzioni che opera insieme da oltre dieci anni nell’ambito del patrimonio culturale digitale.EnLinked Heritage is one of the flagship projects funded by the European commission to feed Europeana, the portal of the European digital cultural content. Linked Heritage has a very large partnership, coordinated by ICCU, whose members come from many European countries, Russia and Israel; they will supply Europeana with 3 million digital resources. Beyond the aggregation of digital cultural content, Linked Heritage is exploring other topics which are essential for Europeana, like multilingualism, linked data and the relationship with the commercial partners. Linked Heritage is the last one in time of a series of projects made up by a European consortium of institutions that has been working for over ten years in the field of digital cultural heritage.

  20. Inhibitory effects of digoxin and digitoxin on corticosterone production in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effects and action mechanisms of digitalis on the production of corticosterone in rat adrenocortical cells.Male rats were challenged with digoxin (1 μg ml−1 kg−1) in the presence or absence of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH, 5 μg ml−1 kg−1) administered by intravenous injection to the right jugular vein. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min following the challenge. The concentration of corticosterone in the rat plasma sam...

  1. Gioco, tecnologia e apprendimento: un esempio di approccio ludico per lo studio dell’arte contemporanea nella scuola primaria

    Michela Nisdeo


    Full Text Available L’educazione all’arte contemporanea costituisce una dimensione spesso trascurata nelle scuole italiane. Il legame tra tecnologie digitali, dimensione ludica e arte può costituire un’interessante prospettiva da indagare. In questa direzione il contributo presenta un’esperienza relativa all’opera di Gino Marotta, un artista italiano, realizzata in una scuola primaria. L’aspetto che viene sottolineato è la relazione tra laboratori, attività online e giochi da un lato e risorse museali dall’altro.

  2. Digitalization of the mother in treating hydrops fetalis in monochorionic twin with Ebstein's anomaly. Case report.

    Koike, T; Minakami, H; Shiraishi, H; Ogawa, S; Matsubara, S; Honma, Y; Sato, I


    Hydrops fetalis thought to be due to Ebstein's anomaly was seen at 22 weeks' gestation in one of two fetuses with a monochorionic placenta. Hydrops was treated with maternal digitalization and resolved by the 28th week of gestation. Hydrops did not recur while maternal digitalization continued. A clinical diagnosis of twin-to-twin transfusion syndrome required termination of the pregnancy at 33 weeks of gestation. The twin with Ebstein's anomaly died 22 hours after birth. The other twin survived and was normal at 19 months of age. Thus, administration of digitalis to the mother controlled hydrops fetalis in one fetus, and ultimately led to the survival of the healthy infant.

  3. Europeana communication bug: which intervention strategy for a better cooperation with Creative Industry?

    Giovanni Ragone


    Full Text Available In aggiunta all'obiettivo principale di diffondere la conoscenza sui beni culturali, Europeana e diversi MAB (Musei, Archivi e Biblioteche sono impegnati nello sviluppo di nuove strategie volte a rendere i contenuti digitali riusabili dalle imprese creative. Ciò nonostante, tali iniziative hanno successo solo in casi sporadici, dal momento che un approccio comunicativo scorretto può minare gli sforzi fatti in questo senso. L'articolo descrive un caso di studio che propone interconnessioni efficaci tra Europeana, MAB e imprese creative nel contesto della promozione e del miglioramento del patrimonio digitale sul cibo e le bevande.

  4. [Management of persistent ductus arteriosus in the newborn with respiratory insufficiency].

    Hurtado del Rio, D; Holden Barker, A M; Pezzotti, M A; Gutiérrez Bosque, R; Archundia, A; Pérez Mejia, J; Carrillo, H


    Sixteen newborn babies with severe respiratory distress and patent ductus arteriosus with congestive heart failure are presented. Fifteen of them were premature and one at full term. Management consisted of the accepted medical and ventilatory aids such as digitalis, diuretics, ventilators, etc. Thirteen cases were given indomethacin with clinical closure in five of them (38%). Ten cases underwent surgical closure with 30% mortality. It is recommended that these patients be given indomethacin inicially; if there is no response in 36 hours surgical closure of the duct should be performed prior to progressive deterioration and eventual death.

  5. L'invasione del virtuale

    Renzo Carlucci


    Full Text Available L'ormai indiscutibile il fatto di essere talmente circondati dal virtuale sintetico che quasi si fa fatica a riconoscere la realtà, col suo corollario di fatti “veri” legati alla nostra vita, dalle ricostruzioni digitali che permeano la nostra quotidianità (ogni riferimento al mondo di “Matrix” è puramente casuale; con l’avvento dei moderni sensori è poi veramente impressionante vedere quanto ormai il nostro ambiente sia “contaminato” dal virtuale.

  6. Academic publishing in Portugal: threats and major opportunities

    Delfim Leão


    Full Text Available This article begins with an analysis of the current state of scientific publication in Portugal, with reference to the impact of the open access (OA policies of commercial and academic publishers. It then explores the relationship between academic publishing and institutional repositories, discussing the way they should complement one another, taking as reference the activities of the Portuguese Association of Higher Education Publishers (APEES. Final remarks deal more specifically with the UC Digitalis project from Coimbra University Press (CUP, and the way it is committed to the goal of fostering science produced in Portuguese-speaking countries.

  7. Europeana communication bug: which intervention strategy for a better cooperation with Creative Industry?

    Giovanni Ragone


    Full Text Available In aggiunta all'obiettivo principale di diffondere la conoscenza sui beni culturali, Europeana e diversi MAB (Musei, Archivi e Biblioteche sono impegnati nello sviluppo di nuove strategie volte a rendere i contenuti digitali riusabili dalle imprese creative. Ciò nonostante, tali iniziative hanno successo solo in casi sporadici, dal momento che un approccio comunicativo scorretto può minare gli sforzi fatti in questo senso. L'articolo descrive un caso di studio che propone interconnessioni efficaci tra Europeana, MAB e imprese creative nel contesto della promozione e del miglioramento del patrimonio digitale sul cibo e le bevande.

  8. In-Hospital and Long-Term Prognosis after Myocardial Infarction in Patients with Prior Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery; 19-Year Experience

    Predrag M. Mitrovic


    Full Text Available To present a 19-year experience of the prognosis of patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI and prior coronary artery bypass surgery (CABS, 748 patients with AMI after prior CABS (postbypass group and a control group of 1080 patients with AMI, but without prior CABS, were analyzed. All indexes of infarct size were lower in the postbypass group. There was more ventricular fibrillation in the postbypass group. In-hospital mortality was similar (p = 0.3675. In the follow-up period, postbypass patients had more heart failure, recurrent CABS, reinfarction, and unstable angina than did control patients. Cumulative survival was better in the control group than in the postbypass group (p = 0.0403. Multiple logistic regression model showed that previous angina (p = 0.0005, diabetes (p = 0.0058, and age (p = 0.0102 were independent predictor factors for survival. Use of digitalis and diuretics, together with previous angina, also influenced survival (p = 0.0092, as well as male gender, older patients, and diabetes together (p = 0.0420. Patients with AMI after prior CABS had smaller infarct, but more reinfarction, reoperation, heart failure, and angina. Previous angina, diabetes, and age, independently, as well as use of digitalis and diuretics together with angina, and male gender, older patients, and diabetes together, influenced a worse survival rate in these patients.

  9. Safely Using TCM Herbs:Adverse Reaction and Precautions (Continued)

    CHEN Kai(陈楷); Angela Berscheid


    @@ Chan su (Venenum Bufonis,蟾酥) Its main active and toxic constituent is bufotoxin, which has a function similar to digitalis glycosides. Adverse reactions and toxicity: Chan su, although it is used in patentpreparations, is traditionally known for its toxicity and is seldom used in decoctions. Toxicity is often due to over dosage of the patents, such as Liushenwan (六神丸) and Houzhengwan (喉症丸,). After administration one and a half to two hours, symptoms similar to digitalis toxicity appear, such as nausea, which is often the first indicator of toxicity, anorexia, vomiting, visual disturbances relating to colour vision, headache, weakness, psychosis, arrythmias, slowing of heart rate, AV block, and asystole.Severe cardiac damage is the major cause of death. It has al so been known to promote contraction of the uterus; therefore it should not be used in pregnant women(40,41). One paper has reported 27 cases intoxicated by Liushenwan, inclu ding one fatal(13).

  10. Lack of correlation between the antiarrhythmic effect of L-propionylcarnitine on reoxygenation-induced arrhythmias and its electrophysiological properties.

    Barbieri, M; Carbonin, P U; Cerbai, E; Gambassi, G; Lo Giudice, P; Masini, I; Mugelli, A; Pahor, M


    1. The antiarrhythmic effect of L-propionylcarnitine (L-PC) was evaluated in the guinea-pig isolated heart; arrhythmias were induced with hypoxia followed by reoxygenation and by digitalis intoxication. 2. L-PC 1 microM, was found to be the minimal but effective antiarrhythmic concentration against reoxygenation-induced ventricular fibrillation. No antiarrhythmic effect was observed against digitalis-induced arrhythmias. D-Propionylcarnitine, L-carnitine and propionic acid did not exert antiarrhythmic effects. 3. During hypoxia and reoxygenation L-PC consistently prevented the rise of the diastolic left ventricular pressure, and significantly reduced the release of the cardiac enzymes creatine kinase (CK) and lactic dehydrogenase (LDH). 4. The electrophysiological effects of L-PC were then studied on either normal sheep cardiac Purkinje fibres or those manifesting oscillatory after potentials induced by barium or strophanthidin. 5. L-PC (1 and 10 microM) did not significantly modify action potential characteristics and contractility of normal Purkinje fibres, or the amplitude of OAP induced by strophanthidin or barium. 6. It is concluded that the antiarrhythmic action of L-PC on reoxygenation-induced arrhythmias is not correlated with its direct electrophysiological effects studied on normoxic preparations.

  11. Cardiac Glycoside Plants Self-Poisoning

    Radenkova-Saeva J.


    Full Text Available Cardiac glycosides are found in a diverse group of plants including Digitalis purpurea and Digitalis lanata (foxgloves, Nerium oleander, Convallaria majalis (lily of the valley, Strophanthus gratus, etc. Nerium Oleander is an indoor and ornamental plant of an evergreen shrub. It’s widespread in countries with a Mediterranean climate. Oleander is one of the most poisonous plants known to humans. All parts of the nerium oleander are poisonous, primarily due to the contained cardiac glycosides - oleandrin, nerin, digitoxigenin, and olinerin of which oleandrin is the principal toxin. The bark contains the toxic substances of rosagenin which causes strychnine-like effects. Signs of poisoning appear a few hours after the adoption of the parts of the plant. Two cases of Nerium Oleander poisoning were presented. Clinical picture included gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and central nervous system effects. The clinical symptoms were characterized by nausea, vomiting, salivation, colic, diarrhoea, ventricular tachycardia, dysrhythmia, heart block, ataxia, drowsiness, muscular tremor. Treatment included administration of activated charcoal, symptomatic and supportive care.

  12. Prophylactic digitalization preoperatively of patients with arteriosclerotic heart disease.

    Bille-Brahe, N E; Engell, H C; Sørensen, M B


    This study was undertaken to investigate the hemodynamic effect of prophylactic digitalization before major surgical procedures. Sixteen patients, all admitted for an elective vascular operation for arteriosclerotic disease and all with impaired left ventricular function, were investigated. In half of the patients, digitalis was given before the operation, the other half of the patients served as the control study. The measured parameters were pulmonary artery mean pressure, pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, central venous pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, blood volume and arterial, as well as venous, oxygen content. Preoperatively, before digitalization, no significant differences were noted between the two groups at rest and during exercise. Before anesthesia and postoperatively, those given digitalis had improved cardiac function. Those in both groups, however, had a normal hemodynamic response to the surgical trauma. In this study, a definite answer is not provided concerning the usefulness of prophylactic digitalization but an increase in the ability of the digitalized heart to withstand the imposition of a pressure load postoperatively is suggested.

  13. Evaluation of Insecticidal and Anti-oxidant activity of Selected Medicinal Plants

    Noor Jahan


    Full Text Available Methanolic extracts of some selected medicinal plants, Arnica montana, Apis mellifica, Uva ursi, Urtica urens, Digitalis purpurae, Cicuta virosa, Sambucus nigra and Thuja occidentalis were evaluated for their insecticidal (on the stored grain pest, Tribolium castaneum and antioxidant activity. Permetherin was used as a reference standard for insecticidal activity and percentage mortality was found 100% at 100mg/2ml. All crude extracts exhibited concentration and time dependent insecticidal activity. Among all extracts Digitalis purpurae exhibited the highest percentage mortality (60%. Anti-oxidant activity of theses extracts were determined by DPPH radical scavenging activity and phosphomolybdate methods while using ascorbic acid as a reference standard. Significant anti-oxidant activities were revealed by U. ursi at 100 mg/ml concentration (96% DPPH scavenging activity and 91.85% total anti-oxidant activity and D. purpurae 1 mg/ml (94.25% DPPH scavenging activity and 92.28% total anti-oxidant activity; followed by, T. occidentalis, A. mellifica, U. urens C. virosa, S. nigra and A. montana in the descending series.

  14. Multiple hemodynamic effects of endogenous hydrogen sulfide on central nervous system in rats

    REN Yong-sheng; WU Sheng-ying; WANG Xing-jun; YU Fang; ZHAO Jing; TANG Chao-shu; OUYANG Jing-ping; GENG Bin


    Background Endogenous hydrogen sulfide is a new neuromodulator which takes part in the regulation of central nervous system physiology and diseases.Whether endogenous hydrogen sulfide in the central nervous system regulates cardiovascular activity is not known.In the present study,we observed the hemodynamic changes of hydrogen sulfide or its precursor by intracerebroventricular injection,and investigate the possible roles of endogenous digitalis like factors and sympathetic activity in the regulation.Methods Ninety-four Sprague-Dawley rats underwent a right cerebroventricular puncture,then the hydrogen sulfide saturation buffer or its precursor injected by intrcerebroventricular catheter.A heperin-filled catheter was inserted into the right femoral artery or into the left ventricle,and changes of blood pressure or cardiac function recorded by a Powerlab/4S instrument.Phentolamine or metoprolol were pre-injected to observe the possible role in autonomic nerve activity.After rats were sacrificed,plasma was collected and endogenous digitalis-like factors were measured with a commercial radioimmunoassay kit.The aortic,cardiac sarcolemmal vesicles were isolated and the activity of Na+-K+-ATPase was measured as ouabain-sensitive ATP hydrolysis under maximal velocity conditions by measuring the release of inorganic phosphate from ATP.Unpaired Student's ttest for two groups or analysis of variances (ANOVA) for multiple groups were used to compare the differences of the changes.Results Intracerebroventricular injection of hydrogen sulfide induced a transient hypotension,then dramatic hypertenive effects in a dose-dependent manner.Bolus injection of L-cysteine or beta-mercaptopyruvate also increased mean arterial pressure (P <0.01),whereas hydroxylamine-a cystathionine beta synthase inhibitor decreased the arterial pressure (P <0.01).Hydrogen sulfide and L-cysteine increased mean arterial pressure,left ventricular develop pressure and left-ventricle maximal rate of

  15. [Herbs and cardiotoxic effects].

    Maffè, Stefano; Paffoni, Paola; Laura Colombo, Maria; Davanzo, Franca; Dellavesa, Pierfranco; Cucchi, Lorenzo; Zenone, Franco; Paino, Anna Maria; Franchetti Pardo, Nicolò; Bergamasco, Luca; Signorotti, Fabiana; Parravicini, Umberto


    Accidental or deliberate ingestion of poisonous herbs has become an increasingly common phenomenon over the last years. From existing literature data and case reports from emergency room visits or poison control centers, an overview is presented of the potential cardiotoxic manifestations following intoxication by wild herbal plants of the territory. The effects of the consumption of cardiac glycoside-containing plants (e.g., digitalis) are discussed along with tachyarrhythmias induced by Aconitum napellus L., Atropa belladonna L., Mandragora officinarum L. or Ephedra distachya L. herbs, and hypertensive crises associated with licorice abuse. For each plant, a brief historical and botanical background is provided, focusing on pathophysiology of intoxication and cardiotoxic effects on the basis of the most recent literature. Finally, medical management of intoxication, from both a general and cardiological viewpoint, is reviewed.

  16. Biochemical regulators in cardiac hypertrophy.

    Kölbel, F; Schreiber, V


    In recent years research has shown that muscle is capable of reacting to mechanical stimuli by altering biochemical processes. Myocardium is probably the source of a biochemical factor, or factors which activate myocardial protein synthesis. In experimentally induced cardiac hypertrophy adaptive alterations have been shown to occur not only in the adrenal medulla but also in the adrenal cortex. Finally, detection of cross reactivity between digitalis glycosides and a number of steroid hormones has succeeded. We assume that such cross reactivity indicates the existence of an endogenic factor of steroid character, which is produced in the adrenal gland and functions as an endogenic cardiotonic agent. During experimental cardiac hypertrophy its synthesis is possibly increased. We propose the term "endocardin" or "endocardiotonin" for this agent.

  17. Molecular pharmacology of cell receptors for cardiac glycosides, opiates, ACTH and ion channel modulators

    Hnatowich, M.R.


    The influence of light and oxygen on molecular interactions between the artificial food dye, erythrosine (ERY), and (/sup 3/H)ouabain ((/sup 3/H)OUA) binding sites on (Na/sup +/ + K/sup +/)-ATPase in rat brain and guinea pig heart was investigated. Putative endogenous digitalis-like factors (DLF's) were studied in four in vitro assays for cardiac glycosides. (/sup 3/H)Etorphine binding was characterized in rat brain homogenates, depleted of opioids, from animals acutely and chronically treated with morphine and naloxone, and either unstressed or cold-restraint-stressed. Binding sites for the ion channel modulators (/sup 3/H)verapamil ((/sup 3/H)VER) and (/sup 3/H) phencyclidine ((/sup 3/H)PCP) were characterized in rat brain.

  18. Nuclear medicine in vitro

    Rothfeld, B. (ed.)


    The subject is discussed under the following main headings: crystal scintillation counting; liquid scintillation counting; activation analysis; the in vitro nuclear medicine laboratory; blood volume in clinical practice B/sub 12/ and folate deficiency; radionuclide studies associated with abnormalities of iron; basic principles of competitive radioassay; plasma cortisol; radioimmunoassays for T/sub 3/ and T/sub 4/; radioimmunoassay of estrogens; determination of androgens in biological fluids; radioimmunoassay of digitalis glycosides; growth hormone; thyrotropin; gonadotropins; radioimmunoassay of gastrin; glucagon; radioisotopic measurements of insulin; radioimmunoassay of the calcium-regulating hormones; the renin-angiotensin system and aldosterone; tumor antigens; fat absorption; protein-losing enteropathy; Australia antigen; bacteriologic cultures and sensitivities; and future pathways. (ERB)

  19. Archeologia Urbana. Rappresentare l’incertezza: gli scavi archeologici di Piazza Bovio a Napoli

    Mara Capone


    Full Text Available L’evoluzione dei sistemi di comunicazione ha favorito la sperimentazione di nuove modalità di fruizione dei beni culturali attraverso l’uso di media digitali. Nel caso dei reperti archeologici, il gap comunicativo connesso alla mancata integrità del segno, rende indispensabile la realizzazione di un progetto di comunicazione che sia in grado di fornire tutte le informazioni integrative affinché il reperto possa comunicare il significato culturale di cui è portatore. L’utilizzo di modelli 3D consente di realizzare gli interventi di ricostruzione su una copia digitale, aprendo nuove prospettive nell’ambito della ricerca archeologica e ponendo nuove problematiche relative all’individuazione di un codice adeguato a rappresentare l’incertezza. Gli scavi archeologici di Piazza Bovio a Napoli sono stati il preteso per raccontare la storia del luogo sperimentando l’uso integrato dei modelli all’interno della sequenza filmica.

  20. Nuvole di pixel. La fotomodellazione con software liberi per il rilievo d’architettura.

    Marco Filippucci


    Full Text Available La fotomodellazione è una innovativa tecnologia digitale che permette di creare, a partire da semplici immagini raster, una nuvola di punti tridimensionali. La sua carica di rinnovamento si esplicita in particolare nella economicità degli strumenti che, a fronte degli spesso inaccessibili laser scanner, si appoggia invece sulle comuni macchine fotografiche digitali. Inoltre enti di ricerca internazionali hanno sviluppato programmi open source che permettono la creazione del modello numerico e la successiva rielaborazione della nuvola di punti. Basandosi su esperienze di ricerca personali e sulla successiva attività didattica, l’obiettivo dello studio è analizzare la logica di questi processi per verificarne l’applicabilità nel campo di ricerca architettonico, effettuando un percorso utile a comprendere le procedure informatiche e a determinare criteri per la valutazione della loro affidabilità.

  1. [Acute respiratory distress syndrome after near-drowning (author's transl)].

    Tempel, G; Jelen, S; Forster, B; Gullotta, U; Daum, S


    After successful rescue from drowning there may develop a situation which is called secondary drowning, resulting in acute respiratory distress characterized by interstitial pulmonary oedema, hypoxaemia, hypercapnia and acidosis during drowning, direct alteration of the alveolar membrane by aspirated water and particulate matters and a volume overloading by adsorption and--not seldom--inept therapy. This situation requires mechanical ventilation and forced diuresis, combined with high doses of steroids, antibiotics and digitalis. We present the case of an eleven year old patient whose clinical course demonstrate the necessity of exact clinical observation after rescue from drowning. After development of acute respiratory distress only the immediate utilization of the therapeutic modalities of an intensive care may result in a satisfactory outcome. Four months later our patient had normal pulmonary function except for a moderate reduction of compliance.

  2. Daniel Link, Suturas. Imágenes, escritura, vida

    Lucia Faienza


    Full Text Available Ultimo di una trilogia saggistica preceduto da Clases (2005 e Fantasmas (2009, Suturas (2015 chiude il cerchio di quella che il suo autore, Daniel Link, chiama «interrogación sobre lo viviente». Già il titolo mostra l’ambiguità da cui prende avvio la riflessione di Link e che attraversa la pluralità degli oggetti su cui si posa lo sguardo dell’autore: la ”sutura” è tanto la cucitura che unisce la vecchia cultura letteraria con le nuove culture digitali e post-letterarie, quanto la cicatrice che marca la “ferita” di questo cambio di paradigma dentro al corpo della contemporaneità.

  3. [Pharmacotherapy of patients with chronic heart failure. Analysis of multicenter international studies].

    Chekman, I S


    Leterature data and own investigations are summarized in the article. New experimental facts about mechanism of action of cardiac glycosides (especially digoxin) were obtained last year. It was shown that in human organism there are endogenous cardiosteroids (digitalis-like substances, endogenous oubain and other). They are in different organs (adrenal glands, hypothalamus, pituitary gland) and have influence on different organs and systems. Indications, contraindications, side effects, interactions with other drugs have been studied by cardiologists. Results of international multicentere studies demonstrate high efficacy of digoxin in treatment of chronic heart failure caused by compromised contractile activity of myocardium, atrium fibrillation and is used for controlling number of heart contractions and supraventricular paroxysmal tachycardia. More than 200 years history of scientific researches and clinical use of cardiac glycosides show that this group of medicine may be applied in a combine pharmacotherapy of chronic heart failure together with antihypertensive drugs.

  4. Suicidal digoxin poisoning: conventional treatment and antibody therapy.

    Hess, T; Dubach, H U; Scholtysik, G; Riesen, W


    A 66-year-old mand suffering from severe coronary heart disease took digoxin with suicidal intent an was treated for the ensuing complete atrioventricular block with digoxin-specific antibody fragments. Two and a half hours after intravenous infusion of the antibody fragments, the signs of intoxication passed off, and atrial fibrillation with a normal ventricular rate was reinstated. Antibody therapy is capable of permanently abolishing the signs of symptoms of digitalis poisoning after a matter of hours. Such a rapid or complete response cannot be achieved by any conventional form of treatment. This advantage must be weighed against the risks (immunologic reactions, loss of the therapeutic effect of the cardiac glycoside if an overdose of antibody is given). Moreover, antibody therapy does not take effect immediately, as is understandable in view of the mechanism of action. It should therefore be instituted in good time in potentially life-threatening cases of intoxication.

  5. Some new species of Caryospora (Apicomplexa: Eimeriidae from brazilian snakes, and a re-description of C. jararacae Carini, 1939

    Ralph Lainson


    Full Text Available The mature ooxysts of six new species of Caryospora are described from the faeces of Brazilian snakes. They are differentiated from other species previously recorded from reptiles, largely on the size and shape of the oocyst and sporocyst, structure of the oocyst wall, and presence or absence of a polar body. C. paraensis n. sp., and C. carajasensis n. sp., are from the "false coral", Oxyrhopus petola digitalis; C. pseustesi n. sp., from the "egg-eater", Pseustes sulphureus sulphureus; C. epicratesi n. sp., from the "red boa", Epicrates cenchria cenchria; and C. micruri n. sp., and C. constancieae n. sp., from the "coral snake", Micrurus spixii spixii. A re-description is given of C. jararacae Carini, 1939, from the "jararaca" Bothrops atrox, embodying some additional morphological features.

  6. [Nosology and mechanism of monomorphous atrial tachycardia].

    Puech, P


    Monomorphous atrial tachycardias have been classified taking into account the ectopic rhythm rate, atrial wave morphology, the mode of activation of the atrial studied by endocavitary cartography, stimulation tests and their natural history. Atrial flutter is a right intra-atrial macroreentry of anticlockwise (common flutter) or clockwise (atypical flutter) rotation, maintained by anisotropic conduction around two pivotal zones located at the posterior and inferior part of the atrium. Tachycardia is made possible by the existence of an excitable zone on the circuit. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardias are far more often linked to localised reentry (sino-atrial or intra-atrial microreentry) than to provoked activity, stimulation tests enabling the distinction to be made. "Digitalis tachycardias" must be seen in the context of activity induced by late post-potential. Focal atrial tachycardias linked to ectopic automatism are a separate entity. They follow a chronic course in the young individual and may lead to a cardiomyopathy purely due to the rhythm abnormality.

  7. Nonestrogenic drugs and breast cancer.

    Danielson, D A; Jick, H; Hunter, J R; Stergachis, A; Madsen, S


    The relation between breast cancer and selected nonestrogenic drugs was evaluated in the Group Health Cooperative of Puget Sound, Seattle, Washington, a prepaid health care organization with computerized information on diagnoses and outpatient drug use. No important positive associations with breast cancer were found in a follow-up study of 302 women aged 35-74 years. These women were newly diagnosed with breast cancer in 1977-1980 and were studied in relation to exposure in the six months prior to diagnosis to one or more of the following drugs: diazepam, digitalis glycosides, medroxyprogesterone acetate, methyldopa, metronidazole, phenothiazines, tricyclic antidepressants, thiazides, thyroid/levothyroxine sodium, or spironolactone. A modest association between recent reserpine use and breast cancer was present (risk ratio = 1.7, 90% confidence interval 0.9-3.3).

  8. Bigeminy: A result of digoxin and St John’s wort interaction

    Anđelić Slađana


    Full Text Available A case of an by digoxin under unusual circumstances is reported. An 80-year-old man, previously on long-term digoxin treatment, started consuming St John’s wort herbal tea (2 000 ml/daily because of frequent episodes of depression. After the cessation of consuming herbal tea containing Hypericum perforatum, digoxin poisoning developed in our patient. Electrocardiography revealed nodal bradicardia 36/min and bigeminy. Manifested symptoms were the consequence of interaction between digoxin and Hypericum perforatum which were consumed simultaneously, and the cessation of consuming St John’s wort herbal tea afterwards. Therapy was the same as in the standard digitalis poisoning. Consumers of St John’s wort combined with medical products are advised not to discontinue tea consumption on their own, without consulting their physician.

  9. La valorizzazione digitale del Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini di Bologna

    Dante Abate


    Full Text Available Il Museo Geologico Giovanni Capellini di Bologna (MGGC[1] rappresenta una delle più importanti realtà museali del panorama scientifico mondiale di settore. Esso ha per scopo primario la conservazione e la valorizzazione di ricche collezioni, molte delle quali di importanza storica e scientifica, in considerazione delle modalità di costituzione e del contenuto di numerosi reperti paleontologici antichi.Una delle tante peculiarità che rendono il MGGC un unicum nello scenario museale è il suo design interno, rimasto immutato dal periodo in cui Giovanni Capellini lo fondò nel 1881, configurandosi oggi come un museo dell’ottocento all’interno di un museo moderno.Al fine di arricchire l’esperienza dei visitatori prima, durante e dopo la permanenza al museo, sono state studiate e sviluppate alcune applicazioni digitali che sfruttano le potenzialità offerte dalle moderne tecnologie di visualizzazione ed interazione.

  10. Bonaini, Top’ivio e il “gato Archivaldo”: possono gli archivi essere (anche divertenti? / “Bonaini”, “Top’ivio” and the “gato Archivaldo”: can archives be (also funny?

    Federico Valacchi


    Full Text Available L'articolo affronta il tema della promozione degli archivi in quanto problema di comunicazione alla luce soprattutto delle risorse digitali disponibili. In particolare vengono valutate le ricadute dell'uso del web come strumento di comunicazione archivistica a finalità promozionali, facendo riferimento ad alcuni esempi italiani ed internazionali che rendono disponibili risorse didattiche e di supporto alla ricerca archivistica. The article deals with the promotion activities of archives as an issue of communication, in relation also to the use of digital resources. It examines the impact of the Web as a tool for "archival marketing", using and comparing few examples of Italian and international archival websites with their focus on teaching archives.

  11. How to change the learning styles

    Rete EENET


    Full Text Available La grande trasformazione che ha portato al passaggio dalla societa' industriale a quella dell'informazione o della conoscenza ha coinvolto tutti gli aspetti della vita. In quanto parte integrante della nostra societa', il sistema educativo ha di fronte a se' nuove sfide imposte da questa trasformazione sociale che oltrepassano svariati confini, quali per esempio: * confini spaziali, quando si hanno a disposizione reti globali e internazionali,per esempio la European Schoolnet o sistemi per l'istruzione a distanza; * confini pedagogici, quando le tecnologiemultimediali di rete creano nuove formedi insegnamento e apprendimento; * confini strategici, quando l'acquisizione di nuove competenze e "alfabetizzazioni" (sui media e digitali diventa parte delle strategie e degli obiettivi educativi;

  12. Atrial infarction is a unique and often unrecognized clinical entity

    Rosana G. G. Mendes


    Full Text Available A patient with heart failure and acute atrial fibrillation received the final diagnosis of atrial infarction associated with ventricular infarction based on clinical findings of ischemia in association with atrial fibrillation and heart failure (mechanisms probably involved: contractile dysfunction and loss of atrial contribution. Although a transesophageal echocardiography, which could refine the diagnosis of anatomic abnormalities, was not performed, all evidence led to the diagnosis of atrial involvement. Electrocardiographic findings were consistent with Liu's major criterion 3. Therapy with digitalis, quinidine and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors was chosen, as the patient had acute pulmonary edema. The use of beta-blockers and verapamil was restricted. No other complications, such as thrombo-embolism or atrial rupture, were noted.

  13. The Process of Building the Gene Smith Tibetology Literature Center at the Southwest University for Nationalities

    YIXI Lamu; LIU Yong; BENG Jia


    The Tibetan Buddhist Resource Center ( TBRC) founded by Gene Smith , is a non-profit organization which concentrates on collec-ting, sorting, and digitizing Tibetan literature . Most of the documents comes from Gene Smith ’ s personal collection , and the content covers reli-gion, philosophy, medicine, arts, psychology, as-trology, poetics, and history, etc.The digitali-zation of Tibetan literature and putting them on line is the key project of the institute .The purpose of the Ethnic Literature Center in the Southwest Uni-versity for Nationalities ( SWUN) is to rescue and preserve the ancient manuscripts of the ethnic groups , and there is a Tibetan Literature Section in the center .

  14. EPUB Editor. Autoproduzione di e-book come esperienza didattica.

    Francesco Leonetti


    Full Text Available La sostanziale differenza tra book ed e-book è data dal fatto che nel libro cartaceo (book, il contenuto e il “dispositivo di lettura” sono integrati, mentre l’e-book distingue il contenuto (file dal dispositivo utilizzato per fruirlo. Oltre a ciò, la tecnologia digitale consente di esplorare forme espressive del tutto inedite rispetto alla carta, che non sono date solo dalla multimedialità e interattività, ma anche da aspetti funzionali dei dispositivi digitali e dello “status” digitale del contenuto per molti versi non ancora del tutto attuati ed implementati. Il formato EPUB, meglio di altri, consente di applicare queste peculiarità ad un e-book e di svilupparlo in modo semplice ed immediato tramite uno degli strumenti autore disponibili sul mercato, quale, ad esempio, EPUB Editor, un tool online particolarmente utilizzato in contesto scolastico e didattico, di cui vengono dati esempi di lavori realizzati.

  15. The long-term preservation of the digital heritage: the case of universities institutional repositories

    Luciana Duranti


    Full Text Available L'articolo affronta le tematiche legate ai problemi della conservazione a lungo termine del contenuto degli archivi digitali. Il materiale d'archivio richiede un'attenzione speciale ad aspetti quali la credibilità, il valore giuridico, i diritti morali e legali e la privacy. La necessità di assicurare accessibilità e integrità ai dati informatici è tuttavia una problematica che attraversa tutti i campi dell'informatizzazione ed è strettamente legata a fattori come la frequente duplicazione e la corretta scelta dei metadadi. Attraverso l'analisi del caso di studio rappresentato da cIRcle, l'istitutional digital repository della University of British Columbia (UBC, il contributo mostra problemi, rischi e soluzioni utili nella gestione di un archivio digitale, mostrando che l'esperienza degli archivisti può essere utile per sviluppare sistemi legati a depositi di informazione non prettamente archivistici.

  16. Of little yellow men and a fear of the light.

    Naha, Kushal; Vivek, G; Shetty, Ranjan K; Shastry, Barkur Ananthakrishna


    We report the case of a 65-year-old woman presenting with recurrent vomiting for 3 days. She had been previously diagnosed with an atrial septal defect and was on treatment with diuretics and digoxin for paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia. The clinical examination was consistent with an atrial septal defect with severe pulmonary hypertension. Electrocardiography showed complete heart block with ST-segment changes suggestive of digitalis toxicity. Transthoracic echocardiography confirmed Eisenmengerisation. Serum digoxin levels were elevated. Following hospitalisation, she was diagnosed with photophobia when she persistently asked for ambient lighting to be switched off. Most interestingly, the patient kept reporting seeing little yellow men, which was how she perceived the attending doctors. Cessation of digoxin therapy led to progressive abatement of her symptoms.

  17. [Cardiovascular effects produced by prophylactic digitalization during introduction of anaesthesia (author's transl)].

    Köppen, R; Köhne, K; Busse, J; Hosselmann, I; Klaschik, E; Simons, F


    The narrow field of non-controversial indications concerning the application of digitalis glycosides is pointed out. Problems of routine digitalization of older patients not suffering from cardiac insuffiency are discussed with special regard to preparing them for operations. Up to now, from the viewpoint of anaesthesiologists no benefits of prophylactic digitalization have been found. In a retrospective computerized study, clinical hemodynamic parameters during introduction of anaesthesia have been investigated by means of anaesthetic data recorded during three years. Nondigitalized patients older than fifty years showed satisfactory cardiac functions, whereas prophylactically digitalized patients--compared with the control group--have been treated with plasma expanders earlier and at a double rate. Furthermore, higher heart frequencies and greater tendency to arrythmias were observed. Consequently, prophylactic digitalization cannot be recommended in general.

  18. Failure of long-term digitalization to prevent rapid ventricular response in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.

    Galun, E; Flugelman, M Y; Glickson, M; Eliakim, M


    Digitalis is frequently prescribed to patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation to reduce the ventricular rate during subsequent paroxysms. To verify the validity of this assumption, we determined the ventricular rate during paroxysmal atrial fibrillation in 13 patients receiving long-term digoxin therapy (mean plasma digoxin level + 1.28 +/- 0.4 ng/ml) and compared it with that of a group of 14 patients who had not taken digoxin or beta-adrenergic and calcium-blocking agents before the attack. The treated and the untreated groups were similar statistically. The mean ventricular rate of the digitalized patients was 121 +/- 15 beats per minute, while that of the patients in the control group was 118 +/- 16 beats per minute. It is concluded that long-term digoxin therapy is not effective in reducing the ventricular response in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation despite adequate therapeutic levels.

  19. Cardiac disturbances after pneumonectomy--the value of prophylactic digitalization.

    Järvinen, A; Mattila, T; Appelqvist, P; Meurala, H; Mattila, S


    The incidence of postoperative cardiac disturbances and the value of prophylactic digitalization were studied retrospectively in 143 patients undergoing pneumonectomy for carcinoma of the lung. Cardiac arrhythmias occurred in 29% and tachycardia episodes in 30% of the patients. The incidence of myocardial infarction was 2%. Operative mortality was 4%. The cardiac disturbances developed more often after left than after right pneumonectomy. The age of the patients, a history of angina pectoris or hypertension did not markedly increase the incidence of cardiac disturbances, neither did operative factors, such as pericardiotomy, left atrial resection, major bleeding nor postoperative empyema. Prophylactic digitalization significantly reduced postoperative cardiac disorders, their frequency being 33% in the group of patients who received prophylactic digitalis compared with 65% in the group that did not.

  20. Acute postoperative digitalization of patients with arteriosclerotic heart disease after major surgery. A randomized haemodynamic study and proposal for therapy.

    Bille-Brahe, N E; Engell, H C; Sørensen, M B


    Twenty patients with impaired left ventricular function during exercise, who underwent major vascular surgery for arteriosclerotic disease, were randomly digitalized in the immediate postoperative period. All patients had a smooth postoperative course. Haemodynamic measurements showed improved left ventricular function in those who received digitalis, since 60 min after full digitalization the digitalized patients had a highly significant decrease in pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP) with unchanged stroke volume index (SVI) and left ventricular stroke work index (LVSWI). The same improvement in cardiac function was present the next morning. The present study provides haemodynamic data in support of clinical studies showing a beneficial effect of prophylactic digitalization in surgical patients with clinical signs of arteriosclerotic heart disease, though not in overt failure.

  1. [Recommendations for the treatment of heart failure : What's new?].

    Hasenfuß, G; Edelmann, F; Wachter, R


    Treatment escalation of chronic systolic heart failure depends on left ventricular function and symptoms of the patients. In symptomatic patients with severely reduced left ventricular function (ejection fraction ≤ 30 %), the following therapeutic approaches are recommended: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors (angiotensin receptor blocker in case of ACE inhibitor intolerance); (2) β-blockers; (3) mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists; (4) diuretics in case of signs and symptoms of congestion; (5) digitalis, in particular in patients with atrial fibrillation; (6) ivabradine in patients with sinus rhythm and a heart rate ≥ 75/min; (7) an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD); (8) in case of left bundle branch block or wide QRS complex, cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT; in most cases in combination with an implantable cardioverter defibrillator); (9) intravenous administration of iron in case of iron deficiency; (10) exercise training should be strongly recommended in patients with stable heart failure.

  2. The long-term preservation of the digital heritage: the case of universities institutional repositories

    Luciana Duranti


    Full Text Available L'articolo affronta le tematiche legate ai problemi della conservazione a lungo termine del contenuto degli archivi digitali. Il materiale d'archivio richiede un'attenzione speciale ad aspetti quali la credibilità, il valore giuridico, i diritti morali e legali e la privacy. La necessità di assicurare accessibilità e integrità ai dati informatici è tuttavia una problematica che attraversa tutti i campi dell'informatizzazione ed è strettamente legata a fattori come la frequente duplicazione e la corretta scelta dei metadadi. Attraverso l'analisi del caso di studio rappresentato da cIRcle, l'istitutional digital repository della University of British Columbia (UBC, il contributo mostra problemi, rischi e soluzioni utili nella gestione di un archivio digitale, mostrando che l'esperienza degli archivisti può essere utile per sviluppare sistemi legati a depositi di informazione non prettamente archivistici.

  3. [Bigeminy--the result of interaction between digoxin and St. John's wort].

    Andelić, Sladana


    A case of an by digoxin under unusual circumstances is reported. An 80-year-old man, previously on long-term digoxin treatment, started consuming St John's wort herbal tea (2,000 ml/daily) because of frequent episodes of depression. After the cessation of consuming herbal tea containing Hypericum perforatum, digoxin poisoning developed in our patient. Electrocardiography revealed nodal bradicardia 36/min and bigeminy. Manifested symptoms were the consequence of interaction between digoxin and Hypericum perforatum which were consumed simultaneously, and the cessation of consuming St John's wort herbal tea afterwards. Therapy was the same as in the standard digitalis poisoning. Consumers of St John's wort combined with medical products are advised not to discontinue tea consumption on their own, without consulting their physician.

  4. Imparare a leggere a tre anni

    Vittorio Midoro


    Full Text Available Imparare a leggere precocemente può contribuire enormemente allo sviluppo cognitivo e affettivo dei bambini. A partire da questo assunto, in questo contributo sono descritti, da un lato, una metodologia e una serie di strumenti per l’apprendimento precoce della lettura e, dall’altro, una sperimentazione condotta con bambini con o senza problemi di linguaggio. La metodologia appartiene alla famiglia dei metodi sintetici, in cui si imparano prima gli elementi più semplici sprovvisti di significato e poi il significato, ed è basata giochi che il genitore fa con il bambino, con l’uso di materiali di vario genere, digitali e non. La sperimentazione, condotta nell’arco di un anno e mezzo, ha messo in luce la praticabilità del metodo, ottenendo risultati che vanno al di là dell’apprendimento della lettura per investire aspetti rilevanti dello sviluppo dei bambini.

  5. Architettura e/è Geometria: dalla forma architettonica alla costruzione geometrica

    Mariateresa Galizia


    Full Text Available L’avvento delle tecnologie digitali di acquisizione dati 3D ha proiettato gli studiosi dell’architettura in una dimensione del tutto inaspettata. Milioni di punti hanno travolto ricercatori e professionisti ancora culturalmente impreparati ad affrontare la rivoluzione digitale nel campo del Rilievo. Le nuvole di punti acquisite documentano e allo stesso tempo rappresentano la spazialità degli oggetti reali, tuttavia, nulla rivelano su forma e geometria, architettura e materia se non attraverso una successiva interpretazione. Il contributo vuole soffermarsi sulle implicazioni teoriche e applicative del processo di interpretazione dei dati acquisiti per la comprensione della geometria e sulla funzione euristica della modellazione digitale, nel passaggio dal “noto all’ignoto”, nella “ri-scoperta” della forma e quindi dell’idea progettuale.

  6. Extraction of Cs-137 by alcohol-water solvents from plants containing cardiac glycosides

    Dzyubak, S N; Dzyubak, O P; Sorokin, P V; Popov, V F; Orlov, A A; Krasnov, V P; Gubin, Yu.I.


    As a result of nuclear power plant accidents, large areas receive radioactive inputs of Cs-137. This cesium accumulates in herbs growing in such territories. The problem is whether the herbs contaminated by radiocesium may be used as a raw material for medicine. The answer depends on the amount of Cs-137 transfered from the contaminated raw material to the medicine. We have presented new results of the transfer of Cs-137 from contaminated Digitalis grandiflora Mill. and Convallaria majalis L. to medicine. We found that the extraction of Cs-137 depends strongly on the hydrophilicity of the solvent. For example 96.5%(vol.) ethyl alcohol extracts less Cs-137 (11.6%) than 40%(vol.) ethyl alcohol or pure water (66.2%). The solubility of the cardiac glycosides is inverse to the solubility of cesium, which may be of use in the technological processes for manufacturing ecologically pure herbal medicine.

  7. Further biochemical characterization of an Na+ pump inhibitor purified from human urine.

    Crabos, M; Grichois, M L; Guicheney, P; Wainer, I W; Cloix, J F


    An increase in endogenous Na+,K+-ATPase inhibitor(s) with digitalis-like properties has been reported in chronic renal insufficiency, in Na+-dependent experimental hypertension and in some essential hypertensive patients. The present study specifies some properties and some biochemical characteristics of a semipurified compound from human urine having digitalis-like properties. The urine-derived inhibitor (endalin) inhibits Na+,K+-ATPase activity and [3H]-ouabain binding, and cross-reacts with anti-digoxin antibodies. The inhibitory effect on ATPases of endalin is higher on Na+,K+-ATPase than on Mg2+-ATPase and Ca2+-ATPase. The mechanism of endalin action on highly purified Na+,K+-ATPase was compared to that of ouabain and was similar in that it reversibly inhibited Na+,K+-ATPase activity; it inhibited Na+,K+-ATPase non-competitively with ATP; its inhibitory effect was facilitated by Na+; K+ decreased its inhibitory effect on Na+,K+-ATPase; it competitively inhibited ouabain binding to the enzyme; its binding was maximal in the presence of Mg2+ and Pi; it decreased the Na+ pump activity in human erythrocytes; it reduced serotonin uptake by human platelets; and it was diuretic and natriuretic in rat bioassay. The endalin differed from ouabain in only three aspects: its inhibitory effect was not really specific for Na+,K+-ATPase; its binding to the enzyme was undetectable in the presence of Mg2+ and ATP; it was not kaliuretic in rat bioassay. Endalin is a reversible and partial specific inhibitor of Na+,K+-ATPase, its Na+,K+-ATPase inhibition closely resembles that of ouabain and it could be considered as one of the natriuretic hormones.

  8. Representation of architectural artifacts: definition of an approach combining the complexity of the 3d digital instance with the intelligibility of the theoretical model.

    David Lo Buglio


    Full Text Available EnWith the arrival of digital technologies in the field of architectural documentation, many tools and methods for data acquisition have been considerably developed. However, these developments are primarily used for recording colorimetric and dimensional properties of the objects processed. The actors, of the disciplines concerned by 3D digitization of architectural heritage, are facing with a large number of data, leaving the survey far from its cognitive dimension. In this context, it seems necessary to provide innovative solutions in order to increase the informational value of the representations produced by strengthen relations between "multiplicity" of data and "intelligibility" of the theoretical model. With the purpose of answering to the lack of methodology we perceived, this article therefore offers an approach to the creation of representation systems that articulate the digital instance with the geometric/semantic model.ItGrazie all’introduzione delle tecnologie digitali nel campo della documentazione architettonica, molti strumenti e metodi di acquisizione hanno avuto un notevole sviluppo. Tuttavia, questi sviluppi si sono principalmente concentrati sulla registrazione e sulla restituzione delle proprietà geometriche e colorimetriche degli oggetti di studio. Le discipline interessate alla digitalizzazione 3D del patrimonio architettonico hanno pertanto la possibilità di produrre delle grandi quantità di dati attraverso un’evoluzione delle pratiche di documentazione che potrebbero progressivamente far scomparire la dimensione cognitiva del rilievo. In questo contesto, appare necessario fornire soluzioni innovative per aumentare il valore informativo delle rappresentazioni digitali tramite l’identificazione delle relazioni potenziali che è possibile costruire fra le nozioni di "molteplicità" ed "intelligibilità". Per rispondere a questo deficit metodologico, questo articolo presenta le basi di un approccio per la

  9. Potential role of growth hormone in impairment of insulin signaling in skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, and liver of rats chronically treated with arginine.

    de Castro Barbosa, Thais; de Carvalho, José Edgar Nicoletti; Poyares, Leonice Lourenço; Bordin, Silvana; Machado, Ubiratan Fabres; Nunes, Maria Tereza


    We have shown that rats chronically treated with Arginine (Arg), although normoglycemic, exhibit hyperinsulinemia and decreased blood glucose disappearance rate after an insulin challenge. Attempting to investigate the processes underlying these alterations, male Wistar rats were treated with Arg (35 mg/d), in drinking water, for 4 wk. Rats were then acutely stimulated with insulin, and the soleus and extensorum digitalis longus muscles, white adipose tissue (WAT), and liver were excised for total and/or phosphorylated insulin receptor (IR), IR substrate 1/2, Akt, Janus kinase 2, signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 1/3/5, and p85alpha/55alpha determination. Muscles and WAT were also used for plasma membrane (PM) and microsome evaluation of glucose transporter (GLUT) 4 content. Pituitary GH mRNA, GH, and liver IGF-I mRNA expression were estimated. It was shown that Arg treatment: 1) did not affect phosphotyrosine-IR, whereas it decreased phosphotyrosine-IR substrate 1/2 and phosphoserine-Akt content in all tissues studied, indicating that insulin signaling is impaired at post-receptor level; 2) decreased PM GLUT4 content in both muscles and WAT; 3) increased the pituitary GH mRNA, GH, and liver IGF-I mRNA expression, the levels of phosphotyrosine-STAT5 in both muscles, phosphotyrosine-Janus kinase 2 in extensorum digitalis longus, phosphotyrosine-STAT3 in liver, and WAT as well as total p85alpha in soleus, indicating that GH signaling is enhanced in these tissues; and 4) increased p55alpha total content in muscles, WAT, and liver. The present findings provide the molecular mechanisms by which insulin resistance and, by extension, reduced GLUT4 content in PM of muscles and WAT take place after chronic administration of Arg, and further suggest a putative role for GH in its genesis, considering its diabetogenic effect.

  10. Do cardiologists at a university hospital adopt the guidelines for the treatment of heart failure?

    Antonio Carlos Pereira Barretto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify whether the guidelines for the treatment of heart failure have been adopted at a university hospital. The guidelines recommend the following: use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors for all patients with systolic ventricular dysfunction, use of digitalis and diuretics for symptomatic patients, use of beta-blockers for patients in functional classes II or III, use of spironolactone for patients in functional classes III or IV. METHODS: We analyzed the prescriptions of 199 patients. All these patients had ejection fraction (EF <=0.50, their ages ranged from 25 to 86 years, and 142 were males. Cardiomyopathy was the most frequent diagnosis: 67 (33.6% patients had dilated cardiomyopathy, 65 (32.6% had ischemic cardiomyopathy. RESULTS: Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors were prescribed for 93% of the patients. 71.8% also had a prescription for digitalis, 86.9% for diuretics, 27.6% for spironolactone, 12% for beta-blockers, 37.2% for acetylsalicylic acid, 6.5% for calcium channel antagonists, and 12.5% for anticoagulants. In regard to vasodilators, 71% of the patients were using captopril (85.2mg/day, 20% enalapril (21.4mg/day, 3% hydralazine and nitrates. In 71.8% of the cases, the dosages prescribed were in accordance with those recommended in the large studies. CONCLUSION: Most patients were prescribed the same doses as those recommended in the large studies. Brazilian patients tolerate well the doses recommended in the studies, and that not using these doses may be a consequence of the physician's fear of prescribing them and not of the patient's intolerance.

  11. Effects of chronic digitalization on cardiac and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate activity and circulating catecholamines in the dog.

    Nechay, B R; Jackson, R E; Ziegler, M G; Neldon, S L; Thompson, J D


    To extend our understanding of the mechanism of action of digitalis drugs, we studied electrocardiograms (ECGs), renal function, plasma concentrations of catecholamines, and myocardial and renal Na+ + K+-dependent adenosine triphosphate (Na+ + K+ ATPase) activity in chronically digitalized dogs. Five healthy, male, mongrel dogs received a therapeutic regimen of digoxin (0.1 mg/kg on day 1 in three divided doses followed by 0.025 mg/kg per day) orally for 2-4 months. This resulted in plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.1 to 4.7 ng/ml as determined by radioimmunoassay. Six control dogs received daily gelatin capsules by mouth. ECGs monitored throughout the study showed no changes. Digitalized dogs had elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations (347 vs. 137 pg/ml in controls) and no change in plasma epinephrine concentrations. Digitalized dogs had elevated glomerular filtration rates (0.74 vs. 0.94 ml/min per g of kidney) without significant changes in renal handling of electrolytes and water. All of the above studies were done without the aid of restraining drugs or infusions. The animals were killed with an overdose of pentobarbital for in vitro studies. In digitalized dogs, microsomal Na+ + K+ ATPase-specific activity was 26 to 33% lower in the renal cortex, medulla, and papilla, and 46% lower in the cardiac left ventricle than in control dogs. Digitalization did not alter the osmolalities of renal tissues. We conclude that chronic reduction Na+ + K+ ATPase activity by one-third dose does not cause abnormalities in renal handling of electrolytes and water, and inhibition of Na+ + K+ ATPase in the left ventricular muscle by one-half is associated with no obvious ECG changes in the dog. Further, elevated plasma norepinephrine concentrations may contribute to both the therapeutic and the toxic effects of digitalis.

  12. Digital storytelling and teacher education: an experience in initial teacher training

    Marco Lazzari


    Full Text Available A group of pre-service teachers experienced the digital storytelling as part of their e-learning duties. We describe the structure of the project-work carried out by the students and discuss the results of a questionnaire they filled out after the end of the course, aiming to gather their opinions. The students claim to have enjoyed the proposal and most of them are likely to repeat it in their school, either by developing digital stories themselves or by involving their future students as designers and developers. By questionnaire and interviews with the participants, it is clear that the development experience has changed their attitude towards educational technology, enhanced their digital skills, and increased their self-esteem.Digital storytelling nella formazione iniziale degli insegnanti: un’esperienza nel Tirocinio Formativo AttivoUn gruppo di aspiranti insegnanti iscritti al Tirocinio Formativo Attivo ha affrontato un’esperienza di digital storytelling come parte dei compiti di didattica a distanza. Viene qui descritta la struttura del lavoro svolto dai corsisti e si riflette sui risultati di un questionario sottoposto al termine del corso per rilevarne le opinioni. I corsisti dichiarano di aver gradito la proposta e buona parte di loro ritiene probabile ripeterla a scuola, anche coinvolgendo gli studenti nel progetto e nella realizzazione di narrazioni digitali multimediali. Da questionario e colloqui con i corsisti si deduce che l’esperienza di sviluppo ha mutato il loro atteggiamento verso le tecnologie didattiche, aumentato la loro efficacia come comunicatori digitali e accresciuto la loro autostima.


    Giuliana Fiorentino


    Full Text Available L’articolo descrive un tipo di apprendimento mediato da tecnologie portatili, definito mobile learning, nel quadro più ampio del rapporto tra tecnologie digitali e didattica e presenta un progetto in corso presso l’università del Molise (progetto SIMOLA in cui tale apprendimento informale applicato al lessico affianca un corso istituzionale di didattica dell’italiano come L2. L’obiettivo dell’articolo è avviare la riflessione sul mobile learning individuandone le specificità e il modo in cui esso può integrarsi con l’apprendimento tradizionale, e discutere in maniera critica gli aspetti metodologici del progetto in corso. L’articolo offre una rassegna di studi sul mobile learning e conclude osservando come le tecnologie digitali siano utilizzabili sia in modo puramente sussidiario all’attività didattica in senso stretto (un uso 'sociale' dei media digitali, sia in modo mirato, così che le tecnologie siano strumenti centrali di specifici obiettivi didattici. Il Progetto SIMOLA mira alla costruzione del lessico della L2 mediante un software dedicato progettato per consentire la creazione e la condivisione di contenuti da parte degli apprendenti secondo un approccio bottom-up. Il punto di forza del progetto consiste nel fatto che si tratta di apprendimento informale che avviene in situazione, nella vita di tutti i giorni, in modo collaborativo e che consiste nell’imparare facendo. La fase ulteriore della sperimentazione però dovrà mostrare se e come i partecipanti al progetto rispetto alla classe di controllo avranno raggiunto un livello di sviluppo lessicale migliore degli altri.     Vocabulary growth and m(obile-learning: theoretical and applicational perspectives   This article describes a type of learning mediated by portable technology, in the broader context of the relationship between digital technologies and didactics and it presents an on-going project at the University of Molise (Progeto SIMOLA in which

  14. Interactive Visualization of Crowds for the Rescue of Cultural Heritage in Emergency Situations

    Marcello Carrozzino


    Full Text Available EnVulnerability of cultural properties can be significantly reduced through specific disaster plans, focused on safeguarding cultural assets in emergency situations. The effectiveness of these plans may be enhanced by the use of innovative technologies for visualization and verification purposes. In this paper we propose an alternative application of the dynamic simulation of large crowds for emergency planning in open spaces. We argue that applications related to the real-time simulation and visualization of crowds might be used also for cultural heritage risk preparedness. The application we propose aims to highlight the need of designing different paths for different goals. In an emergency plan related to cultural assets, crowd dynamics simulation could be used to plan different routes with specific functions: paths for evacuating visitors, and paths for evacuating object. Based on the identification of the first ones, which represent the main priority, the second ones can be designed, as alternative and complementary routes allowing cultural heritage operators to immediately take part in emergency operations and to work over objects salvage actions, without obstructing people salvage or escaping activities.An evaluation of the application of such techniques is reported, with the experimental validation of the behavioral model and the related simulation planned as future work. A possible application of this technique for training operators is also outlined.ItLa vulnerabilità dei beni culturali può essere significativamente ridotta attraverso piani di emergenza specifici, concentrati sulla salvaguardia dei beni in situazioni di emergenza. L’efficacia di questi piani può essere migliorata attraverso l’uso di tecnologie innovative per scopi di visualizzazione e verifica. In questo articolo viene proposta un’applicazione alternativa della simulazione dinamica di folle digitali per la pianificazione delle emergenze in spazi aperti; la

  15. 1,6-二磷酸果糖治疗重度心力衰竭%1,6-disphosphofructose in Treatment of Severe Heart Failure

    卢延生; 卢春生; 李中言


    目的探讨 1,6-二磷酸果糖(FDP)治疗重度心力衰竭(CHF)的临床疗效。方法 62 例重度 CHF 患者,随机分为治疗组(32 例)和对照组(30 例),对照组常规应用洋地黄、利尿剂、转换酶抑制剂等进行治疗;治疗组在此基础上加用 FDP 治疗。结果治疗组总有效率 87.5 %(28 例),对照组总有效率 70.0 %(21 例),组间比较有显著性差异(P<0.05);心脏超声检查治疗组与对照组比较各项心功能检查指标亦有显著性差异(P<0.05)。结论 FDP 与洋地黄、利尿剂、转换酶抑制剂联合治疗重度 CHF 疗效显著。%Objective To research the clinical effect of 1,6-disphosphofrutose on severe heart failure.Methods Sixty two cases with severe heart failure were randomly divided into the treatment group(32 cases) and the control group(30 cases).In the control group digitalis,diurtic and transfering enzyme inhibiters were used for routine treatment while in the treatment group 1,6-disphosphofructose was also used besides those above.Results The total effect rates were respectively 87.5%(28 cases) in the treatment group and 70.0%(21 cases)in the control group, and there were great differences between 2 groups(P<0.05); according to ultrasonic examination,there were also great differences in every heart index between 2 groups(P<0.05).Conclusion 1,6-disphosphofructose combined with digitalis,diuretic and transfering inhibiters has a good effect on severe heart failure.

  16. Phase II trial of second-line erlotinib and digoxin for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Fadi Kayali


    Full Text Available Fadi Kayali, Muhamad A Janjua, Damian A Laber, Donald Miller, Goetz H KloeckerUniversity of Louisville, James Graham Brown Cancer Center, Louisville, KY, USABackground: In vitro digoxin sensitizes cancer cells to the induction of apoptosis by chemotherapy. Inhibition of the Na/K-ATPase enzyme by ouabain disturbs the intracellular ion composition of cancer cells, altering cellular homeostasis. This suggests that inhibition of the Na/K pump results in cellular sensitization of malignant but not benign cells to the induction of apoptosis. Epidemiologic studies have also shown beneficial effects of digitalis in breast cancer incidence. At ASCO (American Society of Clinical Oncology 2007 our group presented a Phase II study showing encouraging results by adding digoxin to biochemotherapy for melanoma. Erlotinib is one of the standard second-line treatments for nonsmall cell lung cancer (NSCLC, with a response rate (RR of 10%. This study's hypothesis was that adding digoxin to erlotinib will improve the RR and time to progression (TTP in NSCLC.Methods: Patients with progressive disease (PD after chemotherapy were enrolled if they had an ECOG (Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group score from 0 to 2 and good organ function. Daily erlotinib 150 mg and digoxin 0.25 mg were taken by mouth. The digoxin dose was adjusted to keep levels between 1 and 2 ng/mL. Computed tomography scans were done every 6 weeks. Treatment continued until PD or significant toxicity occurred.Results: Patient accrual lasted from March 2006 until August 2008 and was stopped early at the time of interim analysis. Twenty-eight patients were enrolled, and 24 who completed at least 6 weeks of therapy are presented here. All patients had unresectable NSCLC stage III/IV at diagnosis. Median age was 61 (34–78, 14 were female, 17 had prior radiation (not involving the target lesions, 23 had one prior chemotherapy, and one subject had two. Only one patient was a never-smoker. Histologies were

  17. Efectos de la vitamina E sobre la toxicidad digitálica en un modelo experimental

    Abdel J Fuenmayor A


    Full Text Available Introducción y objetivos: Los digitálicos tienen un margen terapéutico estrecho y con su uso se observan con frecuencia los cuadros de toxicidad que pueden manifestarse por arritmias mediadas por actividad disparada. La actividad disparada se produce por oscilaciones iónicas a través de las membranas y la vitamina E, como agente estabilizador de membranas, podría contrarrestar este tipo de arritmias, efecto que, hasta el presente, no ha sido investigado. Métodos: Para investigar el efecto de la vitamina E sobre la toxicidad digitálica estudiamos 40 ratas Wistar, machos, adultos. Veinte ratas recibieron digoxina intraperitoneal (30 mg/Kg. y 20 recibieron placebo. A la mitad de cada grupo de 20 se le administró vitamina E endovenosa y a la otra mitad, placebo de vitamina E. Resultados: En los animales que recibieron digoxina se observó mayor mortalidad, bradicardia sinusal, bloqueo A-V, y arritmias supraventriculares y ventriculares. No encontramos diferencias significativas entre el grupo de animales que recibieron vitamina E y el de los que recibieron placebo de la vitamina E. Conclusión: En este modelo experimental de intoxicación digitálica la vitamina E intravenosa no ofrece protección ni efecto terapéutico.Background: Cardiac glycosides are widely used and frequently induce cardiac toxicity that often manifests as cardiac arrhythmias mediated by triggered activity. Triggered arrhythmias are produced by ionic oscillating currents across the cell membrane during the repolarization phase of the cardiac cycle. Vitamin E stabilizes cell membranes and could protect against arrhythmias induced by digitalis toxicity. Methods: In order to evaluate this hypothesis we studied 40 male, adult, Wistar rats. Twenty animals received digoxin (30 mg/Kg intraperitoneally and 20 received placebo. Ten animals of each group received Vitamin E and the other 10 received Vitamin E-placebo. Results: The group that received digoxin evidenced a

  18. Variability of hemodynamic responses to acute digitalization in chronic cardiac failure due to cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease.

    Cohn, K; Selzer, A; Kersh, E S; Karpman, L S; Goldschlager, N


    Eight patients with chronic congestive heart failure (four with cardiomyopathy and four with ischemic heart disease) underwent hemodynamic studies during acute administration of digoxin, given intravenously in two 0-5 mg doses 2 hours apart. Observations were made before administration of digitalis (control period) and serially therafter for 4 hours after the first dose. Resting mean cardiac index and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure were as follows: 2.0 liters/min per m2 and 23 mm Hg (control period); 2.1 and 24 (at 1 hour); 2.0 and 23 (at 2 hours); 2.7 and 19 (at 3 hours); and 2.3 and 20 (at 4 hours). Exercise responses of mean cardiac index and pulmonary arterial wedge pressure in five patients were: 3.1 liters/min per m2 and 36 mm Hg (control period); 3.2 and 33 (at 1 hour); 3.2 and 28 (at 2 hours); 3.1 and 27 (at.3 hours); and 3.4 and 31 (at 4 hours). The pulmonary arterial wedge pressure remained elevated during exercise in all cases. Arrhythmias were seen in five patients after administration of 0.5 mg of digoxin. Hemodynamic improvement at 4 hours involving both reduced filling pressure and increased blood flow was observed in only two patients at rest and in one additional patient during exercise. Acute deterioration of cardiac function (elevated pulmonary arterial wedge pressure of decreased cardiac index) occurred 30 minutes after administration of digoxin in four patients, concomitantly with increased systemic resistance. In six patients, a peak hemodynamic effect appeared 1 to 1 1/2 hours after administration of digoxin, with partial or total loss of initial benefit by 2 and 4 hours. In previously performed studies observations have seldom exceeded 1 hour; the results of this 4 hour study suggest that, in patients with cardiomyopathy or coronary artery disease and chronic congestive heart failure, acute digitalization does not necessarily lead to consistent, marked or lasting hemodynamic improvement. Thus, current concepts of the use of digitalis is

  19. The neuropsychiatric ailment of Vincent Van Gogh.

    Bhattacharyya, Kalyan B; Rai, Saurabh


    Vincent Van Gogh is one of the most celebrated creative artists of all time. All his life, he was afflicted by some kind of neurological or psychiatric disorder, which remains a mystery even today. Many historians and his personal physicians believe that he suffered from epilepsy while others felt that he was affected by Ménière's disease. Features such as hypergraphia, atypical sexuality, and viscosity of thinking suggest the possibility of Gastaut-Geschwind phenomenon, a known complication of complex partial seizure. On the contrary, some historians feel that he was forced to sever his right ear in order to get relief from troublesome tinnitus, a complication of Ménière's disease. He was addicted to the liquor absinthe, which is known to lead to xanthopsia, and many authorities argue that this was the reason for his penchant for the deep and bright yellow color in many of his paintings. Others have suggested the possibility of bipolar disorder, sunstroke, acute intermittent porphyria, and digitalis toxicity as well.

  20. The neuropsychiatric ailment of Vincent Van Gogh

    Kalyan B Bhattacharyya


    Full Text Available Vincent Van Gogh is one of the most celebrated creative artists of all time. All his life, he was afflicted by some kind of neurological or psychiatric disorder, which remains a mystery even today. Many historians and his personal physicians believe that he suffered from epilepsy while others felt that he was affected by Ménière′s disease. Features such as hypergraphia, atypical sexuality, and viscosity of thinking suggest the possibility of Gastaut-Geschwind phenomenon, a known complication of complex partial seizure. On the contrary, some historians feel that he was forced to sever his right ear in order to get relief from troublesome tinnitus, a complication of Ménière′s disease. He was addicted to the liquor absinthe, which is known to lead to xanthopsia, and many authorities argue that this was the reason for his penchant for the deep and bright yellow color in many of his paintings. Others have suggested the possibility of bipolar disorder, sunstroke, acute intermittent porphyria, and digitalis toxicity as well.

  1. [Digitoxin poisoning: reversing ventricular fibrillation with Fab fragments of anti-digoxin antibody].

    Domart, Y; Bismuth, C; Schermann, J M; Abuaf, N; Pontal, P G; Baud, F; Bolo, A; Gailliot, M; Fournier, P E


    Purified Fab fragments of ovine anti-digoxin antibodies (Wellcome Foundation) were used to treat a patient who attempted suicide by absorbing 10 mg of digitoxin (serum concentration 265 micrograms/l). The poor prognosis, as assessed clinically and from serum potassium levels (7.5 mEq/l), seemed to warrant such a treatment. The weak (6.85%) cross-reactivity elicited in vitro between the anti-digoxin antibodies and digitoxin was compensated by increasing the doses, but improvement was observed with 3.6 g, i.e. about half the effective dosage initially considered. The criteria of effectiveness were clinical, electrocardiographic (reversal of the ventricular fibrillation), biochemical (simultaneous and opposite changes in extra- and intracellular potassium levels, suggesting that ATPase inhibition by digitalis is a reversible process) and toxicological: there was an increase in digitoxin serum levels suggesting displacement of the drug from tissue sites to plasma and other extracellular compartments where the Fab fragments are distributed, and Fab-bound digitoxin appeared fairly rapidly in the urine, which suggested shunting of the normal hepatic metabolic pathway.

  2. WiFiabe: un’esperienza di storytelling dal territorio al web 2.0

    Marco Carnesecchi


    Full Text Available L’impatto iniziale di WiRoni sulla popolazione di Monteroni d’Arbia (Siena è stato limitato alla fruizione dei contenuti caricati dal team di design, in particolare le storie per i bambini. Mancavano infatti brani audio prodotti dalla comunità locale. In realtà, però, la competenza tecnica necessaria a trasmettere i contenuti nel parco e in rete è minima (upload da CMS wordpress e anche le tecnologie per registrare e arricchire l’audio con effetti sonori sono alla portata di tutti, se opportunamente guidati da esperti. Da queste osservazioni è nato il progetto WiFiabe. Nel corso dell’anno scolastico 2010/2011 20 bambini tra 6 e 13 anni, coordinati da un’educatrice durante l’attività di doposcuola del Comune, hanno lavorato in gruppi e creato storie di fantasia. In seguito, alcuni studenti dell’Università di Siena, con l’aiuto di un musicista per la parte degli effetti sonori, hanno assistito i ragazzi nel diventare autori digitali e apprendere in prima persona come trasformare le loro storie in contenuti audio. In questo modo i partecipanti hanno interagito con il web non in quanto fruitori ma come autori, e messo in moto un processo per rendere WiRoni uno strumento per dare voce alle varie anime della comunità.

  3. La media literacy in Spagna

    Josè Manuel Pérez Tornero


    Full Text Available In questo contributo si ripercorre la storia della media literacy in Spagna e si descrivono i molti cambiamenti avvenuti sinora: tutti i soggetti coinvolti (educatori, autorità regolatrici, industria, società civile sono ben consapevoli dell’importanza della media literacy e della media education, e le azioni intraprese mirano a un ulteriore potenziamento di questa importanza. Tuttavia, malgrado gli sforzi compiuti, occorre un maggiore coordinamento e una più accurata programmazione. Lo sviluppo della media literacy viene qui descritto a partire dagli anni Sessanta, quando alcune scuole cominciano a usare i media come strumenti didattici in classe, sino ai Novanta con il boom delle nuove tecnologie digitali e della convergenza mediale e con l’affermarsi dei concetti di digital literacy e, più tardi, di media literacy. Per quanto riguarda l’educazione permanente, in questo contributo si solleva la questione della formazione degli insegnanti e delle specializzazioni postlaurea. Si accenna anche al processo di introduzione della materia nel curricolo. Rispetto alla ricerca e a progetti particolari, si citano alcune esperienze realizzate sia da istituzioni nazionali che da associazioni della società civile. Infine, si auspicano sviluppi futuri per la media literacy in Spagna grazie alla promulgazione della Ley General de la Comunicación Audiovisual (LGCA 2010 e all’istituzione del Consejo Estatal de Medios Audiovisuales (CEMA.

  4. Development of a metadata schema describing Institutional Repository content objects enhanced by ''LODE-BD'' strategies

    Iryna Solodovnik


    Full Text Available Basato sulle "Linee guida per la creazione e la gestione di metadati nei repository istituzionali” (CRUI, Italia, 2012, sulle "Raccomandazioni LODe BD” (AIMS, 2012 e, sull'esplorazione di altri principi e strategie per lo sviluppo qualitativo dei metadati che rappresentano il contenuto e le proprietà dei contenuti digitali, questo articolo presenta il profilo specifico dei metadati per la descrizione dei dati relativi alle risorse depositate negli archivi istituzionali. Questo profilo è allocato all'interno di uno schema di metadati fornito da termini ben definiti, dalle specifiche di compilazione, dalle strategie di allineamento (mappatura per specifici termini di metadati e dal valore della proprietà che consente ai metadati base di diventare più efficienti nel contesto del controllo d'autorità, più ricchi nei loro profili semantici, più accessibili e utilizzabili in rete per mezzo dei Linked Data. Lo sviluppo e l'implementazione degli schemi di metadati completamente o parzialmente allineati con il paradigma dei Linked Data, fornirà lo scambio tra i differenti metadati, potenziando così la relazione semantica, l'interrogazione del loro contenuto e la loro partecipazione ai Linked Open Data.

  5. Growth and Photosynthetic Characteristics of Two Strawberry Cultivars in Response to Furostanol Glycosides Treatments

    Raluca Petronela CĂULEŢ


    Full Text Available Furostanol glycosides represent a large group of steroid compounds of plant origin with a broad spectrum of biological activities (anabolic, antioxidant, anti-fungal and nematicidal. Most of the research exhibits this effect in stress induced response on different pathogen attacks and only a few studies show the effect of glycoside on plants growth and development. In order to investigate the effects of furostanol glycoside treatment on rooting, growth performance and photosynthetic system efficiency, young unrooted strawberry plants (cv. ‘Real’ and ‘Magic’ were immersed in different concentrations (0.03 mM, 0.3 mM, 3 mM of G1 solution (glycoside extracted from Lycopersicon sp. and G2 (extracted from Digitalis sp. and morphometric parameters were determined. The results showed that immersion in 0.3 mM glycoside solution improved the quality of strawberry planting material by increasing the number and length of roots, as well as by stimulating formation of new leaves. Moreover, the influence of foliar spraying with G1 and G2 on plants growth, assimilator pigments content and photosynthesis was determined. Foliar spraying with both glycosides solutions improved radicular growth and development, but dimensions of foliar apparatus increased only in G1 treated variants. Although both glycoside treatments induced an increase in assimilator pigments content, photosynthetic rate decreased as a consequence of stomatal limitations associated with better efficiency of water use and of internal CO2, which suggests that these chemicals may have an antitranspirant action.

  6. Classification and evaluation of some endemic plants from Turkey using Grime’s CSR strategies

    Cengiz Yildirim


    Full Text Available Background: Functional traits play important roles in plant growth and survival. According to functional traits, there are several classification types for plants such as adaptive and demographic strategies. Material and Methods: In this study, eight endemic taxa were collected from the Amasya K�rklar Mountain in Turkey and were classified and evaluated by Grime’s CSR (Competitive, Stress tolerant, Ruderal strategy scheme. Results: These plants are in the LR(lc (Lower risk/least concern red list category and they are hemicryptophytes according to Raunkiaer’s life forms. The CSR strategies of Asyneuma limonifolium subsp. pestalozzae, Digitalis lamarckii, and Paracaryum ancyritanum were CR, Linaria corifolia and Scutellaria salviifolia were CR/CSR, Phlomis armeniaca was C/CR, and Sideritis dichotoma and Jurinea pontica were SC. Conclusions: CR, CR/CSR, and C/CR plants are resistant to competition and disturbance such as grazing, trampling, mowing, soil erosion, and fire, whereas, SC are resistant to competition and stress, for example drought.

  7. Pre-excitation pattern associated with accessory pathway related tachycardia: Case report

    Burazor Mirko


    Full Text Available Introduction. Pre-excitation is based on an accessory conduction pathway between the atrium and ventricle. The term Wolff- Parkinson-White (WPW syndrome is used for patients with the pre-excitation/WPW pattern associated with AP-related tachycardia. Case Outline. We present a 52-year-old man with severe palpitation, fatigue, lightheadedness and difficulty breathing. The initial ECG showed tachyarrhythmia with heart rate between 240 and 300/min. He was treated with antiarrhythmics (Digitalis, Verapamil, Lidocaine with no response. Then, the patient was treated with electrical cardioversion and was referred to our Clinic for further evaluation with the diagnosis: “Ventricular tachycardia”. During in-hospital stay, the previously undiagnosed WPW pattern had been seen. Additional diagnostic tests confirmed permanent pre-excitacion pattern (ECG Holter recording, exercises test. The patient was referred to an electrophysiologist for further evaluation. Mapping techniques provided an accurate assessment of the position of the accessory pathway which was left lateral. The elimination of the accessory pathway by radiofrequent catheter ablation is highly effective in termination and elimination of tacchyarrhythmias. Conclusion. Symptomatic, life-threatening arrhythmia, first considered as ventricular tachycardia, reflected atrial fibrillation with ventricular pre-excitation over an accessory pathway in a patient with previously undiagnosed WPW syndrome.

  8. Bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in Tapirus terrestris (Perissodactyla, Tapiridae

    Saulo Gonçalves Pereira


    Full Text Available In Brazil, there are two species of tapirs, the largest land mammals in Brazil, which belong to the order Perissodactyla, as do horses. Our aim was to describe the bone and muscular anatomy of the forearm and hand in T. terrestris and to propose adaptive functions. We used five anatomical specimens donated from a breeder to the Laboratory for Teaching and Research on Wild Animals of the Federal University of Uberlandia after death with no trauma. The bones were analyzed, the muscles dissected, and both described. The bones of the forearm and hand of the tapir are the ulna, radius, Os. metacarpalia, Os. carpi, phalanx and Os. sesamoideum. The muscles are M. extensor carpi radialis, M. ulnaris lateralis; M. flexor carpi radialis; M. extensor radialis communis; M. extensor digitorum longus II, III, IV and V, M. extensor digitorum lateralis; M. extensor digitorum; M. abductor longus; M. flexor digiti superficialis; M. flexor digitalis; M. flexor carpi ulnaris; M. flexor carpi obliquus; and M. interossei and M. lumbricales. Characteristics of bone and muscle structure are adapted to the development of the animal’s niche.

  9. Medicinal importance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of aloin: A concise report

    Kanika Patel


    Full Text Available Natural products such as pure phytoconstituents and plant extracts offer limitless opportunities for the new drug development due to its unmatched chemical diversity. Plants play an important role in the medicinal preparations for both preventive and curative purpose. Some of the currently available drugs i.e. aspirin, digitalis, anti-malarial (quinine and anti-cancer (vincristine, vinblastine were derived from the plant sources. Aloin (C21H22O9, a yellow colour compound is a mixture of two diastereoisomers, aloin A and aloin B. Aloin is an anthrone C-glucoside having molecular weight 418, and it is the main phytoconstituents of aloes. Aloin is used for various pharmacological purposes such as laxative agent. It is also used as ingredients of various laxative pharmaceutical preparations. So far, varieties of analytical methods have been developed for the estimation of aloin in aloes product, which are mainly based on HPLC and TLC techniques. In the present review, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects of aloin were highlighted along with some useful tissue culture techniques. This review could be helpful to the researcher for the investigation of new molecule from aloin in the future.

  10. The Na/K-ATPase-mediated signal transduction as a target for new drug development.

    Xie, Zijian; Xie, Joe


    The Na/K-ATPase, or Na+ pump, is a member of the P-type ATPase superfamily. In addition to pumping ions, the Na/K-ATPase is a receptor that not only regulates the function of protein kinases, but also acts as a scaffold, capable of tethering different proteins into a signalplex. The signaling Na/K-ATPase resides in caveolae and forms a "binary receptor" with the tyrosine kinase Src. Endogenous cardiotonic steroids and digitalis drugs such as ouabain act as agonists and provoke this binary receptor, resulting in tyrosine phosphorylation of the proteins that are either associated with, or in close proximity to, the signaling Na/K-ATPase. Subsequently, this initiates protein kinase cascades including ERKs and PKC isozymes. It also increases mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and regulates intracellular calcium concentration. Like other receptors, activation of the Na/K-ATPase/Src by ouabain induces the endocytosis of the plasma membrane Na/K-ATPase. Significantly, this newly appreciated signaling function of the Na/K-ATPase appears to play an important role in the pathogenesis of many cardiovascular diseases, therefore serving as an important target for development of novel therapeutic agents.

  11. Il laboratorio GIS dell’Università degli Studi Roma Tre

    Alessandro Cecili


    Full Text Available Istituito nell’agosto del 2001 sotto la responsabilità del Dott. Alessandro Cecili, che a tutt’oggi ne continua a promuovere le attività, il Laboratorio GIS, GPS e Cartografia Automatica del Dipartimento di Scienze Geologiche è attivo tanto nella didattica quanto nella ricerca scientifica, offrendo soluzioni nell’uno e nell’altro campo, orientate all’innovazione tecnologica applicata alle Scienze della Terra. In particolare, l’esperienza acquisita dal Laboratorio sull’uso dei GIS, unitamente alla strumentazione hardware e software della quale dispone, gli permette di realizzare GIS personalizzati, modellizzazioni e analisi quantitative con applicazioni orizzontali e verticali, specialmente dedicate all’elaborazione dei modelli digitali del terreno (DEM per studi applicati all’ambito territoriale, geologico, geomorfologico, idrogeologico e vulcanico. Il LabGIS si occupa, inoltre, di attività che riguardano l’utilizzo della rete come veicolo dell’informazione geografica nel senso più ampio del termine cioè dall’acquisizione del dato territoriale all’interrogazione con sistemi di analisi in remoto,facendo proprio il concetto di geography network comeestensione delle relazioni e delle competenze.

  12. A physiologic-based approach to the treatment of a patient with hypokalemia.

    Asmar, Abdo; Mohandas, Rajesh; Wingo, Charles S


    Hypokalemia is common and can be associated with serious adverse consequences, including paralysis, ileus, cardiac arrhythmias, and death. As a result, the body maintains serum potassium concentration within very narrow limits by tightly regulated feedback and feed-forward systems. Whereas the consequences of symptomatic hypokalemia and severe potassium depletion are well appreciated, chronic mild hypokalemia can accelerate the progression of chronic kidney disease, exacerbate systemic hypertension, and increase mortality. Persistent hypokalemia may reflect total-body potassium depletion or increased renal potassium clearance. In a patient with simple potassium depletion, potassium replacement therapy should correct serum potassium concentration, but may have little effect when renal potassium clearance is abnormally increased from potassium wasting. In such cases, the addition of potassium-sparing diuretics might be helpful. Serum potassium concentration is an inaccurate marker of total-body potassium deficit. Mild hypokalemia may be associated with significant total-body potassium deficits and conversely, total-body potassium stores can be normal in patients with hypokalemia due to redistribution. The speed and extent of potassium replacement should be dictated by the clinical picture and guided by frequent reassessment of serum potassium concentration(.) The goals of therapy should be to correct a potassium deficit, if present, without provoking hyperkalemia. Oral replacement is preferred except when there is no functioning bowel or in the setting of electrocardiogram changes, neurologic symptoms, cardiac ischemia, or digitalis therapy.

  13. Corpi di knowledge workers forzatamente a disposizione

    Annalisa Murgia


    Full Text Available Nel contesto di analisi delle condizioni di lavoro nell’era della conoscenza e delle tecnologie digitali, il nostro contributo vuole mettere l’attenzione sulle rappresentazioni dei/lle knowledge workers sulla progressiva ridefinizione dell’esperienza corporea, in direzione della perdita di rapporto con il corpo concreto, a favore di un corpo astrattamente inteso. Il discorso si colloca nella logica del “capitalismo tecno-nichilista”, inteso come “un sistema che, sfruttando la sistematica separazione tra le funzioni e i significati, si è progressivamente affermato quale modello di riferimento nel corso degli ultimi decenni”. La domanda di ricerca che ci poniamo in questo contributo è: in qual modo la precarizzazione del lavoro modifica le percezioni dei soggetti, e nello specifico dei lavoratori e delle lavoratrici della conoscenza, nella relazione con il proprio corpo? Nel discutere tale questione, intendiamo concentrarci non solo sugli effetti, ma anche sui processi e sulle relazioni sociali in cui i soggetti – e in varie forme anche le loro esperienze corporee – sono coinvolte.

  14. [Andrologic problems and internal pathology in the elderly].

    Mari, D


    Population aging is continuously increasing in Italy and in the World. Individuals aged 60 years or more are currently 10,500,000 and will be 13,000,000 in 2015. Life quality in geriatric ages includes the maintenance of sexual power: according to recent data (Carrol et al., 1992), 80% of impotence cases are due to organic causes. In addition, the use of drugs can cause impotence. Among them tiazidic diuretics may cause an increase of sexual disturbances. Other drugs with this potential are digitalis, antihypertensive drugs (particularly beta blockers), major and minor tranquillizers, antidepressant, H2 receptor antagonists, antiparkinsonian cholinergic drugs and estrogens employed in the treatment of prostate tumors. Diseases of geriatric age that can alter sexual power are diabetes mellitus, ischemic heart disease for the accompanying depression and for the use of antidepressants; severe hypertension is complicated by impotence in 15% of cases. Among neurological diseases Parkinson's disease and multiple sclerosis can be causes of sexual dysfunctions. Patients on hemodialysis can be impotent, with recent data (Soloh et al 1992) showing that erythropoietin treatment of anemia also improve sexual dysfunctions. Prevention from a geriatric standpoint should be base on action on known risk factor as smoking, alcohol abuse and dislipidemias and with the activation of a close drug vigilance.

  15. Herbs in dentistry.

    Taheri, Jamile B; Azimi, Somayyeh; Rafieian, Nasrin; Zanjani, Hosein Akhavan


    Herbs have been used for centuries to prevent and control disease. Herbal extracts are effective because they interact with specific chemical receptors within the body and are in a pharmacodynamic sense, drugs themselves. By using herbal medicines, patients have averted the many side effects that generally come with traditional medicines, but this does not mean that side effects do not occur. Only knowledgeable practitioners can prescribe the right herb and its proper dosage. Herbal medicines had been considered in every culture, however, pharmaceutical companies overturned this type of thinking. Now, pharmaceuticals are called traditional and herbs are libeled as the 'alternative'. The biggest challenge and problem is lack of information about the effect of herbs in oral tissues, mechanism of effect, and side effects. Several popular conventional drugs on the market are derived from herbs. These include aspirin (from white willow bark), digitalis (from foxglove), and sudafed (modelled after a component in the plant ephedra). Herbal products can vary in their potency. Therefore, care must be taken in selecting herbs, even so, herbal medicines have dramatically fewer side effects and are safer to use than conventional medications. The herbs described in this article are Bloodroot, Caraway, Chamomile, Echinacea, Myrrh, Peppermint, Rosemary, Sage, Thyme, Aloe Vera, Propolis, and a summary of other herbs that are useful in dentistry. Herbs may be good alternatives to current treatments for oral health problems but it is clear that we need more research.

  16. L’infernale compagna anoressia: un’analisi delle auto-biografie pro-ana e pro-recovery

    Agnese Vellar


    Full Text Available Nel Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders (DSM-IV, i Disturbi del Comportamento Alimentare (DCA sono definiti come disturbi mentali correlati alla percezione dell'immagine corporea. Questa è la "voce della medicina", attraverso cui i clinici classificano i disturbi mentali in base a raggruppamenti di sintomi. Tuttavia negli ultimi dieci anni, le storie di vita con i disturbi alimentari sono emerse nel panorama mediale dando visibilità alla "voce della vita quotidiana" dei soggetti sofferenti. Da un lato le storie di ex-anoressiche ed ex-bulimiche sono state usate come soggetti di romanzi e auto-biografie a stampa; dall'altro la diffusione di Internet ha consentito la nascita sia di ambienti online di auto-aiuto finalizzati alla cura (pro-recovery, sia di siti "pro-ana" (contrazione di "pro-anoressia". Questi ultimi sono spazi digitali quali forum o blog in cui emergono framework interpretativi della malattia contrari alla cura (anti-recovery. I racconti dell'esperienza di vita con i disturbi alimentari nella forma dei blog e delle auto-biografie sono strategie attraverso cui i soggetti malati attribuiscono un senso alla propria sofferenza; al contempo essi diventano fonti di dati per accedere alla voce della vita quotidiana delle anoressie-bulimie. In questo articolo affronto il tema delle storie di vita con i disturbi alimentari attraverso due passaggi, che sono parte di una stessa riflessione sul ruolo delle forme di rappresentazione narrativa nelle scienze sociali.

  17. Digoxin in Heart Failure with a Reduced Ejection Fraction: A Risk Factor or a Risk Marker.

    Konstantinou, Dimitrios M; Karvounis, Haralambos; Giannakoulas, George


    Digoxin is one of the oldest compounds used in cardiovascular medicine. Nevertheless, its mechanism of action and most importantly its clinical utility have been the subject of an endless dispute. Positive inotropic and neurohormonal modulation properties are attributed to digoxin, and it was the mainstay of heart failure therapeutics for decades. However, since the institution of β-blockers and aldosterone antagonists as part of modern heart failure medical therapy, digoxin prescription rates have been in free fall. The fact that digoxin is still listed as a valid therapeutic option in both American and European heart failure guidelines has not altered clinicians' attitude towards the drug. Since the publication of original Digitalis Investigation Group trial data, a series of reports based predominately on observational studies and post hoc analyses have raised concerns about the clinical efficacy and long-term safety of digoxin. In the present review, we will attempt a critical appraisal of the available clinical evidence regarding the efficacy and safety of digoxin in heart failure patients with a reduced ejection fraction. The methodological issues, strengths, and limitations of individual studies will be highlighted.

  18. Herbal versus synthetic drugs; beliefs and facts

    Karimi Ali


    Full Text Available Herbal therapy is a holistic therapy, integrating emotional, mental and spiritual levels. Life style, emotional, mental and spiritual considerations are part of any naturopathic approach. The use of herbs does not generally involve "drug" actions or adverse effects. Although medicinal plants are widely used and assumed to be safe, however, they can potentially be toxic. Where poisoning from medicinal plants has been reported, it usually has been due to misidentification of the plants in the form, in which they are sold, or incorrectly preparation and administration by inadequately trained personnel. There are some "drug like" plants remedies that their actions approach that of pharmaceuticals. Herbalists use these plants in treatment strategies and in countries such as Britain their vast availability is restricted by law. Digitalis is one of these examples and the number of these plants is not a lot. The mechanisms by which the herbs generally act are not established, however, most of medicinal plants possess antioxidant activities. The plants have been shown to effective by this property is various conditions including cancer, memory deficit and Alzheimer, atherosclerosis, diabetes and other cardiovascular diseases. Antioxidant activities of herbal medicines are also effective in reducing the toxicities of toxic agents or other drugs.

  19. Antiarrhythmic effect of L-propionylcarnitine in isolated cardiac preparations.

    Carbonin, P U; Ramacci, M T; Pahor, M; Di Gennaro, M; Gambassi, G; Lo Giudice, P; Sgadari, A; Pacifici, L


    The effects of L-propionylcarnitine on reperfusion-induced ventricular arrhythmias were studied in isolated hearts from spontaneously hypertensive rats. During reperfusion, 60% (n = 15) of the hearts from control spontaneously hypertensive rats hearts developed irreversible ventricular fibrillation. In contrast, irreversible ventricular fibrillation did not occur in hearts from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (n = 11, p less than 0.01). In a second group of spontaneously hypertensive rats, the addition of 10(-6) M L-propionylcarnitine to the medium during ischemia and reperfusion reduced the incidence of irreversible ventricular fibrillation to 14% (n = 14, p less than 0.05 versus control spontaneously hypertensive rats, NS versus Wistar Kyoto rats). Concentrations of L-propionylcarnitine from 10(-6) to 10(-2) M were tested on isolated guinea pig papillary muscles using microelectrodes. Resting potential, action potential amplitude, action potential duration and active tension were not modified by L-propionylcarnitine; and 10(-3) M L-propionylcarnitine did not influence the oscillatory afterpotentials induced by digitalis. We conclude that reperfusion ventricular arrhythmias are more severe in spontaneously hypertensive rats than in Wistar Kyoto rats and that the antiarrhythmic effect of L-propionylcarnitine in spontaneously hypertensive rats is mediated by myocardial protection from damage induced by reperfusion.

  20. Frequency of orthopedic diseases in horses: A retrospective study

    Kovač Milomir


    Full Text Available This retrospective study determined the frequency of orthopedic diseases in horses. It was possible to establish 141 specific orthopedic diagnoses in 1955 horses with lameness. In 14.58 % horses, multiple pathologic orthopedic changes were determined. In 61.84 % cases, the pathologic changes were present on the thoracic limb, 28,86 % on the pelvic limb and other parts of the oganism (neck, spine, muscles in 9.29 % cases. Pathologic changes on the tendons, ligaments, tendon sheats, bursae and muscles were determined in 31.51 % cases. Diseases of the hoof were present in 25.82 % cases. According to our investigation the most frequent orthopedic diseases are: podarthritis (acute, chronic, septic (5.04 %, navicular disease (4.69 %, tendinitis m. flexor digitalis superfacialis (4.51 %, kissing spine syndrom (4.30 % periarthritis et osteoarthrosis tarsi (3.30 %, distal metacarpal/metatarzophalengeal tendovaginitis (3.30 % and high suspensory ligament desmitis (3.12 %. Most frequent fractures were diagnosed on the metacarpal/metatarsal bone II and IV (2.56 %. Osteochondrossis dissecans was most frequently determined in the tarsocrural (1.26 % and the metacarpophalengeal joint (1.56 %.

  1. Disturbances in atrial rhythm and conduction following the surgical creation of an atrial septal defect by the Blalock-Hanlon technique.

    Hamilton, S D; Bartley, T D; Miller, R H; Schiebler, G L; Marriott, H J


    Disturbances in atrial conduction or rhythm, or both, were found in 16 of 27 patients undergoing the surgical creation of an atrial septal defect by the Blalock-Hanlon technique. These included P-wave aberrations of intra-atrial block and ectopic atrial rhythm, A-V rhythm, A-V dissociation, sinus bradycardia, atrial flutter, escape-capture bigeminy, and atrial premature beats. Some of these were transient and occurred within 2 weeks after surgery. It seems likely that tissue trauma engendered by the clamp and resection of the atrial septum with possible injury to the internodal conducting pathways may be the genesis of these early postoperative disturbances. Of the eight cases with transient disturbances, six occurred in this period. Later changes, such as intra-atrial block, sinus bradycardia, and atrial flutter, may be attributed to changes in atrial size secondary to the postoperative pathophysiology. Digitalis intoxication and congestive heart failure cannot be excluded as contributory factors in either the early or the late disturbances. It was not possible to correlate the incidence and nature of these disturbances with morbidity and mortality. In such severely ill, cyanotic infants, irregularities, however slight, may have altered cardiac function significantly and contributed to their deaths.

  2. Spironolactone pharmacokinetics and actions in the dog: Influence on the potential spironolactone-digoxin interaction

    Beck, B.L.


    This study was designed to determine if administration of spironolactone to achieve steady-state concentrations to dogs at steady-state digoxin concentration resulted in an increased serum digoxin concentration in dogs. Serum digoxin concentration and AcS tolerance were measured in dogs at steady-state spironolactone-digoxin concentration to determine if an increase in serum digoxin concentration resulted from spironolactone administration and if this resulted in increased cardiac effects of digoxin. To determine if a spironolactone-digoxin interaction occurred at the canine myocardial digitalis receptor in vitro, the effects of spironolactone and its metabolites on Na{sup +},K{sup +}-ATPase activity and ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding were studied. Spironolactone, canrenone, or K{sup +} canrenoate did not inhibit canine myocardial K{sup +}-dependent MFPase activity or the concentration-response curve for digoxin inhibition of K{sup +}-dependent MFPase. In contrast, 0.1 mM spironolactone or canrenone competitively antagonized ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding to canine myocardium. Neither 0.24 {mu}M spironolactone, 0.59 {mu}M canrenone, or 1.27 {mu}M 7{alpha}-thiomethylspirolactone, concentrations of spironolactone and its metabolites found after a therapeutic dose of spironolactone in man, altered ({sup 3}H)ouabain binding to canine myocardium.

  3. Study of digoxin use in a public health unit

    Felipe C. Souza


    Full Text Available Digoxin is used for heart failure associated to systolic dysfunction and high ventricular rate. It has a narrow therapeutic range and intoxication may occur due to drug interactions or comorbidities. The aim of this work was to study digoxin use in a public health unit delineating the profile of patients susceptible to digitalis intoxication. Medical records belonging to patients admitted to the cardiomyopathy ward of the health unit (2009-2010 and in use of digoxin were analyzed. Among 647 patients admitted, 185 individuals using digoxin and possessed records available. The registration of plasma digoxin concentration was found in 80 records and it was out of the therapeutic range in 42 patients (52.5%. This group of individuals was constituted mainly by males patients (79%, functional class III of heart failure (65%, exhibiting renal failure (33%. The evaluated sample reflects the epidemiology of heart failure in Brazil and, although pharmacotherapy had been according to Brazilian Guidelines, apparently the monitoring was not performed as recommended. This work highlighs the necessity of plasma digoxin constant monitoring during pharmacotherapy and the development of protocols that enable a safer use, especially in male patients, functional class III and with renal dysfunction.

  4. ICT integration in bilingual education: perspectives of teacher education



    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman";} There are numerous studies that show that the experiences as students or even personal experiences are, somehow, the main factor that bias the teacher’s performance in the classroom. That's why, the value of the attitudes of the teachers in training determines their own teaching career in the first years. In a time in which the term “ native digitalis ” is being replaced by“ digital user ” we can wonder what is the presence is of the technology in the bilingual classroom. This paper shows a study done in the university of Alcala through a questionnaire on the attitudes on the use of digital technology of future teachers for bilingual schools.

  5. [Medication as a risk factor for falls resulting in severe fractures in the elderly].

    Coutinho Ed, Evandro da Silva Freire; Silva, Sidney Dutra da


    Falls leading to fractures among the elderly are a major public problem. A case-control study was conducted on the use of certain drugs as a risk factor for hospitalization due to fractures after falls among individuals aged 60 years or over in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred sixty-nine cases and 315 in-patient controls were matched by age, sex, and hospital. Odds ratios (OR) adjusted for potential confounders were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Increased risk of such accidents was found for calcium channel antagonists (OR = 1.96, 1.16-3.30) and benzodiazepines (OR = 2.09, 1.08-4.05), and decreased risk was associated with diuretics (OR = 0.40, 0.20-0.80). Antacids, digitalis, and laxatives were associated with reduced risk of fractures after falls that reached borderline statistical significance (0.05 < p < 0.10). The findings highlight the need to weigh risks and benefits of medication in the elderly. It is also important to advise such individuals and their families on how to avoid falls when such medication proves necessary.

  6. Activation of angiotensin II type 1 receptors in the median preoptic nucleus induces a diuretic and natriuretic response in rats

    Yuan Gao; Lei Luo; Hong Liu


    Objective: To investigate the effect of activation of angiotensin II (AngII) type 1 (ATI) receptors in the median preoptic nucleus (MnPO) of rats on renal sodium excretion. Methods: After anesthesia, the rats were injected into the MnPO via an implanted cannula. Urine samples were collected via a bladder cannula, and the urine sodium concentration was assayed with flame spectrophotometry. The serum level of endogenous digitalis-like factor (EDLF) and Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex tissue were assayed respectively with a radioimmunoassay and with an ammonium molybdophosphate-based kit. Results: Both the urinary volume and the sodium excretion peaked 60 min after Angll was administered into the MnPO. The responses were accompanied by an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex. The responses of diuresis and natriuresis, as well as an increase in serum EDLF and a decrease in Na+,K+-ATPase activity in the renal cortex induced by MnPO adminstration with AngII were inhibited by pior treatment with the AngII receptor blocking agent losartan into the MnPO. Conclusion: These results suggest that activation of ATI receptors in the MnPO of rat induces diuretic and natriuretic responses. The responses are associated with an increase release of EDLF and with the inhibition of Na+,K+-ATPase activity in renal cortex tissue.


    Silvana de Araújo SILVA


    Full Text Available The identification of predictors for the progression of chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC is essential to ensure adequate patient management. This study looked into a non-concurrent cohort of 165 CCC patients between 1985 and 2010 for independent predictors for CCC progression. The outcomes were worsening of the CCC scores and the onset of left ventricular dysfunction assessed by means of echo-Doppler cardiography. Patients were analyzed for social, demographic, epidemiologic, clinical and workup-related variables. A descriptive analysis was conducted, followed by survival curves based on univariate (Kaplan-Meier and Cox’s univariate model and multivariate (Cox regression model analysis. Patients were followed from two to 20 years (mean: 8.2. Their mean age was 44.8 years (20-77. Comparing both iterations of the study, in the second there was a statistically significant increase in the PR interval and in the QRS duration, despite a reduction in heart rates (Wilcoxon < 0.01. The predictors for CCC progression in the final regression model were male gender (HR = 2.81, Holter monitoring showing pauses equal to or greater than two seconds (HR = 3.02 increased cardiothoracic ratio (HR = 7.87 and time of use of digitalis (HR = 1.41. Patients with multiple predictive factors require stricter follow-up and treatment.

  8. The role of endogenous cardiotonic steroids in pathogenesis of cardiovascular and renal complications of arterial hypertension

    Aneta Paczula


    Full Text Available Endogenous cardiotonic steroids (CTS, also called digitalis-like factors, are a group of steroid hormones linking high salt intake and elevated blood pressure and in part responsible for target organ damage in arterial hypertension. CTS act primarily through their ability to inhibit the ubiquitous transport enzyme sodium-potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+-ATPase. A portion of Na+/K+-ATPase does not seem to actively “pump” sodium and potassium but is closely associated with other key signaling proteins. Plasma concentration and urine excretion of CTS are increased in experimental models with volume expansion and on a high salt diet. Elevated plasma concentration of marinobufagenin has been shown in volume-expanded states such as essential hypertension, primary aldosteronism, chronic renal failure, congestive heart failure and pregnancy. In experimental models marinobufagenin induces heart and kidney fibrosis to the same extent as observed in uremia. Neutralization of marinobufagenin with antibodies prevents such heart remodeling. Expanding our understanding of this new class of hormones may lead to development of novel and effective therapeutic strategies in hypertensive patients with renal and cardiovascular complications.

  9. The use of metoprolol CR/XL in the treatment of patients with diabetes and chronic heart failure

    Ovidio De Freitas


    Full Text Available Ovidio De Freitas, Oliver Lenz, Alessia Fornoni, Barry J MatersonDivision of Nephrology and Hypertension, Department of Medicine, Miller School of Medicine, University of Miami, Miami, Florida, USAAbstract: About 5 million Americans suffer from heart failure. Given the correlation of heart failure with age and the rising life expectancy, the prevalence of heart failure continues to increase in the general population. Sympathetic stimulation intensifies with progressive heart failure. The rationale to use β-blockers in individuals with impaired myocardial function is based on experimental evidence supporting the notion that prolonged α- and β-adrenergic stimulation leads to worsening heart failure. Until recently, safety concerns have precluded the use of β-blockers in patients with diabetes and heart failure. However, several large, randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trials such as Metoprolol Randomized Intervention Trial in Congestive Heart Failure (MERIT-HF have shown that β-blockers can be safely used in patients with diabetes and heart failure. Moreover, β-blockers significantly improved morbidity and mortality in this population. Based on this evidence, it is now recommended to add β-blockers such as metoprolol CR/XL with an escalating dosage regimen to the treatment of patients with symptomatic heart failure who already are receiving a stable medical regimen including angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, diuretics, vasodilators, or digitalis.Keywords: metoprolol, heart failure, diabetes mellitus, β-adrenergic blocking agents, MERITHF

  10. Mortality and morbidity during one year of follow-up in suspected acute myocardial infarction in relation to early diagnosis: experiences from the MIAMI trial.

    Herlitz, J; Karlson, B W; Hjalmarson, A


    From a large randomized multicentre trial of metoprolol in suspected acute myocardial infarction (n = 5778) we report on the outcome during 1 year of follow-up, in relation to early diagnosis. Patients who developed a confirmed infarction had a 1-year mortality rate of 12.8%. This was significantly higher than the mortality rate of 6.3% (P less than 0.001) in patients with possible infarction and it was also higher than that in patients with no infarction, which was 5.0% (P less than 0.001). A multivariate analysis showed that independent risk predictors in the clinical history of patients without confirmed infarction were a history of angina pectoris, chronic use of digitalis and advanced age. After 1 year, angina pectoris was most common in patients with an initial possible infarction. These patients were also in most urgent need of bypass surgery. We thus conclude that the mortality during 1 year of follow-up among patients with an initially strongly suspected acute myocardial infarction was clearly related to whether or not the patient developed a myocardial infarction.

  11. Subcutaneous injection of thallium-201 chloride and gallium-67 citrate at acupuncture point K-3; An animal experiment and human-being study

    Johg, Shiang-Bin; Wu, Chung-Chieng; Chen, Ming-Feng; Wu, Sheng-Nan (Kaohsiung Medical Coll., Taiwan (China))


    Subcutaneous (SC) injection of [sup 99m]Tc pertechnetate ([sup 99m]Tc) at acupuncture points K-3 is a new method of lower-limb radionuclide venography. To investigate the mechanism of absorption of [sup 99m]Tc from SC injected sites into vascular system, various radioisotopes such as [sup 201]Tl chloride ([sup 201]Tl) and [sup 67]Ga citrate ([sup 67]Ga) were SC injected at K-3 points in animal and human-beings experiments. It was found that [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl were absorbed rapidly from K-3 points through venous system and into whole body soft tissue. However, [sup 67]Ga with a larger effective ionic radius than [sup 201]Tl was not absorbed throughout the observation of 5 minutes. Furthermore, intravenous administration of digitalis, a Na[sup +]-K[sup +] pump blocker, did not inhibit the absorption of [sup 99m]Tc and [sup 201]Tl after SC injection at K-3 points. These results suggest that absorption of radionuclides on SC injection at K-3 points is mainly through the passive pathway of diffusion rather than the active transport, and the effective ionic radius may be a major factor influencing the absorption rate of the radionuclides. (author).


    Katarína Klimová


    Full Text Available Tourism, an important industry with a significant social and cultural dimensions, provides interesting stimuli for the study of communication, particularly in the search for adequate tools for persuading potential clients. Since the internet is an essential tool for self-promotion nowadays, specialists examine how tourist destinations are presented in different types of digital texts such as official tourism websites, which combine the informative function of guidebooks with the promotional function of brochures and leaflets. The purpose of this study is to analyse the rhetorical strategies used on the official homepages of nine Italian regions to catch the eye of potential clients and create an identity for a particular region as a tourist destination.   Il turismo, industria importante che ha una significativa dimensione sociale e culturale, costituisce un’area che fornisce stimoli interessanti per lo studio della comunicazione, in particolare nella ricerca di strumenti adeguati a persuadere potenziali clienti. Dal momento che oggi Internet è uno strumento essenziale per l’auto-promozione, molti specialisti si sono dedicati allo studio di come le destinazioni turistiche sono presentate in diversi tipi di testi digitali quali, ad esempio, i siti turistici ufficiali, che combinano la funzione informativa delle guide con quella promozionale di opuscoli e volantini. Scopo di questo studio è analizzare le strategie retoriche utilizzate nelle homepage ufficiali di nove regioni italiane per catturare l’attenzione dei potenziali clienti e per caratterizzare la regione come destinazione turistica.

  13. Potassium physiology.

    Thier, S O


    Potassium is the most abundant exchangeable cation in the body. It exists predominantly in the intracellular fluid at concentrations of 140 to 150 meq/liter and in the extracellular fluid at concentrations of 3.5 to 5 meq/liter. The maintenance of the serum potassium concentration is a complex bodily function and results from the balance between intake, excretion, and distribution between intracellular and extracellular space. Ingested potassium is virtually completely absorbed from and minimally excreted through the intestine under nonpathologic circumstances. Renal excretion of potassium, which is the major chronic protective mechanism against abnormalities in potassium balance, depends on filtration, reabsorption, and a highly regulated distal nephron secretory process. Factors regulating potassium secretion include prior potassium intake, intracellular potassium, delivery of sodium chloride and poorly reabsorbable anions to the distal nephron, the urine flow rate, hormones such as aldosterone and beta-catecholamines, and the integrity of the renal tubular cell. The maintenance of distribution between the inside and outside of cells depends on the integrity of the cell membrane and its pumps, osmolality, pH, and the hormones insulin, aldosterone, beta 2-catecholamines, alpha-catecholamines, and prostaglandins. Both distribution across cell membranes and/or renal excretion of potassium may be altered by pharmacologic agents such as diuretics, alpha- and beta-catechol antagonists and agonists, depolarizing agents, and digitalis. Problems with hypokalemia and hyperkalemia can be analyzed on the basis of potassium physiology and pharmacology; proper treatment depends on an accurate analysis.

  14. [Perioperative myocardial ischemia in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive diseases].

    Rapp, H J; Buselmeier, P; Gasteiger, P; Hoberg, E; Striebel, J P


    Patients with peripheral vascular disease (PVD) often have coronary artery disease (CAD) which means an increased risk during anesthesia. The prevalence of CAD is nearly 50% among such patients. Owing to claudication, diagnostic stress tests can rarely be performed in PVD patients. In order to evaluate the frequency of transient perioperative myocardial ischemia, Holter monitoring was performed in 30 consecutive PVD patients with ASA II-III and AVK scale (Fontaine) II-IV who were undergoing femoropopliteal bypass surgery. Patients who had left bundle branch block and left ventricular hypertrophy or were taking digitalis medication were excluded from Holter monitoring. The ST-segment analysis of the frequency modulated recordings (n = 19) revealed episodes of myocardial ischemia in 26% of the patients. Most (75%) of the episodes occurred preoperatively, and 25%, during or after the anesthesia or during preparation for it. Risk factors for CAD were more often found in patients with ST segment alterations than in patients without ST segment deviations, even though the preoperative antianginal medication administered was comparable in the two subgroups. It is concluded that in a considerable subset of PVD patients silent myocardial ischemia occurs, which can be related to the different perioperative intervals by means of ST segment analyses of Holter recordings. The ST segment may allow a better insight into the cardiac state of PVD patients. Further studies are necessary in larger populations to test our suspicion.

  15. Comparative anatomy of the arterial system of the foot in primates. 1. Macaque.

    Matsumoto, S; Ikeda, A


    Using stereoscopic angiography, the entire arterial system of the foot of the macaque was analyzed. The arteria saphena, instead of the a. tibialis anterior, reaches the dorsum of the foot, and its branches supply most of the foot. The dorsal arteries are dominant as far as the metatarsal spaces of the lateral four toes. The a. metatarsea dorsalis II showed a tendency to be the single dominant artery and to give rise to even the a. digitalis communis plantaris IV through the catella plantaris distalis. This tendency was observed more clearly in other macaques species than the Japanese monkey. The perforating branch at the second proximal metatarsal space forms the arcus plantaris profundus, which is accompanied by the deep branch of the nervus plantaris lateralis. Beneath the arch, the catella plantaris proximalis is formed on the metatarsal bones among the perforating branches of the aa. metatarseae dorsales. The a. tibialis posterior forms the arcus plantaris superficialis, whose thin branches commonly enter the aa. digitales communes plantares.

  16. Depth distribution and composition of seed banks under different tree layers in a managed temperate forest ecosystem

    Godefroid, Sandrine; Phartyal, Shyam S.; Koedam, Nico


    In the present work we examined the composition and distribution across three soil layers of the buried soil seed bank under three different overstory types ( Fagus sylvatica, Quercus robur, Pinus sylvestris) and in logging areas in a 4383-ha forest in central Belgium. The objectives were: (1) to investigate whether species composition and species richness of soil seed banks are affected by different forest stands; (2) to examine how abundant are habitat-specific forest species in seed banks under different planted tree layers. The study was carried out in stands which are replicated, managed in the same way (even-aged high forest), and growing on the same soil type with the same land-use history. In the investigated area, the seed bank did show significant differences under oak, beech, pine and in logging areas, respectively in terms of size, composition and depth occurrence. All species and layers taken together, the seed bank size ranked as follows: oakwood > beechwood > logging area > pinewood. The same pattern was found for forest species. Seed numbers of Betula pendula, Calluna vulgaris, Dryopteris dilatata and Rubus fruticosus were significantly higher under the beech canopy. Carex remota, Impatiens parviflora and Lotus sp. showed a significantly denser seed bank in logging areas, while Digitalis purpurea seeds were significantly more abundant in soils under the oak canopy. The fact that the seed bank of an originally homogeneous forest varies under different planted stands highlights that a long period of canopy conversion can affect the composition and depth of buried seeds.

  17. Analysis of 32 toxic natural substances in herbal products by liquid chromatography quadrupole linear ion trap mass spectrometry.

    Zeng, Yun; Quek, Yi-Ling; Kee, Chee-Leong; Low, Min-Yong; Bloodworth, Bosco C; Ge, Xiaowei


    In this study, an LC-MS/MS EPI method was developed for simultaneous determination of 32 toxic natural substances in herbal products. The analytes include aconite alkaloids, lobelia alkaloids, solanaceous alkaloids, digitalis steroid glycosides, strychnine, tetrahydropalmatine etc. They werecommonly used in herbal products. The target analytes were extracted from the samples using theQuEChERS method and analysed using AB SCIEX QTRAP 5500 coupled with Agilent HPLC 1260. Thecolumn used was biphenyl reversed phase analytical column. Mobile phase A and B were deionizedwater and methanol respectively, both containing 5mM ammonium formate and 0.1% formic acid. TheMRM-IDA-EPI method enabled quantification and confirmation of the analytes in a single run. The EPIwas used for the qualitative analysis while the MRM was used for the quantitative analysis. Limits ofdetection were determined to be below 10μg/kg for the majority of the analytes. The recoveries forthose commonly detected natural substances were in the acceptable range of 70-120%. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Efficacy of trimetazidine combining with metoprolol on plasma BNP in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure

    Ping Li; You-Mei Li


    Objective:To explore the effect of combined application of trimetazidine and metoprolol on plasma BNP in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure and the clinical efficacy. Methods:A total of 140 cases of coronary heart disease patients with heart failure treated in Cardiology Department of our hospital from May 2012 to January 2015 were selected and divided into study group and control group by random number table method. The control group received digitalis, diuretics, ACEI (angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor) and other conventional drugs for treatment, the study group received combined use of trimetazidine and metoprolol on the basis of routine treatment of the control group, and treatment duration was 12 weeks. Then plasma BNP, systolic blood pressure, heart rate, left ventricular end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), left ventricular end systolic end (LVESD) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) of two groups before and after treatment were statistically analyzed, and the overall effect was evaluated.Results:Before treatment, there were no significant differences in plasma BNP, blood pressure, heart rate, LVEDD, LVESD and LVEF between the two groups; after treatment, plasma BNP, blood pressure, heart rate, LVEDD and LVESD of both groups decreased and LVEF increased, but the changes in study group were better than those in control group.Conclusion:Trimetazidine combined with metoprolol has better application effect in plasma BNP decrease and heart function improvement in coronary heart disease patients with heart failure.

  19. Overexpression of TEAD-1 in transgenic mouse striated muscles produces a slower skeletal muscle contractile phenotype.

    Tsika, Richard W; Schramm, Christine; Simmer, Gretchen; Fitzsimons, Daniel P; Moss, Richard L; Ji, Juan


    TEA domain (TEAD) transcription factors serve important functional roles during embryonic development and in striated muscle gene expression. Our previous work has implicated a role for TEAD-1 in the fast-to-slow fiber-type transition in response to mechanical overload. To investigate whether TEAD-1 is a modulator of slow muscle gene expression in vivo, we developed transgenic mice expressing hemagglutinin (HA)-tagged TEAD-1 under the control of the muscle creatine kinase promoter. We show that striated muscle-restricted HA-TEAD-1 expression induced a transition toward a slow muscle contractile protein phenotype, slower shortening velocity (Vmax), and longer contraction and relaxation times in adult fast twitch extensor digitalis longus muscle. Notably, HA-TEAD-1 overexpression resulted in an unexpected activation of GSK-3alpha/beta and decreased nuclear beta-catenin and NFATc1/c3 protein. These effects could be reversed in vivo by mechanical overload, which decreased muscle creatine kinase-driven TEAD-1 transgene expression, and in cultured satellite cells by TEAD-1-specific small interfering RNA. These novel in vivo data support a role for TEAD-1 in modulating slow muscle gene expression.

  20. Medicinal importance, pharmacological activities, and analytical aspects of aloin:A concise report

    Kanika Patel; Dinesh K Patel


    Natural products such as pure phytoconstituents and plant extracts offer limitless opportunities for the new drug development due to its unmatched chemical diversity.Plants play an important role in the medicinal preparations for both preventive and curative purpose.Some of the currently available drugs i.e. aspirin, digitalis, anti-malarial(quinine) and anti-cancer(vincristine, vinblastine) were derived from the plant sources.Aloin(C21H22O9), a yellow colour compound is a mixture of two diastereoisomers, aloinA and aloinB.Aloin is an anthroneC-glucoside having molecular weight418, and it is the main phytoconstituents of aloes.Aloin is used for various pharmacological purposes such as laxative agent.It is also used as ingredients of various laxative pharmaceutical preparations.So far, varieties of analytical methods have been developed for the estimation of aloin in aloes product, which are mainly based onHPLC andTLC techniques.In the present review, pharmacological activities and analytical aspects of aloin were highlighted along with some useful tissue culture techniques.This review could be helpful to the researcher for the investigation of new molecule from aloin in the future.

  1. Interaction of atrial natriuretic peptide and ouabain in the myocardium.

    Nesher, Maoz; Bai, Yan; Li, Daxiang; Rosen, Haim; Lichtstein, David; Liu, Lijun


    Natriuretic peptides and digitalis-like compounds serve as regulators of homeostasis, including control of volume expansion and blood pressure. The aim of the present study was to explore possible interactions between atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and ouabain in the heart. ANP (1 nmol/L) had no effect in papillary muscle preparations from guinea pigs. Ouabain (1 µmol/L) induced positive inotropic effect. The addition of ANP prior to ouabain resulted in a significant decrease in the ouabain-induced positive inotropic effect, manifested as an attenuated increase in twitch maximal upward force slope and resting muscular tension. In addition, ANP caused an increase in Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity in heart microsomal preparations. The effect of ouabain on Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity was shown in a biphasic manner. Ouabain (0.01-1 nmol/L) had a small but significant increase on pump activity, but higher doses of ouabain inhibited activity. ANP attenuated ouabain-induced Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity. Furthermore, ouabain (50 nmol/L) or ANP (10 nmol/L) alone induced Akt activation in cardiomyocytes. However, ANP blocked ouabain-induced Akt activation. These results point to the existence of interactions between ANP and ouabain on Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase signaling and function in the heart, which may be mediated by regulation of Na⁺-K⁺-ATPase activity and (or) signal transduction mechanisms.

  2. E-books for Italian school, between Law Requirements and Publishers' Choices

    Maria Vincelli


    Full Text Available Il saggio presenta un'analisi del quadro legislativo italiano sulla transizione dei libri di testo dal formato cartaceo a quello digitale, oltre a una panoramica sull'offerta dei maggiori editori a riguardo, prendendo come esempio i libri di testo di Latino per le scuole superiori. Il concetto di libro digitale viene declinato oggi principalmente in due forme: il libro "on-line", digitale (generalmente in PDF o Epub, equivalente ai testi tradizionali a stampa per struttura e tipo di utilizzo; il libro che integra le caratteristiche del libro sia digitale che a stampa con una serie di materiali digitali supplementari. L'opinione dell'autrice è che l'offerta di pubblicazioni scolastiche in formato digitale si attiene a un'interpretazione limitata della legge italiana, e che dunque si prospettano nuove ipotesi che possano unire in modo efficace l'autorevolezza e il valore culturale dei libri di testo con le soluzioni più avanzate del digitale.

  3. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Novković Vesna V.


    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  4. La riscoperta della stereoscopia per la rappresentazione dello spazio architettonico

    Simone Garagnani


    Full Text Available Il progressivo sviluppo dei metodi della rappresentazione grafica nel corso della storia è stato possibile in virtù della scoperta di strumenti e tecniche appartenenti al loro tempo: questo continuo progresso delle modalità di “raccontare” l’architettura è tuttora in corso di evoluzione, costituendo il fondamento di ogni strategia informativa e di comunicazione del progetto. Il sempre più pervasivo trattamento digitale dell’informazione, sia essa grafica che testuale, ha condotto ad una progressiva riscoperta di approcci tradizionali nella descrizione dello spazio costruito, declinandoli alle nuove tecnologie informatiche per amplificarne possibilità e valenze. È il caso della stereoscopia, diffuso metodo ottocentesco adottato in fotografia per rendere spaziale la percezione dell’immagine sfruttando la visione binoculare; oggi i modelli tridimensionali e le immagini digitali catturate da apposite fotocamere rendono l’approccio stereoscopico di immediato utilizzo anche per i profani della rappresentazione, semplificando e rendendo trasparenti i concetti di geometria proiettiva alla base del metodo. Questo contributo intende indagare le funzionalità, i vantaggi e le criticità della tecnologia stereoscopica immersiva nella moderna comunicazione del progetto d’architettura.

  5. Treatment of peroneal paralysis with transposition of vastus lateralis muscle in calves.

    Kilic, E; Yayla, S; Aksoy, O; Ozaydin, I; Ermutlu, C Ş


    This study aimed to clinically evaluate the results achieved by using tendon transposition to treat postinjection peroneal paralysis in calves. The study material consisted of 23 calves in all of which the clinical history indicated the problem had occurred within 1-3 days of intramuscular injection. Each patient was administered medical treatment for three weeks. After that, a decision was made to perform tendon transposition in all the subjects because their prognosis was estimated to be poor. The owners of five of the calves did not agree to the operation, and so, medical treatment was continued. Following intrathecal anaesthesia, the vastus lateralis muscle was dissected at the insertion, and the musculus (m) extensor (ext) digitalis (dig) longus and m fibularis tertius were dissected at the origin in 18 calves. The tendon ends were joined by using the locking loop suture technique in the 18 calves. Follow-up after two to three months revealed hind limb use in all surgically treated calves, while the medically treated calves had to be slaughtered because of lameness and decubitus. The results of the present study suggest that the peroneal paralysis of calves can be successfully treated by a tendon transposition technique.

  6. An Outbreak of Foxglove Leaf Poisoning

    Chun-Chi Lin


    Full Text Available Comfrey (Symphytum officinale leaves resemble those of foxglove (Digitalis purpurea when the plant is not in bloom and, therefore, cardiac glycoside poisoning may occur when people confuse foxglove with comfrey. We report an outbreak of foxglove leaf poisoning following the use of alleged “comfrey” herbal tea. Nine patients were involved and initially presented with nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness. Significant cardiotoxicity developed later among the 3 patients who also had mild hyperkalemia. Peak serum digoxin concentration measured by immunoassay was elevated in all patients and ranged from 4.4 ng/mL to 139.5 ng/mL. Patients with severe cardiotoxicity were treated with temporary cardiac pacing. Moreover, 40–80 mg of digoxin-specific antibody therapy was given without any effect. All patients recovered uneventfully. Our report highlights the potential risk of misidentification of herbs; in this case, D. purpurea was mistaken for S. officinale. Physicians should be aware that cardiac glycoside poisoning could arise from such misidentification. Public education about the toxicity of D. purpurea poisoning may reduce the risk of misidentification and subsequent poisoning.

  7. Evaluation of the antifungal activity by plant extracts against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz Avaliação da atividade anti-fúngica de extratos vegetais contra Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz

    Polyanna Alves Silva


    Full Text Available Aiming to develop more efficient and environmental friendly methods than those available to control Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, which causes blister spot in coffee trees, a search for plants able to produce substances active against such pathogen was carried out. Thus, extracts of 48 plant species, collected at Alto Rio Grande region, in Minas Gerais, were prepared and submitted to in vitro assays with that fungus. The best results were obtained with the extracts prepared from Digitalis lanata Ehrh, Origanum manjorona L., Plantago lanceolata Hook. and Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni, which inhibited C. gloeosporioides spores germination. After dilution of some active extracts with aqueous 1 % Tween 80 solution in a 1:2 or 1:3 ratio (extract:aqueous solution, their antifungal activity vanished. Some of the active extracts were also submitted to freeze drying and none of them presented any alteration in their antifungal activity. Concluding, several plants presented potential to be used in the search for new bioactive substances to control C. gloeosporioides, especially O. manjorona L., which inhibited 96 % of the fungus spores germination.Com vistas a contribuir para o desenvolvimento de métodos mais eficientes e menos agressivos ao ambiente que aqueles disponíveis para o controle de Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz, causador da mancha manteigosa em cafeeiros, buscou-se identificar espécies vegetais produtoras de substâncias ativas contra o referido patógeno. Para tanto, prepararam-se extratos de 48 espécies vegetais, coletadas na região do Alto Rio Grande, em Minas Gerais, para serem submetidos a testes in vitro com o mencionado fungo. Constatou-se que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com os extratos oriundos de Digitalis lanata Ehrh, Origanum manjorona L., Plantago lanceolata Hook. e Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni Bertoni que inibiram a germinação dos esporos de C. gloeosporioides. Alguns dos extratos ativos tamb

  8. 3个钓钟柳品种叶绿素荧光特性比较%Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in three cultivars of Penstemon

    陶文文; 蒋文伟; 赵丽娟


    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameters change of the Penstemon was studied, the aim was to enhance its planting management for the region in east China. Chlorophyll fluorescence parameters [minimal fluo rescence(Fo), maximum fluorescence (Fm), photochemical quenching (qp), variable fluorescence (Fv), yield (Y), non photochemical quenching (NPQ), and electron transport rate (ETR) ] of Penstemon campanulatus ‘Purple Passion' , Penstemon digitalis ‘Husker Red' , and Penstemon barbatus ‘Rondo' , all perennial root flowers, were measured and compared by the chlorophyll florescence measuring technique. A correlation analysis was conducted. Results of the correlation analysis showed significant positive correlations between Fo and Fm, qp and Fm, qp and Fv, Y and ETa, Fm and Fv, Fo and F, and Fm and Y; significantly negative correlations were found between Fo and ETR and Fv/Fo and Y. Also, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters for the three cultivars were significant(P < 0.05) and highly significant (P < 0.01 ). The values of Fv, Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, Y,ETR, qp, and Nm for the three cultivars were in the order: ‘Purple Passion' > ‘Rondo' > ‘Husker Red'. Thus, the photosynthetic physiological functions of P. campanulatus ‘Purple Passion' were best.%利用叶绿素荧光测定技术测定了多年生宿根花卉紫红钓钟柳penstemon campanulatus'Purple Passion',毛地黄钓钟柳P.digitalis'Husker Red'和五彩钓钟柳P.barbatus'Rondo'等3个钓钟柳品种的叶绿素荧光参数,并对它们进行比较.结果表明:3个钓钟柳品种间的叶绿素荧光参数均达到显著或极显著水平,紫红钓钟柳的可变荧光(Fv),光系统Ⅱ原始光能转化效率(Fv/Fm),光系统Ⅱ的潜在活性(Fv/Fo),光合量子产额(Y),表观光合电子传递速率(ETR),光化学猝灭系数(qp),非炮化学猝灭系数(NPQ)值最高,其次为五彩钓钟柳,最低是毛地黄钓钟柳.说明紫红钓钟柳具有较好的光合生理功能,其次是五彩钓钟

  9. Multisite-Stimulation als Bridging für Transplantationspatienten

    Petutschnigg B


    Full Text Available Die Multisite-Stimulation (MsS stellt eine neue therapeutische Möglichkeit bei Patienten mit hochgradiger dilatativer Kardiomyopathie (DCM kombiniert mit intraventrikulären Leitungsstörungen dar. Die InSync Studie wurde an 18 europäischen und kanadischen Zentren durchgeführt, um die Auswirkung einer Mehrkammerstimulation bei hochgradiger Herzinsuffizienz zu dokumentieren, das InSync Generator Medtronic Modell 8040 auf Sicherheit und Effektivität zu überprüfen und um Leistungswerte der Sinus coronarius Elektroden 2187 bzw. 2188 zu sammeln. Eingeschlossen waren Patienten mit fortgeschrittener Herzinsuffizienz (NYHA Klasse III oder IV, DCM (LVEDD 60 mm, verlängerter ventrikulärer Überleitung (QRS 150 ms sowie einer Ejektionsfraktion (EF 35% nach ungenügender Verbesserung durch die konservativen Standardtherapien (Diuretika, Digitalis, ACE-Hemmer. Implantiert wurden dazu drei Elektroden, einerseits eine Sinus coronarius (SC Elektrode, andererseits ein klassisches DDD-System, weswegen das Modell 8040 drei Anschlüsse bedingt. Vor der Implantation mußte der Patient allein den Fragenkatalog der Universität von Minnesota nach der derzeitigen Lebensqualität ausfüllen, einen 6-minütigen Hall-Walk-Test absolvieren, ebenso wurde eine Verifizierung der EF mittels Herzultraschall durchgeführt. Follow up-Intervalle wurden 1, 3, 6, und 12 Monate später mit Überprüfung gemäß Studienprotokoll durchgeführt. Zusammengefaßt kann festgestellt werden, daß diese neue Therapieform sicherlich eine Verbesserung und Sicherstellung der Lebensqualität auf der Warteliste für eine Herztransplantation zur Folge hatte. Es fehlen uns noch Langzeitresultate zur Klärung der Frage, ob diese Therapie eine Bridgingmethode oder sogar eine Alternative für ein streng selektioniertes Patientengut darstellt.

  10. [Acute toxicological cases during a ten-year period in our clinic].

    Kovács, Tibor; Páll, Dénes; Abafalvi, Zsuzsa; Karányi, Zsolt; Wórum, Ferenc; Mátyus, János; Kárpáti, Istvan; Balla, József; Ujhelyi, László; Kakuk, György


    There's a fact, that Hungary has held the first places in suicidal statstics. The authors studied toxicological cases between 1989 and 1998 at the 1st Department of Medicine of the Medical and Health Science Centre, at the University of Debrecen, paying special attention to suicidal poisoning cases. 2% of the patient turnover accounted for acute poisoning cases, the number of which increased during the 10 years in question. 70% of the cases were of suicidal intentions, 20% were unintentional, these poisonings were not committed on purpose, while the proportion of iatrogenic intoxication cases was 10%. Amongst the failed suicide cases there was a higher proportion of women, whereas a higher percentage of men accounted for "successful" suicide cases. When examining auto-intoxication cases it turned out that the medicine most frequently used was meprobamate, besides benzodiazepines. Mortality rate was highest in the glutethimide intoxication cases. Most poisonings with suicidal intentions took place in the 2nd quarter of the year. Most completed suicides were committed on Wednesdays and Thursdays. 81% of the iatrogenic intoxication cases happened to be with digitalis and coumarin overdose. Nearly 50% of the cases turned out to be combined intoxications. 40% of the men took alcoholic drinks during the auto-intoxications. In the case of 135 patients extracorporeal detoxification therapy was applied, which consisted mostly of hemoperfusion. Three quarters of the patients needed psychiatric care and every fourth patient was admitted to the Department of Psychiatry. 6.9% of the poisonings were fatal. The growing number of toxicological cases--amongst these suicidal poisonings--compels us to pay more attention to the setting up of interdisciplinary based prevention as well as running effective toxicological centres. All physicians have a responsibility to recommend psychiatric care for people suffering from mental problems or depression and for the unsuccessful or potential

  11. Membrane events and ionic processes involved in dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular neurons. I. Effect of the inhibition of the Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase pump by ouabain

    Taglialatela, M.; Amoroso, S.; Kaparos, G.; Maurano, F.; Di Renzo, G.F.; Annunziato, L.


    In the present study we investigated the membrane events and the ionic processes which mediate the stimulatory effect of ouabain on the release of endogenous dopamine (DA) and previously taken-up (3H)DA release from rat hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons. Ouabain (0.1-1 mM) dose-dependently stimulated endogenous DA and newly taken-up (3H)DA release. This effect was counteracted partially by nomifensine (10 microM). Removal of Ca++ ions from the extracellular space in the presence of the Ca++-chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid prevented completely ouabain-elicited (3H)DA release. Lanthanum (1 mM) and cobalt (2 mM), two inorganic Ca++-entry blockers, were able to inhibit this stimulatory effect, whereas verapamil (10 microM) and nitrendipine (50 microM), two organic antagonists of the voltage-operated channel for Ca++ ions, failed to affect ouabain-induced (3H)DA release. By contrast, adriamycin (100-300 microM), a putative inhibitor of cardiac Na+-Ca++ antiporter, dose-dependently prevented ouabain-induced (3H)DA release from TIDA neurons. Finally, tetrodotoxin reduced digitalis-stimulated (3H)DA release. In conclusion, these results seem to be compatible with the idea that the inhibition of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase by ouabain stimulates the release of (3H)DA from a central neuronal system like the TIDA tract and that this effect is critically dependent on the entrance of Ca++ ions into the nerve terminals of these neurons. In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal cytoplasm during Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. The enhanced intracellular Ca++ availability triggers DA release which could occur partially through a carrier-dependent process.

  12. Membrane events and ionic processes involved in dopamine release from tuberoinfundibular neurons. I. Effect of the inhibition of the Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase pump by ouabain.

    Taglialatela, M; Amoroso, S; Kaparos, G; Maurano, F; Di Renzo, G F; Annunziato, L


    In the present study we investigated the membrane events and the ionic processes which mediate the stimulatory effect of ouabain on the release of endogenous dopamine (DA) and "previously taken-up" [3H]DA release from rat hypothalamic tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic (TIDA) neurons. Ouabain (0.1-1 mM) dose-dependently stimulated endogenous DA and "newly taken-up" [3H]DA release. This effect was counteracted partially by nomifensine (10 microM). Removal of Ca++ ions from the extracellular space in the presence of the Ca++-chelator ethylene glycol bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetraacetic acid prevented completely ouabain-elicited [3H]DA release. Lanthanum (1 mM) and cobalt (2 mM), two inorganic Ca++-entry blockers, were able to inhibit this stimulatory effect, whereas verapamil (10 microM) and nitrendipine (50 microM), two organic antagonists of the voltage-operated channel for Ca++ ions, failed to affect ouabain-induced [3H]DA release. By contrast, adriamycin (100-300 microM), a putative inhibitor of cardiac Na+-Ca++ antiporter, dose-dependently prevented ouabain-induced [3H]DA release from TIDA neurons. Finally, tetrodotoxin reduced digitalis-stimulated [3H]DA release. In conclusion, these results seem to be compatible with the idea that the inhibition of Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase by ouabain stimulates the release of [3H]DA from a central neuronal system like the TIDA tract and that this effect is critically dependent on the entrance of Ca++ ions into the nerve terminals of these neurons. In addition the Na+-Ca++ exchange antiporter appears to be the membrane system which transports Ca++ ions into the neuronal cytoplasm during Na+,K+-adenosine triphosphatase inhibition. The enhanced intracellular Ca++ availability triggers DA release which could occur partially through a carrier-dependent process.

  13. Protective effects of Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) extract against digoxin-induced arrhythmias in rats.

    Alp, Hayrullah; Soner, Burak Cem; Baysal, Tamer; Şahin, Ayşe Saide


    Digitalis preparations are commonly used by children and adults with heart diseases worldwide, although excessive doses may cause cardiac effects. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antiarrhythmic effect of Crataegus oxyacantha extract on digoxin-induced arrhythmias in anesthetized Wistar rats. Control and experimental groups were evaluated for arrhythmias induced by digoxin. Fifteen rats (7 as controls and 8 as the experimental group) were included in the study. The dry fruits of 100 mg Crataegus oxyacantha were extracted by percolation method. Digoxin, at a dose of 40 µg/kg/min, was infused to form the arrhythmias in all rats. Simultaneously, the extract was infused into the experimental group, while 0.9% NaCl was infused into control group. Electrocardiographic QRS prolongation and arterial blood pressure changes were analyzed. The experimental group lived longer (62.13±2.20 min) than the controls (p=0.002). On the other hand, the time to beginning of QRS prolongation did not differ between the two groups (p=0.812). Bradycardia was significant in the control group (288.01±10.54 beat/min and p=0.01). The maximum QRS duration was observed in the control group during the digoxin and 0.9% NaCl infusion period (53.29±3.99 ms and p=0.001). Also, the durations of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were shorter in the experimental group. However, arterial blood pressure dipping was significant in the experimental group (23.67±10.89 mm Hg and p<0.001). Crataegus oxyacantha alcoholic extract produced an antiarrhythmic effect that was induced by digoxin in Wistar rats. However, in the clinical use of this extract, the hypotensive effect should be considered. Also, the alcoholic extract of Crataegus oxyacantha may be an alternative treatment medication for arrhythmias induced by digoxin toxicity in humans.

  14. Reversibility of ventricular dysfunction: clinical experience in a medical office

    Antonio Carlos Pereira Barretto


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE - To describe clinical observations of marked improvement in ventricular dysfunction in a medical office environment under circumstances differing from those in study protocols and multicenter studies performed in hospital or with outpatient cohorts. METHODS - Eleven cardiac failure patients with marked ventricular dysfunction receiving treatment at a doctors office between 1994 and 1999 were studied. Their ages ranged from 20 and 66 years (mean 39.42±14.05 years; 7 patients were men, 4 were women. Cardiopathic etiologies were arterial hypertension in 5 patients, peripartum cardiomyopathy in 2, nondefined myocarditis in 2, and alcoholic cardiomyopathy in 4. Initial echocardiograms revealed left ventricular dilatation (average diastolic diameter, 69.45±8.15mm, reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (0.38±0.08 and left atrial dilatation (43.36±5.16mm. The therapeutic approach followed consisted of patient orientation, elimination of etiological or causal factors of cardiac failure, and prescription of digitalis, diuretics, and angiotensinconverting enzyme inhibitors. RESULTS - Following treatment, left ventricular ejection fraction changed to 0.63±0.09; left ventricular diameters changed to 57.18±8.13mm, and left atrium diameters changed to 37.27±8.05mm. Maximum improvement was noted after 16.9±8.63 (6 to 36 months. CONCLUSION - Patients with serious cardiac failure and ventricular dysfunction caused by hypertension, alcoholism, or myocarditis can experience marked improvement in ventricular dysfunction after undergoing appropriate therapy within the venue of the doctor's office.

  15. Analysis of serpentinophytes from north-east of Portugal for trace metal accumulation--relevance to the management of mine environment.

    Freitas, H; Prasad, M N V; Pratas, J


    In north-east of Portugal, the serpentinized area is about 8000 ha with a characteristic geology and flora. The serpentine plant community and respective soils were analyzed to examine the trace metal budget in different tissues of the plants exhibiting resistance to trace metals. One hundred and thirty five plant species belonging to 39 families and respective soils have been analyzed for total Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn. Substantial amounts of Ni, Cr, Co and Mn were detected in plant tissues which are listed below: NI: Alyssum serpyllifolium (38105); Bromus hordeaceus (1467); Linaria spartea (492); Plantago radicata (140); Lavandula stoechas (118) and Cistus salvifolius (114); CR: L. spartea (706.7); Ulmus procera (173.4); A. serpyllifolium (129.3); Cistus ladanifer (40.8); L. stoechas (29.5); P. radicata (27.81); Setariopsis verticillata (25.7); Plantago lanceolata (24); Digitalis purpurea (23.4); Logfia minima (23.1); Arenaria querioides (23); Hieracium peleteranum (22.7); Arenaria montana (14.5); CO: A. serpyllifolium (145.1); L. spartea (63.2); P. radicata (10.4); H. peleteranum (7.3); Lepidium heterophyllum (6.9); A. querioides (6.6); C. salvifolius (6.5); C. ladanifer (6.3); L. stoechas (6.1); Anthyllis lotoides (6.1); L. minima (6.1); Euphorbia falcata (5.7) and B. hordeaceus (5.6); MN: A. serpyllifolium (830); L. spartea (339); L. stoechas (187.1); L. minima (182.7); Castanea sativa (125); Spergula pentandra (124); P. radicata (119); Cytisus striatus (115.4); Quercus pyrenaica (110); Teucrium scorodonia (109.4); Fraxinus vulgaris (109); Anthyllis sampaiana (108); Quercus ilex (108). The significance of serpentine flora, need for conservation of these fragile and environmentally invaluable plant resources for possible use for in situ remediation of metalliferous substrates are presented in this paper.

  16. [Inotropic agents].

    Sasayama, Shigetake


    Depression of myocardial contractility plays an important role in the development of heart failure and many inotropic agents were developed to improve the contractile function of the failing heart. Agents that increase cyclic AMP, either by increasing its synthesis or reducing its degradation, exerted dramatic short-term hemodynamic benefits, but these acute effects were not extrapolated into long-term improvement of the clinical outcome of heart failure patients. Administration of these agents to an energy starved failing heart would be expected to increase myocardial energy use and could accelerate disease progression. The role of digitalis in the management of heart failure has been controversial, however, the recent large scale clinical trial has ironically proved that digoxin reduced the rate of hospitalization both overall and for worsening heart failure. More recently, attention was paid to other inotropic agents that have a complex and diversified mechanism. These agents have some phosphodiesterase-inhibitory action but also possess additional effects, including cytokine inhibitors, immunomodulators, or calcium sensitizers. In the Western Societies these agents were again shown to increase mortality of patients with severe heart failure in a dose dependent manner with the long-term administration. However, it may not be the case in the Japanese population in whom mortality is relatively low. Chronic treatment with inotropic agent may be justified in Japanese, as it allows optimal care in the context of relief of symptoms and an improved quality of life. Therefore, each racial group should obtain specific evidence aimed at developing its own guidelines for therapy rather than translating major guidelines developed for other populations.

  17. Diverse toxicity associated with cardiac Na+/K+ pump inhibition: evaluation of electrophysiological mechanisms.

    Rocchetti, M; Besana, A; Mostacciuolo, G; Ferrari, P; Micheletti, R; Zaza, A


    (E,Z)-3-((2-Aminoethoxy)imino)androstane-6,17-dione hydrochloride (PST2744) is a novel Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibitor with positive inotropic effects. Compared with digoxin in various experimental models, PST2744 was consistently found to be less arrhythmogenic, thus resulting in a significantly higher therapeutic index. The present work compares the electrophysiological effects of PST2744 and digoxin in guinea pig ventricular myocytes, with the aim to identify a mechanism for their different toxicity. The work showed that 1) the action potential was transiently prolonged and then similarly shortened by both agents; 2) the ratio between Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibition and inotropy was somewhat larger for PST2744 than for digoxin; 3) both agents accelerated inactivation of high-threshold Ca(2+) current (I(CaL)), without affecting its peak amplitude; 4) the transient inward current (I(TI)) induced by a Ca(2+) transient in the presence of complete Na(+)/K(+) pump blockade was inhibited (-43%) by PST2744 but not by digoxin; 5) the conductance of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger current (I(NaCa)), recorded under Na(+)/K(+) pump blockade, was only slightly inhibited by PST2744 (-14%) and unaffected by digoxin; and 6) both agents inhibited delayed rectifier current I(Ks) (digitalis-induced arrhythmias. Indeed, the other differences observed concern quantitatively small effects; and 2) I(TI) suppression by PST2744 may be only partly accounted for by inhibition of the Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger.

  18. Archivi storici e web locale

    Roberto Grassi


    Full Text Available Il mondo degli archivi utilizza in modo crescente il web come strumento principe di comunicazione. L'impegno della comunità professionale si è sin qui orientato prevalentemente ai grandi sistemi informativi allestiti su base territoriale o tematica. Sostanzialmente trascurato è stato invece il tema dei siti locali che, in raccordo simbiotico con i grandi sistemi, possono diventare un efficace veicolo di valorizzazione degli archivi storici. Una prima condizione perché ciò accada è l'individuazione di un piano di pubblicazione dei contenuti che, a partire dalle descrizioni inventariali e dalle riproduzioni digitali di documenti, si rivolga ad altre componenti del patrimonio culturale territoriale quali la storiografia, le fonti fotografiche, i beni storico artistici ecc. Attorno ad un progetto di sito locale occorre aggregare le risorse umane, professionali e finanziarie disponibili nella comunità di riferimento ma soprattutto occorre individuare e coinvolgere fattivamente precise fasce di pubblico. The archives increasingly use web resources as a primary medium of communication. Until now the professional community favored the creation of geographic or thematic information systems. Local web sites have been rather neglected but they may become effective means of exploitation of historical archives, in connection with the “large” information systems. Anyway, it is necessary to identify a plan for publishing content that, starting from archival descriptions and digital reproductions, includes other components of local cultural heritage such as historiography, photographic sources and art heritage. In order to build a local website it is necessary both to aggregate human, professional and financial resources of the local community, and, above all, to identify and actively engage specific user targets.

  19. Ethnopharmacological survey of wild medicinal plants in Showbak, Jordan.

    Al-Qura'n, S


    Two main research questions are framing this investigation: (1) the main taxa of the medicinal importance value altered the Showbak forest stand and species composition? (2) The most safe species and what are the toxic ones (unsafe). These two research questions are the vital ones to draw a clear image about the wild medicinal plants of this investigated area of Showbak region in Jordan. 79 wild medicinal plant species were investigated in this study which are used in traditional medication for the treatment of various diseases. Most of the locals interviewed dealt with well-known safe medicinal plants such as Aaronsohnia factorovskyi Warb. et Eig., Achillea santolina L., Adiantum capillus-veneris L., Artemisia herba-alba L., Ceratonia siliqua L., Clematis recta L., Herniaria hirsuta L., Malva neglecta Wallr., Rosmarinus officinalis L., Ruta chalepensis L., Salvia triloba L., Sarcopoterium spinosa (L.) Spach., Thymbra capitata (L.) Hof, and Urginea maritima Barker. Many of the wild medicinal plants investigated were toxic and needed to be practiced by practitioners and herbalists rather than the local healers. These plants include Calotropis procera Willd R.Br., Citrullus colocynthis (L.) Sch., Datura stramonium L., Digitalis purpurea L., Ecballium elaterium (L.) A.Rich., Euphorbia helioscopia L., Euphorbia tinctoria Boiss., Glaucium corniculatum (L.) Curt., Hyoscyamus aureus L., Mandragora officinarum L., Nerium oleander L., Ricinus communis L., Solanum nigrum L., Withania somnifera (L.) Dunel. The conservation of medicinal plants and natural resources is becoming increasingly important, so this research is trying to collect information from local population concerning the use of medicinal plants in Showbak; identify the most important specie; determine the relative importance value of the species and calculate the informant consensus factor (ICF) for the medicinal plants. Obtaining results is relied on the interviewee's personal information and the medicinal use

  20. Survival and echocardiographic evaluation of dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy treated with carvedilol Avaliação ecocardiográfica e de sobrevida de cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática tratados com carvedilol

    E.C. Soares


    Full Text Available Sixty dogs with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy were randomly treated with traditional therapy - digitalis, diuretics, angiotensin-converting inhibitors - (group A or treated with these drugs plus carvedilol (group B. Echocardiographic variables were measured before and after 3, 13, 26, and 52 weeks of treatment or until death. Comparisons between groups and time were performed. No significant differences between groups were found in the most of the echocardiographic variables. The left ventricular end-systolic diameter indexed to body surface area (LVESDi increased significantly in the group A dogs compared to the group B animals. The survival of groups A and B dogs were not different (P-value=0.1137. In conclusion, the stability of the LVESDi observed in the group treated with carvedilol may represent the beneficial effect over the ventricular remodeling.Sessenta cães com cardiomiopatia dilatada idiopática receberam, aleatoriamente, tratamento convencional - digitálicos, diuréticos, inibidores da enzima conversora de angiotensina - (grupo A ou esses fármacos mais carvedilol (grupo B. As variáveis ecocardiográficas foram avaliadas antes e depois de três, 13, 26 e 52 semanas de tratamento ou até o óbito. Não foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos de animais quanto à maioria das variáveis ecocardiográficas. O diâmetro sistólico final do ventrículo esquerdo indexado à superfície corpórea (DSVEi aumentou de forma significativa no grupo A quando comparado ao grupo B. Não se observou diferença na sobrevida dos grupos A e B (P=0,1137. Concluiu-se que a estabilização do DSVEi no grupo tratado com carvedilol pode representar o efeito benéfico deste fármaco sobre o remodelamento ventricular.

  1. Electrochemical Na+ and Ca2+ gradients drive coupled-clock regulation of automaticity of isolated rabbit sinoatrial nodal pacemaker cells.

    Sirenko, Syevda G; Maltsev, Victor A; Yaniv, Yael; Bychkov, Rostislav; Yaeger, Daniel; Vinogradova, Tatiana; Spurgeon, Harold A; Lakatta, Edward G


    Coupling of an intracellular Ca(2+) clock to surface membrane ion channels, i.e., a "membrane clock, " via coupling of electrochemical Na(+) and Ca(2+) gradients (ENa and ECa, respectively) has been theorized to regulate sinoatrial nodal cell (SANC) normal automaticity. To test this hypothesis, we measured responses of [Na(+)]i, [Ca(2+)]i, membrane potential, action potential cycle length (APCL), and rhythm in rabbit SANCs to Na(+)/K(+) pump inhibition by the digitalis glycoside, digoxigenin (DG, 10-20 μmol/l). Initial small but significant increases in [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i and reductions in ENa and ECa in response to DG led to a small reduction in maximum diastolic potential (MDP), significantly enhanced local diastolic Ca(2+) releases (LCRs), and reduced the average APCL. As [Na(+)]i and [Ca(2+)]i continued to increase at longer times following DG exposure, further significant reductions in MDP, ENa, and ECa occurred; LCRs became significantly reduced, and APCL became progressively and significantly prolonged. This was accompanied by increased APCL variability. We also employed a coupled-clock numerical model to simulate changes in ENa and ECa simultaneously with ion currents not measured experimentally. Numerical modeling predicted that, as the ENa and ECa monotonically reduced over time in response to DG, ion currents (ICaL, ICaT, If, IKr, and IbNa) monotonically decreased. In parallel with the biphasic APCL, diastolic INCX manifested biphasic changes; initial INCX increase attributable to enhanced LCR ensemble Ca(2+) signal was followed by INCX reduction as ENCX (ENCX = 3ENa - 2ECa) decreased. Thus SANC automaticity is tightly regulated by ENa, ECa, and ENCX via a complex interplay of numerous key clock components that regulate SANC clock coupling.


    Diego Santalucia


    Full Text Available L’articolo, prendendo spunto da recenti progetti che spingono per un utilizzo sempre più esteso di tablet e strumenti digitali in classe, fa riferimento alla Raccomandazione del Parlamento Europeo e del Consiglio dell’Unione Europea (2006 per discutere alcuni degli elementi rappresentativi della “competenza digitale” che la Raccomandazione delinea. Alla luce di questi elementi si sviluppano alcune indicazioni sull’uso ragionato dei motori di ricerca e di alcune risorse offerte dalla rete, come Google Docs e Google Drive.Seguono una breve illustrazione di Edmodo, una piattaforma didattica social, e alcune indicazioni sull’utilizzo degli smartphone per l’accesso a risorse utili e semplici da condividere in classe. Sono tracciate alcune linee guida sulla gestione di risorse già accessibili in rete e che sono, quindi, a disposizione di quegli insegnanti di Italiano L2/LS che vogliano utilizzare sistemi di condivisione online a sostegno della didattica in presenza.Digital competence and digital language teaching for Italian L2/FL teachersThe article, inspired by recent projects that push for an ever-wider use of tablets and digital tools in the classroom, refers to the Recommendation of the European Parliament and of the Council of the European Union (2006 discusses some of the representative elements of “digital competence” that the Recommendation outlines. In light of these elements, some guidelines on the use of search engines and some resources offered by the network, such as Google Docs and Google Drive, are offered.This is followed by a brief description of Edmodo, a social learning platform, and information on the use of smartphones to access helpful resources that are easy to share in class. Finally, some guidelines on the management of resources already available on the Internet for Italian L2/FL teachers who want to use online sharing systems to support of frontal lessons are given.

  3. Cloud Computing and Libraries: Illusion or Opportunity? Il cloud computing e le biblioteche: illusione o opportunità?

    Valdo Pasqui


    Full Text Available

    The expression Cloud Computing is used for referring to a variety of platforms supplying application and resources displaced into the net. Applications to libraries are many: email services; the possibility of developing new tasks without investing resources in hardware; digital resources preservation; library catalogue management, and so on. One of the strongest aspects of this system is the flexible payment (pay-as-you-go, depending on release ways and on real usage. Benefits for libraries using cloud computing concern the quality of services, and the infrastructural and management cost control, in particular regarding the digital preservation. This kind of technology can present negative aspects related to the strong dependency from internet, to data safety, and to the lack of standards and shared metrics.

    L'espressione Cloud computing si riferisce a una varietà di piattaforme e di tecnologie informatiche che forniscono applicazioni per l'utilizzo di risorse hardware e software dislocate nella rete. Le applicazioni alle biblioteche sono numerose, spaziano dal semplice servizio di posta elettronica alla possibilità di sviluppare nuove applicazioni senza investire nell'acquisizione dell’hardware necessario, dalla conservazione delle risorse digitali ad applicazioni per la gestione del catalogo. Uno dei principali punti di forza di questi sistemi è costituito dal pagamento flessibile (pay-as-you-go, a seconda delle modalità di rilascio e all'effettivo utilizzo. I benefici per le biblioteche che utilizzano il Cloud computing riguardano la qualità dei servizi forniti e il contenimento dei costi infrastrutturali e gestionali, in particolare nell'ambito della digital preservation. Questo tipo di tecnologia presenta tuttavia alcuni aspetti negativi, dovuti alla forte dipendenza dalla rete, al rischio per sicurezza dei dati, alla mancanza di standard e strumenti metrici unanimemente condivisi.

  4. Herzbeteiligung bei Myopathien

    Finsterer J


    Full Text Available Herzbeteiligung bei Patienten mit Myopathien wird zunehmend häufiger diagnostiziert. Sie manifestiert sich bei diesen Patienten als Störung der Erregungsbildung und -ausbreitung, Wandverdickung, abnorme Textur des Myokards, linksventrikuläre Hypertrabekulierung, Dilatation der Herzhöhlen mit/ohne sekundärer Klappeninsuffizienz, Reduktion der Koronarreserve, intrakardiale Thrombusbildung, Endo-/Myokardfibrose, regionale Wandbewegungsstörung und systolische und/oder diastolische Funktionsstörung mit/ohne Herzinsuffizienz. Herzbeteiligung wurde bisher bei Dystrophinopathien, Emery-Dreifuss-Muskeldystrophie, fazioskapulohumeraler Muskeldystrophie, Sarcoglycanopathien, kongenitaler Muskeldystrophie Fukuyama, myotoner Dystrophie Typ 1 und 2, Glykogenose Typ II, III, IV, VII und IX, Carnitinmangel, Myoadenylat-Deaminase-Mangel, Acyl-CoA-Dehydrogenase-Mangel, lysosomaler Glykogen-Speicherkrankheit, Mitochondriopathien, Desmin-Myopathie, Nemalin-Myopathie, Central Core-Krankheit, kongenitaler Fasertypen-Dysproportion, Barth-Syndrom, McLeod-Syndrom und Bethlem-Myopathie beschrieben. Herzbeteiligung bei Myopathien kann über Monate oder Jahre progredient verlaufen oder auch akut auftreten bzw. sich bis hin zum kardialen Notfall verschlechtern. Die Therapie der Herzbeteiligung richtet sich nach den spezifischen kardialen Abnormitäten und umfaßt Digitalis, Diuretika, ACE-Hemmer, Kalziumantagonisten, Amiodaron, Betablocker, L-Carnitin, Antikoagulation, Kardioversion, Schrittmacher, Defibrillator, Hochfrequenz-Katheter-Ablation und die Herztransplantation. Generell sollten Myopathie-Patienten kardiologisch untersucht werden, sobald die neurologische Diagnose feststeht, da eine suffiziente kardiale Therapie die Herzbeteiligung bei Myopathien positiv beeinflußt. Ein kardiologisches Follow-up ist angezeigt, wenn die Herzbeteiligung klinisch manifest wird bzw. bei rascher Progredienz.

  5. Herzbeteiligung bei Myopathien

    Finsterer J


    Full Text Available Herzbeteiligung bei Patienten mit Myopathien wird zunehmend häufiger diagnostiziert. Sie manifestiert sich bei diesen Patienten als Störung der Erregungsbildung und -ausbreitung, Wandverdickung, abnorme Textur des Myokards, linksventrikuläre Hypertrabekulierung, Dilatation der Herzhöhlen mit/ohne sekundärer Klappeninsuffizienz, Reduktion der Koronarreserve, intrakardiale Thrombusbildung, Endo-/Myokardfibrose, regionale Wandbewegungsstörung und systolische und/oder diastolische Funktionsstörung mit/ohne Herzinsuffizienz. Herzbeteiligung wurde bisher bei Dystrophinopathien, Emery-Dreifuss-Muskeldystrophie, fazioskapulohumeraler Muskeldystrophie, Sarcoglycanopathien, kongenitaler Muskeldystrophie Fukuyama, myotoner Dystrophie Typ 1 und 2, proximal myotoner Myopathie, Glykogenose Typ II, III, IV, VII und IX, Carnitinmangel, Myoadenylat-Deaminase-Mangel, Acyl-CoA-Dehydrogenase-Mangel, lysosomaler Glykogen-Speicherkrankheit, Mitochondriopathien, Desmin-Myopathie, Nemalin-Myopathie, Central Core-Krankheit, kongenitaler Fasertypen-Dysproportion, Barth-Syndrom, McLeod-Syndrom und Bethlem-Myopathie beschrieben. Herzbeteiligung bei Myopathien kann über Monate oder Jahre progredient verlaufen oder auch akut auftreten bzw. sich bis hin zum kardialen Notfall verschlechtern. Die Therapie der Herzbeteiligung richtet sich nach den spezifischen kardialen Abnormitäten und umfaßt Digitalis, Diuretika, ACE-Hemmer, Kalziumantagonisten, Amiodaron, Betablocker, L-Carnitin, Antikoagulation, Kardioversion, Schrittmacher, Defibrillator, Hochfrequenz-Katheter-Ablation und die Herztransplantation. Generell sollten Myopathie-Patienten kardiologisch untersucht werden, sobald die neurologische Diagnose feststeht, da eine suffiziente kardiale Therapie die Herzbeteiligung bei Myopathien positiv beeinflußt. Ein kardiologisches Follow-up ist angezeigt, wenn die Herzbeteiligung klinisch manifest wird bzw. bei rascher Progredienz.

  6. Hyperkalemia in heart failure patients: current challenges and future prospects

    López-Vilella R


    Full Text Available Raquel López-Vilella, Herminio Morillas-Climent, Diego Plaza-López, Mónica Cebrián-Pinar, Ignacio Sánchez-Lázaro, Luis Almenar-Bonet Heart Failure and Heart Transplant Unit, Cardiology Department, Hospital La Fe, Valencia, Spain Abstract: In heart failure (HF, hyperkalemia is a frequent problem because of several factors, such as neurohormonal mechanisms involved in the disease, renal failure, comorbidities, and drugs with a prognostic benefit. These drugs can block the renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, and therefore, serum potassium levels can increase, mostly when combined with other drugs as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatories, digitalis, heparin, etc. Hyperkalemia can have severe consequences if not corrected, mostly at the cardiac level (decrease in speed conduction, QRS enlargement, ventricular arrhythmias, and asystole. Therefore, it is important to adequately prescribe these potentially harmful drugs (starting at low doses with close monitoring of renal function and potassium levels, to carefully manage the factors that can interfere with potassium levels, and to early treat hyperkalemia if it develops. There are several investigation lines for the design of new molecules that show a similar efficacy to that of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system, with a lower risk of hyperkalemia: nonsteroidal mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists like finerenone, which is a more cardioselective drug than traditional mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists, and angiotensin and neprilysin inhibitors such as LCZ696, which have proven to reduce mortality and heart failure hospitalizations. Besides, new drugs are being studied, which are able to reduce levels of serum potassium in a sustained and faster way, like chelating polymers Patiromer and sodium zirconium cyclosilicate. Keywords: hyperkalemia, heart failure, renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system inhibitors

  7. [Preoperative digitalization. Measurement of digoxin plasma levels (author's transl)].

    Geiger, H J; Rietbrock, N


    In a study of 233 patients from the department of surgery and anesthesiology taking digoxin preparations 64, per cent exhibit digoxin levels in the therapeutic range (0.6--1.5 ng/ml), 19 per cent had subtoxic concentrations ranged from 1.6--2.0 ng/ml and 7 per cent were in the toxic range (greater than 2 ng/ml). In patients treated with digoxin before admission to hospital subtherapeutic levels were most frequent. An average loading dose of digoxin 1 mg or more on one day may result in subtoxic and toxic digoxin levels on the second day, in patients receiving less than 1 mg digoxin daily an increasing frequency of plasma digoxin concentrations of 1.5 ng/ml or higher values was present on the third day. Averaged plasma digoxin concentrations were correlated with daily maintenance dose. There was, however, a wide individual variation in digoxin plasma concentrations. A low incidence of toxic digoxin plasma levels was observed in patients receiving a daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg digoxin (Lanicor). For prophylactic digitalization of patients with normal renal and thyroid function the following schedules or statistical guidlines are proposed: Lanicor (bioavailability 60%): oral loading dose of 0.75 mg over two days, and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.375 mg; Novodigal (bioavailability 80%): oral loading dose of 0.6 mg over two days and then daily oral maintenance dose of 0.3 mg; Digoxin i.v.: intravenous loading dose of 0.5 (0.4) mg over two days and then 0.25 (0.2) mg daily intravenous maintenance dose. For any patient needing treatment with digitalis glycosides therapy must be individual and dynamic. The reasons for toxic concentrations were frequently attributed to wrong dosage.

  8. Refining the in vitro and in vivo critical parameters for P-glycoprotein, [I]/IC50 and [I2]/IC50, that allow for the exclusion of drug candidates from clinical digoxin interaction studies.

    Cook, Jack A; Feng, Bo; Fenner, Katherine S; Kempshall, Sarah; Liu, Ray; Rotter, Charles; Smith, Dennis A; Troutman, Matthew D; Ullah, Mohammed; Lee, Caroline A


    The objective of this work was to further investigate the reasons for disconcordant clinical digoxin drug interactions (DDIs) particularly for false negative where in vitro data suggests no P-glycoprotein (P-gp) related DDI but a clinically relevant DDI is evident. Applying statistical analyses of binary classification and receiver operating characteristic (ROC), revised cutoff values for ratio of [I]/IC(50) < 0.1 and [I(2)]/IC(50) < 5 were identified to minimize the error rate, a reduction of false negative rate to 9% from 36% (based on individual ratios). The steady state total C(max) at highest dose of the inhibitor is defined as [I] and the ratio of the nominal maximal gastrointestinal concentration determined for highest dose per 250 mL volume defined [I(2)](.) We also investigated the reliability of the clinical data to see if recommendations can be made on values that would allow predictions of 25% change in digoxin exposure. The literature derived clinical digoxin interaction studies were statistically powered to detect relevant changes in exposure associated with digitalis toxicities. Our analysis identified that many co-meds administered with digoxin are cardiovascular (CV) agents. Moreover, our investigations also suggest that the presence of CV agents may alter cardiac output and/or kidney function that may act alone or are additional components to enhance digoxin exposure along with P-gp interaction. While we recommend digoxin as the probe substrate to define P-gp inhibitory potency for clinical assessment, we observed high concordance in P-gp inhibitory potency for calcein AM as a probe substrate.

  9. Characterization of niphatenones that inhibit androgen receptor N-terminal domain.

    Carmen A Banuelos

    Full Text Available Androgen ablation therapy causes a temporary reduction in tumor burden in patients with advanced prostate cancer. Unfortunately the malignancy will return to form lethal castration-recurrent prostate cancer (CRPC. The androgen receptor (AR remains transcriptionally active in CRPC in spite of castrate levels of androgens in the blood. AR transcriptional activity resides in its N-terminal domain (NTD. Possible mechanisms of continued AR transcriptional activity may include, at least in part, expression of constitutively active splice variants of AR that lack the C-terminal ligand-binding domain (LBD. Current therapies that target the AR LBD, would not be effective against these AR variants. Currently no drugs are clinically available that target the AR NTD which should be effective against these AR variants as well as full-length AR. Niphatenones were originally isolated and identified in active extracts from Niphates digitalis marine sponge. Here we begin to characterize the mechanism of niphatenones in blocking AR transcriptional activity. Both enantiomers had similar IC50 values of 6 µM for inhibiting the full-length AR in a functional transcriptional assay. However, (S-niphatenone had significantly better activity against the AR NTD compared to (R-niphatenone. Consistent with niphatenones binding to and inhibiting transactivation of AR NTD, niphatenones inhibited AR splice variant. Niphatenone did not affect the transcriptional activity of the related progesterone receptor, but slightly decreased glucocorticoid receptor (GR activity and covalently bound to GR activation function-1 (AF-1 region. Niphatenone blocked N/C interactions of AR without altering either AR protein levels or its intracellular localization in response to androgen. Alkylation with glutathione suggests that niphatenones are not a feasible scaffold for further drug development.


    Gregor Veninšek


    Full Text Available Background. DIGAMI study showed that intrahospital mortality and mortality at one year after myocardial infarction can be significantly reduced in diabetics treated in acute phase of myocardial infarction by GI infusion and afterwards for at least three months with intensive insulin treatment. Mortality can be reduced for more than 50% in a subgroup of patients younger than 70 years, without congestive heart failure, with first myocardial infarction, not treated with insulin or digitalis. In this perspective we reviewed treatment of diabetics with acute myocardial infarction in 1999 in Celje General Hospital.Methods. We reviewed documentation of treatment of all diabetics with acute myocardial infarction treated in Celje General Hospital in 1999. We collected data on number of newly discovered diabetes, on previous treatment of diabetes, on treatment of diabetes during hospitalization and at discharge, on drugs used for treatment of diabetes and on mortality during hospitalization.Results. Diabetics presented 20% of all patients with acute myocardial infarction treated in Celje General Hospital in 1999. None of patients received GI infusion, none had intensively managed blood sugar. 24% of patients were treated with sulfonylureas in acute phase of myocardial infarction. 33% of patients were discharged from hospital with insulin therapy. Intrahospital mortality was 9%, comparable with patients without diabetes.Conclusions. In 1999 was intrahospital treatment of diabetics with acute myocardial infarction in Celje General Hospital successful as their intrahospital mortality equaled non-diabetics. Treatment of diabetes itself, during hospitalization and after discharge, on the other hand, in 1999 had not been up to date according to results of recent studies. In our opinion, it is mandatory for diabetologist to make part of the team that treats diabetic with acute myocardial infarction

  11. Hipertiroidismo neonatal: presentación de 2 pacientes Neonatal hyperthyroidism: Report of 2 cases

    Pedro González Fernández


    Full Text Available Se presentaron 2 pacientes con diagnóstico de hipertiroidismo neonatal: uno del sexo masculino y otro del femenino; con antecedentes de ser hijos de madres con enfermedad de Graves; una de ellas se encontraba sin tratamiento, y con síntomas de hipertiroidismo y la otra con tratamiento y tenía controlada esa afección. Se realizó el diagnóstico por los antecedentes de ser hijos de madres con enfermedad de Graves Basedow; así como por las manifestaciones clínicas: bocio, exoftalmos, pérdida de peso, irritabilidad, taquicardia e insuficiencia cardíaca en uno de los pacientes. Según los exámenes de laboratorio realizados, se obtuvieron los resultados siguientes: T4 ³ 180 nmol/L y TSH 2 patients with diagnosis of neonatal hyperthyroidism, a male and a female, are presented. Their mothers suffer from Graves’ disease, one of them has no treatment and presents symptoms of hyperthyroidism, and the other is under treatment and her disease is under control. The diagnosis was made taking into account that they are children from mothers with Graves Basedow’ disease and the following clinical manifestations: goiter, exophthalmos, weight loss, irritability, tachycardia and cardiac insufficiency in one of the patients. The results of the laboratory tests for both patients were: T4 ³ l80 nmol/L and TSH < 1 U/L. Treatment with propylthiouracilo, propanolol and phenobarbital as well as general measures and digitalis therapy in the patient requiring it were indicated. A favorable evolution was observed in these 2 patients.

  12. A propensity‐matched study of the effect of diabetes on the natural history of heart failure: variations by sex and age

    Ahmed, Ali; Aban, Inmaculada B; Vaccarino, Viola; Lloyd‐Jones, Donald M; Goff, David C; Zhao, Jiannan; Love, Thomas E; Ritchie, Christine; Ovalle, Fernando; Gambassi, Giovanni; Dell'Italia, Louis J


    Background Poor prognosis in heart failure (HF) patients with diabetes is often attributed to increased co‐morbidity and advanced disease. Further, this effect may be worse in women. Objective To determine whether the effect of diabetes on outcomes and the sex‐related variation persisted in a propensity score‐matched HF population, and whether the sex‐related variation was a function of age. Methods Of the 7788 HF patients in the Digitalis Investigation Group trial, 2218 had a history of diabetes. Propensity score for diabetes was calculated for each patient using a non‐parsimonious logistic regression model incorporating all measured baseline covariates, and was used to match 2056 (93%) diabetic patients with 2056 non‐diabetic patients. Results All‐cause mortality occurred in 135 (25%) and 216 (39%) women without and with diabetes (adjusted HR = 1.67; 95% CI = 1.34 to 2.08; p<0.001). Among men, 535 (36%) and 609 (41%) patients without and with diabetes died from all causes (adjusted HR = 1.21; 95% CI = 1.07 to 1.36; p = 0.002). Sex–diabetes interaction (overall adjusted p<0.001) was only significant in patients ⩾65 years (15% absolute risk increase in women; multivariable p for interaction = 0.005), but not in younger patients (2% increase in women; p for interaction = 0.173). Risk‐adjusted HR (95% CI) for all‐cause hospitalisation for women and men were 1.49 (1.28 to 1.72) and 1.21 (1.11 to 1.32), respectively, also with significant sex–diabetes interaction (p = 0.011). Conclusions Diabetes‐associated increases in morbidity and mortality in chronic HF were more pronounced in women, and theses sex‐related differences in outcomes were primarily observed in elderly patients. PMID:17488764

  13. Digital Education Research (DER as a theoretical/empirical bridge between research and training

    Alberto Parola


    Full Text Available The article intends to propose an epistemological and methodological approach, called Digital Education Research (DER, which considers the “digital world” as the complexification of reality, suggesting inedited observation and assessment modality as part of educational research and teaching. This approach inevitably borrows issues, paradigms and methods of different disciplines (especially the intersubjectivity concept filtered from the psychological, anthropology and neuroscience theories lenses applying them to learning situations, which require the use of digital media. In this sense, teacher education needs a restructuration that guides design practices towards teaching to enable them to strengthen their capacity to formulate hypotheses and bring out evidences, in activities related to action research strategies that can accommodate mixed methods research, confirming scientific dignity to the various nature and origin data, unstructured, textual and audiovisual.La Digital Education Research (DER come ponte teorico/empirico tra ricerca e formazione L’articolo intende proporre un approccio epistemologico e metodologico, denominato digital education research, che considera il “mondo digitale” come una dimensione di complessificazione del reale, suggerendo modalità di osservazione e valutazione inedite nell’ambito della ricerca educativa e nell’insegnamento. Tale approccio inevitabilmente mutua temi, paradigmi e metodi di differenti discipline (in special modo il concetto di “intersoggettività” filtrata dalle lenti di teorie psicologiche, antropologiche e neuroscientifiche applicandoli ai contesti apprenditivi, che richiedono l’uso dei media digitali. In tal senso, la formazione degli insegnanti necessita di una ristrutturazione che orienta le pratiche progettuali verso una didattica che consenta loro di potenziare le capacità di formulare ipotesi e far emergere evidenze, in attività riferibili a strategie di ricerca

  14. Pharmacological Therapy for Myocardial Infarction in the Elderly: An 8-year Analysis

    Márcia Regina Pinho Makdisse


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE:To assess the changes in the medicamentous treatment of elderly patients hospitalized with acute myocardial infarction occurring over an 8-year period. METHODS:We retrospectively analyzed 379 patients above the age of 65 years with acute myocardial infarction who were admitted to the coronary unit of a university-affiliated hospital from 1990 to 1997. The patients were divided into 2 groups, according to the period of time of hospital admission as follows: group 1 - from 1990 to 1993; and group 2 - from 1994 to 1997. RESULTS:The use of beta-blockers (40.8%chi 75.2%, p<0.0001 and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (42% chi59.5%, p=0.001 was significantly greater in group 2, while the use of calcium antagonists (42% chi 18.5%, p<0.0001 and general antiarrhythmic drugs (19.1% chi 10.8%, p=0.03 was significantly lower. No significant difference was observed in regard to the use of acetylsalicylic acid, thrombolytic agents, nitrate, and digitalis in the period studied. The length of hospitalization was shorter in group 2 (13.4±8.9 days chi 10.5±7.5 days, p<0.001. The in-hospital mortality was 35.7% in group 1 and 26.6% in group 2 (p=0.07. CONCLUSION: Significant changes were observed in the treatment of elderly patients with acute myocardial infarction, with a greater use of beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and a lower use of calcium antagonists and antiarrhythmic drugs in group 2. The length of hospitalization and the mortality rate were also lower in group 2, even though the reduction in mortality was not statistically significant.

  15. The role of cis-carotenoids in abscisic acid biosynthesis.

    Parry, A D; Babiano, M J; Horgan, R


    Evidence has been obtained which is consistent with 9'-cis-neoxanthin being a major precursor of abscisic acid (ABA) in higher plants. A mild, rapid procedure was developed for the extraction and analysis of carotenoids from a range of tissues. Once purified the carotenoids were identified from their light-absorbance properties, reactions with dilute acid, high-performance liquid chromatography Rts, mass spectra and the quasiequilibria resulting from iodine-catalysed or chlorophyllsensitised photoisomerisation. Two possible ABA precursors, 9'-cis-neoxanthin and 9-cis-violaxanthin, were identified in extracts of light-grown and etiolated leaves (of Lycopersicon esculentum, Phaseolus vulgaris, Vicia faba, Pisum sativum, Cicer arietinum, Zea mays, Nicotiana plumbaginifolia, Plantago lanceolata and Digitalis purpurea), and roots of light-grown and etiolated plants (Lycopersicon, Phaseolus and Zea). The 9,9'-di-cisisomer of violaxanthin was synthesised but its presence was not detected in any extracts. Levels of 9'-cis-neoxanthin and all-trans-violaxanthin were between 20- to 100-fold greater than those of ABA in light-grown leaves. The levels of 9-cis-violaxanthin were similar to those of ABA but unaffected by water stress. Etiolated Phaseolus leaves contained reduced amounts of carotenoids (15-20% compared with light-grown leaves) but retained the ability to synthesise large amounts of ABA. The amounts of ABA synthesised, measured as increases in ABA and its metabolites phaseic acid and dihydrophaseic acid, were closely matched by decreases in the levels of 9'-cis-neoxanthin and all-trans-violaxanthin. In etiolated seedlings grown on 50% D2O, deuterium incorporation into ABA was similar to that into the xanthophylls. Relative levels of carotenoids in roots and light-grown and etiolated leaves of the ABA-deficient mutants, notabilis, flacca and sitiens were the same as those found in wild-type tomato tissues.

  16. Efficacy, safety, quality control, marketing and regulatory guidelines for herbal medicines (phytotherapeutic agents

    J.B. Calixto


    Full Text Available This review highlights the current advances in knowledge about the safety, efficacy, quality control, marketing and regulatory aspects of botanical medicines. Phytotherapeutic agents are standardized herbal preparations consisting of complex mixtures of one or more plants which contain as active ingredients plant parts or plant material in the crude or processed state. A marked growth in the worldwide phytotherapeutic market has occurred over the last 15 years. For the European and USA markets alone, this will reach about $7 billion and $5 billion per annum, respectively, in 1999, and has thus attracted the interest of most large pharmaceutical companies. Insufficient data exist for most plants to guarantee their quality, efficacy and safety. The idea that herbal drugs are safe and free from side effects is false. Plants contain hundreds of constituents and some of them are very toxic, such as the most cytotoxic anti-cancer plant-derived drugs, digitalis and the pyrrolizidine alkaloids, etc. However, the adverse effects of phytotherapeutic agents are less frequent compared with synthetic drugs, but well-controlled clinical trials have now confirmed that such effects really exist. Several regulatory models for herbal medicines are currently available including prescription drugs, over-the-counter substances, traditional medicines and dietary supplements. Harmonization and improvement in the processes of regulation is needed, and the general tendency is to perpetuate the German Commission E experience, which combines scientific studies and traditional knowledge (monographs. Finally, the trend in the domestication, production and biotechnological studies and genetic improvement of medicinal plants, instead of the use of plants harvested in the wild, will offer great advantages, since it will be possible to obtain uniform and high quality raw materials which are fundamental to the efficacy and safety of herbal drugs.

  17. Medicinal agents in the metabolic syndrome.

    Baños, G; Pérez-Torres, I; El Hafidi, M


    The metabolic syndrome (MS) has become a worldwide health problem. It is difficult for patients to follow a diet/exercise regime that would improve their symptoms, therefore the investigation of agents that may deal with its more serious aspects is an important medical field for research. The cardiovascular consequences associated with the syndrome and some of the therapeutic approaches are discussed. The different agents can be divided into several groups: Inorganic/ organic: Zinc complexes with garlic components as insulino-mimetics; Selenium as antioxidant; Copper, Zinc and Manganese as microcomponents of antioxidant enzymes. Organic: Natural or Synthetic: Glycine is effective in lowering blood pressure, TBARS, intra-abdominal fat tissue and triglycerides in sucrose-fed rats. Pharmaceutical products: Fibrates, Lipid-lowering drugs. Antidiabetics. Anti-gout agents. On the other hand there are natural products such as those of animal origin: Sex hormones (also synthetic) used in the problems of menopause and hypoandrogenism frequently found in the MS, antioxidant Omega-3-oils (fish oils) or Vegetal: for example Digitalis pupurea, century-old cardiovascular medication as well as Magnolia officinalis; Spirulina maxima with beneficial effects as antioxidant and lipid-lowering agent, among others. Prickly Pear Cacti. (Opuntia Ficus- Indica Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.) Spreng) whose many properties against diabetes and hypercholesterolemia have been empirically known for many years. Perezone (from Perezia plants, a.k.a. Peonia) described as an antiplatelet aggregating agent. The mixed elements in the Mediterranean diet: Fish, salads (peppers, tomatoes), olive oil, garlic, red wine which combines fish oils, garlic and avocado as well as antioxidants from the rest of its components.

  18. Uso de medicamentos como fator de risco para fratura grave decorrente de queda em idosos Medication as a risk factor for falls resulting in severe fractures in the elderly

    Evandro da Silva Freire Coutinho


    Full Text Available Quedas seguidas de fraturas entre idosos constituem um importante problema de saúde pública. Um estudo caso-controle foi conduzido para avaliar o papel do uso de um conjunto de medicamentos, como fator de risco para esses acidentes entre pessoas com 60 anos ou mais, na cidade do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil. Cento e sessenta e nove casos de internação por fratura conseqüente a queda, e 315 controles hospitalares foram pareados por idade, sexo e hospital. Odds ratios (OR, ajustados por fatores potenciais de confusão, foram obtidos utilizando-se regressão logística condicional. Observou-se um aumento no risco desses acidentes para o uso de drogas bloqueadoras dos canais de cálcio (OR = 1,96, 1,16-3,30 e benzodiazepínicos (OR = 2,09, 1,08-4,05, e uma redução para o uso de diuréticos (OR = 0,40, 0,20-0,80. Antiácidos, digitálicos e laxantes mostraram-se associados a uma redução do risco de fraturas por quedas, cuja significância estatística atingiu níveis limítrofes (0,05 Falls leading to fractures among the elderly are a major public problem. A case-control study was conducted on the use of certain drugs as a risk factor for hospitalization due to fractures after falls among individuals aged 60 years or over in the city of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One hundred sixty-nine cases and 315 in-patient controls were matched by age, sex, and hospital. Odds ratios (OR adjusted for potential confounders were calculated using conditional logistic regression. Increased risk of such accidents was found for calcium channel antagonists (OR = 1.96, 1.16-3.30 and benzodiazepines (OR = 2.09, 1.08-4.05, and decreased risk was associated with diuretics (OR = 0.40, 0.20-0.80. Antacids, digitalis, and laxatives were associated with reduced risk of fractures after falls that reached borderline statistical significance (0.05 < p < 0.10. The findings highlight the need to weigh risks and benefits of medication in the elderly. It is also important to advise

  19. Research of Rotary Drill Navigation System in Open-pit Mine based on GNSS%基于GNSS的露天矿牙轮钻机钻孔导航定位模型与系统研究

    吴浩; 李奎; 陶婧; 张建华; 叶海旺; 艾晓宗; 黎华; 鲍光明


    In order to improve the drilling accuracy and simplify the construction process,a rotary drill navigation system based on GNSS technology was proposed which closely related to the efficient production in open-pit mine. On the basis of establishing the architecture of system,a location model contains planar positioning and depth positioning was put forward. In addition,the function of system was detailed discussed which included graphical display,informa-tion management,navigation and quality evaluation. Development of such a system had a significant impact on drilling process by assisting driver navigation in real-time,which has helped in productivity improvement and decreased extra work. Besides,it has provided a construction management for blasting designer which was meaningful to the digitali-zation monitoring in open-pit mine.%从提高露天矿穿孔工艺质量角度出发,采用GNSS卫星导航定位方法,设计并开发出用于支持牙轮钻机钻孔作业的导航定位系统。介绍了系统的组成结构,重点阐述了支持钻头实时导航的平面定位模型和孔深定位模型,并讨论其具备的图形显示、信息管理、导航定位和质量评估四个核心功能。该系统可以为司机实时提供牙轮机钻头的三维空间位置,指导其钻孔作业全过程,不仅保证了爆破孔网参数的准确性和爆破效果,而且减轻人员工作强度,提高露天矿穿孔工作效率,提升数字矿山的信息化建设水平。

  20. Tecnología y educación: el resurgir del cuarto mundo

    Víctor Amar Rodríguez


    Full Text Available El autor de este artículo parte de la presencia e importancia de las tecnologías de la información y de la comunicación para analizar la ideología e intenciones que estas nuevas herramientas tecnológicas traen consigo. Aquí se analiza, igualmente, las implicaciones educativas del discurso tecnológico en la sociedad actual. Aquí se aborda la importancia de los cambios culturales y tecnológicos en la comunicación y en la educación actual. En este sentido, Internet es una importante herramienta y presenta un nuevo paradigma en la actual educación del siglo XXI. La nueva cultura en el ciberespacio y el proletariado digital son algunas reflexiones en tiempo presente que se aglutinan en torno a la información, la comunicación y el conocimiento. Una vez más los cambios sociales han permeado la educación en el amplio sentido del concepto. En este sentido, la emergente sociedad digital y tecnológica ha instrumentalizado el paso del homo sapiens al homo digitalis. El acceso o no a la red y la capacidad de interactuar con ella serán claves a la hora de crear una cibercultura de clases basada en la brecha digital._________________ABSTRACT:In this article the author, basing on the presence and importance of information and communication technologies, analyses the ideology and intentions that those new technological tools bring with them. At the same time, it examines the educational implications of technology in nowadays society. It also tackles the importance of cultural and technological changes in the current communication and education trends. From this point of view, Internet is a very useful tool, and can be considered as a new paradigm in XXI century’s education. The new cyberspace culture and the digital proletariat are some current issues that link around information, communication and knowledge.

  1. Intravenous application of an anticalin dramatically lowers plasma digoxin levels and reduces its toxic effects in rats

    Eyer, Florian, E-mail: [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Steimer, Werner [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Nitzsche, Thomas [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Jung, Nicole; Neuberger, Heidi [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Müller, Christine [Institute of Clinical Chemistry and Pathobiochemistry, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Schlapschy, Martin [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Zilker, Thomas [Department of Toxicology, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Munich (Germany); Skerra, Arne [Munich Center for Integrated Protein Science (CIPS-M), Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Lehrstuhl für Biologische Chemie, Technische Universität München, Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)


    Lipocalins tailored with high affinity for prescribed ligands, so-called anticalins, constitute promising candidates as antidotes. Here, we present an animal study to investigate both pharmacokinetic and clinical effects of an anticalin specific for the digitalis compound digoxin. Intravenous digoxin (2.5–50 μg/kg/min) was administered to rats until first changes in the ECG occurred (dose finding study) or a priori for 30 min (kinetic study). The anticalin DigA16(H86N), dubbed DigiCal, was administered intravenously at absolute doses of 1, 5, 10 and 20 mg, while the control group received isotonic saline. Hemodynamic changes, several ECG parameters and digoxin concentration in plasma were monitored at given time intervals. After DigiCal administration free digoxin concentration in plasma ultrafiltrate declined dramatically within 1 min to the presumably non-toxic range. There was also a significant and DigiCal dose-dependent effect on longer survival, less ECG alterations, arrhythmia, and improved hemodynamics. Infusion of a lower digoxin dose (2.5 μg/kg/min) resulted in a more sustained reduction of free digoxin in plasma after DigiCal administration compared to a higher digoxin dose (25 μg/kg/min), whereas ECG and hemodynamic parameters did not markedly differ, reflecting the known relative insensitivity of rats towards digoxin toxicity. Notably, we observed a re-increase of free digoxin in plasma some time after bolus administration of DigiCal, which was presumably due to toxin redistribution from tissue in combination with the relatively fast renal clearance of the rather small protein antidote. We conclude that anticalins with appropriately engineered drug-binding activities and, possibly, prolonged plasma half-life offer prospects for next-generation antidotal therapy. -- Highlights: ► We provide an advanced model of digoxin toxicity in rats. ► We report on binding of digoxin to a novel designed anticalin. ► We report on pharmacokinetics of digoxin

  2. Phytoremedial assessment of flora tolerant to heavy metals in the contaminated soils of an abandoned Pb mine in Central Portugal.

    Pratas, João; Favas, Paulo J C; D'Souza, Rohan; Varun, Mayank; Paul, Manoj S


    Significant accumulation of heavy metals in soils and flora exists around the abandoned Barbadalhos Pb mine in Central Portugal. Soil and plant samples [49 species] were collected from two line transects, LT 1 and LT 2, in the mineralized and non-mineralized area, respectively to gain a comprehensive picture of heavy metals in soils and flora to assess its potential for phytoremediation. Phytosociological inventories of the vegetation were made using the Braun-Blanquet cover-abundance scale. Metal concentrations in soil ranged from (in mg kg(-1)): 98-9330 [Pb], 110-517 [Zn], 7.1-50 [Co], 69-123 [Cr], 31-193 [Cu], 33400-98500 [Fe], 7.7-51 [Ni], 0.95-13 [Ag], 2.8-208 [As], and 71-2220 [Mn] along LT 1; and 24-93 [Pb], 30-162 [Zn], 3.7-34 [Co], 61-196 [Cr], 21-46 [Cu], 24100-59400 [Fe], 17-87 [Ni], 0.71-1.9 [Ag], 4.3-12 [As], and 44-1800 [Mn] along LT 2. Plant metal content ranged from (in mg kg(-1)): 1.11-548 [Pb], 7.06-1020 [Zn], 0.08-2.09 [Co], 0.09-2.03 [Cr], 2.63-38.5 [Cu], 10.4-4450 [Fe], 0.38-8.9 [Ni], and 0.03-1.9 [Ag] along LT 1; and 0.94-11.58 [Pb], 2.83-96.5 [Zn], 0.12-1.44 [Co], 0.21-1.49 [Cr], 1.61-22.7 [Cu], 4.6-2050 [Fe], 0.51-4.81 [Ni], and 0.02-0.31 [Ag] along LT 2. Plants with highest uptake of metals were: Cistus salvifolius (548 mg Pb kg(-1)), Digitalis purpurea (1017 mg Zn kg(-1) and 4450 mg Fe kg(-1)). Mentha suavolens and Ruscus ulmifolius were seen to hyperaccumulate Ag (1.9 and 1 mg Ag kg(-1), respectively). More metals and higher concentrations were traced in plants from LT 1, especially for Pb and Zn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Inhibitory effects of digoxin and digitoxin on corticosterone production in rat zona fasciculata-reticularis cells.

    Wang, Shyi-Wu; Pu, Hsaio-Fung; Kan, Shu-Fen; Tseng, Chiung-I; Lo, Ming-Jae; Wang, Paulus S


    The aim of the present study was to investigate the direct effects and action mechanisms of digitalis on the production of corticosterone in rat adrenocortical cells. Male rats were challenged with digoxin (1 microg ml(-1) kg(-1)) in the presence or absence of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH, 5 microg ml(-1) kg(-1)) administered by intravenous injection to the right jugular vein. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30, 60, and 120 min following the challenge. The concentration of corticosterone in the rat plasma samples was measured by radioimmunoassay. Zona fasciculata-reticularis (ZFR) cells in male rats were prepared and then incubated with or without digoxin or digitoxin in the presence or absence of ACTH (10(-9) m), forskolin (10(-7) m), 8-bromo-cyclic 3' : 5'-adenosine monophosphate (10(-4) m), cyclopiazonic acid (CPA, 10(-5) m), trilostane (10(-6) m), 25-OH-cholesterol (10(-5) m), pregnenolone (10(-5) m), progesterone (10(-5) m), or deoxycorticosterone (10(-5) m) at 37 degrees C for 1 h before collection of the media. Corticosterone or pregnenolone levels were measured by radioimmunoassay. A single injection of digoxin did not alter the basal level of plasma corticosterone, but did inhibit the level of plasma corticosterone released in response to ACTH in vivo. Administration of digoxin or digitoxin decreased both spontaneous and ACTH-stimulated release of corticosterone in vitro. Digoxin (10(-7)-10(-5) m) and digitoxin (10(-7)-10(-5) m), but not ouabain (10(-7)-10(-5) m), dose-dependently inhibited corticosterone production in response to forskolin and 8-Br-cyclic AMP in rat ZFR cells. Both digoxin (10(-6)-10(-5) m) and digitoxin (10(-6)-10(-5) m) attenuated corticosterone production in response to CPA. Digoxin (10(-5) m) or digitoxin (10(-5) m) inhibited cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (cytochrome P450scc) activity (catalyses conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone in the presence of trilostane) in rat ZFR cells. The enzyme activity of 11 beta

  4. Ecofisiología de las plantas endémicas de las Islas Baleares en el contexto Mediterráneo

    J. Galmes


    Full Text Available Muchas de las especies endémicas del mediterráneo occidental habitan preferentemente ambientes rocosos, abiertos, con elevado grado de estrés y baja competencia interespecífica. En el caso de las Islas Baleares, a esta dimensión geológico-edáfica característica del endemismo mediterráneo, se le suma la dimensión de aislamiento geográfico. Para cualquiera de estas dos dimensiones, geológico-edáfica y geográfica, resulta sorprendente la escasez de estudios que apunten a factores fisiológicos como causantes generales de la limitada distribución de las especies endémicas. Esta escasez de evidencias sugiere que la distribución de endemismos de Baleares en su dimensión geográfica viene limitada principalmente por filtros históricos, mientras que su dimensión geológico-edáfica se adecuaría a la hipótesis de ¿refugio¿. Según esta hipótesis, las especies endémicas habitan únicamente ambientes en los que su elevado grado de estrés excluye la presencia de especies generalistas. La baja competencia interespecífica en estos ambientes permite la supervivencia de algunas especies endémicas con rasgos específicos, que resultarían desfavorables fuera del ambiente en el que habitan. Finalmente, se demuestra mediante el análisis de tres casos concretos de endemicidad (Crepis triasii, Lysimachia minoricensis y Digitalis minor, que la hipotética baja plasticidad fenotípica de las especies endémicas no es generalizable, y que algunos endemismos de Baleares presentan una elevada capacidad de adaptación a las condiciones cambiantes del medio, en especial en relación a la disponibilidad hídrica. Un mejor conocimiento de las bases fisiológicas de la falta de éxito ecológico de las especies endémicas es esencial para una correcta gestión de la biodiversidad.

  5. Observation on Short-Term Intermittent Administration Dopamine at Low Doses on Patients With Severe Decompensated Heart Failure%小剂量多巴胺间歇短程应用治疗重度失代偿性心力衰竭观察



    Objective To explore the short-term intermittent administration dopamine at low doses on patients with severe decompensated heart failure. Methods 84 cases of severe patients with severe decompensated heart failure in our hospital were selected, random grouping, each of 42 cases. The routine group was treated with neuroendocrine antagonist, digitalis, diureticsand and other conventional treatmen. The study group was given a small dose of dopamine on the basis of the conventional group. The clinical effect and adverse reaction rate of the two groups were statistically analyzed. Results The clinical total effective rate of the study group was 88.1% better than that of the conventional group 66.7%,the difference between the two groups was significant (P0.05). Conclusion Usingshort-term intermittent administration dopamine at low doses on patients with severe decompensated heart failure, can significantly improve the clinical effect, and does not increase the incidence of adverse reactions.%目的:探究小剂量多巴胺间歇短程应用治疗重度失代偿性心力衰竭。方法选取我院收治的84例重度失代偿性心力衰竭患者,随机分组,各42例。常规组给予神经内分泌拮抗剂、洋地黄制剂及利尿剂等常规治疗。研究组于此基础上予小剂量以多巴胺治疗。统计两组患者临床效果及不良反应发生率。结果研究组临床总有效率88.1%,优于常规组66.7%,两组差异有统计学意义(P <0.05);两组患者不良反应发生率对比,差异无统计学意义(P >0.05)。结论采用小剂量多巴胺间歇短程治疗重度失代偿性心力衰竭患者,可提高其临床效果,且不会增加不良反应发生率,在临床研究中具有重要意义。

  6. Anestesia no cardiovascular en el paciente con cardiopatía congénita y flujo pulmonar aumentado

    Lincoln de la Parte Pérez


    Full Text Available Los lactantes y dentro de éstos los de menor edad y peso corporal, que padecen de cardiopatías congénitas con flujo pulmonar aumentado y son sometidos a anestesia para procedimientos quirúrgicos no cardiovasculares, tienen un gran riesgo anestésico, por lo que es necesario enfatizar que estos pacientes presentan habitualmente múltiples alteraciones anatómicas y de la fisiología cardiovascular con repercusión en diferentes órganos y sistemas, diversas enfermedades asociadas que empeoran el pronóstico y necesitan frecuentemente tratamiento médico con digitálicos, diuréticos y fármacos vasoactivos desde muy temprano, de modo que la evaluación preoperatoria, incluidas las investigaciones no invasivas, deben ser realizadas por cardiólogos experimentados y cuando se programan para procedimientos quirúrgicos, deben ser remitidos para un centro con recursos y la experiencia necesaria en el manejo de los pacientes con cardiopatías congénitas. Se presenta una revisión bibliográfica actualizada sobre el manejo anestésico de estos pacientes.Infants and among them the youngest and with the least body weight suffering from congenital heart diseases with increased pulmonary flow and who receive anesthesia to undergo noncardiovascular surgical procedures, are at a great anesthetic risk . That's why, it is necessary to make emphasis on the fact that these patients usually present multiple anatomical alterations and cardiovascular physiology disorders with repercussion on different organs and systems, diverse associated diseases that worsen the prognosis, and that they frequently need medical treatment with digitalis, diuretics and vasoactive drugs very early. Taking this into account, the preoperative evaluation, including non-invasive research should be carried out by experienced cardiologists and when they are scheduled for surgical procedures, they should be referred to a center with resources and the necessary experience in the


    Loredana-Raluca UNGUREANU


    Full Text Available Lucrarea de faţă reprezintă un prim demers de conştientizare cu privire la o dimensiune a violenţei manifestate în special în rândul copiilor şi tinerilor – cyberbullying, violenţa în spaţiul virtual. În contextul erei digitale, al societăţii contemporane care se defineşte şi redefineşte continuu în acord cu evoluţia tehnologiei, într-o lume care se construieşte, se destramă şi se reconstruieşte permanent din spatele monitoarelor, în şcoala nativilor digitali care se formează cu pre­dilecţie prin apel la oceanul de informaţii oferite prin acces la Internet, agresivitatea capătă proporţii nebănuite cu efecte devastatoare. Primul pas în soluţionarea problemei constă în recunoaşterea sa, în definirea corectă a tuturor faţetelor sale, în identificarea factorilor declanşatori.CYBERBULLYING – VIOLENCE IN THE DIGITAL ERAThis paper represents a first approach for raising the awareness regarding a dimension of violence manifested especially among children and youngsters – cyberbullying, violence in virtual environment. In the context of the digital era, of the contemporary society that defines and redefines itself constantly according to the technological evolution, in a world that builds itself, crumbles and rebuilds itself from behind the monitors, in a school of the digital natives that develop themselves especially by using the ocean of information offered through the Internet, the aggressiveness gets enormous proportions with devastating effects. The first step in solving the problem is to admit its existence, to define correctly all its aspects, to identify the triggers.

  8. 螺内酯对老年慢性心力衰竭患者心功能和血浆脑钠肽的影响%Effect of spironolactone on the cardiac function and plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in elderly patients with chronic heart failure

    上官佳红; 张红苗; 苏杨


    目的 探讨螺内酯在老年慢性心力衰竭患者治疗中的作用.方法 62例老年慢性心力衰竭患者根据治疗方法不同分为常规组(30例)和螺内酯组(32例).常规组:接受ACEI、洋地黄、噻嗪类利尿剂、β受体阻滞剂等常规治疗.螺内酯组:在常规治疗基础上口服螺内酯.观察各组患者在治疗前及治疗后4个月的血清BNP水平、LVEF、V/VA,观察治疗后1个月的临床疗效.结果 螺内酯组治疗后1个月的总有效率(90.6%)明显高于常规组(70%);螺内酯组治疗后LVEF、VE/VA较常规组明显升高(P<0.05).2组治疗后血清BNP水平均较治疗前明显降低,螺内酯组降低更加明显(P<0.05).结论 螺内酯能明显改善老年慢性心力衰竭患者的心功能,降低血清BNP水平.%Objective To investigate the role of spironolactone in the treatment of chronic heart failure. Methods Sixty- two patients with chronic heart failure were divided into conventional group (n = 30) and spironolactone group ( n = 32). The conventional group received ACEI, digitalis, thiazide diuretics, β-blockers and other conventional treatments. Spironolactone group took oral spironolactone treatment in addition to the conventional treatment. Serum BNP levels, LVEF and VE/VA before and after 4 months of the treatment were observed. The treatment efficacy after 1 month of the treatment was observed as well. Results One month after treatment, the total efficiency (90.6% ) of spironolactone group was significantly higher than that of the conventional group (70%). LVEF and VE/VA of spironolactone group were significantly higher than those of the conventional group (P<0.05). After treatment, the serum BNP levels of both groups decreased. The spironolactone group had more significant decreases (P < 0. 05). Conclusion Spironolactone can significantly improve cardiac function and decrease serum BNP levels in elderly patients with chronic heart failure.

  9. Intracerebroventricular administration with angiotensinⅡInhibits proximal convoluted tubules Na+,K+-ATPase activity in rats%大鼠侧脑室注射血管紧张素Ⅱ抑制近曲小管Na+,K+-ATPase活性

    罗蕾; 刘红; 高原


    目的探讨脑内血管紧张素Ⅱ(angiotensin Ⅱ,AngⅡ)对肾小管Na+,K+-ATPase活性的作用及作用途径.方法雄性SD大鼠,麻醉下侧脑室注射人工脑脊液或AngⅡ(100ng),或先注射AngⅡ的1型受体(AT1)拮抗剂Losartan(10μg)后再注射AngⅡ(100ng).注射后30min取血,放射免疫分析法测定血清内源性洋地黄样物质(endogenous digitalis-like substance,EDLS)水平;立体显微镜下手工微分离单根近曲小管,电镜鉴定;以[γ-32P]ATP与近曲小管孵育后用液闪计数器测定标记磷酸的方法计算出近曲小管Na+,K+-ATPase活性.结果与侧脑室注射aCSF的结果比较,在侧脑室注射AngⅡ后30min,血清EDLS水平显著升高(62.95±9.80vs.42.55±7.91pg/ml,P<0.05);近曲小管Na+,K+-ATPase活性显著降低(1285±157vs.2105±176pmol Pi /mm/h, P<0.05);近曲小管Na+,K+-ATPase活性下降幅度与血清EDLS升高幅度呈负相关,(r=-0.918,P<0.05) ;而Losartan预处理侧脑室再注射AngⅡ后30min,血清EDLS水平和近曲小管Na+,K+-ATPase活性均无显著变化.结论脑内的AngⅡ通过AT1受体介导,促进EDLS释放,从而抑制肾小管的Na+,K+-ATPase活性.

  10. Solutions in chronostratigraphy: the Paleocene/Eocene boundary debate, and Aubry vs. Hedberg on chronostratigraphic principles

    Walsh, Stephen L.


    In several recent papers, M.-P. Aubry et al. have argued that "Hedbergian" principles of chronostratigraphy are being violated by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS) when selecting Global Stratotype Sections and Points (GSSPs) for the formal divisions of the geological time scale. The current debate over the definition of the Paleocene/Eocene (P/E) boundary has been a major focus of their arguments. Unfortunately, Aubry et al. have obscured matters by misusing the term "unit stratotype," and by equivocally using the term "stage" for the very different concepts of "synthem" and "global chronostratigraphic stage." The P/E boundary option most repugnant to Aubry et al. (Carbon Isotope Excursion (CIE)=P/E=Thanetian/Ypresian boundary) is perfectly compatible with H.D. Hedberg's views. In contrast, another option preferred by Aubry et al. (recognition of new ˜1 m.y. duration age/stage between Thanetian and Ypresian) is inconsistent with Hedberg's views. Additional problems with the P/E boundary arguments of Aubry et al. include the fact that a "Ypresian unit stratotype" does not exist, the fact that the base of the Ypresian synthem is not immutable, and the fact that the nannofossil Tribrachiatus digitalis is of dubious relevance to the boundary debate. As for chronostratigraphy in general, Aubry et al. have misrepresented Hedberg's views by: (1) falsely claiming that the content of a stage is what determines its boundaries; (2) misunderstanding the general concept of the boundary stratotype; (3) distorting the "base defines boundary" principle; (4) falsely claiming that traditional (pre-GSSP) chronostratigraphic boundaries cannot be changed; (5) falsely implying that traditional stage unit stratotype boundaries can be adjusted by no more than 300,000 years when defining formal age/stage boundaries with GSSPs; (6) falsely claiming that the definition of a geochronologic/chronostratigraphic boundary should precede its correlation; (7) claiming that

  11. Impacto del riesgo cardíaco sobre la Aneurismectomía

    Orestes Díaz Hernández


    Full Text Available Se realiza un análisis cardiológico a 100 pacientes a los cuales se les efectuó cirugía electiva por aneurisma de la aorta abdominal infrarrenal; para esto se emplearon 5 métodos: el índice de riesgo cardíaco de Goldman original y modificado, los marcadores coronarios de Eagle, las indicaciones por niveles recomendadas por Hollier y la ecuación de Cooperman. La cardiopatía isquémica se detectó en el 59 % del total de los pacientes. De ellos, el 43 % tenía antecedentes de infarto del miocardio, el 33 % angina estable bajo tratamiento medicamentoso, el 6 % insuficiencia cardíaca congestiva con tratamiento digitálico y el 11 % un ritmo no sinusal detectado en el electrocardiograma. La supervivencia a largo plazo en la cardiopatía isquémica se comportó al año y 2 años en el 80 %, a los 5 años en el 72 % y a los 10 y 13 años en el 35 %. Se propone un algoritmo simple y modificado de valoración cardiológica en los pacientes que muestran aneurisma de la aorta abdominalA cardiological analysis of 100 patients whe underwent elective surgery due to infrarenal abdominal aortic aneurysm was made. 5 methods were used to this end: the original and modified Goldman´s cardiac resk index, Eagle´s coronary markers, the indications by levels recommended by Hollier and Cooperman´s equation. Ischaemic heart disease was detected in 59 % of the patients. 43 % of them had history of myocardial infarction, 33 % of stable angina under drug treatment, 6 % of congestive heart failure with digitalis treatment and 11 % had a nonsinusal rate detected in the EKG. Among those suffering from schemic heart disease there was a long term survival of 80 % at the lst and 2nd year, 72 % at the 5 th year, and 35 % at the 10th and 13th year. A simple and modified algorithm of cardiological assessment was proposed for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysm

  12. 参麦注射液对心衰犬内源性洋地黄样物质组织浓度的影响%The Influence of Shenmai Injection on Tissue Concentration of Endogenous Digitalis——like Substance in Dogs with Heart Failure

    王贤良; 毛静远; 魏广力; 张振鹏; 王恒和; 毕颖斐; 郭永铁


    Objective To investigate effect of Shenmai injection (SMI) on tissue concentration of endogenous digitalis - like substance (EDLS) in the model dogs with heart failure(HF). Methods Six model dogs with HF were randomly divided into two groups: Control group (n = 3) received intravenous injection of normal saline 20 mL and SMI group (n = 3) received intravenous injection of SMK1. 551 mL/kg). All dogs were executed at 4 h after administration. The homogenate of samples of heart,adrenal gland and hypothalamus were frozen (at -80 *C). The EDLS concentrations in tissue samples were determined by radio - immunity assay. Results EDLS concentration of adrenal gland and hypothalamus in SMI group were significantly higher than that in control group. Conclusion SMI could increase the EDLS concentration of adrenal gland,hypothalamus and heart in the model dogs with HF.%目的 考察参麦注射液对心衰犬组织内源性洋地黄样物质(EDLS)浓度的影响.方法 将造模成功4周后的心衰犬6只,随机分为对照组和参麦注射液组,每组3只.对照组予生理盐水20 mL,参麦注射液组予参麦注射液1.551 mL/kg(用生理盐水稀释至20mL)静脉注射.给药后4h处死实验犬,分别摘取分离心肌、肾上腺和下丘脑,制成生理盐水匀浆冰冻保存(-80℃),用放射免疫分析法检测匀浆中的EDLS浓度.结果 参麦注射液组肾上腺、下丘脑的EDLS浓度高于对照组,心肌EDLS浓度有高于对照组的趋势.结论 参麦注射液可增加心衰犬肾上腺、下丘脑、心肌EDLS浓度.

  13. Advances of studies on new technology and method for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials%中药鉴定学新技术新方法研究进展

    陈士林; 陈建波; 郭宝林; 张贵君; 严铸云; 罗光明; 孙素琴; 吴和珍; 黄林芳; 庞晓慧


    作者对近20年中药鉴定学研究和应用的新技术、新方法进行了综述,介绍和评述了每种技术或方法的原理、特点、应用实例及发展方向,探讨了现有新技术在鉴定中的客观性和准确性.DNA条形码技术鉴定能力较强,在鉴定没有背景信息的中药样品及在方法通用性和可数字化方面具有优势,应用前景广阔.光谱鉴定具有指纹特征性,在中药材及饮片的质量管理和鉴定中具有一定的实用性.显微鉴定新技术、色谱鉴定、特定引物PCR标记鉴定、生物效应鉴定、DNA芯片以及仿生技术等其他技术在特定中药鉴定中将发挥重要作用.%In this review, the authors summarized the new technologies and methods for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials, including molecular identification, chemical identification, morphological identification, microscopic identification and i-dentification based on biological effects. The authors introduced the principle, characteristics, application and prospect on each new technology or method and compared their advantages and disadvantages. In general, new methods make the result more objective and accurate. DNA barcoding technique and spectroscopy identification have their owner obvious strongpoint in universality and digitali-zation. In the near future, the two techniques are promising to be the main trend for identifying traditional Chinese medicinal materials. The identification techniques based on microscopy, liquid chromatography, PCR, biological effects and DNA chip will be indispensable supplements. However, the bionic identification technology is just placed in the developing stage at present.

  14. Influence of floor surface and access to pasture on claw health in dairy cows kept in cubicle housing systems.

    Haufe, Helge Christiane; Gygax, Lorenz; Wechsler, Beat; Stauffacher, Markus; Friedli, Katharina


    In this study, the effects on the claw health of dairy cows of three different floor types and access to pasture were investigated on 35 farms. The farms were fitted with a given floor type in the indoor walking area of a cubicle housing system: a solid rubber, mastic asphalt or slatted concrete floor. Because we chose farms on which the given floor type was in good condition, the data presented show what can be achieved on these types of floors under ideal circumstances. Cows on half of the farms per floor type had access to pasture during the grazing period. Each farm was visited three times at approx. 6-month intervals at the end of the winter indoor-housing period and at the end of the summer period, i.e. after the period with access to pasture on half of the farms. During each visit, the claw health of the same 10 cows per farm was assessed on the occasion of routine claw trimming. The proportion of cows with haemorrhages increased from mastic asphalt to rubber and slatted concrete floors. A lower proportion of cows kept on mastic asphalt was affected by white-line fissures and needed intermittent claw-trimming, an indicator for lameness. Cows housed in cubicle systems with slatted concrete floors were at the lowest risk of having heel-horn erosions. Access to pasture was associated with a lower incidence of slight white-line fissures and dermatitis digitalis. A higher proportion of cows with sole haemorrhages and sole ulcers were found on all floor types at the end of the summer period than at the end of the winter indoor-housing period. Floor type did not influence the presence of sole ulcers and deep white-line fissures. In conclusion, the effect of floor type on claw health was slight, and none of the investigated floor types was clearly superior to the others. Access to pasture was not effective in reducing the presence of most types of claw lesions associated with the floor type used in the indoor walking area.

  15. 替米沙坦治疗充血性心力衰竭的疗效观察



    objective to Telmisartan Tablets (micardis) clinical efficacy in the treatment of congestive heart failure . Methods 60 cases of regular digitalis ,diuretics ,vasodilators such as poor effect of treatment in patients with congestive heart failure , given oral Telmisartan Tablets (micardis) 40 -80mg/d treatment were observed before and after treatment 4 -6w , heart rate ,blood pressure ,cardiothoracic ratio ,left ventricular end diastolic diameter ,changes in left ventricular ejec-tion fraction and cardiac function .Results after treatment ,heart rate ,blood pressure ,cardiothoracic ratio ,left ventric-ular end diastolic diameterdecreased significantly ,increased left ventricular ejection fraction ,cardiac function improve-ment I - ii .And fewer side effects .Easy tolerance .Conclusion telmisartan (micardis) good curative effect in the treatment of congestive heart failure .Few side effects .It is worthy of clinical promotion .%目的:替米沙坦片(美卡素)治疗充血性心力衰竭的临床疗效.方法:60例经常规洋地黄 ,利尿剂 ,血管扩张剂等治疗效果欠佳的充血性心力衰竭患者,给予口服替米沙坦片(美卡素)40-80mg/d治疗4-6w ,观察治疗前后心率,心胸比 ,血压、左室舒张末期内径,左室射血分数以及心功能的变化.结果:治疗后心率 ,血压,心胸比以及左室舒张末期内径均明显下降,左室射血分数增加 ,心功能改善Ⅰ-Ⅱ级.且副作用少.易于耐受.结论:替米沙坦片(美卡素)治疗充血性心力衰竭疗效好.副作用少.值得临床推广.

  16. La trasparenza scientifica in archeologia virtuale: una lettura critica al principio N.7 della Carta di Siviglia

    Francesco Gabellone


    Full Text Available ItAnalogamente per quanto avvenne nell’ambito del restauro, i Principi di Siviglia sull'Archeologia Virtuale hanno il valore di una carta, che non definisce un sistema di norme, di leggi, ma gli orientamenti di una vasta comunità scientifica che si propone di dare impulso all’archeologia virtuale come disciplina matura, la quale viva nel rispetto di queste regole e si fondi su metodi scientificamente validi ed ampiamente condivisi. Una piena trasparenza dei metodi, delle tecniche e della documentazione a corredo di un progetto di archeologia virtuale, è necessaria al fine di definire standard di qualità che innalzino il valore scientifico di una disciplina che promette di informare, stupire e affascinare con sempre maggiore efficacia e rigore. Il principio N. 7 della Carta di Siviglia, ribadisce la necessità di predisporre una base documentaria esauriente, che riguardi tutto il processo di ricerca legato alla creazione di contenuti digitali in progetti di archeologia virtuale. In Archeologia Virtuale i metodi di analisi, le tecniche di rilevamento e le interpretazioni devono essere tutti dichiarati, comprensibili e riutilizzabili. Solo l’analisi dei dati preliminari potrà validare gli esiti di uno studio ricostruttivo e garantire alle nuove generazioni una revisione dei risultati senza necessariamente ricominciare il lavoro dall’inizio.EnAnalogous to what has happened in the field of restoration, the Seville Principles of Virtual Archaeology have the value of a charter. They do not define a system of norms or laws, but rather the orientation of a broad scientific community that seeks to promote virtual archaeology as a mature discipline, one guided by respect for these rules and founded on scientifically valid and widely shared methods. The full transparency of the methods, techniques and accompanying documentation of a virtual archaeology project, is necessary in order to define standards of quality that raise the scientific value

  17. Drugs affecting the eye.

    Taylor, F


    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  18. Risorse trofiche o disturbo antropico? Elaborazione preliminare e validazione di un indice di idoneità ambientale per l'orso bruno nell'Appennino

    M. Bello


    Full Text Available In un'area di studio nell'Appennino abruzzese (ampia circa 250 km² sono state campionate variabili ambientali relative alla vegetazione, topografia, e presenza antropica in 2110 plot distribuiti lungo transetti da 1 km in 72 celle (1 km² selezionate casualmente dal reticolato geografico UTM. Utilizzando tematismi digitali sono state calcolate, tramite GIS, altre variabili ambientali relative alle stesse categorie. Le variabili sono state combinate in 14 indici (V1-14 utilizzati per calcolare un indice di idoneità ambientale relativo ai plot e alle celle campionate. Sono stati elaborati: A- un indice complessivo di idoneità (HSItotale e, B- 2 indici di idoneità relativi alla disponibilità di risorse trofiche e alla presenza umana (HSIcibo e HSIuomo, rispettivamente. Il valore medio di HSIcibo è stato pari a 0,23, in relazione ai valori medi degli indici di idoneità per la disponibilità di invertebrati (0,01, ghiande (0,004 e alla copertura percentuale di arbusti (0,06. Il valore medio di HSIuomo è risultato maggiore (0,32, soprattutto in relazione all'indice relativo alle variabili pendenza (0,69 e distanza dagli insediamenti umani (0,60. L'indice complessivo medio HSItotale è stato pari a 0,27. Il modello è stato validato comparando, per ogni cella, il valore dei tre indici con l'abbondanza relativa dell'orso bruno stimata lungo percorsi campione dal 1993 al 1998. Gli indici HSItotale e HSIuomo sono risultati significativamente e direttamente correlati con l'abbondanza relativa dell'orso (0,40 >rs< 0,44; p< 0,001; n= 72, mentre la frequentazione dell'orso non è risultata correlata significativamente all'indice HSIcibo (rs= 0,06; p> 0,5; n= 72. Questi dati preliminari, che saranno integrati dai risultati di ulteriori campionamenti in corso, indicano chiaramente che l

  19. Pathophysiological targets for beta-blocker therapy in congestive heart failure.

    Just, H


    The treatment of congestive heart failure has seen considerable changes: while treatment with diuretics, digitalis glycosides and vasodilators has remained the mainstay of therapy, recently neurohumeral inhibition has been developed as an important principle: ACE-inhibitors have been shown to significantly improve quality of life and exercise performance and to substantially reduce mortality. Beta-blockers have been employed with increasing success mainly in congestive heart failure due to dilated idiopathic cardiomyopathy, in which a significant improvement in symptoms and life expectancy has been demonstrated. However, the precise mechanisms by which beta-blockade improves congestive heart failure remain to be elucidated. In addition to direct sympathoadrenal inhibition, reduction of heart rate may also play a major role in the therapeutic efficacy of beta-blockade in congestive heart failure. In the normal human heart increase in heart rate is accompanied by an increase in myocardial contractile performance (Bowditch-Treppe phenomenon). In chronic heart failure the myocardium undergoes a phenotype change which includes alterations of the activity of enzymes regulating calcium homoeostasis. The sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA) is depressed both in function, as well as in expression. At the same time the sarcolemmal sodium-calcium exchanger is increased both in function and in expression. The result is a characteristic change in calcium homoeostasis with decreased diastolic uptake of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum with subsequently reduced calcium release during the next systole, resulting in reduced contractile performance. At the same time increased capacity of the sodium-calcium exchanger extrudes intracellular calcium ions to the extra-cellular space, thereby rendering these ions unavailable for the contractile cycle. A result of these, seemingly specific, phenotype changes is an alteration of the force/frequency relationship. Instead of

  20. A multi-sensory methodological approach for science learning

    Eugenia Lucia Bossio


    Full Text Available This paper presents both a learning environment aimed at science education and the results obtained at the end of its experimentation carried out in a secondary school. The edutainment environment has been designed to explain the physical theory of superstrings, and it was mainly based on the construction of artifacts and on the manipulation of digital media. In order to both intrigue students and make interesting and appealing this complex subject of physics we have tried to stimulate and engage students in a multi-sensory way through different approaches. It was outlined a path made by different steps to deal with the scientific issues addressed that would actively encourage a real translation of knowledge into skills and both different styles and ways of learning. Superstring theory was first presented through traditional approaches and, later, through the construction of metaphoric representations made by artifacts created by the students. The experimentation, conducted on a group of 20 students, allowed to evaluate the effectiveness of the environment. Un approccio multisensoriale per l’apprendimento delle scienzeQuesto articolo presenta un ambiente di apprendimento rivolto alla didattica delle scienze e i risultati ottenuti al termine della sua sperimentazione compiuta presso un istituto scolastico d’istruzione secondaria di primo grado. L’ambiente di edutainment è stato progettato per realizzare la divulgazione della teoria fisica delle superstringhe, ed è stato prevalentemente basato sulla costruzione di manufatti e sulla manipolazione di media digitali. Si è cercato di stimolare e coinvolgere gli alunni mediante approcci diversi e in maniera multisensoriale con l’obiettivo di incuriosirli rendendo interessante e accattivante questo complesso argomento della fisica. È stato delineato un percorso per gradi alle problematiche scientifiche affrontate che potesse attivamente stimolare sia i vari stili e modi di apprendimento

  1. Persantine-Aspirin Reinfarction Study. Part II. Secondary coronary prevention with persantine and aspirin.

    Klimt, C R; Knatterud, G L; Stamler, J; Meier, P


    In the Persantine-Aspirin Reinfarction Study, Part II (PARIS II), 3,128 persons who had recovered from myocardial infarction, suffered from 4 weeks to 4 months previously, were randomized into two groups: dipyridamole (Persantine) plus aspirin (n = 1,563) and placebo (n = 1,565). The average length of follow-up was 23.4 months. Prespecified primary end points were coronary incidence (definite nonfatal myocardial infarction plus death due to recent or acute cardiac event), coronary mortality (death due to recent or acute cardiac event) and total mortality, each at 1 year of patient follow-up and at the end of the study. Coronary incidence in the Persantine plus aspirin group was significantly lower than in the placebo group, both at 1 year (30% reduction) and at the end of the study (24% reduction). The statistically significant differences in coronary incidence, at 1 year and at the end of the study, in favor of the combination treatment remained after adjustment for multiple baseline variables and adjustment for multiple testing (three end points for two time periods). Although there were reductions for other end points, these differences were not statistically significant. Coronary mortality was 20% lower in the Persantine plus aspirin group compared with the placebo group at 1 year, and 6% lower overall. Total mortality in the treated group compared with the placebo group was 11% lower at 1 year and 3% lower overall. The reduced rates of coronary incidence largely reflected lower rates of definite nonfatal myocardial infarction in the Persantine plus aspirin group. Several subgroups were defined a priori and at the end of the study. The beneficial effect of Persantine plus aspirin compared with placebo for coronary incidence tended to be greater for the following groups of patients: those who had a non-Q wave infarct; those who were not taking digitalis; those who were receiving beta-receptor blocking drugs at baseline; those who were in New York Heart

  2. E-books for Italian school, between Law Requirements and Publishers' Choices L'ebook per le scuole italiane fra requisiti normativi e scelte editoriali

    Maria Vincelli


    Full Text Available

    Il saggio presenta un'analisi del quadro legislativo italiano sulla transizione dei libri di testo dal formato cartaceo a quello digitale, oltre a una panoramica sull'offerta dei maggiori editori a riguardo, prendendo come esempio i libri di testo di Latino per le scuole superiori. Il concetto di libro digitale viene declinato oggi principalmente in due forme: il libro "on-line", digitale (generalmente in PDF o Epub, equivalente ai testi tradizionali a stampa per struttura e tipo di utilizzo; il libro che integra le caratteristiche del libro sia digitale che a stampa con una serie di materiali digitali supplementari. L'opinione dell'autrice è che l'offerta di pubblicazioni scolastiche in formato digitale si attiene a un'interpretazione limitata della legge italiana, e che dunque si prospettano nuove ipotesi che possano unire in modo efficace l'autorevolezza e il valore culturale dei libri di testo con le soluzioni più avanzate del digitale.

    This paper offers an analysis of the Italian legislation about the transition from printed school-books to digital ones and, in turn, it presents an overview of the digital publishing offer of major media groups, by taking as case study the Latin textbooks for high-schools. The concept of digital book has been declined nowadays in two main forms: the first one is the so-called "on-line book", which are digital books (typically in PDF or ePub format equivalent in structure and in the mode of use to classical printed books; the latter form integrates printed or digital books with a set of varied, and often incoherent, supplementary digital materials. The conclusion is that the current offer of digital publishing about school-books is a narrow interpretation of the Italian legislation, and thus it foresees the design of new paradigms that efficaciously merge the authoritativeness and cultural value of school-books with the advanced features and the new way of uses of digital media.

  3. Prevalencia de insuficiencia renal en pacientes que asisten a la clínica de falla cardiaca Prevalence of heart failure in patients attending to a heart failure clinic

    Diego Rodríguez


    . Conclusiones: la prevalencia de insuficiencia renal determinada por la depuración de creatinina, es alta tanto en hombres como en mujeres evaluados en la clínica de falla cardiaca, lo cual conduce a replantear los esquemas de manejo dependiendo de la función renal ya que algunos de los medicamentos utilizados son nefrotóxicos o incrementan los niveles de potasio. Por lo tanto, la valoración de la función renal mediante la utilización de la depuración de creatinina por medio de la fórmula de Cockcroft, puede ser más conveniente que sólo basarse en la creatinina, por lo cual se recomienda realizarla en todos los pacientes que se estén siguiendo en las clínicas de falla cardiaca al igual que al considerar cambios en el esquema de manejo médico.Background: patients with heart failure have an increased morbidity to the extend that they present impaired renal function, taking as a predictor of adverse events the elevation of creatinine clearance. Methods: a descriptive analysis of patients attending the heart failure clinic of the Shaio Clinic from January 1997 until October 2009 was realized, in order to know their renal function through creatinine clearance using the Cockcroft formula. Risk factors taken into account were the presence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, smoking and dyslipidemia, and some drugs that can affect renal function, such as spironolactone, digitalis, angiotensin-converting enzyme and antagonists of angiotensin II receptors were also assessed, as well as the etiology correlated with creatinine clearance. Results: 1,123 patients were registered in the data base, of whom 557 (49.6% meet the inclusion criteria, and of these 461 (82.8% present impaired renal function. 301 (65% are males and 160 (35% female. Based on the creatinine clearance, the finding were: between 60-89 mL/min 172 patients (37.6%; between 30-59 mL/min 240 patients(51.8%; between 15-29 mL/min 42 patients (9.1%; less than 15 mL/min 7 patients(1.5%. Among the risk factors we

  4. Determining concentration fields of tracer plumes for layered porous media in flow-tank experiments

    Yu, Zhongbo; Schwartz, Franklin W.

    In the laboratory, computer-assisted image analysis provides an accurate and efficient way to monitor tracer experiments. This paper describes the determination of detailed temporal concentration distributions of tracers in a flow-tank experiment by analyzing photographs of plumes of Rhodamine dye through the glass wall of the tank. The methodology developed for this purpose consists of four steps: (1) digitally scanning black and white negatives obtained from photographs of the flow-tank experiment; (2) calibrating and normalizing each digitized image to a standard optical-density scale by determining the relation between the optical density and pixel value for each image; (3) constructing standard curves relating the concentration in an optical density from five experimental runs with predetermined concentrations (2-97mg/L) and (4) converting the optical density to concentration. The spatial distribution of concentration for two photographs was determined by applying these calibration and conversion procedures to all pixels of the digitized images. This approach provides an efficient way to study patterns of plume evolution and transport mechanisms. Résumé Au laboratoire, l'analyse d'images assistée par ordinateur est un moyen précis et efficace pour suivre certaines expériences de traçage. Ce papier présente comment sont déterminées dans le détail les distributions temporelles de la concentration en traceur au cours d'une expérience d'écoulement en réservoir au moyen de l'analyse de photographies de panaches de rhodamine à travers la paroi de verre du réservoir. La méthodologie développée dans cette expérience suit quatre étapes: (1) digitalisation par balayage des négatifs noir et blanc des prises de vue de l'expérience d'écoulement en réservoir (2) calibration et normalisation de chaque image digitalisée par rapport à une échelle étalon de densité optique en déterminant la relation entre la densité optique et la valeur des pixels

  5. Teorie per rappresentare e comunicare i siti archeologici attraverso modelli critici

    Marco Gaiani


    Full Text Available ItLo sviluppo delle tecniche di modellazione ha scardinato lo schema concettuale che ha sempre considerato la figurazione come un semplice attributo e/o parte del sistema conoscitivo. Tali progressi permettono ora di focalizzare l'attenzione sull’impiego di modelli digitali 3D come matrice e nucleo aggregativo dei sistemi informativi, in grado di permette, da un lato, un facile accesso a strutture di dati estremamente complesse e, dall'altro, una costante guida dell’utente attraverso informazioni tipologicamente eterogenee.Questo articolo descrive un sistema informativo su web messo a punto con l'obiettivo di rendere disponibile su una piattaforma 3D GIS modelli tridimensionali di reperti archeologici ottenuti dal reale e con un dettaglio tipico della scala architettonica. All'interno dei siti di complessi archeologici vasti e complessi, i diversi tipi di artefatti devono essere modellati da differenti operatori, usando differenti metodologie e tecnologie ed elaborati in tempi e luoghi differenti; da tutto ciò scaturisce la necessità che i metodi per costruire i modelli 3D devono essere definiti a-priori, condivisi in maniera ampia e verificati a-posteriori.Il caso di studio riguarda il sito di Pompei, all'interno di un progetto di cooperazione con la Sovrintendenza di Pompei, finalizzato alla realizzazione di un archivio in grado di rendere disponibile la lunga storia di quell'area archeologica, la cui stratificazione storica porta indietro fino al 1738.I punti principali del progetto sono: (a l'intero sistema informativo è accessibile via web e collegato ad GIS che permette la mappatura completa delle informazioni; (b sono stati sviluppati differenti approcci conoscitivi e percettivi all'interno della matrice complessiva al fine di consentire l'accesso al patrimonio di informazioni che risale fino alla scoperta di Pompei; (c sono stati definiti standard metodologici e tecnici con l'obiettivo di proporre linee guida comuni per la

  6. Prognosis and treatment of atrial fibrillation patients by European cardiologists: one year follow-up of the EURObservational Research Programme-Atrial Fibrillation General Registry Pilot Phase (EORP-AF Pilot registry).

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Laroche, Cécile; Ioachim, Popescu Mircea; Rasmussen, Lars Hvilsted; Vitali-Serdoz, Laura; Petrescu, Lucian; Darabantiu, Dan; Crijns, Harry J G M; Kirchhof, Paulus; Vardas, Panos; Tavazzi, Luigi; Maggioni, Aldo P; Boriani, Giuseppe


    The EURObservational Research Programme-Atrial Fibrillation General Registry Pilot Phase (EORP-AF Pilot) provides systematic collection of contemporary data regarding the management and treatment of 3119 subjects with AF from 9 member European Society of Cardiology (ESC) countries. In this analysis, we report the development of symptoms, use of antithrombotic therapy and rate vs. rhythm strategies, as well as determinants of mortality and/or stroke/transient ischaemic attack (TIA)/peripheral embolism during 1-year follow-up in this contemporary European registry of AF patients. The registry population comprised consecutive in- and out-patients with AF presenting to cardiologists in participating ESC countries. Consecutive patients with AF documented by ECG were enrolled. Follow-up was performed by the local investigator, initially at 1 year, as part of a long-term cohort study. At the follow-up, patients were frequently asymptomatic (76.8%), but symptoms are nevertheless common among paroxysmal and persistent AF patients, especially palpitations, fatigue, and shortness of breath. Oral anticoagulant (OAC) use remains high, ∼78% overall at follow-up, and of those on vitamin K antagonist (VKA), 84% remained on VKA during the follow-up, while of those on non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC) at baseline, 86% remained on NOAC, and 11.8% had changed to a VKA and 1.1% to antiplatelet therapy. Digitalis was commonly used in paroxysmal AF patients. Of rhythm control interventions, electrical cardioversion was performed in 9.7%, pharmacological cardioversion in 5.1%, and catheter ablation in 4.4%. Despite good adherence to anticoagulation, 1-year mortality was high (5.7%), with most deaths were cardiovascular (70%). Hospital readmissions were common, especially for atrial tachyarrhythmias and heart failure. On multivariate analysis, independent baseline predictors for mortality and/or stroke/TIA/peripheral embolism were age, AF as primary presentation, previous TIA, chronic

  7. Observation of clinical effect of Qiliqiangxin capsule on elderly patients with systolic heart failure%芪苈强心胶囊治疗老年收缩性心力衰竭的临床疗效观察

    李争; 钱玉红; 周静; 王敏; 范志媛; 张淋淋; 梁凤兰; 史俊玲


    Objective To observe the therapeutic effect of Qiliqiangxin capsule in the treatment of senile congestive heart failure .Methods Selected 196 cases of age more than or equal 65 elderly patients with systolic heart failure , they were randomly divided to observation group (116 cases) and control group (80 cases).Control group was given conventional diu-retics, angiotensin angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) or vascular angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB), and beta blockers, digitalis and nitric acid ester drug treatment .The observation group also added Qiliqiangxin capsule treatment, at the beginning and after 8 weeks treatment , liver function , renal function , myocardial enzyme , clinical curative effect , 6 mi-nutes walking test (6MWT), left ventricular shoot ejection fraction (LVEF), left ventricular diastolic end diastolic diameter (LVEDD), serum N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide precursor (NT-proBNP) changes were detected.Results Obser-vation group’s total efficiency was superior to the conventional treatment group (92.2%vs.83.85,χ2 =6.852, P 0.05).Conclusion Qiliqiangxin capsule effectively improves the clinical symptoms and heart function in eld-erly patients with systolic heart failure , no drug adverse events , worthy of clinical application .%目的:观察芪苈强心胶囊治疗老年收缩性心力衰竭的临床疗效。方法选取年龄≥65岁的老年收缩性心力衰竭患者196例,随机分为观察组116例和对照组80例。对照组给予常规服用利尿剂、血管紧张素转换酶抑制剂(ACEI)或血管紧张素Ⅱ受体阻滞剂(ARB)、β-受体阻滞剂、洋地黄制剂、硝酸酯类等药物治疗。观察组在对照组治疗基础上给予芪苈强心胶囊口服,于入组时及治疗后8周检测肝功能、肾功能、心肌酶、临床疗效、6分钟步行试验(6 MWT)、左室射血分数(LVEF)、左心室舒张末期内径(LVEDD)、血清N末端脑钠肽前体(NT-proBNP

  8. Effect of valsartan on remodeling of atrium cordis in patients with rheumatic heart disease complicating atrial fibrillation%缬沙坦对风湿性心脏病心房颤动患者心房重构的影响

    范广慈; 付莉娜; 侯芳霖; 王永军


    Objective To evaluate the effect of valsartan on atrial remodeling in patients with theumatic heart disease complicating atrial fihrillation. Methods Fifty patients with mitral lesion and atrial fibrillation were divided randomly into control group and valsartan group.twenty-three patients in control group were treated with conventional therapy including diu retic , digitali8 preparation and β-blocker,twenty-seven patients in treatment group were treated with valsartan on the basis of a bove conventional therapy. Left atrium( LA ) bore and volume was detected by echocardiogram, peak A velocity( VA) and left atrium ejection force( LAEF) were measured. Atrial tissues were obtained from the right atrial appendage during heart surgery. Atrial collagen volume fraction ( CVF) was analyzed respectively by V-G 8taining method and IDAS-21 image analyais aystem. Results Compared with control group,the anteroposterior diameter of LA decreased,left atrium maximal volume and left atri um minimal volume were significantly lower while VA and LAEF were higher in valsartan group,the differences have statistical significance (P <0. 05 ) . Conclusion Valsartan can reduce the development of atrial fibrillation by decreasing significantly the level of atrial remodeling of patients with theumatic heart disease complicating atrial fibriUation.%目的 探讨缬沙坦对风湿性心脏病心房颤动患者心房结构的影响.方法 50例风湿性心脏病二尖瓣病变合并心房颤动患者分为缬沙坦组27例和对照组23例,对照组给予利尿剂、洋地黄制剂、β受体阻滞剂等常规治疗,缬沙坦组在常规治疗的基础上加用缬沙坦治疗.应用超声心动图测定左心房内径和容积,记录二尖瓣血流频谱A峰流速(VA)和左心房射血力(LAEF).行心脏外科手术时取右心耳组织,并应用V-G染色法和VIDAS-1图像分析系统测量心房组织胶原容积分数(CVF).结果 治疗后缬沙坦组左心房前后径、最大容积、

  9. Reality-Based and Reconstructive models: Digital Media for Cultural Heritage Valorization

    Gabriele Guidi


    preservare e spiegare le informazioni racchiuse nei Beni Culturali, sostenendo così il processo di valorizzazione attraverso l'applicazione di diversi strumenti di rappresentazione.Le tecnologie di acquisizione e modellazione 3D rappresentano un possibile aiuto perché consentono di generare il simulacro digitale di un manufatto reale. La disponibilità di strumenti digitali per manipolare, esplorare, confrontare e spiegare un oggetto virtuale, può aumentare notevolmente la comprensione e la valorizzazione dei monumenti. Inoltre, così come per il pubblico comune possono essere create applicazioni finalizzate alla comunicazione di un Bene Culturale, tramite lo stesso modello digitale possono essere realizzate anche l'analisi, la gestione e la conservazione riconfigurando modalità di interazione e tipologia di dati ad esso collegati.Questo articolo presenta criticamente i due possibili approcci complementari alla modellazione 3D nei Beni Culturali: la rappresentazione di un monumento "così com'è” attraverso una accurata modellazione 3D della realtà, comparata con la rappresentazione di un precedente ipotetico stato ottenuta attraverso un processo scientifico di ricostruzione tridimensionale. Tale presentazione si basa su due casi esemplari dei due approcci: la modellazione basata sullo stato corrente del Foro di Pompei e la ricostruzione diacronica della basilica di San Giovanni in Conca a Milano.

  10. 他汀类药物联合曲美他嗪对缺血性心肌病并心衰患者的治疗作用观察%Observe the effect of trimetazidine combined with statins on ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure patients

    邓丽丽; 陈海波; 金鑫


    Objective: To explore effect of statins combined with trimetazidine treatment patients with heart failure and ischemic cardiomyopathy.Methods:110 cases of ICM and heart failure patients From 08-2013 to 12-2014 were randomly divided into experimental group and control group with 55 cases in each group, two groups of patients were given atorvastatin, digitalis , angiotensin enzyme inhibitor, etc, experimental group were treated with trimetazidine (20mg, 3 /d), two groups of patients were consecutively for 3 months.Results:After treatment, the two groups of patients with LVESD, LVEDD signiifcantly decreased, LVEF% signiifcantly increased (P<0.05), the test group LVESD, LVEDD lower than the control group, LVEF% higher than the control group (P<0.05). After treatment, the test group walking distance (396.5 + 40.2) m was signiifcantly higher than that of control group (375.3 + 41.7) m (P<0.05). After treatment in the experimental group, there were 13 patients (45.45%) were signiifcantly higher than those in the control group (23.64%) and the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05).Conclusion:Atorvastatin Combined with trimetazidine in treatment of ischemic cardiomyopathy and heart failure patients can be more signiifcantly improved left ventricular ejection fraction and Improve athletic ability.%目的:观察他汀类药物联合曲美他嗪治疗缺血性心肌病(ICM)并心力衰竭患者疗效。方法:笔者科室2013年8月—2014年12月收治110例ICM并心力衰竭患者,随机数字表法分为试验组和对照组各55例,两组患者均给予阿托伐他汀、洋地黄制剂强心、血管紧张素酶抑制剂(ACEI)、醛固酮拮抗剂、利尿剂、硝酸酯类等常规药物治疗,试验组加用曲美他嗪(20m g,3次/d),两组患者均连续治疗3个月。结果:治疗后两组患者的LVESD、LVEDD显著降低、LVEF%显著提高(P<0.05),试验组的LVESD、LVEDD低于对照组、LVEF%高于对照组(P<0.05

  11. Effective observation on treating chronic heart failure and hypotension with the Shenfu injection plus dopamine%参附注射液联合多巴胺治疗慢性心力衰竭合并低血压的疗效观察



    目的:探讨参附注射液与多巴胺联合应用在治疗慢性心力衰竭和低血压中的临床疗效。方法:选取2011年6月-2014年6月我院106例慢性心力衰竭合并低血压患者,随机分为对照组和观察组,各53例,对照组给予诱因控制、钠摄入限量、利尿剂、洋地黄制剂、醛固酮拮抗剂及多巴胺泵入等治疗,观察组在对照组基础上增加参附注射液治疗,比较两组疗效、心功能指标及治疗前后血压。结果:观察组治疗总有效率(96.23%)显著高于对照组(77.36%),组间差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.01);观察组心率低于对照组,心搏出量、每分钟排血量高于对照组(P<0.01);观察组治疗后舒张压和收缩压均高于对照组(P<0.01)。结论:参附注射液与多巴胺联合使用辅助治疗慢性心力衰竭和低血压能够有效稳定病情,为后续治疗提供良好条件。%Objective: To discussion clinical effcacy of the Shenfu injection plus dopamine on chronic heart failure plus hypotension. Methods: 106 patients with chronic heart failure and hypotension in our hospital from June 2011 to June 2014 were randomly divided into the observed group and control group, 53 cases in each group. The control group was given incentive control, limit sodium intake, diuretics, digitalis preparations, aldosterone antagonists and dopamine pumped. The observed group received the Shenfu injection more. The effcacy, cardiac function between two groups, and the blood pressure before and after treatment were compared. Results: The total effciency in the observation group (96.23%) was significantly higher than 77.36% in the control group. The differences between two groups were statistically significant (P<0.01). The heart rate in the observation group was lower than that in the control group. Stroke volume, per minute output, systolic and diastolic blood pressure in the observation group were higher than those in

  12. Characterization of focal liver lesions with a new ultrasound contrast agent using continuous low acoustic power imaging: comparison with contrast enhanced spiral CT; Caratterizzazione delle lesioni focali epatiche con mezzo di contrasto ecografico e metodica di imaging continuo a basso indice meccanico: paragone con la TC spirale con contrasto

    Passamonti, Matteo; Vercelli, Alessandro; Azzaretti, Andrea; Rodolico, Giuseppe; Calliada, Fabrizio [Ospedale Maggiore di Lodi, U. O. Radiologia, Lodi (Italy)


    stati sottoposti ad esame ecografico con imaging continuo a basso Indice Meccanico (0,01digitali ATL HDI-5000, Acuson SEQUOIA e Aloka 5500 Prosound usando sonde convex da 2-5 MHz. La concordanza tra le immagini ecografiche e TC � stata valutata da due operatori, all'oscuro dei risultati della TC. Le lesioni focali epatiche sono state valutae durante la fase arteriosa (20 s dopo l'iniezione del mezzo di contrasto), portale (dopo 45-60 s) e portale tardiva (dopo 120 s) come: 1) presenza/assenza di enhancement (omogenea o a bersaglio (target), con flusso centripeto o centrifugo, altro), 3) comportamento qualitativo dell'enhancement (iper-ipo o iso-ecoico) in paragone con il parenchima epatico normale circostante. Risultati: Nella valutazione globale della concordanza del comportamento contrastografico delle lesioni focali all'esame CEUS e CECT, si osserva una percentuale di sovrapponibilit� dell'85%. In particolare nella fase portale con l'esame CEUS, � stato possibile discriminare correttamente tra malignit� o benignit� del 91% delle lesioni. Conclusioni: I dati ottenuti in questo studio suggeriscono che la tecnica ecografica con l'imaging continuo a basso indice meccanico e l'ecocontrasto producono risultati simili a quelli ottenuti con la TC spirale con contrasto per quanto riguarda la distribuzione e il comportamento vascolare dinamico del contrasto delle lesioni.

  13. La classe T "Economia" nella classificazione bibliografica Bliss Class T "Economics" in Bliss Bibliografic Classification

    Elisabetta Viti


    Full Text Available Partendo da alcune considerazioni generali sul rapporto disciplina-fenomeno all'interno della Classificazione Bibliografica Bliss (2. ed., si offre una panoramica relativa all'architettura di uno specifico dominio disciplinare: l'economia. La difficoltà a sistematizzare questa disciplina come soggetto specifico e la rapida diffusione di acronimi e nuovi termini creati per abbreviazione o per combinazione di parole già esistenti, ha portato a una drastica revisione della struttura della tavola T, Economics & Management of economic enterprise, che è attualmente organizzata in categorie, faccette e sottofaccette, le quali, per formazione di classi composte, seguono un rigoroso ordine di citazione. Il sistema prevede un ordine lineare, una notazione per mantenere l'ordine di elencazione e un indice alfabetico di tutti i termini delle tavole. La BC2 è il solo esempio di architettura classificatoria analitico-sintetica completamente faccettata, aggiornata e coerentemente sviluppata, ma è poco usata al di fuori dell’Inghilterra ed è ancora priva di un'interfaccia web che possa rappresentare tutte le complesse relazioni semantiche del sistema. La sua struttura ha esercitato influenze sull'informatica, testimoniate dal progetto FATKS dell’University College London, che ha studiato l’impiego delle classificazioni analitico-sintetiche come base per l’indicizzazione delle risorse digitali. Sono inoltre in atto alcune sperimentazioni che mostrano le potenzialità di conversione di questa classificazione in formato thesaurus (in particolare della classe dedicata alla musica; ed è oggetto di studio lo sviluppo di un software di generare un thesaurus dagli stessi file di input, usati per la visualizzazione della classificazione e dell’indice alfabetico.L'autrice vuole porgere un sentito ringraziamento ad Alberto Cheti, Claudio Gnoli e Anna Lucarelli per la paziente lettura e i preziosi consigli.Starting from some general thoughts on the

  14. La apropiación asistemática de las nuevas tecnologías. Informalización y contextualización entre los jóvenes alemanes

    Tully, Claus J.


    intencional, ya que depende en gran medida del interés individual que precede al uso del mundo multimedia. Los jóvenes alemanes se apropian de la oferta de navegación en las autopistas de datos de una manera lúdica. La formación social que acompaña a este tipo de apropiación de la tecnología ha sido investigada sólo en escasa medida, aun cuando encierra nuevos riesgos. Se intenta aquí reflexionar sobre este proceso y sus posibles efectos, tales como la desigualdad social y la exclusión (la llamada brecha digital>.

  15. Il valore dell'eBook

    Nicola Cavalli


    Full Text Available ItQuanto vale un e-book? Quale valore percepisce chi compra e usa gli e-book? Comprare un libro o un e-book è una scelta che i lettori oggi si trovano a fare quotidianamente: la diffusione degli e-book reader a prezzi accessibili e la proposta sempre più varia dei piccoli e grandi editori sta cambiando la percezione del valore commerciale dell'oggetto libro e del valore attribuito dal consumatore finale al lavoro di intermediazione delle case editrici e della distribuzione. Sorgono sistemi "alternativi" di condivisione dei testi digitali, che sfruttano la rete Internet, celebrati come democratici o demonizzati come pirateria illegale, ma sicuramente rispondenti a quello che è il cambio di prospettiva, di percezione, di abitudini di consumo del lettore. Quanto si può parlare, dunque, di pirateria nel mercato degli e-book? E quanto, invece, è importante che l'industria editoriale tenga in considerazione la risposta del consumatore? La presente ricerca si è posta l’obiettivo di svolgere una indagine esplorativa su questi temi, che stanno assumendo un rilievo sempre maggiore all’interno dell’opinione pubblica, e che sono destinati in futuro ad incidere in modo sempre più diretto sull’evoluzione economica e professionale dell’intero settore editoriale. L’indagine ha visto, in questa prima fase, l’utilizzo di un questionario diffuso online sui social network, in siti e forum dedicati alla lettura, attraverso mailing list di gruppi di interesse, con il primo obiettivo di precisare il profilo di quell’avanguardia di lettori forti e che si muovono agilmente tra il cartaceo e il digitale, raccogliere informazioni rispetto alle loro abitudini di ricerca di nuove letture e descriverne le dinamiche di matchmaking preliminari all’acquisto. In aggiunta, si è indagata la consistenza di pratiche di prestito e condivisione dei libri, l’appoggio a sistemi tradizionali, come quello bibliotecario, o la decisa svolta verso sistemi di

  16. Efficacy Observation of Dopamine and Phentolamine in the Treatment of Refractory Heart Failure with Pulmonary Heart Disease%多巴胺与酚妥拉明治疗肺心病难治性心衰疗效观察



    Objective: To observe the low-dose dopamine and phentolamine in the treatment of pulmonary heart disease with refractory heart failure in clinical efficacy. Methods:pulmonary heart disease in our hospital 1 10 patients with refractory heart failure, 55 patients were randomly divided into control group, treatment group 55 cases, the basis of treatment are used sodium restriction, water restriction, continuous low flow oxygen, active anti-inflammatory and smooth airway, asthma, cardiac, diuretic, correct water and electrolyte balance; treatment group on the basis of conventional therapy plus low-dose dopamine, phentolamine, compared 2 groups of patients. Results:The treatment group 42 cases, effective in 9 cases, 4 cases, total effective rate 92.7%. Control group, 40 cases markedly effective, 8 cases, 7 cases, total effective rate 87.3%. After treatment,are better than before treatment, the treatment group than the control group (P<0.05), the difference was statistically significant. Conclusion:The conventional treatment of refractory heart failure, pulmonary heart disease based on the combined use of small doses of dopamine, phentolamine can improve symptoms, improve the efficacy, better than the simple use of digitalis preparations to improve heart failure symptoms.%目的:观察小剂量多巴胺及酚妥拉明治疗肺心病难治性心衰的临床疗效.方法:收集我院肺心病难治性心衰患者110例,随机分为对照组55例,治疗组55例,基础治疗均采用限钠,限水,持续低流量吸氧,积极抗感染,畅通气道,平喘,强心,利尿,纠正水电解质平衡;治疗组在常规治疗基础上加用小剂量多巴胺,酚妥拉明,比较2组的疗效.结果:治疗组显效42例,有效9例,无效4例,总有效率92.7%.对照组显效40例,有效8例,无效7例,总有效率87.3%.两组治疗后均优于治疗前,治疗组明显优于对照组(P<0.05),差异有统计学意义.结论:在常规治疗肺心病难治性心衰基础上,联合使

  17. 1例急性心功能不全缓解患者的药学监护%Pharmaceutical care on one stable patient after acute heart failure attack

    张雅; 张亚同; 纪立伟; 胡欣


    One elder female patient was admitted to hospital due to acute exacerbation of chronic heart failure. She received the standard regime of chronic heart failure after the condition was stable. And her admission diagnoses were chronic heart failure with acute exacerbation, lung infection, acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hypertension and type 2 diabetes. For the reason that the patient developed lower limb venous thrombus and pulmonary embolism, low molecular weight heparin and warfarin were used successively. Clinical pharmacist evaluated the rationality of the overlapping time of the low molecular weight heparin and warfarin, and adjusted the dosage of warfarin by measuring the INR values. Diltiazem was withdrawn because that diltiazem may elevate the blood concentration of warfarin. Considering that ACEI or ARB were the first-line therapy for heart failure, clinical pharmacists recommended switching felodipine to losartan, and the blood pressure was controlled well. The factors affecting the blood concentration of digoxin were analyzed, and clinical pharmacists reminded the patient to pay close attention to the symptoms of poisoning for avoiding digitalis toxicity, and offered discharge education to the patient, such as avoiding use of the drugs and foods that can affect the blood concentration of warfarin, monitoring blood pressure, blood glucose and INR values.%  1例老年女性患者,因慢性心力衰竭急性发作入院,入院诊断为慢性心功能不全急性发作、肺部感染、慢性阻塞性肺疾病急性发作、高血压Ⅲ级、2型糖尿病。因患者出现下肢静脉血栓及肺栓塞,先后使用低分子肝素和华法林治疗,临床药师评估了低分子肝素和华法林的重叠使用时间,并通过测量INR值调整华法林的用量;因地尔硫卓可能升高华法林的血药浓度,建议停用地尔硫卓;考虑到心衰患者首选ACEI或ARB类降压药,建议停用非洛地

  18. Disturbances of sensation occasioned by experimental arrest of blood flow

    Alfred Auersperg


    muscles during ischaemia, as observed by Matthews, weight discrimination and the capability of hitting targets with objects of different weights were not significantly altered, even during the painful phase of fatigue. V - A nervus digitalis volaris proprius was stimulated with A.C. current of 60 cycles at a just tolerable intensity. After three minutes of stimulation the initial paresthesias and pain had almost disappeared, and were followed by numbness and increased sensory thresholds in the field of distribution of that nerve. A few seconds after stimulation was interrupted, sensation was again normal in that field. Comparable phenomena were observed under normal conditions, in the absence of ischaemia. VI - Novocaine block of a finger in the ischaemic side did not influence "pins and needles", which appear after arrest of circulation is released. Therefore, the field of origin of the "pins and needles" does not seem to be the receptor field (Weddell and Sinclair but more probably the nerve fibers themselves (Lewis, Kugelberg. VII - As is well known, "pins and needles" are accentuated by tapping the fingers and, much less, by pressing them. Thermic and painful stimulation have no effect on these paresthesias. Tapping would probably stimulate muscle and touch receptors. On the basis of our observations and Kugelberg's physiological analysis, we are inclined to consider the nerve fibers of these receptors as the field of origin of these paresthesias. VIII - No accentuation of "pins and needles" was found by (a tapping an anesthetized finger, nor (b pressing the muscles; but (c tapping the fingers does reinforce these paresthesias, also during the phase when simple pressure has the opposite effect of extinguishing them. So, it seems that accentuation is related to specific nerve fibers, but it is only brought about when a special function is at play. Therefore, enhancement of those paresthesias is limited to the correlated function of proprioceptors and touch receptors

  19. Perfil epidemiológico, clínico e terapêutico da insuficiência cardíaca em hospital terciário Perfil epidemiológico, clínico y terapéutico de la insuficiencia cardíaca en hospital terciario Epidemiological, clinical e therapeutic profile of heart failure in a tertiary hospital

    Patrícia Resende Nogueira


    (22.9%, coronary disease (19.4%, dyslipidemia (17.3% and diabetes (16.6% were the main risk factors. There was a higher prevalence of female individuals among the hypertensive patients (p=0.044 as well as a higher frequency of pulmonary rales (p < 0.01. Heart rate was lower among chagasic patients (p < 0.001. The most often prescribed medications were diuretics (81.2%, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers (77.7%, beta-blockers (45.8%, spironolactone (35.4%, digitalis (30.5% and vasodilators (8.3%. CONCLUSION: Chagasic cardiomyopathy was the main cause of heart failure. No significant clinical differences were observed among patients from the four etiologic groups.

  20. Pachacamac y el proyecto Ychsma (1999-2003


    Full Text Available PACHACAMAC ET LE PROJET YCHSMA (1999-2003. Le Projet Ychsma (Université Libre de Bruxelles, Belgique - Instituto Nacional de Cultura del Perú a débuté en 1999 afin d’éclairer le fonctionnement, le développement et l’influence du site de Pachacamac durant les périodes Intermédiaire récent et Horizon récent. L’architecture monumentale constitue le thème principal des recherches de terrain. Une synthèse des résultats obtenus jusqu’à présent est présentée ici, avec un accent particulier mis sur l’étude des pyramides à rampe, leur fonctionnement, leur chronologie et leur rôle dans l’expansion du site. Les fouilles étendues et intensives de la pyramide n˚ 3 de Pachacamac ainsi que les explorations ponctuelles des autres pyramides de la zone archéologique et ses environs suggèrent de nouveaux modèles d’interprétation du site, fort différents de ce qui a été proposé jusqu’à présent sur la base de sources ethnohistoriques, ou de données archéologiques interprétées en fonction de celles-ci. Les avancées dans le domaine de la cartographie digitalisée, de la nomenclature des édifices et de la reconstitution en images de synthèse de l’ensemble du site de Pachacamac sont également évoquées. Il s’agit d’une entreprise à long terme destinée à servir de référence aux futures recherches et débats à propos d’un établissement qui compte parmi les plus importants des Andes centrales. El Proyecto Ychsma (Universidad Libre de Bruselas, Bélgica - Instituto Nacional de Cultura del Perú empezó en 1999 con el fin de esclarecer el funcionamiento, desarrollo e influencia del sitio de Pachacamac durante los periodos Intermedio Tardío y Horizonte Tardío, siendo la arquitectura monumental el enfoque principal de las investigaciones en el campo. Se presenta aquí una síntesis de los avances logrados hasta el presente, específicamente en el estudio de las pirámides con rampa, su funcionamiento, cronolog

  1. 间歇短程小剂量多巴胺有利于重度失代偿性心力衰竭患者的治疗%Therapeutic effects of short-term intermittent administration dopamine at low doses on patients with decompensated heart failure

    胡和生; 薛梅; 王晓军; 王晔; 穆伟; 陈明友; 闫素华


    目的:评价间歇短程应用小剂量多巴胺治疗重度失代偿性心力衰竭患者临床疗效及安全性。方法选用予利尿剂、洋地黄制剂以及神经内分泌拮抗等慢性心力衰竭失代偿期治疗2 d后NYHA心功能仍在Ⅲ~Ⅳ级的患者105例,随机分成多巴胺组(54例)和对照组(51例),对照组继续上述治疗,而多巴胺组在前述治疗基础上每日给予多巴胺注射液60~80 mg(3µg·kg-1·min-1)静脉泵入,连续5 d,观察两组疗效,同时检测治疗前后心率、血压、体重、左心室射血分数(LVEF)及血清B型钠尿肽(BNP)水平,平均住院时间,心血管事件,半年内再住院率及主要不良心脏事件。结果与对照组相比,多巴胺组显效率(59.2%vs.37.2%,P<0.05)及总有效率(81.4%vs.68.6%, P<0.05)明显提高,并且可以缩短住院时间及降低半年内再住院率(P<0.05)。同时,多巴胺更有利于心率、体重、BNP水平的控制,LVEF较对照组也有所提高[(40.3±3.4)%vs.(37.1±2.3)%, P<0.05],并且不增加住院期间的不良反应及半年内心脏事件。结论间歇短程小剂量多巴胺作用于可有效治疗重度失代偿期的慢性充血性心力衰竭,不良反应少,经济实用,值得临床推广。%Objective To evaluate clinical efficacy and safety of short-term intermittent administration dopamine at low doses on patients with severe decompensated heart failure. Methods After two days' standard treatment, patients still with NYHA classⅢ toⅣ were selected for the study. 105 patients with severe decompensated heart failure were randomly divided into dopamine group (n=54) and control group (n=51). Control group was given standard treatment such as diuretics, digitalis preparations, neuroendocrine antagonist and so on. Dopamine group was daily given intravenous dopamine (60-80 mg, 3 µg·kg-1·min-1) for 5 days besides the foregoing treatment

  2. Agranulocytosis and acute coronary syndrom in apathetic hyperthyreoidism

    Ivović Miomira


    disorder in hyperthyroidism but paroxysmal tachycardia and atrial fibrillation are not rare. This can be explained by increased heart rate, cardiac output, blood volume, coronary artery flow and peripheral oxygen consumption in thyreotoxicosis [9]. Patients with coronary arteriosclerosis can develop angina pectoris during thyreotoxic stage, which can be explained by imbalance between cardiac demand and supply. Myocardial damage is often in thyrotoxic patients with chronic hart failure, together with myocardial infarction in patients without coronary disease [2,6]. Congestive heart failure and atrial fibrillation are relatively resistant to digitalis treatment because of high metabolic turn over of medication and excessive myocardial irritability in hyperthyro-idism [6]. Cardiovascular and myopathic manifestations predominate in older hyperthyroid patients (over 60 years and some of them can have only few symptoms of hyperthyroidism [1-3]. Thyrotoxic state characterized by fatigue, apathy, extreme weakness, low-grade fever and sometimes congestive heart failure are designated as apathetic hyperthyroidism. Such patients have small goiters, mild tachycardia and often cool and dry skin with few eye signs [6]. Patients with subclinical hyperthyroidism are at increased risk for atrial fibrillation [9]. Unstable angina and non-Q myocardial infarction (non ST elevation are acute manifestation of coronary artery disease. The acute coronary syndrome of unstable angina, non-Q myocardial infarction and Q-wave myocardial infarction have atherosclerotic lesions of the coronary arteries as a common pathogenic substrate. Errosions or ruptures of unstable atherosclerotic plaque triggered pathophysiologic processes, resulted in thrombus formation at the site of arterial injury. This leads to abrupt reduction or cessation through the affected vessel. Clinical manifestations of unstable angina and non-Q myocardial infarction are similar and diagnosis of non-Q myocardial infarction is made on

  3. Image quality of a Konica Regius 336 digital system in chest radiography; Qualita' dell'immagine di un sistema digitale Konica Regius 336 per radiologia toracica

    Ostinelli, A.; Frigerio, M.; Monti, A.F.; Gelosa, S.; Tognoli, P.; Perniola, N. [Azienda Ospedaliera S. Anna, Como (Italy). Servizio di Fisica Sanitaria; Gozzi, G. [Azienda Ospedaliera S. Anna, Como (Italy). Servizio di Radiologia


    Digital radiographic systems permit to optimize execution, depiction and storage of radiological images. Since a Regius 336 digital system (Konica Corp. Tokyo, Japan) devoted to chest radiography Department of S. Anna Hospital in Como, Italy, it was investigated its performance relative to image quality. Konica Regius 336 is a computed radiography system made of a phosphorescence detector plate which is scanned with an infrared semiconductor laser beam. The radiographic image obtained from the detector is subjected to image processing, which allows a stable output and the nonlinear curve typical of conventional radiographic systems. Image quality was assessed based on the following parameters: dose, contrast, noise and spatial resolution. As reference, it was assessed the same parameters on a Cronex 88 analogic chest-changer (DuPont Pharma, North Billerica, Mass, USA). The Regius 336 air kerma values were always higher than the analogic ones (about 10%), both with and without a chest phantom; noise was also greater than in analogic images, sometimes even doubled. The optical densities of a step wedge and the spatial resolution of the digital chest-changer are independent of the X-ray tube voltage consequent to broader optical latitude. Inversely, the analogic images of the wedges show great optical density variability as a function of the X-ray tube voltage (in a range of 2). The modulation transfer functions of the two systems have the same trend. The performance of the Konica Regius 336 is nearly equivalent to that of an analogic system. The main advantages of the digital system are a standard output, lower consumption of radiographic films, higher productiveness and better image quality standard level. [Italian] I sistemi radiografici digitali offrono la possibilita' di ottimizzare l'esecuzione, la visualizzazione e l'archiviazione dell'immagine radiologica. Poiche' presso il Servizio di Radiologia dell'Azienda Ospedaliera S. Anna

  4. Mesure par interférométrie laser du mouvement d'une particule proche d'une paroi

    Assou, Y.; Joyeux, D.; Azouni, A.; Feuillebois, F.


    , et l'alignement de la sphère dans le montage optique sont relativement peu critiques. Les sphères utilisées sont des billes de roulements à billes, de 4 et 5 × 10^{-3} m de diamètre. La précision sur le déplacement de la sphère est de l'ordre de 2 × 10^{-8} m. Le signal d'interférence est digitalisé et stocké dans un micro-ordinateur. Le traitement des données permet alors d'obtenir le coefficient de frottement f^T_zz de la sphère en mouvement tout près de la paroi. La variation de f^T_zz avec l'intervalle sans dimension \\varepsilon (rapport de l'intervalle entre la sphère et la paroi au rayon de la sphère) permet de distinguer trois régions: (i) Une région où \\varepsilon est petit mais au moins 10 fois plus grand que la rugosité non dimensionnelle (rapport de l'échelle de la rugosité au rayon de la sphère) ; le résultat expérimental est alors en très bon accord avec la formule f^T_zz = 1/\\varepsilon démontrée en théorie de la lubrification, formule valable pour une sphère lisse. (ii) Lorsque \\varepsilon décroît pour devenir de l'ordre de grandeur de la rugosité non dimensionnelle, le coefficient de frottement est alors inférieur à Il E. La technique ouvre ainsi une nouvelle voie à l'étude des effets de rugosité en hydrodynamique. (iii) La technique permet de mesurer des intervalles de l'ordre de 10^{-8} m et pourrait ainsi être utilisée dans l'étude des forces à courte portée.

  5. Os efeitos da trimetazidina na variabilidade da frequência cardíaca (VFC em pacientes com insuficiência cardíaca Los efectos de la trimetazidina en la variabilidad de la frecuencia cardíaca (VFC en pacientes con insuficiencia cardíaca The effects of trimetazidine on heart rate variability in patients with heart failure

    Yilmaz Gunes


    la VFC de 24-horas antes y 3 meses después de la adición de trimetazidina. RESULTADOS: La fracción de eyección ventricular izquierda (FEVI media aumentó significativamente después de la adición de la trimetazidina (33,5±5,1% para 42,5±5,8%, pBACKGROUND: Reduced measures of heart rate variability (HRV have been shown to be related with prognosis in heart failure. Chronic administration of trimetazidine in addition to the conventional therapy has been shown to improve functional class and left ventricular functions of heart failure patients. OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of trimetazidine on HRV in optimally treated patients with heart failure of ischemic origin. METHODS: Trimetazidine 20 mg three times/day was added to therapy of 30 patients with heart failure being treated with angiotensinogen converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers, carvedilol, spironolactone, digitalis and furosemide. The etiology of heart failure was coronary artery disease in all patients. Patients were evaluated with echocardiography and 24-hour heart rate variability analysis before and 3 months after addition of trimetazidine. RESULTS: Mean left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF significantly increased after the addition of trimetazidine (33.5±5.1% to 42.5±5.8%, p<0.001. Of the HRV parameters, SDNN (97.3±40,1 to 110.5±29,2 msecs, p=0.049 and SDANN (80.5±29,0 to 98.3±30,5 msecs were significantly increased after trimetazidine treatment. Baseline SDNN was significantly correlated with baseline LVEF (r=0.445, p=0.023, p=0.008 and the increment in SDNN was correlated with increase in LVEF (r=0.518, p=0.007. CONCLUSIONS: Adding trimetazidine to optimal medical therapy in patients with heart failure of ischemic origin may improve heart rate variability in association with improved left ventricular ejection fraction.

  6. ShenMai Injection and Phentolamine in Treating 115 Cases of Coronary Heart Disease%参麦注射液与酚妥拉明治疗冠心病115例



    目的:观察参麦注射液与酚妥拉明治疗冠心病的疗效。方法:将230例患者随机分为治疗组和对照组各115例。2组均给予吸氧、洋地黄、利尿、血管紧张素转移酶抑制剂等一般治疗。对照组在此基础上用5%葡萄糖注射液250 mL+酚妥拉明注射液15 mg,1次/d,静脉滴注。治疗组在对照组的基础用5%葡萄糖注射液250 mL+参麦注射液80 mL,静脉滴注,1次/d。2组均连续治疗2周。观察2组治疗前后血液流变学变化、临床疗效。结果:治疗组显效45例(39.13%),有效59例(51.30%),无效11例(9.57%),总有效率90.43%;对照组显效32例(27.83%),有效61例(53.04),无效22例(19.13%),总有效率80.87%。显效率、总有效率2组比较差异显著(P<0.05)。全血高切黏度、全血中切黏度、全血低切黏度、血浆黏度2组治疗后与治疗前比较,差异显著(P<0.05);治疗后组间比较差异显著(P<0.05)。结论:参麦注射液与酚妥拉明治疗冠心病临床疗效好,心功能改善明显。%Objective:To survey curative effects of ShenMai injection and phentolamine in treating coronary heart disease. Methods:All 230 patients were randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group, 115 cases each group. Both groups were administered with general treatment including oxygen uptake, YangDiHuang (Digitalis), diuretic, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) and others. The control group accepted intra-venous dripping of 5%blood glucose injection, 250 mL, and phentolamine injection, 15mL, once per day. The treat-ment group intravenous dripping of 5%blood glucose injection, 250mL, and ShenMai injection, 80mL, once per day. Both groups were treated for two consecutive weeks. Adverse reaction, clinical effects, clinical symptoms, the changes of heart function and hemorheology in both groups were observed before and after treating. Results:There were 45 cases markedly effective (39.13%), 59


    Joan-Ramon Laporte


    Full Text Available Possibly still are health professionals that when hearing about adverse drug reactions only think in cutaneous rash, blood dyscrasias, anaphylactic shock and congenital malformations. The mentioned adverse effects are real, but relatively infrequent. Furthermore, are unexpected, not related with the pharmacological mechanism of action, unpredictable and dose independent. These adverse drug reactions are like a therapeutic lottery, depending on «luck».However, when the pharmacological pathology resulting in medical care is analyzed, the perspective is very different. For instance, the predominant adverse drug reactions in emergency wards are those related with the pharmacological mechanism of action: severe hemorrhage due to anticoagulant and antiplatelet drugs; renal insufficiency and hyperkalemia by inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin axis; hyponatremia, fells and fractures by SSRI antidepressants, digitalis intoxication… These are relatively common pathologies, expectable, dose-related, and favored by patient comorbidity, preventable in many cases if the dose would have carefully individualized, if the patient complied better with the instructions (in case the patient understood the information or if a more carefully clinical surveillance were performed.A review of the literature reminds us other pathologies attended in other assistance levels, for example:- Breast cancer attributable to the hormone replacement therapy (HRT: three to four additional cases per 1.000 women treated during 5 years, this is translated in thousands of additional cases of breast cancer according to the sales data of these products between the years 1993 to 2003. Moreover, it was irresponsibly promoted for the prevention of cardiovascular events, dementia, and as the source of eternal youth without proven efficacy at that time (no evidence of efficacy exist today.- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs - especially celecoxib and diclofenac -increase the

  8. [Early achievements of the Danish pharmaceutical industry-6 Pharmacia].

    Grevsen, Jørgen V; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R


    Upjohn Company under the name of Pharmacia & Upjohn. In 2000 this company was merged with the chemical group Monsanto under a new name, Pharmacia Corporation. Pharmacia Corporation was taken over by Pfizer in 2003. The early activities of A/S Pharmacia included not only the import of raw materials and ready-made articles, such as medicinal products, but also the manufacture of own medicinal products. This is not surprising considering the founder Edward Jacobsen's pharmaceutical career. Pharmacia's early manufacture of own medicinal products consisted mainly of generics, however, not only the expensive foreign medicinal products, but also any available Danish generics such as easily manufactured pharmacopeia products. It is thus worth mentioning that Pharmacia's own technological production capacity at that time was limited and required a cooperation with other (Danish) pharmaceutical companies. Pharmacia was able to produce tablet cores, but the sugarcoating had to be made by external business partners. Pharmacia was able to produce digitalis preparations, but the standardization of these had to be effected elsewhere. The total production of one of Pharmacia's products took place at an external business partner. Pharmacia was established at a time where the increasing use of industrially manufactured medicinal products, both Danish and foreign ones, had resulted in a considerable decrease in sales of pharmacy produced medicinal products. This had for a long time worried The Danish Association of Pharmacies, and this resulted in a reaction from the association, namely the DAK-products which by nature were produced in Denmark and thus became the most essential element in the fight against the industrially manufactured products--a fight which according to the association had to be fought with all legal means. Therefore The Danish Association of Pharmacies obviously reacted precipitated when in 1926 the association in writing stated that Pharmacia's products were not

  9. 重症71型肠道病毒感染的临床特征与治疗12例分析%Clinical characteristics and treatment assessments of severe enterovirus 71 infected children

    刘京涛; 彭丹; 官旭华; 邹典定; 赵东赤


    Objective To facilitate early recognition of ominous clinical manifestations,to understand pathophysiology and assess treatment effects in patients with severe entemvirus 71(EV71) associated hand,foot and mouth disease (HFMD).Method A retrospective analysis was performed based on the clinical records,laboratory data and treatment effects which were collected from twelve severe EV71 infected cases from nine hespitals in 2008,in Hubei province,China.Result Of the 12 severe cases,ten (83.3%)were male and two female.The median age was 1.96 yrs(8 m to 7 yrs).The mean hyperthermic duration was 6 days with the peak temperature over 38.5℃.and mean rash duration was 7 days.Fever and rash emerged simultaneously in 4 of 5 cases with cardiopulmonary failure.The severe complications included encephalitis(10 cases),pulmonary edema or hemorrhage(5 cases).Eleven cases were checked with magnetic resonance imaging(MRI)and four cases showed characteristics of encephalitis or meningitis,two with images of nasesinusitis and ethmoid-mastoid intlammation. Chest X-ray examination showed with pulmonary edema on single or both sides(5 cases),bronchitis(4 cages),and normal image(3 cases). There was no specific finding in the cardiac ultrasound and electrocardiogram in any of the patients,as well as the white blood cell count,blood glucose,prothrombin time,partial thromboplastin time and D-dimer.Cerebrospinal fluid showed aseptic meningitis with the increase of cell count in 7 cases.All patients were treated with antibiotics and/or antivirals,such as cephalosporins,ribavirin etc.Eleven patients were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin(total dose 2-4.5 g/ks)for 2-5 days,and the highest blood concentration of immunoglobulin was detected increasing at 7g/L. Seven cases were also treated with methylprednisolone 10-30 mg/(kg·d), four with dopamine,dobutamine,or digitalis.In addition,by using continuous positive airway pressure by nasal catheter and maintenance of circulation in the cases

  10. Adaptações fisiológicas precoces e tardias após valvotomia mitral por cateter balão Early and late physiological effects of balloon mitral valvuloplasty

    Japy Angelini Oliveira Fº


    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliação não invasiva das respostas cardiopulmonares ao exercício a curto e longo prazo após valvotomia mitral por cateter balão. MÉTODOS: Estudaram-se 9 pacientes do sexo feminino, 35±9 anos, com estenose mitral, tipo funcional II ou III, em uso de digitálicos e diuréticos, através de teste ergoespirométrico, eletrocardiograma e ecocardiograma, antes e após valvotomia em fase precoce (3 a 5 dias e tardia (8 a 12 meses. RESULTADOS: Os pacientes evoluíram para tipo funcional II (44% ou I (56%, na fase tardia. Houve redução da freqüência cardíaca de repouso (87±11bpm vs 85±7bpm vs 75±9bpm e elevação do número de estágios (4±1 estágios vs 5±2 estágios vs 6±1 estágios; a capacidade aeróbia máxima aumentou apenas na fase tardia (16±3mL/kg/min vs 18±4mL/kg/min vs 22±7mL/kg/min. O limiar anaeróbio, a ventilação pulmonar e o equivalente ventilatório do O2 permaneceram inalterados. Nas cargas submáximas de exercício ocorreu redução da freqüência cardíaca (estágio I: 124±18bpm vs 112±13bpm vs 87±15bpm, consumo de O2 (estágio I: 10±2mL/kg/min vs 8±2mL/kg/min vs 8±mL/kg/min e ventilação pulmonar, nas fases precoce e tardia. A área valvar mitral mostrou reduções na fase tardia (0,94cm² vs 1,66cm² vs 1,20cm² . CONCLUSÃO: Apesar da tendência à reestenose parcial, houve melhora no tipo funcional e no desempenho cardiopulmonar com diminuição da sobrecarga circulatória no exercício submáximo.PURPOSE: To evaluate the early and late cardiorespiratory responses after balloon mitral valvuloplasty. METHODS: Nine female patients aged 35±9 years, with mitral stenosis, in class II or III (NYHA underwent upright ergoespirometric test, resting electrocardiogram and echocardiogram before, 3 to 5 days (early evaluation and 8 to 12 months (late evaluation after mitral valvuloplasty. All patients were treated with digitalis and diuretics. RESULTS: During late evaluation, 44% patients were in

  11. The Efficacy of Spironolactone Plus Metoprolol for Elderly Patients with Chronic Heart Failure and the Effects on the Endothelin,Brain Natriuretic Peptide and Cardiac Function%螺内酯联合美托洛尔治疗老年慢性心力衰竭的疗效及对血浆内皮素、脑钠肽与心功能的影响

    刘玉茹; 徐慧敏; 杨克雅; 吴昌维


    Objective To investigate the efficacy of spironolactone plus metoprolol treatment for elderly patients with chronic heart failure and the effects on endothelin,brain natriuretic peptide(BNP) and cardiac function.Methods Total of 240 elderly patients with chronic heart failure in Huaihe Hospital of Henan Uni-versity from Dec.2014 to Feb.2015 were included in the study and divided into an observation group and a control group according to the random number table method,120 cases in each group.The control group received conventional drug treatment,i.e.inotropic drugs,angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors,and diu-retics etc.,for cardiac function Ⅳ stage patients digitalis cardiac drugs could be appropriately added; the observation group was added with spironolactone plus metoprolol,oral spironolactone 40 mg,once every morn-ing and night respectively,50 mg oral metoprolol at the same time.The clinical efficacy,endothelin and BNP level changes,cardiac function(left ventricular ejection fraction, left ventricular end-diastolic volume and left ventricular end-systolic volume) changes of the two groups were observed and compared.Results After treatment,the total effective rate of the observation group was higher than the control group [96.6%(116/120) vs 80.0%(96/120)],the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05).After treatment,endothe-lin and brain natriuretic peptide of the observation group were lower than the control group [(38 ±5) ng/L vs (49 ±6) ng/L,(87 ±6) ng/L vs (98 ±6) ng/L],the differences were statistically significant(P <0.01).After treatment,left ventricular ejection fraction of the observation group was higher than the control group[ ( 46 ±5 )% vs ( 41 ±5 )%] , left ventricular end-diastolic volume and left ventricular end-systolic volume were lower than the control group[(87 ±9 ) mL vs (98 ±9) mL, (42 ±6) mL vs (51 ±6) mL], the differences were statistically significant ( P <0.01 ) .The incidence of complications of the observation

  12. Clinical effect of continuous intravenous infusion of sodium nitroprusside combined with dopamine in the treatment of the elderly patients with refractory heart failure%硝普钠联合多巴胺持续静脉泵入治疗老年顽固性心力衰竭临床观察

    孙国华; 陈位成


    Objective To investigate the clinical effect and safety of continuous intravenous pumping of sodium nitroprusside and dopamine on treating elderly patients with refractory heart failure. Methods Two hundred and seventy elderly patients with refractory heart failure were selected as our subjects and they were randomly divided into sodium nitroprusside group,dopamine group and the combined group( 90 cases for each group). All the patients were given the corresponding symptomatic treatment,including oxygen,diuretics, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors,digitalis,aldosterone receptor antagonist,etc. Patients in sodium nitroprusside group,dopamine group were treated sodium nitroprusside or dopamine respectively,and patients in combined group were given both of sodium nitroprusside and dopamine by continuous intravenous pumping. Serum brain natriuretic peptide( BNP ),left ventricular ejection fraction( LVEF ),LV end systolic volume index(LVESVI),left ventricular end diastolic volume index(LVEDVI),left ventricular diastolic early, late filling velocity ratio( E/A ),mean arterial pressure and heart rate( HR ) level were measured or recorded. Results The levels of BNP,LVEF,LVESV,LVEDV,E/A,mean arterial pressure and the level of HR among three group before treatment were no significant differences( F =4. 000,1. 434,0. 503,3. 622,3. 589, 4. 135,2. 752;P﹥0. 05). After treatment,the levels of BNP,LVEF,LVESV,LVEDV and HR in combined group were(201. 6 ±66. 8)pg/L,(45 ± 4)%,(29. 8 ± 4. 8)ml/m2,(45. 1 ± 7. 3)ml/m2,(73. 2 ± 11. 2)times/min,in sodium nitroprusside group were( 298. 6 ± 75. 3 ) pg/L,( 37 ± 4 )%,( 35. 5 ± 4. 6 ) ml/m2 ,( 51. 8 ±7.5)ml/m2,(92.9 ±11.5)times/min,and in dopamine group were(293.7 ±78.2)pg/L,(37 ±3)%, (35. 6 ± 5. 8)ml/m2,(52. 1 ± 7. 3)ml/m2,(93. 6 ± 12. 3)times/min respectively,and the differences were significant(F=41. 683,129. 400,43. 600,28. 800,328. 600;P﹤0. 05). The total effective rate in combination group was 97. 8%( 88

  13. Clínica e terapêutica da doença de Chagas

    Francisco S. Laranja


    the evolutivity of the infection. Sudden death takes place quite commonly in this type of heart disease but most of the fatal cases die in heart failure. No effective drug is so far available for the etiological treatment of Chagas' disease. Better results are frequently obtained by use of strophantin than with digitalis in the treatment of heart failure of chronic Chagas' heart disease.