WorldWideScience

Sample records for digital picture tree

  1. TreePics: visualizing trees with pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Puillandre

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While many programs are available to edit phylogenetic trees, associating pictures with branch tips in an efficient and automatic way is not an available option. Here, we present TreePics, a standalone software that uses a web browser to visualize phylogenetic trees in Newick format and that associates pictures (typically, pictures of the voucher specimens to the tip of each branch. Pictures are visualized as thumbnails and can be enlarged by a mouse rollover. Further, several pictures can be selected and displayed in a separate window for visual comparison. TreePics works either online or in a full standalone version, where it can display trees with several thousands of pictures (depending on the memory available. We argue that TreePics can be particularly useful in a preliminary stage of research, such as to quickly detect conflicts between a DNA-based phylogenetic tree and morphological variation, that may be due to contamination that needs to be removed prior to final analyses, or the presence of species complexes.

  2. The Picture Exchange Communication System: Digital Photographs versus Picture Symbols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonaitis, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an augmentative and alternative system (AAC) used to improve and increase communication for children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and other developmental disorders. Research addressing the efficacy of this system is increasing; however, there is limited information published that evaluates…

  3. Picture Books in the Digital Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Frank; Kachorsky, Danielle; Aguilera, Earl

    2016-01-01

    The design, publication, and features of contemporary narrative picturebooks have been impacted by the digital revolution and the emerging popularity of digital reading devices. Considering both the affordances and the limitations of digital picturebook apps can help readers, teachers, parents, and other educators make better decisions about the…

  4. Digital Picture Production and Picture aesthetic Competency in It-didactic Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    , that It and media are only used seldom by 21 % of teachers in Visual Arts and 7 % of teachers in this subject never use It and Media in these lessons. Art teachers – among others - also express the need for continuing education. (Ministeriet for Børn og Undervisning 2011). Since lessons in digital picture...... production have been a demand in Visual Arts in Danish schools for more than two decades, these conditions call for development of new didactic knowledge. Besides new genres and ways of using digital pictures and media continuously develop. (Sørensen 2002). This ought to be an incessant challenge...... subject Visual Arts – and crosswise of subjects in school. The overall research question has been: How can IT-didactic designs support lessons in production of complex meaning in digital pictures and increase the development of pupil’s picture aesthetic competences? By using the expression ‘complex...

  5. Picture Books and the Digital World: Educators Making Informed Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Junko; Teale, William H.

    2014-01-01

    The book publishing industry in general and picture book materials for children in particular have undergone rapid and profound changes in recent years with the developments in the digital realm. As a result, teachers, school librarians, and literacy researchers have been largely left to their own devices to figure out basic questions related to…

  6. Gamma spectra pictures using a digital plotter. Program MONO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Arcos Merino, J.M.

    1978-01-01

    The program MONO has been written for a CALCOMP-936 digital plotter operating off- -line with a UMI VAC 1106 computer, to obtain graphic representations of single gamma spectra stored on magnetic tape. It allows to plot the whole spectrum or only a part, as well as to draw a given spectrum on the same or different picture than the previous one. Ten representation scales are available and at up nine comment lines can be written in a graphic. (Author) 4 refs

  7. Tree-Structured Digital Organisms Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Teruhiko; Nobesawa, Shiho; Tahara, Ikuo

    Tierra and Avida are well-known models of digital organisms. They describe a life process as a sequence of computation codes. A linear sequence model may not be the only way to describe a digital organism, though it is very simple for a computer-based model. Thus we propose a new digital organism model based on a tree structure, which is rather similar to the generic programming. With our model, a life process is a combination of various functions, as if life in the real world is. This implies that our model can easily describe the hierarchical structure of life, and it can simulate evolutionary computation through mutual interaction of functions. We verified our model by simulations that our model can be regarded as a digital organism model according to its definitions. Our model even succeeded in creating species such as viruses and parasites.

  8. Digital Earth Watch And Picture Post Network: Measuring The Environment Through Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schloss, A. L.; Beaudry, J.; Carrera, F.; Pickle, J.

    2010-12-01

    Digital Earth Watch (DEW) involves individuals, schools, organizations and communities in a systematic monitoring project of their local environment, especially vegetation health. The program offers people the means to join the Picture Post network and to study and analyze their own findings using DEW software. A Picture Post is an easy-to-use and inexpensive platform for repeatedly taking digital photographs as a standardized set of images of the entire 360 ° landscape, which then can be shared over the Internet on the Picture Post website. This simple concept has the potential to create a wealth of information and data on changing environmental conditions, which is important for a society grappling with the effects of environmental change. Picture Post participants study change over time in their local area, compare digital images with NASA satellite imagery and contribute towards improving their own communities. A key message in DEW is that although plants are dynamic and respond continuously to their environment, they do so either on a time-scale that most people don't notice or with a subtlety our senses can't detect. DEW has created simple tools for monitoring vegetation as a means towards understanding the connection between global climate change and local effects. Picture Posts may be added by anyone interested in monitoring a particular location. The value of a Picture Post is in the commitment of participants to take repeated photographs - monthly, weekly, or even daily - to build up a long-term record over many years. DEW is being developed by a collaborative effort led by the University of New Hampshire with the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners, the University of Southern Maine, and Worcester Polytechnic Institute. This poster will show examples of picture posts and data that can be collected and will describe our soon-to-be-released “ virtual ” picture post cell phone app. The Picture Post network is new and we invite individuals

  9. Development of Pupils Picture Aesthetic Competences on the Basis of IT-didactic Designs of Digital Picture Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Helle

    : The research method refers to Design Based Research, since the project is based on a design theoretical view of learning. (Cobb et. All 2003, Van den Akker 2006, Collins 2004). Learning is here to be understood as “a sign producing activity in a specific situation within an institutional framing”, which makes...... Education” (English Title), The Danish University of Education Cobb, P. et al. (2003): “Design Experiments in Educational Research” in “Educational Researcher”, vol. 32, no. 1. Collins, Allan et. al. (2004): “Design Research: Theoretical and Metodological Issuses” in “Journal of the Learning Sciences”, Vol...... Competences on the Basis of IT-didactic Designs of Digital Picture Production Proposal information: The topic for this presentation is an ongoing investigation of the connection between the learning outcome of digital picture production and IT-didactic designs, and it refers to a Ph.D.-project in progress...

  10. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, Byung Joon [Dept. of Radiological Tecnology, Choonhae College of Health Science, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of); Ji Tae Jeong [Dept. of Radiological Science, Kaya University, Kimhae (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  11. Evaluating Picture Quality of Image Plates in Digital CR Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwak, Byung Joon; Ji Tae Jeong

    2011-01-01

    Lab effectively supplemented the effects of outside radiation on image plates in the process of image acquisition of CR (computed radiography) systems and conducted for effective utilization in the case of clinical application. For this, Lab classified the storage places and time periods of image plates and compared and analyzed the differences between small dark spots. Lab also assessed the concentration distribution within the boundaries of images. Lab compared and measured the number of dark spots in a light room and a dark room depending on the storage places of image plates and found that dark spots slightly increased in an image plate when stored in a light room on the first and second days. Dark spots increased in proportion to the length of time stored. In the case of the image plate stored in a dark room, the number of dark spots remarkably decreased. With regard to picture quality as related to the location of image plates, the damage to picture quality could be reduced by locating regions of interest in the center. With regard to differences in sharpness following changes in the thickness of subjects, fewer scatter rays occurred and sharpness improved by reducing the thickness of subjects as much as possible. To get medical images of excellent quality, image plates should be managed effectively and it is desirable to keep images plates in dark iron plate boxes and not to expose them to outside radiation for a long time.

  12. The use of fast digital filters for the processing of scintigraphic pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grochulski, W.; Penczek, P.

    1982-01-01

    A brief review of typical methods applied in the development of digital filters for the processing of scintigraphic pictures is given. A simple parametrisation of such filters in the frequency domain is proposed and successfully applied in the case of mathematically simulated IAEA phantoms. The FFT algorithm is used. A possible application of the fast Walsh transform is pointed out. (author)

  13. Testing strategies for digital picture processing of industrial X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, D.; Klatte, R.

    1986-01-01

    Digital picture processing for difficult inspection work in general involves long and complex processing and much computer time. An adequate testing strategy can considerably reduce the testing time, which is shown by the example of a strategy for automated radiographic testing of castings. (orig./HP) [de

  14. Digital photo monitoring for tree crown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil Clark; Sang-Mook Lee

    2007-01-01

    Assessing change in the amount of foliage within a tree’s crown is the goal of crown transparency estimation, a component in many forest health assessment programs. Many sources of variability limit analysis and interpretation of crown condition data. Increased precision is needed to detect more subtle changes that are important for detection of health problems....

  15. Gamma spectra pictures using a digital plotter. Program MONO; Representacion de Espectros directos mediante un trazado digital. Prograa MONO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Los Arcos, J M

    1978-07-01

    The program MONO has been written for a CALCOMP-936 digital plotter operating off- -line with a UMI VAC 1106 computer, to obtain graphic representations of single gamma spectra stored on magnetic tape. It allows to plot the whole spectrum or only a part, as well as to draw a given spectrum on the same or different picture than the previous one. Ten representation scales are available and at up nine comment lines can be written in a graphic. (Author) 4 refs.

  16. Development of reading ability is facilitated by intensive exposure to a digital children's picture book.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masataka, Nobuo

    2014-01-01

    Here the author presents preliminary evidence supporting the possibility that the reading ability of 4-year-old children can be improved as a consequence of intensive exposure to the narrative in a digital picture book over a consecutive 5-day period. When creating the digital version used here, two additional functions were provided with it. First, the entire story was voice-recorded by a professional narrator and programmed so that it was played as narration from the speaker of an iPad. Next, as the narration of each digitized page proceeded, the character exactly corresponding to that pronounced by the narrator at that moment became highlighted in red. When the subjects' literacy capability with respect to the syllabic script of the Japanese language (kana) was evaluated before and after the exposure, their performance score was found to increase after the exposure to the digital book, whereas such a change was not recorded in children who experienced exposure to the printed version of the same picture book read to them by their mother. These effects were confirmed when the children were retested 4 weeks later. Although preliminary, the current study represents the first experimental evidence for a positive effect of exposure to digital books upon any aspect of child development.

  17. ImageJ: A Free, Easy, and Reliable Method to Measure Leg Ulcers Using Digital Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aragón-Sánchez, Javier; Quintana-Marrero, Yurena; Aragón-Hernández, Cristina; Hernández-Herero, María José

    2017-12-01

    Wound measurement to document the healing course of chronic leg ulcers has an important role in the management of these patients. Digital cameras in smartphones are readily available and easy to use, and taking pictures of wounds is becoming a routine in specialized departments. Analyzing digital pictures with appropriate software provides clinicians a quick, clean, and easy-to-use tool for measuring wound area. A set of 25 digital pictures of plain foot and leg ulcers was the basis of this study. Photographs were taken placing a ruler next to the wound in parallel with the healthy skin with the iPhone 6S (Apple Inc, Cupertino, CA), which has a camera of 12 megapixels using the flash. The digital photographs were visualized with ImageJ 1.45s freeware (National Institutes of Health, Rockville, MD; http://imagej.net/ImageJ ). Wound area measurement was carried out by 4 raters: head of the department, wound care nurse, physician, and medical student. We assessed intra- and interrater reliability using the interclass correlation coefficient. To determine intraobserver reliability, 2 of the raters repeated the measurement of the set 1 week after the first reading. The interrater model displayed an interclass correlation coefficient of 0.99 with 95% confidence interval of 0.999 to 1.000, showing excellent reliability. The intrarater model of both examiners showed excellent reliability. In conclusion, analyzing digital images of leg ulcers with ImageJ estimates wound area with excellent reliability. This method provides a free, rapid, and accurate way to measure wounds and could routinely be used to document wound healing in daily clinical practice.

  18. Year 2000: status of picture archiving and digital imaging in European hospitals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foord, K.

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the degrees of implementations of full and departmental Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS), the usage of mini-PACS and to compare digital image equipment implementation rates in the countries of the European Union plus the Czech Republic, Cyprus, Malta, Norway, Poland and Switzerland. The degree to which Digital Image Communications in Medicine version 3.0 (DICOM 3.0) protocols are available for data exchange by different digital image equipment is surveyed, to assess underlying PACS preparedness. A questionnaire with an addressed reply envelope was posted to the heads of radiology of 1594 hospitals in 19 countries in early 2000. Data returns were obtained from 17 countries. This indicates considerable variation in PACS implementation and preparedness between European nations. Possible reasons for this are discussed. The highest rates of PACS implementations have been in Austria, Norway and Sweden. (orig.)

  19. A Mobile Picture Tagging System Using Tree-Structured Layered Bayesian Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Seol Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Advances in digital media technology have increased in multimedia content. Tagging is one of the most effective methods to manage a great volume of multimedia content. However, manual tagging has limitations such as human fatigue and subjective and ambiguous keywords. In this paper, we present an automatic tagging method to generate semantic annotation on a mobile phone. In order to overcome the constraints of the mobile environment, the method uses two layered Bayesian networks. In contrast to existing techniques, this approach attempts to design probabilistic models with fixed tree structures and intermediate nodes. To evaluate the performance of this method, an experiment is conducted with data collected over a month. The result shows the efficiency and effectiveness of our proposed method. Furthermore, a simple graphic user interface is developed to visualize and evaluate recognized activities and probabilities.

  20. Just Because It's Digital, Doesn't Mean It's Good: Evaluating Digital Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeehan, Catherine; Chambers, Sandra; Nowakowski, Jessica

    2018-01-01

    At the current time, the reviews of digital picture books are not based on the reading comprehension process or framed in the context of how readers achieve critical reading comprehension. Rather these reviews, often completed by technology specialists, focus on features that are "attractive" and "entertaining" to readers…

  1. Development of mathematical phantoms for calculating internal doses from radiopharmaceuticals using patients' digital picture of bone scintillation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akahane, K.; Kai, M.; Kusama, T.

    1996-01-01

    We made a new mathematical phantom using the patients' digital pictures of bone scintillation in nuclear medicine. The data of 99m Tc bone scintillation pictures include the information on the body sizes and shapes. In the bone scintillation pictures, no three dimensional data are available, so that the shapes and sizes of whole body and bones were modelled based on standard anatomical geometry. The organs except bone were also modelled after construction of the bone mathematical model. The mathematical phantoms were developed for each patient. The specific effective energy for each phantom can be calculated by the Monte Carlo code to compare it among the patients. Our mathematical phantoms would provide new calculation of internal doses from radiopharmaceuticals in place of the MIRD phantom. (author)

  2. Development of reading ability is facilitated by intensive exposure to a digital children’s picture book

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo eMasataka

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Here the author presents preliminary evidence supporting the possibility that the reading ability of 4-year-old children can be improved as a consequence of intensive exposure to the narrative in a digital picture book over a consecutive 5-day period. When creating the digital version used here, two additional functions were provided with it. First, the entire story was voice-recorded by a professional narrator and programmed so that it was played as narration from the speaker of an iPad. Next, as the narration of each digitized page proceeded, the character exactly corresponding to that pronounced by the narrator at that moment became highlighted in red. When the subjects’ literacy capability with respect to the syllabic script of the Japanese language (kana was evaluated before and after the exposure, their performance score was found to increase after the exposure to the digital book, whereas such a change was not recorded in children who experienced exposure to the printed version of the same picture book read to them by their mother. These effects were confirmed when the children were retested 4 weeks later. Although preliminary, the current study represents the first experimental evidence for a positive effect of exposure to digital books upon any aspect of child development.

  3. Development of reading ability is facilitated by intensive exposure to a digital children’s picture book

    OpenAIRE

    Nobuo eMasataka

    2014-01-01

    Here the author presents preliminary evidence supporting the possibility that the reading ability of 4-year-old children can be improved as a consequence of intensive exposure to the narrative in a digital picture book over a consecutive 5-day period. When creating the digital version used here, two additional functions were provided with it. First, the entire story was voice-recorded by a professional narrator and programmed so that it was played as narration from the speaker of an iPad. ...

  4. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, M C; Lewis, T E; Kinsey, T V

    1999-05-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new Department of Defense (DoD) contract vehicle called digital imaging networks (DIN)-PACS. The JITPO reengineered this process incorporating multiple organizations and politics. The reengineered PACS process administered through the JITPO transformed the decision process and accountability from a single office to a consultative method that increased end-user knowledge, responsibility, and ownership in PACS. The JITPO continues to provide information and services that assist multiple groups and users in rendering PACS planning and implementation decisions. Local site project managers are involved from the outset and this end-user collaboration has made the sometimes difficult transition to PACS an easier and more acceptable process for all involved. Corporately, this process saved DoD sites millions by having PACS plans developed within the government and proposed to vendors second, and then having vendors respond specifically to those plans. The integrity and efficiency of the process have reduced the opportunity for implementing nonstandard systems while sharing resources and reducing wasted government dollars. This presentation will describe the chronology of changes, encountered obstacles, and lessons learned within the reengineering of the PACS process for DIN-PACS.

  5. An object-based approach for tree species extraction from digital orthophoto maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Akhtar; Bayram, Bulent

    2018-05-01

    Tree segmentation is an active and ongoing research area in the field of photogrammetry and remote sensing. It is more challenging due to both intra-class and inter-class similarities among various tree species. In this study, we exploited various statistical features for extraction of hazelnut trees from 1 : 5000 scaled digital orthophoto maps. Initially, the non-vegetation areas were eliminated using traditional normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) followed by application of mean shift segmentation for transforming the pixels into meaningful homogeneous objects. In order to eliminate false positives, morphological opening and closing was employed on candidate objects. A number of heuristics were also derived to eliminate unwanted effects such as shadow and bounding box aspect ratios, before passing them into the classification stage. Finally, a knowledge based decision tree was constructed to distinguish the hazelnut trees from rest of objects which include manmade objects and other type of vegetation. We evaluated the proposed methodology on 10 sample orthophoto maps obtained from Giresun province in Turkey. The manually digitized hazelnut tree boundaries were taken as reference data for accuracy assessment. Both manually digitized and segmented tree borders were converted into binary images and the differences were calculated. According to the obtained results, the proposed methodology obtained an overall accuracy of more than 85 % for all sample images.

  6. Digital photography for urban street tree crown conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neil A. Clark; Sang-Mook Lee; William A. Bechtold; Gregory A. Reams

    2006-01-01

    Crown variables such as height, diameter, live crown ratio, dieback, transparency, and density are all collected as part of the overall crown assessment (USDA 2004). Transparency and density are related to the amount of foliage and thus the photosynthetic potential of the tree. These measurements are both currently based on visual estimates and have been shown to be...

  7. Digital Image Forensics There is More to a Picture than Meets the Eye

    CERN Document Server

    Memon, Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Photographic imagery has come a long way from the pinhole cameras of the nineteenth century. Digital imagery, and its applications, develops in tandem with contemporary society’s sophisticated literacy of this subtle medium. This book examines the ways in which digital images have become ever more ubiquitous as legal and medical evidence, just as they have become our primary source of news and have replaced paper-based financial documentation. Crucially, the contributions also analyze the very profound problems which have arisen alongside the digital image, issues of veracity and progeny that demand systematic and detailed response: It looks real, but is it? What camera captured it? Has it been doctored or subtly altered? Attempting to provide answers to these slippery issues, the book covers how digital images are created, processed and stored before moving on to set out the latest techniques for forensically examining images, and finally addressing practical issues such as courtroom admissibility. In an e...

  8. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Maria C.; Lewis, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Thomas V.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new ...

  9. The DCCD: a digital data infrastructure for tree-ring research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansma, E.; Lanen, R.J. van; Brewer, P.; Kramer, R. de

    2012-01-01

    Existing on-line databases for dendrochronology are not flexible in terms of user permissions, tree-ring data formats, metadata administration and language. This is why we developed the Digital Collaboratory for Cultural Dendrochronology (DCCD). This TRiDaS-based multi-lingual database allows users

  10. Fault tree and failure mode and effects analysis of a digital safety function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maskuniitty, M.; Pulkkinen, U.

    1995-01-01

    The principles of fault tree and failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) for the analysis of digital safety functions of nuclear power plants are discussed. Based on experiences from a case study, a proposal for a full scale analysis is presented. The feasibility and applicability the above mentioned reliability engineering methods are discussed. (author). 13 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  11. Application of fault tree methodology to modeling of the AP1000 plant digital reactor protection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teolis, D.S.; Zarewczynski, S.A.; Detar, H.L.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor trip system (RTS) and engineered safety features actuation system (ESFAS) in nuclear power plants utilizes instrumentation and control (IC) to provide automatic protection against unsafe and improper reactor operation during steady-state and transient power operations. During normal operating conditions, various plant parameters are continuously monitored to assure that the plant is operating in a safe state. In response to deviations of these parameters from pre-determined set points, the protection system will initiate actions required to maintain the reactor in a safe state. These actions may include shutting down the reactor by opening the reactor trip breakers and actuation of safety equipment based on the situation. The RTS and ESFAS are represented in probabilistic risk assessments (PRAs) to reflect the impact of their contribution to core damage frequency (CDF). The reactor protection systems (RPS) in existing nuclear power plants are generally analog based and there is general consensus within the PRA community on fault tree modeling of these systems. In new plants, such as AP1000 plant, the RPS is based on digital technology. Digital systems are more complex combinations of hardware components and software. This combination of complex hardware and software can result in the presence of faults and failure modes unique to a digital RPS. The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is currently performing research on the development of probabilistic models for digital systems for inclusion in PRAs; however, no consensus methodology exists at this time. Westinghouse is currently updating the AP1000 plant PRA to support initial operation of plants currently under construction in the United States. The digital RPS is modeled using fault tree methodology similar to that used for analog based systems. This paper presents high level descriptions of a typical analog based RPS and of the AP1000 plant digital RPS. Application of current fault

  12. After the pictures of others: pornography of death and cultural production in the digital context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Navarro Martínez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper will analyze some aspects of the digital and Internet distribution and its later re-appropriation of, so called, “dramatic images”. Of all characteristics and concepts related to the web net and its possibilities, it will focus in three: simulacrum, access and democratization and re-appropriation and control. These characteristics of digital images will be analyzed in the frame of a topic: the pornography of death (of terror, war and violence. The study cases are some of the images resulting of the so-called “war on terror”- after 9/11 terrorist attacks. A first example is the film Fitna by Dutch politician Gert Wilders and the second one is the publication of images of tortures to Iraqi prisoners by USA soldiers in Abu Ghraib and their further appropriations for different purposes. Starting from these examples special attention will paid to the processes of becoming “cultural and artistic object” nowadays, analyzing the oppositions between “cultural subject and cultural object”, “private and public”, “we and they”, “life and death”, “art and spectacle” are (unresolved in our cultural context, mainly after Internet.

  13. The National Institutes of Health Clinical Center Digital Imaging Network, Picture Archival and Communication System, and Radiology Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldszal, A F; Brown, G K; McDonald, H J; Vucich, J J; Staab, E V

    2001-06-01

    In this work, we describe the digital imaging network (DIN), picture archival and communication system (PACS), and radiology information system (RIS) currently being implemented at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (NIH). These systems are presently in clinical operation. The DIN is a redundant meshed network designed to address gigabit density and expected high bandwidth requirements for image transfer and server aggregation. The PACS projected workload is 5.0 TB of new imaging data per year. Its architecture consists of a central, high-throughput Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) data repository and distributed redundant array of inexpensive disks (RAID) servers employing fiber-channel technology for immediate delivery of imaging data. On demand distribution of images and reports to clinicians and researchers is accomplished via a clustered web server. The RIS follows a client-server model and provides tools to order exams, schedule resources, retrieve and review results, and generate management reports. The RIS-hospital information system (HIS) interfaces include admissions, discharges, and transfers (ATDs)/demographics, orders, appointment notifications, doctors update, and results.

  14. Picture archiving and communications systems in radiation oncology (PACSRO): tools for a physician-based digital image review system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGee, K.P.; Das, I.J.; Fein, D.A.; Martin, E.E.; Schultheiss, T.E.; Hanks, G.E.

    1995-01-01

    Digital imaging is becoming more and more important in the diagnosis, staging, and treatment of patients in radiation oncology. In order to facilitate the most efficient interface of this technology to physicians and other users of this information, a medical image display system (MID) has been developed at the Fox Chase Cancer Center (FCCC). The system runs on 20 personal computers situated in physicians offices as well as a modified system located in the radiation oncology conference room. Access to CT, MRI, and EPID information is achieved through an Ethernet connection to the hospital picture archiving and communications system (PACS). Over a 1-year period a total of 503 patients and 3845 images have been stored on the system. Physician approval using the MID system (without conventional films) was performed on 106 patients. Of these, 22%, 16%, 11%, 10%, and 9% consisted of breast, prostate, pelvic, lung, and head and neck patients, respectively. Digital images sent from a variety of image sources to the MID system take up to 15 s to process and format while image access and display can take 2-5 s, dependent upon image size and speed of the host computer

  15. Do hospital physicians really want to go digital? Acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system in a university hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duyck, P.; Pynoo, B.; Devolder, P.; Voet, T.; Adang, L.; Vercruysse, J.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: radiology departments are making the transition from analog film to digital images by means of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). It is critical for the hospital that its physicians adopt and accept the new digital work method regarding radiological information. The aim of this study is to investigate hospital physicians' acceptance of PACS using questionnaires pre- and post-implementation and to identify main influencing factors. Materials and methods: the study was conducted in an 1169 bed university hospital. The UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) questionnaire was administered at two times: one month pre-implementation (T1) and 1.5 years post-implementation (T2) of PACS, targeting all hospital physicians with the exemption of radiologists. The UTAUT scales (Behavioral Intention BI; Facilitating Conditions FC; Effort Expectancy EE; Performance Expectancy PE; Anxiety ANX; Social Influence SI; System Use USE; Attitude toward technology ATT; Self-Efficacy SE) were used to assess questions regarding: (a) PACS' usefulness, (b) PACS' ease of learning/using, (c) PACS support availability, (d) the perceived pressure to use PACS, (e) physicians' attitude towards PACS and (f) physicians' intention to use and actual use of PACS. Results: at T1 scale ratings were positive toward the PACS implementation. The ratings on all scales with the exception of self-efficacy improved at T2. Regression analysis revealed that the key factor for intention to use PACS at T1 was the usefulness of PACS, while the availability and awareness of support was its most important predictor at T2. Overall, PE was the best predictor of BI, but all four UTAUT-determinants (PE, FC, EE and SI) were salient for its prediction. Variance explained in BI ranged from 31 to 37% while variance explained in USE was very low (3%). (orig.)

  16. Interpretation of digital breast tomosynthesis: preliminary study on comparison with picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and dedicated workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Seon; Chang, Jung Min; Yi, Ann; Shin, Sung Ui; Lee, Myung Eun; Kim, Won Hwa; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung

    2017-08-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and efficiency in the interpretation of digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) images using a picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and a dedicated workstation. 97 DBT images obtained for screening or diagnostic purposes were stored in both a workstation and a PACS and evaluated in combination with digital mammography by three independent radiologists retrospectively. Breast Imaging-Reporting and Data System final assessments and likelihood of malignancy (%) were assigned and the interpretation time when using the workstation and PACS was recorded. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, sensitivities and specificities were compared with histopathological examination and follow-up data as a reference standard. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve values for cancer detection (0.839 vs 0.815, p = 0.6375) and sensitivity (81.8% vs 75.8%, p = 0.2188) showed no statistically significant differences between the workstation and PACS. However, specificity was significantly higher when analysing on the workstation than when using PACS (83.7% vs 76.9%, p = 0.009). When evaluating DBT images using PACS, only one case was deemed necessary to be reanalysed using the workstation. The mean time to interpret DBT images on PACS (1.68 min/case) was significantly longer than that to interpret on the workstation (1.35 min/case) (p < 0.0001). Interpretation of DBT images using PACS showed comparable diagnostic performance to a dedicated workstation, even though it required a longer reading time. Advances in knowledge: Interpretation of DBT images using PACS is an alternative to evaluate the images when a dedicated workstation is not available.

  17. Attack tree based cyber security analysis of nuclear digital instrumentation and control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khand, P.A.

    2009-01-01

    To maintain the cyber security, nuclear digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) systems must be analyzed for security risks because a single security breach due to a cyber attack can cause system failure, which can have catastrophic consequences on the environment and staff of a Nuclear Power Plant (NPP). Attack trees have been widely used to analyze the cyber security of digital systems due to their ability to capture system specific as well as attacker specific details. Therefore, a methodology based on attack trees has been proposed to analyze the cyber security of the systems. The methodology has been applied for the Cyber Security Analysis (CSA) of a Bistable Processor (BP) of a Reactor Protection System (RPS). Threats have been described according to their source. Attack scenarios have been generated using the attack tree and possible counter measures according to the Security Risk Level (SRL) of each scenario have been suggested. Moreover, cyber Security Requirements (SRs) have been elicited, and suitability of the requirements has been checked. (author)

  18. An Overview of Risk Quantification Issues for Digitalized Nuclear Power Plants using a Static Fault Tree

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Hyun Gook; Kim, Man Cheol; Lee, Seung Jun; Lee, Ho Jung; Eom, Heung Seop; Chol, Jong Gyun; Jang, Seung Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Risk caused by safety-critical instrumentation and control (I and C) systems considerably affects overall plant risk. As digitalization of safety-critical systems in nuclear power plants progresses, a risk model of a digitalized safety system is required and must be included in a plant safety model in order to assess this risk effect on the plant. Unique features of a digital system cause some challenges in risk modeling. This article aims at providing an overview of the issues related to the development of a static fault-tree-based risk model. We categorize the complicated issues of digital system probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) into four groups based on their characteristics: hardware module issues, software issues, system issues, and safety function issues. Quantification of the effect of these issues dominates the quality of a developed risk model. Recent research activities for addressing various issues, such as the modeling framework of a software-based system, the software failure probability and the fault coverage of a self monitoring mechanism, are discussed. Although these issues are interrelated and affect each other, the categorized and systematic approach suggested here will provide a proper insight for analyzing risk from a digital system

  19. Automated detection of microcalcification clusters in digital mammograms based on wavelet domain hidden Markov tree modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Regentova, E.; Zhang, L.; Veni, G.; Zheng, J.

    2007-01-01

    A system is designed for detecting microcalcification clusters (MCC) in digital mammograms. The system is intended for computer-aided diagnostic prompting. Further discrimination of MCC as benign or malignant is assumed to be performed by radiologists. Processing of mammograms is based on the statistical modeling by means of wavelet domain hidden markov trees (WHMT). Segmentation is performed by the weighted likelihood evaluation followed by the classification based on spatial filters for a single microcalcification (MC) and a cluster of MC detection. The analysis is carried out on FROC curves for 40 mammograms from the mini-MIAS database and for 100 mammograms with 50 cancerous and 50 benign cases from DDSM database. The designed system is capable to detect 100% of true positive cases in these sets. The rate of false positives is 2.9 per case for mini-MIAS dataset; and 0.01 for the DDSM images. (orig.)

  20. Testing digital safety system software with a testability measure based on a software fault tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Se Do; Hyun Seong, Poong

    2006-01-01

    Using predeveloped software, a digital safety system is designed that meets the quality standards of a safety system. To demonstrate the quality, the design process and operating history of the product are reviewed along with configuration management practices. The application software of the safety system is developed in accordance with the planned life cycle. Testing, which is a major phase that takes a significant time in the overall life cycle, can be optimized if the testability of the software can be evaluated. The proposed testability measure of the software is based on the entropy of the importance of basic statements and the failure probability from a software fault tree. To calculate testability, a fault tree is used in the analysis of a source code. With a quantitative measure of testability, testing can be optimized. The proposed testability can also be used to demonstrate whether the test cases based on uniform partitions, such as branch coverage criteria, result in homogeneous partitions that is known to be more effective than random testing. In this paper, the testability measure is calculated for the modules of a nuclear power plant's safety software. The module testing with branch coverage criteria required fewer test cases if the module has higher testability. The result shows that the testability measure can be used to evaluate whether partitions have homogeneous characteristics

  1. Extraction of Urban Trees from Integrated Airborne Based Digital Image and LIDAR Point Cloud Datasets - Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogon-yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-10-01

    Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition and structural changes of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting tree features include; ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraint, such as labour intensive field work, a lot of financial requirement, influences by weather condition and topographical covers which can be overcome by means of integrated airborne based LiDAR and very high resolution digital image datasets. This study presented a semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated airborne based LIDAR and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The above scheme includes detection and extraction of shadow free vegetation features based on spectral properties of digital images using shadow index and NDVI techniques and automated extraction of 3D information about vegetation features from the integrated processing of shadow free vegetation image and LiDAR point cloud datasets. The ability of the developed algorithms shows a promising result as an automated and cost effective approach to estimating and delineated 3D information of urban trees. The research also proved that integrated datasets is a suitable technology and a viable source of information for city managers to be used in urban trees management.

  2. Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Khaja, Nawal

    2007-01-01

    This is a thematic lesson plan for young learners about palm trees and the importance of taking care of them. The two part lesson teaches listening, reading and speaking skills. The lesson includes parts of a tree; the modal auxiliary, can; dialogues and a role play activity.

  3. Accurate reconstruction in digital holographic microscopy using Fresnel dual-tree complex wavelet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Xiangchao; Yuan, He; Zhang, Hao; Xu, Min

    2018-02-01

    Digital holography is a promising measurement method in the fields of bio-medicine and micro-electronics. But the captured images of digital holography are severely polluted by the speckle noise because of optical scattering and diffraction. Via analyzing the properties of Fresnel diffraction and the topographies of micro-structures, a novel reconstruction method based on the dual-tree complex wavelet transform (DT-CWT) is proposed. This algorithm is shiftinvariant and capable of obtaining sparse representations for the diffracted signals of salient features, thus it is well suited for multiresolution processing of the interferometric holograms of directional morphologies. An explicit representation of orthogonal Fresnel DT-CWT bases and a specific filtering method are developed. This method can effectively remove the speckle noise without destroying the salient features. Finally, the proposed reconstruction method is compared with the conventional Fresnel diffraction integration and Fresnel wavelet transform with compressive sensing methods to validate its remarkable superiority on the aspects of topography reconstruction and speckle removal.

  4. SEMI-AUTOMATED APPROACH FOR MAPPING URBAN TREES FROM INTEGRATED AERIAL LiDAR POINT CLOUD AND DIGITAL IMAGERY DATASETS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Dogon-Yaro

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  5. Semi-Automated Approach for Mapping Urban Trees from Integrated Aerial LiDAR Point Cloud and Digital Imagery Datasets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogon-Yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.

    2016-09-01

    Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.

  6. Effect Analysis of Digital I and C Systems on Plant Safety based on Fault-Tree Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Jun; Jung, Wondea

    2014-01-01

    Deterioration and an inadequate supply of components of analog I and C systems have led to inefficient and costly maintenance. Moreover, since the fast evolution of digital technology has enabled more reliable functions to be designed for NPP safety, the transition from analog to digital has been accelerated. Owing to the distinguishable characteristics of digital I and C systems, a reliability analysis of digital systems has become an important element of a probabilistic safety assessment (PSA). Digital I and C systems have unique characteristics such as fault-tolerant techniques and software. However, these features have not been properly considered yet in most NPP PSA models. The effect of digital I and C systems should be evaluated by comparing them to that of analog I and C systems. Before installing a digital I and C system, even though it is expected that the plant safety can be improved through the advantageous features of digital I and C systems, it should be validated whether the total NPP safety is better than analog systems or is the same at least. In this work, the fault-tree (FT) technique, which is most widely used in a PSA, was used to compare the effects of analog and digital I and C systems. From a case study, the results of plant safety were compared. In this work, the effect of a digital RPS was evaluated by comparing it to that of an analog RPS based on the FT models. In the evaluation results, it was observed that digital RPS has a positive effect on reducing the system unavailability. The analysis results can be used for the development of a guide for evaluating digital I and C systems and reliability requirements

  7. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Poblete-Echeverría

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf area index (LAI is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io and transmitted radiation (I through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID, which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM. Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68. However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  8. Digital cover photography for estimating leaf area index (LAI) in apple trees using a variable light extinction coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-28

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAI(D)), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAI(M)). Results showed that the LAI(M) was able to estimate LAI(D) with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (f(f)) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions.

  9. Digital Cover Photography for Estimating Leaf Area Index (LAI) in Apple Trees Using a Variable Light Extinction Coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poblete-Echeverría, Carlos; Fuentes, Sigfredo; Ortega-Farias, Samuel; Gonzalez-Talice, Jaime; Yuri, Jose Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) is one of the key biophysical variables required for crop modeling. Direct LAI measurements are time consuming and difficult to obtain for experimental and commercial fruit orchards. Devices used to estimate LAI have shown considerable errors when compared to ground-truth or destructive measurements, requiring tedious site-specific calibrations. The objective of this study was to test the performance of a modified digital cover photography method to estimate LAI in apple trees using conventional digital photography and instantaneous measurements of incident radiation (Io) and transmitted radiation (I) through the canopy. Leaf area of 40 single apple trees were measured destructively to obtain real leaf area index (LAID), which was compared with LAI estimated by the proposed digital photography method (LAIM). Results showed that the LAIM was able to estimate LAID with an error of 25% using a constant light extinction coefficient (k = 0.68). However, when k was estimated using an exponential function based on the fraction of foliage cover (ff) derived from images, the error was reduced to 18%. Furthermore, when measurements of light intercepted by the canopy (Ic) were used as a proxy value for k, the method presented an error of only 9%. These results have shown that by using a proxy k value, estimated by Ic, helped to increase accuracy of LAI estimates using digital cover images for apple trees with different canopy sizes and under field conditions. PMID:25635411

  10. An integrated model for reliability estimation of digital nuclear protection system based on fault tree and software control flow methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2000-01-01

    In the nuclear industry, the difficulty of proving the reliabilities of digital systems prohibits the widespread use of digital systems in various nuclear application such as plant protection system. Even though there exist a few models which are used to estimate the reliabilities of digital systems, we develop a new integrated model which is more realistic than the existing models. We divide the process of estimating the reliability of a digital system into two phases, a high-level phase and a low-level phase, and the boundary of two phases is the reliabilities of subsystems. We apply software control flow method to the low-level phase and fault tree analysis to the high-level phase. The application of the model to Dynamic Safety System(DDS) shows that the estimated reliability of the system is quite reasonable and realistic

  11. An integrated model for reliability estimation of digital nuclear protection system based on fault tree and software control flow methodologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Man Cheol; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2000-01-01

    In nuclear industry, the difficulty of proving the reliabilities of digital systems prohibits the widespread use of digital systems in various nuclear application such as plant protection system. Even though there exist a few models which are used to estimate the reliabilities of digital systems, we develop a new integrated model which is more realistic than the existing models. We divide the process of estimating the reliability of a digital system into two phases, a high-level phase and a low-level phase, and the boundary of two phases is the reliabilities of subsystems. We apply software control flow method to the low-level phase and fault tree analysis to the high-level phase. The application of the model of dynamic safety system (DSS) shows that the estimated reliability of the system is quite reasonable and realistic. (author)

  12. Mapping tropical forest trees using high-resolution aerial digital photographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garzon-Lopez, C.X.; Bohlman, S.A.; Olff, H.; Jansen, P.A.

    2013-01-01

    The spatial arrangement of tree species is a key aspect of community ecology. Because tree species in tropical forests occur at low densities, it is logistically challenging to measure distributions across large areas. In this study, we evaluated the potential use of canopy tree crown maps, derived

  13. Three-dimensional motion-picture imaging of dynamic object by parallel-phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy using an inverted magnification optical system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Takahito; Shinomura, Masato; Xia, Peng; Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Nishio, Kenzo; Matoba, Osamu

    2017-04-01

    We constructed a parallel-phase-shifting digital holographic microscopy (PPSDHM) system using an inverted magnification optical system, and succeeded in three-dimensional (3D) motion-picture imaging for 3D displacement of a microscopic object. In the PPSDHM system, the inverted and afocal magnification optical system consisted of a microscope objective (16.56 mm focal length and 0.25 numerical aperture) and a convex lens (300 mm focal length and 82 mm aperture diameter). A polarization-imaging camera was used to record multiple phase-shifted holograms with a single-shot exposure. We recorded an alum crystal, sinking down in aqueous solution of alum, by the constructed PPSDHM system at 60 frames/s for about 20 s and reconstructed high-quality 3D motion-picture image of the crystal. Then, we calculated amounts of displacement of the crystal from the amounts in the focus plane and the magnifications of the magnification optical system, and obtained the 3D trajectory of the crystal by that amounts.

  14. Adaptive MAC-layer protocol for multiservice digital access via tree and branch communication networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriram, Kotikalapudi; Li, Chia-Chang; Magill, Peter; Whitaker, Norman A.; Dail, James E.; Dajer, Miguel A.; Siller, Curtis A.

    1995-11-01

    Described here is an adaptive MAC-layer protocol that supports multiservice (STM and ATM) applications in the context of subscriber access to tree and branch (e.g., fiber-coaxial cable) networks. The protocol adapts to changing demands for a mix of circuit and cell mode applications, and efficiently allocates upstream and downstream bandwidth to a variety of bursty and isochronous traffic sources. In the case of a hybrid fiber-coaxial (HFC) network the protocol resides in customer premises equipment and a common head-end controller. A medium-access control (MAC) processor provides for dividing the time domain for a given digital bitstream into successive frames, each with multiple STM and ATM time slots. Within the STM region of a frame, variable length time slots are allocated to calls (e.g., telephony, video telephony) requiring different amounts of bandwidth. A contention access signaling channel is also provided in this region for call control and set-up requests. Within the ATM region fixed-length time slots accommodate one individual ATM cell. These ATM time slots may be reserved for a user for the duration of a call or burst of successive ATM cells, or shared via a contention process. At least one contention time slot is available for signaling messages related to ATM call control and set-up requests. Further, the fixed-length ATM time slots may be reserved by a user for the duration of a call, or shared through a contention process. This paper describes the MAC-layer protocol, its relation to circuit- and ATM- amenable applications, and its performance with respect to signaling throughput and latency, and bandwidth efficiency for several service scenarios.

  15. Potential and limitations of using digital repeat photography to track structural and physiological phenology in Mediterranean tree-grass ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yunpeng; EI-Madany, Tarek; Filippa, Gianluca; Carrara, Arnaud; Cremonese, Edoardo; Galvagno, Marta; Hammer, Tiana; Pérez-Priego, Oscar; Reichstein, Markus; Martín Isabel, Pilar; González Cascón, Rosario; Migliavacca, Mirco

    2017-04-01

    Tree-Grass ecosystems are global widely distributed (16-35% of the land surface). However, its phenology (especially in water-limited areas) has not yet been well characterized and modeled. By using commercial digital cameras, continuous and relatively vast phenology data becomes available, which provides a good opportunity to monitor and develop a robust method used to extract the important phenological events (phenophases). Here we aimed to assess the usability of digital repeat photography for three Tree-Grass Mediterranean ecosystems over two different growing seasons (Majadas del Tietar, Spain) to extract critical phenophases for grass and evergreen broadleaved trees (autumn regreening of grass- Start of growing season; resprouting of tree leaves; senescence of grass - End of growing season), assess their uncertainty, and to correlate them with physiological phenology (i.e. phenology of ecosystem scale fluxes such as Gross Primary Productivity, GPP). We extracted green chromatic coordinates (GCC) and camera based normalized difference vegetation index (Camera-NDVI) from an infrared enabled digital camera using the "Phenopix" R package. Then we developed a novel method to retrieve important phenophases from GCC and Camera-NDVI from various region of interests (ROIs) of the imagery (tree areas, grass, and both - ecosystem) as well as from GPP, which was derived from Eddy Covariance tower in the same experimental site. The results show that, at ecosystem level, phenophases derived from GCC and Camera-NDVI are strongly correlated (R2 = 0.979). Remarkably, we observed that at the end of growing season phenophases derived from GCC were systematically advanced (ca. 8 days) than phenophase from Camera-NDVI. By using the radiative transfer model Soil Canopy Observation Photochemistry and Energy (SCOPE) we demonstrated that this delay is related to the different sensitivity of GCC and NDVI to the fraction of green/dry grass in the canopy, resulting in a systematic

  16. [Sexting as a risk? : On consensual and non-consensual distribution of personal erotic pictures using digital media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dekker, Arne; Thula Koops

    2017-09-01

    Digital media are used for the purpose of various sexual experiences. In recent years the exchange of erotic text messages or images ("sexting") has gained the attention of academic research and has increasingly been the center of public discussion on sexual boundary violations and violence via digital media. The unwanted forwarding of images to a third party is especially relevant in this respect. In contrast to media reports about sexting as a risk behavior with serious consequences, there is little empirical analysis about the actual sexting practice of adolescents and adults in Germany. This paper is the first to describe sexting behavior of young adults in Germany on the basis of a large representative student sample. Data were collected in 2012 in the course of a nationwide study. Students from 15 universities were asked among other things about their experiences with sending erotic text messages or images, the non-consensual forwarding of images and its consequences. More than half of the student sample reported sending erotic text messages, 26.8% of women and 16.8% of men had sent erotic images to someone, in most cases to their partner. Of the sexters, 2% mentioned that their images had been forwarded to another person without their consent. The results indicate that in Germany sexting is mostly practiced in the context of a romantic relationship. Only a small percentage experience unwanted forwarding of images, and negative consequences are not reported for all incidents; however, this does not relativize the impact of those events implicating serious negative consequences for the involved person.

  17. Comparing alternative tree canopy cover estimates derived from digital aerial photography and field-based assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracey S. Frescino; Gretchen G. Moisen

    2012-01-01

    A spatially-explicit representation of live tree canopy cover, such as the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD) percent tree canopy cover layer, is a valuable tool for many applications, such as defining forest land, delineating wildlife habitat, estimating carbon, and modeling fire risk and behavior. These layers are generated by predictive models wherein their accuracy...

  18. A comparison between digital images viewed on a picture archiving and communication system diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based remote viewing system by emergency physicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasyn, A; Hanson, R M; Peat, J K; De Silva, M

    1998-02-01

    Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS) make possible the viewing of radiographic images on computer workstations located where clinical care is delivered. By the nature of their work this feature is particularly useful for emergency physicians who view radiographic studies for information and use them to explain results to patients and their families. However, the high cost of PACS diagnostic workstations with fuller functionality places limits on the number of and therefore the accessibility to workstations in the emergency department. This study was undertaken to establish how well less expensive personal computer-based workstations would work to support these needs of emergency physicians. The study compared the outcome of observations by 5 emergency physicians on a series of radiographic studies containing subtle abnormalities displayed on both a PACS diagnostic workstation and on a PC-based workstation. The 73 digitized radiographic studies were randomly arranged on both types of workstation over four separate viewing sessions for each emergency physician. There was no statistical difference between a PACS diagnostic workstation and a PC-based workstation in this trial. The mean correct ratings were 59% on the PACS diagnostic workstations and 61% on the PC-based workstations. These findings also emphasize the need for prompt reporting by a radiologist.

  19. An alternative method for estimating crown characteristics of urban trees using digital photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew F. Winn; Philip A. Araman

    2012-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) program has concluded that statewide urban forest inventories are feasible based on a series of pilot studies initiated in 2001. However, much of the tree crown data collected during inventories are based on visual inspection and therefore highly subjective. In order to objectively determine the crown...

  20. Effect of a tea tree oil and organic acid footbath solution on digital dermatitis in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A C; Wood, C L; McQuerry, K J; Bewley, J M

    2014-01-01

    Copper sulfate is the industry gold standard footbath ingredient for controlling dairy cow digital dermatitis. However, when used footbath solutions are deposited on soil, high levels of copper in the soil may result, which can have toxic and negative effects on plant growth. An alternative to copper sulfate is Provita Hoofsure Endurance (Provita Eurotech Ltd., Omagh, UK), which is a biodegradable solution containing organic acids, tea tree oil, and wetting agents. The objective of this study was to quantify changes in digital dermatitis frequency when using Provita Hoofsure Endurance and copper sulfate in a split footbath in 3 commercial dairy herds. This study was conducted from January 5, 2012, to March 19, 2012, in 3 commercial Kentucky dairies with 120, 170, and 200 milking Holstein cows. None of the herds was using a footbath for digital dermatitis control before the study. Footbath solutions were delivered using a split footbath. During the study, a 3% Hoofsure Endurance solution for the left hooves and a 5% copper sulfate solution for the right hooves was used. Digital dermatitis was scored every 3wk using the M0 to M4 system, where M0=a claw free of signs of digital dermatitis; M1=a lesion 2cm, and painful to the touch; M3=the healing stage and covered by a scab; and M4=the chronic stage and characterized by dyskeratosis or proliferation of the surface that is generally not painful. McNemar's test statistic suggested that a statistically significant difference existed in the proportions of M1 and M2 lesions between the beginning and end of the study for both treatments. This indicates that each solution was effective in decreasing the proportion of M1 or M2 lesions from baseline to the last time point. A chi-square test calculated using PROC FREQUENCY of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) indicated that no statistically significant relationship existed between the treatments among changes in digital dermatitis frequency from the baseline to the end of the

  1. Fault-Tree Modeling of Safety-Critical Network Communication in a Digitalized Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang Hun; Kang, Hyun Gook [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To achieve technical self-reliance for nuclear I and C systems in Korea, the Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR-1400) man-machine interface system (MMIS) architecture was developed by the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). As one of the systems in the developed MMIS architecture, the Engineered Safety Feature-Component Control System (ESF-CCS) employs a network communication system for the transmission of safety-critical information from group controllers (GCs) to loop controllers (LCs) to effectively accommodate the vast number of field controllers. The developed fault-tree model was then applied to several case studies. As an example of the development of a fault-tree model for ESF-CCS signal failure, the fault-tree model of ESF-CCS signal failure for CS pump PP01A in the CSAS condition was designed by considering the identified hazardous states of network failure that would result in a failure to provide input signals to the corresponding LC. The quantitative results for four case studies demonstrated that the probability of overall network communication failure, which was calculated as the sum of the failure probability associated with each failure cause, contributes up to 1.88% of the probability of ESF-CCS signal failure for the CS pump considered in the case studies.

  2. What Is an eBook? What Is a Book App? And Why Should We Care? An Analysis of Contemporary Digital Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargeant, Betty

    2015-01-01

    Book apps have developed into a new format for the picture book. Given the crucial role that picture books have played in early childhood education, it seems pertinent to ascertain the ways in which they have been affected by digitisation. In response to concerns regarding a lack of models and design principles within children's digital…

  3. Using optical full-field measurement based on digital image correlation to measure strain on a tree subjected to mechanical load

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sebera, V.; Praus, L.; Tippner, J.; Kunecký, Jiří; Čepela, J.; Wimmer, R.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 4 (2014), s. 1173-1184 ISSN 0931-1890 Institutional support: RVO:68378297 Keywords : digital image correlation * tree biomechanics * strain * pulling test * arboriculture * nondestructive Subject RIV: JJ - Other Materials Impact factor: 1.651, year: 2014

  4. Picture perfect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pless, Mette; Sørensen, Niels Ulrik

    Picture perfect’ – when perfection becomes the new normal This paper draws on perspectives from three different studies. One study, which focuses on youth life and lack of well-being (Sørensen et al 2011), one study on youth life on the margins of society (Katznelson et al 2015) and one study...

  5. Picture Postage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterer, Irv

    2009-01-01

    With the popularity of e-mail cutting into revenues, Canada Post is always searching for a marketing strategy that would encourage people to use the mail. "Picture Postage" is such an initiative. This popular program allows individuals to create their own stamps for family and friends. This opportunity also provides a vehicle for…

  6. Picture Me Smokefree: a qualitative study using social media and digital photography to engage young adults in tobacco reduction and cessation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haines-Saah, Rebecca J; Kelly, Mary T; Oliffe, John L; Bottorff, Joan L

    2015-01-26

    Young adults have high rates of tobacco use compared to other subpopulations, yet there are relatively few tobacco interventions specifically targeted to this group. Picture Me Smokefree is an online tobacco reduction and cessation intervention for young adults that uses digital photography and social networking. The main goal of the project was to determine the feasibility of engaging young adults in participating in user-driven, online forums intended to provide peer support and motivate critical reflection about tobacco use and cessation among this high-use, hard-to-reach population. A related aim was to explore the influence of gender-related factors on participation, in order to determine the need for online interventions to be tailored to the specific gender preferences reflecting young men and women's participation styles. A total of 60 young adults ages 19-24 years who self-identified as current cigarette smokers or who had quit within the last year were recruited from across British Columbia, Canada, and participated in an online photo group on Facebook over a period of 12 consecutive weeks. A variety of data collection methods were used including tracking online activity, a brief online follow-up survey, and qualitative interviews with study participants. Data analysis involved descriptive statistics on recruitment, retention, and participation and qualitative (eg, narrative analysis, synthesis of feedback) feedback about participant engagement. Findings from this study suggest good potential for Facebook as an accessible, low-cost platform for engaging young adults to reflect on the reasons for their tobacco use, the benefits of quitting or reducing, and the best strategies for tobacco reduction. Young adults' frequent use of mobile phones and other mobile devices to access social networking permitted ease of access and facilitated real-time peer-to-peer support across a diverse group of participants. However, our experience of conducting the study

  7. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  8. Multiscale segmentation-aided digital image correlation for strain concentration characterization of a turbine blade fir-tree root

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Chen; Zhou, Yihao; Li, Yang; Chen, Jubing; Miao, Hong

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, a multiscale segmentation-aided digital image correlation method is proposed to characterize the strain concentration of a turbine blade fir-tree root during its contact with the disk groove. A multiscale approach is implemented to increase the local spatial resolution, as the strain concentration area undergoes highly non-uniform deformation and its size is much smaller than the contact elements. In this approach, a far-field view and several near-field views are selected, aiming to get the full-field deformation and local deformation simultaneously. To avoid the interference of different cameras, only the optical axis of the far-field camera is selected to be perpendicular to the specimen surface while the others are inclined. A homography transformation is optimized by matching the feature points, to rectify the artificial deformation caused by the inclination of the optical axis. The resultant genuine near-field strain is thus obtained after the transformation. A real-world experiment is carried out and the strain concentration is characterized. The strain concentration factor is defined accordingly to provide a quantitative analysis.

  9. Gazing at places we have never been: landscape, heritage and identity: a comment on Jörg Rekittke and Philip Paar: 'Past pictures: landscape visualization with digital tools'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Laarse, R.; Bloemers, T.; Kars, H.; van der Valk, A.; Wijnen, M.

    2010-01-01

    Acknowledging the paradigmatic impact of new digital techniques, this contribution questions the depoliticized conceptualization of landscape in modern landscape visualizations from a theoretical and historical perspective. Long after the earlier periods of formal gardening and landscaping, the

  10. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  11. Quantifying the Accuracy of Digital Hemispherical Photography for Leaf Area Index Estimates on Broad-Leaved Tree Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilardelli, Carlo; Orlando, Francesca; Movedi, Ermes; Confalonieri, Roberto

    2018-03-29

    Digital hemispherical photography (DHP) has been widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI) in forestry. Despite the advancement in the processing of hemispherical images with dedicated tools, several steps are still manual and thus easily affected by user's experience and sensibility. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of user's subjectivity on DHP LAI estimates for broad-leaved woody canopies using the software Can-Eye. Following the ISO 5725 protocol, we quantified the repeatability and reproducibility of the method, thus defining its precision for a wide range of broad-leaved canopies markedly differing for their structure. To get a complete evaluation of the method accuracy, we also quantified its trueness using artificial canopy images with known canopy cover. Moreover, the effect of the segmentation method was analysed. The best results for precision (restrained limits of repeatability and reproducibility) were obtained for high LAI values (>5) with limits corresponding to a variation of 22% in the estimated LAI values. Poorer results were obtained for medium and low LAI values, with a variation of the estimated LAI values that exceeded the 40%. Regardless of the LAI range explored, satisfactory results were achieved for trees in row-structured plantations (limits almost equal to the 30% of the estimated LAI). Satisfactory results were achieved for trueness, regardless of the canopy structure. The paired t -test revealed that the effect of the segmentation method on LAI estimates was significant. Despite a non-negligible user effect, the accuracy metrics for DHP are consistent with those determined for other indirect methods for LAI estimates, confirming the overall reliability of DHP in broad-leaved woody canopies.

  12. Quantifying the Accuracy of Digital Hemispherical Photography for Leaf Area Index Estimates on Broad-Leaved Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Gilardelli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Digital hemispherical photography (DHP has been widely used to estimate leaf area index (LAI in forestry. Despite the advancement in the processing of hemispherical images with dedicated tools, several steps are still manual and thus easily affected by user’s experience and sensibility. The purpose of this study was to quantify the impact of user’s subjectivity on DHP LAI estimates for broad-leaved woody canopies using the software Can-Eye. Following the ISO 5725 protocol, we quantified the repeatability and reproducibility of the method, thus defining its precision for a wide range of broad-leaved canopies markedly differing for their structure. To get a complete evaluation of the method accuracy, we also quantified its trueness using artificial canopy images with known canopy cover. Moreover, the effect of the segmentation method was analysed. The best results for precision (restrained limits of repeatability and reproducibility were obtained for high LAI values (>5 with limits corresponding to a variation of 22% in the estimated LAI values. Poorer results were obtained for medium and low LAI values, with a variation of the estimated LAI values that exceeded the 40%. Regardless of the LAI range explored, satisfactory results were achieved for trees in row-structured plantations (limits almost equal to the 30% of the estimated LAI. Satisfactory results were achieved for trueness, regardless of the canopy structure. The paired t-test revealed that the effect of the segmentation method on LAI estimates was significant. Despite a non-negligible user effect, the accuracy metrics for DHP are consistent with those determined for other indirect methods for LAI estimates, confirming the overall reliability of DHP in broad-leaved woody canopies.

  13. A Novel Methodology to Estimate Single-Tree Biophysical Parameters from 3D Digital Imagery Compared to Aerial Laser Scanner Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Hernández-Clemente

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Airborne laser scanner (ALS data provide an enhanced capability to remotely map two key variables in forestry: leaf area index (LAI and tree height (H. Nevertheless, the cost, complexity and accessibility of this technology are not yet suited for meeting the broad demands required for estimating and frequently updating forest data. Here we demonstrate the capability of alternative solutions based on the use of low-cost color infrared (CIR cameras to estimate tree-level parameters, providing a cost-effective solution for forest inventories. ALS data were acquired with a Leica ALS60 laser scanner and digital aerial imagery (DAI was acquired with a consumer-grade camera modified for color infrared detection and synchronized with a GPS unit. In this paper we evaluate the generation of a DAI-based canopy height model (CHM from imagery obtained with low-cost CIR cameras using structure from motion (SfM and spatial interpolation methods in the context of a complex canopy, as in forestry. Metrics were calculated from the DAI-based CHM and the DAI-based Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI for the estimation of tree height and LAI, respectively. Results were compared with the models estimated from ALS point cloud metrics. Field measurements of tree height and effective leaf area index (LAIe were acquired from a total of 200 and 26 trees, respectively. Comparable accuracies were obtained in the tree height and LAI estimations using ALS and DAI data independently. Tree height estimated from DAI-based metrics (Percentile 90 (P90 and minimum height (MinH yielded a coefficient of determination (R2 = 0.71 and a root mean square error (RMSE = 0.71 m while models derived from ALS-based metrics (P90 yielded an R2 = 0.80 and an RMSE = 0.55 m. The estimation of LAI from DAI-based NDVI using Percentile 99 (P99 yielded an R2 = 0.62 and an RMSE = 0.17 m2/m−2. A comparative analysis of LAI estimation using ALS-based metrics (laser penetration index

  14. Design Considerations for Multi-Channel Picture Communication Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Scheibe, Paul O.

    1983-01-01

    Design of networks intended for communication of digitally-encoded pictures involves considerations different from those used in the design of text or voice communication networks. This paper provides an overview of the elements useful in the design of picture communication networks by relation and contrast with other communication networks. Particular emphasis is given to picture communication systems useful in medical applications.

  15. Do hospital physicians really want to go digital? Acceptance of a picture archiving and communication system in a university hospital; Moechten Krankenhausaerzte wirklich auf digitale Systeme umsteigen? Die Akzeptanz gegenueber einem Bildarchivierungs- und Uebermittlungssystem in einer Universitaetsklinik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duyck, P.; Pynoo, B.; Devolder, P.; Voet, T.; Adang, L.; Vercruysse, J. [Radiologie und medizinische Bildgebung, Universitaetsklinik Gent (Belgium)

    2008-07-15

    Purpose: radiology departments are making the transition from analog film to digital images by means of PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication System). It is critical for the hospital that its physicians adopt and accept the new digital work method regarding radiological information. The aim of this study is to investigate hospital physicians' acceptance of PACS using questionnaires pre- and post-implementation and to identify main influencing factors. Materials and methods: the study was conducted in an 1169 bed university hospital. The UTAUT (Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use of Technology) questionnaire was administered at two times: one month pre-implementation (T1) and 1.5 years post-implementation (T2) of PACS, targeting all hospital physicians with the exemption of radiologists. The UTAUT scales (Behavioral Intention BI; Facilitating Conditions FC; Effort Expectancy EE; Performance Expectancy PE; Anxiety ANX; Social Influence SI; System Use USE; Attitude toward technology ATT; Self-Efficacy SE) were used to assess questions regarding: (a) PACS' usefulness, (b) PACS' ease of learning/using, (c) PACS support availability, (d) the perceived pressure to use PACS, (e) physicians' attitude towards PACS and (f) physicians' intention to use and actual use of PACS. Results: at T1 scale ratings were positive toward the PACS implementation. The ratings on all scales with the exception of self-efficacy improved at T2. Regression analysis revealed that the key factor for intention to use PACS at T1 was the usefulness of PACS, while the availability and awareness of support was its most important predictor at T2. Overall, PE was the best predictor of BI, but all four UTAUT-determinants (PE, FC, EE and SI) were salient for its prediction. Variance explained in BI ranged from 31 to 37% while variance explained in USE was very low (3%). (orig.)

  16. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  17. Associations From Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Rune

    A picture can be interpreted in different ways by various persons. There is often a difference between a picture's denotation (literal meaning), connotation (associative meaning), and private associations. Two studies were conducted in order to observe the private associations that pictures awaken in people. One study deals with associations made…

  18. Picture languages formal models for picture recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Rosenfeld, Azriel

    1979-01-01

    Computer Science and Applied Mathematics: Picture Languages: Formal Models for Picture Recognition treats pictorial pattern recognition from the formal standpoint of automata theory. This book emphasizes the capabilities and relative efficiencies of two types of automata-array automata and cellular array automata, with respect to various array recognition tasks. The array automata are simple processors that perform sequences of operations on arrays, while the cellular array automata are arrays of processors that operate on pictures in a highly parallel fashion, one processor per picture element. This compilation also reviews a collection of results on two-dimensional sequential and parallel array acceptors. Some of the analogous one-dimensional results and array grammars and their relation to acceptors are likewise covered in this text. This publication is suitable for researchers, professionals, and specialists interested in pattern recognition and automata theory.

  19. Highcrop picture tool

    OpenAIRE

    Fog, Erik

    2013-01-01

    Pictures give other impulses than words and numbers. With images, you can easily spot new opportunities. The Highcrop-tool allows for optimization of the organic arable farm based on picture-cards. The picture-cards are designed to make it easier and more inspiring to go close to the details of production. By using the picture-cards you can spot the areas, where there is a possibility to optimize the production system for better results in the future. Highcrop picture cards can be used to:...

  20. The Power of Pictures : Vertical Picture Angles in Power Pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giessner, Steffen R.; Ryan, Michelle K.; Schubert, Thomas W.; van Quaquebeke, Niels

    2011-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in power? We argue that the

  1. The power of pictures: Vertical picture angles in power pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.R. Giessner (Steffen); M.K. Ryan (Michelle); T.W. Schubert (Thomas); N. van Quaquebeke (Niels)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAbstract: Conventional wisdom suggests that variations in vertical picture angle cause the subject to appear more powerful when depicted from below and less powerful when depicted from above. However, do the media actually use such associations to represent individual differences in

  2. Conceptual and perceptual factors in the picture superiority effect

    OpenAIRE

    Stenberg, Georg

    2006-01-01

    The picture superiority effect, i.e. better memory for pictures than for corresponding words, has been variously ascribed to a conceptual or a perceptual processing advantage. The present study aimed to disentangle perceptual and conceptual contributions. Pictures and words were tested for recognition in both their original formats and translated into participants´ second language. Multinomial Processing Tree (Batchelder & Riefer, 1999) and MINERVA (Hintzman, 1984) models were fitted to t...

  3. Digital fluorographic method and system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledley, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    This invention relates to a digital fluorographic method and system, in particular a method and system which calls for the digitization and storage of first and second x-ray picture data derived before and after injection of a contrast medium into a subject. The digitized pictures are stored in separate memories in an associated system, and can be separately whole-picture processed to develop corresponding processed picture data. The resulting data are subtractively combined to produce data corresponding to a pictorial representation of differences between the x-ray picture before and after injection of the contrast medium

  4. Flowering T Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Adansonia digitata L. ( The Baobab Tree) of Bombacaceae is a tree with swollen trunk that attains a dia. of 10m. Leaves are digitately compound with leaflets up to 18cm. long. Flowers are large, solitary, waxy white, and open at dusk. They open in 30 seconds and are bat pollinated. Stamens are many. Fruit is about 30 cm ...

  5. Metaphor in pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, J M

    1982-01-01

    Pictures can be literal or metaphoric. Metaphoric pictures involve intended violations of standard modes of depiction that are universally recognizable. The types of metaphoric pictures correspond to major groups of verbal metaphors, with the addition of a class of pictorial runes. Often the correspondence between verbal and pictorial metaphors depends on individual features of objects and such physical parameters as change of scale. A more sophisticated analysis is required for some pictorial metaphors, involving juxtapositions of well-known objects and indirect reference.

  6. Lesson 6. Picture unsharpness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikirdin, Eh.G.

    1999-01-01

    Lecture concerning the picture sharpness in biomedical radiography is presented. Notion of picture sharpness and visual acuity as an analyser of picture sharpness is specified. Attention is paid to the POX-curve as a statistical method for assessment of visual acuity. Conceptions of the sensitivity of using X-ray image visualization system together with specificity and accuracy are considered. Among indices of sharp parameters of visualization system the resolution, resolving power, picture unsharpness are discussed. It is shown that gradation and sharp characteristics of the image closely correlate that need an attention in practice to factors determining them [ru

  7. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusano, Shoichi

    1993-01-01

    Firstly, from an historic point of view, fundamental concepts on digital imaging were reviewed to provide a foundation for discussion of digital radiography. Secondly, this review summarized the results of ongoing research in computed radiography that replaces the conventional film-screen system with a photo-stimulable phosphor plate; and thirdly, image quality, radiation protection, and image processing techniques were discussed with emphasis on picture archiving and communication system environment as our final goal. Finally, future expansion of digital radiography was described based on the present utilization of computed tomography at the National Defense Medical College Hospital. (author) 60 refs

  8. Pictures in Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Elmo E.

    1973-01-01

    Pictures definitely seem to help training, but a study for the military finds these pictures need not be in moving form, such as films or videotape. Just how the pictorial techniques should be employed and with how much success depends on individual trainee and program differences. (KP)

  9. 21 CFR 892.2050 - Picture archiving and communications system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Picture archiving and communications system. 892... communications system. (a) Identification. A picture archiving and communications system is a device that... processing of medical images. Its hardware components may include workstations, digitizers, communications...

  10. Ubiquitous picture-rich content representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wiley; Dean, Jennifer; Muzzolini, Russ

    2010-02-01

    The amount of digital images taken by the average consumer is consistently increasing. People enjoy the convenience of storing and sharing their pictures through online (digital) and offline (traditional) media. A set of pictures can be uploaded to: online photo services, web blogs and social network websites. Alternatively, these images can be used to generate: prints, cards, photo books or other photo products. Through uploading and sharing, images are easily transferred from one format to another. And often, a different set of associated content (text, tags) is created across formats. For example, on his web blog, a user may journal his experiences of his recent travel; on his social network website, his friends tag and comment on the pictures; in his online photo album, some pictures are titled and keyword-tagged. When the user wants to tell a complete story, perhaps in a photo book, he must collect, across all formats: the pictures, writings and comments, etc. and organize them in a book format. The user has to arrange the content of his trip in each format. The arrangement, the associations between the images, tags, keywords and text, cannot be shared with other formats. In this paper, we propose a system that allows the content to be easily created and shared across various digital media formats. We define a uniformed data association structure to connect: images, documents, comments, tags, keywords and other data. This content structure allows the user to switch representation formats without reediting. The framework under each format can emphasize (display or hide) content elements based on preference. For example, a slide show view will emphasize the display of pictures with limited text; a blog view will display highlighted images and journal text; and the photo book will try to fit in all images and text content. In this paper, we will discuss the strategy to associate pictures with text content, so that it can naturally tell a story. We will also list

  11. Avaliação da morfologia dos sistemas radicais de plantas de regeneração do sobreiro através de imagem digital Evaluation of root systems morphology in young cork oak trees using digital image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Surový

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho tem como objectivo comparar padrões de enraizamento, ou seja, a morfologia do sistema radical de árvores regeneradas por sementeira com árvores plantadas. A evolução dos sistemas radicais pode ter influência no crescimento de longo prazo e daí a importância de o monitorizar. Os dados foram recolhidos num povoamento instalado em 1997. A metodologia seguida para avaliar a morfologia do sistema radical foi através de imagem digital. A morfologia do sistema radical e a distribuição das raízes nos vários horizontes do perfil do solo foi avaliada em oito trincheiras (4 árvores plantadas + 4 árvores semeadas. Os resultados mostram diferenças significativas, sendo a área do sistema radical das árvores plantadas maior do que a das semeadas, não se tendo encontrado diferenças significativas no padrão de enraizamento entre árvores plantadas e semeadas.The purpose of this study is to compare rooting patterns, namely root systems morphology of trees planted from seedlings with root systems morphology of seeded trees. The evolution of root systems can influence growth in future therefore it is important to monitor it. Data was collected in a stand installed in 1997. The evaluation of the root morphology was done using digital image analysis. Root system morphology and distribution of roots in different horizons was evaluated in eight trenches (4 trees planted + 4 trees seeded. The results show significant differences showing planted trees larger root area than seeded trees. It wasn’t found significant differences in the root system shape between planted and seeded trees.

  12. Sustained Attention Ability Affects Simple Picture Naming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne R. Jongman

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Sustained attention has previously been shown as a requirement for language production. However, this is mostly evident for difficult conditions, such as a dual-task situation. The current study provides corroborating evidence that this relationship holds even for simple picture naming. Sustained attention ability, indexed both by participants’ reaction times and individuals’ hit rate (the proportion of correctly detected targets on a digit discrimination task, correlated with picture naming latencies. Individuals with poor sustained attention were consistently slower and their RT distributions were more positively skewed when naming pictures compared to individuals with better sustained attention. Additionally, the need to sustain attention was manipulated by changing the speed of stimulus presentation. Research has suggested that fast event rates tax sustained attention resources to a larger degree than slow event rates. However, in this study the fast event rate did not result in increased difficulty, neither for the picture naming task nor for the sustained attention task. Instead, the results point to a speed-accuracy trade-off in the sustained attention task (lower accuracy but faster responses in the fast than in the slow event rate, and to a benefit for faster rates in the picture naming task (shorter naming latencies with no difference in accuracy. Performance on both tasks was largely comparable, supporting previous findings that sustained attention is called upon during language production.

  13. SESAME 2017 (360 pictures)

    CERN Multimedia

    Caraban Gonzalez, Noemi

    2018-01-01

    The Synchrotron-Light for Experimental Science and Applications in the Middle East (SESAME) is an independent laboratory located in Allan in the Balqa governorate of Jordan, created under the auspices of UNESCO on 30 May 2002. December 2017, Jordan Picture: Noemi Caraban

  14. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...

  15. The music of trees: the intergenerative tie between primary care and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Stories help us frame and understand complex ideas and challenges. Metaphors are particularly powerful linguistic devices that guide and extend our thinking by bridging conceptual domains, for example to consider the brain as a digital computer. Trees are widely used as metaphors for broad concepts like evolution, history, society, and even life itself, i.e. 'the tree of life'. Tree-like diagrams of roots and branches are used to demonstrate historical and cultural relationships, for example, between different species or different languages. In this paper, we describe a theatrical character called a tree doctor which is a living metaphor. A human being, namely the author, lectures, acts or dances as a tree and offers lessons to Homo Sapiens about 'holistic' ideas of health. The character teaches us to not only see the value of our relationships to trees, but the importance of seeing forests as well the individual trees. The metaphorical statement that we should not 'miss the forest for the trees' means we should learn to think of health embedded in systems and communities. In medicine, we too often focus on individual molecules, pharmaceuticals, or even patients and miss the bigger picture of public and environmental health. In a time of great ecological system change, the tree doctor points to broad ethical responsibility for each other and future generations of humans and other living creatures. The character embraces arts and particularly music as a powerful way of infusing purpose and improving the qualities of our lives together, especially as we age. The tree doctor knows the value of intergenerational relationships. But it also points to intergenerative innovations across many cultural domains, disciplines and professions. The tree doctor supports primary care and empowers the value of intergenerational relationships, art and music in the recommendations doctors make to patients to improve their health and well-being.

  16. Trends in picture communication

    OpenAIRE

    Speidel, Joachim

    1993-01-01

    In the past years significant progress was made with digital transmission of audiovisual services and most interesting trends are visible for the future. Such applications encompass interactive services, like videoconferencing, ISDN-videophone, storage of moving video and audio in computers or on CD, e.g. for multimedia applications. For distribution services, there is an unbroken trend from TV to HDTV. Strong emphasis is on compressed digital video even for transmission to the home.

  17. PACS: Picture Archiving and Communication Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gell, G.; Schneider, G.H.; Becker, M.; Wiltgen, M.

    1988-01-01

    A growing number of medical imaging modalities produces images that are initially calculated and stored as digital information in a computer. For diagnosis, archiving and communication a hardcopy (usually on X-ray film) is produced from these data. It is estimated that in 1995 about 80% of all imaging procedures will generate digital images. This trend leads to the development of systems, where the X-ray film is not only replaced in his function as a radiation detector, but also in his other functions as the medium for image presentation, image communication and image archiving. In short, one wants a completely digital picture archiving and communication system (PACS). The rationale behind PACS efforts is to achieve better functionality and to save costs, mainly by reducing the consumption of expensive X-ray films and the need for storage space for film archives. 7 refs., 2 figs. (Author)

  18. The conventional quark picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalitz, R.H.

    1976-01-01

    For baryons, mesons and deep inelastic phenomena the ideas and the problems of the conventional quark picture are pointed out. All observed baryons fit in three SU(3)-multiplets which cluster into larger SU(6)-multiplets. No mesons are known which have quantum numbers inconsistent with belonging to a SU(3) nonet or octet. The deep inelastic phenomena are described in terms of six structure functions of the proton. (BJ) [de

  19. Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of digital processing techniques to spacecraft television pictures and radar images is discussed. The use of digital rectification to produce contour maps from spacecraft pictures is described; images with azimuth and elevation angles are converted into point-perspective frame pictures. The digital correction of the slant angle of radar images to ground scale is examined. The development of orthophoto and stereoscopic shaded relief maps from digital terrain and digital image data is analyzed. Digital image transformations and rectifications are utilized on Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars.

  20. Producing colour pictures from SCAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robichaud, K.

    1982-01-01

    The computer code SCAN.TSK has been written for use on the Interdata 7/32 minicomputer which will convert the pictures produced by the SCAN program into colour pictures on a colour graphics VDU. These colour pictures are a more powerful aid to detecting errors in the MONK input data than the normal lineprinter pictures. This report is intended as a user manual for using the program on the Interdata 7/32, and describes the method used to produce the pictures and gives examples of JCL, input data and of the pictures that can be produced. (U.K.)

  1. A microprocessor based picture analysis system for automatic track measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinrich, W.; Trakowski, W.; Beer, J.; Schucht, R.

    1982-01-01

    In the last few years picture analysis became a powerful technique for measurements of nuclear tracks in plastic detectors. For this purpose rather expensive commercial systems are available. Two inexpensive microprocessor based systems with different resolution were developed. The video pictures of particles seen through a microscope are digitized in real time and the picture analysis is done by software. The microscopes are equipped with stages driven by stepping motors, which are controlled by separate microprocessors. A PDP 11/03 supervises the operation of all microprocessors and stores the measured data on its mass storage devices. (author)

  2. Description of the EDF research and development laboratory's radiographic picture processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1985-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system has been developed at the EDF Research and Development Laboratory to be supplied to EDF radiography experts. We describe it in pointing out the difficulties of radiograph digitization but also the numerous processing possibilities. The final goal of the Laboratory work is to extract the information from industrial radiographs by digital means. Our study is divided into three parts: digitization by a microdensitometer; display, processing and quantization of flaws; and, digital storing. 5 refs

  3. Radiodiagnosis of lung picture changes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamenetskij, M.S.; Lezova, T.F.

    1988-01-01

    The roentgenological picture of changes of the lung picture in the case of different pathological states in the lungs and the heart, is described. A developed diagnostic algorithm for the syndrome of lung picture change and the rules of its application are given. 5 refs.; 9 figs

  4. The polycentric picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flensborg, Ingelise

    2008-01-01

    The polycentric picture The presentation introduces a dynamic view on children's drawings inspired by J.J.Gibson's ecological approach to visual perception. Empirical research in children's drawings will be the basis for the documentation of the fact that children's drawings contain several...... viewpoints and can be characterized as polycentric. I will talk about children's perception of environmental space and about the relations and the orientation they are establishing, which are used in the organisation of the pictorial space. The presentation serves the purpose to point out ontological...

  5. Drawing Contour Trees in the Plane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heine, C; Schneider, D; Carr, Hamish; Scheuermann, G

    2011-11-01

    The contour tree compactly describes scalar field topology. From the viewpoint of graph drawing, it is a tree with attributes at vertices and optionally on edges. Standard tree drawing algorithms emphasize structural properties of the tree and neglect the attributes. Applying known techniques to convey this information proves hard and sometimes even impossible. We present several adaptions of popular graph drawing approaches to the problem of contour tree drawing and evaluate them. We identify five esthetic criteria for drawing contour trees and present a novel algorithm for drawing contour trees in the plane that satisfies four of these criteria. Our implementation is fast and effective for contour tree sizes usually used in interactive systems (around 100 branches) and also produces readable pictures for larger trees, as is shown for an 800 branch example.

  6. Estimating Tree Height and Diameter at Breast Height (DBH from Digital Surface Models and Orthophotos Obtained with an Unmanned Aerial System for a Japanese Cypress (Chamaecyparis obtusa Forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotaro Iizuka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Methods for accurately measuring biophysical parameters are a key component for quantitative evaluation regarding to various forest applications. Conventional in situ measurements of these parameters take time and expense, encountering difficultness at locations with heterogeneous microtopography. To obtain precise biophysical data in such situations, we deployed an unmanned aerial system (UAS multirotor drone in a cypress forest in a mountainous area of Japan. The structure from motion (SfM method was used to construct a three-dimensional (3D model of the forest (tree structures from aerial photos. Tree height was estimated from the 3D model and compared to in situ ground data. We also analyzed the relationships between a biophysical parameter, diameter at breast height (DBH, of individual trees with canopy width and area measured from orthorectified images. Despite the constraints of ground exposure in a highly dense forest area, tree height was estimated at an accuracy of root mean square error = 1.712 m for observed tree heights ranging from 16 to 24 m. DBH was highly correlated with canopy width (R2 = 0.7786 and canopy area (R2 = 0.7923, where DBH ranged from 11 to 58 cm. The results of estimating forest parameters indicate that drone-based remote-sensing methods can be utilized to accurately analyze the spatial extent of forest structures.

  7. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Angus, W.M.; Capp, M.P.; Arenson, R.L.; Kangarloo, H.

    1987-01-01

    This special focus session discusses the current status of picture archiving and communication systems (PACS). The first presentation focuses on the technological advances in various PACS components. The second presentation concentrates on image archiving - what is required, what is available. The third talk is on the concept of a total digital radiology department in the past, the present, and the future. The fourth panelist discusses evaluating various imaging systems as PACS components for the intensive care unit. Finally, one hears about clinical experience with two operating PACS modules, one in pediatric radiology and the second in a coronary care unit

  8. Collages of granulation pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunn, R.B.; November, L.J.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes two small-area selection schemes that the authors have applied to CCD observations of solar granulation. The first scheme, which the authors call the ''mosaic,'' divides the 128 x 128 array into 64 subarrays each containing 16 x 16 pixels. On each picture in the burst the RMS contrast of the fine structure is measured in each subarray and compared to the corresponding value in a table that contains the highest previous RMS values. The second scheme, which the authors call a ''collage,'' is similar except the RMS value is calculated smoothly within a sliding Gaussian window over the entire scene and the value of an individual pixel is gated into the final collage whenever the RMS contrast at that pixel location exceeds that of all previous frames taken during the burst

  9. Pictures of technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huber, J.

    1989-01-01

    The first part of the book describes the development of a polarised spectrum of attitudes towards science and technology over the last two decades. Positivistic attitudes that emerged from the materialistic branch of the period of Enlightenment are shown in contrast to the attitudes that stem from the philosophical line of Rousseau-romanticism-vitalism. The second part of the book presents the results of an empirical study, providing evidence for the existence of the different attitudes towards technology and the environment. The study is based on a representative opinion poll among civil servants, engineering professions, social workers, and artists. Engineers and social workers are shown to represent the two antipodes in terms of the 'dual-culture' theory. In addition, sex-specific and age-specific differences are explained, and the different pictures of technology drawn by personalities characterised by an attitude of active control in contrast to those characterised by an attitude of intuitive faith. (orig.) [de

  10. Pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    Starting with this issue, we will publish special pictures illustrating the ongoing construction and commissioning efforts. If you wish to have a professionnal photographer immortalize your detector before it disappears in the heart of ATLAS or for a special event, don't hesitate to contact Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira (16-3687) from the CERN photo service. Members of the pixel team preparing to insert the outermost layer (the outer of the three barrel pixel layers) into the Global Support Frame for the Pixel Detector in SR1. Ongoing work on the first Big Wheel on the C side. Exploded view of the side-C Big Wheel and the barrel cryostat. The TRT Barrel services (HV, LV, cooling liquid, active gas, flushing gas) are now completely connected and tested. Hats off to Kirill Egorov, Mike Reilly, Ben Legeyt and Godwin Mayers who managed to fit everything within the small clearance margin!

  11. Distributed picture compilation demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Richard; Anderson, John; Leal, Jeff; Mullin, David; Nicholson, David; Watson, Graham

    2004-08-01

    A physical demonstration of distributed surveillance and tracking is described. The demonstration environment is an outdoor car park overlooked by a system of four rooftop cameras. The cameras extract moving objects from the scene, and these objects are tracked in a decentralized way, over a real communication network, using the information form of the standard Kalman filter. Each node therefore has timely access to the complete global picture and because there is no single point of failure in the system, it is robust. The demonstration system and its main components are described here, with an emphasis on some of the lessons we have learned as a result of applying a corpus of distributed data fusion theory and algorithms in practice. Initial results are presented and future plans to scale up the network are also outlined.

  12. Radiographic film digitizing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, all film digitizing devices for use with teleradiology or picture archiving and communication systems used a video camera to capture an image of the radiograph for subsequent digitization. The development of film digitizers that use a laser beam to scan the film represents a significant advancement in digital technology, resulting in improved image quality compared with video scanners. This paper discusses differences in resolution, efficiency, reliability, and the cost between these two types of devices. The results of a modified receiver operating characteristic comparison study of a video scanner and a laser scanner manufactured by the same company are also discussed

  13. Picture archiving and communications systems (PACS): an introduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwartz, L.H.

    2001-01-01

    Picture Archiving and Communications Systems (PACS) has revolutionized the practice of radiology. PACS consist of a variety of electronic/computer components, and the connectivity between these components. PACS is an efficient means to transmit, store, retrieve and digitally display medical images

  14. Processors and systems (picture processing)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gemmar, P

    1983-01-01

    Automatic picture processing requires high performance computers and high transmission capacities in the processor units. The author examines the possibilities of operating processors in parallel in order to accelerate the processing of pictures. He therefore discusses a number of available processors and systems for picture processing and illustrates their capacities for special types of picture processing. He stresses the fact that the amount of storage required for picture processing is exceptionally high. The author concludes that it is as yet difficult to decide whether very large groups of simple processors or highly complex multiprocessor systems will provide the best solution. Both methods will be aided by the development of VLSI. New solutions have already been offered (systolic arrays and 3-d processing structures) but they also are subject to losses caused by inherently parallel algorithms. Greater efforts must be made to produce suitable software for multiprocessor systems. Some possibilities for future picture processing systems are discussed. 33 references.

  15. The Spectator in the Picture

    OpenAIRE

    Hopkins, Robert

    2001-01-01

    This paper considers whether pictures ever implicitly represent internal spectators of the scenes they depict, and what theoretical construal to offer of their doing so. Richard Wollheim's discussion (Painting as an Art, ch.3) is taken as the most sophisticated attempt to answer these questions. I argue that Wollheim does not provide convincing argument for his claim that some pictures implicitly represent an internal spectator with whom the viewer of the picture is to imaginatively identify....

  16. Device for transmitting pictures and device for receiving said pictures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1993-01-01

    Device for transmitting television pictures in the form of transform coefficients and motion vectors. The motion vectors of a sub-picture are converted (20) into a series of difference vectors and a reference vector. Said series is subsequently applied to a variable-length encoder (22) which encodes

  17. Biophotonics: the big picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcu, Laura; Boppart, Stephen A.; Hutchinson, Mark R.; Popp, Jürgen; Wilson, Brian C.

    2018-02-01

    The 5th International Conference on Biophotonics (ICOB) held April 30 to May 1, 2017, in Fremantle, Western Australia, brought together opinion leaders to discuss future directions for the field and opportunities to consider. The first session of the conference, "How to Set a Big Picture Biophotonics Agenda," was focused on setting the stage for developing a vision and strategies for translation and impact on society of biophotonic technologies. The invited speakers, panelists, and attendees engaged in discussions that focused on opportunities and promising applications for biophotonic techniques, challenges when working at the confluence of the physical and biological sciences, driving factors for advances of biophotonic technologies, and educational opportunities. We share a summary of the presentations and discussions. Three main themes from the conference are presented in this position paper that capture the current status, opportunities, challenges, and future directions of biophotonics research and key areas of applications: (1) biophotonics at the nano- to microscale level; (2) biophotonics at meso- to macroscale level; and (3) biophotonics and the clinical translation conundrum.

  18. From snapshots to social media the changing picture of domestic photography

    CERN Document Server

    Sarvas, Risto

    2011-01-01

    New technology is changing the face of the photograph. This volume on 'snapshot' photography-pictures taken by non-professionals-examines key future trends, from multimedia and social practices to the notion of embedding physicality into digital snapshots.

  19. Potential role of smil in digitalization of national heritage

    OpenAIRE

    Tošić, Dušan; Filipović, Vladimir; Tuba, Milan; Kratica, Jozef

    2007-01-01

    XML technologies provide that digitalization of national heritage relies on widely accepted standards. Beside the XML standardized way of text and picture digitalization, there is a similar way for multimedia digitalization. Special XML language, called SMIL (Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language) is used for the multimedia digitalization. This language is very convenient for the digitalization of national heritage like the custom national dresses, popu...

  20. Digital Natives Revisited: Developing Digital Wisdom in the Modern University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, David

    2012-01-01

    The seminal work of Prensky on "digital natives" and "digital wisdom" is used to launch a broader discussion on the relations between electronic communication, higher education, and popular and elite culture. Prensky's critics commonly contrast his polarisations and generational divisions with a more complex picture of types of engagement with…

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Boswellia serrata Roxb. ex Colebr. (Indian Frankincense tree) of Burseraceae is a large-sized deciduous tree that is native to India. Bark is thin, greenish-ash-coloured that exfoliates into smooth papery flakes. Stem exudes pinkish resin ... Fruit is a three-valved capsule. A green gum-resin exudes from the ...

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Flowering Trees. Ailanthus excelsa Roxb. (INDIAN TREE OF. HEAVEN) of Simaroubaceae is a lofty tree with large pinnately compound alternate leaves, which are ... inflorescences, unisexual and greenish-yellow. Fruits are winged, wings many-nerved. Wood is used in making match sticks. 1. Male flower; 2. Female flower.

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Gyrocarpus americanus Jacq. (Helicopter Tree) of Hernandiaceae is a moderate size deciduous tree that grows to about 12 m in height with a smooth, shining, greenish-white bark. The leaves are ovate, rarely irregularly ... flowers which are unpleasant smelling. Fruit is a woody nut with two long thin wings.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 112-112 Flowering Trees. Zizyphus jujuba Lam. of Rhamnaceae · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 9 September 2003 pp 97-97 Flowering Trees. Moringa oleifera · More Details Fulltext PDF. Volume 8 Issue 10 October 2003 pp 100-100 Flowering Trees.

  5. Digital radiology and ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Todd-Pokropek, A.

    1991-01-01

    With the access to digital methods for handling and processing images in general, many medical imaging methods are becoming more effectively handled digitally. This applies in particular to basically digital techniques such as CT and MR but also now includes Nuclear Medicine (NM), Ultrasound (US) and a variety of radiological procedures such as Digital Subtraction Angiography (DSA) and Fluoroscopy (DF). The access to conventional projection images by stimulatable plates (CR) or by digitization of film makes all of radiology potentially accessible, and the management of such images by a network is the basic aim of Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). However, it is suggested that in order for such systems to be of greater value, that way in which such images are treated needs to change, that is, digital images can be used to derive additional clinical value by appropriate processing

  6. Image quality in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, H.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution deals with the potentials of digital radiography and critically evaluates the advantages of drawbacks of the image intensifier-tv-digital system; digitalisation of the X-ray film and scanning of luminescent storage foils. The evaluation is done in comparison with the image quality of the traditional, large-size X-ray picture. (orig.) [de

  7. The application of GIS based decision-tree models for generating the spatial distribution of hydromorphic organic landscapes in relation to digital terrain data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kheir, Rania Bou; Bøcher, Peder Klith; Greve, Mette Balslev

    2010-01-01

    Accurate information about organic/mineral soil occurrence is a prerequisite for many land resources management applications (including climate change mitigation). This paper aims at investigating the potential of using geomorphometrical analysis and decision tree modeling to predict the geographic......, realistic and practical, and it can be applied to other areas, thereby providing a tool to facilitate the implementation of pedological/hydrological plans for conservation and sustainable management. It is particularly useful when information about soil properties from conventional field surveys is limited....

  8. Pictures in Pictures: Art History and Art Museums in Children's Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohlin, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    Children's picture books that recreate, parody, or fictionalize famous artworks and introduce the art museum experience, a genre to which I will refer as "children's art books," have become increasingly popular over the past decade. This essay explores the pedagogical implications of this trend through the family program "Picture Books and Picture…

  9. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2013-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees [3]. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  10. Tree compression with top trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li; Landau, Gad M.

    2015-01-01

    We introduce a new compression scheme for labeled trees based on top trees. Our compression scheme is the first to simultaneously take advantage of internal repeats in the tree (as opposed to the classical DAG compression that only exploits rooted subtree repeats) while also supporting fast...

  11. Ficus religiosa L. (English: Peepal tree or sacred fig; Hindi: Pippal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ficus religiosa L. (English: Peepal tree or sacred fig; Hindi: Pippal) of Moraceae is a large deciduous tree that grows wild as well as cultivated. The picture shows the tree with fresh flush of leaves. The tree is planted chiefly near the temples by Hindus and Buddhists who regard it as sacred. The characteristic heart-shaped ...

  12. Cognitive components of picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, C J; Paivio, A; Clark, J M

    1996-07-01

    A substantial research literature documents the effects of diverse item attributes, task conditions, and participant characteristics on the case of picture naming. The authors review what the research has revealed about 3 generally accepted stages of naming a pictured object: object identification, name activation, and response generation. They also show that dual coding theory gives a coherent and plausible account of these findings without positing amodal conceptual representations, and they identify issues and methods that may further advance the understanding of picture naming and related cognitive tasks.

  13. The Picture Exchange Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondy, A; Frost, L

    2001-10-01

    The Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) is an alternative/augmentative communication system that was developed to teach functional communication to children with limited speech. The approach is unique in that it teaches children to initiate communicative interactions within a social framework. This article describes the advantages to implementing PECS over traditional approaches. The PECS training protocol is described wherein children are taught to exchange a single picture for a desired item and eventually to construct picture-based sentences and use a variety of attributes in their requests. The relationship of PECS's implementation to the development of speech in previously nonvocal students is reviewed.

  14. Big data of tree species distributions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Serra-Diaz, Josep M.; Enquist, Brian J.; Maitner, Brian

    2018-01-01

    are currently available in big databases, several challenges hamper their use, notably geolocation problems and taxonomic uncertainty. Further, we lack a complete picture of the data coverage and quality assessment for open/public databases of tree occurrences. Methods: We combined data from five major...... and data aggregation, especially from national forest inventory programs, to improve the current publicly available data.......Background: Trees play crucial roles in the biosphere and societies worldwide, with a total of 60,065 tree species currently identified. Increasingly, a large amount of data on tree species occurrences is being generated worldwide: from inventories to pressed plants. While many of these data...

  15. Digital Enlightenment Yearbook 2012

    CERN Document Server

    Bus, J; Hildebrandt, M

    2012-01-01

    There have been many inevitable transformations in society due to digitization - the introduction of digital technology, including communication technology, through the Internet and its use via the Web.This book is the first Yearbook of the Digital Enlightenment Forum. Whilst it cannot cover all the many aspects which the forum encompasses, the book gives an impression of the broad spectrum of the forum and a clear picture of the multi-disciplinary nature of the issues at stake.The first paper in the book is a contribution from the father of the Web, Sir Tim Berners-Lee, and Harry Halpin. They

  16. Pictures, images, and recollective experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewhurst, S A; Conway, M A

    1994-09-01

    Five experiments investigated the influence of picture processing on recollective experience in recognition memory. Subjects studied items that differed in visual or imaginal detail, such as pictures versus words and high-imageability versus low-imageability words, and performed orienting tasks that directed processing either toward a stimulus as a word or toward a stimulus as a picture or image. Standard effects of imageability (e.g., the picture superiority effect and memory advantages following imagery) were obtained only in recognition judgments that featured recollective experience and were eliminated or reversed when recognition was not accompanied by recollective experience. It is proposed that conscious recollective experience in recognition memory is cued by attributes of retrieved memories such as sensory-perceptual attributes and records of cognitive operations performed at encoding.

  17. A stochastic picture of spin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faris, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    Dankel has shown how to incorporate spin into stochastic mechanics. The resulting non-local hidden variable theory gives an appealing picture of spin correlation experiments in which Bell's inequality is violated. (orig.)

  18. Heisenberg picture and measurement operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Espagnat, B.

    1992-01-01

    The idea is discussed according to which, in the Heisenberg picture, differently from the Schroedinger picture, the operators correspond exactly to the dynamic properties and the role of the density matrix is merely to describe our passive knowledge thereof. It is shown that the idea in question cannot be consistently kept as it is, and hints are given as to how it could be refined. (from author). 2 refs

  19. Tree Nut Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blog Vision Awards Common Allergens Tree Nut Allergy Tree Nut Allergy Learn about tree nut allergy, how ... a Tree Nut Label card . Allergic Reactions to Tree Nuts Tree nuts can cause a severe and ...

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    medium-sized handsome tree with a straight bole that branches at the top. Leaves are once pinnate, with two to three pairs of leaflets. Young parts of the tree are velvety. Inflorescence is a branched raceme borne at the branch ends. Flowers are large, white, attractive, and fragrant. Corolla is funnel-shaped. Fruit is an ...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cassia siamia Lamk. (Siamese tree senna) of Caesalpiniaceae is a small or medium size handsome tree. Leaves are alternate, pinnately compound and glandular, upto 18 cm long with 8–12 pairs of leaflets. Inflorescence is axillary or terminal and branched. Flowering lasts for a long period from March to February. Fruit is ...

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Cerbera manghasL. (SEA MANGO) of Apocynaceae is a medium-sized evergreen coastal tree with milky latex. The bark is grey-brown, thick and ... Fruit is large. (5–10 cm long), oval containing two flattened seeds and resembles a mango, hence the name Mangas or. Manghas. Leaves and fruits contain ...

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowering Trees. Gliricidia sepium(Jacq.) Kunta ex Walp. (Quickstick) of Fabaceae is a small deciduous tree with. Pinnately compound leaves. Flower are prroduced in large number in early summer on terminal racemes. They are attractive, pinkish-white and typically like bean flowers. Fruit is a few-seeded flat pod.

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flowering Trees. Acrocarpus fraxinifolius Wight & Arn. (PINK CEDAR, AUSTRALIAN ASH) of. Caesalpiniaceae is a lofty unarmed deciduous native tree that attains a height of 30–60m with buttresses. Bark is thin and light grey. Leaves are compound and bright red when young. Flowers in dense, erect, axillary racemes.

  5. Talking Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolman, Marvin

    2005-01-01

    Students love outdoor activities and will love them even more when they build confidence in their tree identification and measurement skills. Through these activities, students will learn to identify the major characteristics of trees and discover how the pace--a nonstandard measuring unit--can be used to estimate not only distances but also the…

  6. Drawing Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halkjær From, Andreas; Schlichtkrull, Anders; Villadsen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    We formally prove in Isabelle/HOL two properties of an algorithm for laying out trees visually. The first property states that removing layout annotations recovers the original tree. The second property states that nodes are placed at least a unit of distance apart. We have yet to formalize three...

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    Grevillea robusta A. Cunn. ex R. Br. (Sil- ver Oak) of Proteaceae is a daintily lacy ornamental tree while young and growing into a mighty tree (45 m). Young shoots are silvery grey and the leaves are fern- like. Flowers are golden-yellow in one- sided racemes (10 cm). Fruit is a boat- shaped, woody follicle.

  8. Digital broadcasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hyeong

    1999-06-01

    This book contains twelve chapters, which deals with digitization of broadcast signal such as digital open, digitization of video signal and sound signal digitization of broadcasting equipment like DTPP and digital VTR, digitization of equipment to transmit such as digital STL, digital FPU and digital SNG, digitization of transmit about digital TV transmit and radio transmit, digital broadcasting system on necessity and advantage, digital broadcasting system abroad and Korea, digital broadcasting of outline, advantage of digital TV, ripple effect of digital broadcasting and consideration of digital broadcasting, ground wave digital broadcasting of DVB-T in Europe DTV in U.S.A and ISDB-T in Japan, HDTV broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital TV broadcasting in Korea, digital radio broadcasting and new broadcasting service.

  9. Estimation of mean tree stand volume using high-resolution aerial RGB imagery and digital surface model, obtained from sUAV and Trestima mobile application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. K. Rybakov

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study considers a remote sensing technique for mean volume estimation based on a very high-resolution (VHR aerial RGB imagery obtained using a small-sized unmanned aerial vehicle (sUAV and a high-resolution photogrammetric digital surface model (DSM as well as an innovative technology for field measurements (Trestima. The study area covers approx. 220 ha of forestland in Finland. The work concerns the entire process from remote sensing and field data acquisition to statistical analysis and forest volume wall-to-wall mapping. The study showed that the VHR aerial imagery and the high-resolution DSM produced based on the application of the sUAV have good prospects for forest inventory. For the sUAV based estimation of forest variables such as Height, Basal Area and mean Volume, Root Mean Square Error constituted 6.6 %, 22.6 % and 26.7 %, respectively. Application of Trestima for estimation of the mean volume of the standing forest showed minor difference over the existing Forest Management Plan at all the selected forest compartments. Simultaneously, the results of the study confirmed that the technologies and the tools applied at this work could be a reliable and potentially cost-effective means of forest data acquisition with high potential of operational use.

  10. Conceptual Masking: How One Picture Captures Attention from Another Picture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftus, Geoffrey R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Five experiments studied operations of conceptual masking--the reduction of conceptual memory performance for an initial stimulus when it is followed by a masking picture process. The subjects were 337 undergraduates at the University of Washington (Seattle). Conceptual masking is distinguished from perceptual masking. (TJH)

  11. Vertices in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    Covariant vertices of open bosonic string theory are transformed to the abelized picture. The way the pure transverse (light-cone gauge) vertex is contained therein is exhibited explicitly. The formalism shows in a quite transparent way that all further content of a covariant vertex is of gauge type. By applying the transverse projection operator in the abelized picture, an algebraic condition whether a set of Neumann coefficients define a vertex for string theory is obtained. A speculation concerning field redefinitions in string field theory is added. (Author) 33 refs

  12. Television system in which digitised picture signals subjected to a transform coding are transmitted from an encoding station to a decoding station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1989-01-01

    Television system in which digitalized picture signals subjected to a transform coding are transmitted from an encoding station to a decoding station. In a television system a digital picture signal is subjected to a transform coding for the purpose of bit rate reduction. In order to detect motion

  13. Phylogenetic trees

    OpenAIRE

    Baños, Hector; Bushek, Nathaniel; Davidson, Ruth; Gross, Elizabeth; Harris, Pamela E.; Krone, Robert; Long, Colby; Stewart, Allen; Walker, Robert

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the package PhylogeneticTrees for Macaulay2 which allows users to compute phylogenetic invariants for group-based tree models. We provide some background information on phylogenetic algebraic geometry and show how the package PhylogeneticTrees can be used to calculate a generating set for a phylogenetic ideal as well as a lower bound for its dimension. Finally, we show how methods within the package can be used to compute a generating set for the join of any two ideals.

  14. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  15. Every Picture Tells a Story

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dr. Piet Bakker

    2011-01-01

    Het doel van het project Every Picture Tells a Story is om samen met het werkveld methoden, technieken en kennis te ontwikkelen voor het produceren van effectieve infographics. Dit is nodig omdat de vraag naar infographics in de markt snel toeneemt. Bedrijfsleven en overheden kiezen er steeds vaker

  16. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  17. SOFTWARE SUPPORT FOR RICH PICTURES

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    Rich pictures (RP) are common in object-oriented analysis and design courses, but students seem to have problems in integrating them in their projects' workflow. A new software tool is being developed, specific for RP authoring. To better understand students' issues and working practice with RP...

  18. Electron Tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Appelt, Ane L; Rønde, Heidi S

    2013-01-01

    The photo shows a close-up of a Lichtenberg figure – popularly called an “electron tree” – produced in a cylinder of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA). Electron trees are created by irradiating a suitable insulating material, in this case PMMA, with an intense high energy electron beam. Upon discharge......, during dielectric breakdown in the material, the electrons generate branching chains of fractures on leaving the PMMA, producing the tree pattern seen. To be able to create electron trees with a clinical linear accelerator, one needs to access the primary electron beam used for photon treatments. We...... appropriated a linac that was being decommissioned in our department and dismantled the head to circumvent the target and ion chambers. This is one of 24 electron trees produced before we had to stop the fun and allow the rest of the accelerator to be disassembled....

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Srimath

    shaped corolla. Fruit is large, ellipsoidal, green with a hard and smooth shell containing numerous flattened seeds, which are embedded in fleshy pulp. Calabash tree is commonly grown in the tropical gardens of the world as a botanical oddity.

  20. [Advantages of digitalization and analysis of roentgenograms of bones by microcomputer.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkácik, J; Makai, F; Keppert, M; Valko, B

    1994-01-01

    The creation of an experimental group for digitalization of two-dimensional X-ray pictures of bones was the starting point for the application of selected procedures for their computer-assisted analysis. During processing of the picture first the primary digitalized picture was corrected (e. g. subtraction of the background, correction of the non-homogenity of the scanning element and light source) and subsequently the picture was prepared by spot or local transformations (e. g. semithresholding, equalization, Sobel's operator and subtraction of two differently prepared pictures) while preserving the geometry of the original objects on the picture. On treated pictures of bony structures then graphic procedures of identification of important spots, lines, angles and derived indices and of mutual relations of bones were verified. For creation of prerequisites of the long-term development of osseous changes, in particular in patients with non-cemented implants of the hip joints, possibilities of and quantitative requirements of filing of digitalized two-dimensional X-ray pictures of the bones in information media were tested as well as the possibility to transmit them in the local computer network. Finally the authors draw attention to the advantages of digitalization and analysis of two-dimensional X-ray pictures of bones by a microcomputer from the aspect of impact on information, economic aspects and in particular preserving of information in digital form. Key words: digitalization of X-ray pictures, digital processing of X-ray pictures, filing of X-ray pictures.

  1. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilmann, Britta; Rigling, Andreas

    2012-02-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree species' potential for surviving future aggravated environmental conditions is rather demanding. The aim of this study was to find a tree-ring-based method suitable for identifying very drought-tolerant species, particularly potential substitute species for Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) in Valais. In this inner-Alpine valley, Scots pine used to be the dominating species for dry forests, but today it suffers from high drought-induced mortality. We investigate the growth response of two native tree species, Scots pine and European larch (Larix decidua Mill.), and two non-native species, black pine (Pinus nigra Arnold) and Douglas fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii Mirb. var. menziesii), to drought. This involved analysing how the radial increment of these species responded to increasing water shortage (abandonment of irrigation) and to increasingly frequent drought years. Black pine and Douglas fir are able to cope with drought better than Scots pine and larch, as they show relatively high radial growth even after irrigation has been stopped and a plastic growth response to drought years. European larch does not seem to be able to cope with these dry conditions as it lacks the ability to recover from drought years. The analysis of trees' short-term response to extreme climate events seems to be the most promising and suitable method for detecting how tolerant a tree species is towards drought. However, combining all the methods used in this study provides a complete picture of how water shortage could limit species.

  2. Digital vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, J.W.; Engels, B.C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Digitalizing videosignals from an image intensifying TV-chain, followed by subtraction, contrast intensifying, and reformation to analogous signal deliver angiography pictures of high quality after intravenous injection of the contrast medium. As the examination is only little invasive it can be carried out on outdoor patients or in the polyclinics. The possibilities of the digital vessel imagination (DVI) are shown at vessel images of different parts of the body; a 36 cm image intensifyer which can be switched to 3 different sorts of operation and has a plumbicon-TV recording tube is used as receiver. (orig.) [de

  3. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptualisation of semiotics/semiology of painting through Julia Kristeva's semiotics and Roland Barthes' semiology. In addition, it points to the concrete concepts of structural analysis which have accentuated the opposition picture-painting with the examples of art practice concurrent to the development of structuralism. However, what is revealed is that various structuralist readings are significantly subjective to unstable relationship between the basic elements in the pictorial object, that is, in the work of painting.

  4. Structuralist readings: Painting vs. picture

    OpenAIRE

    Marinkov-Pavlović Lidija

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to point to two fundamentally different strategies of painting practice, that is, to two subsystems of painting: picture and painting. This differentiation can be made within the framework of semiotic and semiological analyses which have developed in theory under the influence of structuralism. The first part of the paper offers a basic insight into the linguistic foundation of structuralistic concept, and then sets a thesis about the possibility of analogue reconceptu...

  5. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freemann and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particularly simple from. (orig.)

  6. Strings in the abelized picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Embacher, F.

    1990-01-01

    The transformation properties of the bosonic string variables under the recently discovered abelizing operator are exhibited. The intimate relation of this operator to the light-cone gauge condition is illustrated for the classical string. As an application of the formalism, the derivation of the BRST cohomology by the method of Freeman and Olive is carried over to the abelized picture, where it takes a particulary simple form. 14 refs. (Author)

  7. Sustainable agriculture in the picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brouwer, F.M.; De Bont, C.J.A.M.; Leneman, H.; Van der Meulen, H.A.B.

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable agriculture in the picture provides a systematic overview of the available data that are relevant for debate on transitions towards sustainable agriculture. Review for the agrocomplex, greenhouse horticulture, dairy farming and pig farming. Indicators on economy, environment, nature, animal welfare, human and animal health. Results achieved in practice for the three dimensions of sustainable agriculture, namely economics ('profit'), ecology ('planet') and socio-cultural ('people') [nl

  8. A multiprocessor system for the analysis of pictures of nuclear events

    CERN Document Server

    Bacilieri, P; Matteuzzi, P; Sini, G P; Zanotti, U

    1979-01-01

    The pictures of nuclear events obtained from the bubble chambers such as Gargamelle and BEBC at CERN and others from Serpukhov are geometrically processed at CNAF (Centro Nazionale Analysis Photogrammi) in Bologna. The analysis system includes an Erasme table and a CRT flying spot digitizer. The difficulties connected with the pictures of the four stereoscopic views of the bubble chambers are overcome by the choice of a strong interactive system. (0 refs).

  9. Numerical evaluation of delamination in CFRP laminates by stereo X-ray pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunoo, Kazuo; Uda, Nobuhide; Ono, Kousei; Onohara, Kaoru; Takahashi, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Hisahiro.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents a method for quantifying damage in composite laminates by stereo X-ray pictures. A three dimensional image of delamination, which is one of the characteristic types of damage in composite laminates can be reconstructed with this method. A digital image processing technique is used to analyze X-ray pictures. Experimental results of reconstructing delaminations in carbon/epoxy cross-ply laminates show that this method is accurate enough for practical usage. (author)

  10. (Almost) practical tree codes

    KAUST Repository

    Khina, Anatoly

    2016-08-15

    We consider the problem of stabilizing an unstable plant driven by bounded noise over a digital noisy communication link, a scenario at the heart of networked control. To stabilize such a plant, one needs real-time encoding and decoding with an error probability profile that decays exponentially with the decoding delay. The works of Schulman and Sahai over the past two decades have developed the notions of tree codes and anytime capacity, and provided the theoretical framework for studying such problems. Nonetheless, there has been little practical progress in this area due to the absence of explicit constructions of tree codes with efficient encoding and decoding algorithms. Recently, linear time-invariant tree codes were proposed to achieve the desired result under maximum-likelihood decoding. In this work, we take one more step towards practicality, by showing that these codes can be efficiently decoded using sequential decoding algorithms, up to some loss in performance (and with some practical complexity caveats). We supplement our theoretical results with numerical simulations that demonstrate the effectiveness of the decoder in a control system setting.

  11. Picture archival and communication systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Victor Raj, D.; Livingstone, Roshan Samuel

    2001-01-01

    Providing high quality care through an efficient delivery system is the aim of every health care organization. With the phenomenal rise of computer technology in recent times, it has become possible to store and communicate medical images in digital format. PACS systems are generally based on a dedicated computer, which can access data stored in the digital image processors of different imaging modalities and transfer this data at high speeds to remote viewing consoles, to archival storage media and to other computer systems either within the hospital or at remote locations

  12. A Picture of Subsidized Households 2009

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2009. Picture 2009...

  13. Directed forgetting: Comparing pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Chelsea K; Taylor, Tracy L; Fawcett, Jonathan M

    2010-03-01

    The authors investigated directed forgetting as a function of the stimulus type (picture, word) presented at study and test. In an item-method directed forgetting task, study items were presented 1 at a time, each followed with equal probability by an instruction to remember or forget. Participants exhibited greater yes-no recognition of remember than forget items for each of the 4 study-test conditions (picture-picture, picture-word, word-word, word-picture). However, this difference was significantly smaller when pictures were studied than when words were studied. This finding demonstrates that the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect can be reduced by high item memorability, such as when the picture superiority effect is operating. This suggests caution in using pictures at study when the goal of an experiment is to examine potential group differences in the magnitude of the directed forgetting effect. 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  14. The picture superiority effect in associative recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockley, William E

    2008-10-01

    The picture superiority effect has been well documented in tests of item recognition and recall. The present study shows that the picture superiority effect extends to associative recognition. In three experiments, students studied lists consisting of random pairs of concrete words and pairs of line drawings; then they discriminated between intact (old) and rearranged (new) pairs of words and pictures at test. The discrimination advantage for pictures over words was seen in a greater hit rate for intact picture pairs, but there was no difference in the false alarm rates for the two types of stimuli. That is, there was no mirror effect. The same pattern of results was found when the test pairs consisted of the verbal labels of the pictures shown at study (Experiment 4), indicating that the hit rate advantage for picture pairs represents an encoding benefit. The results have implications for theories of the picture superiority effect and models of associative recognition.

  15. Use of picture books to explain procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-06

    A small study conducted at a Swedish hospital on the effect of giving picture books and picture sheets to prepare children for their procedures before and during day surgery is explored in this article.

  16. A Picture of Subsidized Housholds 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Picture of Subsidized Households describes the nearly 5 million households living in HUD-subsidized housing in the United States for the year 2008. Picture 2008...

  17. Digital dental photography. Part 1: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, I

    2009-04-25

    This paper is the first article in a new ten-part series on digital dental photography. Part 1 previews and outlines the contents of the subsequent papers and in addition, defines the aims and objectives of a digital dental image and the features that are required for an ideal intra-oral picture.

  18. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    deciduous tree with irregularly-shaped trunk, greyish-white scaly bark and milky latex. Leaves in opposite pairs are simple, oblong and whitish beneath. Flowers that occur in branched inflorescence are white, 2–. 3cm across and fragrant. Calyx is glandular inside. Petals bear numerous linear white scales, the corollary.

  19. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Berrya cordifolia (Willd.) Burret (Syn. B. ammonilla Roxb.) – Trincomali Wood of Tiliaceae is a tall evergreen tree with straight trunk, smooth brownish-grey bark and simple broad leaves. Inflorescence is much branched with white flowers. Stamens are many with golden yellow anthers. Fruit is a capsule with six spreading ...

  20. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Canthium parviflorum Lam. of Rubiaceae is a large shrub that often grows into a small tree with conspicuous spines. Leaves are simple, in pairs at each node and are shiny. Inflorescence is an axillary few-flowered cymose fascicle. Flowers are small (less than 1 cm across), 4-merous and greenish-white. Fruit is ellipsoid ...

  1. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    sriranga

    Hook.f. ex Brandis (Yellow. Cadamba) of Rubiaceae is a large and handsome deciduous tree. Leaves are simple, large, orbicular, and drawn abruptly at the apex. Flowers are small, yellowish and aggregate into small spherical heads. The corolla is funnel-shaped with five stamens inserted at its mouth. Fruit is a capsule.

  2. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Celtis tetrandra Roxb. of Ulmaceae is a moderately large handsome deciduous tree with green branchlets and grayish-brown bark. Leaves are simple with three to four secondary veins running parallel to the mid vein. Flowers are solitary, male, female and bisexual and inconspicuous. Fruit is berry-like, small and globose ...

  3. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Aglaia elaeagnoidea (A.Juss.) Benth. of Meliaceae is a small-sized evergreen tree of both moist and dry deciduous forests. The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound, terminating in a single leaflet. Leaflets are more or less elliptic with entire margin. Flowers are small on branched inflorescence. Fruit is a globose ...

  4. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    user

    Flowers are borne on stiff bunches terminally on short shoots. They are 2-3 cm across, white, sweet-scented with light-brown hairy sepals and many stamens. Loquat fruits are round or pear-shaped, 3-5 cm long and are edible. A native of China, Loquat tree is grown in parks as an ornamental and also for its fruits.

  5. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    mid-sized slow-growing evergreen tree with spreading branches that form a dense crown. The bark is smooth, thick, dark and flakes off in large shreds. Leaves are thick, oblong, leathery and bright red when young. The female flowers are drooping and are larger than male flowers. Fruit is large, red in color and velvety.

  6. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Andira inermis (wright) DC. , Dog Almond of Fabaceae is a handsome lofty evergreen tree. Leaves are alternate and pinnately compound with 4–7 pairs of leaflets. Flowers are fragrant and are borne on compact branched inflorescences. Fruit is ellipsoidal one-seeded drupe that is peculiar to members of this family.

  7. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    narrow towards base. Flowers are large and attrac- tive, but emit unpleasant foetid smell. They appear in small numbers on erect terminal clusters and open at night. Stamens are numerous, pink or white. Style is slender and long, terminating in a small stigma. Fruit is green, ovoid and indistinctly lobed. Flowering Trees.

  8. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Muntingia calabura L. (Singapore cherry) of. Elaeocarpaceae is a medium size handsome ever- green tree. Leaves are simple and alternate with sticky hairs. Flowers are bisexual, bear numerous stamens, white in colour and arise in the leaf axils. Fruit is a berry, edible with several small seeds embedded in a fleshy pulp ...

  9. ~{owering 'Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . Stamens are fused into a purple staminal tube that is toothed. Fruit is about 0.5 in. across, nearly globose, generally 5-seeded, green but yellow when ripe, quite smooth at first but wrinkled in drying, remaining long on the tree ajier ripening.

  10. Tree Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark J. Ambrose

    2012-01-01

    Tree mortality is a natural process in all forest ecosystems. However, extremely high mortality also can be an indicator of forest health issues. On a regional scale, high mortality levels may indicate widespread insect or disease problems. High mortality may also occur if a large proportion of the forest in a particular region is made up of older, senescent stands....

  11. Flowering Trees

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Guaiacum officinale L. (LIGNUM-VITAE) of Zygophyllaceae is a dense-crowned, squat, knobbly, rough and twisted medium-sized ev- ergreen tree with mottled bark. The wood is very hard and resinous. Leaves are compound. The leaflets are smooth, leathery, ovate-ellipti- cal and appear in two pairs. Flowers (about 1.5.

  12. 77 FR 25082 - Picture Permit Imprint Indicia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    ... POSTAL SERVICE 39 CFR Part 111 Picture Permit Imprint Indicia AGENCY: Postal Service\\TM\\. ACTION... Service, Domestic Mail Manual (DMM[supreg]) 604.5 to add picture permit imprint indicia standards allowing...: The use of picture permit imprint indicia is designed to improve the effectiveness of a mailpiece by...

  13. Detecting potential ship objects from satellite pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, B.; Yang, C.C.; Chang, S.K.; Yang, M.C.K.

    1984-01-01

    Heuristic techniques are presented to detect potential ship objects from satellite pictures. These techniques utilize some noise structures of the pixel gray levels, and certain inherent features of a ship in a satellite picture. The scheme has been implemented and successfully tested on SEASAT satellite pictures. A general approach for database-oriented object detection is also suggested

  14. Exploring Multicultural Themes through Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Pamela J.

    1995-01-01

    Advocates inclusion of multicultural picture books in social studies instruction to offer different outlooks and visions in a short format. Describes selection of picture books with multicultural themes and those that represent various cultures, gender equity, and religious themes. Suggests that picture books may help students develop better…

  15. Pictures Improve Memory of SAT Vocabulary Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Melva; Finkelstein, Arleen

    1994-01-01

    Suggests that students can improve their memory of Scholastic Aptitude Test vocabulary words by associating the words with corresponding pictures taken from magazines. Finds that long-term recall of words associated with pictures was higher than recall of words not associated with pictures. (RS)

  16. Text-Picture Relations in Cooking Instructions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Sluis, Ielka; Leito, Shadira; Redeker, Gisela; Bunt, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Like many other instructions, recipes on packages with ready-to-use ingredients for a dish combine a series of pictures with short text paragraphs. The information presentation in such multimodal instructions can be compact (either text or picture) and/or cohesive (text and picture). In an

  17. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Morton A.; McCarthy, Melissa; Clark, Ashley

    2005-01-01

    This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease…

  18. Digital cinema video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Husak, Walter

    2003-05-01

    The Motion Picture Industry began a transition from film based distribution and projection to digital distribution and projection several years ago. Digital delivery and presentation offers the prospect to increase the quality of the theatrical experience for the audience, reduce distribution costs to the distributors, and create new business opportunities for the theater owners and the studios. Digital Cinema also presents an opportunity to provide increased flexibility and security of the movies for the content owners and the theater operators. Distribution of content via electronic means to theaters is unlike any of the traditional applications for video compression. The transition from film-based media to electronic media represents a paradigm shift in video compression techniques and applications that will be discussed in this paper.

  19. Digital citizenship and surveillance society - introduction

    OpenAIRE

    Hintz, Arne; Dencik, Lina; Wahl-Jorgensen, Karin

    2017-01-01

    Digital citizenship is typically defined as the (self-)enactment of people’s role in society through the use of digital technologies. It therefore has empowering and democratizing characteristics. However, as shown by this Special Section, the context of datafication and ubiquitous data collection and processing complicates this picture. The Snowden revelations have demonstrated the extent to which both state agencies and Internet companies monitor the activities of digital citizens and how t...

  20. Cascaded Processing in Written Naming: Evidence from the Picture-Picture Interference Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roux, Sebastien; Bonin, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    The issue of how information flows within the lexical system in written naming was investigated in five experiments. In Experiment 1, participants named target pictures that were accompanied by context pictures having phonologically and orthographically related or unrelated names (e.g., a picture of a "ball" superimposed on a picture of…

  1. Core architectures for digital media and the associated compilation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jess, J.A.G.; Reis, R.; Lubaszewski, M.; Jess, J.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The new generation of multimedia systems will be fully digital. This includes real time digital TV transmission via cable, satellite and terrestrial channels as well as digital audio broadcasting. A number of standards have been developed such as those of the ‘‘Moving Picture Experts Group’’ (MPEG).

  2. Scanning table BIP 101 for bubble chamber pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calmels, C.

    1966-09-01

    BIP 101 is a new scanning table for bubble chamber pictures, especially aimed at the full scale projection of the CERN 2 m hydrogen chamber. The table itself is divided in two half tables, each of them receiving, successively or simultaneously, the projections of 2 of the 4 films. Projectors with film transport are located in the central space between both half tables. Their light is reflected on 2 mirrors fixed at the ceiling. Thus the 4 sides of the table are freely accessible to the scanners. It will be possible to equip later the table with digitizers, allowing pre-measurements of the events for HPD device, or even measurements. (author) [fr

  3. Picture archiving and communication systems for diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.; Mankovich, N.J.; Kangarloo, H.; Boechat, M.I.; Dietrich, R.; Hall, T.; Taira, R.K.; Cho, P.S.; Stewart, B.K.

    1987-01-01

    The authors developed two picture archiving and communication system (PACS) modules for pediatric radiology and for coronary care unit use. Both modules have been in clinical operation 24 hours a day, 7 days a week, since March 1987. This exhibit presents all components used in these two modules, including a computed radiographic unit, two film laser scanners, a minicomputer, two large processors, one communication system, one digital optical disk library, one six-512-line monitor station, two three 1,024-line monitor stations, a two-2,048-line monitor station, and one laser film printer. The exhibit summarizes clinical evaluations of these two modules

  4. Digital radiology and digitally formatted image management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.G.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Templeton, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The number of diagnostic examinations performed with digitally formatted imaging equipment is increasing. Digital general-purpose and fluoroscopic radiology systems are being clinically evaluated. Digitizing conventional x-ray films, such as mammograms, frequently improves the diagnostic quality of the images. The digitizing process with laser has also afforded the opportunity to document required spatial resolution for digital imaging and network systems. The use of digitally formatted image instrumentation imposes new requirements on the acquisition, display and manipulation, transmission, hard copy image recording, and archiving of diagnostic data. Networking of digitally formatted image data offers many advantages for managing digital information. This paper identifies and describes digital radiographic systems. Parameters required for designing and implementing a digital image management system are outlined. Spatial and contrast resolution requirements are identified. The key parameters include the amount of image data generated each working day, the retrieval rate of the generated data, the display hardware and software needed for interactive diagnosis display stations, the requirements for analog hard copy generation, and on-line and long-term archiving requirements. These image management systems are often called PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems)

  5. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks

    OpenAIRE

    Harvey, Denise Y.; Schnur, Tatiana T.

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system – lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shar...

  6. Interacting-string picture of the fermionic string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mandelstam, S.

    1986-01-01

    This report gives a review of the interacting-string picture of the Bose string. In the present lecture, the author outlines a similar treatment of the Fermionic string. The quantization of the free Fermionic string is carried out to the degrees of freedom x, representing the displacement of the string. Also presented are Grassman degrees of freedom S distributed along the string. The report pictures the fermionic string as a string of dipoles. The general picture of the interaction of such strings by joining and splitting is the same as for the Bose string. The author does not at present have the simplest formula for fermion string scattering amplitudes. A less detailed treatment is given than for the Bose string. The report sets up the functional-integration formalism, derives the analog mode, and indicates in general, terms how the conformal transformation to the z-plane may be performed. The paper concludes by stating without proof the formula for the N-article tree amplitude in the manifestly supersymmetric formalism

  7. Policy Route Map for Academic Libraries' Digital Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koulouris, Alexandros; Kapidakis, Sarantos

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a policy decision tree for digital information management in academic libraries. The decision tree is a policy guide, which offers alternative access and reproduction policy solutions according to the prevailing circumstances (for example acquisition method, copyright ownership). It refers to the digital information life cycle,…

  8. Picture chamber for radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The picture chamber for a radiographic system is characterised by a base, a first electrode carried in the base, an X-ray irradiation window provided with an outer plate and an inner plate and a conducting surface which serves as a second electrode, which has a plate gripping it at each adjacent edge and which has at the sides a space which is occupied by a filling material, maintained at a steady pressure, by means of the mounting against the base and wherein the inner plate lies against the first electrode and which is provided with a split, and with means for the separation of the split in the area of the inner plate so that a fluid may be retained in the split. (G.C.)

  9. Surface tree languages and parallel derivation trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Engelfriet, Joost

    1976-01-01

    The surface tree languages obtained by top-down finite state transformation of monadic trees are exactly the frontier-preserving homomorphic images of sets of derivation trees of ETOL systems. The corresponding class of tree transformation languages is therefore equal to the class of ETOL languages.

  10. Manipulating affective state using extended picture presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutton, S K; Davidson, R J; Donzella, B; Irwin, W; Dottl, D A

    1997-03-01

    Separate, extended series of positive, negative, and neutral pictures were presented to 24 (12 men, 12 women) undergraduates. Each series was presented on a different day, with full counterbalancing of presentation orders. Affective state was measured using (a) orbicularis oculi activity in response to acoustic startle probes during picture presentation, (b) corrugator supercilii activity between and during picture presentation, and (c) changes in self-reports of positive and negative affect. Participants exhibited larger eyeblink reflex magnitudes when viewing negative than when viewing positive pictures. Corrugator activity was also greater during the negative than during the positive picture set, during both picture presentation and the period between pictures. Self-reports of negative affect increased in response to the negative picture set, and self-reports of positive affect were greatest following the positive picture set. These findings suggest that extended picture presentation is an effective method of manipulating affective state and further highlight the utility of startle probe and facial electromyographic measures in providing on-line readouts of affective state.

  11. Data compression with applications to digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elnahas, S.E.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of arithmetic codes is defined in terms of source parsing trees. The theoretical derivations of algorithms for the construction of optimal and sub-optimal structures are presented. The software simulation results demonstrate how arithmetic coding out performs variable-length to variable-length coding. Linear predictive coding is presented for the compression of digital diagnostic images from several imaging modalities including computed tomography, nuclear medicine, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging. The problem of designing optimal predictors is formulated and alternative solutions are discussed. The results indicate that noiseless compression factors between 1.7 and 7.4 can be achieved. With nonlinear predictive coding, noisy and noiseless compression techniques are combined in a novel way that may have a potential impact on picture archiving and communication systems in radiology. Adaptive fast discrete cosine transform coding systems are used as nonlinear block predictors, and optimal delta modulation systems are used as nonlinear sequential predictors. The off-line storage requirements for archiving diagnostic images are reasonably reduced by the nonlinear block predictive coding. The online performance, however, seems to be bounded by that of the linear systems. The subjective quality of image imperfect reproductions from the cosine transform coding is promising and prompts future research on the compression of diagnostic images by transform coding systems and the clinical evaluation of these systems

  12. Trees are good, but…

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson; F. Ferrini

    2010-01-01

    We know that “trees are good,” and most people believe this to be true. But if this is so, why are so many trees neglected, and so many tree wells empty? An individual’s attitude toward trees may result from their firsthand encounters with specific trees. Understanding how attitudes about trees are shaped, particularly aversion to trees, is critical to the business of...

  13. Wigner method dynamics in the interaction picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Klaus Braagaard; Dahl, Jens Peder; Henriksen, Niels Engholm

    1994-01-01

    that the dynamics of the interaction picture Wigner function is solved by running a swarm of trajectories in the classical interaction picture introduced previously in the literature. Solving the Wigner method dynamics of collision processes in the interaction picture ensures that the calculated transition......The possibility of introducing an interaction picture in the semiclassical Wigner method is investigated. This is done with an interaction Picture description of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show that the dynamics of the density operator dynamics as starting point. We show...... probabilities are unambiguous even when the asymptotic potentials are anharmonic. An application of the interaction picture Wigner method to a Morse oscillator interacting with a laser field is presented. The calculated transition probabilities are in good agreement with results obtained by a numerical...

  14. Cost-effectiveness prospects of picture archiving and communication systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindel, R; Preger, W

    1988-01-01

    PAC (picture archiving and communication) systems are widely discussed and promoted as the organizational solution to digital image management in a radiology department. For approximately two decades digital imaging has increasingly been used for such diagnostic modalities as CT, DSA, MRI, DR (Digital Radiography) and others. PACS are seen as a step toward high technology integration and more efficient management. Although the acquisition of such technology is investment intensive, there are well-founded projections that prolonged operation will prove cost justified. Such justification can only partly be derived from cost reduction through PAC with respect to present department management--the major justification is preparation for future economic pressures which could make survival of a department without modern technology difficult. Especially in the United States the political climate favors 'competitive medicine' and reduced government support. Seen in this context PACS promises to speed the transition of Health Care Services into a business with tight resource management, cost accounting and marketing. The following paper analyzes cost and revenue in a typical larger Radiology Department, projects various scenarios of cost reduction by means of digital technology and concludes with cautious optimism that the investment expenses for a PACS will be justified in the near future by prudent utilization of high technology.

  15. What Is A Picture Archiving And Communication System (PACS)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marceau, Carla

    1982-01-01

    A PACS is a digital system for acquiring, storing, moving and displaying picture or image information. It is an alternative to film jackets that has been made possible by recent breakthroughs in computer technology: telecommunications, local area nets and optical disks. The fundamental concept of the digital representation of image information is introduced. It is shown that freeing images from a material representation on film or paper leads to a dramatic increase in flexibility in our use of the images. The ultimate goal of a medical PACS system is a radiology department without film jackets. The inherent nature of digital images and the power of the computer allow instant free "copies" of images to be made and thrown away. These copies can be transmitted to distant sites in seconds, without the "original" ever leaving the archives of the radiology department. The result is a radiology department with much freer access to patient images and greater protection against lost or misplaced image information. Finally, images in digital form can be treated as data for the computer in image processing, which includes enhancement, reconstruction and even computer-aided analysis.

  16. Emotionally Negative Pictures Enhance Gist Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Bookbinder, S. H.; Brainerd, C. J.

    2016-01-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are due to valence and which are due to arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively-valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling reve...

  17. Clinical application of minimizing picture archiving and communication system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Lixin; Zhao Weijiang; Jin Qiongying; Gu Wenxiang; Yuan Quan

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the use of the minimizing picture archiving and communication system (mini-PACS) in practical work and to realize the advent of filmless radiology. Methods: A PC-based ethernet was set up. The medical imaging equipments including CT, MR, digital fluoroscopy, DSA, and a laser camera were combined with the ethernet, and the digital imaging network (DIN) was integrated with the medical diagnostic imaging system (MDIS). In this way, the radiology information system (RIS) was established. Through one of the PC workstations with a double network card, this RIS was connected to the hospital information system (HIS). Results: The mini-PACS has been repeatedly used for more than 2 years. The system in Radiology department has been established and improved. With the present digital imaging system, such functions as the acquiring, storing, transmitting, printing, and browsing of digital images have been put into practice, all in accordance with the manners of the digital imaging communication in medicine 3.0 (DICOM 3.0). Digital imaging and diagnostic reports were managed through Microsoft Access database. Images may be kept on line in different kinds of equipment for 3-6 months. All images have been recorded on CD-R disks, so as to be kept off line permanently. So far, over 32700 reports have been stored in the database. From mini-PACS HIS terminals images and diagnostic information may be acquired on a limited scale. Conclusion: mini-PACS needs only a low cost of investment and operation. Its maintenance is simple and its performance is efficient. The main functions of the PACS can mostly be achieved. There lies a bright prospect for its use in small and medium hospitals

  18. Selected pictures of the month

    CERN Multimedia

    Claudia Marcelloni de Oliveira

    View of a single MDT Big Wheel (on side A in UX15 cavern) taken during its last movement immediately after being assembled and just before being connected to the neighbouring TGC1 wheel. Assembly work on the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Wheel C in building 190. Connecting the services for the Cathode Strip Chambers. The installation of the optical fibers for the readout of the Cathode Strip Chambers on Small Weel C by the Irvine group. Best from our archives: View of the End Cap Calorimeter and TGC big wheel from the Cryostat side A of ATLAS cavern taken on 22 May 2007. The picture above was taken from the platform in the middle, between the Cryostat and the End-Cap. Muriel hopes you all had a great vacation. She herself had a wonderful time sailing in Galicia (North Western Spain). She can be seen here wearing the traditional dress offered to her by "Los Amigos de las Dornas" (Friends of the Dornas -traditional sailing boats used for fishing) - when she became ...

  19. Modular tree automata

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Tree automata are traditionally used to study properties of tree languages and tree transformations. In this paper, we consider tree automata as the basis for modular and extensible recursion schemes. We show, using well-known techniques, how to derive from standard tree automata highly modular...

  20. Simple street tree sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Jeffrey T. Walton; James Baldwin; Jerry. Bond

    2015-01-01

    Information on street trees is critical for management of this important resource. Sampling of street tree populations provides an efficient means to obtain street tree population information. Long-term repeat measures of street tree samples supply additional information on street tree changes and can be used to report damages from catastrophic events. Analyses of...

  1. A generalized approach to computer synthesis of digital holograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, W. A.

    1973-01-01

    Hologram is constructed by taking number of digitized sample points and blending them together to form ''continuous'' picture. New system selects better set of sample points resulting in improved hologram from same amount of information.

  2. Digital radiography in tomography of the facial part of the skull

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibing, H.P.; Vogel, H.; Biebesheimer, V.

    1988-01-01

    In 14 patients the X-ray findings of dental, mandibulary and maxillary roentgen diagnosis were compared with conventional tomography and tomography by digital radiography. All details important for diagnosis were shown by both techniques. Tomography by digital radiography offered a more convenient approach and pictures easier to be interpreted than pictures by conventional tomography. (orig.) [de

  3. Christians in South Africa: The statistical picture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. Christians in South Africa; The statistical picture. Government censuses since 1960 indicate that the religious picture was already largely fixed by the 1950s. Already at that stage some 3 out of 4. South Africans identified themselves as 'Christians'. Since then this percentage grew steadily, mainly because of ...

  4. Picture Books and the Art of Collage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prudhoe, Catherine M.

    2003-01-01

    Explores how teachers can use picture book illustrations to teach children the art of collage. Focuses on three children's picture books and offers art activities showcasing three collage techniques: (1) cut and torn paper collage; (2) photomontage; and (3) texture collages and collage constructions. Relates each activity to the National Standards…

  5. Algorithms for coding scanned halftone pictures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Forchhammer, Morten

    1988-01-01

    A method for coding scanned documents containing halftone pictures, e.g. newspapers and magazines, for transmission purposes is proposed. The halftone screen is estimated and the grey value of each dot is found, thus giving a compact description. At the receiver the picture is rescreened. A novel...

  6. The Picture Superiority Effect and Biological Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Discusses learning behaviors where the "picture superiority effect" (PSE) seems to be most effective in biology education. Also considers research methodology and suggests a new research model which allows a more direct examination of the strategies learners use when matching up picture and text in efforts to "understand"…

  7. Positioning Picture Books within the Mathematics Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kate

    2010-01-01

    Most teachers feel confident espousing the benefits of using picture books in English lessons, talking about the importance of using the illustrations to enhance the text, engaging students and fostering a love and appreciation of literature. How many teachers passionately advocate the use of these same picture books in mathematics lessons? This…

  8. The Untapped Potential of Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, Stephanie

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses the role picture books play in helping young writers. Third-grade students were read engaging picture books for the sole purpose of noticing and naming different features they encountered during the read-alouds. Students were able to recognize the tools many authors and illustrators use such as onomatopoeia, varied font…

  9. Magazine Picture Collage in Group Supervision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepard, Blythe C.; Guenette, Francis L.

    2010-01-01

    A magazine picture collage activity was used with three female counsellor education students as a vehicle to support them in processing their experience as counsellors in training. The use of magazine picture collage in group supervision is described, and the benefits and challenges are presented. The collages served as jumping-off points for…

  10. Gender Stereotypes in Children's Picture Books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narahara, May M.

    Research has examined how gender stereotypes and sexism in picture books affect the development of gender identity in young children, how children's books in the last decade have portrayed gender, and how researchers evaluate picture books for misrepresentations of gender. A review of the research indicated that gender development is a critical…

  11. Picture Books Peek behind Cultural Curtains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marantz, Sylvia; Marantz, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Discusses culture in picture books in three general categories: legends and histories; current life in particular areas; and the immigrant experience. Considers the translation of visual images, discusses authentic interpretations, and presents an annotated bibliography of picture books showing cultural diversity including African, Asian, Mexican,…

  12. City of Pittsburgh Trees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Trees cared for and managed by the City of Pittsburgh Department of Public Works Forestry Division. Tree Benefits are calculated using the National Tree Benefit...

  13. Television system in which digitised picture signals subjected to a transform coding are transmitted from an encoding station to a decoding station

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1987-01-01

    In a television system a digital picture signal is subjected to a transform coding for the purpose of bit rate reduction. In order to detect motion effects between the two fields of a picture, these fields are also examined in a motion detector 8310. If no motion is detected, intraframe transform is

  14. Rapid induction of false memory for pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Yana; Shanks, David R

    2010-07-01

    Recognition of pictures is typically extremely accurate, and it is thus unclear whether the reconstructive nature of memory can yield substantial false recognition of highly individuated stimuli. A procedure for the rapid induction of false memories for distinctive colour photographs is proposed. Participants studied a set of object pictures followed by a list of words naming those objects, but embedded in the list were names of unseen objects. When subsequently shown full colour pictures of these unseen objects, participants consistently claimed that they had seen them, while discriminating with high accuracy between studied pictures and new pictures whose names did not appear in the misleading word list. These false memories can be reported with high confidence as well as the feeling of recollection. This new procedure allows the investigation of factors that influence false memory reports with ecologically valid stimuli and of the similarities and differences between true and false memories.

  15. Digital signal display board design: A knowledge based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaitanya, V. Sree Krishna; Rao, C. Raghavendra

    2007-01-01

    The digital signal display board is assumed to be composed of picture tubes for the purpose of displaying characters. The signal board with the picture tubes constitutes an Information System. A methodology for obtaining the discrimable matrix or table (more decisive attributes) and knowledge reduction for the above information system is proposed

  16. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  17. Methods of digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeler, W.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing use of computerized methods for diagnostical imaging of radiological problems will open up a wide field of applications for digital image processing. The requirements set by routine diagnostics in medical radiology point to picture data storage and documentation and communication as the main points of interest for application of digital image processing. As to the purely radiological problems, the value of digital image processing is to be sought in the improved interpretability of the image information in those cases where the expert's experience and image interpretation by human visual capacities do not suffice. There are many other domains of imaging in medical physics where digital image processing and evaluation is very useful. The paper reviews the various methods available for a variety of problem solutions, and explains the hardware available for the tasks discussed. (orig.) [de

  18. Digital Culture and Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study; digital culture and digital library which have a vital connection with each other are examined together. The content of the research consists of the interaction of culture, information, digital culture, intellectual technologies, and digital library concepts. The study is an entry work to integrity of digital culture and digital library theories and aims to expand the symmetry. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the relation between the digital culture and digital library theories acting intersection of the subjects that are examined. Also the perspective of the study is based on examining the literature and analytical evaluation in both studies (digital culture and digital library. Within this context, the methodology of the study is essentially descriptive and has an attribute for the transmission and synthesis of distributed findings produced in the field of the research. According to the findings of the study results, digital culture is an inclusive term that describes the effects of intellectual technologies in the field of information and communication. Information becomes energy and the spectrum of the information is expanding in the vertical rise through the digital culture. In this context, the digital library appears as a new living space of a new environment. In essence, the digital library is information-oriented; has intellectual technology support and digital platform; is in a digital format; combines information resources and tools in relationship/communication/cooperation by connectedness, and also it is the dynamic face of the digital culture in time and space independence. Resolved with the study is that the digital libraries are active and effective in the formation of global knowing and/or mass wisdom in the process of digital culture.

  19. The Geneva Smoking Pictures: development and preliminary validation.

    OpenAIRE

    Khazaal, Yasser; Zullino, Daniele; Billieux, Joël

    2012-01-01

    Cue reactivity is essential to the maintenance of addictive disorders. A useful way to study cue reactivity is by means of normative pictures, but few validated tobacco-related pictures are available. This study describes a database of smoking-related pictures: The Geneva Smoking Pictures (GSP). Sixty smoking-related pictures were presented to 91 participants who assessed them according to the classic emotional pictures validation provided by the International Affective Picture System (NIMH C...

  20. Preliminary hazard analysis using sequence tree method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Huiwen; Shih Chunkuan; Hung Hungchih; Chen Minghuei; Yih Swu; Lin Jiinming

    2007-01-01

    A system level PHA using sequence tree method was developed to perform Safety Related digital I and C system SSA. The conventional PHA is a brainstorming session among experts on various portions of the system to identify hazards through discussions. However, this conventional PHA is not a systematic technique, the analysis results strongly depend on the experts' subjective opinions. The analysis quality cannot be appropriately controlled. Thereby, this research developed a system level sequence tree based PHA, which can clarify the relationship among the major digital I and C systems. Two major phases are included in this sequence tree based technique. The first phase uses a table to analyze each event in SAR Chapter 15 for a specific safety related I and C system, such as RPS. The second phase uses sequence tree to recognize what I and C systems are involved in the event, how the safety related systems work, and how the backup systems can be activated to mitigate the consequence if the primary safety systems fail. In the sequence tree, the defense-in-depth echelons, including Control echelon, Reactor trip echelon, ESFAS echelon, and Indication and display echelon, are arranged to construct the sequence tree structure. All the related I and C systems, include digital system and the analog back-up systems are allocated in their specific echelon. By this system centric sequence tree based analysis, not only preliminary hazard can be identified systematically, the vulnerability of the nuclear power plant can also be recognized. Therefore, an effective simplified D3 evaluation can be performed as well. (author)

  1. Total filmless digital radiology service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, S.K.; Goeringer, F.; Benson, H.; Horii, S.C.

    1989-01-01

    The completion of a comprehensive picture archiving and communication system (PACS) at Georgetown University Hospital has allowed us to identify a number of technical, administrative, personnel, and operational issues that will affect a total digital radiology service. With a hospital-wide digital imaging network system, computer simulation of communications and storage options, and economic modeling, we have developed a feasibility study and implementation strategy for the smooth transition to a nearly filmless radiology service over the next several years. This paper describes the technical and operational requirements for various database operations, workstations (used in diagnosis, review, and education), and communications. Site and installation planning, personnel training, and transition operations are discussed

  2. Digital communication communication, multimedia, security

    CERN Document Server

    Meinel, Christoph

    2014-01-01

    The authors give a detailed summary about the fundamentals and the historical background of digital communication. This includes an overview of the encoding principles and algorithms of textual information, audio information, as well as images, graphics, and video in the Internet. Furthermore the fundamentals of computer networking, digital security and cryptography are covered. Thus, the book provides a well-founded access to communication technology of computer networks, the internet and the WWW. Numerous pictures and images, a subject-index and a detailed list of historical personalities in

  3. Jurnalistik Foto di Era Digital: Antara Teknologi dan Etika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferry Darmawan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The development of photography technology, which mounted on digital photography, has provided real challenge for traditional photography. Digital photography open up opportunity for photographer to transform and modify pictures taken by digital camera. This challenge also affected journalism photography. Viewed from the side of mass media technology, photography digital seemed to give many benefits for mass media industry. Digital photography beat traditional photography in terms of place and time. But one must keep in mind that journalism deals only with factual matters. A serious discussion over ethical issues concerning the practice of digital photography in journalism was necessary.

  4. Digital mammography; Mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, M.; Torres, R.

    2010-07-01

    Mammography represents one of the most demanding radiographic applications, simultaneously requiring excellent contrast sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. Film/screen is the most widely extended image receptor in mammography due to both its high spatial resolution and contrast. The film/screen limitations are related with its narrow latitude, structural noise and that is at the same time the medium for the image acquisition, storage and presentation. Several digital detector made with different technologies can overcome these difficulties. Here, these technologies as well as their main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. Also it is discussed its impact on the mammography examinations, mainly on the breast screening programs. (Author).

  5. Picture archiving and communications system EFPACS series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirasawa, Teiji; Mukasa, Minoru; Hiramatsu, Jun-ichi

    1989-01-01

    Fuji EFPACS (Effective Fuji PACS) is a picture archiving and communications system which efficiently executes centralized management of quantities of image data produced in a hospital. Main features of this system are high-speed retrieval and display function resulting from high-grade imaging technology. This system also strongly supports picture management for multi-modalities, picture storage, and education. EFPACS-500 and EFPACS-1000 series are available according to a system scale. An optimal system configuration can be obtained in a building-up style. This paper describes the features and performance of the EFPACS. (author)

  6. Tuning down the hedonic brain: Cognitive load reduces neural responses to high-calorie food pictures in the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dillen, Lotte F; van Steenbergen, Henk

    2018-06-01

    The present research examined whether cognitive load modulates the neural processing of appetitive, high-calorie food stimuli. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, participants quickly categorized high-calorie and low-calorie food pictures versus object pictures as edible or inedible while they concurrently performed a digit-span task that varied between low and high cognitive load (memorizing six digits vs. one digit). In line with predictions, the digit-span task engaged the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) when cognitive load was high compared to low. Moreover, exposure to high-calorie compared to low-calorie food pictures led to increased activation in the nucleus accumbens (NAcc), but only when cognitive load was low and not when it was high. In addition, connectivity analyses showed that load altered the functional coupling between NAcc and right DLPFC during presentation of the high-calorie versus low-calorie food pictures. Together, these findings indicate that loading the cognitive system moderates hedonic brain responses to high-calorie food pictures via interactions between NAcc and DLPFC. Our findings are consistent with the putative cognitive nature of food motivation. Implications for future research are discussed.

  7. Implicit emotion regulation in the context of viewing artworks: ERP evidence in response to pleasant and unpleasant pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Dongen, Noah N N; Van Strien, Jan W; Dijkstra, Katinka

    2016-08-01

    Presenting affective pictures as a work of art could change perceivers' judgment and strength in emotional reactions. Aesthetic theory states that perceivers of art emotionally distance themselves, allowing them to appreciate works of art depicting gruesome events. To examine whether implicit emotion regulation is induced by an art context, we assessed whether presenting pleasant and unpleasant IAPS pictures as either "works of art comprising paintings, digital renderings, and photographs of staged scenes" or "photographs depicting real events" modulated perceivers' Late Positive Potentials (LPP) and likability ratings. In line with previous research and aesthetic theory, participants evaluated the IAPS pictures as more likable when they were presented as works of art than when they were presented as photographs. Moreover, participants' late LPP amplitudes (600-900ms post picture onset) in response to the pictures were attenuated in the art context condition. These results provide evidence for an implicit emotion regulation induced by the art context. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  9. Digital squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Kim, Chul E

    1988-01-01

    Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages....... The analysis involves transforming the boundary of a digital region into parameter space of slope and y-intercept...

  10. Digital skrivedidaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Digital skrivedidaktik består af to dele. Første del præsenterer teori om skrivekompetence og digital skrivning. Digital skrivning er karakteriseret ved at tekster skrives på computer og med digitale værktøjer, hvilket ændrer skrivningens traditionelle praksis, produkt og processer. Hvad er digital...... om elevens skriveproces) og Blogskrivning (der styrker eleverne i at bruge blogs i undervisningen)....

  11. Categorizing ideas about trees: a tree of trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisler, Marie; Lecointre, Guillaume

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore whether matrices and MP trees used to produce systematic categories of organisms could be useful to produce categories of ideas in history of science. We study the history of the use of trees in systematics to represent the diversity of life from 1766 to 1991. We apply to those ideas a method inspired from coding homologous parts of organisms. We discretize conceptual parts of ideas, writings and drawings about trees contained in 41 main writings; we detect shared parts among authors and code them into a 91-characters matrix and use a tree representation to show who shares what with whom. In other words, we propose a hierarchical representation of the shared ideas about trees among authors: this produces a "tree of trees." Then, we categorize schools of tree-representations. Classical schools like "cladists" and "pheneticists" are recovered but others are not: "gradists" are separated into two blocks, one of them being called here "grade theoreticians." We propose new interesting categories like the "buffonian school," the "metaphoricians," and those using "strictly genealogical classifications." We consider that networks are not useful to represent shared ideas at the present step of the study. A cladogram is made for showing who is sharing what with whom, but also heterobathmy and homoplasy of characters. The present cladogram is not modelling processes of transmission of ideas about trees, and here it is mostly used to test for proximity of ideas of the same age and for categorization.

  12. Digital Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  13. Urban tree growth modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. Gregory McPherson; Paula J. Peper

    2012-01-01

    This paper describes three long-term tree growth studies conducted to evaluate tree performance because repeated measurements of the same trees produce critical data for growth model calibration and validation. Several empirical and process-based approaches to modeling tree growth are reviewed. Modeling is more advanced in the fields of forestry and...

  14. Keeping trees as assets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Landscape trees have real value and contribute to making livable communities. Making the most of that value requires providing trees with the proper care and attention. As potentially large and long-lived organisms, trees benefit from commitment to regular care that respects the natural tree system. This system captures, transforms, and uses energy to survive, grow,...

  15. Analytical and numerical studies of creation probabilities of hierarchical trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.S. Borysov

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available We consider the creation conditions of diverse hierarchical trees both analytically and numerically. A connection between the probabilities to create hierarchical levels and the probability to associate these levels into a united structure is studied. We argue that a consistent probabilistic picture requires the use of deformed algebra. Our consideration is based on the study of the main types of hierarchical trees, among which both regular and degenerate ones are studied analytically, while the creation probabilities of Fibonacci, scale-free and arbitrary trees are determined numerically.

  16. NIH Abroad: Pictures Are Crowd Pullers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. "Pictures Are Crowd Pullers …" Art, culture, and the Internet combine to intervene against malaria ... Not ripe mangoes. Not witchcraft. The images and words, which speak directly to local beliefs in villages ...

  17. Interframe transform coding of picture data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, N.; Natarajan, T. R.

    1976-01-01

    This semi-tutorial paper describes the process of using orthogonal transforms for the purposes of encoding TV picture data. Results pertaining to a 6:1 data compression experiment using the Walsh-Hadamard transform are included.

  18. Pattern Perception and Pictures for the Blind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa McCarthy

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reviews recent research on perception of tangible pictures in sighted and blind people. Haptic picture naming accuracy is dependent upon familiarity and access to semantic memory, just as in visual recognition. Performance is high when haptic picture recognition tasks do not depend upon semantic memory. Viewpoint matters for the ease or difficulty of interpreting haptic pictures of solid objects. Top views were easiest for sighted and blind persons when geometrical solids had constant crosssections in the vertical axis. The presence or absence of viewpoint effects depends upon the nature of the solids that are represented. Congenitally blind people do not spontaneously produce perspective drawings, but recent data suggests that depictions including linear perspective can be understood after minimal experience. The results suggest that two-dimensional configurations are not necessarily problematic for touch.

  19. The common operational picture as collective sensemaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolbers, J.J.; Boersma, F.K.

    2013-01-01

    The common operational picture is used to overcome coordination and information management problems during emergency response. Increasingly, this approach is incorporated in more advanced information systems. This is rooted in an 'information warehouse' perspective, which implies information can be

  20. The Heisenberg picture for single photon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pienaar, Jacques; Myers, Casey; Ralph, Timothy C.

    2011-01-01

    In the context of quantum field theory, the Heisenberg picture has a distinct advantage over the Schrodinger picture because the Schrodinger picture requires us to transform the vacuum state itself, which can be intractable in the case of non-inertial reference frames, whereas the Heisenberg picture allows us to keep the same vacuum state and only transform the operators. However, the Heisenberg calculation requires the operators to already be expressed as a function of creation and annihilation operators acting on the original vacuum, whereas calculations in quantum information and quantum computation use operators that act on qubit states, necessarily containing particles. The relationship between the operators acting on these states and the operators acting on the vacuum state has remained elusive. We derive such an expression using an explicit model for single-particle production from the vacuum.

  1. Musicality in the Language of Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heald, Robin

    2008-01-01

    The authors of picture books who write especially melodic language are doing more than simply offering up work that is pleasing to the ear. They are accessing more of the whole child. In this article five picture books will be discussed for their musical attributes: "Now One Foot, Now the Other", by Tomie dePaola, "The Cat in the Hat", by Dr.…

  2. Pictorial communication: Pictures and the synthetic universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Stephen R.

    1989-01-01

    Principles for the design of dynamic spatial instruments for communicating quantitative information to viewers are considered through a brief review of the history of pictorial communication. Pictorial communication is seen to have two directions: (1) from the picture to the viewer; and (2) from the viewer to the picture. Optimization of the design of interactive instruments using pictorial formats requires an understanding of the manipulative, perceptual, and cognitive limitations of human viewers.

  3. Digital subtraktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    2004-01-01

    Digital subtraktion er en metode til at fjerne uønskede oplysninger i et røntgenbillede. Subtraktionsteknikken bruges primært i forbindelse med angiografi hvor man kun er interesseret i at se selve karret. Derfor er digital subtraktion i daglig tale synonymt med DSA eller DVI – hhv. Digital...... Subtraction Angiography eller Digital Vascular Imaging. Benævnelserne er to røntgenfirmaers navn for den samme teknik. Digital subtraktion kræver speciel software, samt at apparaturet kan eksponere i serier....

  4. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  5. Examining lateralized semantic access using pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovseth, Kyle; Atchley, Ruth Ann

    2010-03-01

    A divided visual field (DVF) experiment examined the semantic processing strategies employed by the cerebral hemispheres to determine if strategies observed with written word stimuli generalize to other media for communicating semantic information. We employed picture stimuli and vary the degree of semantic relatedness between the picture pairs. Participants made an on-line semantic relatedness judgment in response to sequentially presented pictures. We found that when pictures are presented to the right hemisphere responses are generally more accurate than the left hemisphere for semantic relatedness judgments for picture pairs. Furthermore, consistent with earlier DVF studies employing words, we conclude that the RH is better at accessing or maintaining access to information that has a weak or more remote semantic relationship. We also found evidence of faster access for pictures presented to the LH in the strongly-related condition. Overall, these results are consistent with earlier DVF word studies that argue that the cerebral hemispheres each play an important and separable role during semantic retrieval. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Classification and regression trees

    CERN Document Server

    Breiman, Leo; Olshen, Richard A; Stone, Charles J

    1984-01-01

    The methodology used to construct tree structured rules is the focus of this monograph. Unlike many other statistical procedures, which moved from pencil and paper to calculators, this text's use of trees was unthinkable before computers. Both the practical and theoretical sides have been developed in the authors' study of tree methods. Classification and Regression Trees reflects these two sides, covering the use of trees as a data analysis method, and in a more mathematical framework, proving some of their fundamental properties.

  7. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  8. Incremental picture archiving and communication system (PACS) - an appraisal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagle, K.

    2000-01-01

    Digital storage phosphor radiography is slowly being introduced in Australia with more sites making the conversion from film/screen to computed radiography or a fully integrated Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS). St Vincent's Hospital, Melbourne (SVHM) introduced partial PACS for general radiography in June 1996. This involved networking two Fuji CR Image Plate Readers and an existing Kodak KESPR400 Reader with viewing stations strategically placed in Medical Imaging, Casualty and the Intensive and Coronary Care units. No long-term storage device or archive facility was purchased. This installation coincided with the relocation of the Medical Imaging Department (MID) to a fully equipped new site as well as the introduction of the Kestral Radiology Management System. The transition has involved significant changes to the department's design, workflow and the radiographers' work practices. Copyright (1999) Australian Institute of Radiography

  9. Semantic interference from distractor pictures in single-picture naming: evidence for competitive lexical selection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jescheniak, Jörg D; Matushanskaya, Asya; Mädebach, Andreas; Müller, Matthias M

    2014-10-01

    Picture-naming studies have demonstrated interference from semantic-categorically related distractor words, but not from corresponding distractor pictures, and the lack of generality of the interference effect has been argued to challenge theories viewing lexical selection in speech production as a competitive process. Here, we demonstrate that semantic interference from context pictures does become visible, if sufficient attention is allocated to them. We combined picture naming with a spatial-cuing procedure. When participants' attention was shifted to the distractor, semantically related distractor pictures interfered with the response, as compared with unrelated distractor pictures. This finding supports models conceiving lexical retrieval as competitive (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer, 1999) but is difficult to reconcile with the response exclusion hypothesis (Finkbeiner & Caramazza, 2006b) proposed as an alternative.

  10. Picture Memory Improves with Longer On Time and Off Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tversky, Barbara; Sherman, Tracy

    1975-01-01

    Both recognition and recall of pictures improve as picture presentation time increases and as time between picture increases. This experiment was compared with an earlier one by Shaffer and Shiffrin (1972). (Editor/RK)

  11. Digital Literacy and Subject Matter Learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Levinsen, Karin; Sørensen, Birgitte Holm

    2015-01-01

    It is generally agreed that learners need to acquire digital literacy in order to be able to act as citizens, employees and entrepreneurs in an increasingly digitalized environment. It is also generally agreed that the educational system has to be responsible for educating towards digital literacy....... However, there is no shared conception of the scope and meaning of digital literacy. The overall picture shows two main approaches: The first aims at digital literacy in the sense of Buildung (general education) while the second addresses a wide range of specific skills and competences: From basic...... computer skills over multimodal analysis to social conventions for behavior in online environments. Consequently designs for teaching and learning that aim at learners acquiring digital literacy and the related learning objectives appear as weak defined. According to the Danish Ministry of Education Shared...

  12. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.); Radiografia e processamento de imagens na deteccao de disturbios fisiologicos internos em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-15

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  13. The View from the Trees: Nocturnal Bull Ants, Myrmecia midas, Use the Surrounding Panorama While Descending from Trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freas, Cody A; Wystrach, Antione; Narendra, Ajay; Cheng, Ken

    2018-01-01

    Solitary foraging ants commonly use visual cues from their environment for navigation. Foragers are known to store visual scenes from the surrounding panorama for later guidance to known resources and to return successfully back to the nest. Several ant species travel not only on the ground, but also climb trees to locate resources. The navigational information that guides animals back home during their descent, while their body is perpendicular to the ground, is largely unknown. Here, we investigate in a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia midas , whether foragers travelling down a tree use visual information to return home. These ants establish nests at the base of a tree on which they forage and in addition, they also forage on nearby trees. We collected foragers and placed them on the trunk of the nest tree or a foraging tree in multiple compass directions. Regardless of the displacement location, upon release ants immediately moved to the side of the trunk facing the nest during their descent. When ants were released on non-foraging trees near the nest, displaced foragers again travelled around the tree to the side facing the nest. All the displaced foragers reached the correct side of the tree well before reaching the ground. However, when the terrestrial cues around the tree were blocked, foragers were unable to orient correctly, suggesting that the surrounding panorama is critical to successful orientation on the tree. Through analysis of panoramic pictures, we show that views acquired at the base of the foraging tree nest can provide reliable nest-ward orientation up to 1.75 m above the ground. We discuss, how animals descending from trees compare their current scene to a memorised scene and report on the similarities in visually guided behaviour while navigating on the ground and descending from trees.

  14. The View from the Trees: Nocturnal Bull Ants, Myrmecia midas, Use the Surrounding Panorama While Descending from Trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cody A. Freas

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Solitary foraging ants commonly use visual cues from their environment for navigation. Foragers are known to store visual scenes from the surrounding panorama for later guidance to known resources and to return successfully back to the nest. Several ant species travel not only on the ground, but also climb trees to locate resources. The navigational information that guides animals back home during their descent, while their body is perpendicular to the ground, is largely unknown. Here, we investigate in a nocturnal ant, Myrmecia midas, whether foragers travelling down a tree use visual information to return home. These ants establish nests at the base of a tree on which they forage and in addition, they also forage on nearby trees. We collected foragers and placed them on the trunk of the nest tree or a foraging tree in multiple compass directions. Regardless of the displacement location, upon release ants immediately moved to the side of the trunk facing the nest during their descent. When ants were released on non-foraging trees near the nest, displaced foragers again travelled around the tree to the side facing the nest. All the displaced foragers reached the correct side of the tree well before reaching the ground. However, when the terrestrial cues around the tree were blocked, foragers were unable to orient correctly, suggesting that the surrounding panorama is critical to successful orientation on the tree. Through analysis of panoramic pictures, we show that views acquired at the base of the foraging tree nest can provide reliable nest-ward orientation up to 1.75 m above the ground. We discuss, how animals descending from trees compare their current scene to a memorised scene and report on the similarities in visually guided behaviour while navigating on the ground and descending from trees.

  15. Pictures with narration versus pictures with on-screen text during teaching Mathematics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiotis Ioannou

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of two different teaching methods on students’ comprehension in Mathematics: pictures with concurrent narration versus pictures with on-screen text, during teaching triangles, a lesson in Mathematics. Forty primary school children (boys and girls selected to participate in this study. Students splitted into two experimental groups with the technique of simple random sampling. The first group consisted of students who viewed and listened (pictures with narration group, while the second group consisted of students who viewed (pictures with on-screen text a presentation of triangles. A recall test was used to evaluate students’ comprehension. The results showed that students’ comprehension was better when triangles' presentation (pictures was accompanied with spoken words, than with printed words. The pictures with narration group performed better than the pictures with on-screen text group, in recall test (M = 4.97, SD = 1.32 p<0.01. Results are consistent with the modality principle in which learners are more likely to build connections between corresponding words and pictures when words are presented in a spoken form (narration simultaneously with pictures.

  16. Consideration of vision and picture quality: psychological effects induced by picture sharpness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusaka, Hideo

    1989-08-01

    A psychological hierarchy model of human vision(1)(2) suggests that the visual signals are processed in a serial manner from lower to higher stages: that is "sensation" - "perception" - "emotion." For designing a future television system, it is important to find out what kinds of physical factors affect the "emotion" experienced by an observer in front of the display. This paper describes the psychological effects induced by the sharpness of the picture. The subjective picture quality was evaluated for the same pictures with five different levels of sharpness. The experiment was performed on two kinds of printed pictures: (A) a woman's face, and (B) a town corner. From these experiments, it was found that the amount of high-frequency peaking (physical value of the sharpness) which psychologically gives the best picture quality, differs between pictures (A) and (B). That is, the optimum picture sharpness differs depending on the picture content. From these results, we have concluded that the psychophysical sharpness of the picture is not only determined at the stage of "perception" (e.g., resolution or signal to noise ratio, which everyone can judge immediately), but also at the stage of "emotion" (e.g., sensation of reality or beauty).

  17. Fault tree handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haasl, D.F.; Roberts, N.H.; Vesely, W.E.; Goldberg, F.F.

    1981-01-01

    This handbook describes a methodology for reliability analysis of complex systems such as those which comprise the engineered safety features of nuclear power generating stations. After an initial overview of the available system analysis approaches, the handbook focuses on a description of the deductive method known as fault tree analysis. The following aspects of fault tree analysis are covered: basic concepts for fault tree analysis; basic elements of a fault tree; fault tree construction; probability, statistics, and Boolean algebra for the fault tree analyst; qualitative and quantitative fault tree evaluation techniques; and computer codes for fault tree evaluation. Also discussed are several example problems illustrating the basic concepts of fault tree construction and evaluation

  18. Reliability Analysis Study of Digital Reactor Protection System in Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiao Ming; Liu, Tao; Tong, Jie Juan; Zhao, Jun

    2011-01-01

    The Digital I and C systems are believed to improve a plants safety and reliability generally. The reliability analysis of digital I and C system has become one research hotspot. Traditional fault tree method is one of means to quantify the digital I and C system reliability. Review of advanced nuclear power plant AP1000 digital protection system evaluation makes clear both the fault tree application and analysis process to the digital system reliability. One typical digital protection system special for advanced reactor has been developed, which reliability evaluation is necessary for design demonstration. The typical digital protection system construction is introduced in the paper, and the process of FMEA and fault tree application to the digital protection system reliability evaluation are described. Reliability data and bypass logic modeling are two points giving special attention in the paper. Because the factors about time sequence and feedback not exist in reactor protection system obviously, the dynamic feature of digital system is not discussed

  19. Eliminating "Hotspots" in Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    Signals from defective picture elements rejected. Image processing program for use with charge-coupled device (CCD) or other mosaic imager augmented with algorithm that compensates for common type of electronic defect. Algorithm prevents false interpretation of "hotspots". Used for robotics, image enhancement, image analysis and digital television.

  20. Keeping a (Digital) Eye on Nature's Clock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magney, Troy; Eitel, Karla; Eitel, Jan; Jansen, Vincent; Schon, Jenny; Rittenburg, Rebecca; Vierling, Lee

    2013-01-01

    Many students probably take pictures daily. Whether snapshots of their friends at a Justin Bieber concert or of their latest skateboard trick, these images document changes in a student's life. Digital cameras can do more, however, than record memories to post on Facebook. They can also help students examine changes in their environment. This…

  1. Photography/Digital Imaging: Parallel & Paradoxical Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Mary Stieglitz

    With the introduction of photography and photomechanical printing processes in the 19th century, the first age of machine pictures and reproductions emerged. The 20th century introduced computer image processing systems, creating a digital imaging revolution. Rather than concentrating on the adversarial aspects of the computer's influence on…

  2. There's Life in Hazard Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary Torsello; Toni McLellan

    The goals of hazard tree management programs are to maximize public safety and maintain a healthy sustainable tree resource. Although hazard tree management frequently targets removal of trees or parts of trees that attract wildlife, it can take into account a diversity of tree values. With just a little extra planning, hazard tree management can be highly beneficial...

  3. Valence and Arousal Value of Visual Stimuli and Their Role in the Mitigation of Chronic Pain: What Is the Power of Pictures?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaygan, Maryam; Böger, Andreas; Kröner-Herwig, Birgit

    2017-02-01

    The present study investigated the pain-reducing effects of various pictures in a sample of 88 patients receiving inpatient treatment for chronic pain. We investigated whether the pain-attenuating effects of the pictures were mediated by picture valence, arousal, or change in subjective social support. The study was carried out over 4 consecutive days. Patients were presented with photographs of loved ones, strangers, landscapes, or optical illusions via digital albums and were asked to rate their pain intensity and their sensory and affective experience of pain immediately before and after viewing the pictures. They also evaluated the valence of the pictures and the extent to which they were arousing. Before and after participation in the study, patients provided information on their subjective social support. The valence attributed to the pictures varied; photographs of loved ones elicited the greatest pleasure. Pictures of varying emotional content and arousal value all reduced affective and sensory perceptions of pain. Viewing photographs of loved ones reduced pain intensity more than viewing other picture types. The association between picture type and decrease in pain intensity was mediated by picture valence. These findings suggest an easy to implement supplementary intervention that could be used in multidisciplinary pain treatment. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that pictures mitigate pain in chronic pain patients receiving treatment in a multidisciplinary pain center. The procedure could be used routinely to treat pain, particularly severe pain. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bick, Ulrich; Diekmann, Felix

    2010-01-01

    This state-of-the-art reference book provides in-depth coverage of all aspects of digital mammography, including detector technology, image processing, computer-aided diagnosis, soft-copy reading, digital workflow, and PACS. Specific advantages and disadvantages of digital mammography in comparison to screen-film mammography are thoroughly discussed. By including authors from both North America and Europe, the book is able to outline variations in the use, acceptance, and quality assurance of digital mammography between the different countries and screening programs. Advanced imaging techniques and future developments such as contrast mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis are also covered in detail. All of the chapters are written by internationally recognized experts and contain numerous high-quality illustrations. This book will be of great interest both to clinicians who already use or are transitioning to digital mammography and to basic scientists working in the field. (orig.)

  5. Digital Insights

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    , by incorporating media as both channel, frame, and apparatus for advertising response, the dissertation brings into attention that more aspects than the text-reader relationship influence ad response. Finally, the dissertation proposes the assemblage approach for exploring big data in consumer culture research...... and practices with digital media, when they meet and interpret advertising. Through studies of advertising response on YouTube and experiments with consumers’ response to digitally manipulated images, the dissertation shows how digital media practices facilitate polysemic and socially embedded advertising......This dissertation forwards the theory of digital consumer-response as a perspective to examine how digital media practices influence consumers’ response to advertising. Digital consumer-response is a development of advertising theory that encompasses how consumers employ their knowledge...

  6. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jiong; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2015-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting...... tree is isomorphic to T? We prove that in the general setting, CST is NP-complete, which implies that the tree edit distance considered here is also NP-hard, even when both input trees having diameters bounded by 10. We also show that, when the number of distinct stars is bounded by a constant k, CTS...

  7. Different Loci of Semantic Interference in Picture Naming vs. Word-Picture Matching Tasks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Denise Y; Schnur, Tatiana T

    2016-01-01

    Naming pictures and matching words to pictures belonging to the same semantic category impairs performance relative to when stimuli come from different semantic categories (i.e., semantic interference). Despite similar semantic interference phenomena in both picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, the locus of interference has been attributed to different levels of the language system - lexical in naming and semantic in word-picture matching. Although both tasks involve access to shared semantic representations, the extent to which interference originates and/or has its locus at a shared level remains unclear, as these effects are often investigated in isolation. We manipulated semantic context in cyclical picture naming and word-picture matching tasks, and tested whether factors tapping semantic-level (generalization of interference to novel category items) and lexical-level processes (interactions with lexical frequency) affected the magnitude of interference, while also assessing whether interference occurs at a shared processing level(s) (transfer of interference across tasks). We found that semantic interference in naming was sensitive to both semantic- and lexical-level processes (i.e., larger interference for novel vs. old and low- vs. high-frequency stimuli), consistent with a semantically mediated lexical locus. Interference in word-picture matching exhibited stable interference for old and novel stimuli and did not interact with lexical frequency. Further, interference transferred from word-picture matching to naming. Together, these experiments provide evidence to suggest that semantic interference in both tasks originates at a shared processing stage (presumably at the semantic level), but that it exerts its effect at different loci when naming pictures vs. matching words to pictures.

  8. Digital Signage

    OpenAIRE

    Fischer, Karl Peter

    2011-01-01

    Digital Signage for in-store advertising at gas stations/retail stores in Germany: A field study Digital Signage networks provide a novel means of advertising with the advantage of easily changeable and highly customizable animated content. Despite the potential and increasing use of these media empirical research is scarce. In a field study at 8 gas stations (with integrated convenience stores) we studied the effect of digital signage advertising on sales for different products and servi...

  9. TreeRipper web application: towards a fully automated optical tree recognition software

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hughes Joseph

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Relationships between species, genes and genomes have been printed as trees for over a century. Whilst this may have been the best format for exchanging and sharing phylogenetic hypotheses during the 20th century, the worldwide web now provides faster and automated ways of transferring and sharing phylogenetic knowledge. However, novel software is needed to defrost these published phylogenies for the 21st century. Results TreeRipper is a simple website for the fully-automated recognition of multifurcating phylogenetic trees (http://linnaeus.zoology.gla.ac.uk/~jhughes/treeripper/. The program accepts a range of input image formats (PNG, JPG/JPEG or GIF. The underlying command line c++ program follows a number of cleaning steps to detect lines, remove node labels, patch-up broken lines and corners and detect line edges. The edge contour is then determined to detect the branch length, tip label positions and the topology of the tree. Optical Character Recognition (OCR is used to convert the tip labels into text with the freely available tesseract-ocr software. 32% of images meeting the prerequisites for TreeRipper were successfully recognised, the largest tree had 115 leaves. Conclusions Despite the diversity of ways phylogenies have been illustrated making the design of a fully automated tree recognition software difficult, TreeRipper is a step towards automating the digitization of past phylogenies. We also provide a dataset of 100 tree images and associated tree files for training and/or benchmarking future software. TreeRipper is an open source project licensed under the GNU General Public Licence v3.

  10. Sports Digitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiao, Xiao; Hedman, Jonas; Tan, Felix Ter Chian

    2017-01-01

    evolution, as digital technologies are increasingly entrenched in a wide range of sporting activities and for applications beyond mere performance enhancement. Despite such trends, research on sports digitalization in the IS discipline is surprisingly still nascent. This paper aims at establishing...... a discourse on sports digitalization within the discipline. Toward this, we first provide an understanding of the institutional characteristics of the sports industry, establishing its theoretical importance and relevance in our discipline; second, we reveal the latest trends of digitalization in the sports...

  11. Digital printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobotka, Werner K.

    1997-02-01

    Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.

  12. Functional integration of digital radiologic equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnifili, A.; DiStefano, G.; Salcito, G.; Passariello, R.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a pilot project for the functional integration of digital radiologic equipment. Four different systems (a digital subtraction angiography unit, a DF unit, a computer radiography prototype, and a film digitizer) were connected with a link in an Ethernet LAN.ACR-NEMA standards were used to process the images of the different units in the same way. The central computer manages the long-term optical archive and the film laser printer. Some graphic workstations are connected to the picture archiving and communications system, which allows fast retrieval and processing of the images. Patients; data are acquired through the RIS and stored together with the images

  13. Digital image information systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, C.F.C.; Luetke, B.; Seufert, G.

    1987-01-01

    About 25% of all patient examinations are performed digitally in a today's radiological department. A computerized system is described that supports generation, transport, interpretation and archiving of digital radiological images (Picture Archiving and Communication System PACS). The technical features concerning image communication via local area networks, image storage on magnetic and optical media and digital workstations for image display and manipulation are described. A structured system architecture is introduced. It allows flexible adaption to individual organizations and minimizes the requirements of the communication network. (orig.) [de

  14. AUTOMATIC TREE-CROWN DETECTION IN CHALLENGING SCENARIOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Bulatov

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new procedure for individual tree detection and modeling is presented. The input of this procedure consists of a normalized digital surface model NDSM, and a possibly error-prone classification result. The procedure is modular so that the functionality, the advantages and the disadvantages for every single module will be explained. The most important technical contributions of the paper are: Employing watershed transformation combined with classification results, applying hotspots detectors for identifying treetops in groups of trees, and correcting NDSM by detecting and geometric reconstruction of small anomalies, such as earth walls. Two minor contributions are made up by a detailed literature research on available methods for individual tree detection and estimation of tree-crowns for clearly identified trees in order to reduce arbitrariness by assigning trees to one of the few types in the output model.

  15. Financing a large-scale picture archival and communication system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldszal, Alberto F; Bleshman, Michael H; Bryan, R Nick

    2004-01-01

    An attempt to finance a large-scale multi-hospital picture archival and communication system (PACS) solely based on cost savings from current film operations is reported. A modified Request for Proposal described the technical requirements, PACS architecture, and performance targets. The Request for Proposal was complemented by a set of desired financial goals-the main one being the ability to use film savings to pay for the implementation and operation of the PACS. Financing of the enterprise-wide PACS was completed through an operating lease agreement including all PACS equipment, implementation, service, and support for an 8-year term, much like a complete outsourcing. Equipment refreshes, both hardware and software, are included. Our agreement also linked the management of the digital imaging operation (PACS) and the traditional film printing, shifting the operational risks of continued printing and costs related to implementation delays to the PACS vendor. An additional optimization step provided the elimination of the negative film budget variances in the beginning of the project when PACS costs tend to be higher than film and film-related expenses. An enterprise-wide PACS has been adopted to achieve clinical workflow improvements and cost savings. PACS financing was solely based on film savings, which included the entire digital solution (PACS) and any residual film printing. These goals were achieved with simultaneous elimination of any over-budget scenarios providing a non-negative cash flow in each year of an 8-year term.

  16. Image restorations constrained by a multiply exposed picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breedlove, J.R. Jr.; Kruger, R.P.; Trussell, H.J.; Hunt, B.R.

    1977-01-01

    There are a number of possible industrial and scientific applications of nanosecond cineradiographs. While the technology exists to produce closely spaced pulses of x rays for this application, the quality of the time-resolved radiographs is severely limited. The limitations arise from the necessity of using a fluorescent screen to convert the transmitted x rays to light and then using electro-optical imaging systems to gate and to record the images with conventional high-speed cameras. It has been proposed that in addition to the time-resolved images, a conventional multiply-exposed radiograph be obtained. Simulations are used to demonstrate that the additional information supplied by the multiply-exposed radiograph can be used to improve the quality of digital image restorations of the time-resolved pictures over what could be achieved with the degraded images alone. Because of the need for image registration and rubber sheet transformations, this problem is one which can best be solved on a digital, as opposed to an optical, computer

  17. Digital projection radiography. Technical principles, image properties and potential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, H.P.

    1999-01-01

    The history of development of digital projection radiography as a diagnostic method is presented in a comprehensive survey. The various technical principles are explained in detail and illustrated by means of graphic figures and digital X-ray pictures. A comparative assessment of currently applied radiographic systems is given and the potential clinical applications of the method of digital projection radiography are discussed. (orig./CB) [de

  18. Emotionally negative pictures enhance gist memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bookbinder, S H; Brainerd, C J

    2017-02-01

    In prior work on how true and false memory are influenced by emotion, valence and arousal have often been conflated. Thus, it is difficult to say which specific effects are caused by valence and which are caused by arousal. In the present research, we used a picture-memory paradigm that allowed emotional valence to be manipulated with arousal held constant. Negatively valenced pictures elevated both true and false memory, relative to positive and neutral pictures. Conjoint recognition modeling revealed that negative valence (a) reduced erroneous suppression of true memories and (b) increased the familiarity of the semantic content of both true and false memories. Overall, negative valence impaired the verbatim side of episodic memory but enhanced the gist side, and these effects persisted even after a week-long delay. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  19. Picture This: Young Quechua Children's Reactions to Imported Picture Books in Ayacucho, Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eck, Jennifer Rowse

    2017-01-01

    Practitioners in ECE consider picture books an effective instructional tool in early childhood programming in the developed regions of the world. However, many young children from marginalized populations in the developing world have little to no access to them and thus, the effect that picture books could have upon their emergent literacy…

  20. Mariner Mars 1971 television picture catalog. Volume 2: Sequence design and picture coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koskela, P. E.; Helton, M. R.; Seeley, L. N.; Zawacki, S. J.

    1972-01-01

    A collection of data relating to the Mariner 9 TV picture is presented. The data are arranged to offer speedy identification of what took place during entire science cycles, on individual revolutions, and during individual science links or sequences. Summary tables present the nominal design for each of the major picture-taking cycles, along with the sequences actually taken on each revolution. These tables permit identification at a glance, all TV sequences and the corresponding individual pictures for the first 262 revolutions (primary mission). A list of TV pictures, categorized according to their latitude and longitude, is also provided. Orthographic and/or mercator plots for all pictures, along with pertinent numerical data for their center points are presented. Other tables and plots of interest are also included. This document is based upon data contained in the Supplementary Experiment Data Record (SEDR) files as of 21 August 1972.

  1. Trees and highway safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    To minimize the severity of run-off-road collisions of vehicles with trees, departments of transportation (DOTs) : commonly establish clear zones for trees and other fixed objects. Caltrans clear zone on freeways is 30 feet : minimum (40 feet pref...

  2. Trace of nuclear energy with pictures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This book traces the history of development over nuclear energy with pictures, which contains preface, development history of the world, development history of Korea, nuclear power plant in Kori, nuclear power plant in Wolseong, nuclear power plant in Yeonggwang, nuclear power plant in Uljin, nuclear fuel, using of radiation and radioactive isotope, development of nuclear energy in the world and a Chronological table of nuclear energy. This book is written to record the development history of Korea through pictures of the nuclear power plants in Korea.

  3. Automated Selection Of Pictures In Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorvig, Mark E.; Shelton, Robert O.

    1995-01-01

    Method of automated selection of film or video motion-picture frames for storage or examination developed. Beneficial in situations in which quantity of visual information available exceeds amount stored or examined by humans in reasonable amount of time, and/or necessary to reduce large number of motion-picture frames to few conveying significantly different information in manner intermediate between movie and comic book or storyboard. For example, computerized vision system monitoring industrial process programmed to sound alarm when changes in scene exceed normal limits.

  4. [The changing picture of practicing dentistry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hokwerda, O

    2006-03-01

    Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of praccising does not develop as a matter-of-course since many factors have an effect on dental practice. Effecting factors are: content concerning developments, technological advancements, legislation, government policies, organizational aspects, and typical characteristics of dental practitioners. The changing picture of practising dentistry is connected with uncertainty, proves to be hard to control, and some adjustments occur around practising.

  5. Decision-Tree Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntine, Wray

    1994-01-01

    IND computer program introduces Bayesian and Markov/maximum-likelihood (MML) methods and more-sophisticated methods of searching in growing trees. Produces more-accurate class-probability estimates important in applications like diagnosis. Provides range of features and styles with convenience for casual user, fine-tuning for advanced user or for those interested in research. Consists of four basic kinds of routines: data-manipulation, tree-generation, tree-testing, and tree-display. Written in C language.

  6. The effects of end-of-day picture review and a sensor-based picture capture procedure on autobiographical memory using SenseCam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finley, Jason R; Brewer, William F; Benjamin, Aaron S

    2011-10-01

    Emerging "life-logging" technologies have tremendous potential to augment human autobiographical memory by recording and processing vast amounts of information from an individual's experiences. In this experiment undergraduate participants wore a SenseCam, a small, sensor-equipped digital camera, as they went about their normal daily activities for five consecutive days. Pictures were captured either at fixed intervals or as triggered by SenseCam's sensors. On two of five nights, participants watched an end-of-day review of a random subset of pictures captured that day. Participants were tested with a variety of memory measures at intervals of 1, 3, and 8 weeks. The most fruitful of six measures were recognition rating (on a 1-7 scale) and picture-cued recall length. On these tests, end-of-day review enhanced performance relative to no review, while pictures triggered by SenseCam's sensors showed little difference in performance compared to those taken at fixed time intervals. We discuss the promise of SenseCam as a tool for research and for improving autobiographical memory.

  7. Digital Audiobooks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Have, Iben; Pedersen, Birgitte Stougaard

    Audiobooks are rapidly gaining popularity with widely accessible digital downloading and streaming services. The paper is framing how the digital audiobook expands and changes the target groups for book publications and how it as an everyday activity is creating new reading experiences, places...

  8. Digital TMI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rios, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    Presenting the current status of the Digital TMI project to visiting members of the FAA Command Center. Digital TMI is an effort to store national-level traffic management initiatives in a standards-compliant manner. Work is funded by the FAA.

  9. Minnesota's Forest Trees. Revised.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, William R.; Fuller, Bruce L.

    This bulletin describes 46 of the more common trees found in Minnesota's forests and windbreaks. The bulletin contains two tree keys, a summer key and a winter key, to help the reader identify these trees. Besides the two keys, the bulletin includes an introduction, instructions for key use, illustrations of leaf characteristics and twig…

  10. D2-tree

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Sioutas, Spyros; Pantazos, Kostas

    2015-01-01

    We present a new overlay, called the Deterministic Decentralized tree (D2-tree). The D2-tree compares favorably to other overlays for the following reasons: (a) it provides matching and better complexities, which are deterministic for the supported operations; (b) the management of nodes (peers...

  11. Covering tree with stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Guo, Jian-Ying; Ibragimov, Rashid

    2013-01-01

    We study the tree edit distance problem with edge deletions and edge insertions as edit operations. We reformulate a special case of this problem as Covering Tree with Stars (CTS): given a tree T and a set of stars, can we connect the stars in by adding edges between them such that the resulting ...

  12. Winter Birch Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, Debra; Rounds, Judy

    2011-01-01

    Trees are great inspiration for artists. Many art teachers find themselves inspired and maybe somewhat obsessed with the natural beauty and elegance of the lofty tree, and how it changes through the seasons. One such tree that grows in several regions and always looks magnificent, regardless of the time of year, is the birch. In this article, the…

  13. Total well dominated trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finbow, Arthur; Frendrup, Allan; Vestergaard, Preben D.

    cardinality then G is a total well dominated graph. In this paper we study composition and decomposition of total well dominated trees. By a reversible process we prove that any total well dominated tree can both be reduced to and constructed from a family of three small trees....

  14. Gaze differences in processing pictures with emotional content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of pictures were controlled while emotional valence was manipulated as 3 categories, pleasant, neutral and unpleasant pictures. Two experiments were conducted with an eye-tracker in order to determine to what the participants turn their gaze. Participants were 25 psychology students with normal vision. Every participant saw all pictures in color and same pictures in black/white version. This makes 200 analyzed units for color pictures and 200 for black and white pictures. Every picture was divided into figure and ground. Considering that perception can be influenced by color, edges, luminosity and contrast and since all those factors are collapsed on the pictures in IAPS, we compared color pictures with same black and white pictures. In first eye-tracking IAPS research we analyzed 12 emotional pictures and showed that participants have higher number of fixations for ground on neutral and unpleasant pictures and for figure on pleasant pictures. Second experiment was conducted with 4 sets of emotional complementary pictures (pleasant/unpleasant) which differ only on the content in the figure area and it was shown that participants were more focused on the figure area than on the ground area. Future ERP (event related potential) research with IAPS pictures should take into consideration these findings and to either choose pictures with blank ground or adjust pictures in the way that ground is blank. For the following experiments suggestion is to put emotional content in the figure

  15. Name agreement in picture naming : An ERP study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, Xiaorong; Schafer, Graham; Akyürek, Elkan G.

    Name agreement is the extent to which different people agree on a name for a particular picture. Previous studies have found that it takes longer to name low name agreement pictures than high name agreement pictures. To examine the effect of name agreement in the online process of picture naming, we

  16. Digital displacements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2014-01-01

    In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...... digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co......-service, is a new task in public administration, where street level bureaucrats assist citizens in using the new digital solutions. The paper is based on a case study conducted primarily in a citizen service centre in Copenhagen, Denmark. Based on ethnography the paper gives an empirical account of the ongoing...

  17. Digitized mammograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruneton, J.N.; Balu-Maestro, C.; Rogopoulos, A.; Chauvel, C.; Geoffray, A.

    1988-01-01

    Two observers conducted a blind evaluation of 100 mammography files, including 47 malignant cases. Films were read both before and after image digitization at 50 μm and 100 μm with the FilmDRSII. Digitization permitted better analysis of the normal anatomic structures and moderately improved diagnostic sensitivity. Searches for microcalcifications before and after digitization at 100 μm and 50 μm showed better analysis of anatomic structures after digitization (especially for solitary microcalcifications). The diagnostic benefit, with discovery of clustered microcalcifications, was more limited (one case at 100 μm, nine cases at 50 μm). Recognition of microcalcifications was clearly improved in dense breasts, which can benefit from reinterpretation after digitization at 50 μm rather 100μm

  18. Neural Correlates of Processing Negative and Sexually Arousing Pictures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert; Mullaney, Kellie M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent work has questioned whether the negativity bias is a distinct component of affective picture processing. The current study was designed to determine whether there are different neural correlates of processing positive and negative pictures using event-related brain potentials. The early posterior negativity and late positive potential were greatest in amplitude for erotic pictures. Partial Least Squares analysis revealed one latent variable that distinguished erotic pictures from neutral and positive pictures and another that differentiated negative pictures from neutral and positive pictures. The effects of orienting task on the neural correlates of processing negative and erotic pictures indicate that affective picture processing is sensitive to both stimulus-driven, and attentional or decision processes. The current data, together with other recent findings from our laboratory, lead to the suggestion that there are distinct neural correlates of processing negative and positive stimuli during affective picture processing. PMID:23029071

  19. Picture Communication in Papua New Guinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Bruce L.

    1980-01-01

    Reports the major findings of a study that investigated the effectiveness of using pictures of different art styles (stick figures, faceless outline drawings, detailed black-and-white, detailed black-and-white with watercolor wash, and black-and-white photographs) with 423 new readers in Papua New Guinea. (JD)

  20. Simple picture of the annihilation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotsman, E.; Nussinov, S.

    1980-01-01

    We propose a simple geometrical picture for B-barB annihilations, which is motivated by the electric-flux-tube model and is consistent with the quark-rearrangement model, as well as the nonplanar multiperipheral quark-exchange model. Within its framework we are able to explain all the salient features of the experimental annihilation data

  1. Development of a Rich Picture editor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valente, Andrea; Marchetti, Emanuela

    2010-01-01

    rich picture practice into software proved difficult, therefore, we decided to follow a user-centered approach: design and implement a prototype with basic functionalities, then run a usability test with a few students and professionals. The feedback collected in the test validated our hypothesis circa...

  2. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1974-01-15

    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  3. Behavioral modulation by mutilation pictures in women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira M.G.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies have shown that women are more emotionally expressive than men. It is unclear, however, if women are also more susceptible to the emotional modulation of behavior imposed by an affective stimulus. To investigate this issue, we devised a task in which female subjects performed six sequential trials of visual target detection following the presentation of emotional (mutilation and erotic or neutral pictures (domestic utensils and objects and compared the data obtained in the present study with those described in a previous study with male subjects. The experiment consisted of three blocks of 24 pictures and each block had an approximate duration of 4 min. Our sample consisted of 36 subjects (age range: 18 to 26 years and each subject performed all blocks. Trials following the presentation of mutilation pictures (283 ms had significantly slower reaction times than those following neutral (270 ms pictures. None of the trials in the "pleasant block" (271 ms was significantly different from those in the "neutral block". The increase in reaction time observed in the unpleasant block may be related in part to the activation of motivational systems leading to an avoidance behavior. The interference effect observed in this study was similar to the pattern previously described for men. Thus, although women may be more emotionally expressive, they were not more reactive to aversive stimuli than men, as measured by emotional interference in a simple reaction time task.

  4. Occlusion classifiers for picture rate conversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartels, C.L.L.; Haan, de G.; Rabbani, Majid

    2009-01-01

    Occlusion detection is an essential ingredient in high quality picture rate up-conversion and view interpolation applications. Many integrated approaches to occlusion detection and classification have been proposed, particularly in the stereo literature. However, due to their high complexity and

  5. The Oxford Picture Dictionary. Beginning Workbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Marjorie

    The beginning workbook of the Oxford Picture Dictionary is in full color and offers vocabulary reinforcement activities that correspond page for page with the dictionary. Clear and simple instructions with examples make it suitable for independent use in the classroom or at home. The workbook has up-to-date art and graphics, explaining over 3700…

  6. Thermodynamic picture of the glassy state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, T.M.

    2000-01-01

    A picture for the thermodynamics of the glassy state is introduced. It assumes that one extra parameter, the effective temperature, is needed to describe the glassy state. This explains the classical paradoxes concerning the Ehrenfest relations and the Prigogine-Defay ratio. As a second feature, the

  7. A Bridge between Pictures and Print.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffree, Dorothy

    1981-01-01

    The experiment investigated the feasibility of bridging the gap between the recognition of pictures and the recognition of words in four mentally handicapped adolescents by adapting a modified version of symbol accentuation (in which a printed word looks like the object it represents). (SB)

  8. Aesthetics and Children's Picture-Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leddy, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    Some writers on children's picture-books seem to believe that comfort and reassurance are their most important goals. Yet these books may also provide a context for imaginative adventure, and even for a journey into the dark night of the soul. As Nietzsche would put it, there is a Dionysian as well as an Apollonian element in children's…

  9. Picture Books Stimulate the Learning of Mathematics

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Heuvel-Panhuizen, Marja; van den Boogaard, Sylvia; Doig, Brian

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe our experiences using picture books to provide young children (five- to six-year-olds) with a learning environment where they can explore and extend preliminary notions of mathematics-related concepts, without being taught these concepts explicitly. We gained these experiences in the PICO-ma project, which aimed to…

  10. Constructing Meaning in Interaction through Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugossy, Réka

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study describes and analyses young language learners' spontaneous comments while sharing picture books during EFL sessions. It also explores teachers' responses to learners' comments, and considers reasons teachers may choose to ignore children's talk in their first language (L1). Data were collected from young Hungarian learners…

  11. A picture dictionary of electric glossary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    This book has a lot of explanations on electric glossary with picture, which include basic important glossaries like nuclear, current theory, measuring, electro genesis, power transmission, supply of electric power, a rotary machine, application of electromotive force, electronic engineering, automatic control, electronic calculator, T.V and communication, material of electricity, electrochemistry, traffic, electric work, lighting and electric heater, regulations and standard.

  12. Picture Book Soldiers: Men and Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Christina M.

    2001-01-01

    Examines children's picture books about soldiers and war, including fiction, folktales, and historical fiction, analyzing their implicit and explicit messages about war and the military, and evaluating them for gender stereotyping. Finds that the soldiers conform almost uniformly to an exaggerated male stereotype. Shows different value judgments…

  13. The changing picture of practicing dentistry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hokwerda, O

    2006-01-01

    Originally, dentists were particularly technical and curative practitioners. Nowadays, patient care is brought into focus, directed at maintaining oral health permanently by prevention and necessary curative treatments as a contribution to general health and well-being. The changing picture of

  14. My America in Poetry and Pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pappas, Marjorie L.

    2003-01-01

    Describes a unit that provides opportunities for students to examine the relationship between poetry and pictures as they select published poems, write their own poetry, and take photographs to accompany the poems in an anthology. Describes lesson one on intellectual property and copyright, and lesson two on appreciation. Includes a unit guide and…

  15. Princess Picture Books: Content and Messages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Lourdes P.; Higgins, Brittany E.; Pinkerton, Nick; Couto, Michelle; Mansolillo, Victoria; Weisinger, Nica; Flores, Marci

    2016-01-01

    Because many girls develop their understanding of what it means to be a girl from books about princesses, the researchers coded the messages and content in 58 princess books (picture, fairy tales, and fractured fairy tales). Results indicate that gender stereotypes are present in the books--the princesses were more likely to be nurturing, in…

  16. Semantic category interference in overt picture naming

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maess, B.; Friederici, A.D.; Damian, M.F.; Meyer, A.S.; Levelt, W.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    The study investigated the neuronal basis of the retrieval of words from the mental lexicon. The semantic category interference effect was used to locate lexical retrieval processes in time and space. This effect reflects the finding that, for overt naming, volunteers are slower when naming pictures

  17. The Last Great American Picture Show

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, Thomas; King, Noel; Horwath, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    The Last Great American Picture Show brings together essays by scholars and writers who chart the changing evaluations of the American cinema of the 1970s, sometimes referred to as the decade of the lost generation, but now more and more recognized as the first New Hollywood, without which the

  18. Abelian Higgs mechanism in the Schroedinger picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.K.; Namgung, W.; Soh, K.S.; Yee, J.H.

    1990-01-01

    We have studied symmetry-breaking phenomena in scalar electrodynamics by evaluating the effective potential at one-loop order in the Schroedinger picture. Contributions to the effective potential by the Higgs particle and the transverse and longitudinal components of a photon are compared with other previous works, and they are found to be consistent

  19. 32 CFR 705.8 - Motion pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OFFICIAL RECORDS PUBLIC AFFAIRS REGULATIONS § 705.8 Motion pictures. (a) The rules and procedures given in... Defense (Public Affairs) for clearance for public release. They will be accompained by five copies of the... Assistant Secretary of Defense (Public Affairs). [41 FR 29101, July 15, 1976, as amended at 44 FR 6390, Feb...

  20. Digital Ethics/Going Digital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Bradley

    1996-01-01

    Finds that the recent National Press Photographers Association code of ethics can serve as a model for any photography staff. Discusses how digital imaging is becoming commonplace in classrooms, due to decreasing costs and easier software. Explains digital terminology. Concludes that time saved in the darkroom and at the printer is now spent on…

  1. Spectra of chemical trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balasubramanian, K.

    1982-01-01

    A method is developed for obtaining the spectra of trees of NMR and chemical interests. The characteristic polynomials of branched trees can be obtained in terms of the characteristic polynomials of unbranched trees and branches by pruning the tree at the joints. The unbranched trees can also be broken down further until a tree containing just two vertices is obtained. The effectively reduces the order of the secular determinant of the tree used at the beginning to determinants of orders atmost equal to the number of vertices in the branch containing the largest number of vertices. An illustrative example of a NMR graph is given for which the 22 x 22 secular determinant is reduced to determinants of orders atmost 4 x 4 in just the second step of the algorithm. The tree pruning algorithm can be applied even to trees with no symmetry elements and such a factoring can be achieved. Methods developed here can be elegantly used to find if two trees are cospectral and to construct cospectral trees

  2. Refining discordant gene trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Górecki, Pawel; Eulenstein, Oliver

    2014-01-01

    Evolutionary studies are complicated by discordance between gene trees and the species tree in which they evolved. Dealing with discordant trees often relies on comparison costs between gene and species trees, including the well-established Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs. While these costs have provided credible results for binary rooted gene trees, corresponding cost definitions for non-binary unrooted gene trees, which are frequently occurring in practice, are challenged by biological realism. We propose a natural extension of the well-established costs for comparing unrooted and non-binary gene trees with rooted binary species trees using a binary refinement model. For the duplication cost we describe an efficient algorithm that is based on a linear time reduction and also computes an optimal rooted binary refinement of the given gene tree. Finally, we show that similar reductions lead to solutions for computing the deep coalescence and the Robinson-Foulds costs. Our binary refinement of Robinson-Foulds, gene duplication, and deep coalescence costs for unrooted and non-binary gene trees together with the linear time reductions provided here for computing these costs significantly extends the range of trees that can be incorporated into approaches dealing with discordance.

  3. Positive erotic picture stimuli for emotion research in heterosexual females.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Gitta Anne; Arntz, Arnoud; Domes, Gregor; Reiss, Neele; Siep, Nicolette

    2011-12-30

    In most experimental studies, emotional pictures are widely used as stimulus material. However, there is still a lack of standardization of picture stimuli displaying erotic relationships, despite the association between a number of psychological problems and severe impairments and problems in intimate relationships. The aim of the study was to test a set of erotic stimuli, with the potential to be used in experimental studies, with heterosexual female subjects. Twenty International Affective Picture System (IAPS) pictures and an additional 100 pictures showing romantic but not explicitly sexual scenes and/or attractive single males were selected. All pictures were rated with respect to valence, arousal, and dominance by 41 heterosexual women and compared to pictures with negative, positive, and neutral emotional valence. Erotic IAPS pictures and our additional erotic pictures did not differ in any of the evaluation dimensions. Analyses of variance (ANOVAs) for valence, arousal, and dominance comparing different picture valence categories showed strong effects for category. However, valence was not significantly different between erotic and positive pictures, while arousal and control were not significantly different between positive and neutral pictures. The pictures of our new set are as positive for heterosexual women as highly positive IAPS pictures, but higher in arousal and dominance. The picture set can be used in experimental psychiatric studies requiring high numbers of stimuli per category. Limitations are the restriction of stimuli application to heterosexual females only and to self-report data. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, M.; Dal Soglio, S.; Pittet-Barbier, L.; Ranchoup, Y.; Thony, F.; Ferretti, G.; Robert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Digital projection radiography may replace conventional radiography some day, provided it can meet several requirements: equal or better diagnostic effectiveness of the screen-film systems; reasonable image cost; real improvement in the productivity of the Departments of Imaging. All digital radiographic systems include an X-ray source, an image acquisition and formatting sub-system, a display and manipulation sub-system, and archiving subsystem and a laser editing system, preferably shared by other sources of digital images. Three digitization processes are available: digitization of the radiographic film, digital fluorography and phospholuminescent detectors with memory. The advantages of digital fluoroscopy are appealing: real-time image acquisition, suppression of cassettes; but its disadvantages are far from negligible: it cannot be applied to bedside radiography, the field of examination is limited, and the wide-field spatial resolution is poor. Phospholuminescent detectors with memory have great advantages: they can be used for bedside radiographs and on all the common radiographic systems; spatial resolution is satisfactory; its current disadvantages are considerable. These two systems, have common properties making up the entire philosophy of digital radiology and specific features that must guide our choice according to the application. Digital fluorography is best applied in pediatric radiology. However, evaluation works have showed that it was applicable with sufficient quality to many indications of general radiology in which a fluoroscopic control and fast acquisition of the images are essential; the time gained on the examination may be considerable, as well as the savings on film. Detectors with memory are required for bedside radiographs, in osteoarticular and thoracic radiology, in all cases of traumatic emergency and in the resuscitation and intensive care departments

  5. Becoming digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2015-01-01

    . An ethnographic account of how digital reforms are implemented in practice shows how street-level bureaucrat’s classic tasks such as specialized casework are being reconfigured into educational tasks that promote the idea of “becoming digital”. In the paper, the author argues that the work of “becoming digital....... Originality/value: The study contributes to ethnographic research in public administration by combining two separate subfields, e-government and street-level bureaucracy, to discern recent transformations in public service delivery. In the digital era, tasks, control and equality are distributed in ways...

  6. Digital Humanities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brügger, Niels

    2016-01-01

    , and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting...

  7. Digital Snaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette; Larsen, Jonas

    . Distance as the New Punctum / Mikko Villi -- pt. II. FAMILY ALBUMS IN TRANSITION -- ch. 4. How Digital Technologies Do Family Snaps, Only Better / Gillian Rose -- ch. 5. Friendship Photography: Memory, Mobility and Social Networking / Joanne Garde-Hansen -- ch. 6. Play, Process and Materiality in Japanese...... -- ch. 9. Retouch Yourself: The Pleasures and Politics of Digital Cosmetic Surgery / Tanya Sheehan -- ch. 10. Virtual Selves: Art and Digital Autobiography / Louise Wolthers -- ch. 11. Mobile-Media Photography: New Modes of Engagement / Michael Shanks and Connie Svabo....

  8. Digital electronics

    CERN Document Server

    Morris, John

    2013-01-01

    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th

  9. Digital Leadership

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zupancic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri

    2016-01-01

    Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media....... With this paper we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some important aspects, which may be valuable to look into when developing digital leadership skills....

  10. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zani, M.L.

    2002-01-01

    X-ray radiography is a very common technique used to check the homogeneity of a material or the inside of a mechanical part. Generally the radiation that goes through the material to check, produced an image on a sensitized film. This method requires time because the film needs to be developed, digital radiography has no longer this inconvenient. In digital radiography the film is replaced by digital data and can be processed as any computer file. This new technique is promising but its main inconvenient is that today its resolution is not so good as that of film radiography. (A.C.)

  11. Revisiting the picture-superiority effect in symbolic comparisons: do pictures provide privileged access?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amrhein, Paul C; McDaniel, Mark A; Waddill, Paula

    2002-09-01

    In 4 experiments, symbolic comparisons were investigated to test semantic-memory retrieval accounts espousing processing advantages for picture over word stimuli. In Experiment 1, participants judged pairs of animal names or pictures by responding to questions probing concrete or abstract attributes (texture or size, ferocity or intelligence). Per pair, attributes were salient or nonsalient concerning their prerated relevance to animals being compared. Distance (near or far) between attribute magnitudes was also varied. Pictures did not significantly speed responding relative to words across all other variables. Advantages were found forfar attribute magnitudes (i.e., the distance effect) and salient attributes. The distance effect was much less for salient than nonsalient concrete-attribute comparisons. These results were consistently found in additional experiments with increased statistical power to detect modality effects. Our findings argue against dual-coding and some common-code accounts of conceptual attribute processing, urging reexamination of the assumption that pictures confer privileged access to long-term knowledge.

  12. Get the picture? The effects of iconicity on toddlers' reenactment from picture books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simcock, Gabrielle; DeLoache, Judy

    2006-11-01

    What do toddlers learn from everyday picture-book reading interactions? To date, there has been scant research exploring this question. In this study, the authors adapted a standard imitation procedure to examine 18- to 30-month-olds' ability to learn how to reenact a novel action sequence from a picture book. The results provide evidence that toddlers can imitate specific target actions on novel real-world objects on the basis of a picture-book interaction. Children's imitative performance after the reading interaction varied both as a function of age and the level of iconicity of the pictures in the book. These findings are discussed in terms of children's emerging symbolic capacity and the flexibility of the cognitive representation.

  13. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  14. Digital Relationships

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper......-­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... for the same reasons – that the growing amount of digitized communication “out there” represents data waiting to be sifted, analyzed and decoded. In this paper “Facebook behavior” refers to a particular behavior characterized by presenting your self and representations of selected self in the hope of getting...

  15. Digital Discretion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busch, Peter Andre; Zinner Henriksen, Helle

    2018-01-01

    discretion is suggested to reduce this footprint by influencing or replacing their discretionary practices using ICT. What is less researched is whether digital discretion can cause changes in public policy outcomes, and under what conditions such changes can occur. Using the concept of public service values......This study reviews 44 peer-reviewed articles on digital discretion published in the period from 1998 to January 2017. Street-level bureaucrats have traditionally had a wide ability to exercise discretion stirring debate since they can add their personal footprint on public policies. Digital......, we suggest that digital discretion can strengthen ethical and democratic values but weaken professional and relational values. Furthermore, we conclude that contextual factors such as considerations made by policy makers on the macro-level and the degree of professionalization of street...

  16. Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Picture and Picture Untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Siswa Menulis Karangan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriyanto Heriyanto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Menulis merupakan keterampilan berbahasa yang kompleks, produktif dan ekspresif, karena penulis harus terampil menggunakan grofologi, struktur bahasa dan memiliki pengetahuan bahasa yang memadai, untuk itu perlu dilatih secara teratur dan cermat sejak kelas awal SD. Karangan sebagai salah satu hasil karya menulis, merupakan hasil pekerjaan dari mengarang. Menulis karangan dalam penelitian ini adalah menulis karangan narasi. Salah satu masalah dalam pembelajaran Bahasa Indonesia adalah kesulitan siswa dalam menulis karangan yang baik dan benar, yang juga terjadi pada siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas 1. Pembelajaran menulis karangan dengan menggunakan model kooperatif tipe picture and picture  diharapkan mampu meningkatkan pemahaman siswa dalam hal menulis karangan. Untuk itu, dilakukan penelitian terhadap siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas I Kecamatan Kalianget Kabupaten Sumenep yang berjumlah 33 siswa. Penelitian dengan judul “Penggunaan Model Pembelajaran Kooperatif Tipe Picture and Picture untuk Meningkatkan Kemampuan Siswa Menulis Karangan” ini menggunakan penelitian tindakan kelas sebanyak dua putaran. Setiap putaran terdiri dari tahap rancangan, kegiatan, pengamatan, dan refleksi. Data yang diperoleh berupa nilai hasil LKS dan kuis individu berupa menulis karangan, lembar observasi aktivitas guru dan siswa serta penilaian penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif picture and picture, juga hasil respon siswa. Dari hasil analis menunjukkan bahwa penggunaan model pembelajaran kooperatif tipe picture and picture dapat meningkatkan kemampuan menulis karangan siswa kelas IVA SDN Pinggir Papas 1. Peningkatan ini terjadi pada nilai rata-rata LKS, yaitu dari 55 menjadi 71,6. Adapun hasil karangan individu siswa dari rata-rata 56,7 dengan ketuntasan 55% menjadi 74,5 dengan ketuntasan mencapai 88% atau terjadi peningkatan sebesar 33% dari siklus I.

  17. Image Segmentation Using Minimum Spanning Tree

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, M. P.; Armiati, A.; Alvini, S.

    2018-04-01

    This research aim to segmented the digital image. The process of segmentation is to separate the object from the background. So the main object can be processed for the other purposes. Along with the development of technology in digital image processing application, the segmentation process becomes increasingly necessary. The segmented image which is the result of the segmentation process should accurate due to the next process need the interpretation of the information on the image. This article discussed the application of minimum spanning tree on graph in segmentation process of digital image. This method is able to separate an object from the background and the image will change to be the binary images. In this case, the object that being the focus is set in white, while the background is black or otherwise.

  18. Section-Based Tree Species Identification Using Airborne LIDAR Point Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C.; Zhang, X.; Liu, H.

    2017-09-01

    The application of LiDAR data in forestry initially focused on mapping forest community, particularly and primarily intended for largescale forest management and planning. Then with the smaller footprint and higher sampling density LiDAR data available, detecting individual tree overstory, estimating crowns parameters and identifying tree species are demonstrated practicable. This paper proposes a section-based protocol of tree species identification taking palm tree as an example. Section-based method is to detect objects through certain profile among different direction, basically along X-axis or Y-axis. And this method improve the utilization of spatial information to generate accurate results. Firstly, separate the tree points from manmade-object points by decision-tree-based rules, and create Crown Height Mode (CHM) by subtracting the Digital Terrain Model (DTM) from the digital surface model (DSM). Then calculate and extract key points to locate individual trees, thus estimate specific tree parameters related to species information, such as crown height, crown radius, and cross point etc. Finally, with parameters we are able to identify certain tree species. Comparing to species information measured on ground, the portion correctly identified trees on all plots could reach up to 90.65 %. The identification result in this research demonstrate the ability to distinguish palm tree using LiDAR point cloud. Furthermore, with more prior knowledge, section-based method enable the process to classify trees into different classes.

  19. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    OpenAIRE

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and...

  20. Enhancement of blurred pictures by spatial filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolton, W.P.; Redman, J.D.

    Substantial improvement in the intelligibility of defocussed pictures has been demonstrated using coherent optical processing. Correction for penumbra effects, such as arise in radiography, has been demonstrated at optical wavelengths. Compensation for a Gaussian spread function, such as might occur in radiography via a salt screen, has also been demonstrated. A simulation has shown that much greater enhancement could be expected if improved phase filters could be made

  1. Superconformal ghost correlators and picture changing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonini, M.; Iengo, R.; Nunez, C.

    1988-12-01

    We compute the correlation functions for the system of superconformal ghosts β, γ(λ=3/2), including the corresponding spin fields, on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. Using fermionization, defined as a change of variables in the functional integration, we derive and generalize previous results obtained by bosonization. As an application we study the picture changing mechanism in the Ramond sector of the superstring. (author). 11 refs

  2. Digital Collections, Digital Libraries & the Digitization of Cultural Heritage Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, Clifford

    2002-01-01

    Discusses digital collections and digital libraries. Topics include broadband availability; digital rights protection; content, both non-profit and commercial; digitization of cultural content; sustainability; metadata harvesting protocol; infrastructure; authorship; linking multiple resources; data mining; digitization of reference works;…

  3. Cut and paste pictures in surrealism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todić Milanka

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Proceeding from the idea of the readymade, Marko Ristić’s, Vane Bor’s and Dušan Matić’s collages regroup readymade pictorial and textual matrices according to the rules of free associative syntax. Everything that they collected cut out and pasted bears the hallmark of personal choice, i.e. objective chance, as the Surrealists would say. In the new structure of the collage, picture and text were of equal importance. However, we should not forget that both picture and text were only fragments, of different origin so that they could not function as autonomous elements in their own right nor could they establish logical interlinks. Cut and paste picture in Surrealism are primarily registered as visual wholes, in which the former principle of harmony has been substituted by the principle of discontinuity. In fact, they do not aspire to establish closed and unambiguous semantic structures either on a single paper or within a cycle, disregarding as they do conventional narrative and illustrative order in representing reality.

  4. EnviroAtlas - Sum of population near roads without tree buffer for the conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset is a summary of total population near major roads without any tree buffer within 12-digit Hydrologic Units (HUC_12), based on the National...

  5. EnviroAtlas - Below Ground Live Tree Biomass Carbon Storage for the Conterminous United States- Forested

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset includes the average below ground live tree root dry biomass estimate for the Watershed Boundary Dataset (WBD) 12-digit Hydrologic Unit...

  6. Analysis of book colections Great picture book for preschoolers

    OpenAIRE

    Cunk, Tina

    2013-01-01

    Thesis entitled ˝Analysis of book collections Great picture book for preschoolers˝ is based on theoretical approach and empirical study. In the theoretical part I focused on the development of youth literature and the definition of the latter, furthermore I described Great picture book and definition of picture book, I presented four versions of picture books in the Slovenian area, described types of picture books and wrote translation of Maria Nikolaeva´s picture book and her point of view...

  7. Where and how morphologically complex words interplay with naming pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwitserlood, Pienie; Bölte, Jens; Dohmes, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Two picture-word experiments are reported in which a delay of 7 to 10 was introduced between distractor and picture. Distractor words were either derived words (Experiment 1) or compounds (Experiment 2), morphologically related to the picture name. In both experiments, the position of morphological overlap between distractor (e.g., rosebud vs tea-rose) and picture name (rose) was manipulated. Clear facilitation of picture naming latencies was obtained when pictures were paired with morphological distractors, and effects were independent of distractor type and position of overlap. The results are evaluated against "full listing" and "decomposition" approaches of morphological representation. Copyright 2002 Elsevier Science (USA).

  8. Digital data collection in forest dynamics plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Inman-Narahari; Christian Giardina; Rebecca Ostertag; Susan Cordell; Lawren Sack

    2010-01-01

    Summary 1. Computers are widely used in all aspects of research but their application to in-field data collection for forest plots has rarely been evaluated. 2. We developed digital data collection methods using ESRI mapping software and ruggedized field computers to map and measure ~30 000 trees in two 4-ha forest dynamics plots in wet and dry...

  9. The valuative tree

    CERN Document Server

    Favre, Charles

    2004-01-01

    This volume is devoted to a beautiful object, called the valuative tree and designed as a powerful tool for the study of singularities in two complex dimensions. Its intricate yet manageable structure can be analyzed by both algebraic and geometric means. Many types of singularities, including those of curves, ideals, and plurisubharmonic functions, can be encoded in terms of positive measures on the valuative tree. The construction of these measures uses a natural tree Laplace operator of independent interest.

  10. digital natives and digital immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Cardina, Bruno; Francisco, Jerónimo; Reis, Pedro; trad. Silva, Fátima

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the generational gaps in school learning. Initially, we have tried to provide the framework in relation to the term digital native in order to understand the key aspects of the generation born after the advent and the global use of the Internet. They were found to be “multitasking” people, linked to technology and connectivity, as opposed to digital immigrants, born in an earlier period and seeking to adapt to the technological world. We also present some r...

  11. Coded Splitting Tree Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jesper Hemming; Stefanovic, Cedomir; Popovski, Petar

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a novel approach to multiple access control called coded splitting tree protocol. The approach builds on the known tree splitting protocols, code structure and successive interference cancellation (SIC). Several instances of the tree splitting protocol are initiated, each...... instance is terminated prematurely and subsequently iterated. The combined set of leaves from all the tree instances can then be viewed as a graph code, which is decodable using belief propagation. The main design problem is determining the order of splitting, which enables successful decoding as early...

  12. Morocco - Fruit Tree Productivity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — Date Tree Irrigation Project: The specific objectives of this evaluation are threefold: - Performance evaluation of project activities, like the mid-term evaluation,...

  13. Digital evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukić Tatjana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although computer makes human activities faster and easier, innovating and creating new forms of work and other kinds of activities, it also influenced the criminal activity. The development of information technology directly affects the development of computer forensics without which, it can not even imagine the discovering and proving the computer offences and apprehending the perpetrator. Information technology and computer forensic allows us to detect and prove the crimes committed by computer and capture the perpetrators. Computer forensics is a type of forensics which can be defined as a process of collecting, preserving, analyzing and presenting digital evidence in court proceedings. Bearing in mind, that combat against crime, in which computers appear as an asset or object of the offense, requires knowledge of digital evidence as well as specific rules and procedures, the author in this article specifically addresses the issues of digital evidence, forensic (computer investigation, specific rules and procedures for detecting, fixing and collecting digital evidence and use of this type of evidence in criminal proceedings. The author also delas with international standards regarding digital evidence and cyber-space investigation.

  14. Digital watermark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Maver

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to different criteria. A digital watermark can be categorised as visible or invisible and as robust or fragile. In contrast to the visible watermark where a visible pattern or image is embedded into the original image, the invisible watermark does not change the visual appearance of the image. The existence of such a watermark can be determined only through a watermark ex¬traction or detection algorithm. The robust watermark is used for copyright protection, while the fragile watermark is designed for authentication and integrity verification of multimedia content. A watermark must be detectable or extractable to be useful. In some watermarking schemes, a watermark can be extracted in its exact form, in other cases, we can detect only whether a specific given watermarking signal is present in an image. Digital libraries, through which cultural institutions will make multimedia contents available, should support a wide range of service models for intellectual property protection, where digital watermarking may play an important role.

  15. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č.

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism. PMID:28197113

  16. What Is Seen Is Who You Are: Are Cues in Selfie Pictures Related to Personality Characteristics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musil, Bojan; Preglej, Andrej; Ropert, Tadevž; Klasinc, Lucia; Babič, Nenad Č

    2017-01-01

    Developments and innovation in the areas of mobile information technology, digital media and social networks foster new reflections on computer-mediated communication research, especially in the field of self-presentation. In this context, the selfie as a self-portrait photo is interesting, because as a meaningful gesture, it actively and directly relates the content of the photo to the author of the picture. From the perspective of the selfie as an image and the impression it forms, in the first part of the research we explored the distinctive characteristics of selfie pictures; moreover, from the perspective of the potential reflection of a selfie image on the personality of its author, in the second part we related the characteristics of selfie pictures to various personality constructs (e.g., Big Five personality traits narcissism and femininity-masculinity). Important aspects of selfies especially in relation to gender include the tilt of the head, the side of the face exhibited, mood and head position, later related also to the context of the selfie picture. We found no significant relations between selfie cues and personality constructs. The face-ism index was related to entitlement, and selfie availability to neuroticism.

  17. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deepak, Akshay; Fernández-Baca, David

    2014-01-01

    A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees.

  18. Enumerating all maximal frequent subtrees in collections of phylogenetic trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background A common problem in phylogenetic analysis is to identify frequent patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees. The goal is, roughly, to find a subset of the species (taxa) on which all or some significant subset of the trees agree. One popular method to do so is through maximum agreement subtrees (MASTs). MASTs are also used, among other things, as a metric for comparing phylogenetic trees, computing congruence indices and to identify horizontal gene transfer events. Results We give algorithms and experimental results for two approaches to identify common patterns in a collection of phylogenetic trees, one based on agreement subtrees, called maximal agreement subtrees, the other on frequent subtrees, called maximal frequent subtrees. These approaches can return subtrees on larger sets of taxa than MASTs, and can reveal new common phylogenetic relationships not present in either MASTs or the majority rule tree (a popular consensus method). Our current implementation is available on the web at https://code.google.com/p/mfst-miner/. Conclusions Our computational results confirm that maximal agreement subtrees and all maximal frequent subtrees can reveal a more complete phylogenetic picture of the common patterns in collections of phylogenetic trees than maximum agreement subtrees; they are also often more resolved than the majority rule tree. Further, our experiments show that enumerating maximal frequent subtrees is considerably more practical than enumerating ordinary (not necessarily maximal) frequent subtrees. PMID:25061474

  19. Advertising presence on the visual configuration of the digital press

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belinda de Frutos Torres

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Visual strength is responsible for one of the mayor changes undergone by the digital press with Internet explosion and the increase of the Informational and Communicational Technologies. The present study analyzes the structure the digital press has taken and the role of the digital advertisement in the composition of their textual and iconic elements. The paper quantifies the picture representations volume and compares their presence on the digital natives papers with those coming from the traditional paper support. The results reveal that there is a mayor contribution of adverts on the native on-line press compare to the on-line paper arriving from the traditional media decreasing the information volume. At the same time the visual volume is boosted on the former compare to the digital media with a paper support. Altogether it can be said that visual component prompted the digital papers first page, being this effect enhanced on the native digital papers.

  20. Are trees long-lived?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Trees and tree care can capture the best of people's motivations and intentions. Trees are living memorials that help communities heal at sites of national tragedy, such as Oklahoma City and the World Trade Center. We mark the places of important historical events by the trees that grew nearby even if the original tree, such as the Charter Oak in Connecticut or...

  1. Digital Creativity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson Brooks, Eva; Brooks, Anthony Lewis

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from children’s play with technology in early childhood learning practices. The paper addresses questions related to how digital technology can foster creativity in early childhood learning environments. It consists of an analysis of children......’s interaction with the KidSmart furniture focusing on digital creativity potentials and play values suggested by the technology. The study applied a qualitative approach and included125 children (aged three to five), 10 pedagogues, and two librarians. The results suggests that educators should sensitively...... consider intervening when children are interacting with technology, and rather put emphasize into the integration of the technology into the environment and to the curriculum in order to shape playful structures for children’s digital creativity....

  2. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rath, M.; Lissner, J.; Rienmueller, R.; Haendle, J.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen

    1984-01-01

    Using a prototype of an electronic, universal examination unit equipped with a special X-ray TV installation, spotfilm exposures and digital angiographies with high spatial resolution and wide-range contrast could be made in the clinic for the first time. With transvenous contrast medium injection, the clinical results of digital angiography show excellent image quality in the region of the carotids and renal arteries as well as the arteries of the extremities. The electronic series exposures have an image quality almost comparable to the quality obtained with cutfilm changers in conventional angiography. There are certain limitations due to the input field of 25 cm X-ray image intensified used. In respect of the digital angiography imaging technique, the electronic universal unit is fully suitable for clinical application. (orig.) [de

  3. Two aspects of high energy physics. Methods for extended Higgs models and constraints on the colour dipole picture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manteuffel, Andreas von

    2008-07-17

    Theories with extended Higgs sectors such as Two-Higgs-Doublet Models (THDMs) or the Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM) allow for rich CP phenomena and involved Higgs-potential structures. Employing a gauge invariant formulation for the tree-level Higgs potential of the general THDM, we derive compact criteria for its stability, electroweak symmetry breaking, and generalised CP properties in a clear geometrical language. A new type of CP symmetry is shown to impose strong restrictions on the Lagrangian and to require at least two fermion generations for non-trivial Yukawa terms. Large regions of the NMSSM parameter space are excluded due to an instable vacuum. We present a rigorous determination of the global minimum of the tree-level potential via Groebner bases. In a second part, we investigate the colour dipole picture. This model of high energy photonproton scattering permits a very successful description of available HERA data. Nevertheless, its range of applicability is limited. We derive general bounds on ratios of deep-inelastic proton structure functions within the colour dipole picture, following exclusively from its framework and photon wave function properties. Confronting these bounds with HERA data we can further restrict the range of applicability of the colour dipole picture. Finally, we calculate Ioffe times for a specific model and find them to be too small to justify the dipole picture at large photon virtualities. (orig.)

  4. Deprivation selectively modulates brain potentials to food pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Stockburger, Jessica; Weike, Almut I.; Hamm, Alfons O.; Schupp, Harald Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to examine whether the processing of food pictures is selectively modulated by changes in the motivational state of the observer. Sixteen healthy male volunteers were tested twice 1 week apart, either after 24 hr of food deprivation or after normal food intake. ERPs were measured while participants viewed appetitive food pictures as well as standard emotional and neutral control pictures. Results show that the ERPs to food pictures in a hungry, ...

  5. Silent Pictures. The Reinvention of the Slideshow as Photographic Formula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Concha Casajús Quirós

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Throughout the past decades and especially since digitization, the Diaporama (slide show has multiplied its presence. It appears in television news programmes, in documentaries, in cinema itself, in exhibition halls and museums, in video-art contests, in instalations, and in theatrical and musical shows. For the “civilization of entertainment” it has become a useful and indispensable tool at the service of information, communication, science and technology, and expansion of culture and art. Multimedia programmes have opened the possibility for ‘anyone who can use a computer’ to become a producer of diaporamas (slide shows. Diaporamas can be very simple or very complex and of variable quality. Quantity can exclude creativity whilst stimulating the diaporama’s evolution and development. It is important to consider the traits that make up the diaporama’s identity, how these differ from the kinetic picture, in which ways they contribute to the static image and the world of art. It is also worthwhile finding out their meaning, validity, why they are so powerful and their relation to the world of creation.

  6. Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) in clinical practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carreno Pedemonte, J.C.; Piqueras Pardellans, J.; Lucaya Layret, J.

    1994-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) were developed as a technological response to the complex management of the growing amount of information generated by the different diagnostic imaging methods. This article documents the process of the progressive implementation, starting in January 1991, of the first complete PACS installed in our country. The system installed in our center is composed of acquisition modules for all the imaging methods (computed radiography, ultrasound, computed tomography, digital fluoroscopy and magnetic resonance), a central processing unit, an automatic optical disk for storage and a network of image viewing and diagnostic stations. The preliminary results obtained with its implementation demonstrate that PACS provide a series of functional advantages, especially at the image storage and display levels. In spite of these conveniences, the present high costs of acquisition and maintenance, together with certain technical problems as a result of its complexity, will signify that its generalized application for all imaging methods will not become a reality at most centers in the near future

  7. A collaborative archaeological research and conservation project for Moriori carved trees (rakau momori), Rekohu (Chatham Island)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barber, I.; Maxwell, J.

    2011-01-01

    In January-February 2010 a conservation and site-recording project began on Rekohu (Chatham Island) to locate, assess and digitally scan archaeological carved trees known as rakau momori ('dendroglyphs'). This paper briefly considers earlier work on carved trees before reporting preliminary and anticipated outcomes from our recent collaborative rakau momori archaeological project. 14 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Digital photogrammetry

    CERN Document Server

    Egels, Yves

    2003-01-01

    Photogrammetry is the use of photography for surveying primarily and is used for the production of maps from aerial photographs. Along with remote sensing, it represents the primary means of generating data for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). As technology develops, it is becoming easier to gain access to it. The cost of digital photogrammetric workstations are falling quickly and these new tools are therefore becoming accessible to more and more users. Digital Photogrammetry is particularly useful as a text for graduate students in geomantic and is also suitable for people with a good basic scientific knowledge who need to understand photogrammetry, and who wish to use the book as a reference.

  9. Digital Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Jerry Wind; Vijay Mahajan

    2002-01-01

    The digital revolution has shaken marketing to its core with consumers being offered greater price transparency and often even the chance to dictate the price. What does pricing mean in a world in which customers propose their own prices (as at priceline.com) or buyers and sellers haggle independently in auctions (as at e-Bay)? The most significant changes in the digital marketing show the emergence of 'cyber consumers', the cyber business-to-business world and the changing reality of an incr...

  10. Digital "X"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baiyere, Abayomi; Grover, Varun; Gupta, Alok

    2017-01-01

    Interest in using digital before existing research concepts seem to be on the rise in the IS field. This panel is positioned to explore what value lies in labelling our research as digital “x” as opposed to the well established IT “x” (where “x” can be strategy, infrastructure, innovation, artifa...... between this stream of research and existing research. Central among the expected output of the panel is the advancement of suggestions for future research and the critical pitfalls to avoid in doing so....

  11. Digital Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-01-01

    System One, a digital radiography system, incorporates a reusable image medium (RIM) which retains an image. No film is needed; the RIM is read with a laser scanner, and the information is used to produce a digital image on an image processor. The image is stored on an optical disc. System allows the radiologist to "dial away" unwanted images to compare views on three screens. It is compatible with existing equipment and cost efficient. It was commercialized by a Stanford researcher from energy selective technology developed under a NASA grant.

  12. Digital filters

    CERN Document Server

    Hamming, Richard W

    1997-01-01

    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  13. Digital voltmeter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yohannes Kamadi; Soekarno.

    1976-01-01

    The electrical voltage measuring equipment with digital display has been made. This equipment uses four digits display with single polarity measurement and integrating system. Pulses from the oscillator will be counted and converted to the staircase voltages, and compared to the voltage measured. When the balance is already achieved, the pulse will appear at the comparator circuit. This pulse will be used to trigger univibrator circuit. The univibrator output is used as signal for stopping the counting, and when reading time T already stops, the counting system will be reset. (authors)

  14. Digital communication

    CERN Document Server

    Das, Apurba

    2010-01-01

    ""Digital Communications"" presents the theory and application of the philosophy of Digital Communication systems in a unique but lucid form. This book inserts equal importance to the theory and application aspect of the subject whereby the authors selected a wide class of problems. The Salient features of the book are: the foundation of Fourier series, Transform and wavelets are introduces in a unique way but in lucid language; the application area is rich and resemblance to the present trend of research, as we are attached with those areas professionally; a CD is included which contains code

  15. Digital literacies

    CERN Document Server

    Hockly, Nicky; Pegrum, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Dramatic shifts in our communication landscape have made it crucial for language teaching to go beyond print literacy and encompass the digital literacies which are increasingly central to learners' personal, social, educational and professional lives. By situating these digital literacies within a clear theoretical framework, this book provides educators and students alike with not just the background for a deeper understanding of these key 21st-century skills, but also the rationale for integrating these skills into classroom practice. This is the first methodology book to address not jus

  16. A High Percentage of Beef Bull Pictures in Semen Catalogues Have Feet and Lower Legs that Are Not Visible

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy K. Franks

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1379 beef bull pictures were surveyed to determine visibility of feet and legs from four American semen company websites. Five different breeds were represented: Angus, Red Angus, Hereford (polled and horned, Simmental, and Charolais. In addition to visibility, data on other variables were collected to establish frequencies and correlations. These included breed, color, material that obscured visibility, such as grass, picture taken at livestock show or outside, semen company, photographer, video, and age of bull. A foot and leg visibility score was given to each bull picture. Only 19.4% of the pictures had fully visible feet and legs. Both the hooves and dewclaws were hidden on 32.5% of the pictures. Correlation between bull’s birthdate and the first four visibility scores was statistically significant (P < 0.0001. As age increased the feet and legs were more likely to be visible in the bull’s picture. This may possibly be due to greater availability of both photo editing software and digital photography. One positive finding was that 6% of the bulls had a video of the bull walking which completely showed his feet and legs.

  17. Fragmentation of random trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalay, Z; Ben-Naim, E

    2015-01-01

    We study fragmentation of a random recursive tree into a forest by repeated removal of nodes. The initial tree consists of N nodes and it is generated by sequential addition of nodes with each new node attaching to a randomly-selected existing node. As nodes are removed from the tree, one at a time, the tree dissolves into an ensemble of separate trees, namely, a forest. We study statistical properties of trees and nodes in this heterogeneous forest, and find that the fraction of remaining nodes m characterizes the system in the limit N→∞. We obtain analytically the size density ϕ s of trees of size s. The size density has power-law tail ϕ s ∼s −α with exponent α=1+(1/m). Therefore, the tail becomes steeper as further nodes are removed, and the fragmentation process is unusual in that exponent α increases continuously with time. We also extend our analysis to the case where nodes are added as well as removed, and obtain the asymptotic size density for growing trees. (paper)

  18. The tree BVOC index

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.R. Simpson; E.G. McPherson

    2011-01-01

    Urban trees can produce a number of benefits, among them improved air quality. Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted by some species are ozone precursors. Modifying future tree planting to favor lower-emitting species can reduce these emissions and aid air management districts in meeting federally mandated emissions reductions for these compounds. Changes...

  19. Tree growth visualization

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. Linsen; B.J. Karis; E.G. McPherson; B. Hamann

    2005-01-01

    In computer graphics, models describing the fractal branching structure of trees typically exploit the modularity of tree structures. The models are based on local production rules, which are applied iteratively and simultaneously to create a complex branching system. The objective is to generate three-dimensional scenes of often many realistic- looking and non-...

  20. Fault tree graphics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bass, L.; Wynholds, H.W.; Porterfield, W.R.

    1975-01-01

    Described is an operational system that enables the user, through an intelligent graphics terminal, to construct, modify, analyze, and store fault trees. With this system, complex engineering designs can be analyzed. This paper discusses the system and its capabilities. Included is a brief discussion of fault tree analysis, which represents an aspect of reliability and safety modeling

  1. Tree biology and dendrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith; Walter C. Shortle

    1996-01-01

    Dendrochemistry, the interpretation of elemental analysis of dated tree rings, can provide a temporal record of environmental change. Using the dendrochemical record requires an understanding of tree biology. In this review, we pose four questions concerning assumptions that underlie recent dendrochemical research: 1) Does the chemical composition of the wood directly...

  2. Individual tree control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey A. Holt

    1989-01-01

    Controlling individual unwanted trees in forest stands is a readily accepted method for improving the value of future harvests. The practice is especially important in mixed hardwood forests where species differ considerably in value and within species individual trees differ in quality. Individual stem control is a mechanical or chemical weeding operation that...

  3. Trees and Climate Change

    OpenAIRE

    Dettenmaier, Megan; Kuhns, Michael; Unger, Bethany; McAvoy, Darren

    2017-01-01

    This fact sheet describes the complex relationship between forests and climate change based on current research. It explains ways that trees can mitigate some of the risks associated with climate change. It details the impacts that forests are having on the changing climate and discuss specific ways that trees can be used to reduce or counter carbon emissions directly and indirectly.

  4. Structural Equation Model Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandmaier, Andreas M.; von Oertzen, Timo; McArdle, John J.; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2013-01-01

    In the behavioral and social sciences, structural equation models (SEMs) have become widely accepted as a modeling tool for the relation between latent and observed variables. SEMs can be seen as a unification of several multivariate analysis techniques. SEM Trees combine the strengths of SEMs and the decision tree paradigm by building tree…

  5. Matching Subsequences in Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bille, Philip; Gørtz, Inge Li

    2009-01-01

    Given two rooted, labeled trees P and T the tree path subsequence problem is to determine which paths in P are subsequences of which paths in T. Here a path begins at the root and ends at a leaf. In this paper we propose this problem as a useful query primitive for XML data, and provide new...

  6. Beef Quality Identification Using Thresholding Method and Decision Tree Classification Based on Android Smartphone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusworo Adi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beef is one of the animal food products that have high nutrition because it contains carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, and minerals. Therefore, the quality of beef should be maintained so that consumers get good beef quality. Determination of beef quality is commonly conducted visually by comparing the actual beef and reference pictures of each beef class. This process presents weaknesses, as it is subjective in nature and takes a considerable amount of time. Therefore, an automated system based on image processing that is capable of determining beef quality is required. This research aims to develop an image segmentation method by processing digital images. The system designed consists of image acquisition processes with varied distance, resolution, and angle. Image segmentation is done to separate the images of fat and meat using the Otsu thresholding method. Classification was carried out using the decision tree algorithm and the best accuracies were obtained at 90% for training and 84% for testing. Once developed, this system is then embedded into the android programming. Results show that the image processing technique is capable of proper marbling score identification.

  7. Memory for Pictorial Information and the Picture Superiority Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maisto, Albert A.; Queen, Debbie Elaine

    1992-01-01

    The performance of 53 younger adults (mean age 20.7) and 52 older adults (mean age 68.3) was compared in a memory task involving pictures, words, and pictures-plus-words. Results showed (1) significantly higher recall scores for younger adults; (2) equivalent picture superiority effect for both groups; and (3) decline in older adults' performance…

  8. Picture This: 4-H Press Corps Builds Life Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clary, Christy D.

    2018-01-01

    A picture is worth a thousand words! Extension professionals are often looking for the picture that best captures an event and tells its story. Look beneath the surface, though, and a picture is worth much more. Developing a 4-H press corps results in a collection of useful photos but has the added benefit of providing 4-H members with an…

  9. Promoting Self-Questioning through Picture Book Illustrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lohfink, Gayla

    2013-01-01

    This teaching tip manuscript demonstrates how picture book illustrations can be used as an inquiry tool that facilitates one's connecting of visual investigations in a picture to the process of generating self-questions. Techniques suggested to promote self-questioning are (1) introducing young readers to an interactive picture book read aloud…

  10. The Development of the Picture-Superiority Effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Andrew J. O.; Maybery, Murray T.; Durkin, Kevin

    2006-01-01

    When pictures and words are presented serially in an explicit memory task, recall of the pictures is superior. While this effect is well established in the adult population, little is known of the development of this picture-superiority effect in typical development. This task was administered to 80 participants from middle childhood to…

  11. The Progress of Students Reading Comprehension through Wordless Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubis, Romaida

    2018-01-01

    Wordless picture book is an unique book that could help the young learner to get their literacy. The content of the wordless picture book must be communicated through the visual of the illustration. This research discusses a case study of how a kid of six years old produce his narrative through wordless picture book. The kid was allowed to see and…

  12. Emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, T M; Varnhagen, C K; Parent, M B

    2001-05-01

    Arousal enhances memory in human participants and this enhancing effect is likely due to the release of peripheral epinephrine. As epinephrine does not readily enter the brain, one way that peripheral epinephrine may enhance memory is by increasing circulating blood glucose levels. The present study investigated the possibility that emotionally arousing color pictures would improve memory and elevate blood glucose levels in human participants. Blood glucose levels were measured before, 15 min, and 30 min after male university students viewed 60 emotionally arousing or relatively neutral pictures. Participants viewed each picture for 6 s and then had 10 s to rate the arousal (emotional intensity) and valence (pleasantness) of each picture. A free-recall memory test was given 30 min after the last picture was viewed. Although the emotionally arousing and neutral picture sets were given comparable valence ratings, participants who viewed the emotionally arousing pictures rated the pictures as being more arousing, recalled more pictures, and had higher blood glucose levels after viewing the pictures than did participants who viewed the neutral pictures. These findings indicate that emotionally arousing pictures increase blood glucose levels and enhance memory, and that this effect is not due to differences in the degree of pleasantness of the stimuli. These findings support the possibility that increases in circulating blood glucose levels in response to emotional arousal may be part of the biological mechanism that allows emotional arousal to enhance memory. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  13. Synthesis of phylogeny and taxonomy into a comprehensive tree of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinchliff, Cody E.; Smith, Stephen A.; Allman, James F.; Burleigh, J. Gordon; Chaudhary, Ruchi; Coghill, Lyndon M.; Crandall, Keith A.; Deng, Jiabin; Drew, Bryan T.; Gazis, Romina; Gude, Karl; Hibbett, David S.; Katz, Laura A.; Laughinghouse, H. Dail; McTavish, Emily Jane; Midford, Peter E.; Owen, Christopher L.; Ree, Richard H.; Rees, Jonathan A.; Soltis, Douglas E.; Williams, Tiffani; Cranston, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships that unite all lineages (the tree of life) is a grand challenge. The paucity of homologous character data across disparately related lineages currently renders direct phylogenetic inference untenable. To reconstruct a comprehensive tree of life, we therefore synthesized published phylogenies, together with taxonomic classifications for taxa never incorporated into a phylogeny. We present a draft tree containing 2.3 million tips—the Open Tree of Life. Realization of this tree required the assembly of two additional community resources: (i) a comprehensive global reference taxonomy and (ii) a database of published phylogenetic trees mapped to this taxonomy. Our open source framework facilitates community comment and contribution, enabling the tree to be continuously updated when new phylogenetic and taxonomic data become digitally available. Although data coverage and phylogenetic conflict across the Open Tree of Life illuminate gaps in both the underlying data available for phylogenetic reconstruction and the publication of trees as digital objects, the tree provides a compelling starting point for community contribution. This comprehensive tree will fuel fundamental research on the nature of biological diversity, ultimately providing up-to-date phylogenies for downstream applications in comparative biology, ecology, conservation biology, climate change, agriculture, and genomics. PMID:26385966

  14. Tree detection in urban regions from aerial imagery and DSM based on local maxima points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkmaz, Özgür; Yardımcı ćetin, Yasemin; Yilmaz, Erdal

    2017-05-01

    In this study, we propose an automatic approach for tree detection and classification in registered 3-band aerial images and associated digital surface models (DSM). The tree detection results can be used in 3D city modelling and urban planning. This problem is magnified when trees are in close proximity to each other or other objects such as rooftops in the scenes. This study presents a method for locating individual trees and estimation of crown size based on local maxima from DSM accompanied by color and texture information. For this purpose, segment level classifier trained for 10 classes and classification results are improved by analyzing the class probabilities of neighbour segments. Later, the tree classes under a certain height were eliminated using the Digital Terrain Model (DTM). For the tree classes, local maxima points are obtained and the tree radius estimate is made from the vertical and horizontal height profiles passing through these points. The final tree list containing the centers and radius of the trees is obtained by selecting from the list of tree candidates according to the overlapping and selection parameters. Although the limited number of train sets are used in this study, tree classification and localization results are competitive.

  15. Picturing diversity in the ATLAS experiment.

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    With over 3,000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS’s scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration will be described. Their role on various communication platforms will be described and their impact examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.

  16. Picturing diversity in the ATLAS collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Biondi, Silvia; The ATLAS collaboration

    2017-01-01

    With over 3000 members from 178 institutes, the ATLAS Collaboration is naturally diverse. However, capturing this diversity through pictures can be a challenge. Photography is a powerful tool, allowing us to reveal the faces behind a story and give the public the unique opportunity to understand and appreciate the human aspects of ATLAS's scientific research. The role of photographs in portraying the diversity of the ATLAS Collaboration and on various communication platforms will be described. Their impact will be examined, with focus on engagement of new audiences.

  17. Feynman path integral and the interaction picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pugh, R.E.

    1986-01-01

    The role of interaction-picture fields in the construction of coherent states and in the derivation of the Feynman path integral for interacting scalar quantum fields is examined. Special attention is paid to the dependence of the integrand on the intermediate times and it is shown that the Feynman rules are valid prior to taking the limit wherein the number of intermediate times goes to infinity; thus, this number does not act as a cutoff in divergent amplitudes. Specific normalization factors are determined

  18. Picture archiving and communication systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piqueras Pardellans, J.; Carreno Pedemonte, J.C.; Lucaya Layret, J.

    1994-01-01

    Picture archiving and communication systems (PACS) constitute a data processing tool that offers new working methods of diagnostic radiology. The definitive aim of a PACS is to allow a radiology service to operate without film images or documents on paper, integrating images and clinical information. Different image acquisition, viewing and storage systems, linked by communications networks, are arranged around a central management and storage system. Their components are described and the advantages, drawbacks and limitations are discussed from the technological point of view and considering their impact on health care, while a critical review is provided of the 1993 status of this issue

  19. ENDOCRINE OPHTHALMOPATHY: ETIOLOGY, PATHOGENESIS, CLINICAL PICTURE, DIAGNOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikonova L. V.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the study of endocrine ophthalmopathy is due to the high prevalence of this disease and a high risk of developing impaired vision that leads to disability of patients. This lecture presents the main genetic, immunological, clinical manifestations of endocrine ophthalmopathy in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of this pathology. The clinical picture of endocrine ophthalmopathy is various, unique for every patient and depends on the activity and severity of the process, which requires combined etiopathogenetic therapy. The importance of timely diagnosis for endocrine ophthalmopathy with an assessment of the activity of the process for choosing the right tactics for managing patients is very high.

  20. Java EE 7 the big picture

    CERN Document Server

    Coward, Danny

    2015-01-01

    Java EE 7: The Big Picture uniquely explores the entire Java EE 7 platform in an all-encompassing style while examining each tier of the platform in enough detail so that you can select the right technologies for specific project needs. In this authoritative guide, Java expert Danny Coward walks you through the code, applications, and frameworks that power the platform. Take full advantage of the robust capabilities of Java EE 7, increase your productivity, and meet enterprise demands with help from this Oracle Press resource.

  1. Do Natural Pictures Mean Natural Tastes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Viktor; Barratt, Daniel; Sørensen, Henrik Selsøe

    2015-01-01

    A widespread assumption in Danish consumer law is that if the package of a food product carries a picture of a potentially taste-giving ingredient (say, a strawberry), then consumers will expect the corresponding taste to stem primarily from that ingredient rather than from artificial flavouring....... However, this is not expected to be the case if the packaging carries only a verbal indication of the potential ingredient (say, the word strawberry). We put these assumptions to experimental test. Our goal was to contribute firmer evidence to the legal decision-making in the present field while...

  2. The AGL equation from the dipole picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay Ducati, M.B.; Goncalves, V.P.

    1999-01-01

    The AGL equation includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the double logarithmic approximation (DLA) limit, leading to a unitarized gluon distribution in the small x regime. This equation was originally obtained using the Glauber-Mueller approach. We demonstrate in this paper that the AGL equation and, consequently, the GLR equation, can also be obtained from the dipole picture in the double logarithmic limit, using an evolution equation, recently proposed, which includes all multiple pomeron exchanges in the leading logarithmic approximation. Our conclusion is that the AGL equation is a good candidate for a unitarized evolution equation at small x in the DLA limit

  3. A Picture Guide to Trees of the Gamboa Area, Republic of Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-10-01

    THEIR LEAVES Plants that Lose Their Leaves In Wet Season In Dry Season Cordia aliodora (Laurel) Annona spraguei (Cherimoya) Ochroma pyramidale (Balsa...Zanthoxylum species. 77 Cordia aliodora Laurel Boraginaceae Leaves The leaves (13 by 6 cm) are simple, clustered in whorls, pointed at both ends, and...flowers (5mm) lk ri 6m Figure 41. Cordia aliodora. 79 Bursera simarouba Gumbo Limbo Burseraceae I Leaves The leaves are alternate and pinnately compound

  4. Environmental tritium in trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, R.M.

    1979-01-01

    The distribution of environmental tritium in the free water and organically bound hydrogen of trees growing in the vicinity of the Chalk River Nuclear Laboratories (CRNL) has been studied. The regional dispersal of HTO in the atmosphere has been observed by surveying the tritium content of leaf moisture. Measurement of the distribution of organically bound tritium in the wood of tree ring sequences has given information on past concentrations of HTO taken up by trees growing in the CRNL Liquid Waste Disposal Area. For samples at background environmental levels, cellulose separation and analysis was done. The pattern of bomb tritium in precipitation of 1955-68 was observed to be preserved in the organically bound tritium of a tree ring sequence. Reactor tritium was discernible in a tree growing at a distance of 10 km from CRNL. These techniques provide convenient means of monitoring dispersal of HTO from nuclear facilities. (author)

  5. Generalising tree traversals and tree transformations to DAGs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahr, Patrick; Axelsson, Emil

    2017-01-01

    We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead. The resul......We present a recursion scheme based on attribute grammars that can be transparently applied to trees and acyclic graphs. Our recursion scheme allows the programmer to implement a tree traversal or a tree transformation and then apply it to compact graph representations of trees instead...... as the complementing theory with a number of examples....

  6. Digit Span as a measure of everyday attention: a study of ecological validity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groth-Marnat, Gary; Baker, Sonya

    2003-12-01

    This study investigated the effectiveness of the WAIS-III Digit Span subtest to predict the everyday attention of 75 participants with heterogeneous neurological conditions who were administered the Digit Span subtest as well as the ecologically valid Test of Everyday Attention. In addition, the more visually oriented Picture Completion subtest along with the verbally loaded National Adult Reading Test were administered. Analysis indicated that, although Digit Span was a weak but statistically significant predictor of attentional ability (accounting for 12.7% of the unique variance). Picture Completion was a somewhat stronger predictor (accounting for 19% of the unique variance). The weak association of Digit Span and the Test of Everyday Attention, along with the finding that Picture Completion was a better predictor of performance on the Test of Everyday Attention, question the clinical utility of using Digit Span as a measure of everyday attention.

  7. Handbook of digital games and entertainment technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Rauterberg, Matthias; Ciancarini, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    The topics treated in this handbook cover all areas of games and entertainment technologies, such as digital entertainment; technology, design/art, and sociology. The handbook consists of contributions from top class scholars and researchers from the interdisciplinary topic areas.  The aim of this handbook is to serving as a key reference work in the field and provides readers with a holistic picture of this interdisciplinary field covering technical issues, aesthetic/design issues, and sociological issues. At present, there is no reference work in the field that provides such a broad and complete picture of the field. Engineers and researchers who want to learn about this emerging area will be able to find adequate answers regarding technology issues on digital entertainment. Designers and artists can learn how their skills and expertise can contribute to this emerging area. Also researchers working in the field of sociology and psychology will find how their experience and knowledge are connected to other ...

  8. Digital delicacies

    OpenAIRE

    Holley, Rose

    2001-01-01

    This presentation outlines the purpose and work of the newly appointed Digital Projects Librarian at the University of Auckland. It gives a brief overview of what digitisation is, the benefits, the stages of a digitisation project and also samples of interesting international digitisation projects and new University of Auckland Library Digitisation projects.

  9. Digital Forensics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harron, Jason; Langdon, John; Gonzalez, Jennifer; Cater, Scott

    2017-01-01

    The term forensic science may evoke thoughts of blood-spatter analysis, DNA testing, and identifying molds, spores, and larvae. A growing part of this field, however, is that of digital forensics, involving techniques with clear connections to math and physics. This article describes a five-part project involving smartphones and the investigation…

  10. Digital Disruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstand, Claus Andreas Foss

    det digitale domæne ud over det niveau, der kendetegner den nuværende debat, så præsenteres der ny viden om digital disruption. Som noget nyt udlægges Clayton Christens teori om disruptiv innovation med et særligt fokus på små organisationers mulighed for eksponentiel vækst. Specielt udfoldes...... forholdet mellem disruption og den stadig accelererende digitale udvikling i konturerne til ny teoridannelse om digital disruption. Bogens undertitel ”faretruende og fascinerende forandringer” peger på, at der er behov for en nuanceret debat om digital disruption i modsætning til den tone, der er slået an i...... videre kalder et ”disruption-råd”. Faktisk er rådet skrevet ind i 2016 regeringsgrundlaget for VLK-regeringen. Disruption af organisationer er ikke et nyt fænomen; men hastigheden, hvormed det sker, er stadig accelererende. Årsagen er den globale mega-trend: Digitalisering. Og derfor er specielt digital...

  11. Digital books.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wink, Diane M

    2011-01-01

    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books.

  12. Digital forvaltning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Remmen, Arne; Larsen, Torben; Mosgaard, Mette

    2004-01-01

    Større effektivitet, bedre service og mere demokrai er blot nogle af forventningerne til indførelse af digital forveltning i kommunerne. Kapitlet giver bland andet svar på spørgsmålene : Hvordan lever kommunerne op hertil i dagligdagen? hvilke virkemidler anvender de? Hvilke barrierer har der været...

  13. Digital Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogers, R.

    2013-01-01

    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals

  14. Emotionally negative pictures increase attention to a subsequent auditory stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartar, Jaime L; de Almeida, Kristen; McIntosh, Roger C; Rosselli, Monica; Nash, Allan J

    2012-01-01

    Emotionally negative stimuli serve as a mechanism of biological preparedness to enhance attention. We hypothesized that emotionally negative stimuli would also serve as motivational priming to increase attention resources for subsequent stimuli. To that end, we tested 11 participants in a dual sensory modality task, wherein emotionally negative pictures were contrasted with emotionally neutral pictures and each picture was followed 600 ms later by a tone in an auditory oddball paradigm. Each trial began with a picture displayed for 200 ms; half of the trials began with an emotionally negative picture and half of the trials began with an emotionally neutral picture; 600 ms following picture presentation, the participants heard either an oddball tone or a standard tone. At the end of each trial (picture followed by tone), the participants categorized, with a button press, the picture and tone combination. As expected, and consistent with previous studies, we found an enhanced visual late positive potential (latency range=300-700 ms) to the negative picture stimuli. We further found that compared to neutral pictures, negative pictures resulted in early attention and orienting effects to subsequent tones (measured through an enhanced N1 and N2) and sustained attention effects only to the subsequent oddball tones (measured through late processing negativity, latency range=400-700 ms). Number pad responses to both the picture and tone category showed the shortest response latencies and greatest percentage of correct picture-tone categorization on the negative picture followed by oddball tone trials. Consistent with previous work on natural selective attention, our results support the idea that emotional stimuli can alter attention resource allocation. This finding has broad implications for human attention and performance as it specifically shows the conditions in which an emotionally negative stimulus can result in extended stimulus evaluation. Copyright © 2011

  15. Quantifying Precision and Availability of Location Memory in Everyday Pictures and Some Implications for Picture Database Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdale, Mark W.; Oliff, Lynda; Baguley, Thom S.

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether memory for object locations in pictures could be exploited to address known difficulties of designing query languages for picture databases. M. W. Lansdale's (1998) model of location memory was adapted to 4 experiments observing memory for everyday pictures. These experiments showed that location memory is…

  16. TIFF, GIF, and PNG: get the picture?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabachinski, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    GIF, JPEG, and PNG are most likely the best formats to use for three reasons. First, they're standardized and open formats for anyone to use. In addition, JPEG is an ISO standard and PNG is an IETF RFC (Internet Engineering Task Force Request for Comments-www.ietf.org) and W3C recommendation (World Wide Web Consortium-www.w3.org). Second, they're compressible. GIF files are generally compressed at 5:1, JPEG at 10:1 or 20:1 and PNG at about 7:1. Finally, they're all supported by web browsers. Well, pretty much. Microsoft's Internet Explorer doesn't support the alpha channel transparency for PNG-but, on the other hand, GIF and JPEG don't have the alpha channel at all. Use TIFF to archive your original pictures as it is a lossless format. Check out the summary table and sidebar for more information regarding these picture file formats.

  17. Who finds neutral pictures pleasant and relaxing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moè, Angelica; Sarlo, Michela

    2011-04-01

    Valence and arousal are independent dimensions of consciously experienced affect. The former refers to pleasantness; the latter to the degree of excitement or stimulation. The present research explores some of the predictors of these dimensions through the hypothesis that valence relates to positive affect and lack of negative affect, while arousal is tied to negative affect, and that both are predicted by personal wellbeing, considered as a way of achieving happiness. The occurrence of depressive symptoms is also considered within the hypothesis: as a facet of negative affect, as lack of wellbeing, or as an independent dimension placed at the same level as wellbeing, and which relates to both positive and negative affect (considered as mediators). Sixty-one participants were asked to view on a computer screen a series of 20 neutral pictures, having medium valence and low arousal, and complete self-report questionnaires to assess affect, personal wellbeing, and the occurrence of depressive symptoms. After picture viewing, valence and arousal judgments were requested. In the analysis, three competing models with latent variables were tested, to assess at best the role depressive symptoms have. They confirmed that valence is predicted by high positive and low negative affect, arousal by negative affect and even directly by the occurrence of depressive symptoms, and that personal wellbeing and depressive symptoms are the starting point. They are negatively correlated and predict positive (both) and negative affect (just the occurrence of depressive symptoms). The discussion focuses on both theoretical and practical implications. Suggestions for future research are given.

  18. Decreased pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irene Peláez

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pain perception arises from a complex interaction between a nociceptive stimulus and different emotional and cognitive factors, which appear to be mediated by both automatic and controlled systems. Previous evidence has shown that whereas conscious processing of unpleasant stimuli enhances pain perception, emotional influences on pain under unaware conditions are much less known. The aim of the present study was to investigate the modulation of pain perception by unconscious emotional pictures through an emotional masking paradigm. Two kinds of both somatosensory (painful and non-painful and emotional stimulation (negative and neutral pictures were employed. Fifty pain-free participants were asked to rate the perception of pain they were feeling in response to laser-induced somatosensory stimuli as faster as they can. Data from pain intensity and reaction times were measured. Statistical analyses revealed a significant effect for the interaction between pain and emotional stimulation, but surprisingly this relationship was opposite to expected. In particular, lower pain intensity scores and longer reaction times were found in response to negative images being strengthened this effect for painful stimulation. Present findings suggest a clear pain perception modulation by unconscious emotional contexts. Attentional capture mechanisms triggered by unaware negative stimulation could explain this phenomenon leading to a withdrawal of processing resources from pain.

  19. Picture models for 2-scene comics creating system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miki UENO

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, computer understanding pictures and stories becomes one of the most important research topics in computer science. However, there are few researches about human like understanding by computers because pictures have not certain format and contain more lyric aspect than that of natural laguage. For picture understanding, a comic is the suitable target because it is consisted by clear and simple plot of stories and separated scenes.In this paper, we propose 2 different types of picture models for 2-scene comics creating system. We also show the method of the application of 2-scene comics creating system by means of proposed picture model.

  20. Picture archiving and communication in radiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Marzia; Nanni, Marinella; Cimarra, Stefania; Crisafulli, Letizia; Campioni, Paolo; Marano, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    After over 80 years of exclusive archiving of radiologic films, at present, in Radiology, digital archiving is increasingly gaining ground. Digital archiving allows a considerable reduction in costs and space saving, but most importantly, immediate or remote consultation of all examinations and reports in the hospital clinical wards, is feasible. The RIS system, in this case, is the starting point of the process of electronic archiving which however is the task of PACS. The latter can be used as radiologic archive in accordance with the law provided that it is in conformance with some specifications as the use of optical long-term storage media or with electronic track of change. PACS archives, in a hierarchical system, all digital images produced by each diagnostic imaging modality. Images and patient data can be retrieved and used for consultation or remote consultation by the reporting radiologist who requires images and reports of previous radiologic examinations or by the referring physician of the ward. Modern PACS owing to the WEB server allow remote access to extremely simplified images and data however ensuring the due regulations and access protections. Since the PACS enables a simpler data communication within the hospital, security and patient privacy should be protected. A secure and reliable PACS should be able to minimize the risk of accidental data destruction, and should prevent non authorized access to the archive with adequate security measures in relation to the acquired knowledge and based on the technological advances. Archiving of data produced by modern digital imaging is a problem now present also in small Radiology services. The technology is able to readily solve problems which were extremely complex up to some years ago as the connection between equipment and archiving system owing also to the universalization of the DICOM 3.0 standard. The evolution of communication networks and the use of standard protocols as TCP/IP can minimize

  1. A recursive algorithm for trees and forests

    OpenAIRE

    Guo, Song; Guo, Victor J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Trees or rooted trees have been generously studied in the literature. A forest is a set of trees or rooted trees. Here we give recurrence relations between the number of some kind of rooted forest with $k$ roots and that with $k+1$ roots on $\\{1,2,\\ldots,n\\}$. Classical formulas for counting various trees such as rooted trees, bipartite trees, tripartite trees, plane trees, $k$-ary plane trees, $k$-edge colored trees follow immediately from our recursive relations.

  2. Task choice and semantic interference in picture naming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piai, Vitória; Roelofs, Ardi; Schriefers, Herbert

    2015-05-01

    Evidence from dual-task performance indicates that speakers prefer not to select simultaneous responses in picture naming and another unrelated task, suggesting a response selection bottleneck in naming. In particular, when participants respond to tones with a manual response and name pictures with superimposed semantically related or unrelated distractor words, semantic interference in naming tends to be constant across stimulus onset asynchronies (SOAs) between the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus. In the present study, we examine whether semantic interference in picture naming depends on SOA in case of a task choice (naming the picture vs reading the word of a picture-word stimulus) based on tones. This situation requires concurrent processing of the tone stimulus and the picture-word stimulus, but not a manual response to the tones. On each trial, participants either named a picture or read aloud a word depending on the pitch of a tone, which was presented simultaneously with picture-word onset or 350 ms or 1000 ms before picture-word onset. Semantic interference was present with tone pre-exposure, but absent when tone and picture-word stimulus were presented simultaneously. Against the background of the available studies, these results support an account according to which speakers tend to avoid concurrent response selection, but can engage in other types of concurrent processing, such as task choices. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Phylogenetic trees in bioinformatics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burr, Tom L [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Genetic data is often used to infer evolutionary relationships among a collection of viruses, bacteria, animal or plant species, or other operational taxonomic units (OTU). A phylogenetic tree depicts such relationships and provides a visual representation of the estimated branching order of the OTUs. Tree estimation is unique for several reasons, including: the types of data used to represent each OTU; the use ofprobabilistic nucleotide substitution models; the inference goals involving both tree topology and branch length, and the huge number of possible trees for a given sample of a very modest number of OTUs, which implies that fmding the best tree(s) to describe the genetic data for each OTU is computationally demanding. Bioinformatics is too large a field to review here. We focus on that aspect of bioinformatics that includes study of similarities in genetic data from multiple OTUs. Although research questions are diverse, a common underlying challenge is to estimate the evolutionary history of the OTUs. Therefore, this paper reviews the role of phylogenetic tree estimation in bioinformatics, available methods and software, and identifies areas for additional research and development.

  4. Skewed Binary Search Trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Moruz, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    It is well-known that to minimize the number of comparisons a binary search tree should be perfectly balanced. Previous work has shown that a dominating factor over the running time for a search is the number of cache faults performed, and that an appropriate memory layout of a binary search tree...... can reduce the number of cache faults by several hundred percent. Motivated by the fact that during a search branching to the left or right at a node does not necessarily have the same cost, e.g. because of branch prediction schemes, we in this paper study the class of skewed binary search trees....... For all nodes in a skewed binary search tree the ratio between the size of the left subtree and the size of the tree is a fixed constant (a ratio of 1/2 gives perfect balanced trees). In this paper we present an experimental study of various memory layouts of static skewed binary search trees, where each...

  5. Eye movement assessment of selective attentional capture by emotional pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Hyönä, Jukka; Calvo, Manuel G

    2006-05-01

    The eye-tracking method was used to assess attentional orienting to and engagement on emotional visual scenes. In Experiment 1, unpleasant, neutral, or pleasant target pictures were presented simultaneously with neutral control pictures in peripheral vision under instruction to compare pleasantness of the pictures. The probability of first fixating an emotional picture, and the frequency of subsequent fixations, were greater than those for neutral pictures. In Experiment 2, participants were instructed to avoid looking at the emotional pictures, but these were still more likely to be fixated first and gazed longer during the first-pass viewing than neutral pictures. Low-level visual features cannot explain the results. It is concluded that overt visual attention is captured by both unpleasant and pleasant emotional content. 2006 APA, all rights reserved

  6. Pictures from Year Two CNEC and CVT Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, Jesson D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bahran, Rian Mustafa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); McKenzie, George Espy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cutler, Theresa Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-30

    Below are all of the pictures for the CNEC and CVT measurements performed at the DAF in July 2016. In total there are 165 pictures. The photos on pages 2-105 were taken during the first week of measurements and the photos on pages 106-165 were taken during the second week of measurements. Many photos are applicable to both sets, which is why it is best to keep the entire set together. For most configurations, a description of the configuration was written on a white board; photos of the measurement setup were taken, then a photo of the white board was taken. For example, the pictures on pages 6-19 (which precede a white board picture on page 20) are of the configuration with Rocky Flats Shells 1-2 surrounded by 4 AmLi sources, which is listed on the white board picture on page 20. In some cases, the white board picture precedes the configuration pictures.

  7. Digital Position Encoding Of Galvanometer Scanner In A Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liljeborg, Anders

    1988-09-01

    An account is given of a realization of a feedback method to digitize the analog position signal from a moving iron galvanometer. It is employed in a confocal scanning laser microscope for generating digital images. The photometric sampling has to be closely coupled to the position of a mirror that scans a focused laser beam across a microscope specimen. Pictures with low geometric distortion are obtained up to the size 1024 x 1024 pixels.

  8. A cinema for the unborn: moving pictures, mental pictures and Electra Sparks's New Thought film theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Patrick

    2017-09-01

    In the 1910s, New York suffragette Electra Sparks wrote a series of essays in the Moving Picture News that advocated for cine-therapy treatments for pregnant women. Film was, in her view, the great democratizer of beautiful images, providing high-cultural access to the city's poor. These positive 'mental pictures' were important for her because, she claimed, in order to produce an attractive, healthy child, the mother must be exposed to quality cultural material. Sparks's championing of cinema during its 'second birth' was founded upon the premise of New Thought. This metaphysical Christian doctrine existed alongside the self-help and esoteric publishing domains and testified, above all, to the possibility of the 'mind-cure' of the body through the positive application of 'mental pictures'. Physiologically, their method began best in the womb, where the thoughts of the mother were of utmost importance: the eventual difference between birthing an Elephant Man or an Adonis. This positive maternal impression was commonplace in New Thought literature; it was Sparks's innovation to apply it to cinema. Investigating Sparks's film theory, practice and programming reveals her to be a harbinger of the abiding analogy between mind and motion picture that occupies film theorists to this day.

  9. Picture quality in mammography, and interrelation of radiation exposure. Invisible patient care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katsura, Takahide; Yamamoto, Y.

    2006-01-01

    In these days when there are rumors about medical radiation exposure, it is the greatest keyword which it was inflicted with to radioactive ray's worker to secure radiation exposure reduction. I assume International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) BSS (Basic Safety Standards) guidance level, the medical radiation exposure reduction targeted value by JART (Japan Association of Radiological Technologists) a reasonable standard and, besides, must be able to tie equality and high quality medical care to an offer of security for a patient by getting rid of a difference in each institution. In mammography that needs is high in cancer death rate high rank of a woman as a background, authorization engineer system and institution authorization system establish it with a made guideline by a mammography precision management central committee, and not only an offer of a high quality picture depicting a minute mental change caused by a disease but also consideration of radiation exposure with the photography is done. Radiation exposure dose of radioactivity reduction by operation of a picture is nominated for possibility in digital system, but that radiation exposure dose of radioactivity increase than S/F system is felt uneasy about because actually I aim at the institution authorization acquisition. Maintain the high quality picture and to consider radiation exposure reduction are real invisible patient care, and I report the picture quality and interrelation of radiation exposure, and also speak a consideration method of the picture of the always equal tolerance level/tolerance level of the radiation exposure that a gap is not over in each institution. (author)

  10. Detection of Citrus Trees from Uav Dsms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ok, A. O.; Ozdarici-Ok, A.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents an automated approach to detect citrus trees from digitals surface models (DSMs) as a single source. The DSMs in this study are generated from Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), and the proposed approach first considers the symmetric nature of the citrus trees, and it computes the orientation-based radial symmetry in an efficient way. The approach also takes into account the local maxima (LM) information to verify the output of the radial symmetry. Our contributions in this study are twofold: (i) Such an integrated approach (symmetry + LM) has not been tested to detect (citrus) trees (in orchards), and (ii) the validity of such an integrated approach has not been experienced for an input, e.g. a single DSM. Experiments are performed on five test patches. The results reveal that our approach is capable of counting most of the citrus trees without manual intervention. Comparison to the state-of-the-art reveals that the proposed approach provides notable detection performance by providing the best balance between precision and recall measures.

  11. Failure diagnosis and fault tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, G.

    1982-07-01

    In this report a methodology of failure diagnosis for complex systems is presented. Systems which can be represented by fault trees are considered. This methodology is based on switching algebra, failure diagnosis of digital circuits and fault tree analysis. Relations between these disciplines are shown. These relations are due to Boolean algebra and Boolean functions used throughout. It will be shown on this basis that techniques of failure diagnosis and fault tree analysis are useful to solve the following problems: 1. describe an efficient search of all failed components if the system is failed. 2. Describe an efficient search of all states which are close to a system failure if the system is still operating. The first technique will improve the availability, the second the reliability and safety. For these problems, the relation to methods of failure diagnosis for combinational circuits is required. Moreover, the techniques are demonstrated for a number of systems which can be represented by fault trees. (orig./RW) [de

  12. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  13. Visualizing phylogenetic tree landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilgenbusch, James C; Huang, Wen; Gallivan, Kyle A

    2017-02-02

    Genomic-scale sequence alignments are increasingly used to infer phylogenies in order to better understand the processes and patterns of evolution. Different partitions within these new alignments (e.g., genes, codon positions, and structural features) often favor hundreds if not thousands of competing phylogenies. Summarizing and comparing phylogenies obtained from multi-source data sets using current consensus tree methods discards valuable information and can disguise potential methodological problems. Discovery of efficient and accurate dimensionality reduction methods used to display at once in 2- or 3- dimensions the relationship among these competing phylogenies will help practitioners diagnose the limits of current evolutionary models and potential problems with phylogenetic reconstruction methods when analyzing large multi-source data sets. We introduce several dimensionality reduction methods to visualize in 2- and 3-dimensions the relationship among competing phylogenies obtained from gene partitions found in three mid- to large-size mitochondrial genome alignments. We test the performance of these dimensionality reduction methods by applying several goodness-of-fit measures. The intrinsic dimensionality of each data set is also estimated to determine whether projections in 2- and 3-dimensions can be expected to reveal meaningful relationships among trees from different data partitions. Several new approaches to aid in the comparison of different phylogenetic landscapes are presented. Curvilinear Components Analysis (CCA) and a stochastic gradient decent (SGD) optimization method give the best representation of the original tree-to-tree distance matrix for each of the three- mitochondrial genome alignments and greatly outperformed the method currently used to visualize tree landscapes. The CCA + SGD method converged at least as fast as previously applied methods for visualizing tree landscapes. We demonstrate for all three mtDNA alignments that 3D

  14. Picturing and modelling catchments by representative hillslopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loritz, Ralf; Hassler, Sibylle; Jackisch, Conrad; Zehe, Erwin

    2016-04-01

    Hydrological modelling studies often start with a qualitative sketch of the hydrological processes of a catchment. These so-called perceptual models are often pictured as hillslopes and are generalizations displaying only the dominant and relevant processes of a catchment or hillslope. The problem with these models is that they are prone to become too much predetermined by the designer's background and experience. Moreover it is difficult to know if that picture is correct and contains enough complexity to represent the system under study. Nevertheless, because of their qualitative form, perceptual models are easy to understand and can be an excellent tool for multidisciplinary exchange between researchers with different backgrounds, helping to identify the dominant structures and processes in a catchment. In our study we explore whether a perceptual model built upon an intensive field campaign may serve as a blueprint for setting up representative hillslopes in a hydrological model to reproduce the functioning of two distinctly different catchments. We use a physically-based 2D hillslope model which has proven capable to be driven by measured soil-hydrological parameters. A key asset of our approach is that the model structure itself remains a picture of the perceptual model, which is benchmarked against a) geo-physical images of the subsurface and b) observed dynamics of discharge, distributed state variables and fluxes (soil moisture, matric potential and sap flow). Within this approach we are able to set up two behavioral model structures which allow the simulation of the most important hydrological fluxes and state variables in good accordance with available observations within the 19.4 km2 large Colpach catchment and the 4.5 km2 large Wollefsbach catchment in Luxembourg without the necessity of calibration. This corroborates, contrary to the widespread opinion, that a) lower mesoscale catchments may be modelled by representative hillslopes and b) physically

  15. [Radiologic picture of maxillary sinus aspergilloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaczmarek, I; Bilska, J; Osmola, K; Nowaczyk, M T

    2010-06-01

    Mycotic infection of paranasal sinus could be the etiological factor of chronic sinusitis. The increase in number of fungal sinusitis cases have been reported recently among nonimmunocompromised patient after endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth. Nonspecific clinical signs and incorrect radiologic pictures interpretation as well as loss of therapeutic standards seems to be the cause of false negative diagnosis and difficulties in treatment of fungal sinusitis. Clinical and radiological picture of maxillary sinus aspergillosis was described in this paper. In the period of 2006-2009 in the Department of Maxillo-Facial Surgery 19 patient with fungal maxillary sinusitis was treated. The endodontic treatment of maxillary teeth of the related side was performed previously in 80% examined cases. In 2 cases there were immunocompromised patients with immunosuppressive treatment. In 16 cases patients were referred to our Department due to metallic foreign body of the maxillary sinus. Routine diagnostic radiological imaging was performed in each case: paranasal sinus view--Water's view and panoramic radiograph (orthopantomograph). In 4 cases imaging was extended with computer tomography (CT) visualization. The surgical treatment was performed in each case. The final diagnosis was puted on histopathological examination and fungal culture. In 16 cases of analysed group histopathological examination and fungal culture revealed aspergilosis. In 2 cases fungal culture was negative, but histopathology slices confirm presence of hyphae of Aspergillus. In 1 case the root canal sealer was found in the maxillary sinus. In none case invasive form of aspergillosis was confirmed. In all cases Water's view of paranasal sinuses and ortopantomograph showed partially or totally clouded sinus with well-defined, single or multifocal radiopaque object similar to metallic foreign body. Characteristic finding in CT imaging was well-defined radiodence concretions that have been attributed to

  16. Digital Humanities and networked digital media

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses digital humanities and the growing diversity of digital media, digital materials and digital methods. The first section describes the humanities computing tradition formed around the interpretation of computation as a rule-based process connected to a concept of digital...... materials centred on the digitisation of non-digital, finite works, corpora and oeuvres. The second section discusses “the big tent” of contemporary digital humanities. It is argued that there can be no unifying interpretation of digital humanities above the level of studying digital materials with the help...... of software-supported methods. This is so, in part, because of the complexity of the world and, in part, because digital media remain open to the projection of new epistemologies onto the functional architecture of these media. The third section discusses the heterogeneous character of digital materials...

  17. Digital Materia

    OpenAIRE

    Lindgren, Marcus; Richey, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Med tankar från pedagogen Montessori och filosoferna Platon och Baudrillard har detta arbete behandlat frågor om datorn och dess betydelse för en grafiker. Frågeställningen formulerades efter hand och lydde tillslut: ”Hur kan materia te sig i digital form?” Forskningen resulterade i en hypotes för hur digital materia skulle födas i datorn: genom att blanda två uppsättningar av data, såsom två genuppsättningar tillsammans skapar en ny organism. Under produktionen utvecklades därmed en metod fö...

  18. Becoming digital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard

    2015-01-01

    government, and draws on empirical material generated through observations, field notes, interviews and policy documents. The material is documenting how service is performed by frontline agents in the ‘bureaucratic encounter’ with citizens, who needs assistance to use digital self-service in order to apply...... online for a public benefit. Findings: The paper shows that e-government technology changes the mode of professionalism in citizen service from service to support. The paper gives an empirical account of recent Danish digital reforms and shows how the reforms both enable and constrain the work...... of ‘becoming digital’ by frontline agents. Overall the street-level bureaucrat’s classical tasks such as specialized casework are being displaced into promoting and educational tasks. An implication of this is blurred distinctions between professional skills and personal competences of the frontline agent...

  19. Digital resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Bibliotheca Latinitatis Mediaevalis (circa VII sec. - XIV sec. IntraText Digital Library [01/06] Corpus Scriptorum Latinorum. A digital library of Latin literature by David Camden [01/06] Fonti disponibili online concernenti la vita religiosa medievale Rete Vitae Religiosae Mediaevalis Studia Conectens [01/06] Fuentes del Medievo Hispanico Instituto de Historia, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas [01/06] Latin Literature Forum Romanum [01/06] Ludovico Antonio Muratori, Dissertazioni sopra le antichità italiane, 1751 Biblioteca dei Classici Italiani di Giuseppe Bonghi [01/06] Medieval Latin The Latin Library [01/06] Médiévales Presses Universitaires de Vincennes - Revues.org [01/06] Regesta imperii Deutsche Kommission für die Bearbeitung der Regesta Imperii e.V. [01/06] Suda On Line Byzantine Lexicography [01/06

  20. Tree-growth analyses to estimate tree species' drought tolerance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eilmann, B.; Rigling, A.

    2012-01-01

    Climate change is challenging forestry management and practices. Among other things, tree species with the ability to cope with more extreme climate conditions have to be identified. However, while environmental factors may severely limit tree growth or even cause tree death, assessing a tree

  1. Big trees, old trees, and growth factor tables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2018-01-01

    The potential for a tree to reach a great size and to live a long life frequently captures the public's imagination. Sometimes the desire to know the age of an impressively large tree is simple curiosity. For others, the date-of-tree establishment can make a big diff erence for management, particularly for trees at historic sites or those mentioned in property...

  2. A bijection between phylogenetic trees and plane oriented recursive trees

    OpenAIRE

    Prodinger, Helmut

    2017-01-01

    Phylogenetic trees are binary nonplanar trees with labelled leaves, and plane oriented recursive trees are planar trees with an increasing labelling. Both families are enumerated by double factorials. A bijection is constructed, using the respective representations a 2-partitions and trapezoidal words.

  3. A Suffix Tree Or Not a Suffix Tree?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starikovskaya, Tatiana; Vildhøj, Hjalte Wedel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we study the structure of suffix trees. Given an unlabeled tree r on n nodes and suffix links of its internal nodes, we ask the question “Is r a suffix tree?”, i.e., is there a string S whose suffix tree has the same topological structure as r? We place no restrictions on S, in part...

  4. Digital teenagers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Conde Melguizo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Espín, Manuel (Coord.(2011 Adolescentes Digitales.  Revista Estudios de Juventud, Nº 92. Marzo 2011. INJUVE, Madrid."Adolescentes digitales" se nos muestra como una obra que pretende explorar desde distintos puntos de vista la realidad de la generación conocida como “nativos digitales” (Prensky, la generación actual de adolescentes que ha crecido con internet y el mundo digital como su entorno normal de socialización.

  5. Digital Flora

    OpenAIRE

    Bunnell, Katie

    2007-01-01

    This research is concerned with developing a new business model for flexible small scale ceramic production that exploits the customisation capabilities of digital manufacturing technologies and the market potential and global connectivity of the world wide web. It is arguably of particular relevance to regional economic development in remote areas (Amin, Tomaney, Sabel) such as Cornwall where there is a culture of high quality small scale production, limited market and manufacturing opportun...

  6. Managing digitally formatted diagnostic image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, A.W.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiologists are very comfortable using analog radiographic film and interpreting its recorded images. To improve patient care, the radiologist has sought the finest quality radiographic film for use with the best radiographic imaging systems. The proper choice and use of x-ray tubes, generators, film-screen combinations, and contrast media has occupied the professional attention of the radiologist since the inception of radiology. Image quality can be significantly improved with digitally formatted diagnostic imaging systems by providing dynamic ranges in excess of those possible with analog x-ray films. In a CT scanner, the digital acquisition and reconstruction system can obtain a dynamic range (contrast resolution) of 10,000 to 1. Digital subtraction angiography systems achieve 10-bit dynamic ranges for each of the acquired television frames. Increases in the dynamic ranges of the various imaging modalities have been coupled with improved spatial resolution. A digitally formatted image is a two-dimensional, numerical array of discrete image elements. Each picture element is called a pixel. Each pixel has a discrete size. Figure 15.1 illustrates a digitally formatted image depicting the spatial resolution, array size, and quantization or numerical range of the pixel values. Currently, 512 x 512 image arrays are standard. Development of 1024 x 1024 digital arrays are underway. Significant improvements have also been achieved in the rates at which digital diagnostic imaging data can be acquired, manipulated, and archived

  7. The Picture Book of Quantum Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Brandt, Siegmund

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this book is to explain the basic concepts and phenomena of quantum mechanics by means of visualization. Computer-generated illustrations in color are used extensively throughout the text, helping to establish the relation between quantum mechanics—wave functions, interference, atomic structure, and so forth—and classical physics—point mechanics, statistical mechanics, and wave optics. Even more important, by studying the pictures in parallel with the text, readers develop an intuition for such notoriously abstract phenomena as • the tunnel effect • excitation and decay of metastable states • wave-packet motion within a well • systems of distinguishable and indistinguishable particles • free wave packets and scattering in 3 dimensions • angular-momentum decomposition • stationary bound states in various 3-dimensional potentials • hybrid states • Kepler motion of wave packets in the Coulomb field • spin and magnetic resonance Illustrations from experiments in a variety of f...

  8. Towards thermodynamical consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Shanenko, A.A.; Toneev, V.D.; Research Inst. for Particle and Nuclear Physics, Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasi-particle-based description of the quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamical consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamical consistency. A particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential, which can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics [ru

  9. Toward thermodynamic consistency of quasiparticle picture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biro, T.S.; Toneev, V.D.; Shanenko, A.A.

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of the present article is to call attention to some realistic quasiparticle-based description of quark/gluon matter and its consistent implementation in thermodynamics. A simple and transparent representation of the thermodynamic consistency conditions is given. This representation allows one to review critically and systemize available phenomenological approaches to the deconfinement problem with respect to their thermodynamic consistency. Particular attention is paid to the development of a method for treating the string screening in the dense matter of unbound color charges. The proposed method yields an integrable effective pair potential that can be incorporated into the mean-field picture. The results of its application are in reasonable agreement with lattice data on the QCD thermodynamics

  10. Angiographic picture of soft tissue desmoid fibromas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikitaev, N.S.; Kuznetsova, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    Arteriography was performed in 35 patients with soft tissue desmoid fibromas. Angiographic semiotics of this disease was described. The frequency of detectability of symptoms in the arterial, parenchymatous and venous phases was analyzed. A tumor in the arterial phase was shown to be of normevascular or moderately hypervascular type without noticeable winding of the nutrient arteries, such features of malignancy as lacunae and ''tumor'' vessels being absent. In the parenchymatous phase desmoid tumors were shown to accumulate moderately a contrast substance, a tumor contour at a vast length was ill defined and poorly marked from surrounding tissues. The venous phase was less noticeable and the time of its appearance was usually within normal. In general by most of its parameters the angiographic picture of agressive fibromatosis corresponded to that of benign tumors and could be used for differential diagnosis of desmoid fibromas and some types of tissue sarcomas

  11. Hemispheric resource limitations in comprehending ambiguous pictures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, H; Minor, S W

    1990-03-01

    Ambiguous pictures (Roschach inkblots) were lateralized for 100 msec vs. 200 msec to the right and left hemispheres (RH and LH) of 32 normal right-handed males who determined which of two previously presented words (an accurate or inaccurate one) better described the inkblot. Over the first 32 trials, subjects receiving each stimulus exposure duration were less accurate when the hemisphere receiving the stimulus also controlled the hand used to register a keypress response (RH-left hand and LH-right hand trials) than when hemispheric resources were shared, i.e., when one hemisphere controlled stimulus processing and the other controlled response programming. These differences were eliminated when the 32 trials were repeated.

  12. Dwarfism and gigantism in historical picture postcards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enderle, A

    1998-01-01

    A collection of 893 historical picture postcards from 1900 to 1935, depicting dwarfs and giants, was analysed from medical and psychosocial viewpoints. In conditions such as 'bird headed dwarfism', achondroplasia, cretinism, so-called Aztecs or pinheads, Grebe chondrodysplasia, and acromegalic gigantism, the disorder could be diagnosed easily. In hypopituitary dwarfism, exact diagnosis was more difficult because of heterogeneity. The most common conditions depicted were pituitary dwarfism and achondroplasia. Most of those with gigantism had pituitary gigantism and acromegaly. Brothers and sisters or parents and their children provided evidence of mendelian inheritance of some of these disorders. The cards suggest that being put on show provided, at least in some cases, social benefits. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9764085

  13. Brain indices of nicotine's effects on attentional bias to smoking and emotional pictures and to task-relevant targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, David G; Sugai, Chihiro; Zuo, Yantao; Rabinovich, Norka E; McClernon, F Joseph; Froeliger, Brett

    2007-03-01

    Aversive and smoking-related stimuli are related to smoking urges and relapse and can be potent distractors of selective attention. It has been suggested that the beneficial effect of nicotine replacement therapy may be mediated partly by the ability of nicotine to reduce distraction by such stimuli and thereby to facilitate attention to task-relevant stimuli. The present study tested the hypothesis that nicotine reduces distraction by aversive and smoking-related stimuli as indexed by the parietal P3b brain response to a task-relevant target digit. We assessed the effect of nicotine on distraction by emotionally negative, positive, neutral, and smoking-related pictures immediately preceding target digits during a rapid visual information processing task in 16 smokers in a double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. The study included two experimental sessions. After overnight smoking deprivation (12+ hr), active nicotine patches were applied to participants during one of the sessions and placebo patches were applied during the other session. Nicotine enhanced P3b responses associated with target digits immediately subsequent to negative emotional pictures bilaterally and subsequent to smoking-related pictures only in the right hemisphere. No effects of nicotine were observed for P3bs subsequent to positive and neutral distractor pictures. Another measure of attention, contingent negative variation amplitude in anticipation of the target digits also was increased by nicotine, especially in the left hemisphere and at posterior sites. Together, these findings suggest that nicotine reduces the distraction by emotionally negative and smoking-related stimuli and promotes attention to task-related stimuli by modulating somewhat lateralized and task-specific neural networks.

  14. NLCD 2001 - Tree Canopy

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — The National Land Cover Database 2001 tree canopy layer for Minnesota (mapping zones 39-42, 50-51) was produced through a cooperative project conducted by the...

  15. Trees for future forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lobo, Albin

    Climate change creates new challenges in forest management. The increase in temperature may in the long run be beneficial for the forests in the northern latitudes, but the high rate at which climate change is predicted to proceed will make adaptation difficult because trees are long living sessile...... organisms. The aim of the present thesis is therefore to explore genetic resilience and phenotypic plasticity mechanisms that allows trees to adapt and evolve with changing climates. The thesis focus on the abiotic factors associated with climate change, especially raised temperatures and lack...... age of these tree species and the uncertainty around the pace and effect of climate, it remains an open question if the native populations can respond fast enough. Phenotypic plasticity through epigenetic regulation of spring phenology is found to be present in a tree species which might act...

  16. Value tree analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keeney, R.; Renn, O.; Winterfeldt, D. von; Kotte, U.

    1985-01-01

    What are the targets and criteria on which national energy policy should be based. What priorities should be set, and how can different social interests be matched. To answer these questions, a new instrument of decision theory is presented which has been applied with good results to controversial political issues in the USA. The new technique is known under the name of value tree analysis. Members of important West German organisations (BDI, VDI, RWE, the Catholic and Protestant Church, Deutscher Naturschutzring, and ecological research institutions) were asked about the goals of their organisations. These goals were then ordered systematically and arranged in a hierarchical tree structure. The value trees of different groups can be combined into a catalogue of social criteria of acceptability and policy assessment. The authors describe the philosophy and methodology of value tree analysis and give an outline of its application in the development of a socially acceptable energy policy. (orig.) [de

  17. Multiscale singularity trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Somchaipeng, Kerawit; Sporring, Jon; Johansen, Peter

    2007-01-01

    We propose MultiScale Singularity Trees (MSSTs) as a structure to represent images, and we propose an algorithm for image comparison based on comparing MSSTs. The algorithm is tested on 3 public image databases and compared to 2 state-of-theart methods. We conclude that the computational complexity...... of our algorithm only allows for the comparison of small trees, and that the results of our method are comparable with state-of-the-art using much fewer parameters for image representation....

  18. Type extension trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaeger, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    We introduce type extension trees as a formal representation language for complex combinatorial features of relational data. Based on a very simple syntax this language provides a unified framework for expressing features as diverse as embedded subgraphs on the one hand, and marginal counts...... of attribute values on the other. We show by various examples how many existing relational data mining techniques can be expressed as the problem of constructing a type extension tree and a discriminant function....

  19. Digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dallas, W.J.

    1990-01-01

    Radiology is vital to the life-saving efforts of surgeons and other physicians, but precious time can be lost generating the images and transferring them to and from the operating room. Furthermore, hospitals are straining under the task of storing and managing the deluge of diagnostic films produced every year. A 300-bed hospital generates about 1 gigabyte (8 x 10 9 bits) of picture information every day and is legally bound to hold it for three to seven years--30 years in the case of silicosis or black lung disease, illnesses that may have relevance to future lawsuits. Consequently, hospital warehouses are filling with x-ray film and written reports that are important for analysis of patient histories, for comparison between patients, and for analyzing the progress of disease. Yet only a fraction of the information's potential is being used because access is so complicated. What is more, films are easily lost, erasing valuable medical histories

  20. Description of an acquisition, management and archiving system for digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.; Agostini, S.; Clement, J.P.; Giaccone, A.; Lefevre, C.

    1990-01-01

    A digitalizing and archiving system, for radiologic pictures is presented. This system is composed by a camera, a microcomputer (Maclntosh II) with a digitalizing card and a great capacity optical disk (WORM) for storage. Acquiring and archiving are automatically driven by a special soft. The principal qualities of this system are simplicity for the user, speed and low cost [fr

  1. Online Digital Archives Technology That Supports Rich, Student-Centered Learning Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofer, Mark

    2004-01-01

    Today's students watch the newest movie trailers on the Web, share music files, play video games with other players over the Internet, and swap digital pictures of the latest teen idols. Donald Tapscott points out in his book Growing Up Digital that as this rich multimedia experience becomes more a part of students' lives outside of school, they…

  2. Tree felling 2014

    CERN Multimedia

    2014-01-01

    With a view to creating new landscapes and making its population of trees safer and healthier, this winter CERN will complete the tree-felling campaign started in 2010.   Tree felling will take place between 15 and 22 November on the Swiss part of the Meyrin site. This work is being carried out above all for safety reasons. The trees to be cut down are at risk of falling as they are too old and too tall to withstand the wind. In addition, the roots of poplar trees are very powerful and spread widely, potentially damaging underground networks, pavements and roadways. Compensatory tree planting campaigns will take place in the future, subject to the availability of funding, with the aim of creating coherent landscapes while also respecting the functional constraints of the site. These matters are being considered in close collaboration with the Geneva nature and countryside directorate (Direction générale de la nature et du paysage, DGNP). GS-SE Group

  3. Digital citizens Digital nations: the next agenda

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.W. (Bert) Mulder; M.W. (Martijn) Hartog

    2015-01-01

    DIGITAL CITIZENS CREATE A DIGITAL NATION Citizens will play the lead role as they – in the next phase of the information society – collectively create a digital nation. Personal adoption of information and communication technology will create a digital infrastructure that supports individual and

  4. Benefit-based tree valuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.G. McPherson

    2007-01-01

    Benefit-based tree valuation provides alternative estimates of the fair and reasonable value of trees while illustrating the relative contribution of different benefit types. This study compared estimates of tree value obtained using cost- and benefit-based approaches. The cost-based approach used the Council of Landscape and Tree Appraisers trunk formula method, and...

  5. Attack Trees with Sequential Conjunction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jhawar, Ravi; Kordy, Barbara; Mauw, Sjouke; Radomirović, Sasa; Trujillo-Rasua, Rolando

    2015-01-01

    We provide the first formal foundation of SAND attack trees which are a popular extension of the well-known attack trees. The SAND at- tack tree formalism increases the expressivity of attack trees by intro- ducing the sequential conjunctive operator SAND. This operator enables the modeling of

  6. Nitrate Did Wait. And It Looks Fabulous. The Nitrate Picture Show at the George Eastman House (Rochester, NY; May 1-3 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabrina Negri

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available During The Nitrate Picture Show, nitrate prints were projected for an audience of archivists, scholars and cinephiles. This review will provide an account of the festival screenings, and will discuss the value of a festival of film conservation in the contemporary digital media landscape. 

  7. Effects of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on Maladaptive Behavior in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD): A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Dana; McDonald, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the literature investigating the functional relationship between the use of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) and maladaptive behavior (i.e., aggression, tantrums) in individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Digital searches were conducted to identify single subject design studies…

  8. Picture-books: first structured reading materials for children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Martinović

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Early literacy has recently become a current topic, and there’s a widespread belief that literacy startsdeveloping almost as soon as the child is born, if the child is surrounded with adequate materials and persons who will motivate the development of literacy. The first structured reading materials that a child interacts with are picture-books. It is usually the first contact a child has with literature and a written word in general, and it happens during childhood, the child's most sensitive period, which is why it is important to pay special attention to the quality of picture-books. Croatian picture-books published till the early 80ies of the past century have been investigated to a some extent. However, the picture-books found on the Croatian market and in the libraries in the past 30 years have been the subject of research only sporadically. There's little data on the quality and features of this multifunctional material that is of such great importance for children. The aim of the paper is to give an overview of the relevant data found in literature on the historical development of picture-book publishing, their features, functions they help develop, their age-appropriateness, and quality. The paper presents research results stemming from the analysis of the Croatian Children's Book Centre documentation on contemporary picture-book publishing and data on the language of picture-books that are the result of a picture-book corpus study made as part of the PhD research by the author. The data on contemporary authors and illustrators was obtained by analysing the documentation of the Croatian Library Association, Commission for library services for children and youth. The language of the picture-book corpus was analysed using a computer programme, i.e. the analysis was conducted of the lexical diversity of picture-books for three-year olds. The picture-books have not been investigated from the linguistic perspective before, which makes this

  9. Digital TV, advertising and audience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângelo Cruz

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the advertisingsegment and their relationship with the development process of the digital television. We intent to observe the new perspectives of production and consumption of media. Among other things, that involves the issues of interactivity, the exhaustion of the traditional media models, and the relationship of the new media with the audience, considering the analysis of the tripod: digital television, advertising and audience. In Brazil, with the implementation of the Brazilian System of Digital Television (SBTVD, the problem takes bigger proportions, as a consequence of the possibility to issue and track down the digital content consumed. That happens as a consequence of the consumer ability to watch the program withor without the commercial break. At the current model of television, the public is the legitimizing factor: the broadcasters issues the public a ention asan instrument to obtain pecuniary rewarding of theadvertisers. That model constitutes itself as the main funding source of the channels and networks. On the one hand, digital television represents an advantage at the quality of picture and audio, multiplying the capacity to transmit television signals and to transport new features and services. On the other hand, it seems impossible to transform this industry without some reaction. The many interests involved constitute the main cause of that scenario: the agents interested in advertising are those concerned with the role of ideology, the support of capitalism and the industrial culture. Considering all these questions, it seems almost impossible to produce deep chances,contrary to the interests involved.

  10. Vitex altissima L.f of verbenaceae is a large tree of dry deciduous ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    spreading crown and greyish brown scaly bark (tree in the picture is a young specimen). Leaves are compound with three or five leaflets. Flowers are numerous on branched inflorescence, small and white, tinged with blue. Corolla is two-lipped and stamens 4. Fruits are small (0.8 cm) and purplish black when ripe. Timber of ...

  11. Tree manipulation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishina, K.; Takenaka, C.; Ishizuka, S.; Hashimoto, S.; Yagai, Y.

    2012-12-01

    Some forest operations such as thinning and harvesting management could cause changes in N cycling and N2O emission from soils, since thinning and harvesting managements are accompanied with changes in aboveground environments such as an increase of slash falling and solar radiation on the forest floor. However, a considerable uncertainty exists in effects of thinning and harvesting on N2O fluxes regarding changes in belowground environments by cutting trees. To focus on the effect of changes in belowground environments on the N2O emissions from soils, we conducted a tree manipulation experiment in Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica) stand without soil compaction and slash falling near the chambers and measured N2O flux at 50 cm and 150 cm distances from the tree trunk (stump) before and after cutting. We targeted 5 trees for the manipulation and established the measurement chambers to the 4 directions around each targeted tree relative to upper slope (upper, left, right, lower positions). We evaluated the effect of logging on the emission by using hierarchical Bayesian model. HB model can evaluate the variability in observed data and their uncertainties in the estimation with various probability distributions. Moreover, the HB model can easily accommodate the non-linear relationship among the N2O emissions and the environmental factors, and explicitly take non-independent data (nested structure of data) for the estimation into account by using random effects in the model. Our results showed tree cutting stimulated N2O emission from soils, and also that the increase of N2O flux depended on the distance from the trunk (stump): the increase of N2O flux at 50 cm from the trunk (stump) was greater than that of 150 cm from the trunk. The posterior simulation of the HB model indicated that the stimulation of N2O emission by tree cut- ting could reach up to 200 cm in our experimental plot. By tree cutting, the estimated N2O emission at 0-40 cm from the trunk doubled

  12. Distance-dependent processing of pictures and words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amit, Elinor; Algom, Daniel; Trope, Yaacov

    2009-08-01

    A series of 8 experiments investigated the association between pictorial and verbal representations and the psychological distance of the referent objects from the observer. The results showed that people better process pictures that represent proximal objects and words that represent distal objects than pictures that represent distal objects and words that represent proximal objects. These results were obtained with various psychological distance dimensions (spatial, temporal, and social), different tasks (classification and categorization), and different measures (speed of processing and selective attention). The authors argue that differences in the processing of pictures and words emanate from the physical similarity of pictures, but not words, to the referents. Consequently, perceptual analysis is commonly applied to pictures but not to words. Pictures thus impart a sense of closeness to the referent objects and are preferably used to represent such objects, whereas words do not convey proximity and are preferably used to represent distal objects in space, time, and social perspective.

  13. Effects of picture size reduction and blurring on emotional engagement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea De Cesarei

    Full Text Available The activity of basic motivational systems is reflected in emotional responses to arousing stimuli, such as natural pictures. The manipulation of picture properties such as size or detail allows for investigation into the extent to which separate emotional reactions are similarly modulated by perceptual changes, or, rather, may subserve different functions. Pursuing this line of research, the present study examined the effects of two types of perceptual degradation, namely picture size reduction and blurring, on emotional responses. Both manipulations reduced picture relevance and dampened affective modulation of skin conductance, possibly because of a reduced action preparation in response to degraded or remote pictures. However, the affective modulation of the startle reflex did not vary with picture degradation, suggesting that the identification of these degraded affective cues activated the neural circuits mediating appetitive or defensive motivation.

  14. The picture superiority effect: support for the distinctiveness model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintzer, M Z; Snodgrass, J G

    1999-01-01

    The form change paradigm was used to explore the basis for the picture superiority effect. Recognition memory for studied pictures and words was tested in their study form or the alternate form. Form change cost was defined as the difference between recognition performance for same and different form items. Based on the results of Experiment 1 and previous studies, it was difficult to determine the relative cost for studied pictures and words due to a reversal of the mirror effect. We hypothesized that the reversed mirror effect results from subjects' basing their recognition decisions on their assumptions about the study form. Experiments 2 and 3 confirmed this hypothesis and generated a method for evaluating the relative cost for pictures and words despite the reversed mirror effect. More cost was observed for pictures than words, supporting the distinctiveness model of the picture superiority effect.

  15. Writing words from pictures: what representations are activated, and when?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonin, P; Fayol, M

    2000-06-01

    In three experiments, the nature of the representations involved in written picture naming and the time course of their activation were investigated. French participants had to produce picture names while hearing distractors. In Experiment 1, distractors semantically related to the picture names yielded a semantic interference effect when a stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) of--150 msec, but not when a SOA of 0 msec, was used, in both spoken and written picture naming. Experiment 2 showed that the semantic interference effect was not located at the conceptual level. In Experiment 3, participants wrote down picture names while hearing semantically related, phonologically related, both semantically and phonologically related, or unrelated distractors, presented at both SOAs. A semantic interference effect was obtained with phonologically unrelated distractors but was eliminated with phonologically related distractors. Facilitatory effects of phonologically related distractors were found at both SOAs. The implications of the findings for written picture naming are discussed.

  16. Fashion pictures and women pictures in French women magazine. Normatives parades or strategic masquerade?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justine MARILLONNET

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article proposes to study the fashion pictures within a representative sample of French women magazines. Based on the method of “sémiologie des indices”, used to analyze a corpus of woman’s body and fashion staged, this paper addresses the issue of new functions granted to the stereotyping process. Starting to the assumption of a contract between audience and media, this analysis shows that the gender stereotype may be prescribed, up to a caricature of the womanhood, to the female readers identified as co-producers of the media discourse. Demonstrating both the co-existence of a plurality of gender representations in its pictures and their variability, this work proposes the concept of strategic masquerade to apprehend the possible new functions for the process of gender stereotyping in media.

  17. Decoding Pedophilia: Increased Anterior Insula Response to Infant Animal Pictures

    OpenAIRE

    Ponseti, Jorge; Bruhn, Daniel; Nolting, Julia; Gerwinn, Hannah; Pohl, Alexander; Stirn, Aglaja; Granert, Oliver; Laufs, Helmut; Deuschl, Günther; Wolff, Stephan; Jansen, Olav; Siebner, Hartwig; Briken, Peer; Mohnke, Sebastian; Amelung, Till

    2018-01-01

    Previous research found increased brain responses of men with sexual interest in children (i.e., pedophiles) not only to pictures of naked children but also to pictures of child faces. This opens the possibly that pedophilia is linked (in addition to or instead of an aberrant sexual system) to an over-active nurturing system. To test this hypothesis we exposed pedophiles and healthy controls to pictures of infant and adult animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. By ...

  18. Gaze Differences in Processing Pictures with Emotional Content

    OpenAIRE

    Budimir, Sanja; Palmović, Marijan

    2011-01-01

    The International Affective Picture System (IAPS) is a set of standardized emotionally evocative color photographs developed by NIMH Center for Emotion and Attention at the University of Florida. It contains more than 900 emotional pictures indexed by emotional valence, arousal and dominance. However, when IAPS pictures were used in studying emotions with the event-related potentials, the results have shown a great deal of variation and inconsistency. In this research arousal and dominance of...

  19. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T.; Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.

  20. Enhanced Choice for Viewing Cocaine Pictures in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, S.J.; Goldstein, R.; Moeller, S.J.; Maloney, T. Parvaz, M.A.; Dunning, J.P.; Alia-Klein, N.; Woicik, P.A.; Hajcak, G.; Telang, F.; Wang, G.-J.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2009-02-01

    Individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD) chose cocaine over nondrug rewards. In two newly designed laboratory tasks with pictures, we document this modified choice outside of a cocaine administration paradigm. Choice for viewing cocaine, pleasant, unpleasant, or neutral pictures-under explicit contingencies (choice made between two fully visible side-by-side images) and under more implicit contingencies (selections made between pictures hidden under flipped-over cards)-was examined in 20 CUD and 20 matched healthy control subjects. Subjects also provided self-reported ratings of each picture's pleasantness and arousal. Under both contingencies, CUD subjects chose to view more cocaine pictures than control subjects, group differences that were not fully explained by the self-reported picture ratings. Furthermore, whereas CUD subjects choice for viewing cocaine pictures exceeded choice for viewing unpleasant pictures (but did not exceed choice for viewing pleasant pictures, in contrast to their self-reported ratings), healthy control subjects avoided viewing cocaine pictures as frequently as, or even more than, unpleasant pictures. Finally, CUD subjects with the most cocaine viewing selections, even when directly compared with selections of the pleasant pictures, also reported the most frequent recent cocaine use. Enhanced drug-related choice in cocaine addiction can be demonstrated even for nonpharmacologic (pictorial) stimuli. This choice, which is modulated by alternative stimuli, partly transcends self-reports (possibly indicative of a disconnect in cocaine addiction between self-reports and objective behavior) to provide an objective marker of addiction severity. Neuroimaging studies are needed to establish the neural underpinnings of such enhanced cocaine-related choice.