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Sample records for digital panoramic radiographs

  1. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Chandramani B; Asrani, Mukesh K

    2010-01-01

    The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 – 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin

  2. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Chandramani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 - 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. Aim: To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. Results: The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin.

  3. Distortion of digital panoramic radiographs used for implant site assessment

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    Rayyan Abdulhamid Kayal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study is conducted to determine the amount of distortion of digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of all patients who received dental implants in the years 2012 and 2013 were selected from the records at the faculty of dentistry, King Abdulaziz University. Radiographs were analyzed using the R4 Kodak Software for linear measurements of implants length and width. The measurements were compared to the actual size of the implant, and the amount of distortion was calculated. Results: A total of 169 implants were analyzed. Horizontally, there was a statistically significant increase of 0.4 mm in width in the radiographic measurement compared to the actual size in the incisor region. Vertically, the sample overall exhibited a decrease by 0.4 mm compared to the actual size. Incisors had the highest difference with a decrease of 1.7 mm in the radiographic measurements compared to actual size. The highest distortion was found in the incisor region for both diameter and length (1.1 and 0.86, respectively. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs show minimal to no distortion. The highest distortion is found in the anterior area.

  4. Panoramic images of conventional radiographs: digital panoramic dynamic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, M.

    2001-01-01

    The benefits of digital technic s to od ontology are evident. Instant images, the possibility to handle them, the reduction of exposition time to radiations, better quality image, better quality information, Stocking them in a compact disc, occupying very little space, allows an easy transport and duplication, as well as the possibility to transfer and save it in an electronica l support.This kind of communication allows the transmission of digital images and every other type of data, instantaneously and no matter distances or geographical borders. Anyway, we should point out that conventional and digital technic s reveal the same information contents

  5. A study on assessment of the length of styloid process in digital panoramic radiographs

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    Nikita Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The styloid process (SP is an anatomical structure whose clinical importance is not well understood. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to study the type of SP as per Langlais′ classification and to assess the feasibility of digital panoramic radiographs in measuring the length of SP. Materials and Methods: Eighty digital panoramic radiographs of patients with dental problems were retrieved from archives of our department as soft copies. The radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of SP was measured on both sides using measurement toolbars on accompanying analysis software. The type of elongation patterns of SP was classified as per Langlais′ classification. Finally, the data were subjected to statistical analysis. Results: The average length of the left and right side SPs was 29.1882 ± 6.86 and 28.16 ± 6.44, respectively. Majority of patients were found to be asymptomatic, and Langlais′ Type I elongated SP was more common than others. Conclusion: Digital panoramic radiographs are valuable tools in early detection of elongated SP. Digital radiographs help in avoiding a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular region.

  6. A study of the mandibular canal in digital panoramic radiographic images of a selected Korean population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo

    2007-01-01

    To determine the more valuable information to detect the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiographs of a selected Korean population for the implant. This study analysed 288 panoramic radiographic images of patients taken at the Dental hospital of Chosun University retrospectively. Indirect digital panoramic X-ray machine (ProlineXC, PLANMECA, Finland) with processing by using Directview CR950 (Kodak, U.S.A.) and Direct digital panoramic X-ray machine (Promax, PLANMECA, Finland) were used for all exposures. All images were converted into Dicom format. The common position of the mental foramen was in line with the longitudinal axis of the second premolar (68.1%). The mental foramen was lower symmetrical in 81.8% of cases. The mandibular canal was not identified at anterior portion and discontinued with the mental foramen in 27.8% of all cases, in 42.4% identified with lower border line continued with the mental foramen, in 14.6% with both upper and lower border lines, and in 15.3% unilaterally identified with lower border line. Clinicians can estimate the upper border line of the mandibular canal from the confirmation of the mental foramen and the lower border line of the mandibular canal symmetrically on the panoramic radiography taken in adjusted midsaggital plane of patient's head

  7. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, Stephen J.; Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla; Farman, Allan G.; Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-01-01

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson χ 2 were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  8. Prevalence of carotid and pulp calcifications: a correlation using digital panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Stephen J. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Scheetz, James P.; Khan, Zafrulla [University of Louisville, Department of Diagnostic Sciences, Prosthodontics and Restorative Dentistry, School of Dentistry, Louisville, KY (United States); Farman, Allan G. [School of Dentistry, University of Louisville, Department of Periodontics, Endodontics and Dental Hygiene, Louisville, KY (United States); Horsley, Scott H.; Beckstrom, Brice

    2009-03-15

    To compare the prevalence of pulp calcification with that of carotid calcification using digital panoramic dental radiographs. Digital panoramic radiographs of patients at a dental oncology clinic were included if (1) the carotid artery bifurcation region was visible bilaterally and (2) the patient had non-restored or minimally restored molars and/or canines. An endodontist evaluated the images for pulpal calcifications in the selected teeth. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist independently evaluated the same images for calcifications in the carotid bifurcation region. Odds-ratio and Pearson {chi}{sup 2} were used for data analysis. Presence of pulpal calcification was also evaluated as a screening test for the presence of carotid calcification. A total of 247 panoramic radiographs were evaluated. 32% (n=80) had pulpal calcifications and 25% (n=61) had carotid calcifications with 12% (n=29) having both carotid and pulp calcifications. A significantly higher prevalence of both pulp and carotid calcification was found in subjects older than age 60 years compared to younger age groups. Accuracy of pulpal calcification in screening for carotid calcification was 66.4%. Both pulp and carotid calcifications were more prevalent in older individuals. The presence of pulp calcification was not a strong predictor for the presence of carotid calcification. (orig.)

  9. Invesigation of prevalence of dental anomalies by using digital panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilge, Nebiha Hilal; Yeşiltepe, Selin; Törenek Ağırman, Kübra; Çağlayan, Fatma; Bilge, Osman Murat

    2017-09-21

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 6 to 40 year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted by analyzing digital panoramic radiographs of 1200 patients admitted to our clinic in 2014. Dental anomalies were examined under 5 types and 16 subtypes. Dental anomalies were divided into five types: (a) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia and hyperdontia); (b) size (including microdontia and macrodontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta and dentin dysplasia); (d) position (including transposition, ectopia, displacement, impaction and inversion); (e) shape (including fusion-gemination, dilaceration and taurodontism); RESULTS: The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 39.2% (men (46%), women (54%)). Anomalies of position (60.8%) and shape (27.8%) were the most common types of abnormalities and anomalies of size (8.2%), structure (0.2%) and number (17%) were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (45.5%), dilacerations (16.3%), hypodontia (13.8%) and taurodontism (11.2%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. Taurodontism was more common in the age groups of 13-19 years. The age range of the most frequent of all other anomalies was 20-29. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies and structure anomalies were the least in this Turkish dental population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies. Digital panoramic radiography is a very useful method for the detection of dental anomalies.

  10. Tooth coronal index: Key for age estimation on digital panoramic radiographs

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    Ravleen Nagi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Assessment of age through teeth is one of the most reliable and simple method than skeletal remains, to calculate age of an individual. Objectives: The study was carried out with an aim to evaluate reliability of dental age assessment through tooth coronal index (TCI method. Materials and Methods: The digital panoramic radiographs of 100 subjects of Chhattisgarh aged 20–70 years were selected for the study. The measurements were performed on the JPEG images of selected panoramic radiographs by using Adobe Acrobat 7.0 professional software. The height of the crown, i.e., coronal height, and the height of the coronal pulp cavity, i.e., coronal pulp cavity height, of mandibular second premolars and first molars were measured in millimeter (mm and then TCI was calculated for each tooth. Actual age of a subject was compared with TCI of tooth and the acquired data were subjected to Pearson's correlation and unpaired t-tests. Results: Negative correlation was observed between the real age and TCI of mandibular first molar (r = −0.092, P = 0.365 and second premolar (r = −0.168, P = 0.096. Statistically significant difference was observed between real age and TCI for mandibular second premolar and first molar (P = 0.000 by unpaired t-test. Conclusion: TCI has the potential to estimate age of an individual on dental radiographs. It is simple, cost effective than histological methods and can be applied to both living and unknown dead.

  11. Digital panoramic radiograph rejection index at a Dental Radiology Service in Paraná, Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickus, J.; Barros, F.S.; Sato, G.Y.; Rosa, P.C.

    2017-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is the most frequent extraoral examination in dentistry. This technique allows the visualization of adjacent maxillomandibular and anatomical structures. Although digital imaging systems are already the great majority of dental radiology services, there is still a shortage of works evaluating the quality of this type of image. The objective of this study was to identify the rejection index of digital panoramic radiographs of a dental radiology service of a university in Brazil, pointing out the main reasons. A survey was performed on the image files and, randomly selected, 2306 images, 10% of the examinations performed in the period between 2013 to 2015. The results indicated a total rejection rate of 5.1% over the three years, totaling 117 radiographs. The main reasons for rejection were: the patient's head tilted backwards in 2013 and the lack of tongue contact with the palate, for the years 2014 and 2015. The main reasons for repetition of exams are related to the positioning in the execution of the technique radiological factors, which may be related to the lack of professional training. Patient collaboration during the examination and professional-to-patient communication failures may result in poor diagnostic quality exams

  12. Evaluation of developmental dental anomalies in digital panoramic radiographs in Southeast Iranian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saberi, Eshagh Ali; Ebrahimipour, Sediqe

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental developmental anomalies in digital panoramic radiographs of the patients referred to the Zahedan medical imaging center and to evaluate the frequency of anomalies regarding the disorders in shape, position and number in the Southeast of Iran. A total of 1172 panoramic radiographs from 581 males and 586 females aged over 16 years were obtained from the files of the Zahedan medical imaging center between the years of 2014 and 2015. The selected radiographs were evaluated in terms of the anomalies such as dilacerations, taurodontism, supernumerary teeth, congenitally missing teeth, fusion, gemination, tooth impaction, tooth transposition, dens invagination, and peg lateral. Then, the anomalies were compared to each other regarding the frequency of the anomaly type (morphological, positional and numerical). Data were evaluated using descriptive statistics such as frequency and percent, and statistical tests such as X(2) at 0.05 significant level using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 16.5. The prevalence of dental anomaly was 213 (18.17%), which was higher in females (9.90) than male, (8.28), however, this difference was not statistically significant (P > 0.05). The prevalence of dilacerated teeth was 62 (5.29%), taurodontism 63 (5.38%), supernumerary teeth 6 (0.51%), congenitally missing teeth 13 (1.11%), fusion 1 (0.09%), gemination 1 (0.09%), impaction 40 (3.41%), transposition 2 (0.18%), dens invagination 16 (1.37) and peg lateral was 9 (0.77%). The prevalence of morphological anomaly was 152 (71.36%), malposition 42 (19.72%) and numerous anomaly was 19 (8.92%). Dental anomalies are relatively common; although their occurrence is not symptomatic, they can lead to several clinical problems in patients. Detailed clinical and radiographic assessment and counseling during patient visits is a critical factor in assessing the patient's degree of difficulty to help the dentist for

  13. Changes in jawbones of male patients with chronic renal failure on digital panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagistan, Saadettin; Miloglu, Ozkan; Caglayan, Fatma

    2016-01-01

    To compare the existence of gonial cortical bone thickness, antegonial index, mandibular canal bone resorption and gonial angle values and pathologies like ground-glass appearance in jawbones and brown tumor in male patients undergoing dialysis due to chronic renal failure and men from the healthy control group on panoramic radiographs. Panoramic radiographs were taken from 80 male individuals in total (40 normal and 40 dialysis patients). Values obtained from the right and left sides of the mandible were summed and their means were calculated. Gonial cortical thickness, antegonial index and gonial angle values were assessed with the Student's t-test, mandibular canal wall resorption with the Chi-square test, and pathologies such as ground-glass appearance and Brown tumor as "available" or "not available." Statistically significant differences were observed among the antegonial index (P chronic renal failure. Although it is not statistically significant, pathology with ground-glass appearance was detected in a patient, but no pathologies like brown tumor were observed. These findings from patients with chronic renal failure must be evaluated in panoramic radiography.

  14. Calcified carotid atherosclerotic plaques on digital panoramic radiographs in patients with Type II diabetes mellitus: A case control study

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    Neha Khambete

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetes mellitus is associated with accelerated carotid artery atherosclerosis and increased risk of stroke. This study was conducted with the objective of determining the prevalence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques on panoramic radiographs of patients with Type II diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: Panoramic radiographs of 100 patients (age range 50-84 years with known history of type II diabetes mellitus, visiting the outpatient department were evaluated for the presence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques. Age- and sex-matched controls were evaluated in the same manner. Statistical comparison of prevalence rates was done. Results: The radiographs of diabetics (mean age: 64.45 years revealed that 26% had atheromatous plaques, whereas those of controls (mean age: 65.36 years revealed that 6% had atheromatous plaques. A statistically significant difference (P = 0.01410 was obtained using Yates′ Chi-square test. Conclusion: People with diabetes mellitus had a greater prevalence of calcified atherosclerotic plaques on panoramic radiographs than non-diabetics. Panoramic radiographs of diabetic patients should be screened for the presence of carotid artery atheromatous plaques for timely medical referral of asymptomatic patients and avoiding any further serious consequences like cerebrovascular accidents.

  15. Radiographic evaluation of marginal bone levels adjacent to parallel-screw cylinder machined-neck implants and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants using digitized panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickenig, Hans-Joachim; Wichmann, Manfred; Schlegel, Karl Andreas; Nkenke, Emeka; Eitner, Stephan

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this split-mouth study was to compare macro- and microstructure implant surfaces at the marginal bone level during a stress-free healing period and under functional loading. From January to February 2006, 133 implants (70 rough-surfaced microthreaded implants and 63 machined-neck implants) were inserted in the mandible of 34 patients with Kennedy Class I residual dentitions and followed until February 2008. The marginal bone level was radiographically determined, using digitized panoramic radiographs, at four time points: at implant placement (baseline level), after the healing period, after 6 months of functional loading, and at the end of follow-up. The median follow-up time was 1.9 (range: 1.9-2.1) years. The machined-neck group had a mean crestal bone loss of 0.5 mm (range: 0-2.3) after the healing period, 0.8 mm after 6 months (range: 0-2.4), and 1.1 mm (range: 0-3) at the end of follow-up. The rough-surfaced microthreaded implant group had a mean bone loss of 0.1 mm (range: -0.4-2) after the healing period, 0.4 mm (range: 0-2.1) after 6 months, and 0.5 mm (range: 0-2.1) at the end of follow-up. The two implant types showed significant differences in marginal bone levels (healing period: P=0.01; end of follow-up: Pimplants showed that implants with the microthreaded design caused minimal changes in crestal bone levels during healing (stress-free) and under functional loading.

  16. Predicting lower third molar eruption on panoramic radiographs after cephalometric comparison of profile and panoramic radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Begtrup, Anders; Grønastøð, Halldis Á; Christensen, Ib Jarle

    2012-01-01

    and to find a simple and reliable method for predicting the eruption of the mandibular third molar by measurements on panoramic radiographs. The material consisted of profile and panoramic radiographs, taken before orthodontic treatment, of 30 males and 23 females (median age 22, range 18-48 years......Previous studies have suggested methods for predicting third molar tooth eruption radiographically. Still, this prediction is associated with uncertainty. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the association between cephalometric measurements on profile and panoramic radiographs...... the length from the ramus to the incisors (olr-id) showed a statistically significant correlation. By combining this length with the mesiodistal width of the lower second molar, the prediction of eruption of the lower third molar was strengthened. A new formula for calculating the probability of eruption...

  17. Appearance of the mandibular incisive canal on panoramic radiographs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, R.; Mraiwa, N.; van Steenberghe, D.; Sanderink, G.C.H.; Quirynen, M.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic radiographs are routinely used in the dental office for various diagnostic purposes. This study aimed to evaluate the visibility of neurovascular structures in the mandibular interforaminal region on such radiographs. Panoramic radiographs were obtained with a Cranex Tome (Soredex) from

  18. Evaluation of panoramic radiographs taken from 1056 Turkish children

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Panoramic radiographs (PRs) play an important role in the diagnosis and treatment planning of a wide range of dental and maxillofacial diseases and conditions. To examine and to determine the status of oral lesions, dental anomalies and pathologies in panoramic radiographs, which were taken at the ...

  19. Dilemma of gonial angle measurement: Panoramic radiograph or lateral cephalogram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhakrishnan, Pillai Devu; Varma, Nilambur Kovilakam Sapna; Ajith, Vallikat Velath [Dept. of Orthodontics, Amrita School of Dentistry, Kochi (India)

    2017-06-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of panoramic imaging in measuring the right and left gonial angles by comparing the measured angles with the angles determined using a lateral cephalogram of adult patients with class I malocclusion. The gonial angles of 50 class I malocclusion patients (25 males and 25 females; mean age: 23 years) were measured using both a lateral cephalogram and a panoramic radiograph. In the lateral cephalograms, the gonial angle was measured at the point of intersection of the ramus plane and the mandibular plane. In the panoramic radiographs, the gonial angle was measured by drawing a line tangent to the lower border of the mandible and another line tangent to the distal border of the ascending ramus and the condyle on both sides. The data obtained from both radiographs were statistically compared. No statistically significant difference was observed between the gonial angle measured using the lateral cephalograms and that determined using the panoramic radiographs. Further, there was no statistically significant difference in the measured gonial angle with respect to gender. The results also showed a statistically insignificant difference in the mean of the right and the left gonial angles measured using the panoramic radiographs. As the gonial angle measurements using panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms showed no statistically significant difference, panoramic radiography can be considered in orthodontics for measuring the gonial angle without any interference due to superimposed images.

  20. Effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Gun Sun; Kim, Jin Soo; Seo, Yo Seob; Kim, Jae Duk [School of Dentistry, Oral Biology Research Institute, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-06-15

    This study aimed to provide comparative measurements of the effective dose from direct and indirect digital panoramic units according to phantoms and exposure parameters. Dose measurements were carried out using a head phantom representing an average man (175 cm tall, 73.5 kg male) and a limbless whole body phantom representing an average woman (155 cm tall, 50 kg female). Lithium fluoride thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips were used for the dosimeter. Two direct and 2 indirect digital panoramic units were evaluated in this study. Effective doses were derived using 2007 International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommendations. The effective doses of the 4 digital panoramic units ranged between 8.9 {mu}Sv and 37.8 {mu}Sv. By using the head phantom, the effective doses from the direct digital panoramic units (37.8 {mu}Sv, 27.6 {mu}Sv) were higher than those from the indirect units (8.9 {mu}Sv, 15.9 {mu}Sv). The same panoramic unit showed the difference in effective doses according to the gender of the phantom, numbers and locations of TLDs, and kVp. To reasonably assess the radiation risk from various dental radiographic units, the effective doses should be obtained with the same numbers and locations of TLDs, and with standard hospital exposure. After that, it is necessary to survey the effective doses from various dental radiographic units according to the gender with the corresponding phantom.

  1. Early diagnosis of atherosclerosis with panoramic radiographs: a review

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    Daiane Landim Borba

    Full Text Available Abstract Carotid artery disease has been linked with cerebral vascular accident, also known as stroke, cerebral hemorrhage, or cerebral ischemia. It is caused by narrowing or obstruction of arteries in the neck (the carotid arteries that are responsible for transporting blood from the aorta to the brain. Panoramic radiographs are used in dentistry to show both dental arches as a supplement to the clinical dental examination. The objective of this study is to highlight the importance of panoramic radiographs for diagnosis of arterial disease, by means of a bibliographic review. The PubMed database was searched using the keywords “atherosclerosis” and “panoramic”, with the filters “last 5 years” and “humans”. Twenty articles were identified, six of which were chosen for this study because they were open access. The review concluded that panoramic radiographs enable early diagnosis of carotid artery calcification, resulting in earlier interventions, and offer an accessible cost.

  2. A radiographic study of the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Karp Shik; Kim, Dong Youn; Sohn, Jeong Ick; Bae, Yong Chul

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the position and shape of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. For this study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from the 200 adults and evaluated the position and shape of mental foramen. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, the author also obtained panoramic radiographs from the 100 adults and then evaluated the positional and shape changes of mental foramen. The following results were obtained : 1. Shapes of mental foramen were observed elliptical (43.3%), round or oval (42.5%), unidentified (7.5%) and diffuse (6.7%) type in descending order of frequency. 2. Horizontal position of mental foramen were most frequently observed at the 2nd premolar area (54.2%), and area between the 1st premolar and 2nd premolar (43.1%), area between the 2nd premolar and 1st molar (2.7%), and at apex (9.7%), overlap with apex (1.9%), superior of apex (0.2%) in descending order of frequency. 4. According to various positional changes in panoramic radiographs of the patients, shape changes of mental foramen were more obviously observed at the forward 10 mm and chin down 10 degree positioned panoramic radiographs, And changes of horizontal and vertical position were observed in similar to compared with normal positioned panoramic radiographs.

  3. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Montero Aguilar, Mauricio; Zeledon Mayorga, Rodolfo; Ramirez Mora, Tatiana; Monestel Umana, Silvia

    2009-01-01

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author) [es

  4. Influence of the intergonial distance on image distortion in panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladeira, D B S; Cruz, A D; Almeida, S M; Bóscolo, F N

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of the intergonial distance during the formation of panoramic radiographic images by means of horizontal and vertical measurements. 30 macerated mandibles were categorized into 3 different groups (n = 10) according to their intergonial distances as follows: G1, mean distance 8.2 cm, G2, mean distance 9.0 cm and G3, mean distance 9.6 cm. Three metal spheres 0.198 cm in diameter and placed at an incline using an isosceles triangle were separately placed over the internal and external surfaces of the mandibles before radiographic exposure for the purpose of taking the horizontal and vertical measurements. The occlusal planes of the mandibles were horizontally placed on the chin rest of the panoramic machine Orthopantomograph® OP 100 (Instrumentarium Imaging, Tuusula, Finland) and were then radiographed. In the panoramic radiographs, an expert radiologist measured the distances between the metal spheres in the horizontal and vertical directions using a digital caliper. The data were tabled and statistically analysed by Student's t-test and analysis of variance with Tukey post-test (α = 0.05). In all three groups magnification of the distances between spheres was observed when compared with the real distance in both horizontal and vertical measurements (p 0.05). Differences between horizontal and vertical measurements were observed in different regions in all evaluated groups (p image formation in the panoramic radiograph.

  5. Is there a relation between local bone quality as assessed on panoramic radiographs and alveolar bone level?

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    Nackaerts, Olivia; Gijbels, Frieda; Sanna, Anna-Maria; Jacobs, Reinhilde

    2008-03-01

    The aim was to explore the relation between radiographic bone quality on panoramic radiographs and relative alveolar bone level. Digital panoramic radiographs of 94 female patients were analysed (mean age, 44.5; range, 35-74). Radiographic density of the alveolar bone in the premolar region was determined using Agfa Musica software. Alveolar bone level and bone quality index (BQI) were also assessed. Relationships between bone density and BQI on one hand and the relative loss of alveolar bone level on the other were assessed. Mandibular bone density and loss of alveolar bone level were weakly but significantly negatively correlated for the lower premolar area (r = -.27). The BQI did not show a statistically significant relation to alveolar bone level. Radiographic mandibular bone density on panoramic radiographs shows a weak but significant relation to alveolar bone level, with more periodontal breakdown for less dense alveolar bone.

  6. Comparison of conventional panoramic radiography and panoramic digital subtraction radiography in detection of simulated lesions of mandibular condyle

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    Panjnoush M.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "n  "nBackground and Aim: Digital subtraction Radiography (DSR is a method of accurate assessing condylar head changes. several studies have been carried out in applying DSR in dentistry, however there is a few number of studies in efficacy of DSR method in assesment of condylar head changes, The aim of this study was to compare panoramic radiography and DSR detecting simulated lesions of the mandibular condyl. "nMaterials and Methods: this was a process reaserch study, in which two dry human skulls with no obvious temporomandibular joint pathology were used. Osteophytic lesions were simulated using three sizes of bone chips that were placed on the medial portion of anterior and superolateral aspects of the condyle. Osteolytic lesions were simulated making 1 and 2 mm holes using round burr in the central portion of anterior aspect and Lateral pole of the condyle. Panoramic radiographs were prepared with and without the lesions in place. These paired radiographs were digitized and digital- subtraction images of the original panoramic images were obtained. Eight observers evaluated 155 images of each modality for the presence or absence and the type of simulated lesions of the mandibular condyle. Sensitivity, specificity, reliability and measure of agreement were analyzed using kappa test and crossed tables and qualitative variables were assess by chi-square and fisher's Exact test. "nResults: Specificity of panoramic and DSR methods were 15.4% and 66.7% respectively. Sensitivity of panoramic and DSR methods were 61.1% and 80.6% for osteophytic lesions and 37.5% and 83.3% for Osteolytic lesions. The percentage of correct decisions made in DSR method was significantly more than conventional panoramic method (82.6% vs 41.9% (p<0.0001. "nConclusion: Based on the results of this study digital subtraction technique was significantly more accurate than the panoramic radiographs in detection of simulated lesions of the mandibular condyle.

  7. Quality comparison of direct digital panoramic radiography and computed radiography panoramic

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    Dariush Goodarzipour

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIM: Digital panoramic X-ray images can be captured using photostimulable phosphors or solid-state detectors (i.e. charge-coupled devices and Flat-Panels. The first category is defined as computed radiography (CR or semi-direct radiography. The second technology that uses solid-state detectors is known as direct digital radiography (DDR. Both of these technologies have their own advantages and disadvantages. One of the most important fields in comparison of these systems is their resultant image quality. The purpose of this study was to compare the subjective image quality of DDR and CR digital panoramic system, and to assess the overall density and contrast of their images. METHODS: 200 patients were randomly allocated to two digital systems: Promax [central control digital (CCD] and XC [photostimulable phosphor plates (PSP]. Image quality was evaluated in six regions on a 3-point scale by three oral and maxillofacial radiologists independently. In addition, observers assessed overall density and contrast of each image on a 3-point scale. RESULTS: Using chi-square test, no statistically significant differences were found (P >0.05 in subjective image quality of anatomic structures between the two radiographic systems. But DDR system outperformed CR system in overall density and contrast of the image. P values for both overall density and contrast of the images was less than 0.001. CONCLUSIONS: The subjective image quality of CR and DDR panoramic systems in specified anatomic regions were found statistically comparable in this study. In overall density and contrast of the radiographs, DDR system proved better than CR system.

  8. Clinical validity of panoramic radiographs with Digora PCT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuda, Yukiko; Araki, Kazuyuki; Hanazawa, Tomomi; Seki, Kenji; Okano, Tomohiro

    2006-01-01

    The quality of panoramic radiographs with a digital imaging system, Digora PCT, was compared with that of a Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) system. The exposure settings that would produce the appropriate density for observation of the images were determined. The images of the Digora PCT and the FCR system were observed on a 17-inch CRT monitor and printed films respectively. Thirty images of patients were obtained with each system. Six oral radiologists observed the images and evaluated the visibility of pathologic conditions based on outline of mandible, mandibular canal and bone trabecula, shape of the tooth and periodontal hard tissue of the mandible, shape of the tooth and periodontal hard tissue of the maxilla, and outline of the bony structure of the maxillary sinus, using the following three categories: good, fair, and unacceptable. The images of each system were evaluated separately at an interval of 3 months. Mann-Whitney test with p=0.05 was used to analyze differences between the two systems. There were no images of either system rated as ''unacceptable''. The visibility of the shape of the tooth, periodontal hard tissue, and the outline of the bony structure of the maxillary sinus with the Digora PCT was inferior to that with the FCR system. However, it can be concluded that the image quality of the Digora PCT is adequate for dental purposes because there were no unacceptable images. (author)

  9. Dental anomalies in panoramic radiographs of pediatric patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsillac, Mirian de Waele Souchois de; Andrade, Marcia Rejane Thomas; Fonseca, Raquel de Oliveira; Marcal, Sonia Lucia Macedo; Santos, Vera Lucia Campos

    2013-01-01

    A panoramic radiograph is more likely utilized in children with high caries risk and mixed dentition, and it can be complemented by other X-rays (such as periapical and/or bitewings). This study analyzed 1359 panoramic radiographs taken over 33 years at the Pedodontics Clinic of the State University of Rio de Janeiro in order to determine the prevalence of dental anomalies in mixed dentition children. The population evaluated had 670 (49.3%) boys and 689 (50.7%) girls, ranging in age from 5-12 years, with a median age of 8 years. The total prevalence of anomalies detected was 11.72%; anodontia and supernumerary teeth were the most reported (4.63% and 3.31%, respectively). Statistical differences noted were in the presence of supernumary teeth in males (4.9%, P dentition, as well as complement the clinical examination at the first dental visit of a pediatric patient with a high risk for caries.

  10. Retrospective panoramic radiographic analysis for idiopathic osteosclerosis in Indians

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    Srikanth H Srivathsa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Idiopathic osteosclerosis is an area of increased radiodensity observed on panoramic radiographs. The prevalence of this entity is not known, especially in Indians. Aims and Objectives: To determine the prevalence and epidemiological characteristics of idiopathic osteosclerosis. Materials and Methods: Six hundred and forty panoramic radiographs were retrospectively analyzed for the presence of idiopathic osteosclerosis by a single trained oral radiologist. Statistical Analysis: The data obtained were analyzed using Microsoft Excel (Version 2007 for Windows. Results: Idiopathic osteosclerosis was identified in 32 individuals with a prevalence of 5%. There were 21 female (65.7% and 11 male (34.3% participants. There were 31 single, unilateral (96.85% osteosclerotic lesions and 1 (3.15% bilateral lesion. Right side localization was noted in 19 participants (57.57% and left side localization in 14 participants (42.42%. Conclusion: This study illustrates the prevalence of idiopathic osteosclerosis in Indians. Further, it depicts the characteristics of idiopathic osteosclerotic lesions.

  11. Effects of Edentulism on Mandibular Morphology: Evaluation of Panoramic Radiographs

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    Rıdvan Okşayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The objective of this study was to evaluate morphological changes of the mandible in edentulous and dentate subjects using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods. Panoramic radiographs were divided into the following three groups: Group I (completely edentulous group, Group II (old dentate group and Group III (young dentate group. The research parameters of gonial angle, condylar height, ramus height, ramus notch depth, and antegonial notch depth were measured on panoramic radiographs. The Kruskal-Wallis statistical test was used to determine significant differences in mandibular morphological parameters among the three groups. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to compare the subgroups. Results. Significant differences were found only in ramus height between three groups. According to the Mann-Whitney U test, a significant difference was exhibited among Groups I and II in the ramus height parameter. No significant differences were found in the gonial angle, condylar height, ramus notch depth, or antegonial notch depth when comparing the young dentate, old dentate, and completely edentulous subjects. Conclusions. Significant differences were found only in ramus height between the groups. Ramus height may be an indicator that changed by years and tooth loss. It must be considered that ramus height can be decreased in edentulism.

  12. Topographical evaluation of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiograph

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    Ingrid Macedo Oliveira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The mandibular canal is located inside the body of the mandible and may have anatomical variations. The topographic knowledge of the mandibular canal by the Dental surgeons is fundamental to achieving success in surgical planning, anesthetics and clinical interventions involving the jaw. To study the anatomy of the mandibular canal through panoramic radiographs. A retrospective descriptive study, developed after review and approval by the Ethics and Research Committee with the number of opinion 431095. Were analyzed 252 panoramic radiographs of patients of male and female attended in dental clinics UNINOVAFAPI University Center, Teresina-Pi, Brazil. The radiographs were analyzed with the aid of a light box and each antimere the jaw was observed separately. The classification of Nortjé and Langlais for description of the topography of the mandibular canal were used. Descriptive statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 18.0. There was a prevalence of 38.89% in both antimeres, of mandibular channel the Type II. The type IV was present in 25.4% in the right hemi-arch and 26.6% on the left. Mandibular canal with unilateral bifurcation was observed in 0.77% of the sample and molar straight channel has not been identified. We observed anatomical variations as for the number and path, of the mandibular canal with the highest prevalence of Types II and IV, and the absence of bifurcations. Most was mandibular channels showed no bifurcation. The panoramic radiograph showed up an aid important to identify the mandibular canal and its variations.

  13. The limit values for brightness and contrast adjustment in digital panoramic radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zahra, A. T.; Syahraini, S. I.; Kiswanjaya, B.; Ustriyana, P.

    2017-08-01

    There is an overall lack of studies about digital panoramic radiography. The application of image enhancement techniques is still being done based on the operator’s preferences, since there is no objective limitation. The aim is to evaluate the limit values of the brightness and contrast adjustment in digital panoramic radiography. Digital panoramic radiographs were divided into three groups (dark, medium, and light), and the contrast and brightness adjustments were done using Digora for Windows. The static evaluations were done using three criteria: 1 if the image had lower quality, 2 if there was no difference and 3 if the image had better quality. The radiographic changes differed in each group depending on the initial imaging conditions. The brightness adjustment limit values in the dark and medium groups were -10 and +20, respectively, and -20 and +10 in the light group. The contrast adjustment limit values in all of the groups were -10 and +10.

  14. Evaluation of the distortion rate of panoramic and peri apical radiographs in erupted third molar inclination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezoddini Ardakani, F.; Zangouie Booshehri, M.; Behniafar, B.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic and peri apical radiographs are normally used in impacted third molar teeth surgeries. The aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the distortion of the erupted third molar teeth on panoramic and peri apical radiographs. Patients and Methods: A total of 44 radiographs were obtained of 22 patients (age range, 18-24 years) referred to the faculty of dentistry for orthodontic treatment. A plaster cast was prepared and panoramic radiography was taken for all patients to plan the orthodontic treatment and peri apical radiography was taken for investigation of tooth structure details. Therefore, a total of 66 views and samples were studied by two methods: 1) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of the third molar and occlusal plane. 2) Measuring the angle between the longitudinal plane of second and third molar. Finally, 132 records were evaluated by one individual. Results: There was no significant statistical difference between the mean position of the third molar on panoramic, peri apical radiographs and the casts. However, measurements of the third molars on peri apical radiographs were slightly closer to the measurements of the casts compared to the panoramic radiographs. Conclusion: Distortion does not have a specific effect on the diagnosis of the position of the third erupted molars by peri apical or panoramic radiographs, though various studies have shown that these radiographs have an amount of distortion and peri apical radiographical distortion is less than that in panoramic radiography.

  15. Comparative study of radiation dose between digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qingshan; Duan Tao; Wang Xiaoyun; Zhao Li; Dong Jian; Wei Lei

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To compare the actual dose of patients who receive the same medical practice by either digital panoramic X-ray unit and general panoramic X-ray unit and give evidence for better selection of oral X-ray examination method. Methods: Round sheet lithium fluoride (LiF) thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLD) were used. The experiment was divided into natural background contrast group, general panoramic X-ray children group, general panoramic X-ray adults group, digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group. The dosimeter of natural background radiation was placed at the office of the doctor, the dosimeters of general panoramic X-ray children group and general panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of panoramic X-ray to children and adults, the dosimeters of digital panoramic X-ray children group and digital panoramic X-ray adults group were irradiated by different conditions according to the clinical application of digital panoramic X-ray to children and adults. The thermoluminescent dosimeter was used to count and calculate the exposure doses in various groups. Results: The dose of children exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.28 times of that in digital panoramic X-ray unit, there was significant difference (t=6.904, P<0.01). The dose of adults exposed in general panoramic X-ray unit was 1.55 times of that in the digital panoramic X-ray unit, there also was significant difference (t=-11.514. P< 0.01). Conclusion: The digital panoramic X-ray unit can reduce the dose of patients, so the digital panoramic X-ray unit should be used as far as possible. (authors)

  16. The study of the focal trough in panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C. S.; Kim, H. P.

    1982-01-01

    In the study of the focal trough of panoramic radiograph, using the Moritta company Panex EC a series of 48 exposures were taken with the 6-18 brass pins placed in the holes of the plastic model plate, then evaluated by 4 observers. The author analyzed the focal trough defined by the sharpness criteria and calculated the vertical and horizontal magnification range in the corrected focal trough. The results were as follows; 1. Continuous focal trough was not defined in the anterior region using a very high degree of sharpness. 2. As degree of sharpness used in the analysis became less, focal trough was continuous in the anterior and posterior regions, symmetrized bilaterally, and the widths of the focal trough increased more in the posterior region. 3. As sharpness criteria were reduced, the percentage range of image magnification increased in both vertical and horizontal magnification, and especially the percentage range of horizontal magnification was greater than that of vertical magnification.

  17. Digitization of conventional radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.; Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Blum, U.; Hauenstein, K.H.; Gufler, H.; Meyer, E.; Ruediger, K.

    1992-01-01

    The diagnostic value of a digitization system for analogue films based on a charge-coupled-device (CCD) scanner with adjustable resolution of 2.5 or 5 lp/mm was assessed. Some 110 skeletal radiographs, 50 contrast studies, including 25 of patients with Crohn's disease, and 70 abdominal plain films before and after successful lithotripsy for renal stones were digitized. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) studies showed improved detection of cortical and trabecular defects with contrast-optimized digitized films. Edge enhancement algorithms yielded no additional information. Inflammatory lesions of Crohn's disease were detected equally well by conventional films and digitized images. A statistically significant improvement (p [de

  18. Radiographic film digitizing devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.

    1988-01-01

    Until recently, all film digitizing devices for use with teleradiology or picture archiving and communication systems used a video camera to capture an image of the radiograph for subsequent digitization. The development of film digitizers that use a laser beam to scan the film represents a significant advancement in digital technology, resulting in improved image quality compared with video scanners. This paper discusses differences in resolution, efficiency, reliability, and the cost between these two types of devices. The results of a modified receiver operating characteristic comparison study of a video scanner and a laser scanner manufactured by the same company are also discussed

  19. A new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients: A technical report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jong-Woong; Symkhampha, Khanthaly; Huh, Kyung-Hoe; Yi, Won-Jin; Heo, Min-Suk; Lee, Sam-Sun; Choi, Soon-Chul

    2015-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs taken using conventional chin-support devices have often presented problems with positioning accuracy and reproducibility. The aim of this report was to propose a new bite block for panoramic radiographs of anterior edentulous patients that better addresses these two issues. A new panoramic radiography bite block similar to the bite block for dentulous patients was developed to enable proper positioning stability for edentulous patients. The new bite block was designed and implemented in light of previous studies. The height of the new bite block was 18 mm and to compensate for the horizontal edentulous space, its horizontal width was 7 mm. The panoramic radiographs using the new bite block were compared with those using the conventional chin-support device. Panoramic radiographs taken with the new bite block showed better stability and bilateral symmetry than those taken with the conventional chin-support device. Patients also showed less movement and more stable positioning during panoramic radiography with the new bite block. Conventional errors in panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients could be caused by unreliability of the chin-support device. The newly proposed bite block for panoramic radiographs of edentulous patients showed better reliability. Further study is required to evaluate the image quality and reproducibility of images with the new bite block.

  20. Screening panoramic radiographs in a group of patient visiting a health promotion center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol

    2005-01-01

    To report the incidence of radiological findings from screening panoramic radiograph and verify the validity of the panoramic radiography for screening purposes. Six thousand one hundred and sixty panoramic radiographs taken from the patients visiting the Health Promotion Center of CNUH were selected for this retrospective study. Panoramic radiographs were examined into the following pathologic conditions : the presence of periodontal bone loss, dental caries, peri apical radiolucencies, retained roots, impacted supernumerary teeth, impacted third molars, odontoma, cystic lesions other than radicular cyst, sialoliths, and mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions. Number of pathologic conditions and Prevalence values were recorded. The prevalence of pathologic conditions were 72.9% of periodontal bone loss, 32.2% of dental caries, 11.9% of peri apical radiolucencies, 10.8% of retained roots, 0.4% of root fracture, 1.0% of impacted supernumerary teeth, 1.0% of impacted third molars, 0.06% of odontoma, 0.08% of cystic lesion other than radicular cyst, 0.2% of prolonged retention of deciduous tooth, 0.1% of sialolith, and 0.04% of mixed radiopaque and radiolucent lesion. Although the panoramic radiograph should not be used to replace intraoral radiographic and clinical examinations, this study showed that many dental pathologic conditions could be detected on panoramic radiographs. The panoramic radiograph might serve as a diagnostic aid in dental health evaluation programs.

  1. Screening panoramic radiographs in a group of patient visiting a health promotion center

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    Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [Chonnam National University College of Medicine, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-12-15

    To report the incidence of radiological findings from screening panoramic radiograph and verify the validity of the panoramic radiography for screening purposes. Six thousand one hundred and sixty panoramic radiographs taken from the patients visiting the Health Promotion Center of CNUH were selected for this retrospective study. Panoramic radiographs were examined into the following pathologic conditions : the presence of periodontal bone loss, dental caries, peri apical radiolucencies, retained roots, impacted supernumerary teeth, impacted third molars, odontoma, cystic lesions other than radicular cyst, sialoliths, and mixed radiolucent-radiopaque lesions. Number of pathologic conditions and Prevalence values were recorded. The prevalence of pathologic conditions were 72.9% of periodontal bone loss, 32.2% of dental caries, 11.9% of peri apical radiolucencies, 10.8% of retained roots, 0.4% of root fracture, 1.0% of impacted supernumerary teeth, 1.0% of impacted third molars, 0.06% of odontoma, 0.08% of cystic lesion other than radicular cyst, 0.2% of prolonged retention of deciduous tooth, 0.1% of sialolith, and 0.04% of mixed radiopaque and radiolucent lesion. Although the panoramic radiograph should not be used to replace intraoral radiographic and clinical examinations, this study showed that many dental pathologic conditions could be detected on panoramic radiographs. The panoramic radiograph might serve as a diagnostic aid in dental health evaluation programs.

  2. A study on the styloid process in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae

    2005-01-01

    To find statistically based information about the natural variation in the length of the styloid process and to show the influence of the gender and age on the length of the styloid process. 1,300 panoramic radiographs were retrieved from inactive files at the Dental Hospital of Kyung Hee University. Measurements of the length of the styloid process were made directly on the radiographs from the interior margin of the tympanic plate to the tip of the styloid process. The mean length of 948 styloid processes was 25.2 mm ± 6.6. The median was 24.5 mm, and the inter-quartile range was 7 mm. The mean length was 25.7 mm for male and 24.6 mm for female. All percentile was greater for male than for female. The median is 25 mm for male and 24 mm for female. This study suggests that the difference of the styloid process length between genders was statistically significant and the length of styloid process was significant increased with age until 30 years.

  3. A study on the styloid process in panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Hwang, Eui Hwan; Lee, Sang Rae [Kyunghee University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-06-15

    To find statistically based information about the natural variation in the length of the styloid process and to show the influence of the gender and age on the length of the styloid process. 1,300 panoramic radiographs were retrieved from inactive files at the Dental Hospital of Kyung Hee University. Measurements of the length of the styloid process were made directly on the radiographs from the interior margin of the tympanic plate to the tip of the styloid process. The mean length of 948 styloid processes was 25.2 mm {+-} 6.6. The median was 24.5 mm, and the inter-quartile range was 7 mm. The mean length was 25.7 mm for male and 24.6 mm for female. All percentile was greater for male than for female. The median is 25 mm for male and 24 mm for female. This study suggests that the difference of the styloid process length between genders was statistically significant and the length of styloid process was significant increased with age until 30 years.

  4. A study on secondary images in panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Dai Hee; Kim, Han Pyong

    1984-01-01

    This study was performed to observe the secondary images and to analyse the relationships between the primary and secondary images in panoramic radiograph. Using the Morita's Panex-EC panoramic x-ray machine and the human dry skull, the author analysed 17 radiographs which were selected from 65 radiographs of the dry skull that attached the radiopaque materials, and the attached regions of the radiopaque materials were the normal anatomical structures which were important and selected as a region for the evaluation of the secondary images effectively. The results were as follows; 1. The cervical vertebrae showed three images. The midline image was the most distorted and less clear, and bilateral images were slightly superimposed over the posterior border of the mandibular ramus. 2. In mandible, the secondary image of the posterior border of the ramus was superimposed on the opposite ramus region, and this image was elongated from the anterior border of the ramus to the lateral side of the posterior border of the ramus. The secondary image of the condyle was observed on the upper area of the coronoid process, the sigmoid notch and the condyle in opposite side. 3. In maxilla, the posterior region of the hard palate showed the secondary image on the lower part of the nasal cavity and the medial wall of the maxillary sinus. 4. The primary images of the occipital condyle and the mastoid process appeared on the same region, and only the secondary image of the occipital condyle was observed symmetrically on the opposite side with similar shape to the primary one. 5. In the cranial base, the anatomical structures of the midsagittal portions like a inferior border of the frontal sinus, sella turcica, inferior border of the sphenoid sinus and inferior border of the posterior part of the occipital bone showed the similar shape between the primary and secondary images symmetrically. 6. The petrous portion of the temporal bone showed the secondary image of the lateral side of

  5. Assessment of digital panoramic radiography's diagnostic value in angular bony lesions with 5 mm or deeper pocket depth in mandibular molars

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    Bardia Vadiati Saberi

    2017-01-01

    Conclusion: Based on this study, bone probing is a reliable method in vertical alveolar bone defect measurements. While the information obtained from digital panoramic radiographs should be used with caution and the ability of digital panoramic radiography in the determination of defect depth is limited.

  6. Visibility of mandibular canal on panoramic radiograph after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO).

    OpenAIRE

    Politis, Constantinus; Ramirez, Xiomara Botero; Sun, Yi; Lambrichts, Ivo; Heath, Neil; Agbaje, Jimoh Olubanwo

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to assess the visibility of the mandibular canal (MC) on panoramic radiographs after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), and to investigate what factors affect this MC visibility. METHODS: We assessed MC visibility on panoramic radiographs of 200 BSSO patients. Images were acquired preoperatively (T0), immediately postoperatively (T1), 6 months postoperatively (T2), and 1 year postoperatively (T3), from three diffe...

  7. Agreement Between Panoramic and Lateral Cephalometric Radiographs for Measuring the Gonial Angle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zangouei-Booshehri, Maryam; Aghili, Hossein-Agha; Abasi, Mojtaba; Ezoddini-Ardakani, Fatemeh

    2012-01-01

    The gonial angle is one of the most important measurements required for orthodontic treatment and orthognathic surgery. It is difficult to determine the accurate measurement of each gonial angle on cephalometric radiographs because of superimposition of the left and right angles. The aim of the present study was to determine the right and left gonial angles on panoramic radiographs and to compare them with an evaluated cephalometric sample. A total of 80 panoramic and 80 cephalometric radiographs were obtained from 6 to 12-year-old children and the gonial angle was determined by the tangent of the inferior border of the mandible and the most distal aspect of the ascending ramus and the condyleon both panoramic and cephalometric radiographs. We used Pearson’s correlation coefficient and paired t-test for comparison. The mean gonial angle was 127.07 ± 6.10 and 127.5 ± 6.67 degrees on panoramic and cephalometric radiographs, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the measured gonial angles on panoramic and cephalometric radiographs and also no difference between the right and left (both Ps = 0.18) The value of the gonial angle measured on panoramic radiography was the same as that measured on the routinely used cephalometric radiography

  8. Usefulness of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of periodic oral examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, MinJung; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and utility of panoramic radiograph for the improvement of the periodic oral examinations. Clinical examinations and panoramic examinations were done for the 242 subjects of oral examinations. The results of panoramic radiograph interpretation were compared with the clinical findings. Two questionnaires were created. One was carried out before the panoramic examination and the other done afterwards, to find out the subjects cognition and satisfaction for the clinical and panoramic examinations. Results : 1. Panoramic findings showed a higher detection rate of 31.9% for periodontal diseases, and 23.1% for dental caries than clinical findings. 2. The additional abnormalities detected through panoramic examinations were impacted tooth in 81 subjects (33.6%), maxillary sinus abnormalities in 28 subjects (11.6%), condylar abnormalities in 5 subjects (2.1%), congenital and acquired dental anormalies in 59 subjects (24.5%), and other miscellaneous abnormalities in 34 subjects (14.1%). 3. 164 subjects (67.8%) were satisfied with the current periodic oral examination, and 75 subjects (31.1%) hoped for better accuracy. 4. In the first and second questionnaire, 154 subjects (67.0%) and 163 subjects (70.6%) responded respectively that panoramic examination was necessary, and 193 subjects (83.2%) responded that it actually helped. The panoramic examination was revealed to improve the effectiveness of the periodic oral examination and to increase the satisfaction of the subjects of examination.

  9. Common Positioning Errors in Digital Panoramic Radiographies Taken In Mashhad Dental School

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Bagherpour

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The present study was aimed at evaluating common positioning errors on panoramic radiographs taken in the Radiology Department of Mashhad Dental School. Materials and methods: The study sample included 1,990 digital panoramic radiographs taken in the Radiology Department of Mashhad Dental School by a Planmeca Promax (Planmeca Oy, Helsinki, Finland, during a 2-year period (2010–2012. All radiographs, according to dentition and sex, were evaluated for positioning errors. Results: There were 1,927 (96.8% panoramic radiographs with one or more errors. While the number of errors in each image varied between one and five, most images had one error (48.4%. The most common error was that the tongue was not in contact with the hard palate (94.8%. "Open lips" was an error not seen in any patients. Conclusions:positioning errors are common in panoramic radiographies. The most common error observed in this study was a failure to place the tongue on the palate. This error and the other errors reported in this study can be reduced by training the technicians and spending little more time for patient positioning and more effective communication with the patients.

  10. Reconstruction of pseudo three-dimensional dental image from dental panoramic radiograph and tooth surface shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imura, Masataka; Kuroda, Yoshihiro; Oshiro, Osamu; Kuroda, Tomohiro; Kagiyama, Yoshiyuki; Yagi, Masakazu; Takada, Kenji; Azuma, Hiroko

    2010-01-01

    Three-dimensional volume data set is useful for diagnosis in dental treatments. However, to obtain three-dimensional images of a dental arch in general dental clinics is difficult. In this paper, we propose a method to reconstruct pseudo three-dimensional dental images from a dental panoramic radiograph and a tooth surface shape which can be obtained from three dimensional shape measurement of a dental impression. The proposed method finds an appropriate curved surface on which the dental panoramic radiograph is mapped by comparing a virtual panoramic image made from a tooth surface shape to a real panoramic radiograph. The developed pseudo three-dimensional dental images give clear impression of patient's dental condition. (author)

  11. The relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness by using panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yun Suk; Kim, Kyoung A; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2010-01-01

    This study was to determine the relationship between age and the mandibular cortical bone thickness on panoramic radiograph. Panoramic radiographs of 360 patients (180 men and 180 women) over 20 years old, who visited the Chonbuk National University Hospital from January to December in 2007, were assessed. The subjects were divided into 5 age groups. Five indices such as cortical bone thickness at the gonion (GI), antegonion (AI), and below the mental foramen (MI), the panoramic mandibular index (PMI), the mandibular cortical index (MCI) were measured on panoramic radiographs. All five indices including GI, AI, MI, PMI, and MCI showed significant differences between third decade and over 8 decade groups (p,0.05). PMI, MI and GI showed significant differences with gender statistically (p<0.05). The mandibular cortical bone thickness showed negative correlation with age, and the value of the thickness (PMI, MI, and GI) was greater in men than in women.

  12. A study of tooth number anomaly using panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Eok; Choi, Karp Shik

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and distribution of tooth number anomaly by means of the analysis of panoramic radiographs in 6,531 patients visited the Dental Infirmary of Kyungpook National University Hospital from January 1983 to May 1992 . The results were as follows : 1. The prevalence of congenitally missing teeth except third molar was revealed to be 10.8%, and there was a higher prevalence in females (44.6%) than in males (55.4%). Mandibular 2nd premolars (23.2%), and maxillary second primolars (15.4%) in descending order of frequency. As to the number of congentally missing teeth, the percentage of missing one tooth was 48%, missing two teeth was 35.4%, missing three teeth was 6.6%. 2. The prevalence of congenitally missing third molars was revealed to be 39.7%. There was a higher prevalence in the maxilla (60.3%) than in the mandible (39.7%). Maxillary right 3rd molars (30.6%) were absent most frequently, followed by maxillary left 3rd molar (29.7%), mandibular right 3rd molar (20.2%), mandibular left 3rd molar (19.5%) in descending order of frequency. 3. The prevalence of supernumerary teeth was revealed to be 4.2%, and there was a higher prevalence in the males (65.7%) than in females (34.3%). They were found most frequently in maxillary central incesor area (64.8%), followed by maxillary lateral incisor area (13.2%), posterior area of maxillary third molar (8.7%) in descending order of frequency. As to the number of supernumerary teeth; the percentage of one supernumerary tooth was 79.9%, two supernumarary teeth was 8.9%, three supernumerary teeth was 1.2%.

  13. Evaluation of third molar development and its relation to chronological age: a panoramic radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zandi, Mohammad; Shokri, Abbas; Malekzadeh, Hamid; Amini, Payam; Shafiey, Parastu

    2015-06-01

    Third molar development, in comparison to other teeth in the dentition, has the greatest variation in morphology, anatomical position, and time of development and eruption, and its reliability for chronological age estimation is controversial. The aim of the present study was to evaluate third molar development and its relation to chronological age using panoramic radiography. A total of 2536 digital panoramic radiographs of individuals aged between 5 and 26 years were selected. The developmental status of the third molars was assessed using eight-stage developmental scoring proposed by Demirjian et al., with one modification: a stage 0 was added. The collected data were entered into a checklist and subjected to statistical analyses. The mean ages of the first appearance of third molar bud, complete crown formation, and root apex closure were around 9, 14, and 22 years, respectively. In both jaws, third molar development occurred symmetrically, and sexual dimorphism was observed at some developmental stages. Finally, two formulas were presented to estimate age of the juveniles and adolescents based on their gender and developmental stages of the third molars, and validated on a second sample consisting of 523 individuals aged between 8 and 22. Assessment of third molar development was found to be a reliable method for age estimation of individuals between 11 and 22 years. Because of possible ethnic and geographic differences in third molar development, population specific researches were recommended.

  14. Digital panoramic radiograph rejection index at a Dental Radiology Service in Paraná, Brazil; Índice de rejeição de radiografias panorâmicas digitais em um Serviço de Radiologia Odontológica no Paraná, Brasil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickus, J.; Barros, F.S.; Sato, G.Y.; Rosa, P.C., E-mail: saicla@utfpr.edu.br [Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná (UTFPR), Curitiba-PR (Brazil). Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia Biomédica

    2017-07-01

    Panoramic radiography is the most frequent extraoral examination in dentistry. This technique allows the visualization of adjacent maxillomandibular and anatomical structures. Although digital imaging systems are already the great majority of dental radiology services, there is still a shortage of works evaluating the quality of this type of image. The objective of this study was to identify the rejection index of digital panoramic radiographs of a dental radiology service of a university in Brazil, pointing out the main reasons. A survey was performed on the image files and, randomly selected, 2306 images, 10% of the examinations performed in the period between 2013 to 2015. The results indicated a total rejection rate of 5.1% over the three years, totaling 117 radiographs. The main reasons for rejection were: the patient's head tilted backwards in 2013 and the lack of tongue contact with the palate, for the years 2014 and 2015. The main reasons for repetition of exams are related to the positioning in the execution of the technique radiological factors, which may be related to the lack of professional training. Patient collaboration during the examination and professional-to-patient communication failures may result in poor diagnostic quality exams.

  15. Study of the inferior alveolar canal and mental foramen on digital panoramic images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pria, Carlos M; Masood, Farah; Beckerley, Joy M; Carson, Robert E

    2011-07-01

    To study the radiographic location of the mental foramen and appearance of the inferior alveolar canal and the relationship between image gray values and the clarity of inferior alveolar canal on the digital panoramic images and to evaluate if the histogram equalization of the digital image would improve the visualization of the inferior alveolar canal outline on the digital panoramic images in the mandible. Five hundred digital panoramic images were evaluated by two examiners using a specific inclusion criteria. Only the right side of the mandible was studied. Chi-square analyses were used for comparisons of distributions. Mean and median pixel values were analyzed separately with a one-way analysis of variance. Also, percentages were calculated to report the usefulness of the histogram equalization for visualization of canal. RESULTS show variation in location of mental foramen. Most frequent location of the mental foramen was reported as first and second premolar region. Chi-square analysis showed that the frequency of occurrence of the mental foramen was equally probable for any of the three locations. The study did not find significant usefulness of the gray values obtained from the histogram equalization in predicting the clarity of inferior alveolar canal outlines. Knowing the normal relationship and the anatomical variation of the maxillofacial structures for each patient is important for surgical implant treatment planning to avoid future complications. It is also important to be familiar with the advantages and limitations of diagnostic aids available before making treatment planning decisions based on such findings. Digital imaging, Panoramic, Inferior alveolar canal, Mental foramen. How to cite this article: Pria CM, Masood F, Beckerley JM, Carson RE. Study of the Inferior Alveolar Canal and Mental Foramen on Digital Panoramic Images. J Contemp Dent Pract 2011;12(4):265-271. Source of support: Nil Conflict of interest: None declared.

  16. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Haddad, Denise Sabbagh; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. The patients were in the range of 6-17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS), which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (pdental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (pdental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals.

  17. Condylar guidance: correlation between protrusive interocclusal record and panoramic radiographic image: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannamala, Pavan Kumar; Pulagam, Mahesh; Pottem, Srinivas R; Swapna, B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sagittal condylar angles set in the Hanau articulator by use of a method of obtaining an intraoral protrusive record to those angles found using a panoramic radiographic image. Ten patients, free of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorder and with intact dentition were selected. The dental stone casts of the subjects were mounted on a Hanau articulator with a springbow and poly(vinyl siloxane) interocclusal records. For all patients, the protrusive records were obtained when the mandible moved forward by approximately 6 mm. All procedures for recording, mounting, and setting were done in the same session. The condylar guidance angles obtained were tabulated. A panoramic radiographic image of each patient was made with the Frankfurt horizontal plane parallel to the floor of the mouth. Tracings of the radiographic images were made. The horizontal reference line was marked by joining the orbitale and porion. The most superior and most inferior points of the curvatures were identified. These two lines were connected by a straight line representing the mean curvature line. Angles made by the intersection of the mean curvature line and the horizontal reference line were measured. The results were subjected to statistical analysis with a significance level of p record method. The mean condylar guidance angle between the right and left side by both the methods was not statistically significant. The comparison of mean condylar guidance angles between the right side of the protrusive record method and the right side of the panoramic radiographic method and the left side of the protrusive record method and the left side of the panoramic radiographic method (p= 0.071 and p= 0.057, respectively) were not statistically significant. Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar guidance angles obtained by panoramic radiograph may be used in programming semi-adjustable articulators. © 2012

  18. A 5-year prospective radiographic evaluation of marginal bone levels adjacent to parallel-screw cylinder machined-neck implants and rough-surfaced microthreaded implants using digitized panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickenig, Hans-Joachim; Wichmann, Manfred; Happe, Arndt; Zöller, Joachim E; Eitner, Stephan

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this split-mouth study was to compare macro- and microstructure implant surfaces at the marginal bone level over five years of functional loading. From January to February 2006, 133 implants (70 rough-surfaced microthreaded implants and 63 machined-neck implants) were inserted in the mandible of 34 patients with Kennedy Class I residual dentitions and followed until December 2011. Marginal bone level was radiographically determined at six time points: implant placement (baseline), after the healing period, after six months, and at two years, three years, and five years follow-up. Median follow-up time was 5.2 years (range: 5.1-5.4). The machined-neck group had a mean crestal bone loss of 0.5 mm (0.0-2.3) after the healing period, 1.1 mm (0.0-3.0) at two years follow-up, and 1.4 mm (0.0-2.9) at five years follow-up. The rough-surfaced microthreaded implant group had a mean bone loss of 0.1 mm (-0.4 to 2.0) after the healing period, 0.5 mm (0.0-2.1) at two years follow-up, and 0.7 mm (0.0-2.3) at five years follow-up. The two implant types showed significant differences in marginal bone levels. Rough-surfaced microthreaded design caused significantly less loss of crestal bone levels under long-term functional loading in the mandible when compared to machined-neck implants. Copyright © 2012 European Association for Cranio-Maxillo-Facial Surgery. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Evaluation of the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Emadi, Naghmeh [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sharafi, Mohamad [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dental School, Ilam University of Medical Sciences, Ilam (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-09-15

    This study assessed the accuracy of linear and angular measurements on panoramic radiographs taken at different positions in vitro. Two acrylic models were fabricated from a cast with normal occlusion. Straight and 75 degree mesially and lingually angulated pins were placed, and standardized panoramic radiographs were taken at standard position, at an 8 degree downward tilt of the occlusal plane compared to the standard position, at an 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior occlusal plane, and at a 10 degree downward tilt of the right and left sides of the model. On the radiographs, the length of the pins above (crown) and below (root) the occlusal plane, total pin length, crown-to-root ratio, and angulation of pins relative to the occlusal plane were calculated. The data were subjected to repeated measures ANOVA and LSD multiple comparisons tests. Significant differences were noted between the radiographic measurements and true values in different positions on both models with linear (P<0.001) and those with angulated pins (P<0.005). No statistically significant differences were observed between the angular measurements and baselines of the natural head posture at different positions for the linear and angulated pins. Angular measurements on panoramic radiographs were sufficiently accurate and changes in the position of the occlusal plane equal to or less than 10 degree had no significant effect on them. Some variations could exist in the pin positioning (head positioning), and they were tolerable while taking panoramic radiographs. Linear measurements showed the least errors in the standard position and 8 degree upward tilt of the anterior part of the occlusal plane compared to other positions.

  20. Comparison of panoramic radiograph with cone-beam computed tomography in assessment of maxillary sinus floor and nasal floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Kumar Bokkasam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Panoramic radiograph is frequently prescribed by dentists for implant planning and, hence, accurate assessment of anatomical structures in panoramic radiograph is of utmost importance. Aims: The aim of the present study is to know the accuracy of panoramic radiograph in assessment of relationship between maxillary sinus floor and posterior teeth roots, and the distance from alveolar crest to nasal floor by comparing it with that of cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT image. Materials and Methods: Panoramic and CBCT images of 30 patients were analyzed. The topographic relationship of each root of posterior teeth to the maxillary sinus floor was evaluated and classified into three classes. The distance from the peak point on maxillary alveolar crest to nasal floor was measured in panoramic radiograph as well as in CBCT image. All the measurements were made by built-in measurement tools. Results: Class 1 roots in panoramic radiograph showed high agreement (86% with CBCT image, followed by class 0 (76%. There was a significant difference in the measurements of alveolar bone height (ABH in the nasal floor region with a P value of 0.018. Conclusion: Panoramic radiograph is reliable in assessment of nasal floor and maxillary sinus, provided position of the patient, distortion, and the inherent magnification factor are taken into consideration.

  1. Comparison of mesiodistal root angulation with posttreatment panoramic radiographs and cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouwens, Daniel G; Cevidanes, Lucia; Ludlow, John B; Phillips, Ceib

    2011-01-01

    Orthodontists assess mesiodistal root angulations before, during, and after orthodontic treatment as an aid in establishing proper root position. Panoramic imaging has been useful for this purpose and is a valuable screening tool in diagnosis and planning treatment of orthodontic patients. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) for imaging of the craniofacial complex creates the opportunity to evaluate 3-dimensional images compared with traditional 2-dimensional images. The purpose of this project was to compare mesiodistal root angulations by using posttreatment panoramic radiographic images and CBCT scans. Mesiodistal root angulations from panoramic images and CBCT scans of 35 orthognathic surgery patients after orthodontic treatment were compared. The panoramic images were measured by using VixWin (Gendex Dental Systems, Des Plaines, Ill), and the CBCT scans by using InvivoDental 3D (version 4.1, Anatomage, San Jose, Calif). The mesiodistal root angulation of each maxillary and mandibular tooth was measured by using the occlusal plane as the reference line. With an intercept-only linear regression for correlated data (with an unstructured covariance structure), the global test of whether the mean vector of all differences for the teeth is zero was performed separately for the 2 arches. The global test for both arches was statistically significant (P <0.001), indicating an overall difference in root angulation between measurements from panoramic and CBCT images. There was no discernible pattern in the average differences between panoramic and CBCT measurements. The assessment of mesiodistal tooth angulation with panoramic radiography should be approached with caution and reinforced by a thorough clinical examination of the dentition. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Diagnostic agreement between panoramic radiographs and color doppler images of carotid atheroma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Maria Romano-Sousa

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the agreement between diagnoses of calcified atheroma seen on panoramic radiographs and color Doppler images. Our interest stems from the fact that panoramic images can show the presence of atheroma regardless of the level of obstruction detected by color Doppler images. Panoramic and color Doppler images of 16 patients obtained from the archives of the Health Department of the city of Valença, RJ, Brazil, were analyzed in this study. Both sides of each patient were observed on the images, with a total of 32 analyzed cervical regions. The level of agreement between diagnoses was analyzed using the Kappa statistics. There was a high level of agreement, with a Kappa value of 0.78. In conclusion, panoramic radiographs can help detecting calcifications in the cervical region of patients susceptible to vascular diseases predisposing to myocardial infarction and cerebrovascular accidents. If properly trained and informed, dentists can refer their patients to a physician for a cardiovascular evaluation in order to receive proper and timely medical treatment.

  3. Prevalence of Dental Anomalies in Odisha Population: A Panoramic Radiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutham, Balasubramanya; Bhuyan, Lipsa; Chinnannavar, Sangamesh N; Kundu, Madhurima; Jha, Kunal; Behura, Shyam S

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of dental anomalies (DAs) in Odisha population using panoramic radiographs. In this study, 1,080 panoramic radiographs were evaluated for DAs. Dental records were reviewed for diagnostic confirmation. Anomalies related to the shape, size, position of teeth, and number of roots (supernumerary roots) were evaluated. The study results showed the prevalence of DAs to be 35.27%. The most prevalent was dilaceration, which was seen in 46.71% cases followed by peg laterals in 20.99%. Dental anomalies were present in more than one-third of the study group, which was mostly related to shape of the teeth. Early diagnosis of these DAs helps in avoiding complications. Identification of DAs requires proper examination and thereby subsequent correct diagnosis. These anomalies can pose complications in normal functioning of orofacial complex. The knowledge of the prevalence of such anomalies aids dental practitioners for a proper treatment plan.

  4. A clinico-radiographic study to compare and co-relate sagittal condylar guidance determined by intraoral gothic arch tracing method and panoramic radiograph in completely edentulous patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanath Shetty

    2018-01-01

    Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar guidance angles obtained by panoramic radiograph may be used for programming semi-adjustable articulators.

  5. Digital image analysis of NDT radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeme, W.A. Jr.; Eizember, A.C.; Douglass, J.

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detectors the majority of image analysis performed on NDT radiographic images was done visually in the analog domain. While some film digitization was being performed, the process was often unable to capture all the usable information on the radiograph or was too time consuming. CCD technology now provides a method to digitize radiographic film images without losing the useful information captured in the original radiograph in a timely process. Incorporating that technology into a complete digital radiographic workstation allows analog radiographic information to be processed, providing additional information to the radiographer. Once in the digital domain, that data can be stored, and fused with radioscopic and other forms of digital data. The result is more productive analysis and management of radiographic inspection data. The principal function of the NDT Scan IV digital radiography system is the digitization, enhancement and storage of radiographic images

  6. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa [Dept. of Diagnosis and Health Promotion, Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Tufts University School of Dental Medicine, Boston (United States); Soroushian, Sheila [Dept. of Orthodontics, Howard University College of Dentistry, Washington, DC(United States)

    2013-12-15

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  7. Coincidence of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque, osteoporosis, and periodontal bone loss in dental panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramesh, Aruna; Ganguly, Rumpa; Soroushian, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to assess the correlation of calcified carotid atheromatous plaque (CCAP), the mandibular cortical index, and periodontal bone loss in panoramic radiographs. One hundred eighty-five panoramic radiographs with CCAP and 234 without this finding were evaluated by 3 observers for the presence of osseous changes related to osteoporosis and periodontal bone loss. Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to compare the two groups for an association of CCAP with the mandibular cortical index and periodontal bone loss, respectively. There was a statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and osseous changes related to osteopenia/osteoporosis, with a p-value <0.001. There was no statistically significant coincidence of CCAP and periodontal bone loss. When comparing the 2 groups, 'With CCAP' and 'Without CCAP', there was a statistically significant association with the mean body mass index (BMI), number of remaining teeth, positive history of diabetes mellitus, and vascular accidents. There was no statistically significant association with gender or a history of smoking. This study identified a possible concurrence of CCAP and mandibular cortical changes secondary to osteopenia/osteoporosis in panoramic radiographs. This could demonstrate the important role of dental professionals in screening for these systemic conditions, leading to timely and appropriate referrals resulting in early interventions and thus improving overall health.

  8. CT analyses of the location of the maxillary third molar in relation to panoramic radiographic appearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obayashi, Naofumi; Ariji, Yoshiko; Goto, Masakazu; Izumi, Masahiro; Naitoh, Munetaka; Kurita, Kenichi; Shimozato, Kazuo; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2009-01-01

    We compared the relationship between anatomical structures analyzed by panoramic radiographs and CT images of uninfected impacted maxillary third molars and investigated the pathway of infection originating from pericoronitis of maxillary third molars. Patients (n=62) with uninfected impacted maxillary third molars and patients (n=8) with odontogenic infection originating from pericoronitis of the maxillary third molars were selected from an image database. CT and panoramic images were evaluated separately by an oral surgeon and a radiologist for the vertical position of the tooth, the presence of bone around the crown, proximity to the maxillary sinus, visibility of masticatory muscles, and mesiodistal and buccopalatal inclinations. In uninfected patients, a significant correlation was observed between the vertical positions evaluated by the two methods. Of the third molars, 79 (63.7%) were identified as vertical type on both panoramic and CT images. Regarding the maxillary sinus, of the 19 molars classified as the separate type on panoramic images, 2 (10.5%) were identified as the close type on CT. CT examination revealed the involvement of buccal cortical plates and the buccal space in the majority of infected patients. CT images revealed that 94 molars (75.8%) showed vertical type on the buccopalatal inclination and that 45 impacted molars (36.3%) showed bone defects in the buccal area. Infections originating from pericoronitis of the maxillary third molar showed involvement of the buccal cortical plates, the buccal space, and other spaces, which were clearly depicted on CT images. (author)

  9. Assessment of effect of age, gender, and dentoalveolar changes on mandibular morphology: A digital panoramic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Sairam

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With progressive development in the growth and function of the jaws, changes are observed in size as well as shape of the mandible, which vary on the basis of age, gender, and dental status. The objective of this study was to evaluate and assess the morphological changes of the mandible, with varying age, gender, and dental status, using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted using digital panoramic radiographs taken by Kodak 8000c digital panoramic and cephalometric system on 150 patients, comprising fifty edentulous individuals (above 50 years of age, fifty old dentate individuals (above 50 years of age, and fifty young dentate individuals (below 25 years of age. All the mandibular measurements (gonial angle, ramus length, condylar length (CL, ramus notch depth, and cortical bone thickness were carried out using RadiAnt DICOM VIEWER 2.2.9 (32-bit software. The measurements were then subjected to paired t-test, Tukey's multiple post hoc procedures, and multiple linear regression analysis. Results: Descriptive statistics for all the parameters on the right and left sides of the mandible in both males and females were analyzed. A statistical significance of P < 0.05 was observed for all the variables except one variable (CL. Conclusion: In the present study, all the variables showed increased measurements in males except gonial angle, which was found to be wider in females, indicating that women tend to get affected by varying dental statuses than men. Hence, the parameters used in this study may act as good indicators for the assessment of the effect of age, gender, and dental status on mandibular morphology.

  10. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh-Haddad, Aida; Haddad, Denise Sabbagh; Michel-Crosato, Edgard; Arita, Emiko Saito

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a disorder linked to the chromosome X long arm (Xq27.3), which is identified by a constriction named fragile site. It determines various changes, such as behavioral or emotional problems, learning difficulties, and intellectual disabilities. Craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated and narrow face, prominent forehead, broad nose, large and prominent ear pavilions, strabismus, and myopia are frequent characteristics. Regarding the oral aspects, deep and high-arched palate, mandibular prognathism, and malocclusion are also observed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. Material and Methods: The patients were in the range of 6–17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS), which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. Results: The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (pdental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (pdental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals. PMID:27812623

  11. The panoramic radiographic study of the vertical mandibular asymmetry of in the TMJ disorder patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Gui Hyeon; Choi, Soon Chul

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate of the relationship between the TMJ disorder and the vertical mandibular asymmetry, the author analyzed the differences between condylar heights, ramus heights and mandibular heights of both sides. All measurements were performed with a digital micrometer on the panoramic radiographs of 36 TMJ disorder patients and 30 normal control group. The differences were expressed in millimeters and percentage using the following formula; [(R-L)/(R+L)] X 100%. The results were as follows: 1. The condylar height difference was greater of in patient group (1.86±1.66 mm) than that of in control group (1.22±0.85 mm) (p<0.05). 2. The ramus height difference and ramus height ratio difference of patient group (4.52±3.70 mm, 4.39±3.49%) were greater than those of control group (2.64±2.13 mm, 2.46±2.02 %) (p<0.05, p<0.01). 3. The mandibular height difference and mandibular height ratio difference of patient group (4.32±3.52 mm, 3.59±2.81 %) were greater than those of contro group(2.57±2.46 mm, 2.01 (1.95%) (p<0.05). 4. The ratio difference in condylar height to ramus height and condylar height to mandibular height of patient group (5.01±4.13%, 3.36±2.88%) were greater than those of control group (2.33±1.78%, 1.90±1.40%) (p<0.01).

  12. Age estimation by canines' pulp/tooth ratio in an Iranian population using digital panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mahdieh; Shadkam, Elaheh; Ahrari, Farzaneh; Dehghani, Mahboobe

    2018-04-01

    Age estimation in adults is an important issue in forensic science. This study aimed to estimate the chronological age of Iranians by means of pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of canines in digital panoramic radiographs. The sample consisted of panoramic radiographs of 271 male and female subjects aged 16-64 years. The pulp/tooth area ratio (AR) of upper and lower canines was calculated by AutoCAD software. Data were subjected to correlation and regression analysis. There was a significant and inverse correlation between age and pulp/tooth area ratio of upper and lower canines (r=-0.794 for upper canine and r=-0.282 for lower canine; p-value<0.001). Linear regression equations were derived separately for upper, lower and both canines. The mean difference between actual and estimated age using upper canine was 6.07±1.7. The results showed that the pulp/tooth area ratios of canines are a reliable method for age estimation in Iranians. The pulp/tooth area ratio of upper canine was better correlated with chronological age than that of lower canine. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. A study of angle of mandibular canal and mental foramen on the panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    2009-01-01

    To assessment the angle between mandibular canal and occlusal plane at each posterior tooth region and location of mental foramen on the panoramic radiographs. This study analysed 46 half-mandibles of panoramic radiographs. Inferior border of mandibular canal was traced. Occlusal plane was drawn from lingual cusp tip of the first premolar to distolingual cusp tip of the second molar. Perpendicular line from occlusal plane was drawn at each tooth region and then tangential lines were drawn from the crossing points at canal. The angle between occlusal plane and tangential line was measured. The location of mental foramen was also studied. According to the location of mental foramen, radiographs were divided into M (mesial) group and D (distal) group on the basis of the second premolar. and then inter-group analysis about mandibular canal angle was done. The angles of mandibular canals were -17.7 .deg. C, -9.5 .deg. C, 8.2 .deg. C, 22.3 .deg. C, and 39.2 .deg. C at first premolar, second premolar, first molar, second molar, and third molar, respectively. The commonest position of the mental foramen was distal to the second premolar. Inter-group comparison showed statistically significant difference at the second premolar and the first molar (p<0.001). The acknowledgement of mandibular canal angulation and location of mental foramen can help understanding the course of mandibular canal.

  14. Radiographic techniques for digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horita, Katsuhei

    2007-01-01

    Since the differences in X-ray absorption between various breast tissues are small, a dedicated X-ray system for examination of the breast and a high-contrast, high-resolution screen/film system (SFM) (light-receiving system) are employed for X-ray diagnosis. Currently, however, there is a strong trend toward digital imaging in the field of general radiography, and this trend is also reflected in the field of mammographic examination. In fact, approximately 70% of facilities purchasing new mammography systems are now selecting a digital mammography system (DRM). Given this situation, this report reviews the differences between SFM and DRM and discusses the radiographic techniques and quality assurance procedures for digital mammography. (author)

  15. Mandibular ramus: A predictor for sex determination - A digital radiographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotya Naik Maloth

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To evaluate mandibular ramus linear measurements on digital panoramic radiographs and to assess the usefulness of mandibular ramus in sex determination. Material and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted on 100 patients (50 males and 50 females using digital panoramic radiographs of Khammam population with age ranging from 20 to 50 years. Standard digital panoramic radiographs were taken without any errors by Sirona, ORTHOPHOS XG 5 machine. The following five mandibular linear measurements were performed in cm such as upper ramus breadth, lower ramus breadth, condylar ramus height, projective ramus height, and coronoid ramus height. The obtained data were analyzed with the software SPSS 13.0 for statistical analysis using discriminate methods. Results: In the present study, all the linear measurements of mandibular ramus on digital panoramic radiographs showed a statistically significant difference between the genders. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of mandibular ramus is recommended as an aid for sex determination in forensic science due to their unique feature of sexual dimorphism.

  16. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Brito, Ana Caroline Ramos; Nejaim, Yuri; De Freitas, Deborah Queiroz [Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Division of Oral Radiology, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Sao Paulo (Brazil); De Oliveira Santos, Christiano [Dept. of Stomatology, Public Oral Health and Forensic Dentistry, School of Dentistry of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region.

  17. Panoramic radiographs underestimate extensions of the anterior loop and mandibular incisive canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Brito, Ana Caroline Ramos; Nejaim, Yuri; De Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; De Oliveira Santos, Christiano

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to detect the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal in panoramic radiographs (PAN) and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images, as well as to determine the anterior/mesial extension of these structures in panoramic and cross-sectional reconstructions using PAN and CBCT images. Images (both PAN and CBCT) from 90 patients were evaluated by 2 independent observers. Detection of the anterior loop and the incisive canal were compared between PAN and CBCT. The anterior/mesial extension of these structures was compared between PAN and both cross-sectional and panoramic CBCT reconstructions. In CBCT, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were observed in 7.7% and 24.4% of the hemimandibles, respectively. In PAN, the anterior loop and the incisive canal were detected in 15% and 5.5% of cases, respectively. PAN presented more difficulties in the visualization of structures. The anterior/mesial extensions ranged from 0.0 mm to 19.0 mm on CBCT. PAN underestimated the measurements by approximately 2.0 mm. CBCT appears to be a more reliable imaging modality than PAN for preoperative workups of the anterior mandible. Individual variations in the anterior/mesial extensions of the anterior loop of the mental nerve and the mandibular incisive canal mean that is not prudent to rely on a general safe zone for implant placement or bone surgery in the interforaminal region

  18. Absorbed doses received by infants subjected to panoramic dental and cephalic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrizales, L.; Carreno, S.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA Report No. 115 recommends that each country or region can establish levels of absorbed doses for each radiographic technique employed in diagnostic. assuming the extended and expensive of this purpose, we have been to begin in a first step with the dentistry area, in order to estimate the dose levels received at crystalline and thyroid level in infants that go to an important public institution in our country to realize panoramic and cephalic radiographs. This work will serve to justify and impel a quality assurance program in Venezuela on the dentistry area which includes aspects such as training for the medical lap referring the justification of the radiological practice, optimization of X-ray units to produce an adequate image quality that delivers to patient an absorbed dose as much lower as reasonably it can be reached without diagnostic detriment. (Author)

  19. Fragile X syndrome: panoramic radiographic evaluation of dental anomalies, dental mineralization stage, and mandibular angle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Sabbagh-Haddad

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Fragile X syndrome (FXS is a disorder linked to the chromosome X long arm (Xq27.3, which is identified by a constriction named fragile site. It determines various changes, such as behavioral or emotional problems, learning difficulties, and intellectual disabilities. Craniofacial abnormalities such as elongated and narrow face, prominent forehead, broad nose, large and prominent ear pavilions, strabismus, and myopia are frequent characteristics. Regarding the oral aspects, deep and high-arched palate, mandibular prognathism, and malocclusion are also observed. Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the dental radiographic characteristics as described in 40 records of patients with panoramic radiography. Material and Methods: The patients were in the range of 6–17 years old, and were divided into two groups (20 subjects who were compatible with the normality standard and 20 individuals diagnosed with the FXS, which were matched for gender and age. Analysis of the panoramic radiographic examination involved the evaluation of dental mineralization stage, mandibular angle size, and presence of dental anomalies in both deciduous and permanent dentitions. Results: The results of radiographic evaluation demonstrated that the chronology of tooth eruption of all third and second lower molars is anticipated in individuals with FXS (p<0.05. In this group, supernumerary deciduous teeth (2.83%, giroversion of permanent teeth (2.31%, and partial anodontia (1.82% were the most frequent dental anomalies. In addition, an increase was observed in the mandibular angle size in the FXS group (p<0.05. Conclusion: We conclude that knowledge of dental radiographic changes is of great importance for dental surgeons to plan the treatment of these individuals.

  20. A study about the variation of styloid processes in panoramic radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Sook Hee; Kim, Chong Youl [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1988-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the length and shape of styloid processes and the relationships between the elongated styloid processes and the styloid process syndrome, using panoramic radiographs and questionaires. The subjects were 342 patients consisted of 170 males and 172 females aged from 11 to 78 years, not showing facial asymmetry, who visited infirmary of dental college of Yonsei University. Also, the accuracy was determined for measuring the length of styloid processes from panoramic radiographs, using dried skulls. The results were as follows: 1. The length of styloid processes was magnified approximately 1.1 times, but there was no statistically significant differences in the magnification rate of length between right and left side. 2. The mean radiographic length of styloid processes was 29.72 {+-} 7.92 mm in males, 27.93 {+-} 0.69 mm in the females, and 28.82 {+-} 7.37 mm in total. And elongated styloid process (>30 mm) was seen in 31.3% of total subjects. 3. The growth in the length of styloid processes was completed in the third decade. 4. The most common shape of styloid processes was straight followed by segmented and bent form. The incidence of segmentation was reduced with increasing age. 5. The 74% of subjects with elongated styloid process (>30 mm) showed symptoms of the styloid process syndrome. The most frequent symptom was headache followed by discomfort in the neck when turning the head from left to right, tinnitus or earache, vague facial pain, discomfort or pain when swallowing, feeling that an object is caught in throat.

  1. A study about the variation of styloid processes in panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Sook Hee; Kim, Chong Youl

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the variation in the length and shape of styloid processes and the relationships between the elongated styloid processes and the styloid process syndrome, using panoramic radiographs and questionaires. The subjects were 342 patients consisted of 170 males and 172 females aged from 11 to 78 years, not showing facial asymmetry, who visited infirmary of dental college of Yonsei University. Also, the accuracy was determined for measuring the length of styloid processes from panoramic radiographs, using dried skulls. The results were as follows: 1. The length of styloid processes was magnified approximately 1.1 times, but there was no statistically significant differences in the magnification rate of length between right and left side. 2. The mean radiographic length of styloid processes was 29.72 ± 7.92 mm in males, 27.93 ± 0.69 mm in the females, and 28.82 ± 7.37 mm in total. And elongated styloid process (>30 mm) was seen in 31.3% of total subjects. 3. The growth in the length of styloid processes was completed in the third decade. 4. The most common shape of styloid processes was straight followed by segmented and bent form. The incidence of segmentation was reduced with increasing age. 5. The 74% of subjects with elongated styloid process (>30 mm) showed symptoms of the styloid process syndrome. The most frequent symptom was headache followed by discomfort in the neck when turning the head from left to right, tinnitus or earache, vague facial pain, discomfort or pain when swallowing, feeling that an object is caught in throat.

  2. Digital processing of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  3. Digital interactive learning of oral radiographic anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuchkova, J; Maybury, T; Farah, C S

    2012-02-01

    Studies reporting high number of diagnostic errors made from radiographs suggest the need to improve the learning of radiographic interpretation in the dental curriculum. Given studies that show student preference for computer-assisted or digital technologies, the purpose of this study was to develop an interactive digital tool and to determine whether it was more successful than a conventional radiology textbook in assisting dental students with the learning of radiographic anatomy. Eighty-eight dental students underwent a learning phase of radiographic anatomy using an interactive digital tool alongside a conventional radiology textbook. The success of the digital tool, when compared to the textbook, was assessed by quantitative means using a radiographic interpretation test and by qualitative means using a structured Likert scale survey, asking students to evaluate their own learning outcomes from the digital tool. Student evaluations of the digital tool showed that almost all participants (95%) indicated that the tool positively enhanced their learning of radiographic anatomy and interpretation. The success of the digital tool in assisting the learning of radiographic interpretation is discussed in the broader context of learning and teaching curricula, and preference (by students) for the use of this digital form when compared to the conventional literate form of the textbook. Whilst traditional textbooks are still valued in the dental curriculum, it is evident that the preference for computer-assisted learning of oral radiographic anatomy enhances the learning experience by enabling students to interact and better engage with the course material. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  4. Remodeling of the antegonial angle region in the human mandible: a panoramic radiographic cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A, Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Objectives: This study analyzed changes in the antegonial region in relation to age, gender, and dental status. Study design: A total of one thousand patients (five hundred males and five hundred females), who were prescribed panoramic radiograph for various purposes were included in the study. T...

  5. A study on the central plane of image layer in panoramic radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Moon Bai; Park, Chang Seo

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to locate the plane of the image layer on the panoramic machine relative to a specific point on the machine. In the study of the central plane of the image layer of panoramic radiograph, using the Morrita Company PANEX-EC a series of 33 exposures were taken with the 4-5 experimental pins placed in the holes of the plastic model plate, then evaluated by human eye. The author analyzed the central plane of the image layer by Mitutoy-A-221 and calculated horizontal and vertical magnification ratio in central plane of the image layer determined experimentally. The results were as follows: 1. The location of the central plane of the image layer determined experimentally was to lateral compared with manufactural central plane. 2. Horizontal magnification ratio in the central plane of image layer determined experimentally was 9.25%. 3. Vertical magnification ratio in the central plane of the image layer determined experimentally was 9.17%.

  6. Development of a digital panoramic X-ray imaging system of adaptive image layers for dental applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, S.I.; Park, Y.O.; Cho, H.S.; Oh, J.E.; Cho, H.M.; Hong, D.K.; Lee, M.S.; Yang, Y.J.; Je, U.K.; Kim, D.S.; Lee, H.K.

    2011-01-01

    As a continuation of our digital radiographic sensor R and D, we have developed a prototyped digital panoramic X-ray imaging system for dental applications. The imaging system consists of a slit-collimated X-ray generator with a 0.4 mm focal spot size and a 3.5 mm Al filtration, a linear-array typed CMOS imager with a 48x48 μm 2 pixel size and a 128 (in the scan direction)x3072 (in the vertical direction) pixel format, a series of microstep motors for the precise motion control of the imaging system, and the designed sequences for the motion control and pixel readout required to make a specific plane of interest (POI) to be focused. With the several test phantoms we designed, we obtained useful digital panoramic X-ray images by moving the X-ray generator and the CMOS imager along a continuously sliding rotational center. In this study, we demonstrated that the prototype system can be applicable to any shaped POI or multi-POIs simultaneously to be focused, provided that adequate sequences for motion control and pixel readout are designed. We expect that the imaging system will be useful for our ongoing applications of dental panoramic radiography and nondestructive testing.

  7. Carotid artery calcification in ischemic stroke patients detected in standard dental panoramic radiographs - a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christou, P.; Kiliaridis, S.; Leemann, B.; Schimmel, M.; Muller, F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Examine the prevalence of carotid artery calcifications in standard dental panoramic radiographs (OPT), their association to gender, medical history and oral status. Assess the predictive value of a dental OPT in early diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications. Material and Methods: Fourteen patients admitted to Geneva University Hospital for recent ischemic stroke and stenosis of the carotid artery confirmed by Duplex sonography. All OPTs were digitised and subsequently assessed independently by two operators. Results: From 21 carotid artery calcifications detected with Doppler sonography 15 were visible on the corresponding OPT, most of them on the right side (n=11). No correlation was found between the side of calcification and cerebral lesion. Hypertension and periodontal disease were the most prevalent cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusions: Dentists who either detect carotid artery calcifications in OPTs or see patients with severe periodontitis should consider a prophylactic specialist examination. (authors)

  8. Biometric Analysis – A Reliable Indicator for Diagnosing Taurodontism using Panoramic Radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Veda; Anegundi, Rajesh Trayambhak; Pravinchandra, K.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Taurodontism is a clinical entity with a morpho–anatomical change in the shape of the tooth, which was thought to be absent in modern man. Taurodontism is mostly observed as an isolated trait or a component of a syndrome. Various techniques have been devised to diagnose taurodontism. Aim: The aim of this study was to analyze whether a biometric analysis was useful in diagnosing taurodontism, in radiographs which appeared to be normal on cursory observations. Setting and Design: This study was carried out in our institution by using radiographs which were taken for routine procedures. Material and Methods: In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from dental records of children who were aged between 9–14 years, who did not have any abnormality on cursory observations. Biometric analyses were carried out on permanent mandibular first molar(s) by using a novel biometric method. The values were tabulated and analysed. Statistics: Fischer exact probability test, Chi square test and Chi-square test with Yates correction were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: Cursory observation did not yield us any case of taurodontism. In contrast, the biometric analysis yielded us a statistically significant number of cases of taurodontism. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of cases with taurodontism, which was obtained between the genders and the age group which was considered. Conclusion: Thus, taurodontism was diagnosed on a biometric analysis, which was otherwise missed on a cursory observation. It is therefore necessary from the clinical point of view, to diagnose even the mildest form of taurodontism by using metric analysis rather than just relying on a visual radiographic assessment, as its occurrence has many clinical implications and a diagnostic importance. PMID:24086912

  9. Are children's dental panoramic tomographs and lateral cephalometric radiographs sufficiently optimized?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakbaznejad Esmaeili, Elmira; Ekholm, Marja; Haukka, Jari; Evälahti, Marjut; Waltimo-Sirén, Janna

    2016-02-01

    Children are especially vulnerable to harmful effects of ionizing radiation. Cutting down the dimensions of the X-ray beam is the most effective way to reduce the patient dose. We evaluated the appropriateness of field-size in the most frequent radiographs, dental panoramic tomographs (DPTs) and lateral cephalometric radiographs (LCRs) among 7- to 12-year-olds. The image field-size of 241 DPTs and 118 LCRs was analysed. The image field was considered appropriate when it did not include anatomic structures beyond the area of clinical interest. The image field was compared with factors such as the age of the patient, the radiographic equipment used and the programme selected. Moreover, we assessed the use of thyroid shield in LCR. The field-size was too large in 70% of the DPTs horizontally and in 96% vertically. None of the DPTs were segmented. Every LCR showed appropriate limitation anteriorly, but the image field was too large in 54% posteriorly, in 86% superiorly, and in 76% inferiorly. A thyroid shield had been used in only 71% of cases. Most DPTs and LCRs had been performed sub-optimally. An abundancy of DPTs had been taken using an adult programme, and the field-size had not been sufficiently adjusted in LCRs, possibly for technical reasons. To facilitate adherence to radiological best practice the equipment used for DPTs and LCRs should facilitate the adjustment of field-size in both the vertical and horizontal planes. In addition, those involved in taking radiographs should maintain their skills through regular update courses. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Orthodontic Society. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. Biometric Analysis - A Reliable Indicator for Diagnosing Taurodontism using Panoramic Radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Veda; Anegundi, Rajesh Trayambhak; Pravinchandra, K R

    2013-08-01

    Taurodontism is a clinical entity with a morpho-anatomical change in the shape of the tooth, which was thought to be absent in modern man. Taurodontism is mostly observed as an isolated trait or a component of a syndrome. Various techniques have been devised to diagnose taurodontism. The aim of this study was to analyze whether a biometric analysis was useful in diagnosing taurodontism, in radiographs which appeared to be normal on cursory observations. This study was carried out in our institution by using radiographs which were taken for routine procedures. In this retrospective study, panoramic radiographs were obtained from dental records of children who were aged between 9-14 years, who did not have any abnormality on cursory observations. Biometric analyses were carried out on permanent mandibular first molar(s) by using a novel biometric method. The values were tabulated and analysed. Fischer exact probability test, Chi square test and Chi-square test with Yates correction were used for statistical analysis of the data. Cursory observation did not yield us any case of taurodontism. In contrast, the biometric analysis yielded us a statistically significant number of cases of taurodontism. However, there was no statistically significant difference in the number of cases with taurodontism, which was obtained between the genders and the age group which was considered. Thus, taurodontism was diagnosed on a biometric analysis, which was otherwise missed on a cursory observation. It is therefore necessary from the clinical point of view, to diagnose even the mildest form of taurodontism by using metric analysis rather than just relying on a visual radiographic assessment, as its occurrence has many clinical implications and a diagnostic importance.

  11. Sensitometric properties of Agfa Dentus OrthoLux, Agfa Dentus ST8G, and Kodak Ektavision panoramic radiographic film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakoh, M; Nishikawa, K; Kobayashi, N; Farman, A G; Kuroyanagi, K

    2001-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitometric properties of and visualization of anatomical structures with Agfa OrthoLux green-sensitive panoramic radiographic film, Agfa ST8G green sensitive panoramic radiographic film, and Kodak Ektavision green-sensitive panoramic radiographic film used in combination with an Agfa Ortho Regular 400 imaging screen, Kodak Ektavision imaging screen, and Kodak Lanex Regular imaging screen. The density response and resolution of panoramic radiographic film/intensifying screen combinations was evaluated by means of Hunter and Driffield curves, modulation transfer functions, and noise-equivalent number of quanta. Image clarity of selected anatomical structures was rated independently by 6 oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The ISO speed for the Agfa OrthoLux panoramic radiographic film combinations was the fastest, and the ISO speed for the Kodak Ektavision green-sensitive panoramic radiographic film combinations was the slowest. The average gradient for the Agfa ST8G systems was relatively steep in comparison with those for the other film/screen combinations. The modulation transfer functions for the Kodak Ektavision film were higher than those for the other films, irrespective of the screen combination used, and those for Agfa OrthoLux film were slightly higher than those for Agfa ST8G film. The noise-equivalent number of quanta for the Agfa ST8G film/screen combinations was lower than those for the other film/screen combinations. The noise-equivalent number of quanta for the Kodak Ektavision film/screen combinations was well within the high-frequency range, whereas Agfa OrthoLux combined with either the Kodak Ektavision imaging screen or the Kodak Lanex Regular imaging screen produced a noise-equivalent number of quanta similar to those of the Kodak Ektavision film/screen combinations in the low-frequency range. Agfa OrthoLux was perceived to provide clearer images of the selected anatomical details than Agfa ST8G

  12. Prevalent of root resorption of second molar adjustment the impacted third molar in prepiacal and panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ebrahimi Saravi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Background and Aims: Impacted third molar reduces the bone level in the distal aspect of second molar, and sometimes it can lead to root resorption of the adjacent tooth. The purpose of this study was to determine this resorption using panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study 54 patient (28 men, 26 women above 15 years old with the average of 22 years in Oral and Maxillofacial Department of Tehran University were studied. A periapical radiography from the third molar and a panoramic radiograph were taken from each patient (Because of their routine use and evaluation of accuracy of panoramic compared with periapical, and the magnitude of the root resorption for the second molar was determined by 2 observers and written in a questionnaire. Data were analyzed using Fisher test.   Results: The prevalence of the root resorption of the second molar adjacent to the impacted third molar in the panoramic and the periapical radiographies, with respect to the limitation of the sample size were 46.3% and 31.5%, respectively, with 95% confidence(P>0.05. Most of these resorptions were in the cervical third of the second molar roots and in cases in which the third molars were mesially oriented or horizontal. There was also no significant difference between panoramic and periapical radiographs.   Conclusion: Due to the increased risk of the resorption of the second molar adjacent to the third molar, extraction of the impacted third molars, especiall y mesially oriented or horizontal ones are recommended.

  13. Reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Mi Ra; Kang, Byung Cheol; Yoon, Suk Ja; Lee, Jae Seo; Kim, Young Hee

    2009-01-01

    To measure dose-width product (DWP) values used for dental panoramic radiography in Anyang city, Korea. Thirty-six panoramic dental radiographic sets (17 analogue panoramic sets and 19 digital panoramic sets) in 36 dental clinics in Anyang city were included in the study. Each patient's panoramic exposure parameters were simulated and the panoramic radiation doses were measured at the secondary collimator using a Mult-O-Meter (Unfors Instruments, Billdal, Sweden) at each dental clinic during 2006. The third quartile DWP was determined from 310 surface dose measurements on adult. The third quartile DWP for adult panoramic radiograph was 106.7 mGy mm. For analogue and digital panoramic radiograph, 3/4 DWP were 116.8 mGy mm and 72 mGy mm respectively. The overall third quartile DWP of panoramic radiography was 106.7 mGy mm. The measured 3/4 DWPs were higher than the 3/4 DWP of 65 mGy mm recommended by NRPB. Dentists who are operating above the reference dose should lower their panoramic exposure doses below the recommended reference value by changing the exposure parameters and/or their panoramic equipment.

  14. Reliability of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vilson Lacerda Brasileiro Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective The present study evaluated the reliability of digital panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications. Materials and Methods Thirty-five patients under high-risk for development of carotid artery calcifications who had digital panoramic radiography were referred to undergo ultrasonography. Thus, 70 arteries were assessed by both methods. The main parameters utilized to evaluate the panoramic radiography reliability in the diagnosis of carotid artery calcifications were accuracy, sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of this method as compared with ultrasonography. Additionally, the McNemar's test was utilized to verify whether there was a statistically significant difference between digital panoramic radiography and ultrasonography. Results Ultrasonography demonstrated carotid artery calcifications in 17 (48.57% patients. Such individuals presented with a total of 29 (41.43% carotid arteries affected by calcification. Radiography was accurate in 71.43% (n = 50 of cases evaluated. The degree of sensitivity of this method was 37.93%, specificity of 95.12% and positive predictive value of 84.61%. A statistically significant difference (p < 0.001 was observed between the methods evaluated in their capacity to diagnose carotid artery calcifications. Conclusion Digital panoramic radiography should not be indicated as a method of choice in the investigation of carotid artery calcifications.

  15. Evaluation of underexposed conventional radiographs after digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wenz, W.

    1993-01-01

    Inadequate exposure of analogue radiographs is reported in the literature to occur in 5-25% of cases. Therefore, the present study was performed to test whether selective image processing after digitization could reveal diagnostic details on underexposed radiographs. In addition, the minimal exposure values required for diagnostic purposes after adequate image processing were studied. Phantom studies, organ preparations and measurements of physical parameters with decreasing exposure values were performed. The detection of anatomic and pathologic (nondisplaced fracture lines, microcalcification and renal stones) structures were evaluated by 12 readers. Radiographs with exposure values 20-40% lower than 'ideal' values can provide adequate diagnostic images after digital processing. The diagnostic information is significantly impaired with values under 50% of the correct exposure values. In conclusion, this method is adequate to save underexposed radiographs for diagnostic purposes and to avoid repeated examinations. (orig.) [de

  16. A clinico-radiographic study to compare and co-relate sagittal condylar guidance determined by intraoral gothic arch tracing method and panoramic radiograph in completely edentulous patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, Sanath; Kunta, Mythili; Shenoy, Kamalakanth

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare and correlate sagittal condylar guidance determined by intraoral gothic arch tracing method and panoramic radiograph in edentulous patients. Twelve completely edentulous patients were selected by the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Conventional steps in the fabrication of complete denture till jaw relation were carried out. Intraoral gothic arch tracing and protrusive interocclusal records were obtained for each patient. Protrusive interocclusal record was used to program the Hanau Wide-Vue semi-adjustable articulator, thus obtaining the sagittal condylar guidance angle. Using RadiAnt DICOM software, on the orthopantomogram obtained for each patient in the study, two reference lines were drawn. The Frankfort's horizontal plane and the mean curvature line (joining the most superior and the inferior points on the glenoid fossa curvature) were drawn. The mean curvature line was extended to intersect the Frankfort's horizontal plane, thus obtaining the radiographic sagittal condylar guidance angle. The condylar guidance angles obtained by these two methods were compared and subjected to paired t -test. There was no statistically significant difference between the sagittal condylar guidance angles obtained between right and left sides with intraoral gothic arch tracing and radiographic methods ( P = 0.107 and 0.07, respectively). Within the limitations of this study, it was concluded that the protrusive condylar guidance angles obtained by panoramic radiograph may be used for programming semi-adjustable articulators.

  17. Contrast reference values in panoramic radiographic images using an arch-form phantom stand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jae Myung; Lee, Che Na; Kim, Jo Eun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate appropriate contrast reference values (CRVs) by comparing the contrast in phantom and clinical images. Phantom contrast was measured using two methods: (1) counting the number of visible pits of different depths in an aluminum plate, and (2) obtaining the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for 5 tissue-equivalent materials (porcelain, aluminum, polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE], polyoxymethylene [POM], and polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]). Four panoramic radiographs of the contrast phantom, embedded in the 4 different regions of the arch-form stand, and 1 real skull phantom image were obtained, post-processed, and compared. The clinical image quality evaluation chart was used to obtain the cut-off values of the phantom CRV corresponding to the criterion of being adequate for diagnosis. The CRVs were obtained using 4 aluminum pits in the incisor and premolar region, 5 aluminum pits in the molar region, and 2 aluminum pits in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The CRVs obtained based on the CNR measured in the anterior region were: porcelain, 13.95; aluminum, 9.68; PTFE, 6.71; and POM, 1.79. The corresponding values in the premolar region were: porcelain, 14.22; aluminum, 8.82; PTFE, 5.95; and POM, 2.30. In the molar region, the following values were obtained: porcelain, 7.40; aluminum, 3.68; PTFE, 1.27; and POM, - 0.18. The CRVs for the TMJ region were: porcelain, 3.60; aluminum, 2.04; PTFE, 0.48; and POM, - 0.43. CRVs were determined for each part of the jaw using the CNR value and the number of pits observed in phantom images

  18. Contrast reference values in panoramic radiographic images using an arch-form phantom stand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jae Myung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Ilsan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Che Na; Kim, Jo Eun; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Lee, Sam Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate appropriate contrast reference values (CRVs) by comparing the contrast in phantom and clinical images. Phantom contrast was measured using two methods: (1) counting the number of visible pits of different depths in an aluminum plate, and (2) obtaining the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) for 5 tissue-equivalent materials (porcelain, aluminum, polytetrafluoroethylene [PTFE], polyoxymethylene [POM], and polymethylmethacrylate [PMMA]). Four panoramic radiographs of the contrast phantom, embedded in the 4 different regions of the arch-form stand, and 1 real skull phantom image were obtained, post-processed, and compared. The clinical image quality evaluation chart was used to obtain the cut-off values of the phantom CRV corresponding to the criterion of being adequate for diagnosis. The CRVs were obtained using 4 aluminum pits in the incisor and premolar region, 5 aluminum pits in the molar region, and 2 aluminum pits in the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) region. The CRVs obtained based on the CNR measured in the anterior region were: porcelain, 13.95; aluminum, 9.68; PTFE, 6.71; and POM, 1.79. The corresponding values in the premolar region were: porcelain, 14.22; aluminum, 8.82; PTFE, 5.95; and POM, 2.30. In the molar region, the following values were obtained: porcelain, 7.40; aluminum, 3.68; PTFE, 1.27; and POM, - 0.18. The CRVs for the TMJ region were: porcelain, 3.60; aluminum, 2.04; PTFE, 0.48; and POM, - 0.43. CRVs were determined for each part of the jaw using the CNR value and the number of pits observed in phantom images.

  19. Observer performance in diagnosing osteoporosis by dental panoramic radiographs: results from the osteoporosis screening project in dentistry (OSPD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taguchi, A; Asano, A; Ohtsuka, M; Nakamoto, T; Suei, Y; Tsuda, M; Kudo, Y; Inagaki, K; Noguchi, T; Tanimoto, K; Jacobs, R; Klemetti, E; White, S C; Horner, K

    2008-07-01

    Mandibular cortical erosion detected on dental panoramic radiographs (DPRs) may be useful for identifying women with osteoporosis, but little is known about the variation in diagnostic efficacy of observers worldwide. The purpose of this study was to measure the accuracy in identifying women at risk for osteoporosis in a worldwide group of observers using DPRs. We constructed a website that included background information about osteoporosis screening and instructions regarding the interpretation of mandibular cortical erosion. DPRs of 100 Japanese postmenopausal women aged 50 years or older who had completed skeletal bone mineral measurements by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry were digitized at 300 dpi. These were displayed on the website and used for the evaluation of diagnostic efficacy. Sixty observers aged 25 to 66 years recruited from 16 countries participated in this study. These observers classified cortical erosion into one of three groups (none, mild to moderate, and severe) on the website via the Internet, twice with an approximately 2-week interval. The diagnostic efficacy of the Osteoporosis Self-Assessment Tool (OST), a simple clinical decision rule based on age and weight, was also calculated and compared with that of cortical erosion. The overall mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of the 60 observers in identifying women with osteoporosis by cortical erosion on DPRs were 82.5, 46.2, 46.7, and 84.0%, respectively. Those same values by the OST index were 82.9, 43.1, 43.9, and 82.4%, respectively. The intra-observer agreement in classifying cortical erosion on DPRs was sufficient (weighted kappa values>0.6) in 36 (60%) observers. This was significantly increased in observers who specialized in oral radiology (Perosion were 83.5, 48.7, 48.3, and 85.7%, respectively. The mean PPV and NPV were significantly higher in the 36 observers with sufficient intra-observer agreement than in the 24

  20. The influence of dental implants in periapical and panoramic radiographs and cone beam computed tomography images: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Rafael Perdomo; Shinkai, Rosemary Sadami Arai; Rockenbach, Maria Ivete Bolzan

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of dental implants on the radiographic density of the peri-implant region in tomographic and radiographic examinations. A sample of 21 dental implants from 10 patients with Brånemark-protocol prostheses was evaluated based on postoperative control images, including periapical radiography (paralleling technique), panoramic radiography, and cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). The density means of 6 defined areas near dental implants were calculated and compared considering their locations and the different imaging examinations. The CBCT examinations showed significantly different densities among the measured areas (P implants in all the examinations: CBCT (127.88 and 120.71), panoramic (106.51 and 106.09), and periapical (120.32). The sagittal CBCT images were measured in 2 different sections, and in both sections those areas closer to implants showed mean densities that were significantly higher than means from more distant areas (P implant region confirmed the interference of dental implants in radiographic and tomographic images. CBCT images suffered the greatest interference from dental implants.

  1. Removing Distortion of Periapical Radiographs in Dental Digital Radiography Using Embedded Markers in an External frame.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kafieh, Rahele; Shahamoradi, Mahdi; Hekmatian, Ehsan; Foroohandeh, Mehrdad; Emamidoost, Mostafa

    2012-10-01

    To carry out in vivo and in vitro comparative pilot study to evaluate the preciseness of a newly proposed digital dental radiography setup. This setup was based on markers placed on an external frame to eliminate the measurement errors due to incorrect geometry in relative positioning of cone, teeth and the sensor. Five patients with previous panoramic images were selected to undergo the proposed periapical digital imaging for in vivo phase. For in vitro phase, 40 extracted teeth were replanted in dry mandibular sockets and periapical digital images were prepared. The standard reference for real scales of the teeth were obtained through extracted teeth measurements for in vitro application and were calculated through panoramic imaging for in vivo phases. The proposed image processing thechnique was applied on periapical digital images to distinguish the incorrect geometry. The recognized error was inversely applied on the image and the modified images were compared to the correct values. The measurement findings after the distortion removal were compared to our gold standards (results of panoramic imaging or measurements from extracted teeth) and showed the accuracy of 96.45% through in vivo examinations and 96.0% through in vitro tests. The proposed distortion removal method is perfectly able to identify the possible inaccurate geometry during image acquisition and is capable of applying the inverse transform to the distorted radiograph to obtain the correctly modified image. This can be really helpful in applications like root canal therapy, implant surgical procedures and digital subtraction radiography, which are essentially dependent on precise measurements.

  2. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographs

    OpenAIRE

    Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, ta...

  3. Assessment of the Horizontal and Vertical Position of Mental Foramen in Indian Population in Terms of Age and Sex in Dentate Subjects by Pano-ramic Radiographs: A Retrospective Study with Review of Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parnami, Priyanka; Gupta, Deepak; Arora, Vishal; Bhalla, Saurabh; Kumar, Adarsh; Malik, Rashi

    2015-01-01

    To familiarize new criteria to access vertical position of mental foramen in panoramic radiographs. Furthermore, to determine and compare the position and symmetry of mental foramen in horizontal as well as in vertical plane in Indian population and to compare the results with those reported for other populations in the literature. Further gender differences in mental foramen position were also accessed to comment on the reliability of panoramic radiographs for sex determination. Methods and Material : Six hundred digital panoramic radiographs were selected and studied regarding the location and symmetry of mental foramen. They were also compared with the other studies in the literature. The method employed is similar to that described by Al Jasser and Nwoku for horizontal position and Fishal et al. for vertical position of mental foramen. Certain modifications were carried out in Fishal's criteria for vertical position assessment. Results : The commonest position of the mental foramen in horizontal plane was in line with the longitudinal axis of the second premolar (61.0%) while in vertical plane it was found to be located inferior to the apex of second premolar (72.2%). Conclusion : Mental foramen exists in different locations and possesses many variations. Hence, Individual, gender, age, race and assessing technique largely influence these variations. It suggests that the clinicians should carefully identify these anatomical landmarks, by analyzing all influencing factors, prior to their diagnostic or the other dental, surgical and implant operation.

  4. The study of radiographic technique with low exposure using computed panoramic tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yasuhiro

    1987-01-01

    A new imaging system for the dental field that combines recent advances in both the electronics and computer technologies was developed. This new imaging system is a computed panoramic tomography process based on the newly developed laser-scan system. In this study a quantitative image evaluation was performed comparing anatomical landmark in computed panoramic tomography at a low exposure (LPT) and in conventional panoramic tomography at a routin (CPT), and the following results were obtained: 1. The diagnostic value of the CPT decreased with decreasing exposure, paticularly with regard to the normal anatomical landmarks of such microstructural parts as the periodontal space, lamina dura and the enamel-dentin border. 2. The LPT was highly diagnostic value for all normal anatomical landmark, averaging about twice as valuable diagnostically as CPT. 3. The visually diagnostic value of the periodontal space, lamina dura, enamel-dentin border and the anatomical morphology of the teeth on the LPT beeing slightly dependent on the spatial frequency enhancement rank. 4. The LPT formed images with almost the same range of density as the CPT. 5. Computed panoramic tomographs taken at a low exposure revealed more information of the trabecular bone pattern on the image than conventional panoramic tomographs taken under routine condition in the visual spatial frequency range (0.1 - 5.0 cycle/mm). (author) 67 refs

  5. An automated technique to stage lower third molar development on panoramic radiographs for age estimation: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Tobel, J; Radesh, P; Vandermeulen, D; Thevissen, P W

    2017-12-01

    Automated methods to evaluate growth of hand and wrist bones on radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging have been developed. They can be applied to estimate age in children and subadults. Automated methods require the software to (1) recognise the region of interest in the image(s), (2) evaluate the degree of development and (3) correlate this to the age of the subject based on a reference population. For age estimation based on third molars an automated method for step (1) has been presented for 3D magnetic resonance imaging and is currently being optimised (Unterpirker et al. 2015). To develop an automated method for step (2) based on lower third molars on panoramic radiographs. A modified Demirjian staging technique including ten developmental stages was developed. Twenty panoramic radiographs per stage per gender were retrospectively selected for FDI element 38. Two observers decided in consensus about the stages. When necessary, a third observer acted as a referee to establish the reference stage for the considered third molar. This set of radiographs was used as training data for machine learning algorithms for automated staging. First, image contrast settings were optimised to evaluate the third molar of interest and a rectangular bounding box was placed around it in a standardised way using Adobe Photoshop CC 2017 software. This bounding box indicated the region of interest for the next step. Second, several machine learning algorithms available in MATLAB R2017a software were applied for automated stage recognition. Third, the classification performance was evaluated in a 5-fold cross-validation scenario, using different validation metrics (accuracy, Rank-N recognition rate, mean absolute difference, linear kappa coefficient). Transfer Learning as a type of Deep Learning Convolutional Neural Network approach outperformed all other tested approaches. Mean accuracy equalled 0.51, mean absolute difference was 0.6 stages and mean linearly weighted kappa was

  6. Digital radiographic assessment of coronary flow reserve

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogel, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    A method for measuring relative changes in regional blood flow using digital radiographic enhancement of selective coronary arteriography. Coronary flow reserve is measured in individual arterial distributions using the washin ratio of contrast appearance time under baseline and hyperemic conditions. Information is quantitatively presented in functional (parametric) image format. These images, termed contrast medium appearance pictures (CMAP), depict the transit of contrast through the arterial, myocardial and early venous stages. This process can be divided into three general phases: data acquisition, CMAP formation and CMAP analysis. The technique has evolved over its development period from a cine film-based technology which required substantial processing time to a real-time digital radiographic technique

  7. Assessment of the relationship between the mandibular third molar and the mandibular canal using panoramic radiograph and cone beam computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo; Cho, Bong Hae

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the position of the mandibular canal in relation to the mandibular third molar by cone beam CT in cases showing a close relationship between the third molar and the mandibular canal on the panoramic radiograph. The panoramic images and cone beam CT scans of 87 impacted mandibular third molars in 60 patients were evaluated to assess the tooth relationship to the mandibular canal. The clearness of the canal wall and the vertical depth of the lower third molar were evaluated on panoramic radiographs. The lower third molars were assessed using cone beam CT to determine the proximity and position of the canal relative to the roots. In the 66 cases where the canal wall was unclear on the panoramic radiographs, 58 (87.9%) of the third molars had contact between the canal and root; 34 (51.5%) canals were showed an inferior position and 22 (33.3%) showed a linguoinferior position on cone beam CT. Interruption of the canal wall on panoramic radiographs was highly predictive of contact between the mandibular canal and the third molar. Cross sectional CT may be indicated for localization of the mandibular canal in such cases.

  8. Comparative study of dental anomalies assessed with panoramic radiographs of Down syndrome and non-Down syndrome patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral-Trias, M A; Llopis-Perez, J; Puigdollers Pérez, A

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the prevalence of dental anomalies from panoramic radiographs of age-matched individuals with and without Down Syndrome (DS). This is a retrospective cross-sectional study. A group of 41 patients (19 female and 22 male) with Down Syndrome (DS), mean age 10.6 ± 1.4 and a control group of 42 non- DS patients (26 female and 16 male), mean age 11.1 ± 1.3 were studied. This study examined the medical history and a panoramic radiograph of each patient. The dental anomalies studied were agenesis of permanent teeth (except third molars), size and shape maxillary lateral anomalies and maxillary canine eruption path anomalies. The groups were compared using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon non-parametric tests (panomalies of maxillary lateral incisors, as well as for canine eruption anomalies (pdental anomalies were present in the DS group than in the control group, which implied that DS patients need periodical dental and orthodontic supervision so as to prevent or control subsequent oral problems.

  9. Prevalence of dental anomalies on panoramic radiographs in a population of the state of Pará, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves-Filho, Antonio Jg; Moda, Larissa B; Oliveira, Roberta P; Ribeiro, Andre Luis Ribeiro; Pinheiro, João Jv; Alver-Junior, S Rgio M

    2014-01-01

    Dental anomalies (DAs) are the result of disorders that are able to modify the shape, number, size, and structure of teeth. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of DAs using panoramic radiographs in a population of the City of Belém, northern Brazil. In this study, 487 panoramic radiographs were evaluated searching for DAs. Dental records were reviewed for diagnostic confirmation. DAs related to the shape, number, size, and structure of teeth were investigated. Our results showed a DA prevalence of 56.9%. The most prevalent DA was taurodontism, which was present in 27.19% of cases. Root dilaceration was the second most prevalent DA in adults, whereas hypodontia was the second most prevalent DA in children. A total of 13 DAs were found. Dental anomalies were present in over half of the sample, and most of them were related to the shape of the teeth. Although there was a high prevalence of shape-related DAs, these alterations are generally of lower severity, and most do not require specific treatment. However, in 19.25% of cases, DAs were found involving the number, size and structure of the teeth. These DAs should be diagnosed and treated early, avoiding thus more serious complications.

  10. The frequency of atheromas in panoramic radiographs of patients with periodontal disease, 40 year and older attending the University Dental Clinic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinonez Bartra, Patricia; Calderon Ubaqui, Victor; Quintana del Solar, Martin

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the frequency of atheromas in panoramic radiographic in patients 40 years and older with periodontal diseases attending the Dental School 'Roberto Beltran Neira' in the Universidad Peruana Cayetano Heredia, during the period 2000 and 2004. The sample consisted of 217 random panoramic radiographic with no systematically selected subjects. Variables were analyzed using frequency tables and the chi-square test. Results showed the frequency of atheromas was of 17.1% and the highest number of atheromas appeared between the ages of 40 and 59 years, mostly of feminine sex. (author)

  11. Comparative Study of Accuracy in E Speed Intra Oral Films, PSP Intra Oral Digital System and Panoramic Digital Systems (PSP&CCD for Identifying the Extent of Alveolar Bone Loss in Patients with Chronic Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Moradi Haghgoo

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Diagnosis of periodontal osseous lesions is very important in deter-mining prognosis, treatment plan and maintenance in the long term. This diagnosis can be achieved by using radiography. The aim of this study is to compare accuracy of E speed films, bitewing PSP, panoramic PSP and CCD for identifying the extent of destruction of al-veolar bone in chronic periodontitis. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 272 interproximal surfaces were evaluated by 4 radiographic techniques after clinical examination by a periodontist and indication of flap surgery. The distance between CEJ and the alveolar crest was measured by Williams probe during the surgery and before osseous recontouring. These measures were considered as gold standard. This distance was measured using all 4 radiography techniques by 2 radi-ologists at standard conditions after calibration. Results: There was no significant difference between the 4 techniques. The mean distances from CEJ to alveolar crest in all techniques had no significant difference with gold standard, the least difference was in digital BW PSP and the greatest difference was in panoramic PSP. The non-measurable surfaces by E speed BW and panoramic PSP were the fewest and the most, respectively. Conclusion: Better relative accuracy with regard to variation range, mean difference of meas-ures based on gold standard and number of shown surfaces was observed in digital and conventional BW compared to digital panoramic images. (Sci J Hamadan Univ Med Sci 2014; 21 (1:41-48

  12. Diagnosis of osteoporosis from dental panoramic radiographs using the support vector machine method in a computer-aided system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavitha, M S; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira; Kurita, Takio; Sanada, Mitsuhiro

    2012-01-01

    Early diagnosis of osteoporosis can potentially decrease the risk of fractures and improve the quality of life. Detection of thin inferior cortices of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs could be useful for identifying postmenopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD) or osteoporosis. The aim of our study was to assess the diagnostic efficacy of using kernel-based support vector machine (SVM) learning regarding the cortical width of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs to identify postmenopausal women with low BMD. We employed our newly adopted SVM method for continuous measurement of the cortical width of the mandible on dental panoramic radiographs to identify women with low BMD or osteoporosis. The original X-ray image was enhanced, cortical boundaries were determined, distances among the upper and lower boundaries were evaluated and discrimination was performed by a radial basis function. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of this newly developed method for identifying women with low BMD (BMD T-score of -1.0 or less) at the lumbar spine and femoral neck in 100 postmenopausal women (≥50 years old) with no previous diagnosis of osteoporosis. Sixty women were used for system training, and 40 were used in testing. The sensitivity and specificity using RBF kernel-SVM method for identifying women with low BMD were 90.9% [95% confidence interval (CI), 85.3-96.5] and 83.8% (95% CI, 76.6-91.0), respectively at the lumbar spine and 90.0% (95% CI, 84.1-95.9) and 69.1% (95% CI, 60.1-78.6), respectively at the femoral neck. The sensitivity and specificity for identifying women with low BMD at either the lumbar spine or femoral neck were 90.6% (95% CI, 92.0-100) and 80.9% (95% CI, 71.0-86.9), respectively. Our results suggest that the newly developed system with the SVM method would be useful for identifying postmenopausal women with low skeletal BMD

  13. Sensitometric effects of varying the intensifying screens used with Agfa Dentus ST8G and RP6 panoramic radiographic films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakoh, M; Farman, A G; Scarfe, W C; Kitagawa, H; Kuroyanagi, K

    1997-07-01

    To compare the sensitometric effects and information yield of varying the intensifying screens used with both Dentus ST8G and RP6 Agfa Gevaert, Dormagen, Germany panoramic radiographic films. Four screen-film combinations were employed for each of the two film types. The screens used were blue fluorescing PX-III (Kasei Optonix, Tokyo, Japan) and Special (Siemens AG, Bensheim, Germany), as well as green fluorescing Lanex Regular (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY, USA) and Trimax T16 (3M, Mineapolis, Minnesota, USA). The density response for each screen-film combination was evaluated using the characteristic curves generated. Information yield, as determined by the radiographic detection of defects in an aluminium test object, was evaluated by nine observers. The characteristic curves for ST8G were different when green and blue fluorescing screens were used; however, those for RP6 varied little irrespective of the choice of intensifying screens. Observers were able to perceive defects at significantly lower radiation exposures for ST8G combined with green fluorescing screens compared with blue emitting screens. RP6 with all screen combinations provided similar image detail perceptibility at comparable exposures with ST8G with green-fluorescing screens. RP6 is suitable for use with either the spectrally matched blue emitting screens or green-emitting screens. ST8G radiographic film should always be matched to rare earth screens.

  14. Continuous measurements of mandibular cortical width on dental panoramic radiographs for computer-aided diagnosis of osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavitha, M. S.; Asano, Akira; Taguchi, Akira

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study is to develop a computer-aided osteoporosis diagnosis system that automatically determines the inferior cortical width of the mandible continuously on dental panoramic radiographs to realize statistically more robust measurements than the conventional one-point measurements. The cortical width was continuously measured on dental panoramic radiographs by enhancing the original image, determining cortical boundaries, and finally evaluating the distance between boundaries continuously throughout the region of interest. The diagnostic performance using the average width calculated from the continuous measurement was compared with BMD at lumbar spine and femoral neck in 100 postmenopausal women of whom 50 to the development of the tool and 50 to its validation with no history of osteoporosis was evaluated. We experimentally showed the superiority of our method with improved sensitivity and specificity of identifying the development subjects were 90.0% and 75.0% in women with low spinal BMD and 81.8% and 69.2% in those with low femoral BMD, respectively. The corresponding values in the validation subjects were 93.3% and 82.9% at the lumbar spine and 92.3% and 75.7% at the femoral neck, respectively in terms of efficacy for diagnosing osteoporosis. We also assessed the diagnosis and classification of women with osteoporosis using support vector machine employing the average and variance of the continuous measurements gave excellent discrimination ability. It yields sensitivity and specificity of 90.9% and 83.8%, respectively with lumbar spine and 90.0% and 69.1%, respectively with femoral neck BMD. Performance comparison and simplicity of this method indicate that our computeraided system is readily applicable to clinical practice.

  15. Image quality in digital radiographic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Solange Maria de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the image quality of four direct digital radiographic systems. Radiographs were made of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular left molar regions of a dry skull, and an aluminum step-wedge. The X-ray generator operated at 10 mA, 60 and 70 kVp, and images were acquired with 3, 5, 8, 12, 24 and 48 exposure pulses. Six well-trained observers classified the images by means of scores from 1 to 3. Collected data were submitted to nonparametric statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p<0.01 in image quality with the four systems. Based on the results, it was possible to conclude that: 1 all of the digital systems presented good performance in producing acceptable images for diagnosis, if the exposures of the step-wedge and the maxillary central incisor region were made at 5 pulses, as well as at 8 pulses for the mandibular left molar region, selecting 60 or 70kVp; 2 higher percentages of acceptable images were obtained with the administration of lower radiation doses in CCD-sensors (charge-coupled device; 3 the Storage Phosphor systems produced acceptable images at a large range of exposure settings, that included low, intermediate and high radiation doses.

  16. Segmentation of ribs in digital chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cong, Lin; Guo, Wei; Li, Qiang

    2016-03-01

    Ribs and clavicles in posterior-anterior (PA) digital chest radiographs often overlap with lung abnormalities such as nodules, and cause missing of these abnormalities, it is therefore necessary to remove or reduce the ribs in chest radiographs. The purpose of this study was to develop a fully automated algorithm to segment ribs within lung area in digital radiography (DR) for removal of the ribs. The rib segmentation algorithm consists of three steps. Firstly, a radiograph was pre-processed for contrast adjustment and noise removal; second, generalized Hough transform was employed to localize the lower boundary of the ribs. In the third step, a novel bilateral dynamic programming algorithm was used to accurately segment the upper and lower boundaries of ribs simultaneously. The width of the ribs and the smoothness of the rib boundaries were incorporated in the cost function of the bilateral dynamic programming for obtaining consistent results for the upper and lower boundaries. Our database consisted of 93 DR images, including, respectively, 23 and 70 images acquired with a DR system from Shanghai United-Imaging Healthcare Co. and from GE Healthcare Co. The rib localization algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 98.2% with 0.1 false positives per image. The accuracy of the detected ribs was further evaluated subjectively in 3 levels: "1", good; "2", acceptable; "3", poor. The percentages of good, acceptable, and poor segmentation results were 91.1%, 7.2%, and 1.7%, respectively. Our algorithm can obtain good segmentation results for ribs in chest radiography and would be useful for rib reduction in our future study.

  17. Darkening of third molar roots on panoramic radiographs: is it really predominantly thinning of the lingual cortex?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalma, J; Vajta, L; Lempel, E; Jeges, S; Olasz, L

    2013-04-01

    This study investigated the exact intra-alveolar aetiology of a panoramic high-risk sign, darkening of the third molar roots. 83 mandibular third molar surgical removals demonstrating dark bands on the third molar roots in preoperative radiographs were included in this prospective study. Exposure of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN), the root morphology of the third molar (e.g. groove or hook) and the integrity of the mandibular canal or lingual cortical wall were observed. Differences between single (increased radiolucency alone) and multiple darkening cases (increased radiolucency with accompanying 'high risk' signs) and between IAN exposure and groove formation were analysed. In 38 cases (45.8%), the IAN was visible during the operation. Groove was present in 37.4% of cases. 26.5% of the cases showed lingual cortical thinning, while specious root conformation explained the formation of darkening on the radiographic images of an additional 9.6% of the cases. IAN exposure (Pformation (Pformation of the root than lingual cortical thinning. Copyright © 2012 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Assessment of dental anomalies on panoramic radiographs: inter- and intraexaminer agreement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Parys, K.; Aartman, I.H.A.; Kuitert, R.; Zentner, A.

    2011-01-01

    The presence of dental anomalies has been rated radiographically in a number of studies. However, since the reliability of the assessment of these anomalies has rarely been investigated, the aim of this study was to examine inter- and intraexaminer agreement in identifying morphological dental

  19. Age estimation by modified Demirjian's method (2004) and its applicability in Tibetan young adults: A digital panoramic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijjaragi, Shobha C; Sangle, Varsha A; Saraswathi, F K; Patil, Veerendra S; Ashwini Rani, S R; Bapure, Sunil K

    2015-01-01

    Estimation of the age is a procedure adopted by anthropologists, archeologists and forensic scientists. Different methods have been undertaken. However none of them meet the standards as Demirjian's method since 1973. Various researchers have applied this method, in both original and modified form (Chaillet and Demirjian in 2004) in different ethnic groups and the results obtained were not satisfactory. To determine the applicability and accuracy of modified Demirjian's method of dental age estimation (AE) in 8-18 year old Tibetan young adults to evaluate the interrelationship between dental and chronological age and the reliability between intra- and inter observer relationship. Clinical setting and computerized design. A total of 300 Tibetan young adults with an age range from 8 to 18 years were recruited in the study. Digital panoramic radiographs (DPRs) were evaluated as per the modified Demirjian's method (2004). Pearson correlation, paired t-test, linear regression analysis. Inter -and intraobserver reliability revealed a strong agreement. A positive and strong association was found between chronological age and estimated dental age (r = 0.839) with P < 0.01. Modified Demirjian method (2004) overestimated the age by 0.04 years (2.04 months)in Tibetan young adults. Results suggest that, the modified Demirjian method of AE is not suitable for Tibetan young adults. Further studies: With larger sample size and comparision with different methods of AE in a given population would be an interesting area for future research.

  20. Digitization of radiographic inspection for pipeline girth welded joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uemura, Shimpei

    2016-01-01

    In radiographic inspection for the girth welded joints of natural gas pipeline, film radiographic testing (FRT) is applied presently in Japan. However, as of July 2016, the work of establishing JIS standard for radiographic inspection with digital detector is in progress. In order to provide users with the merit of digitization as soon as possible, the authors have developed NSDART (Nittetsu-Sumikin digital detector array technology) as a field X-ray inspection system for the girth welded joints of pipeline. This paper reports the required performances discussed in face of development of NSDART, selection of digital detector, and outline of NSDART, and shows part of the radiographic images acquired with NSDART. As required performances, the following were established: (1) required image quality for radiographic image, (2) identifiable minimum wire diameter of transmission meter, (3) density range of radiographic image and value of gradation meter, (4) spatial resolution via Duplex Wire, (5) X-ray generator, (6) real time performance, and (7) display for observing radiographic image. As for the selection of digital detector, flat panel detector was judged to be the most suitable, and its incorporation to NSDART was determined. NSDART devices are composed of a magnet-wheeled self-propelled imaging device, personal computer, controller, and externally installed display for judgment. (A.O.)

  1. High-frame-rate digital radiographic videography

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Nicholas S. P.; Cverna, Frank H.; Albright, Kevin L.; Jaramillo, Steven A.; Yates, George J.; McDonald, Thomas E.; Flynn, Michael J.; Tashman, Scott

    1994-10-01

    High speed x-ray imaging can be an important tool for observing internal processes in a wide range of applications. In this paper we describe preliminary implementation of a system having the eventual goal of observing the internal dynamics of bone and joint reactions during loading. Two Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) gated and image intensified camera systems were used to record images from an x-ray image convertor tube to demonstrate the potential of high frame-rate digital radiographic videography in the analysis of bone and joint dynamics of the human body. Preliminary experiments were done at LANL to test the systems. Initial high frame-rate imaging (from 500 to 1000 frames/s) of a swinging pendulum mounted to the face of an X-ray image convertor tube demonstrated high contrast response and baseline sensitivity. The systems were then evaluated at the Motion Analysis Laboratory of Henry Ford Health Systems Bone and Joint Center. Imaging of a 9 inch acrylic disk with embedded lead markers rotating at approximately 1000 RPM, demonstrated the system response to a high velocity/high contrast target. By gating the P-20 phosphor image from the X-ray image convertor with a second image intensifier (II) and using a 100 microsecond wide optical gate through the second II, enough prompt light decay from the x-ray image convertor phosphor had taken place to achieve reduction of most of the motion blurring. Measurement of the marker velocity was made by using video frames acquired at 500 frames/s. The data obtained from both experiments successfully demonstrated the feasibility of the technique. Several key areas for improvement are discussed along with salient test results and experiment details.

  2. Digital subtraction radiographic evaluation of the standardize periapical intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Nah, Kyung Soo

    1993-01-01

    The geometrically standardized intraoral radiographs using 5 occlusal registration material were taken serially from immediate, 1 day, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 16 weeks after making the bite blocks. The qualities of those subtracted images were evaluated to check the degree of reproducibility of each impression material. The results were as follows: 1. The standard deviations of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were 4.9 for Exaflex, 7.2 for Pattern resin, 9.0 for Tooth Shade Acrylic, 12.2 for XCP only, 14.8 for Impregum. 2. The standard deviation of the grey scales of the overall subtracted images were grossly related to those of the localized horizontal line of interest. 3. Exaflex which showed the best subtracted image quality had 15 cases of straight, 14 cases of wave, 1 case of canyon shape. Impregum which showed the worst subtracted image quality had 4 cases of straight, 8 cases of wave, 18 cases of canyon shape respectively.

  3. Variability interexaminer of chronic apical periodontitis diagnostics in panoramic radiographs; Variabilidad interexaminador del diagnostico de periodontitis apical cronica en radiografias panoramicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montero Aguilar, Mauricio; Zeledon Mayorga, Rodolfo; Ramirez Mora, Tatiana; Monestel Umana, Silvia [Univ. de Costa Rica, Facultad de Odontologia (Costa Rica)

    2009-01-15

    The accuracy of radiological diagnosis of Apical Periodontitis (AP) is reported between examiners with differents levels of clinical experience using panoramic radiographs. 1032 teeth in 41 panoramic radiographs have been diagnosed. The evaluation of the x-rays and radiological diagnosis is performed by three independent dentists for AP to each tooth. The teeth have presented without radiological signs of AP in 96.6%. The number of teeth classified with an uncertain diagnosis of AP at the has been inversely proportional to the number of years of experience of the examiner. The examiner A has been used as a reference and compared the diagnoses of other examiners.The percentage agreement for all teeth was 95% for examiner B and 94% for examiner C. Kappa for all has been of 0.44 for examiner B and 0.43 for examiner C. The different categories were analyzed separately, the inferior teeth and the anterior teeth have obtained the best results. The level of clinical experience of the examiner has been indifferent in the diagnosis of AP in panoramic radiographs; however, it is important experience in the number of radiographs extras that will be needed to give a radiological diagnosis definitive. The panoramic radiographs were reliable diagnostic tools for AP. (author) [Spanish] La precision del diagnostico radiologico de la Periodontitis Apical Cronica (PAC) es reportado entre examinadores con diferentes niveles de experiencia clinica al utilizar radiografias panoramicas. 1032 dientes en 41 radiografias panoramicas han sido diagnosticados. La evaluacion de las radiografias y el diagnostico radiologico es realizado por tres odontologos independientes para la PAC a cada diente. Los dientes tampoco han presentado signos radiologicos de PAC en 96.6%. El numero de dientes clasificados con un diagnostico incierto de PAC ha sido inversamente proporcional al numero de anos de experiencia del examinador. El examinador A ha sido utilizado como referencia y se han comparado los

  4. Digital radiographic techniques in the analysis of paintings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    James, A.E. Jr.; Gibbs, S.J.; James, A.E. III; Pickens, D.R.; Sloan, M.; Price, R.R.; Erickson, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter the authors use the term digital radiography to mean any method of radiographic image production in which the silver halide-based film is replaced by an electronic sensor for production of an image. There are essentially three types of digital radiographic systems available at present, but others will be developed. These differ primarily in the method of image production and the rapidity with which images can be produced. The three methods discussed are digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and the scanned point source radiography. Each has certain characteristics which, if properly utilized, will allow improved x-ray analysis of paintings

  5. Endodontic radiography: who is reading the digital radiograph?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewary, Shalini; Luzzo, Joseph; Hartwell, Gary

    2011-07-01

    Digital radiographic imaging systems have undergone tremendous improvements since their introduction. Advantages of digital radiographs over conventional films include lower radiation doses compared with conventional films, instantaneous images, archiving and sharing images easily, and manipulation of several radiographic properties that might help in diagnosis. A total of 6 observers including 2 endodontic residents, 3 endodontists, and 1 oral radiologist evaluated 150 molar digital periapical radiographs to determine which of the following conditions existed: normal periapical tissue, widened periodontal ligament, or presence of periapical radiolucency. The evaluators had full control over the radiograph's parameters of the Planmeca Dimaxis software program. All images were viewed on the same computer monitor with ideal vie-wing conditions. The same 6 observers evaluated the same 150 digital images 3 months later. The data were analyzed to determine how well the evaluators agreed with each other (interobserver agreement) for 2 rounds of observations and with themselves (intraobserver agreement). Fleiss kappa statistical analysis was used to measure the level of agreement among multiple raters. The overall Fleiss kappa value for interobserver agreement for the first round of interpretation was 0.34 (P value for interobserver agreement for the second round of interpretation was 0.35 (P fair (0.2-0.4) agreement among the 6 raters at both observation periods. A weighted kappa analysis was used to determine intraobserver agreement, which showed on average a moderate agreement. The results indicate that the interpretation of a dental radiograph is subjective, irrespective of whether conventional or digital radiographs are used. The factors that appeared to have the most impact were the years of experience of the examiner and familiarity of the operator with a given digital system. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All

  6. Co-relation of variables as determined from panoramic radiograph and evaluating their significance in eruption of permanent mandibular third molar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kushal Amin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of the Study: Purpose of the study is to investigate whether the variables associated with the permanent mandibular third molar (PMM3 and arch dimensions could be co-related and significantly differentiated between a fully erupted and mesially impacted PMM3 among a set of Indian population. Study Design: A standardized panoramic radiograph was taken of subjects of age 21 years and above. Patients with missing tooth from mandibular arch, subjects undergoing or having history of orthodontic treatment, subjects having disto-angular, horizontal or vertical impacted PMM3 were excluded from the study. Subjects were divided into 2 groups: (1 mesially impacted PMM3 and (2 vertically erupted PMM3. Following measurements were taken from acetate paper tracing of standardized panoramic radiograph: (1 Angulation of long axis of PMM3 to permanent mandibular second molar (theta (2 Angulation of PMM 3 to base of mandible (theta 2 (3 Gonial angle (theta 3 (4 Mesio-distal width of PMM 3 (5 Retro molar space. From these measurements Ganss ratio (retro molar space /PMM3 crown width. was calculated. Results and Conclusion: Results revealed that angle theta 1, angle theta 2, retro molar space and Ganss ratio were positively co-related and highly significant variables associated with the mesially and vertically erupted teeth as measured on panoramic radiograph. Using these variables a long-term study can be carried out to predict the ultimate position of lower third molar in the arch so that if there is a probability of the tooth being impacted at a later age, a prophylactic germectomy can be performed at an early age.

  7. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilton Mitsunari Takeshita

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL. Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth - directly on the mandibles (control, using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin, digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT. Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA, Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health ® , Rochester, NY, USA, and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey′s test at 5% significance level. Results: The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001. CBCT differed from panoramic (P = 0.0130, periapical with Rinn XCP (P = 0.0066, periapical with Han-Shin (P < 0.0001, and digital periapical (P = 0.0027. Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007. Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004. Conclusions: Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls.

  8. Evaluation of the Correlation of (He Distance Between the Alveolar Crest and Cementoenamel Junction Inpreiapical. Bitewing and Panoramic Radiographs with its Actual Distance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Yazdani

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: In spite of the limitations of Radiography, diagnosing of periodontal diseases without having accurate radiographs is inadequate because it provides a visible image of the supporting bone to the clinician and works as a fixed measure of the supporting bone during the study.Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the precision of preiapical, bitewings and panoramicradiographs in determining the distance between the alveolar crest (AC and cementoenamel junction (CEJ of teeth. Materials and Methods: Statistically this is a survey study in which 120 interproximal surfaces of teeth were measured during surgery by periodontal probing and recorded as the actual measurement. Then 40 sites underwent bitewing, 40 sites preapical and 40 others panoramic radiography and the distance of CEJ up to the alveolar crest of bone was measured on them by periodontal probe and recorded. Then each group was analyzed separately and the Pearson's correlation coefficient was examined for the data.Results: The results of this study showed that when the thickness of the remaining bone in a millimeter limit is important for (he surgeon, the bitewing radiography has a prime importance, but when bone loss ismoderate, the panoramic radiography showing %89 of the cases close to the actual measure, can be acceptable. On the other hand, in anterior sites for determining the bone alteration, preiapical radiography with a 0.93 correlation coefficient is superior to the panoramic radiography with a correlation coefficient of 0.72 and we suggest it for examining the changes of bone in these sites. Conclusion: whenever the bone alteration is moderate or severe, it seems that, bitewing radiography is of particular importance, but when the bone loss is little, panoramic radiography can be used and there is no needto put the patient on unnecessary radiation.

  9. Absorbed doses received by infants subjected to panoramic dental and cephalic radiographs; Dosis absorbida recibida por infantes sometidos a radiografias dentales panoramicas y cefalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, L.; Carreno, S. [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas. Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica. Carretera Panamericana Km. 11. Apartado Postal 21827, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    The IAEA Report No. 115 recommends that each country or region can establish levels of absorbed doses for each radiographic technique employed in diagnostic. assuming the extended and expensive of this purpose, we have been to begin in a first step with the dentistry area, in order to estimate the dose levels received at crystalline and thyroid level in infants that go to an important public institution in our country to realize panoramic and cephalic radiographs. This work will serve to justify and impel a quality assurance program in Venezuela on the dentistry area which includes aspects such as training for the medical lap referring the justification of the radiological practice, optimization of X-ray units to produce an adequate image quality that delivers to patient an absorbed dose as much lower as reasonably it can be reached without diagnostic detriment. (Author)

  10. Absorbed doses received by infants subjected to panoramic dental and cephalic radiographs; Dosis absorbida recibida por infantes sometidos a radiografias dentales panoramicas y cefalicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carrizales, L; Carreno, S [Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Cientificas. Laboratorio Secundario de Calibracion Dosimetrica. Carretera Panamericana Km. 11. Apartado Postal 21827, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-12-31

    The IAEA Report No. 115 recommends that each country or region can establish levels of absorbed doses for each radiographic technique employed in diagnostic. assuming the extended and expensive of this purpose, we have been to begin in a first step with the dentistry area, in order to estimate the dose levels received at crystalline and thyroid level in infants that go to an important public institution in our country to realize panoramic and cephalic radiographs. This work will serve to justify and impel a quality assurance program in Venezuela on the dentistry area which includes aspects such as training for the medical lap referring the justification of the radiological practice, optimization of X-ray units to produce an adequate image quality that delivers to patient an absorbed dose as much lower as reasonably it can be reached without diagnostic detriment. (Author)

  11. Reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Gwangju (South Korea)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. S.; Kim, Y. H.; Yoon, S. J.; Kang, B. C.

    2010-01-01

    This study assessed the reference dose levels for dental panoramic radiography in Gwangju city (South Korea) based on the dose width product (DWP) and compared them with those already established elsewhere. A total of 44 panoramic dental radiographic sets (36 digital and 8 analogue panoramic sets) in 41 dental clinics in Gwangju city were chosen. The third quartile DWP was determined from 429 surface dose measurements of the adult surface dose in panoramic dental radiography. The third quartile DWP for panoramic radiography was 60.1 mGy mm. The proposed DWP reference levels of 60.1 mGy mm were less than or equal to those previously reported in other countries, such as Italy and UK, and acceptable for panoramic radiography in Gwangju (KR). (authors)

  12. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shokri, Abbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver

    2014-03-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, taurodontism, and dens invagination); (b) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia, and hyperdontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and dentin dysplasia); and (d) position (including displacement, impaction, and dilacerations). The reliability between the two observers was 79.56% according to the Kappa statistics. The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 29%. Anomalies of position and number were the most common types of abnormalities, and anomalies of shape and structure were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (44.76%), dilacerations (21.11%), hypodontia (15.88%), taurodontism (9.29%), and hyperdontia (6.76%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. The anomalies of shape and number were more common in the age groups of 7-12 years and 13-15 years, respectively, while the anomalies of structure and position were more common among the other age groups. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies, and structure anomalies were the least in this Iranian population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies.

  13. Direct digital acquisition of neonatal portable chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, M.D.; Cory, D.A.; Broderick, N.J.; Smith, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Philips computerized radiography system utilizes a phosphor plate instead of an x-ray film to acquire radiographic images. The latent image on the plate is converted to a digital format. The authors report their initial experience with the system in more than 300 studies on intensive care neonates. The digital images provide very uniform image density. Tubes and catheters are more easily visualized than on conventional images. Soft tissues of the chest wall and bony structures are also more clearly seen on the digital images. The authors' initial experience indicates that portable digital imaging of neonates is technically feasible and provides good-quality diagnostic images

  14. Digital image processing of mandibular trabeculae on radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Toshi

    1987-06-01

    The present study was aimed to reveal the texture patterns of the radiographs of the mandibular trabeculae by digital image processing. The 32 cases of normal subjects and the 13 cases of patients with mandibular diseases of ameloblastoma, primordial cysts, squamous cell carcinoma and odontoma were analyzed by their intra-oral radiographs in the right premolar regions. The radiograms were digitized by the use of a drum scanner densitometry method. The input radiographic images were processed by a histogram equalization method. The result are as follows : First, the histogram equalization method enhances the image contrast of the textures. Second, the output images of the textures for normal mandible-trabeculae radiograms are of network pattern in nature. Third, the output images for the patients are characterized by the non-network pattern and replaced by the patterns of the fabric texture, intertwined plants (karakusa-pattern), scattered small masses and amorphous texture. Thus, these results indicates that the present digital image system is expected to be useful for revealing the texture patterns of the radiographs and in the future for the texture analysis of the clinical radiographs to obtain quantitative diagnostic findings.

  15. Evaluation of diagnostic accuracy of conventional and digital periapical radiography, panoramic radiography, and cone-beam computed tomography in the assessment of alveolar bone loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari; Vessoni Iwaki, Lilian Cristina; Da Silva, Mariliani Chicarelli; Tonin, Renata Hernandes

    2014-01-01

    Background: To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of different radiographic methods in the assessment of proximal alveolar bone loss (ABL). Materials and Methods: ABL, the distance between cement-enamel junction and alveolar bone crest, was measured in 70 mandibular human teeth – directly on the mandibles (control), using conventional periapical radiography with film holders (Rinn XCP and Han-Shin), digital periapical radiography with complementary metal-oxide semiconductor sensor, conventional panoramic, and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Three programs were used to measure ABL on the images: Image tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Sciences Center, San Antonio, Texas, USA), Kodak Imaging 6.1 (Kodak Dental Imaging 6.1, Carestream Health®, Rochester, NY, USA), and i-CAT vision 1.6.20. Statistical analysis used ANOVA and Tukey's test at 5% significance level. Results: The tomographic images showed the highest means, whereas the lowest were found for periapical with Han-Shin. Controls differed from periapical with Han-Shin (P digital periapical (P = 0.0027). Conventional periapicals with film holders differed from each other (P = 0.0007). Digital periapical differed from conventional periapical with Han-Shin (P = 0.0004). Conclusions: Conventional periapical with Han-Shin film holder was the only method that differed from the controls. CBCT had the closest means to the controls. PMID:25191066

  16. Application of digital techniques to the restoration of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.

    1980-09-01

    The methods of constrained least squares and maximum entropy have been used to restore digital X and γ-ray radiographs. Both methods require the blurring of the image to be a linear, spatially invariant process. Although the blurring processes in radiography can be complex, situations have been identified where these simplifying assumptions are valid. Algorithms for deriving the point-spread function of each image are discussed. These include a pinhole method for X-ray radiographs, and reconstruction from edge profiles for γ-ray radiographs. The results from the restoration of geometrically blurred radiographs of sparking plugs are given. Maximum entropy gives results superior to those obtained by constrained least squares. The resolution is improved by a factor of about three when maximum entropy is used, and by a factor of about two for constrained least squares. (author)

  17. Panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.; Kircher, D.R.; Hart, F.W.; Ciavattoni, A.

    1980-01-01

    Apparatus is described for improving the handling rate of patients in panoramic dental radiography when tube head-camera assembly of a low silhouette panoramic dental X-ray machine is rotated for a scan in one direction only. This is effected by fast return of the tube head-camera assembly with its simultaneous elevation, thus facilitating the radiographed patient's exit from the machine and the entrance of another patient. Fast speed is about twice the scanning speed. (author)

  18. Obtaining digital files from radiographic films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavena, Leonardo B; Romero, Amanda G; Paul, Anibal de; Rocha, Luis A; Rotger, Viviana I; Olivera, Juan M

    2007-01-01

    Digitizing images with low cost off-the-shelf technology arises as an alternative to storage films in developing countries. The objective of this work is to determine a low-cost method to digitize Rx films for educative and remote-consult purposes. To this aim, different ways of digitizing were compared against conventional methods to determine the feasibility to have a simple-low cost method that is quality independent from facilities and operator. Different images from digital photo cameras and scanners (with or without transparency adapter at different resolutions and color depth) were analyzed. We present preliminary results for digitizing Rx films with a fast and simple inexpensive system that capture quality images, and optimal sizes for storage in basic PCs in hospitals, with the possibility of asking for a second opinion via e-mail or through a web-based service. It must be noted that in many cases the only way of communication is via dial-up telephone line

  19. Digital radiographic technology; non-destructive testing of tubine blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penumadu, P.S.

    2014-01-01

    Inspection of turbine blades has always been a big challenge. Any irregularities in the blade have a huge impact on the gas turbine, so these blades have to be manufactured and inspected in the most sophisticated way possible. The evolution of digital radiographic technology took a leap forward to

  20. Distal root curvatures in mandibular molars: analysis using digital panoramic X-rays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, R; Farfán, C; Astete, N; Navarro, P; Arias, A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the degree of curvature in distal roots in the first and second permanent mandibular molars in a Chilean patient sample. A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted in which digital panoramic X-rays were analysed. Examinations of patients under 18 years, with signs of distortion or alteration in the contrast or the presence of pathologies that affected visualisation of the roots and pulp-chamber floor of the teeth to be analysed were excluded. Using the AutoCad software, an angle was drawn to represent the curve of the root in its different thirds, drawing lines inside the root canal from the pulp-chamber floor to the dental apex. Using the classic definition of dilaceration (root curvature > 90°), its prevalence was established. 412 teeth and roots were analysed, finding a dilaceration prevalence of 0.73% (n = 3). 84.72% of the roots presented some type of curvature. The middle third had the highest percentage of curvatures and the greatest average of angular curvature, whereas the cervical third was the straightest. No significant differences were found between the degree of curvature and the gender of the subjects, except for the apical third of tooth 3.6. The analysis of curvature by root third offers to the clinician a better perspective of the directional change of the roots and does not limit it to just the presence of curves in the apical third. The report of the angular degree of the curvatures, in addition to the prevalence of dilacerations, informs to the clinicians about the likelihood of finding difficulties when treating root canals. (Folia Morphol 2018; 77, 1: 131-137).

  1. Digital radiographic complexes for traumatological department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sudakevich, Y.; Kovalenko, V.; Miroshnichenko, S.; Balashov, S.; Nevgasimy, A.

    2013-01-01

    The paper deals with a budget digital X-ray equipment in operating trauma unit. The proposed set of equipment lets receive X-ray images of required quality at a significantly reduced requirements for radiation protection in the operating room, and to protect the personnel. We consider two variants of the equipment: for operating rooms in the traumatological department in the central district hospitals on the basis of portable X-ray unit and pediatric trauma unit on the basis of micro focus X-ray generator. (authors)

  2. Reference line-pair values of panoramic radiographs using an arch-form phantom stand to assess clinical image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Da Hye; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Jin Woo; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to suggest reference line-pair values of panoramic images with clinically desirable qualities using an arch-form phantom stand. The line-pair test phantom was chosen. A real skull model was selected for setting the arch-form model of the phantom stand. The phantom stand had slits in four regions (incisor, premolar, molar, TMJ). Four raw images of the test phantom in each region and one raw image of the real skull were converted into 50 test phantom images and 50 skull phantom images with various line-pair values. 50 post-processed real skull phantom images were divided into 4 groups and were randomly submitted to 14 evaluators. Image quality was graded on a 4 point scale (1. good, 2. normal, 3. poor but interpretable, and 4. not interpretable). The reference line pair was determined as the first line-pair value scored less than 2 points. The mean scores tended to decrease as the line-pair values increased. The reference line-pair values were 3.19 LP/mm in the incisor, 2.32 LP/mm in the premolar and TMJ, and 1.88 LP/mm in the molar region. Image quality evaluation methods and criteria should be able to assess various regions considering the characteristics of panoramic systems. This study suggested overall and regional reference line-pair values and established a set of standard values for them.

  3. Reference line-pair values of panoramic radiographs using an arch-form phantom stand to assess clinical image quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Da Hye; Choi, Bo Ram; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Woo [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, BK21 Craniomaxillofacial Life Science, and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-03-15

    This study was performed to suggest reference line-pair values of panoramic images with clinically desirable qualities using an arch-form phantom stand. The line-pair test phantom was chosen. A real skull model was selected for setting the arch-form model of the phantom stand. The phantom stand had slits in four regions (incisor, premolar, molar, TMJ). Four raw images of the test phantom in each region and one raw image of the real skull were converted into 50 test phantom images and 50 skull phantom images with various line-pair values. 50 post-processed real skull phantom images were divided into 4 groups and were randomly submitted to 14 evaluators. Image quality was graded on a 4 point scale (1. good, 2. normal, 3. poor but interpretable, and 4. not interpretable). The reference line pair was determined as the first line-pair value scored less than 2 points. The mean scores tended to decrease as the line-pair values increased. The reference line-pair values were 3.19 LP/mm in the incisor, 2.32 LP/mm in the premolar and TMJ, and 1.88 LP/mm in the molar region. Image quality evaluation methods and criteria should be able to assess various regions considering the characteristics of panoramic systems. This study suggested overall and regional reference line-pair values and established a set of standard values for them.

  4. Skin entrance dose with and without lead apron in digital panoramic radiography for selected sensitive body regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Ralf Kurt Willy; Cremers, Catrin; Karle, Heiko; de Las Heras Gala, Hugo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the dose at skin level at five significant anatomical regions for panoramic radiography devices with and without lead apron by means of a highly sensitive dosimeter. A female RANDO-phantom was exposed in five different digital panoramic radiography systems, and the dose at skin level was assessed tenfold for each measurement region by means of a highly sensitive solid-state-dosimeter. The five measurement regions selected were the thyroid, both female breasts, the gonads, and a central region in the back of the phantom. For each panoramic machine, the measurements were performed in two modes: with and without a commercial lead apron specifically designed for panoramic radiography. Reproducibility of the measurements was expressed by absolute differences and the coefficient of variation. Values between shielded and unshielded doses were pooled for each region and compared by means of the paired Wilcoxon tests (p ≤ 0.05). Reproducibility as represented by the mean CV was 22 ± 52 % (median 2.3 %) with larger variations for small dose values. Doses at skin level ranged between 0.00 μGy at the gonads and 85.39 μGy at the unshielded thyroid (mean ± SD 15 ± 24 μGy). Except for the gonads, the dose in all the other regions was significantly lower (p < 0.001) when a lead apron was applied. Unshielded doses were between 1.02-fold (thyroid) and 112-fold (at the right breast) higher than those with lead apron shielding (mean: 14-fold ± 18-fold). Although the doses were entirely very low, we observed a significant increase in dose in the radiation-sensitive female breast region when no lead apron was used. Future discussions on shielding requirements for panoramic radiography should focus on these differences in the light of the linear non-threshold (LNT) theory which is generally adopted in medical imaging.

  5. Correlation between Dental Maturity by Demirjian Method and Skeletal Maturity by Cervical Vertebral Maturity Method using Panoramic Radiograph and Lateral Cephalogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhusudhanan Mallika Mini

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Radiographs are effective tools in assessing the stages of bone maturation in dentistry. The cervical vertebral maturation method is a proven effective tool in assessing the adolescent growth spurt than hand-wrist radiographs in an individual. Assessment of dental calcification stages are a reliable method for determining dental maturity. Panoramic imaging can be used as the primary imaging modality for assessing maturity if a correlation can be found out between tooth calcification stages and cervical vertebral maturation stages. This study was conducted to determine the correlation between dental maturity stage and cervical vertebral maturity stage and to estimate predictor variables for cervical vertebral maturation stages (CVMS stratified by gender in a tertiary hospital setting. Materials and Methods: A descriptive study was conducted among patients accessing orthodontic care in radiology outpatient clinic, Oral Medicine and Radiology department, Government Dental College Thiruvananthapuram for a period of 15 months. Participants were selected between the ages of 8 and 16 years. Panoramic radiographs and lateral cephalograms were used to determine dental maturity stages using Demirjian method and CVMS using Bacetti and Franchi method, respectively. Results: One hundred patients (males = 46, females = 54 were included in the study; the spearman rank order correlation revealed significant relationship. The correlation ranged from 0.61 to 0.74 for females and 0.48 to 0.51 for males. Second premolar showed highest correlation and canine the lowest for both females and males. Stage G of mandibular second premolar signifies the pubertal growth period in this study population. By ordinal regression model, G stage of second premolar was found to be a significant predictor in males and stage H followed by G and F in females for the age group of 12–14 years. Conclusion: Dental maturation stages were significantly correlated with CVMS

  6. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  7. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  8. Comparison of film/screen and PCR digital lateral cervical spine radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver, D.I.; Kreipke, D.L.; Tarver, R.; Braunstein, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The authors compared film/screen and Phillips computed radiography (PCR) radiographs of the cervical spine. In 109 patients. fiilm/screen and digital radiographs were compared for adequate visualization (readability) of bone, soft tissue, and trachea. The lowest cervical vertebra seen was noted in each case. The radiographs were interpreted by four radiologists, and both interobserver and intraobserver consistency were measured. Of the PCR radiographs, 97% were readable with a viewbox alone. Of the film/screen radiographs, 9% were readable with a viewbox. With a hotlight, 83% of the film/screen radiographs became readable. Bone, soft tissue, and trachea were better seen on PCR radiographs than on film/screen radiographs (P<.001). There was less interobserver variation on digital radiographs. Readability of cervical spine radiographs was significantly improved with PCR

  9. Digital radiographic scanning installation with multiwire proportional chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babichev, E.A.; Baru, S.E.; Khabakhpashev, A.G.; Kolachev, G.M.; Savinov, G.A.; Shekhtman, L.I.; Sidorov, V.A.; Volobuev, A.I.

    1991-01-01

    A digital radiographic installation for medical diagnostics is described. Distribution of X-ray intensity in horizontal direction is measured by a one-coordinate MWPC with a 1.2 mm channel. A two-dimensional image is produced by mechanical scanning with 1 mm channel width in vertical direction. The number of pixels in the image is 320x256. The MWPC works in count mode with quantum efficiency 25% (50 keV) and count rate capability 600 kHz/channel. Results of testing a prototype with 64 channels 0.6 mm width are also presented. (orig.)

  10. Qualification of a digital radiographic equipment for thin weld inspection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boulanger, G.; Furlan, J.

    1988-04-01

    The level of quality asked for welding plugs to fuel pins requires to test all the welds, that is to say about 200 000 welds of the fuel assemblies of the fast reactor Super-Phenix. X-ray radiography is one of the tests. Before the operation was done on a film by the personnel automatic selection of tested material and image processing are substituted to the film in the digital radiographic equipment IRENE. Main advantages are: elimination of human factor in defect appreciation, reliability of image processing and instant availability. On 1000 welds a good correlation is obtained between results on films and those of image processing [fr

  11. Acquired image quality in digital industrial radiographic equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Oliveira, Davi F.

    2008-01-01

    The computerized radiographic application in the industrial area is a recent event. The imaging plate is the equipment used as imaging receiver during the exposition radiographic technique, which consists of a flexible photostimulable phosphor screen, capable of storing the photons energy of the incident X and γ rays and of a reading unit which uses a laser device to stimulate a visible light. As two types of phosphor screen are manufactured, one for general use (General Plate - GP) and another one for specific using (High Resolution-HR), one of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the spatial resolution capability in both plates using the Kodak equipment. Furthermore, equipment from different makers, Kodak and General Electric Company - GE, were compared. Two phosphor screen HR were used as the main objective of this study. Imaging Quality Indicators - IQI were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the images in accordance with ASME and DIN standard. The results show that after evaluating the GP and HR Kodak plates, the HR plate was capable of showing a larger resolution of details. However, after evaluating the performance of the HR Kodak plate and GE plate, over the same acquisition condition and with the same size of the laser focal set of 87 μm, the results show a superiority in the GE equipment used for industrial radiographic, mainly for processed images in each specific ambient of digital processing and its performance in meeting satisfactorily the ASME code and the DIN standard. (author)

  12. Development of digital radiographic inspection method in MINT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Ashhar Khalid; Abdul Razak Hamzah; Abdul Aziz Mohamad; Anuar Mikdad Muad; Nolida Yussup; Maslina Mohd Ibrahim

    2002-01-01

    Industrial radiography has been employed for the evaluation of defects, such as cracks, porosity and foreign inclusions found in casting and welds. It has become one of the major techniques in industrial non-destructive testing for the past 40 years. Although this technique has been well developed, further improvement can be implemented especially with the advancement of electronics and computer technology. Digital image processing techniques and application of artificial intelligence methods allow the interpretation of the image to be automated, avoiding the presence of human operators making the inspection system faster, more reliable and reproducible. Numerous works has been reported by various groups on the development of an automated, computer based evaluation algorithms. This paper reports the development and progress of digital radiographic inspection method in MINT. (Author)

  13. SKIN RADIATION IN PANORAMIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herry Irawan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Dental panoramic radiograph in Indonesia has been widely used. Modern diagnostic imaging equipment with minimum radiation is still very limited. One of the conditions in nuclear safety law, UU 10/1997, is an optimization of all radiation sources with DRL through skin dose measurements. In Indonesia, the national DRL has not been established yet, and there were no reports on the study of panoramic skin dose in Indonesia. The aim of this preliminary study was to obtain a panoramic skin dose radiation as reference to establish DRL in Indonesia. Panoramic radiographs of sixteen female and fifteen male patients, aged 4 – 48 years, were taken using the standard conventional method, with TLD chips attached in location groups. The chips were then read with the detector and integrator of BATAN, in high and low temperature condition at the same time. It was revealed that behind the right and left ear were the regions with the highest radiation dose received, followed by the back of the neck, left jaw, right jaw, and chin. The result of this study has shown the importance of DRL in Indonesia since the use of modern diagnostic imaging equipement that limits radiation dose to the minimum level is still very limited.

  14. Computerized detection of pneumothorax on digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanada, S.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.; Montner, S.M.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on neumothoraces that are clinically important abnormalities that usually appear as a subtle, fine line pattern on chest radiographs. We are developing a computer vision system for automated detection of pneumothorax to aid radiologists diagnosis. Chest images were digitized with a 0.175-mm pixel size, yielding a 2,000 x 2,430 matrix size, and 10 bits of gray scale. After indentification of the lung regions, an edge detection filter was employed in the apical areas to enhance a pneumothorax pattern. Ribs were detected with a technique based on statistical analysis of edge gradients and their orientations. Points located on a curved line suggestive of a pneumothorax in this enhanced image were detected with a Hough transform

  15. A portable software tool for computing digitally reconstructed radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaney, Edward L.; Thorn, Jesse S.; Tracton, Gregg; Cullip, Timothy; Rosenman, Julian G.; Tepper, Joel E.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a portable software tool for fast computation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) with a friendly user interface and versatile image format and display options. To provide a means for interfacing with commercial and custom three-dimensional (3D) treatment planning systems. To make the tool freely available to the Radiation Oncology community. Methods and Materials: A computer program for computing DRRs was enhanced with new features and rewritten to increase computational efficiency. A graphical user interface was added to improve ease of data input and DRR display. Installer, programmer, and user manuals were written, and installation test data sets were developed. The code conforms to the specifications of the Cooperative Working Group (CWG) of the National Cancer Institute (NCI) Contract on Radiotherapy Treatment Planning Tools. Results: The interface allows the user to select DRR input data and image formats primarily by point-and-click mouse operations. Digitally reconstructed radiograph formats are predefined by configuration files that specify 19 calculation parameters. Enhancements include improved contrast resolution for visualizing surgical clips, an extended source model to simulate the penumbra region in a computed port film, and the ability to easily modify the CT numbers of objects contoured on the planning computed tomography (CT) scans. Conclusions: The DRR tool can be used with 3D planning systems that lack this functionality, or perhaps improve the quality and functionality of existing DRR software. The tool can be interfaced to 3D planning systems that run on most modern graphics workstations, and can also function as a stand-alone program

  16. Reliability of panoramic radiography in assessing gonial angle compared to lateral cephalogram in adult patients with Class I malocclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girish Katti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Gonial angle is an important angle of the craniofacial complex. Lateral cephalogram and orthopantomogram (OPG can be used to determine this angle. Objectives: To investigate whether OPGs can be used as an alternative to lateral cephalogram for measuring the gonial angle. Study Design: A total of 100 radiographs were collected from patients with Angle's Class I malocclusion (50 males and 50 females with age ranging from 15 to 30 years, with a mean age of 18.24 years. Materials and Methods: The radiographs were taken with digital panoramic system (Kodak 8000C under standard exposure factors, as recommended by the manufacturer. Gonial angle was determined by the tangent of the inferior border of the mandible and the most distal aspect of the ascending ramus and condyle on both panoramic and cephalometric radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Mean values were evaluated using z test. The statistical analysis was performed by using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (version 11.5. Results: The mean gonial angle was 121.13° and 122.22° on panoramic and cephalometric radiographs, respectively. There was no statistical significant difference between the measured gonial angles on panoramic and cephalometric radiographs (P > 0.005. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography can be used to determine the gonial angle as accurately as lateral cephalogram. In addition, we can determine the right and left gonial angles of a patient in an OPG without interferences due to superimposed images of anatomical structures in lateral cephalogram.

  17. Method of simulating dose reduction for digital radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baath, M.; Haakansson, M.; Tingberg, A.; Maansson, L. G.

    2005-01-01

    The optimisation of image quality vs. radiation dose is an important task in medical imaging. To obtain maximum validity of the optimisation, it must be based on clinical images. Images at different dose levels can then either be obtained by collecting patient images at the different dose levels sought to investigate - including additional exposures and permission from an ethical committee - or by manipulating images to simulate different dose levels. The aim of the present work was to develop a method of simulating dose reduction for digital radiographic systems. The method uses information about the detective quantum efficiency and noise power spectrum at the original and simulated dose levels to create an image containing filtered noise. When added to the original image this results in an image with noise which, in terms of frequency content, agrees with the noise present in an image collected at the simulated dose level. To increase the validity, the method takes local dose variations in the original image into account. The method was tested on a computed radiography system and was shown to produce images with noise behaviour similar to that of images actually collected at the simulated dose levels. The method can, therefore, be used to modify an image collected at one dose level so that it simulates an image of the same object collected at any lower dose level. (authors)

  18. A Comparison of Panoramic, Periapical and Bite Wing Radiographies in Evaluation of Alveolar Bone Loss in Periodiontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Haerian Ardakani

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The height of the alveolar bone, is normally maintained by equilibrium between bone formation and bone resorption, but in periodontal disease more destruction or lack of bone formation will reduce the alveolar bone height. However the radiography is important in diagnosis, treatment plan and detection of quality and quantity of the alveolar bone; although the type of radiography is more important. The purpose of this study is the comparison between panaromic, P.A (Parallel, Bite Wing radiographs in diagnosis of periodontitis. Methods: This study was descriptive cross-Sectional study Periapical (PA, Bitewing (B.W & Panoramic radiographic images in 32 pationent 13 male and 19 female with moderate to advanced periodontitis (mean age 38 year were taken before surgical treatment. Actual hight of defect were measured by a William's probe during surgery, the distance between cemento enamel junction (CEJ and alveolar crest were measured on radiographs using a digital vernie scale as will as. Actual measurements were compared with values taken from panoramic PA, B.W radiographs. For Data analysis Paired t test was used. Results: A total of 314 linear distances from the panoramic PA , B.W, and CEJ/BL were measured. The mean difference between panoramic and actual Measurements (0.115 and 0.28 P=(0.24-0.07, were not satistically significant (P> 0.05. The mean difference between P.A and actual measurements (0.279-0.498 P=(0.0001-0.004 showed a satistically significant difference (P< 0.05. The mean deference between BW and actual Measurements (0.576-0.613 P=(0.24-0.07 were satistically significant (P<0.05. Conclusion: Although, all forms of radiographic images showed agreement in detection of periodontal bone loss, the accuracy of panoramic radiographs was more than PA & BW radiographs'. Specially when the magnification was adjusted in panoramic radiography.

  19. Radiographic assessment of proximal caries: A comparison between film-based and dexis digital imaging systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupama N Kalappanavar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study compared Kodak Ektaspeed film and Dexis digital imaging systems for their diagnostic accuracy in detection of proximal canes in 210 proximal surfaces from 105 extracted human teeth (20 premolars and 85 molars, 129 of which were carious. Ground teeth were evaluated histologically. The images were assessed by an observer. ANOVA revealed that groups differ in scoring patterns with f-value of 26.72 and p < 0.01. The mean caries score by histologic assessment was significantly (p < 0.01 more when compared with the scores obtained by conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods. The mean score for conventional radiographic method was slightly more than Dexis digital radiographic method, but the difference was statistically insignificant (p < 0.05. Both the radiographic methods were less accurate in detecting proximal canes confined to enamel, but as the lesion depth was increased to dentin, the rate of caries detection increased dramatically. It was concluded that both conventional and Dexis digital radiographic methods under estimated canes depth when compared with histologic method. Lastly, conventional film radiographs and Dexis digital radiographs did not perform significantly different from each other in the detection of canes.

  20. Digital image processing of periapical radiographs with low dose of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbauy, Warley David; Moraes, Luiz Cesar de

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether digitized images obtained from peri apical radiographs taken with low dose of radiation could be improved with the aid of a computer software (Photo Styler) for digital treatment. Serial and standardized radiographs of molar and pre molar areas were studied. A total of 57 images equivalent to the radiographs taken with reduced exposure time (60 and 80% of the time considered normal), digitized and treated, were submitted to the evaluation of seven examiners which compared them with those images without treatment. It was verified that about 80% of the images equivalent to the radiographs taken with 60% reduction of ordinary exposure time were considered to having quality for supporting diagnosis. As for the images taken with 80% reduction of ordinary exposure time, about 50% of them were considered suitable for the same purpose. (author)

  1. Conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions: A comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C J Sanjay

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective : To evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorption cavities and also to evaluate whether the detectability was influenced by resorption cavity sizes. Methods : Thirty-two selected teeth from human dentate mandibles were radiographed in orthoradial, mesioradial and distoradial aspect using conventional film (Insight Kodak F-speed; Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY and a digital sensor (Trophy RVG advanced imaging system with 0.7mm and 1.0mm deep cavities prepared on their vestibular, mesial and distal surfaces at the cervical, middle and apical thirds. Three dental professionals, an endodontist, a radiologist and a general practitioner, evaluated the images twice with a one-week time interval. Results : No statistical significance was seen in the first observation for both conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions and for small and medium cavities but statistical difference was noted in the second observation (P< 0.001 for both the methods. Conclusion : Considering the methodology and the overall results, conventional radiographic method (F-speed performed slightly better than the digital radiographic method in the detection of simulated radiographic method but better consistency was seen with the digital system. Overall size of the resorption cavity had no influence on the performance of both methods and suggests that initial external root resorption lesion is not well-appreciated with both the methods as compared to the advanced lesion.

  2. Full-body digital radiographic imaging of the injured child

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    radiographic exposure increasing the cumulative dose of ionising ... radiography system in the Trauma Unit at Red Cross War Memorial ..... that resveratrol and similar drugs will treat age-related disorders such as type 2 diabetes and cancer.

  3. Portable pulsed X-ray digital radiographic system based on network transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Le; Li Yuanjing; Wang Yi; Cheng Jianping

    2004-01-01

    Network communication technology of TCP/IP protocol serves as application in pulse X-ray digital radiography system. The system radiographs synchronously with pulse X-ray and converts image signals to digital data, which are transmitted to computer for displaying and processing in network. The system composing structures are present and portable and other characteristics are introduced. (authors)

  4. Review and evaluation of technology, equipment, codes and standards for digitization of industrial radiographic film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    This reports contains a review and evaluation of the technology, equipment, and codes and standards related to the digitization of industrial radiographic film. The report presents recommendations and equipment-performance specifications that will allow the digitization of radiographic film from nuclear power plant components in order to produce faithful reproductions of flaw images of interest on the films. Justification for the specifications selected are provided. Performance demonstration tests for the digitization process are required and criteria for such tests is presented. Also several comments related to implementation of the technology are presented and discussed

  5. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rovaris, Karla; De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco [Div. of Oral Radiology, Dept. of Oral Diagnosis, Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas (UNICAMP), Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2016-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations.

  6. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rovaris, Karla; De Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; Do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations

  7. Brazilian young dental practitioners' use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovaris, Karla; de Faria Vasconcelos, Karla; do Nascimento, Eduarda Helena Leandro; Oliveira, Matheus Lima; Freitas, Deborah Queiroz; Haiter-Neto, Francisco

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the use and acceptance of digital radiographic examinations by Brazilian dental practitioners in daily practice and to evaluate the advances that have occurred over the past 5 years. Dental practitioners enrolled in extension courses at the Piracicaba Dental School, University of Campinas, Brazil, responded to a self-administered questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. They were asked about sociodemographic factors and their knowledge and use of digital radiographic examinations. Descriptive analysis was performed, as well as the chi-square and Fisher exact tests, with a significance level of 5% (α=0.05). A total of 181 participants responded to the questionnaire in the years 2011 and 2015. Most of the respondents worked in private practice, had graduated within the last 5 years, and were between 20 and 30 years old. In 2011, 55.6% of respondents reported having ever used digital radiographic examinations, while in 2015 this number increased significantly to 85.4% (p<.0001), out of which 71.4% preferred it to conventional images. Moreover, 21.4% of respondents reported having used digital radiographic examinations for more than 3 years. A significant increase in use of intraoral digital radiography (p=0.0316) was observed in 2015. In both years, image quality and high cost were indicated, respectively, as the main advantage and disadvantage of digital radiographic examinations. This study showed that digital radiology has become more common in Brazil over the past 5 years. Most of the Brazilian dental practitioners evaluated in 2015 used digital radiographic examinations.

  8. The Effect of Changing Focal Trough in a Panoramic Device on the Accuracy of Distance Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Abdinian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available >Introduction: Magnification and distortion are the most important limitations of panoramic radiography. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of changing focal trough option of Planmeca SCARA 3 on the accuracy of linear distance measurements.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro study, 28 pieces of gutta-percha were attached to the assumptive place of each lost root of an adult dry skull with average size and normal shape. The actual measurements were obtained by a digital caliper. The panoramic images of the skull were taken in six different sizes and shapes of focal trough. This procedure was repeated ten times with new gutta-percha. Paired t-test was used to compare the values of different actual and radiographic images of gutta-percha dimensions.Results: The mean difference [standard deviation (SD] between actual measurement and panoramic radiography in the different groups was from 0.37 (1.1 to 0.58 (2.87 mm. The mean (SD difference of linear measurements between real and radiographic images was 0.52 (0.43 mm in average size, V-shaped group, which was statistically and clinically significant (P = 0.00.Conclusion: Changing the focal trough option of Planmeca SCARA 3 has minimal effects on the accuracy of linear measurements in panoramic radiographs.

  9. Evaluation of underexposed conventional radiographs after digitization. Auswertung fehlbelichteter konventioneller Roentgenaufnahmen nach Digitalisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenz, W. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik); Buitrago-Tellez, C. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Abt. Roentgendiagnostik); Moenig, H. (Freiburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Biophysik und Strahlenbiologie); Niemeier, R. (Digital Diagnostik Deutschland GmbH, Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany))

    1993-02-01

    Inadequate exposure of analogue radiographs is reported in the literature to occur in 5-25% of cases. Therefore, the present study was performed to test whether selective image processing after digitization could reveal diagnostic details on underexposed radiographs. In addition, the minimal exposure values required for diagnostic purposes after adequate image processing were studied. Phantom studies, organ preparations and measurements of physical parameters with decreasing exposure values were performed. The detection of anatomic and pathologic (nondisplaced fracture lines, microcalcification and renal stones) structures were evaluated by 12 readers. Radiographs with exposure values 20-40% lower than 'ideal' values can provide adequate diagnostic images after digital processing. The diagnostic information is significantly impaired with values under 50% of the correct exposure values. In conclusion, this method is adequate to save underexposed radiographs for diagnostic purposes and to avoid repeated examinations. (orig.)

  10. Single exposure simultaneous acquisition of digital and conventional radiographs utilizing unaltered dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oestmann, J.W.; Greene, R.

    1988-01-01

    We describe the simultaneous acquisition of digital and conventional radiographs with a single standard radiographic exposure. A digitizable storage phosphor (ST Imaging Plate, Fuji) is sandwiched into a radiographic cassette (X-Omatic, Kodak) behind a conventional radiographic film-screen combination (Lanex medium screens, OC film, Kodak). The barium fluorohalide storage phosphor is digitized with a helium-neon laser scanner (TCR 201, Toshiba), and the conventional radiograph is processed in the standard fashion (M7B, Kodak). The storage phosphor is exposed by the 'wasted' radiation normally exiting the back of the film-screen combination (32% of the cassette entrance dose at 141 kVp). At a standard exposure (6.3 mAs), the conventional radiograph is of unaltered quality, and the digital image appears to have an adequate signal-to-noise ratio for chest studies despite the lower exposure dose. This technique produces twin images of identical spatial and temporal registration and avoids the added radiation exposure normally required to carry out comparative studies. (orig.)

  11. Diagnostic ability of the periapical radiographs and digital image in the detection of the artificial proximal caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heo, Min Suk; You, Dong Soo

    1994-01-01

    Recently, the digital image was introduced into radiological image. The digital image has the power of contrast enhancement, histogram control, and other digitally enhancement. At the point of the resolution, periapical radiograph is superior to the digital image, but enhanced digital procedure improves the diagnostic ability of the digital image. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries in conventional radiographs, digital radiographs and enhanced digital radiographs (histogram specification). ROC (Receiver Operating Characteristic) analysis and paired t-test were used for the evaluation of detectability, and following results were acquired: 1. The mean ROC area of conventional radiographs was 0.9274. 2. The mean ROC area of unenhanced digital image was 0.9168. 3. The mean ROC area of enhanced digital image was 0.9339. 4. The diagnostic ability of three imaging methods was not significant difference (p>0.05). So, the digital images had similar diagnostic ability of artificial proximal caries to conventional radiographs. If properly enhanced digital image, it may be superior to conventional radiographs.

  12. A radiographic image archive system on digital optical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovich, N.J.; Taira, R.K.; Cho, P.S.; Wong, W.K.; Stewart, B.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The recent introduction of projection computed radiography (CR) systems allows radiology departments to consider digital operation in over 90% of performed procedures. Ideally, current patient procedures from CT, CT, and MR along with laser-digitized historical films should be centrally stored at their full digital resolution. Magnetic disks, because of their limited storage capacity and expense, can only retain these data on a limited basis. The author devised an optical disk archive system which automatically stores images directly onto 2.6-gigabyte optical cartridges without recourse to film. This system is in full clinical operation in the UCLA Pediatric Radiology Section of the authors' department. From this experience they present (a) an analysis of the digital archiving requirements of the Pediatric Radiology Section based on CR, CT, MR, and laser digitized films; (b) the archive and retrieval methods along with performance statistics; and (c) the procedure for assuring digital image integrity

  13. High-yield criteria for panoramic radiography. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, S.C.; Forsythe, A.B.

    1982-06-01

    Panoramic radiographs should be obtained when the examination offers the prospect of providing information that will assist in patient care. The purpose of this study was to determine whether high-yield criteria could be developed for the use of panoramic radiographs in the treatment planning of patients seeking dental care. Clinicians were asked what signs or symptoms caused them to order a panoramic radiograph upon patient admission into the UCLA Dental Clinic. At the time the patient was radiographed, a variety of demographic and clinical measures were recorded. The most important high-yield criterion for the panoramic examination is whether the radiograph is ordered for 'general screening examination' (a negative predictor) and whether the radiograph was ordered for any specific examination (a positive predictor). The use of these (or any other) decision rules required clinical judgment of the costs (social and economic) of a missed positive finding relative to that of an unproductive examination

  14. Computerized detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.L.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.

    1987-01-01

    Detection of cancerous lung nodules in chest radiographs is one of the more important tasks performed by a radiologist. In addition, the ''miss rate'' associated with the radiographic detection of lung nodules is approximately 30%. A computerized scheme that alerts the radiologist to possible locations of lung nodules should allow this number of false-negative diagnoses to be reduced. The authors are developing a computer-aided nodule detection scheme based on a difference image approach. They attempt to eliminate the camouflaging background structure of the normal lung anatomy by creating, from a single-projection chest image, two images: one in which the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the nodule is maximized and another in which that SNR is suppressed while the processed background remains essentially the same. Thus, the difference between these two processed images should consist of the nodule superimposed on a relatively uniform background in which the detection task may be simplified. This difference image approach is fundamentally different from conventional subtraction techniques (e.g., temporal or dual-energy subtraction) in that the two images which are subtracted arise from the same single-projection chest radiograph. Once the difference image is obtained, thresholding is performed along with tests for circularity, size and growth in order to extract the nodules. It should be noted that once an original chest image is input to the computer the nodule detection process is totally automated

  15. Correlation of the Condylar Guidance Obtained by Protrusive Interocclusal Record and Panoramic Radiographs in Completely Edentulous Patients: An in Vivo Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khyati Shah

    2014-01-01

    Results: The results showed statistically significant difference between the condylar guidance values obtained from Orthopantomograph (Radiograph and the condylar guidance values obtained at the stage of jaw relation. Conclusion: Within the limitations of the study, it can be concluded that the condylar guidance values obtained from the Radiographs were higher than those obtained at the stage of jaw relation recording stage.

  16. Digitizing pediatric chest radiographs: comparison of low-cost, commercial off-the-shelf technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruess, L.; Shiels, K.C.; Cho, K.H.; O'Connor, S.C.; Uyehara, C.F.T.; Person, D.A.; Whitton, R.K.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To compare low-cost, off-the-shelf technology for digitizing pediatric chest radiographs. Materials and methods: Forty pediatric chest radiographs (hard copy), each with a single abnormality, were digitized using a commercial film digitizer and two low-cost methods: a digital camera and a flatbed scanner. A stratified, randomized, block design was used where 20 readers evaluated 40 different images to determine the ability to accurately detect the abnormality. Readers then rated all 160 images (40 images x 4 methods) for conspicuity of the abnormality and overall image quality. Results: Abnormalities were correctly identified on 82.3 % of hard copy images, 82.9 % of flatbed scanner images, 74.3 % of film digitizer images, and 69.7 % of digital camera images (p flatbed scanner > film digitizer > digital camera images. Conclusion: A low-cost flatbed scanner yielded digital pediatric chest images which were significantly superior to digital camera images While flatbed scanner images were interpreted with the equivalent diagnostic accuracy of hard copy images, they were rated lower for image quality and lesion conspicuity. (orig.)

  17. Panoramic radiography and its diagnostic application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koseki, Yonoshin

    1971-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a term that is applied to the radiographic techniques which record is the dental arches and related structures on one or two extraoral films. It consists of two methods, one using the intraoral anode, and the other employing tomography. Because of an increase in practical application, about 10 kinds of panoramic dental X-ray units were commercially available in U.S.A.

  18. Implementation of a dedicated digital projectional radiographic system in thoracic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, D.R.; Batra, P.; Hayrapetian, A.S.; Brown, K.; Morioka, C.A.; Steckel, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated digital radiographic system was evaluated with respect to image quality and impact on diagnosis relative to conventional chest radiographs for a variety of focal and diffuse lung processes. Digital images were acquired with a stimulable phosphor plate detector that was scanned by a semiconductor laser for immediate digitalization to a 2,048 X 2,464 X 10-bit image. Digital images were displayed on a 2,048-line monitor and printed on 14 X 17-inch film with use of a laser film printer (Kodak). Preliminary results with this system, including the effects of user interaction with the display monitor, inverse intensity display, and regional magnification techniques, indicate that it may be successfully implemented for thoracic imaging

  19. The radiographic anatomy of the normal ovine digit, the metacarpophalangeal and metatarsophalangeal joints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Jennifer S; Singer, Ellen R; Devaney, Jane; Oultram, Joanne W H; Walby, Anna J; Lester, Bridie R; Williams, Helen J

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this project was to develop a detailed, accessible set of reference images of the normal radiographic anatomy of the ovine digit up to and including the metacarpo/metatatarsophalangeal joints. The lower front and hind limbs of 5 Lleyn ewes were radiographed using portable radiography equipment, a digital image processer and standard projections. Twenty images, illustrating the normal radiographic anatomy of the limb were selected, labelled and presented along with a detailed description and corresponding images of the bony skeleton. These images are aimed to be of assistance to veterinary surgeons, veterinary students and veterinary researchers by enabling understanding of the normal anatomy of the ovine lower limb, and allowing comparison with the abnormal.

  20. Diagnostic Value of Senior Dental Students in Yazd About of Detection the Proximal Caries on Panoramic Radiographs Compared to Detection of Experts in 1394

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Romoozi

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tooth decay is the most common chronic disease of man in the world and dentists should receive the capability to accurately diagnose of tooth decay during the training courses. In addition to clinical examination, the panoramic view and intraoral radiography is usually used for the caries detection. Therefore, the detection of caries on X-ray images can have a role in treatment planning. Methods: In this analytical study, 10 panoramic radiographies that randomly selected, separately given to 30 senior dental students and 2 professors (in order to determine the gold standard. Data were analyzed using SPSS 17 software, diagnostic tables and indexes were prepared and the results were analyzed by Kappa test. Moreover, in order to determine the agreement between the professors and students about the depth of the decay the weighted kappa coefficient was used. Results: The kappa value about detection of presence or absence of proximal caries between professors and students's diagnosis was 0.428 (P value=0.001. Diagnostic sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value obtained by students in caries detection were %47, %91.9, %63 and %85.3, respectively. Coefficient of agreement in detection of depth diagnosis obtained by professors and students was 0.361(p value=0.000. Conclusion: The diagnostic capability of senior dental students about caries detection was fair and depth diagnosis was slight.

  1. Development of a fully automated adaptive unsharp masking technique in digital chest radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Katsumi; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Sasaki, Yasuo

    1991-01-01

    We are developing a fully automated adaptive unsharp masking technique with various parameters depending on regional image features of a digital chest radiograph. A chest radiograph includes various regions such as lung fields, retrocardiac area and spine in which their texture patterns and optical densities are extremely different. Therefore, it is necessary to enhance image contrast of each region by each optimum parameter. First, we investigated optimum weighting factors and mask sizes of unsharp masking technique in a digital chest radiograph. Then, a chest radiograph is automatically divided into three segments, one for the lung field, one for the retrocardiac area, and one for the spine, by using histogram analysis of pixel values. Finally, high frequency components of the lung field and retrocardiac area are selectively enhanced with a small mask size and mild weighting factors which are previously determined as optimum parameters. In addition, low frequency components of the spine are enhanced with a large mask size and adequate weighting factors. This processed image shows excellent depiction of the lung field, retrocardiac area and spine simultaneously with optimum contrast. Our image processing technique may be useful for diagnosis of chest radiographs. (author)

  2. Digital training platform for interpreting radiographic images of the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, L; Woznitza, N; Cairns, A; McFadden, S L; Bond, R; Hughes, C M; Elsayed, A; Finlay, D; McConnell, J

    2018-05-01

    Time delays and errors exist which lead to delays in patient care and misdiagnosis. Reporting clinicians follow guidance to form their own search strategy. However, little research has tested these training guides. With the use of eye tracking technology and expert input we developed a digital training platform to be used in chest image interpretation learning. Two sections of a digital training platform were planned and developed; A) a search strategy training tool to assist reporters during their interpretation of images, and B) an educational tool to communicate the search strategies of expert viewers to trainees by using eye tracking technology. A digital training platform for use in chest image interpretation was created based on evidence within the literature, expert input and two search strategies previously used in clinical practice. Images and diagrams, aiding translation of the platform content, were incorporated where possible. The platform is structured to allow the chest image interpretation process to be clear, concise and methodical. A search strategy was incorporated within the tool to investigate its use, with the possibility that it could be recommended as an evidence based approach for use by reporting clinicians. Eye tracking, a checklist and voice recordings have been combined to form a multi-dimensional learning tool, which has never been used in chest image interpretation learning before. The training platform for use in chest image interpretation learning has been designed, created and digitised. Future work will establish the efficacy of the developed approaches. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Multiline digital radiographic imager study with synchronization to detector gas ion drift

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyret, O.

    1985-01-01

    This direct digital radiographic imager is based on X-ray detection in high pressure rare gas ionization chamber. This linear multidetector, from which scanning radiography is realized, records many lines together. Spatial resolution performance in scanning direction are made sure by scanning synchronization with ion drift in detector. After a physical study and a potential evaluation of its performances on mock-up, a 128 cell prototype has been realized. The first images give validation and limits of such a radiographic process [fr

  4. Detection of proximal caries using digital radiographic systems with different resolutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikneshan, Sima; Abbas, Fatemeh Mashhadi; Sabbagh, Sedigheh

    2015-01-01

    Dental radiography is an important tool for detection of caries and digital radiography is the latest advancement in this regard. Spatial resolution is a characteristic of digital receptors used for describing the quality of images. This study was aimed to compare the diagnostic accuracy of two digital radiographic systems with three different resolutions for detection of noncavitated proximal caries. Diagnostic accuracy. Seventy premolar teeth were mounted in 14 gypsum blocks. Digora; Optime and RVG Access were used for obtaining digital radiographs. Six observers evaluated the proximal surfaces in radiographs for each resolution in order to determine the depth of caries based on a 4-point scale. The teeth were then histologically sectioned, and the results of histologic analysis were considered as the gold standard. Data were entered using SPSS version 18 software and the Kruskal-Wallis test was used for data analysis. P detection of proximal caries (P > 0.05). RVG access system had the highest specificity (87.7%) and Digora; Optime at high resolution had the lowest specificity (84.2%). Furthermore, Digora; Optime had higher sensitivity for detection of caries exceeding outer half of enamel. Judgment of oral radiologists for detection of the depth of caries had higher reliability than that of restorative dentistry specialists. The three resolutions of Digora; Optime and RVG access had similar accuracy in detection of noncavitated proximal caries.

  5. Computerized digital image processing on radiographs of canine filariosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, K.; Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S.

    1999-01-01

    For objective evaluation in the lung arterial lesions, density histogram revealed by survey thoracic radiographies of fifteen canine filariosis and five normal canine were digitally analyzed, and preparation of pulmonary artery angiogram with inflated-fixed lung, the changes in the histogram and the pulmonary arterial lesion by a soft X-ray examination were compared. In the lung areas affected by filariosis, the density histogram increased the white level and decreased the black level in each part compared to a normal lung. In comparison with the normal parameters, those of the filariosis it were significantly increased in minimum grey level values (Min), maximum grey level values (Max), and the maximum frequency grey level values (Mode) and, it was significantly decreased in maximum frequency values (MaF). The pulmonary arterial lesion of the filariosis showed obvious morphological changes such as in distinction, pruning, angiectasis, and meandering. In the grade of pulmonary arterial lesion, the parameter Min, Max, Mode and MaF were changed significantly. From these results, it was clear that the methods for the lung arterial lesions analysis of X-ray images were confirmed to be highly beneficial in the lung arterial lesions for objective diagnosis

  6. [Conventional radiology, digital radiology with photostimulable phosphor, laser digitalization of thoracic radiographic films at the bedside. A comparative study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miceli, M; Stamati, R; Burci, P; Guidarelli, G; Sartoni Galloni, S

    1992-10-01

    The bedside chest images obtained with conventional radiology and with "on line" and "off line" digital modalities were compared to evaluate the respective capabilities in visualizing chest anatomical structures. Seventy patients were submitted to bedside chest examinations with a portable unit; both a conventional film and a digital system (PCR Graphics 1, Philips) with photostimulable phosphor imaging plate were fitted in the radiographic cassette. The former was digitized using an "off line" laser beam unit (FD 2000, Dupont); the latter was subsequently postprocessed by modifying contrast, optical density and spatial frequencies. Thus, 4 different viewing modalities were obtained for each examination: a) conventional radiography; b) standard digital radiography; c) postprocessed digital radiography; d) digitized conventional radiography. Detectability rates of chest anatomical structures were analyzed by 4 independent radiologists on the different images and expressed by a score 1-4. The values were always higher with digital modalities than with the conventional one and the differences were statistically significant (Student's t-test modified by Bonferroni). In particular, the greatest difference was found between c) and a) in retrocardiac lung parenchyma and in skeletal structures, in favour of c). Concerning the comparative adequacy of the various digital modalities, higher detectability rates of chest anatomical structures were obtained with c), but also with b), than with d).

  7. Ultra-high-resolution photoelectronic digital radiographic imaging system for medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bamford, B.R.; Nudelman, S.; Quimette, D.R.; Ovitt, T.W.; Reisken, A.B.; Spackman, T.J.; Zaccheo, T.S.

    1989-01-01

    The authors report the development of a new type of digital radiographic imaging system for medicine. Unlike previous digital radiographic systems that could not match the spatial resolution of film-screen systems, this system has higher spatial resolution and wider dynamic range than film-screen-based systems. There are three components to the system: a microfocal spot x-ray tube, a camera consisting of a Tektronix TK-2048M 2048 x 2048 CCD image sensor in direct contact with a Kodak Min-R intensifying screen, and a Gould IP-9000 with 2048 x 2048 processing and display capabilities. The CCD image sensor is a large-area integrated circuit and is 55.3 mm x 55.3 mm. It has a linear dynamic range of 12 bits or 4,096 gray levels

  8. Radiopacity evaluation of Portland and MTA-based cements by digital radiographic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Pedro, Fabio Luiz Miranda; Semanoff-Segundo, Alex; Miranda, Carlos Eduardo Saraiva; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Cruz Filho, Antônio Miranda

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the radiopacity of Portland and MTA-based cements using the Digora TM digital radiographic system. The performed tests followed specification number 57 from the American National Standard Institute/American Dental Association (2000) for endodontic sealing materials. The materials were placed in 5 acrylic plates, especially designed for this experiment, along with a graduated aluminum stepwedge varying from 1 to 10 mm in thickness. The set was radiographed at a 30 cm focus-object distance and with 0.2 s exposure time. After the radiographs were taken, the optical laser readings of radiographs were performed by Digora TM system. Five radiographic density readings were performed for each studied material and for each step of the aluminum scale. White ProRoot MTA (155.99±8.04), gray ProRoot MTA (155.96±16.30) and MTA BIO (143.13±16.94) presented higher radiopacity values (pPortland (119.76±22.34), gray Portland (109.71±4.90) and white structural Portland (99.59±12.88) presented lower radiopacity values (pcements were the only materials presenting radiopacity within the ANSI/ADA specifications.

  9. Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: emonteiro@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: ademir@nuclear.ufrj.b, E-mail: Ricardo@lin.ufrj.b [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao de Engenharia (PEN/COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Correa, Samanda C.A., E-mail: scorrea@cnen.gov.b [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear (DIAPI/CGMI/CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Coordenacao Geral de Instalacoes Medicas e Industriais. Div. de Aplicacoes Industriais

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

  10. Analysis of several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Edmilson M.; Silva, Ademir X.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Correa, Samanda C.A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate, through MCNPX simulations, several ways to minimize the scatter contribution in radiographic digital images of offshore pipelines. The influence of liquid inside the pipes and water surrounded the pipelines in the scatter contribution will be analyzed. The use of lead screen behind the detector to reduce the backscattered radiation and filter between the radiation source and the pipes will be discussed. (author)

  11. Reproducibility of lateral cephalometric landmarks on conventional radiographs and spatial frequency-processed digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Won; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Hang Moon

    2002-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) has been used in cephalometric radiography and many studies have been carried out to improve image quality using various digital enhancement and filtering techniques. During CR image acquisition, the frequency rank and type affect to the image quality. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic quality of conventional cephalometric radiographs to those of computed radiography. The diagnostic quality of conventional cephalometric radiographs (M0) and their digital image counterparts were compared, and at the same time, six modalities (M1-M6) of spatial frequency-processed digital images were compared by evaluating the reproducibility of 23 cephalometric landmark locations. Reproducibility was defined as an observer's deviation (in mm) from the mean between all observers. In comparison with the conventional cephalometric radiograph (M0), M1 showed statistically significant differences in 8 locations, M2 in 9, M3 12, M4 in 7, M5 in 12, and M6 showed significant differences in 14 of 23 landmark locations (p<0.05). The number of reproducible landmarks that each modality possesses were 7 in M6, 6 in M5, 5 in M3, 4 in M4, 3 in M2, 2 in M1, and 1 location in M0. The image modality that observers selected as having the best image quality was M5.

  12. Comparison of JPEG and wavelet compression on intraoral digital radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2004-01-01

    To determine the proper image compression method and ratio without image quality degradation in intraoral digital radiographic images, comparing the discrete cosine transform (DCT)-based JPEG with the wavelet-based JPEG 2000 algorithm. Thirty extracted sound teeth and thirty extracted teeth with occlusal caries were used for this study. Twenty plaster blocks were made with three teeth each. They were radiographically exposed using CDR sensors (Schick Inc., Long Island, USA). Digital images were compressed to JPEG format, using Adobe Photoshop v. 7.0 and JPEG 2000 format using Jasper program with compression ratios of 5 : 1, 9 : 1, 14 : 1, 28 : 1 each. To evaluate the lesion detectability, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was performed by the three oral and maxillofacial radiologists. To evaluate the image quality, all the compressed images were assessed subjectively using 5 grades, in comparison to the original uncompressed images. Compressed images up to compression ratio of 14: 1 in JPEG and 28 : 1 in JPEG 2000 showed nearly the same the lesion detectability as the original images. In the subjective assessment of image quality, images up to compression ratio of 9 : 1 in JPEG and 14 : 1 in JPEG 2000 showed minute mean paired differences from the original images. The results showed that the clinically acceptable compression ratios were up to 9 : 1 for JPEG and 14 : 1 for JPEG 2000. The wavelet-based JPEG 2000 is a better compression method, comparing to DCT-based JPEG for intraoral digital radiographic images.

  13. Panoramic radiological study to identify locally displaced maxillary canines in Bangladeshi population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alif, Sheikh Mohammad; Haque, Sejuty; Nimmi, Naima; Ashraf, Ali; Khan, Saeed Hossain; Khan, Mahfujul Haq

    2011-01-01

    This study was performed to determine the prevalence of maxillary canine impaction on a basis of a single panoramic radiograph in Bangladeshi population. A random sample of seven hundred panoramic radiographs was collected from the patient record of a dental clinic. All the selected panoramic radiographs were taken from January 2009 to August 2010 by a single panoramic radiograph machine with the same exposure time (19 seconds) for all radiographs. One hundred and twenty panoramic radiographs were excluded to minimize the selection bias. In a dim lit room, an observer assessed the radiographs on a standard radiographic light box. The position of the impacted maxillary canine was recorded in line with the longitudinal axis of a tooth using the edge of a metal ruler. Data were subsequently put on SPSS 11.5 software and chi-square (x 2 ) tests were applied to find out the association. Among 580 panoramic radiographs it was found that impacted maxillary canines were present in only 7 (1.2%) radiographs. A statistical significant difference was found between the age of the patients and the vertical position of the impacted canines (p=0.000) and between the age of the patients and the horizontal position of the impacted canines (p=0.003). The prevalence was found to be low compared with the present study from the limitation of panoramic image. Further study needs to include three-dimensional imaging modality.

  14. Evaluation of the radiopacities of four different root canal sealers by digital radiographic technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Özdemir

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare the radiopacities of four different root canal sealers and gutta-percha. MATERIALS AND METHOD: AH Plus, iRootSP, MTA Fillapex and Sealapex as root canal sealers and gutta-percha cones were tested. Standardized discs of the root canal sealers and the gutta-percha were prepared. Digital radiographs of the discs and an aluminum penetrometer were obtained by using a phosphor plate. The radiographic density of the sealers and the gutta-percha were measured by using the digital radiographic system’s own measurement tool, and equivalent aluminum thicknesses were determined by using an image editing software. Differences among radiopacities of the root canal sealers and the gutta-percha were analyzed using One-way ANOVA and Tukey post-hoc tests. RESULTS: Aluminum thickness equivalents of the radiopacity values of the samples, in descending order, were: AH Plus, Sealapex, iRootSP, MTA Fillapex and gutta-percha. No significant difference was found between the radiopacity values of AH Plus and Sealapex (p>0.05. There were statistically significant differences between these two groups (AH Plus and Sealapex and all other experimental groups (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: AH Plus and Sealapex exhibited the highest radiopacity values among tested groups. In addition, all tested materials fulfilled the minimum standard value requirements suggested by International Standardization Organization and American National Standards Institute.

  15. Is linear distance measured by panoramic radiography reliable?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, Keiichi; Wakoh, Mamoru; Sano, Tsukasa; Suehiro, Atsushi; Sekine, Hideshi; Kousuge, Yuuji

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to re-examine the reliability of distance measurements on clinical panoramic radiographs by comparing them with computed tomography (CT) images, from which the most accurate distance measurement is possible. Twenty pairs of images from patients examined both with panoramic radiography and CT for dental implant treatment planning in the premolar and molar regions of the mandible were used. The vertical linear distance between the alveolar crest and the closest mandibular canal was measured by three experienced oral radiologists on both images. The distances measured on panoramic radiographs were corrected for the magnification factor at the focal plane. Double-oblique cross-sectional images were used for CT. Pearson's correlation coefficient was calculated between distances obtained from both images. The paired t test was performed for statistical comparison. Error levels with the panoramic radiograph versus the CT image were also calculated. Pearson's correlation coefficient showed a significant strong linear correlation (R=0.90; p<0.01). However, the corrected value of distance measured on panoramic radiographs tended to be too small, and a significant difference was observed (p<0.05). The error level was approximately 10% (9.6±7.3%). Distance measurement on clinical panoramic radiographs is less reliable than CT images and cannot be recommended. (author)

  16. Digital radiographic evaluation of alveolar bone loss, density and lamina dura integrity on post splinting mandibular anterior with chronic periodontitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.

    2017-08-01

    The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (pchronic periodontitis with 2/3 alveolar bone loss after three months splinting.

  17. Evaluation of proximal caries in images resulting from different modes of radiographic digitalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, C R G; Araujo-Pires, Ana Claudia; Poleti, M L; Rubira-Bullen, I R F; Ferreira, O; Capelozza, A L A

    2011-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performances of observers in diagnosing proximal caries in digital images obtained from digital bitewing radiographs using two scanners and four digital cameras in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG) and tagged image file format (TIFF) files, and comparing them with the original conventional radiographs. In total, 56 extracted teeth were radiographed with Kodak Insight film (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY) in a Kaycor Yoshida X-ray device (Kaycor X-707; Yoshida Dental Manufacturing Co., Tokyo, Japan) operating at 70 kV and 7 mA with an exposure time of 0.40 s. The radiographs were obtained and scanned by CanonScan D646U (Canon USA Inc., Newport News, VA) and Genius ColorPage HR7X (KYE Systems Corp. America, Doral, FL) scanners, and by Canon Powershot G2 (Canon USA Inc.), Canon RebelXT (Canon USA Inc.), Nikon Coolpix 8700 (Nikon Inc., Melville, NY), and Nikon D70s (Nikon Inc.) digital cameras in JPEG and TIFF formats. Three observers evaluated the images. The teeth were then observed under the microscope in polarized light for the verification of the presence and depth of the carious lesions. The probability of no diagnosis ranged from 1.34% (Insight film) to 52.83% (CanonScan/JPEG). The sensitivity ranged from 0.24 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.53 (Insight film), the specificity ranged from 0.93 (Nikon Coolpix/JPEG, Canon Powershot/TIFF, Canon RebelXT/JPEG and TIFF) to 0.97 (CanonScan/TIFF and JPEG) and the accuracy ranged from 0.82 (Canon RebelXT/JPEG) to 0.91 (CanonScan/JPEG). The carious lesion diagnosis did not change in either of the file formats (JPEG and TIFF) in which the images were saved for any of the equipment used. Only the CanonScan scanner did not have adequate performance in radiography digitalization for caries diagnosis and it is not recommended for this purpose.

  18. Synthetic digital radiographs using exposure computer models of Voxels / EGS4 Phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenned, Roberto; Vieira, Jose W.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Loureiro, Eduardo

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this work is to produce synthetic digital radiographs from synthetic phantoms with the use of a Computational Model of Exposition (MCE). The literature explains a model consisted on a phantom, a Monte Carlo code and an algorithm of a radioactive source. In this work it was used the FAX phantom (Female Adult voXel), besides the EGS4 system code Eletron Shower-range version 4) and an external source, similar to that used in diagnostic radiology. The implementation of MCE creates files with information on external energy deposited in the voxels of fantoma used, here called EnergiaPorVoxel.dat. These files along with the targeted phantom (fax.sgi) worked as data entry for the DIP software (Digital Imaging Processing) to build the synthetic phantoms based on energy and the effective dose. This way you can save each slice that is the stack of pictures of these phantoms synthetics, which have been called synthetic digital radiography. Using this, it is possible to use techniques of emphasis in space to increase the contrast or elineate contours between organs and tissues. The practical use of these images is not only to allow a planning of examinations performed in clinics and hospitals and reducing unnecessary exposure to patients by error of radiographic techniques. (author)

  19. A study of trabecular bone strength and morphometric analysis of bone microstructure from digital radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seung Yun; Lee, Sun Bok; Oh, Sung Ook; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; Kim, Jong Dae

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the relationship between morphometric analysis of microstructure from digital radiographic image and trabecular bone strength. One hundred eleven bone specimens with 5 mm thickness were obtained from the mandibles of 5 pigs. Digital images of specimens were taken using a direct digital intraoral radiographic system. After selection of ROI(100 x 100 pixel) within the trabecular bone, mean gray level and standard deviation were obtained. Fractal dimension and the variants of morphometric analysis (trabecular area, periphery, length of skeletonized trabeculae, number of terminal point, number of branch point) were obtained from ROI. Punch sheer strength analysis was performed using Instron (model 4465, Instron Corp., USA). The loading force (loading speed 1mm/min) was applied to ROI of bone specimen by a 2 mm diameter punch. Stress-deformation curve was obtained from the punch sheer strength analysis and maximum stress, yield stress, Young's modulus were measured. Maximum stress had a negative linear correlation with mean gray level and fractal dimension significantly (p<0.05). Yield stress had a negative linear correlation with mean gray level, periphery, fractal dimension and the length of skeletonized trabeculae significantly (p<0.05). Young's modulus had a negative linear correlation with mean gray level and fractal dimension significantly (p<0.05). The strength of cancellous bone exhibited a significantly linear relationship between mean gray level, fractal dimension and morphometric analysis. The methods described above can be easily used to evaluate bone quality clinically.

  20. Use of digitally reconstructed radiographs in radiotherapy treatment planning and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, C.; Guiney, M.; Hughes, P.; Leung, S.; Liew, K.H.; Matar, J.; Quong, G.

    2000-01-01

    The authors present 3 years of experience of using digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for radiotherapy planning and verification. Comparison is made with simulation film (SF) to illustrate the advantages of DRR over SF. Emphasis is placed on using the appropriate equipment and applying the correct technique. A brief discourse on the principle of CT imaging is presented to illustrate the operation of CT software and optimization of image display for axial slices and DRR. Emphasis placed on the application of clinical knowledge to enhance the usefulness as well as the technical quality of the DRR. Illustrative examples are given. Copyright (1999) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd

  1. Evaluation of horizontal magnification on panoramic images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Raoof

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: This study evaluated the horizontal magnification of images taken from adults and pediatrics with PM 2002 CC Planmeca analogue machine. Materials and Methods: A series of 120 panoramic radiographs were obtained of 60 adults and 60 pediatrics. For all patients, negative impressions were used to make positive casts of the teeth. A caliper was used to measure the maximum mesiodistal length of the buccal surface of all teeth except canines on both casts and radiographs. The horizontal magnification factor was calculated for incisor, premolar, and molar regions by dividing the values obtained from the casts by the values obtained from the radiographs. Statistical Analysis: Independent t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were used. Results: The results indicated that with regard to adults, maxillary and mandibular incisor regions, unlike the other two sessions, didn′t show significant difference of the mean magnification of horizontal dimension (P = 0.5. In pediatrics, the comparison between mean magnification factors of all subgroups showed significant difference (P < 0.0001. Despite the adults′ radiographs, the results of pediatrics′ radiographs showed significantly higher magnification than the index listed by the manufacturer of the radiographic machine used. Conclusion: The present study results point to the fact that PM 2002 CC Proline panoramic machine makes possible precise measurements on radiographs of adults′ jaws in the horizontal dimension.

  2. Accuracy of templating the acetabular cup size in Total Hip Replacement using conventional acetate templates on digital radiographs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Vignesh P; Perumal, Rajamani; Daniel, Alfred J; Poonnoose, Pradeep M

    2015-12-01

    Templating of the acetabular cup size in Total Hip Replacement (THR) is normally done using conventional radiographs. As these are being replaced by digital radiographs, it has become essential to create a technique of templating using digital films. We describe a technique that involves templating the digital films using the universally available acetate templates for THR without the use of special software. Preoperative digital radiographs of the pelvis were taken with a 30 mm diameter spherical metal ball strapped over the greater trochanter. Using standard acetate templates provided by the implant company on magnified digital radiographs, the size of the metal ball (X mm) and acetabular cup (Y mm) were determined. The size of the acetabular cup to be implanted was estimated using the formula 30*Y/X. The estimated size was compared with the actual size of the cup used at surgery. Using this technique, it was possible to accurately predict the acetabular cup size in 28/40 (70%) of the hips. When the accuracy to within one size was considered, templating was correct in 90% (36/40). When assessed by two independent observers, there was good intra-observer and inter-observer reliability with intra-class correlation coefficient values greater than 0.8. It was possible to accurately and reliably predict the size of the acetabular cup, using acetate templates on digital films, without any digital templates.

  3. The benefit of accounting for DQE variations in simulated dose reduction of digital radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svalkvist, A.; Baath, M.

    2010-01-01

    Adding noise to clinical radiographs to simulate dose reduction can be used to investigate the relationship between dose level and clinical image quality without exposing patients to additional radiation. The purpose of the present paper was to examine the benefits of using a method that accounts for detective quantum efficiency (DQE) variations that may occur in different dose ranges in the simulated dose reduction process. A method initially intended for simulated dose reduction in tomo-synthesis was applied to extremely low-dose posterio-anterior radiographs of an anthropomorphic chest phantom, selected from a group of projection images included in a tomo-synthesis examination and compared with a previous method that do not account for DQE variations. A comparison of images simulated to be collected at a lower dose level (73% of the original dose level) and images actually collected at this lower dose level revealed that the error in the integrated normalised noise power spectrum was smaller than 4% for the method that accounts for DQE variations in the simulated dose reduction, whereas the error was larger than 20% for the previous method. This indicates that an increased validity in dose reduction simulation of digital radiographic systems is obtained with a method accounting for DQE variations. (authors)

  4. Perona Malik anisotropic diffusion model using Peaceman Rachford scheme on digital radiographic image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halim, Suhaila Abd; Razak, Rohayu Abd; Ibrahim, Arsmah; Manurung, Yupiter HP

    2014-01-01

    In image processing, it is important to remove noise without affecting the image structure as well as preserving all the edges. Perona Malik Anisotropic Diffusion (PMAD) is a PDE-based model which is suitable for image denoising and edge detection problems. In this paper, the Peaceman Rachford scheme is applied on PMAD to remove unwanted noise as the scheme is efficient and unconditionally stable. The capability of the scheme to remove noise is evaluated on several digital radiography weld defect images computed using MATLAB R2009a. Experimental results obtained show that the Peaceman Rachford scheme improves the image quality substantially well based on the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The Peaceman Rachford scheme used in solving the PMAD model successfully removes unwanted noise in digital radiographic image

  5. Perona Malik anisotropic diffusion model using Peaceman Rachford scheme on digital radiographic image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halim, Suhaila Abd; Razak, Rohayu Abd; Ibrahim, Arsmah [Center of Mathematics Studies, Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam. Selangor DE (Malaysia); Manurung, Yupiter HP [Advanced Manufacturing Technology Excellence Center (AMTEx), Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Universiti Teknologi MARA, 40450 Shah Alam. Selangor DE (Malaysia)

    2014-06-19

    In image processing, it is important to remove noise without affecting the image structure as well as preserving all the edges. Perona Malik Anisotropic Diffusion (PMAD) is a PDE-based model which is suitable for image denoising and edge detection problems. In this paper, the Peaceman Rachford scheme is applied on PMAD to remove unwanted noise as the scheme is efficient and unconditionally stable. The capability of the scheme to remove noise is evaluated on several digital radiography weld defect images computed using MATLAB R2009a. Experimental results obtained show that the Peaceman Rachford scheme improves the image quality substantially well based on the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR). The Peaceman Rachford scheme used in solving the PMAD model successfully removes unwanted noise in digital radiographic image.

  6. Optimisation of the digital radiographic imaging of suspected non-accidental injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Offiah, Amaka

    Aim: To optimise the digital (radiographic) imaging of children presenting with suspected non-accidental injury (NAI). Objectives: (i) To evaluate existing radiographic quality criteria, and to develop a more suitable system if these are found to be inapplicable to skeletal surveys obtained in suspected NAI. (ii) To document differences in image quality between conventional film-screen and the recently installed Fuji5000R computed radiography (CR) system at Great Ormond Street Hospital for Children, (iii) To document the extent of variability in the standard of skeletal surveys obtained in the UK for suspected NAI. (iv) To determine those radiographic parameters which yield the highest diagnostic accuracy, while still maintaining acceptable radiation dose to the child, (v) To determine how varying degrees of edge-enhancement affect diagnostic accuracy. (vi) To establish the accuracy of soft compared to hard copy interpretation of images in suspected NAI. Materials and Methods: (i) and (ii) Retrospective analysis of 286 paediatric lateral spine radiographs by two observers based on the Commission of European Communities (CEC) quality criteria, (iii) Review of the skeletal surveys of 50 consecutive infants referred from hospitals throughout the United Kingdom (UK) with suspected NAI. (iv) Phantom studies. Leeds TO. 10 and TO. 16 test objects were used to compare the relationship between film density, exposure parameters and visualisation of object details, (iv) Clinical study. Anteroposterior and lateral post mortem skull radiographs of six consecutive infants were obtained at various exposures. Six observers independently scored the images based on visualisation of five criteria, (v) and (vi) A study of diagnostic accuracy in which six observers independently interpreted 50 radiographs from printed copies (with varying degrees of edge-enhancement) and from a monitor. Results: The CEC criteria are useful for optimisation of imaging parameters and allow the detection

  7. In Vitro Evaluation of Proximal Carious Lesions Using Digital Radiographic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayana Soares Vieira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to compare the sensitivity and specificity of digital radiographic systems for the diagnosis of proximal carious lesions. Extracted human teeth (3 canines, 3 premolars, and 3 molars were submitted to one of three types of proximal lesions (demineralized area, cavity affecting the enamel alone, and cavity affecting enamel and dentin. Bitewing radiographs were obtained from each system (Sirona, Kodak, and Schick and evaluated by 12 raters (4 dental students, 4 radiology specialists, and 4 dentists. The chi-squared test was used to determine the frequency of correct diagnoses among the different systems, raters, teeth, and types of lesion. Sensitivity and specificity regarding demineralized areas were calculated for each system. The frequencies of correct diagnoses were found: Schick (70.8%, Kodak (63.9%, Sirona (59.0%, specialists (69.4%, students (62.5%, dentists (61.8%, premolars (70.1%, canines (65.3%, and molars (58.3%. No significant differences were found among the different systems, raters, or teeth (P>0.05. Sensitivity and specificity were 0.64 and 0.47 (Schick, 0.56 and 0.50 (Sirona, and 0.48 and 0.58 (Kodak. The most correct diagnoses were achieved using the Schick digital system on premolars and evaluated by specialists in radiology. The systems demonstrated low sensitivity and specificity for the diagnosis of demineralized areas.

  8. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  9. Effect of changing the kilovoltage peak on radiographic caries assessment in digital and conventional radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zayet, Mohamed Khalifa; Helaly, Yara Rabee; Eiid, Salma Belal

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of changing the kilovoltage peak (kVp) on the radiographic assessment of dental caries. Seventy-five extracted posterior teeth with proximal caries or apparently sound proximal surfaces were radiographed with conventional E-speed films and a photostimulable phosphor system using 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries assessment. The images were evaluated by three oral radiologists and compared with the results of the stereomicroscope analysis. No statistically significant difference was found between 60 kVp and 70 kVp for the caries detection, determination of caries extension into dentin, and caries severity in either the conventional or the digital images. Good to very good inter-observer and intra-observer agreements were found for both kilovoltage values on the conventional and digital images. Changing the kilovoltage between 60 kVp and 70 kVp had no obvious effect on the detection of proximal caries or determination of its extension or severity.

  10. Digital evaluation of the influence of interruption of the fixation process on radiographic contrast and base-plus-fog density in three commercial brands of radiographic films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Verona Ragusa da Silva

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : With the interest in anticipating access to the result of intraoral radiography, the radiographic processing is frequently neglected, compromising image quality. OBJECTIVE : The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of interrupting the fixation process on the radiographic contrast and base-plus-fog density (BPFD in three brands of periapical films. MATERIAL AND METHOD : Ninety radiographs were taken of an aluminum stepwedge and a lead plate for each brand, and they were divided according to the time of initial immersion in the fixative in: control group (without interrupting the fixing, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 seconds. During processing, films had the fixing stage stopped and were exposed to a negatoscope for 1 minute, then the fixation time of 10 minutes was completed. The radiographs were digitized and exported to Image Tool 3.0.software. RESULT : Kodak(r film showed no statistically significant differences between groups, while Agfa(r film presented difference in BPFD compared with Group 5 seconds, and Dentix(r film showed statistical difference in all groups in comparison with the control group. CONCLUSION : Under the conditions studied, Kodak(r film is not influenced by disruption of fixation as regards BPFD and image contrast, enabling early access to the results of radiographs, whereas Agfa(r film requires at least 10 seconds of initial fixation, and Dentix(r film obtains better results when the process of fixation is not interrupted.

  11. Digital radiographic evaluation of the midpalatal suture in patients submitted to rapid maxillary expansion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Batista de Melo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To analyze the density of the midpalatal suture by means of digital radiographs three months after retention to evaluate if this period of retention is really sufficient for bone repair. Materials and Methods: This prospective study consisted of 31 patients (11 girls and 20 boys in the mixed or permanent dentition stage, treated using a tooth-tissue borne expanders (Haas. Occlusal digital radiographs were taken at three stages: prior to rapid maxillary expansion (Stage I; immediately after desired maxillary expansion (Stage II; and after three months of retention (Stage III. Radiographs were taken on a dental X-ray machine, set at 70 kVp and 7 mA with an exposure time of 0.04 s. A phosphor storage plate system, imaging plate size n. 2 (35 × 45 × 1.6 mm, was used. Three regions (A, B and C measured 0.02 mm² were selected for optical density analysis. The difference between the measurements was evaluated with the paired t-test. Results: The optical density was reduced at Stages II and III compared with Stage I. Between-stage comparison showed statistically significant changes for all variables (P < 0.05, with the highest mean optical density at Stage I and the lowest at Stage II, in all groups. Actually, there was an increase in optical density between Stages II and III, but they are reduced compared with Stage I. Conclusion: The results strongly suggest that bone formation did not occur as expected, and that a longer retention period for bone repair may be necessary.

  12. Digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) region as a tool for skeletal maturity assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegde, Deepa Y; Baliga, Sudhindra; Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Munshi, A K

    2012-01-01

    To evaluate the reliability of the digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3) in skeletal maturity assessment. Fifty children (24 girls and 26 boys) belonging to the circumpubertal age-group were selected for the study. Two radiographs - lateral cephalogram and digital radiograph of the MP3 region - were taken in each child. Age assessment was based on the changes in shape of the cervical vertebrae and the epiphysis of the middle phalanx of the third finger of the left hand. The radiographs were assessed by three examiners. The inter- and intraexaminer variability were determined by the Wilcoxon rank sign test and the Kruskal-Wallis test and were found to be nonsignificant. Examiner 3 showed the best intraexaminer agreement and was selected to evaluate the radiographs for the entire study. The correlation determined between the MP3 stages and cervical vertebrae maturity index (CVMI) stages, the peak-wise distribution of the MP3 stages, and the correlation between the MP3 stages and the chronological age were found to be highly significant. Digital radiograph of the MP3 region is definitely a simple, reliable, cost-effective, and time-saving technique for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  13. Diagnostic ability of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho Bong Hae; Hwang, Dae Seok

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiographs for detection of mandibular fractures. The sample was comprised of 65 patients (55 fractured, 10 non-fractured) with 92 fracture sites confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Panoramic radiographs were evaluated for mandibular fractures by six examiners; two oral and maxillofacial radiologists (observer A and B), two oral and maxillofacial surgeons (observer C and D), and two general dentists (observer E and F). Sensitivity of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures was 95.7% in observer A and B, 93.5% in observer C and D and 80.4% in observer E and F. The lowest sensitivity was shown in symphyseal/parasymphyseal areas, followed by subcondylar/condylar regions. Panoramic radiography is adequate for detection of mandibular fractures. However, additional multidetector CT is recommended to ascertain some indecisive fractures of symphysis and condyle, and in complicated fractures.

  14. Diagnostic ability of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho Bong Hae; Hwang, Dae Seok [School of Dentistry, Pusan National University, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiographs for detection of mandibular fractures. The sample was comprised of 65 patients (55 fractured, 10 non-fractured) with 92 fracture sites confirmed by multi-detector computed tomography (CT). Panoramic radiographs were evaluated for mandibular fractures by six examiners; two oral and maxillofacial radiologists (observer A and B), two oral and maxillofacial surgeons (observer C and D), and two general dentists (observer E and F). Sensitivity of panoramic radiography for mandibular fractures was 95.7% in observer A and B, 93.5% in observer C and D and 80.4% in observer E and F. The lowest sensitivity was shown in symphyseal/parasymphyseal areas, followed by subcondylar/condylar regions. Panoramic radiography is adequate for detection of mandibular fractures. However, additional multidetector CT is recommended to ascertain some indecisive fractures of symphysis and condyle, and in complicated fractures.

  15. Clinical Applications of Reverse Panoramic Radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujatha S Reddy

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The essence of oral and maxil-lofacial radiology is not only to be an important tool in the diagnostic assessment of dental patients but also to equip the clinician with the ability to interpret images of certain maxillocraniofacial structures of importance to dental, medical and surgical practices. Although combinations of several conven-tional x-ray projections can be adequate in a number of clinical situations, radiographic assessment of certain craniofacial structures some-times needs to be facilitated by other imaging modalities. A not-so-recent development called reverse panoramic radiography may be a useful adjuvant to such a situation, at least in the near future. It is essentially a technique where the patient is placed backwards in the panoramic machine in a reverse position in such a way that x-ray beam is directed through the patient’s face and the exit beam then passes through the patient’s head on the opposite side where it is captured on the receptor. The following manuscript is an attempt to throw light on this technique and the impact it may have on dental, medical and surgical practices. The advantages and disadvantages of reverse panoramic radiography and it’s comparison to conventional panoramic radiographs and other skull views are also dis-cussed.

  16. Teleradiology in a neonatal intensive care unit: Comparison between the interpretation of transmitted digital images and film radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McFee, W.H.; Bramson, R.T.; Cates, J.D.; Curran, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    Using a Raytel teleradiology system, a prospective comparison was made between the interpretations of 700 transmitted digital images and the film radiographs from which these digital images were made. The original films consisted of all of the radiographs obtained from the infants in a 40-bed level III neonatal intensive care unit over a 6-week period. Interpretations were done by two radiologists, initially from transmitted images and subsequently from the original films. Comparison of the interpretations demonstrates a remarkably high degree of correlation, with less than 0.5% clinically significant discrepancies reported

  17. Automatic 3D City Modeling Using a Digital Map and Panoramic Images from a Mobile Mapping System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungki Kim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three-dimensional city models are becoming a valuable resource because of their close geospatial, geometrical, and visual relationship with the physical world. However, ground-oriented applications in virtual reality, 3D navigation, and civil engineering require a novel modeling approach, because the existing large-scale 3D city modeling methods do not provide rich visual information at ground level. This paper proposes a new framework for generating 3D city models that satisfy both the visual and the physical requirements for ground-oriented virtual reality applications. To ensure its usability, the framework must be cost-effective and allow for automated creation. To achieve these goals, we leverage a mobile mapping system that automatically gathers high-resolution images and supplements sensor information such as the position and direction of the captured images. To resolve problems stemming from sensor noise and occlusions, we develop a fusion technique to incorporate digital map data. This paper describes the major processes of the overall framework and the proposed techniques for each step and presents experimental results from a comparison with an existing 3D city model.

  18. A Comparison of Radiographic Film Densitometry Using a New Computerized Tool with a Digital Densitometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoorieh Bashizadeh Fakhar

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The purpose of this study was to develop and test a new tool for radiographic densitometry by combining periapical films and aluminum step wedge.Materials and Methods: We reviewed 50 Kodak E-speed intraoral films. An aluminum step wedge consisting of 16 steps was constructed. Each step was 1mmx3mx10mm. The step wedge was exposed to varying exposure times, ranging from 0.05 second to 0.5 second, increasing in 0.05 second increments. Films were digitalized after processing and the MATLAB software algorithm was ran subsequently. Density of the films was measured again using a digital densitometer. In order to compare the two imaging techniques, three steps were selected. Output data from the MATLAB algorithm were compared with data obtained from the digital densitometer.Results: The new method could detect significant differences between subsequent exposure times in step 7, while the densitometer did that in steps 7 and 12. The new method’s sensitivity in determining density changes was 5.26%, 84.1% and 93.02% in steps 2, 7, and 12 respectively.Conclusions: Our new method has an acceptable sensitivity for determining density changes of at least 7 mmEq/Al.Keywords: Densitometry; Image Processing, Computer-Assisted; Aluminum; Phantoms, Imaging

  19. Radiopacity of Methacrylate and Silorane Composite Resins Using a Digital Radiographic System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firoozmand, Leily Macedo; Cordeiro, Mariana Gonçalves; Da Silva, Marcos André Dos Santos; De Jesus Tavarez, Rudys Rodolfo; Matos Maia Filho, Etevaldo

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of silorane and methacrylate resin composites, comparing them to the enamel, dentin, and aluminum penetrometer using a digital image. From six resin composites (Filtek ™ P90, Filtek Z350, Filtek Z350 XT flow, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum, and SureFil SDR flow) cylindrical disks (5 × 1 mm) were made and radiographed by a digital method, together with a 15-step aluminum step-wedge and a 1 mm slice of human tooth. The degree of radiopacity of each image was quantified using digital image processing. The mean values of the shades of gray of the tested materials were measured and the equivalent width of aluminum was calculated for each resin. The results of our work yielded the following radiopacity values, given here in descending order: Tetric Ceram > TPH > SDR > Z350 > Z350 flow > P90 > enamel > dentin. The radiopacity of the materials was different both for the enamel and for the dentin, except for resin P90, which was no different than enamel. In conclusion, silorane-based resin exhibited a radiopacity higher than dentin and closest to the enamel; a large portion of the methacrylate-based flow and conventional resins demonstrated greater radiopacity in comparison to dentin and enamel.

  20. Radiopacity of Methacrylate and Silorane Composite Resins Using a Digital Radiographic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leily Macedo Firoozmand

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of silorane and methacrylate resin composites, comparing them to the enamel, dentin, and aluminum penetrometer using a digital image. From six resin composites (Filtek™ P90, Filtek Z350, Filtek Z350 XT flow, Tetric Ceram, TPH Spectrum, and SureFil SDR flow cylindrical disks (5 × 1 mm were made and radiographed by a digital method, together with a 15-step aluminum step-wedge and a 1 mm slice of human tooth. The degree of radiopacity of each image was quantified using digital image processing. The mean values of the shades of gray of the tested materials were measured and the equivalent width of aluminum was calculated for each resin. The results of our work yielded the following radiopacity values, given here in descending order: Tetric Ceram > TPH > SDR > Z350 > Z350 flow > P90 > enamel > dentin. The radiopacity of the materials was different both for the enamel and for the dentin, except for resin P90, which was no different than enamel. In conclusion, silorane-based resin exhibited a radiopacity higher than dentin and closest to the enamel; a large portion of the methacrylate-based flow and conventional resins demonstrated greater radiopacity in comparison to dentin and enamel.

  1. Effect of two X-ray tube voltages on detection of approximal caries in digital radiographs. An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellén-Halme, Kristina

    2011-04-01

    This study evaluated the effect of two different tube voltages on clinicians' ability to diagnose approximal carious lesions in digital radiographs. One hundred extracted teeth were radiographed twice at two voltage settings, 60 and 70 kV, using a standardized procedure. Seven observers evaluated the radiographs on a standard color monitor pre-calibrated according to DICOM part 14. Evaluations were made at ambient light levels below 50 lx. All observations were analyzed with receiver operating characteristic curves. A histological examination of the teeth served as the criterion standard. A paired t test compared the effects of the two voltages. The significance level was set to p < 0.05. Weighted kappa statistics estimated intra-observer agreement. No significant difference in accuracy of approximal carious lesion diagnosis was found between the two voltage settings. But five observers rated dentin lesions on radiographs exposed at 70 kV better than on radiographs exposed at 60 kV. Intra-observer agreement differed from fair to moderate. There was no significant difference in accuracy of approximal carious lesion diagnosis between digital radiographs exposed with 60 or 70 kV.

  2. Development of automatic radiographic inspection system using digital image processing and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoga, Kouyu; Sugimoto, Koji; Michiba, Koji; Kato, Yuhei; Sugita, Yuji; Onda, Katsuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    The application of computers to welding inspection is expanding rapidly. The classification of the application is the collection, analysis and processing of data, the graphic display of results, the distinction of the kinds of defects and the evaluation of the harmufulness of defects and the judgement of acceptance or rejection. The application of computer techniques to the automation of data collection was realized at the relatively early stage. Data processing and the graphic display of results are the techniques in progress now, and the application of artificial intelligence to the distinction of the kinds of defects and the evaluation of harmfulness is expected to expand rapidly. In order to computerize radiographic inspection, the abilities of image processing technology and knowledge engineering must be given to computers. The object of this system is the butt joints by arc welding of the steel materials of up to 30 mm thickness. The digitizing transformation of radiographs, the distinction and evaluation of transmissivity and gradation by image processing, and only as for those, of which the picture quality satisfies the standard, the extraction of defect images, their display, the distinction of the kinds and the final judgement are carried out. The techniques of image processing, the knowledge for distinguishing the kinds of defects and the concept of the practical system are reported. (K.I.)

  3. Evaluation of a digital learning object (DLO) to support the learning process in radiographic dental diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busanello, F H; da Silveira, P F; Liedke, G S; Arús, N A; Vizzotto, M B; Silveira, H E D; Silveira, H L D

    2015-11-01

    Studies have shown that inappropriate therapeutic strategies may be adopted if crown and root changes are misdiagnosed, potentially leading to undesirable consequences. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate a digital learning object, developed to improve skills in diagnosing radiographic dental changes. The object was developed using the Visual Basic Application (VBA) software and evaluated by 62 undergraduate students (male: 24 and female: 38) taking an imaging diagnosis course. Participants were divided in two groups: test group, which used the object and control group, which attended conventional classes. After 3 weeks, students answered a 10-question test and took a practice test to diagnose 20 changes in periapical radiographs. The results show that test group performed better that control group in both tests, with statistically significant difference (P = 0.004 and 0.003, respectively). In overall, female students were better than male students. Specific aspects of object usability were assessed using a structured questionnaire based on the System Usability Scale (SUS), with a score of 90.5 and 81.6 by male and female students, respectively. The results obtained in this study suggest that students who used the DLO performed better than those who used conventional methods. This suggests that the DLO may be a useful teaching tool for dentistry undergraduates, on distance learning courses and as a complementary tool in face-to-face teaching. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. GPU acceleration for digitally reconstructed radiographs using bindless texture objects and CUDA/OpenGL interoperability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Eldeib, Ayman; Owis, Mohamed I

    2015-01-01

    This paper features an advanced implementation of the X-ray rendering algorithm that harnesses the giant computing power of the current commodity graphics processors to accelerate the generation of high resolution digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). The presented pipeline exploits the latest features of NVIDIA Graphics Processing Unit (GPU) architectures, mainly bindless texture objects and dynamic parallelism. The rendering throughput is substantially improved by exploiting the interoperability mechanisms between CUDA and OpenGL. The benchmarks of our optimized rendering pipeline reflect its capability of generating DRRs with resolutions of 2048(2) and 4096(2) at interactive and semi interactive frame-rates using an NVIDIA GeForce 970 GTX device.

  5. Automatic, anatomically selective, artifact-free enhancement of digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sezan, M.I.; Tekalp, A.M.; Schaetzing, R.

    1988-01-01

    The authors propose a technique for automatic, anatomically selective, artifact-free enhancement of digital chest radiographs. Anatomically selective enhancement is motivated by the different enhancement requirements of the lung field and the mediastinum. A recent peak detection algorithm is applied to the image histogram to automatically determine a gray-level threshold between the lung and mediastinum fields. The gray-level threshold facilitates anatomically selective gray-scale modification and unsharp masking. Further, in an attempt to suppress possible white-band artifacts due to unsharp masking at sharp edges, local-contrast adaptivity is incorporated into anatomically selective unsharp masking by designing an anatomy-sensitive emphasis parameter that varied asymmetrically with positive and negative values of the local image contrast

  6. Comparison of three digital radiographic imaging systems for the visibility of endodontic files

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Won; Kim, Eun Kyung; Han, Won Jeong

    2004-01-01

    To compare three digital radiographic imaging sensors by evaluating the visibility of endodontic file tips with interobserver reproducibility and assessing subjectively the clarity of images in comparison with the x-ray film images. Forty-five extracted sound premolars were used for this study. Fifteen plaster blocks were made with three premolars each and 8, 10, 15 K-flexofiles were inserted into the root canal of premolars. They were radiographically exposed using periapical x-ray films (Kodak Insight Dental film, Eastmann Kodak company, Rochester, USA), Digora imaging plates (Soredex-Orion Co., Helsinki, Finland), CDX 2000HQ sensors (Biomedisys Co., Seoul, Korea), and CDR sensors (Schick Inc., Long Island, USA). The visibility of endodontic files was evaluated with interobserver reproducibility, which was calculated as the standard deviations of X, Y coordinated of endodontic file tips measured on digital images by three oral and maxillofacial radiologists. The clarity of images was assessed subjectively using 3 grades, i.e, plus, equal, and minus in comparison with the conventional x-ray film images. Interobserver reproducibility of endodontic file tips was the highest in CDR sensor (p<0.05) only except at Y coordinates of 15 file. In the subjective assessment of the image clarity, the plus grade was the most frequent in CDR sensor at all size of endodontic file (p<0.05). CDR sensor was the most superior to the other sensors, CDX 2000HQ sensor and Digora imaging plate in the evaluation of interobserver reproducibility of endodontic file tip and subjective assessment of image clarity.

  7. Can we see enough? A comparative study of film-screen vs digital radiographs in small lesions in rheumatoid arthritis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagt, E.J. van der; Hofman, S.; Kraft, B.M.; Leeuwen, M.A. van

    2000-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of digital radiography in the detection of early very small erosions and joint space narrowing in the hands and feet in rheumatoid arthritis. Fifty-three sets of film-screen and digital radiographs of the same hands and feet with very small and sometimes questionable lesions (possible erosions and cysts) were scored independently two times by four investigators. The percentage of lesions found in exactly the same position for each investigator was calculated. Intra-observer agreement between first and second reading in film-screen radiography was 64-76 % (mean 67 %), and in digital radiographs 60-71 % (mean 64 %). Agreement between film-screen and digital radiographs ranged from 54 to 64 % (mean 58 %) in the first reading and from 56 to 66 % (mean 62 %) in the second reading. Overall agreement between both techniques between first and second reading ranged between 62 and 73 % (mean 65 %). Digital radiography of the hands and feet can be used in patients suspected of rheumatoid arthritis and in follow-up of those patients, because small and early erosions can be seen equally well with the digital technique as compared with the conventional film-screen technique. (orig.)

  8. Correlation of bone quality in radiographic images with clinical bone quality classification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Woo; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Kim, Jeong Hwa; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kwan Soo [Inje University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-03-15

    To investigate the validity of digital image processing on panoramic radiographs in estimating bone quality before endosseous dental implant installation by correlating bone quality in radiographic images with clinical bone quality classification. An experienced surgeon assessed and classified bone quality for implant sites with tactile sensation at the time of implant placement. Including fractal dimension eighteen morphologic features of trabecular pattern were examined in each anatomical sites on panoramic radiographs. Finally bone quality of 67 implant sites were evaluated in 42 patients. Pearson correlation analysis showed that three morphologic parameters had weak linear negative correlation with clinical bone quality classification showing correlation coefficients of -0.276, -0.280, and -0.289, respectively (p<0.05). And other three morphologic parameters had obvious linear negative correlation with clinical bone quality classification showing correlation coefficients of -0.346, -0.488, and -0.343 respectively (p<0.05). Fractal dimension also had a linear correlating with clinical bone quality classification with correlation coefficients -0.506 significantly (P<0.05). This study suggests that fractal and morphometric analysis using digital panoramic radiographs can be used to evaluate bone quality for implant recipient sites.

  9. Comparison of maximum intensity projection and digitally reconstructed radiographic projection for carotid artery stenosis measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyde, Derek E.; Habets, Damiaan F.; Fox, Allan J.; Gulka, Irene; Kalapos, Paul; Lee, Don H.; Pelz, David M.; Holdsworth, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Digital subtraction angiography is being supplanted by three-dimensional imaging techniques in many clinical applications, leading to extensive use of maximum intensity projection (MIP) images to depict volumetric vascular data. The MIP algorithm produces intensity profiles that are different than conventional angiograms, and can also increase the vessel-to-tissue contrast-to-noise ratio. We evaluated the effect of the MIP algorithm in a clinical application where quantitative vessel measurement is important: internal carotid artery stenosis grading. Three-dimensional computed rotational angiography (CRA) was performed on 26 consecutive symptomatic patients to verify an internal carotid artery stenosis originally found using duplex ultrasound. These volumes of data were visualized using two different postprocessing projection techniques: MIP and digitally reconstructed radiographic (DRR) projection. A DRR is a radiographic image simulating a conventional digitally subtracted angiogram, but it is derived computationally from the same CRA dataset as the MIP. By visualizing a single volume with two different projection techniques, the postprocessing effect of the MIP algorithm is isolated. Vessel measurements were made, according to the NASCET guidelines, and percentage stenosis grades were calculated. The paired t-test was used to determine if the measurement difference between the two techniques was statistically significant. The CRA technique provided an isotropic voxel spacing of 0.38 mm. The MIPs and DRRs had a mean signal-difference-to-noise-ratio of 30:1 and 26:1, respectively. Vessel measurements from MIPs were, on average, 0.17 mm larger than those from DRRs (P<0.0001). The NASCET-type stenosis grades tended to be underestimated on average by 2.4% with the MIP algorithm, although this was not statistically significant (P=0.09). The mean interobserver variability (standard deviation) of both the MIP and DRR images was 0.35 mm. It was concluded that the MIP

  10. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara; Sakakura, Celso Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC 95% :6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC 95% :6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC 95% :6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC 95% :6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  11. Measurements of simulated periodontal bone defects in inverted digital image and film-based radiograph: an in vitro study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molon, Rafael Scaf; Morais Camillo, Juliana Aparecida Najarro Dearo; Ferreira, Mauricio Goncalves; Loffredo, Leonor Castro Monteiro; Scaf, Gulnara [Araraquara Dental School, Universidade Estadual Paulista, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Sakakura, Celso Eduardo [Barretos Dental School, Barretos Educational Fundation, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2012-09-15

    This study was performed to compare the inverted digital images and film-based images of dry pig mandibles to measure the periodontal bone defect depth. Forty 2-wall bone defects were made in the proximal region of the premolar in the dry pig mandibles. The digital and conventional radiographs were taken using a Schick sensor and Kodak F-speed intraoral film. Image manipulation (inversion) was performed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0 software. Four trained examiners made all of the radiographic measurements in millimeters a total of three times from the cementoenamel junction to the most apical extension of the bone loss with both types of images: inverted digital and film. The measurements were also made in dry mandibles using a periodontal probe and digital caliper. The Student's t-test was used to compare the depth measurements obtained from the two types of images and direct visual measurement in the dry mandibles. A significance level of 0.05 for a 95% confidence interval was used for each comparison. There was a significant difference between depth measurements in the inverted digital images and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.0039), with means of 6.29 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.04-6.54) and 6.79 mm (IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. There was a non-significant difference between the film-based radiographs and direct visual measurements (p>|t|=0.4950), with means of 6.64 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.40-6.89) and 6.79 mm(IC{sub 95%}:6.45-7.11), respectively. The periodontal bone defect measurements in the inverted digital images were inferior to film-based radiographs, underestimating the amount of bone loss.

  12. A Comparative Study on Diagnostic Accuracy of Colour Coded Digital Images, Direct Digital Images and Conventional Radiographs for Periapical Lesions – An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mubeen; K.R., Vijayalakshmi; Bhuyan, Sanat Kumar; Panigrahi, Rajat G; Priyadarshini, Smita R; Misra, Satyaranjan; Singh, Chandravir

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The identification and radiographic interpretation of periapical bone lesions is important for accurate diagnosis and treatment. The present study was undertaken to study the feasibility and diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital radiographs in terms of presence and size of lesion and to compare the diagnostic accuracy of colour coded digital images with direct digital images and conventional radiographs for assessing periapical lesions. Materials and Methods: Sixty human dry cadaver hemimandibles were obtained and periapical lesions were created in first and second premolar teeth at the junction of cancellous and cortical bone using a micromotor handpiece and carbide burs of sizes 2, 4 and 6. After each successive use of round burs, a conventional, RVG and colour coded image was taken for each specimen. All the images were evaluated by three observers. The diagnostic accuracy for each bur and image mode was calculated statistically. Results: Our results showed good interobserver (kappa > 0.61) agreement for the different radiographic techniques and for the different bur sizes. Conventional Radiography outperformed Digital Radiography in diagnosing periapical lesions made with Size two bur. Both were equally diagnostic for lesions made with larger bur sizes. Colour coding method was least accurate among all the techniques. Conclusion: Conventional radiography traditionally forms the backbone in the diagnosis, treatment planning and follow-up of periapical lesions. Direct digital imaging is an efficient technique, in diagnostic sense. Colour coding of digital radiography was feasible but less accurate however, this imaging technique, like any other, needs to be studied continuously with the emphasis on safety of patients and diagnostic quality of images. PMID:25584318

  13. Efficacy study of the digital image processing with varying pixel size at A/D conversion of the chest radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shinichi; Miura, Takashi; Takahashi, Akira; Iwata, Tetsuya

    1984-12-01

    In the study for development of medical image archiving system, we made experiments in the field of conversion of a X-ray picture to a digital form. Three sets of chest radiograph were selected for the study of digitalization by reading different pixel size (150-300 m) in the method of A/D conversion using a drum scanner and again reconstructed to an analog form after D/A conversion. These copy films of different pixel size were shown and evaluated by 48 volunteer doctors to choose a favorite picture. It did not always follow that the most favorite picture was the finest one using the smallest pixel size. This discrepancy was further analyzed by measurement of a density histogram. By comparison studies of density curves in the same ROI of different pixel size pictures, it was concluded that their choices were dependent on not only fineness but also contrast of an output image after D/A conversion. Often better contrast picture was a key to the selection more than the pixel size. This indicates that digital storing radiographs will be possibly regenerated to the real image by the skillful operation of pixel size and contrast of a radiograph. The results will contribute to the process of recording analog X-ray picture by a digital form in the medical image archiving system.

  14. Aortic stentgraft movement detection using digital roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis on plane film radiographs - initial results of a phantom study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georg, C.; Welker, V.; Eidam, H.; Alfke, H.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the feasibility of aortic stentgraft micromovement detection using digital roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis on plane film radiographs. Material and Methods: An aortic stentgraft used for demonstration purposes was marked with 10 tantalum markers of 0.8 mm in diameter. The stentgraft was placed on a Plexiglas phantom with 5 tantalum markers of 1 mm in diameter simulating a fixed segment needed for mathematical analysis. In a subsequent step, the stentgraft was placed onto an orthopaedic spine model to simulate in vivo conditions in a next step.Two radiographs taken simultaneously from different angles were used for simulating different stentgraft movement, e.g. translation, angulation, aortic pulsation and migration in the spine model. Movement of the stentgraft markers was analysed using a commercially available digital RSA setup (UmRSA registered 4.1, RSA Biomedical, Umea, Sweden). Results: Our study shows the feasibility of measuring aortic stentgraft movement and changes in stentgraft shape in the submillimeter range using digital roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis. Translation along the 3 cardinal axes, change in stentgraft shape, simulation of aortic pulsation and simulation of in vivo conditions could be described precisely. Conclusion: Aortic stentgraft movement detection using digital roentgen stereophotogrammetric analysis on plane film radiographs is a very promising, precise method. (orig.)

  15. The x-ray light valve: A potentially low-cost, digital radiographic imaging system-concept and implementation considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webster, Christie Ann; Koprinarov, Ivaylo; Germann, Stephen; Rowlands, J. A.

    2008-01-01

    New x-ray radiographic systems based on large-area flat-panel technology have revolutionized our capability to produce digital x-ray images. However, these imagers are extraordinarily expensive compared to the systems they are replacing. Hence, there is a need for a low-cost digital imaging system for general applications in radiology. A novel potentially low-cost radiographic imaging system based on established technologies is proposed--the X-Ray Light Valve (XLV). This is a potentially high-quality digital x-ray detector made of a photoconducting layer and a liquid-crystal cell, physically coupled in a sandwich structure. Upon exposure to x rays, charge is collected on the surface of the photoconductor. This causes a change in the optical properties of the liquid-crystal cell and a visible image is generated. Subsequently, it is digitized by a scanned optical imager. The image formation is based on controlled modulation of light from an external source. The operation and practical implementation of the XLV system are described. The potential performance of the complete system and issues related to sensitivity, spatial resolution, noise, and speed are discussed. The feasibility of clinical use of an XLV device based on amorphous selenium (a-Se) as the photoconductor and a reflective electrically controlled birefringence cell is analyzed. The results of our analysis indicate that the XLV can potentially be adapted to a wide variety of radiographic tasks

  16. Stenosis of calcified carotid artery detected on Panoramic Radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, So Yang; Oh, Won Mann; Yoon, Suk Ja; Yoon, Woong; Lee, Jae Seo; Kang, Byung Cheol [School of Dentistry, Chonnam National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Palomo, Juan M. [Department of Orthodontics, School of Dental Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland (United States)

    2009-09-15

    This study aimed to investigate the luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery with calcification detected on panoramic radiographs. This study used fifty carotid arteries of 36 dental patients whose panoramic radiograph and computed tomography angiography (CTA) revealed the presence of carotid artery calcification. A neuroradiologist interpreted CTA to determine the degree of stenosis of the internal carotid arteries. The degree of stenosis was stratified in four stages; normal (no stenosis), mild stenosis (1-49%), moderate stenosis (50-69%) and severe stenosis (70-99%). Among the fifty carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA, 20 carotid arteries (40%) were normal, 29 carotid arteries (18%) had mild stenosis, 1 carotid artery (2%) had moderate stenosis, and there was none with severe stenosis. Sixty percent of the carotid arteries with calcification detected on both panoramic radiography and CTA had internal luminal stenosis, and two percent had moderate stenosis. When carotid atheroma is detected on panoramic radiograph, it is possible that the dental patient has luminal stenosis of the internal carotid artery.

  17. Evaluation of the maxillary premolar roots dissociation using radiographic holders with conventional and digital radiography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Ramalho da Silva Bardauil

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This in vivo study evaluated the dissociation quality of maxillary premolar roots combining variations of vertical and horizontal angulations by using X-ray holders (Rinn -XCP, and made a comparison between two types of intraoral radiography systems - conventional film (Kodak Insight, Rochester, USA and digital radiography (Kodak RVG 6100, Kodak, Rochester, USA. The study sample was comprised of 20 patients with a total of 20 maxillary premolars that were radiographed, using the paralleling angle technique (GP, with a 20º variation of the horizontal angle (GM and 25º variation of the horizontal angle combined with 15º vertical angle (GMV. Each image was independently analyzed by two experienced examiners. These examiners assigned a score to the diagnostic capability of root dissociation and the measurement of the distance between the apexes. Statistical data was derived using the Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, Friedman and T test. The means of the measured distances between buccal and lingual root apexes were greater for the GMV, which ranged from 2.3 mm to 3.3 mm. A statistically significant difference was found between GM and GMV when compared to GP with p < 0.01. An established best diagnostic dissociation roots image was found in the GMV. These results support the use of the anterior X-ray holders which offer a better combined deviation (GMV to dissociate maxillary premolar roots in both radiography systems.

  18. Panoramic stereo sphere vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Weijia; Zhang, Baofeng; Röning, Juha; Zong, Xiaoning; Yi, Tian

    2013-01-01

    Conventional stereo vision systems have a small field of view (FOV) which limits their usefulness for certain applications. While panorama vision is able to "see" in all directions of the observation space, scene depth information is missed because of the mapping from 3D reference coordinates to 2D panoramic image. In this paper, we present an innovative vision system which builds by a special combined fish-eye lenses module, and is capable of producing 3D coordinate information from the whole global observation space and acquiring no blind area 360°×360° panoramic image simultaneously just using single vision equipment with one time static shooting. It is called Panoramic Stereo Sphere Vision (PSSV). We proposed the geometric model, mathematic model and parameters calibration method in this paper. Specifically, video surveillance, robotic autonomous navigation, virtual reality, driving assistance, multiple maneuvering target tracking, automatic mapping of environments and attitude estimation are some of the applications which will benefit from PSSV.

  19. Variability amongst radiographers in the categorization of clinical acceptability for digital trauma radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decoster, Robin; Toomey, Rachel; Smits, Dirk; Mol, Harrie; Verhelle, Filip; Butler, Marie-Louise

    2016-03-01

    Introduction: Radiographers evaluate anatomical structures to judge clinical acceptability of a radiograph. Whether a radiograph is deemed acceptable for diagnosis or not depends on the individual decision of the radiographer. Individual decisions cause variation in the accepted image quality. To minimise these variations definitions of acceptability, such as in RadLex, were developed. On which criteria radiographers attribute a RadLex categories to radiographs is unknown. Insight into these criteria helps to further optimise definitions and reduce variability in acceptance between radiographers. Therefore, this work aims the evaluation of the correlation between the RadLex classification and the evaluation of anatomical structures, using a Visual Grading Analysis (VGA) Methods: Four radiographers evaluated the visibility of five anatomical structures of 25 lateral cervical spine radiographs on a secondary class display with a VGA. They judged clinical acceptability of each radiograph using RadLex. Relations between VGAS and RadLex category were analysed with Kendall's Tau correlation and Nagelkerke pseudo-R². Results: The overall VGA score (VGAS) and the RadLex score correlate (rτ= 0.62, pscore. The reproduction of spinous processes (rτ=0.67, pscore. Conclusion: RadLex scores and VGAS correlate positively, strongly and significantly. The predictive value of bony structures may support the use of these in the judgement of clinical acceptability. Considerable inter-observer variations in the VGAS within a certain RadLex category, suggest that observers use of observer specific cut-off values.

  20. Development and image quality assessment of a contrast-enhancement algorithm for display of digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehm, K.

    1992-01-01

    This dissertation presents a contrast-enhancement algorithm Artifact-Suppressed Adaptive Histogram Equalization (ASAHE). This algorithm was developed as part of a larger effort to replace the film radiographs currently used in radiology departments with digital images. Among the expected benefits of digital radiology are improved image management and greater diagnostic accuracy. Film radiographs record X-ray transmission data at high spatial resolution, and a wide dynamic range of signal. Current digital radiography systems record an image at reduced spatial resolution and with coarse sampling of the available dynamic range. These reductions have a negative impact on diagnostic accuracy. The contrast-enhancement algorithm presented in this dissertation is designed to boost diagnostic accuracy of radiologists using digital images. The ASAHE algorithm is an extension of an earlier technique called Adaptive Histogram Equalization (AHE). The AHE algorithm is unsuitable for chest radiographs because it over-enhances noise, and introduces boundary artifacts. The modifications incorporated in ASAHE suppress the artifacts and allow processing of chest radiographs. This dissertation describes the psychophysical methods used to evaluate the effects of processing algorithms on human observer performance. An experiment conducted with anthropomorphic phantoms and simulated nodules showed the ASAHE algorithm to be superior for human detection of nodules when compared to a computed radiography system's algorithm that is in current use. An experiment conducted using clinical images demonstrating pneumothoraces (partial lung collapse) indicated no difference in human observer accuracy when ASAHE images were compared to computed radiography images, but greater ease of diagnosis when ASAHE images were used. These results provide evidence to suggest that Artifact-Suppressed Adaptive Histogram Equalization can be effective in increasing diagnostic accuracy and efficiency

  1. Digital radiograph of the middle phalanx of the third finger (MP3 region as a tool for skeletal maturity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepa Y Hegde

    2012-01-01

    Results: The correlation determined between the MP3 stages and cervical vertebrae maturity index (CVMI stages, the peak-wise distribution of the MP3 stages, and the correlation between the MP3 stages and the chronological age were found to be highly significant. Conclusions: Digital radiograph of the MP3 region is definitely a simple, reliable, cost-effective, and time-saving technique for the assessment of skeletal maturity.

  2. Panoramic dental X-ray machine X-motion drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.; Flynn, J.J.

    1980-01-01

    A panoramic dental x-ray machine is described which provides continuous and discontinuous radiographic images of the dental arch area of a patient. The systems for moving the chair and the column which carries the x-ray source and camera are specified. (U.K.)

  3. Knee Images Digital Analysis (KIDA): a novel method to quantify individual radiographic features of knee osteoarthritis in detail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marijnissen, A C A; Vincken, K L; Vos, P A J M; Saris, D B F; Viergever, M A; Bijlsma, J W J; Bartels, L W; Lafeber, F P J G

    2008-02-01

    Radiography is still the golden standard for imaging features of osteoarthritis (OA), such as joint space narrowing, subchondral sclerosis, and osteophyte formation. Objective assessment, however, remains difficult. The goal of the present study was to evaluate a novel digital method to analyse standard knee radiographs. Standardized radiographs of 20 healthy and 55 OA knees were taken in general practise according to the semi-flexed method by Buckland-Wright. Joint Space Width (JSW), osteophyte area, subchondral bone density, joint angle, and tibial eminence height were measured as continuous variables using newly developed Knee Images Digital Analysis (KIDA) software on a standard PC. Two observers evaluated the radiographs twice, each on two different occasions. The observers were blinded to the source of the radiographs and to their previous measurements. Statistical analysis to compare measurements within and between observers was performed according to Bland and Altman. Correlations between KIDA data and Kellgren & Lawrence (K&L) grade were calculated and data of healthy knees were compared to those of OA knees. Intra- and inter-observer variations for measurement of JSW, subchondral bone density, osteophytes, tibial eminence, and joint angle were small. Significant correlations were found between KIDA parameters and K&L grade. Furthermore, significant differences were found between healthy and OA knees. In addition to JSW measurement, objective evaluation of osteophyte formation and subchondral bone density is possible on standard radiographs. The measured differences between OA and healthy individuals suggest that KIDA allows detection of changes in time, although sensitivity to change has to be demonstrated in long-term follow-up studies.

  4. GPU accelerated generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs for 2-D/3-D image registration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgham, Osama M; Laycock, Stephen D; Fisher, Mark H

    2012-09-01

    Recent advances in programming languages for graphics processing units (GPUs) provide developers with a convenient way of implementing applications which can be executed on the CPU and GPU interchangeably. GPUs are becoming relatively cheap, powerful, and widely available hardware components, which can be used to perform intensive calculations. The last decade of hardware performance developments shows that GPU-based computation is progressing significantly faster than CPU-based computation, particularly if one considers the execution of highly parallelisable algorithms. Future predictions illustrate that this trend is likely to continue. In this paper, we introduce a way of accelerating 2-D/3-D image registration by developing a hybrid system which executes on the CPU and utilizes the GPU for parallelizing the generation of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs). Based on the advancements of the GPU over the CPU, it is timely to exploit the benefits of many-core GPU technology by developing algorithms for DRR generation. Although some previous work has investigated the rendering of DRRs using the GPU, this paper investigates approximations which reduce the computational overhead while still maintaining a quality consistent with that needed for 2-D/3-D registration with sufficient accuracy to be clinically acceptable in certain applications of radiation oncology. Furthermore, by comparing implementations of 2-D/3-D registration on the CPU and GPU, we investigate current performance and propose an optimal framework for PC implementations addressing the rigid registration problem. Using this framework, we are able to render DRR images from a 256×256×133 CT volume in ~24 ms using an NVidia GeForce 8800 GTX and in ~2 ms using NVidia GeForce GTX 580. In addition to applications requiring fast automatic patient setup, these levels of performance suggest image-guided radiation therapy at video frame rates is technically feasible using relatively low cost PC

  5. An image correlation procedure for digitally reconstructed radiographs and electronic portal images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Lei; Boyer, Arthur L.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: To study a procedure that uses megavoltage digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) calculated from patient's three-dimensional (3D) computed tomography (CT) data as a reference image for correlation with on-line electronic portal images (EPIs) to detect patient setup errors. Methods and Materials: Megavoltage DRRs were generated by ray tracing through a modified volumetric CT data set in which CT numbers were converted into linear attenuation coefficients for the therapeutic beam energy. The DRR transmission image was transformed to the grayscale window of the EPI by a histogram-matching technique. An alternative approach was to calibrate the transmission DRR using a measured response curve of the electronic portal imaging device (EPID). This forces the calculated transmission fluence values to be distributed in the same range as that of the EPID image. A cross-correlation technique was used to determine the degree of alignment of the patient anatomy found in the EPID image relative to the reference DRR. Results: Phantom studies demonstrated that the correlation procedure had a standard deviation of 0.5 mm and 0.5 deg. in aligning translational shifts and in-plane rotations. Systematic errors were found between a reference DRR and a reference EPID image. The automated grayscale image-correlation process was completed within 3 s on a workstation computer or 12 s on a PC. Conclusion: The alignment procedure allows the direct comparison of a patient's treatment portal designed with a 3D planning computer with a patient's on-line portal image acquired at the treatment unit. The image registration process is automated to the extent that it requires minimal user intervention, and it is fast and accurate enough for on-line clinical applications

  6. Relationship between image plates physical structure and quality of digital radiographic images in weld inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Davi F.; Silva, Aline S.S.; Machado, Alessandra S.; Gomes, Celio S.; Nascimento, Joseilson; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: davi@lin.ufrj.br.br, E-mail: aline@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: celio@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: alemachado@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: joseilson@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2015-07-01

    In the last decades a new type of detector which is based on photostimulable luminescence was developed. There are currently many kinds of image plates (IPs) available on the market, originating from different manufacturers. Each kind of plate distinguishes itself from the others by its peculiar physical structure and composition, two factors which have a direct influence upon the quality of the digital radiographic images obtained through them. For this study, several kinds of IPs were tested in order to determine in which way such influence takes place. For this purpose, each kind of IP has been characterized and correlated to its response in the final image. The aim of this work was to evaluate procedures for employing Computed Radiography (CR) to welding inspections in laboratory conditions using the Simple Wall Simple Image Technique (SWSI). Tests were performed in steel welded joins of thickness 5.33, 12.70 and 25.40 mm, using CR scanner and IPs available on the market. It was used an X-Ray equipment as radiation source. The image quality parameters Basic Spatial Resolution (BSR), Normalized Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR{sub N}), contrast and detectability were evaluated. In order to determine in which way the IPs' properties are correlated to its response in the final image, the thickness of the sensitive layer was determined and the grain size and the elemental composition of this layer were evaluated. Based on the results drawn from this study, it is possible to conclude that the physical characteristics of image plates are essential for determining the quality of the digital radiography images acquired with them. Regarding the chemical composition of the plates, it was possible to determine that, apart from the chemical elements that were expected to be found (Ba, I and Br), only two plates, with high resolution, do not have fluorine in their composition; the presence of Strontium was also detected in the chemical composition of the plates supplied by a

  7. Radiographic inspection. Film replacement with digital detector arrays in aerospace applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Frank; Bavendiek, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    The new Digital Radiographic Inspection method replace more and more the conventional Film technique. For DDA (Digital Detector Array) systems it is currently necessary to use automated or semi-automated systems. For CR (Computer Radiography) Systems the conventional Film Systems may be used. For this CR technique operators can use same X-Ray Units (Bunker) and same X-Ray equipment. But on CR technique we have basically the same settings like the Film-based technique. More or less same exposure times and for aerospace application long scanning times for the CR foils. In fact there is no big benefit in capacity or in economical view. Regarding this issue we thought about the option to use a DDA System instead of a Film or CR System to use the current Film Equipment (Bunker, Generator, Tube.) and replace this 1:1 by a manual system. In this time only small detectors with fine pixel pitch was available on the market. With this type of DDA's is was absolutely uneconomical to inspect parts in serial inspection. Therefore a new generation of DDA's were developed, which is able to replace Film or CR System 1:1 with adequate economical properties for specific applications. The new PerkinElmer XRD 1611 Panel has a size of 40 x 40 cm and a pixel pitch of 100 μm. The baseline for the new DDA Panel was the most used X-Ray Film in size 30 x 40 cm. The Pixel Pitch and requirements for Bad Pixel based on the requirements for spatial resolution of the applicable ASTM standards and different customer specifications for castings. With this new DDA System is it possible to inspect small and medium castings in very short time with excellent image quality. The System is able to process images under 1 minute include averaging. Images will be transferred by a specific software tool to an offline reading station where certified Level 2 operator can inspect the images. Images will be archived as 16bit DICONDE File. All relevant images information are included in DICONDE File

  8. Relationship between image plates physical structure and quality of digital radiographic images in weld inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Davi F.; Silva, Aline S.S.; Machado, Alessandra S.; Gomes, Celio S.; Nascimento, Joseilson; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2015-01-01

    In the last decades a new type of detector which is based on photostimulable luminescence was developed. There are currently many kinds of image plates (IPs) available on the market, originating from different manufacturers. Each kind of plate distinguishes itself from the others by its peculiar physical structure and composition, two factors which have a direct influence upon the quality of the digital radiographic images obtained through them. For this study, several kinds of IPs were tested in order to determine in which way such influence takes place. For this purpose, each kind of IP has been characterized and correlated to its response in the final image. The aim of this work was to evaluate procedures for employing Computed Radiography (CR) to welding inspections in laboratory conditions using the Simple Wall Simple Image Technique (SWSI). Tests were performed in steel welded joins of thickness 5.33, 12.70 and 25.40 mm, using CR scanner and IPs available on the market. It was used an X-Ray equipment as radiation source. The image quality parameters Basic Spatial Resolution (BSR), Normalized Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR N ), contrast and detectability were evaluated. In order to determine in which way the IPs' properties are correlated to its response in the final image, the thickness of the sensitive layer was determined and the grain size and the elemental composition of this layer were evaluated. Based on the results drawn from this study, it is possible to conclude that the physical characteristics of image plates are essential for determining the quality of the digital radiography images acquired with them. Regarding the chemical composition of the plates, it was possible to determine that, apart from the chemical elements that were expected to be found (Ba, I and Br), only two plates, with high resolution, do not have fluorine in their composition; the presence of Strontium was also detected in the chemical composition of the plates supplied by a

  9. Relationship between image plates physical structure and quality of digital radiographic images in weld inspections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira de Oliveira, Davi; Silva, Aline S.S.; Machado, Alessandra S.; Gomes, Celio S.; Nascimento, Joseilson R.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2016-01-01

    In the last decades a new type of detector which is based on photostimulable luminescence was developed. There are currently many kinds of image plates (IPs) available on the market, originating from different manufacturers. Each kind of plate distinguishes itself from the others by its peculiar physical structure and composition, two factors which have a direct influence upon the quality of the digital radiographic images obtained through them. For this study, several kinds of IPs were tested in order to determine in which way such influence takes place. For this purpose, each kind of IP has been characterized and correlated to its response in the final image. The aim of this work was to evaluated procedures for employing Computed Radiography (CR) to welding inspections in laboratory conditions using the Simple Wall Simple Image Technique (SWSI). CR tests were performed in steel welded joins of thickness 5.33, 12.70 and 25.40 mm. It was used an X-Ray equipment as radiation source. The image quality parameters Basic Spatial Resolution (BSR), Normalized Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNRN), contrast and detectability were evaluated. In order to determine in which way the IPs' properties are correlated to its response in the final image, the thickness of the sensitive layer was determined and the grain size and the elemental composition of this layer were evaluated. Based on the results drawn from this study, it is possible to conclude that the physical characteristics of IPs are essential for determining the quality of the digital radiography images acquired with them. Regarding the grain size and the thickness of the IPs' sensitive layers, we could determine that the dimensions of such parameters were smaller on the plates presenting higher BSR, SNRN and contrast. However, the image plates which produced images with the highest resolution have also proven to be the least sensitive ones. All these parameters have a direct influence in the detectability of the

  10. Is the panoramic mandibular index useful for bone quality evaluation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Ah Young; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Heo, Min Suk [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (United States)

    2017-06-15

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the panoramic mandibular index (PMI) is useful for assessing bone mineral density. We also analyzed the potential correlations between PMI parameters and patient age. Four observers measured the PMI of both sides of the mental foramen using a picture archiving and communication system and images in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format. They studied 300 panoramic radiographic images of patients belonging to the following age groups: 40–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and 80–89 years. The observers were allowed to zoom in or out and to adjust the contrast of the images. Further, they were instructed to record the reasons for any measurements that could not be made. Then, we conducted a reliability analysis of the measured PMI and assessed the correlations between different patient age groups and the 3 parameters used for determining the PMI from the available data. Among the 600 data items collected, 23 items were considered unmeasurable by at least 1 observer for the following 4 reasons: postoperative state, lesion, unidentified mental foramen, and alveolar bone loss. The intraobserver reproducibility of the measurable data was 0.611-0.752. The mandibular cortical width (MCW) decreased significantly as patient age increased. PMI had limited usability when the margin of the mental foramen was not clear. In contrast, MCW, a parameter used for determining the PMI, had fewer drawbacks than the PMI with respect to bone mineral density measurements and exhibited a significant correlation with patient age.

  11. Is the panoramic mandibular index useful for bone quality evaluation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Ah Young; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Heo, Min Suk

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the panoramic mandibular index (PMI) is useful for assessing bone mineral density. We also analyzed the potential correlations between PMI parameters and patient age. Four observers measured the PMI of both sides of the mental foramen using a picture archiving and communication system and images in the Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine format. They studied 300 panoramic radiographic images of patients belonging to the following age groups: 40–49 years, 50–59 years, 60–69 years, 70–79 years, and 80–89 years. The observers were allowed to zoom in or out and to adjust the contrast of the images. Further, they were instructed to record the reasons for any measurements that could not be made. Then, we conducted a reliability analysis of the measured PMI and assessed the correlations between different patient age groups and the 3 parameters used for determining the PMI from the available data. Among the 600 data items collected, 23 items were considered unmeasurable by at least 1 observer for the following 4 reasons: postoperative state, lesion, unidentified mental foramen, and alveolar bone loss. The intraobserver reproducibility of the measurable data was 0.611-0.752. The mandibular cortical width (MCW) decreased significantly as patient age increased. PMI had limited usability when the margin of the mental foramen was not clear. In contrast, MCW, a parameter used for determining the PMI, had fewer drawbacks than the PMI with respect to bone mineral density measurements and exhibited a significant correlation with patient age

  12. Application of digital tomosynthesis to radiographic diagnosis of the temporal bone. Studies on visualization in normal subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawai, Takashi

    1995-01-01

    To examine the usefulness of digital tomosynthesis for conducting radiographic diagnosis of the temporal bone, visualization of various aural structures such as the semicircular canals, cochlea, vestibular apparatus, ossicles of the ear and facial nerve canal was examined in 18 volunteers. The visualization of temporal bone specimens by digital tomosynthesis and CT images (slice thickness: 1.5 mm) was compared. The results showed that this system (Digital Tomosynthesis) produced clear images of bony labyrinthine structures such as the semicircular canals, cochlea, and vestibular apparatus. Visualization of the ossicles was also clear, and their continuity could be comprehended better than on CT images. This system also provided good visualization of the labyrinthine and tympanic parts of the facial nerve canal, although CT images had greater sharpness. Visualization of the lower half of the mastoid part was poor with this system. (author)

  13. Physical evaluation of prototype high-performance anti-scatter grids: potential for improved digital radiographic image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fetterly, Kenneth A; Schueler, Beth A

    2009-01-01

    Grid evaluation for a screen-film x-ray system has typically included independent measurement of the opposing contrast improvement factor and Bucky factor. Neither of these metrics, however, is appropriate when assessing grid performance in a digital imaging environment. For digital radiographic systems, the benefit of an anti-scatter grid is well characterized by the quantum signal-to-noise ratio improvement factor (K SNR ) provided by the grid. The purpose of this work was to measure K SNR of prototype grids designed for use with digital radiographic systems. The prototype grids had 5 mm tall lead septa, fiber interspace material, line rate N = 25 and 36 cm -1 and ratio r = 15 and 21, respectively. The primary and scatter transmission properties of the grids were measured, and K SNR was evaluated over a phantom thickness range of 10-50 cm. To provide a comparison, the K SNR of similarly constructed N44r15 and N80r15 grids is also reported. K SNR of the prototype grids ranged from 1.4 for the 10 cm phantom to 2.4 for the 50 cm phantom. For the thickest phantom, the SNR improvement factor of the prototype grids was 18-83% higher than that of the N44r15 and N80r15 grids, respectively. (note)

  14. Digital subtraction radiographic analysis of the combination of bioabsorbable membrane and bovine morphogenetic protein pool in human periodontal infrabony defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Machado Guimarães

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: This study assessed the bone density gain and its relationship with the periodontal clinical parameters in a case series of a regenerative therapy procedure. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using a split-mouth study design, 10 pairs of infrabony defects from 15 patients were treated with a pool of bovine bone morphogenetic proteins associated with collagen membrane (test sites or collagen membrane only (control sites. The periodontal healing was clinically and radiographically monitored for six months. Standardized pre-surgical and 6-month postoperative radiographs were digitized for digital subtraction analysis, which showed relative bone density gain in both groups of 0.034 ± 0.423 and 0.105 ± 0.423 in the test and control group, respectively (p>0.05. RESULTS: As regards the area size of bone density change, the influence of the therapy was detected in 2.5 mm² in the test group and 2 mm² in the control group (p>0.05. Additionally, no correlation was observed between the favorable clinical results and the bone density gain measured by digital subtraction radiography (p>0.05. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that the clinical benefit of the regenerative therapy observed did not come with significant bone density gains. Long-term evaluation may lead to a different conclusions.

  15. Feature Extraction of Weld Defectology in Digital Image of Radiographic Film Using Geometric Invariant Moment and Statistical Texture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhtadan

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to perform feature extraction in weld defect of digital image of radiographic film using geometric invariant moment and statistical texture method. Feature extraction values can be use as values that used to classify and pattern recognition on interpretation of weld defect in digital image of radiographic film by computer automatically. Weld defectology type that used in this research are longitudinal crack, transversal crack, distributed porosity, clustered porosity, wormhole, and no defect. Research methodology on this research are program development to read digital image, then performing image cropping to localize weld position, and then applying geometric invariant moment and statistical texture formulas to find feature values. The result of this research are feature extraction values that have tested with RST (rotation, scale, transformation) treatment and yield moment values that more invariant there are ϕ 3 , ϕ 4 , ϕ 5 from geometric invariant moment method. Feature values from statistical texture that are average intensity, average contrast, smoothness, 3 rd moment, uniformity, and entropy, they used as feature extraction values. (author)

  16. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Bo Ram; Choi, Da Hye; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Bae, Kwang Hak; Lee, Sam Sun

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the panoramic radiographs and evaluated the causes of imaging errors. A total of 297 panoramic radiographs were collected from 99 dental hospitals and clinics. The mean of the scores according to the Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart was 79.9. In the classification of the overall image quality, 17 images were deemed 'optimal for obtaining diagnostic information,' 153 were 'adequate for diagnosis,' 109 were 'poor but diagnosable,' and nine were 'unrecognizable and too poor for diagnosis'. The results of the analysis of the causes of the errors in all the images are as follows: 139 errors in the positioning, 135 in the processing, 50 from the radiographic unit, and 13 due to anatomic abnormality. Panoramic radiographs taken at local dental clinics generally have a normal or higher-level image quality. Principal factors affecting image quality were positioning of the patient and image density, sharpness, and contrast. Therefore, when images are taken, the patient position should be adjusted with great care. Also, standardizing objective criteria of image density, sharpness, and contrast is required to evaluate image quality effectively.

  17. Imaging characteristics in rotational panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanderink, G.C.H.

    1987-01-01

    This study is concerned with imaging quality in rotational panoramic radiography. This imaging technique records an image of a curved layer within the object radiographed. The shape of this layer normally corresponds with the average form of the dental arch. In the centre of the layer a plane can be found which is depicted with a minimum of unsharpness. Unsharpness increases and the horizontal magnification changes as distance increases from that central plane. The image quality of the layer has been analyzed with the use of mathematical models to estimate the performance of the radiographic diagnostic system. Despite the application of these increasingly sophisticated models the question remains: will the results of the calculations based on these models adequately predict the diagnostic effectiveness of this type of imaging system? In this study a comparison is made between the theoretically determined quality of the system and the diagnostic quality using the observer as a measuring instrument. Experiments were carried out to measure the total unsharpness occurring in rotational panoramic radiography. 116 refs.; 114 figs.; 54 tabs

  18. Semi-automated digital image analysis of patellofemoral joint space width from lateral knee radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grochowski, S.J. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester (United States); Amrami, K.K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester (United States); Kaufman, K. [Mayo Clinic, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Rochester (United States); Mayo Clinic/Foundation, Biomechanics Laboratory, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Charlton North L-110L, Rochester (United States)

    2005-10-01

    To design a semi-automated program to measure minimum patellofemoral joint space width (JSW) using standing lateral view radiographs. Lateral patellofemoral knee radiographs were obtained from 35 asymptomatic subjects. The radiographs were analyzed to report both the repeatability of the image analysis program and the reproducibility of JSW measurements within a 2 week period. The results were also compared with manual measurements done by an experienced musculoskeletal radiologist. The image analysis program was shown to have an excellent coefficient of repeatability of 0.18 and 0.23 mm for intra- and inter-observer measurements respectively. The manual method measured a greater minimum JSW than the automated method. Reproducibility between days was comparable to other published results, but was less satisfactory for both manual and semi-automated measurements. The image analysis program had an inter-day coefficient of repeatability of 1.24 mm, which was lower than 1.66 mm for the manual method. A repeatable semi-automated method for measurement of the patellofemoral JSW from radiographs has been developed. The method is more accurate than manual measurements. However, the between-day reproducibility is higher than the intra-day reproducibility. Further investigation of the protocol for obtaining sequential lateral knee radiographs is needed in order to reduce the between-day variability. (orig.)

  19. Benchmarking the performance of fixed-image receptor digital radiographic systems part 1: a novel method for image quality analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kam L; Ireland, Timothy A; Bernardo, Michael

    2016-06-01

    This is the first part of a two-part study in benchmarking the performance of fixed digital radiographic general X-ray systems. This paper concentrates on reporting findings related to quantitative analysis techniques used to establish comparative image quality metrics. A systematic technical comparison of the evaluated systems is presented in part two of this study. A novel quantitative image quality analysis method is presented with technical considerations addressed for peer review. The novel method was applied to seven general radiographic systems with four different makes of radiographic image receptor (12 image receptors in total). For the System Modulation Transfer Function (sMTF), the use of grid was found to reduce veiling glare and decrease roll-off. The major contributor in sMTF degradation was found to be focal spot blurring. For the System Normalised Noise Power Spectrum (sNNPS), it was found that all systems examined had similar sNNPS responses. A mathematical model is presented to explain how the use of stationary grid may cause a difference between horizontal and vertical sNNPS responses.

  20. Usefulness of computerized method for lung nodule detection on digital chest radiographs using similar subtraction images from different patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Takatoshi; Oda, Nobuhiro; Yamashita, Yoshiko; Yamamoto, Keiji; Korogi, Yukunori

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the usefulness of a novel computerized method to select automatically the similar chest radiograph for image subtraction in the patients who have no previous chest radiographs and to assist the radiologists’ interpretation by presenting the “similar subtraction image” from different patients. Materials and methods: Institutional review board approval was obtained, and the requirement for informed patient consent was waived. A large database of approximately 15,000 normal chest radiographs was used for searching similar images of different patients. One hundred images of candidates were selected according to two clinical parameters and similarity of the lung field in the target image. We used the correlation value of chest region in the 100 images for searching the most similar image. The similar subtraction images were obtained by subtracting the similar image selected from the target image. Thirty cases with lung nodules and 30 cases without lung nodules were used for an observer performance test. Four attending radiologists and four radiology residents participated in this observer performance test. Results: The AUC for all radiologists increased significantly from 0.925 to 0.974 with the CAD (P = .004). When the computer output images were available, the average AUC for the residents was more improved (0.960 vs. 0.890) than for the attending radiologists (0.987 vs. 0.960). Conclusion: The novel computerized method for lung nodule detection using similar subtraction images from different patients would be useful to detect lung nodules on digital chest radiographs, especially for less experienced readers.

  1. Fractal dimension analysis in digital periapical radiographs: A diagnostic indicator of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathivanan Kavitha

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To assess the alveolar bone density by fractal dimension (FD analysis in radiovisiograph of postmenopausal women of mandibular posterior region and to correlate FD values with t-scores of quantitative ultrasound of the calcaneus bone. Materials and Methods: This study, approved by the institutional review board, included 40 participants, aged 45–60 years divided into two groups. Twenty postmenopausal women with osteoporosis comprised group 1, and 20 postmenopausal women without osteoporosis comprised group 2 based on bone mineral density assessment of ultrasound of the calcaneus bone. Digital dental radiograph of mandibular first molar were obtained and used for assessing alveolar bone density by FD analysis and were correlated with t-scores of ultrasound of calcaneus bone. Results: The mean FD values were evaluated using SPSS 14 version software, and were found to be 1.738 and 1.867 for group 1 and group 2, respectively, which was statistically significant (P 0.05. Conclusion: FD analysis using direct digital periapical radiographs is a novel method, which can be used for early diagnosis of osteoporosis in the alveolar bone.

  2. Potential usefulness of a video printer for producing secondary images from digitized chest radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Robert M.; MacMahon, Heber; Doi, Kunio; Bosworth, Eric

    1991-05-01

    Communication between radiologists and clinicians could be improved if a secondary image (copy of the original image) accompanied the radiologic report. In addition, the number of lost original radiographs could be decreased, since clinicians would have less need to borrow films. The secondary image should be simple and inexpensive to produce, while providing sufficient image quality for verification of the diagnosis. We are investigating the potential usefulness of a video printer for producing copies of radiographs, i.e. images printed on thermal paper. The video printer we examined (Seikosha model VP-3500) can provide 64 shades of gray. It is capable of recording images up to 1,280 pixels by 1,240 lines and can accept any raster-type video signal. The video printer was characterized in terms of its linearity, contrast, latitude, resolution, and noise properties. The quality of video-printer images was also evaluated in an observer study using portable chest radiographs. We found that observers could confirm up to 90 of the reported findings in the thorax using video- printer images, when the original radiographs were of high quality. The number of verified findings was diminished when high spatial resolution was required (e.g. detection of a subtle pneumothorax) or when a low-contrast finding was located in the mediastinal area or below the diaphragm (e.g. nasogastric tubes).

  3. Stereo-panoramic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Cutchin, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Systems and methods for automatically generating three-dimensional panoramic images for use in various virtual reality settings are disclosed. One embodiment of the system includes a stereo camera capture device (SCD), a programmable camera controller (PCC) that rotates, orients, and controls the SCD, a robotic maneuvering platform (RMP), and a path and adaptation controller (PAC). In that embodiment, the PAC determines the movement of the system based on an original desired path and input gathered from the SCD during an image capture process.

  4. Stereo-panoramic Data

    KAUST Repository

    Cutchin, Steve

    2013-03-07

    Systems and methods for automatically generating three-dimensional panoramic images for use in various virtual reality settings are disclosed. One embodiment of the system includes a stereo camera capture device (SCD), a programmable camera controller (PCC) that rotates, orients, and controls the SCD, a robotic maneuvering platform (RMP), and a path and adaptation controller (PAC). In that embodiment, the PAC determines the movement of the system based on an original desired path and input gathered from the SCD during an image capture process.

  5. Assessment of endodontically treated teeth by using different radiographic methods: an ex vivo comparison between CBCT and other radiographic techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demiralp, Kemal Oeaguer; Uecok, Oezlem; Kamburoglu, Kivanc; Selcen Yuesel, Kahraman Guengoer; Demiralp, Gokcen

    2012-01-01

    To compare different radiographic methods for assessing endodontically treated teeth. Root canal treatments were applied in 120 extracted mandibular teeth, which were divided into four groups: (1) ideal root canal treatment (60 teeth), (2) insufficient lateral condensation (20 teeth), (3) root canals filled short of the apex (20 teeth), (4) overfilled root canal treatment (20 teeth). The teeth were imaged using intraoral film, panoramic film, digital intraoral systems (CCD and PSP), CCD obtained with portable X-ray source, digital panoramic, and CBCT images obtained at 0.3 mm 3 and 0.2 mm'3 voxel size. Images were evaluated separately by three observers, twice. Kappa coefficients were calculated. The percentage of correct readings obtained from each modality was calculated and compared using a t-test (p 3 voxel images revealed the best results. For insufficient lateral condensation, the best readings were found with periapical film followed by CCD and PSP. The assessment of teeth with root canals filled short of the apex showed the highest percentage of correct readings by CBCT and CCD. For the overfilled canal treatment group, PSP images and conventional periapical film radiographs had the best scores. CBCT was found to be successful in the assessment of teeth with ideal root canal treatment and teeth with canals filled short of the apex.

  6. Panoramic Dental X-Ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Panoramic Dental X-ray Panoramic dental x-ray uses a very small dose of ... x-ray , is a two-dimensional (2-D) dental x-ray examination that captures the entire mouth ...

  7. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randon, Rafael Henrique Nunes [Stomathology and Oral Diagnostic Program, School of Dentistry of Sao Paulo, University of Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara [Biology Dental Buco Graduate Program, School of Dentistry of Piracicaba, University of Campinas, Piracicaba (Brazil); Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro do [Psychobiology Graduate Program, School of Philosophy, Science and Literature of Ribeirao Preto, University of Sao Paulo, Ribeirao Preto (Brazil)

    2014-03-15

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body.

  8. Common positioning errors in panoramic radiography: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randon, Rafael Henrique Nunes; Pereira, Yamba Carla Lara; Nascimento, Glauce Crivelaro do

    2014-01-01

    Professionals performing radiographic examinations are responsible for maintaining optimal image quality for accurate diagnoses. These professionals must competently execute techniques such as film manipulation and processing to minimize patient exposure to radiation. Improper performance by the professional and/or patient may result in a radiographic image of unsatisfactory quality that can also lead to a misdiagnosis and the development of an inadequate treatment plan. Currently, the most commonly performed extraoral examination is panoramic radiography. The invention of panoramic radiography has resulted in improvements in image quality with decreased exposure to radiation and at a low cost. However, this technique requires careful, accurate positioning of the patient's teeth and surrounding maxillofacial bone structure within the focal trough. Therefore, we reviewed the literature for the most common types of positioning errors in panoramic radiography to suggest the correct techniques. We would also discuss how to determine if the most common positioning errors occurred in panoramic radiography, such as in the positioning of the patient's head, tongue, chin, or body.

  9. Relationship Between Carotid Artery Calcification Detected in Dental Panoramic Images and Hypertension and Myocardial Infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moshfeghi, Mahkameh; Taheri, Jamileh Beigom; Bahemmat, Nika; Evazzadeh, Mohammad Ebrahim; Hadian, Hoora

    2014-01-01

    Carotid artery calcification may be related to cerebrovascular accident, which may result in death or physical and mental disabilities in survivors. Our purpose is to study the association of carotid artery calcification (CAC) on dental panoramic radiographs and two risk factors of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) including hypertension and myocardial infarction (MI). Panoramic images of 200 patients that were all women above 50 years of age (a population suffering from vascular diseases) were investigated. All panoramic images were provided under similar conditions in terms of the type of panoramic radiograph equipment, type of applied films and the automatic film processor. Then, the patients answered questions about MI history and taking antihypertensive drugs. We also measured the blood pressure of patients in two separate surveys. Data analysis was performed by SPSS statistical program. We used Exact Fisher test and Chi-Square test at a significant level of less than 0.05 to study the effect of these variables on the occurrence of carotid artery calcification. Among 200 studied samples, 22 of the patients (11%) had carotid artery calcification on the dental panoramic radiograph. In total, 52 patients (26%) had hypertension and four people (2%) had a history of MI. Eleven individuals among patients suffering from hypertension (21.2%) and three individuals among patients with a history of MI (75%) demonstrated CAC on dental panoramic images . The relationship between CAC found on dental panoramic radiographs and two CVA risk factors--hypertension and MI-- was significant. Therefore, it seems that detection of CAC on panoramic images of dental patients must be considered by dentists

  10. Case study: limitations of panoramic radiography in the anterior mandible.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walker, Cameron

    2009-12-01

    Dental Panoramic Tomography (DPT) is a widely used and valuable examination in dentistry. One area prone to artefacts and therefore misinterpretation is the anterior region of the mandible. This case study discusses a periapical radiolucency related to lower anterior teeth that is discovered to be a radiographic artefact. Possible causes of the artefact include a pronounced depression in the mental region of the mandible or superimposition of intervertebral spaces. Additional limitations of the DPT image include superimposition of radio-opaque structures, reduced image detail compared to intra-oral views and uneven magnification. These problems often make the DPT inappropriate for imaging the anterior mandible. Clinical Relevance: Panoramic radiography is often unsuitable for radiographic examination of the anterior mandible.

  11. Are digital images good enough? A comparative study of conventional film-screen vs digital radiographs on printed images of total hip replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eklund, K.; Jonsson, K.; Lindblom, G.; Lundin, B.; Sanfridsson, J.; Sloth, M.; Sivberg, B.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer variability and to find differences in diagnostic safety between digital and analog technique in diagnostic zones around hip prostheses. In 80 patients who had had a total hip replacement (THR) for more than 2 years, a conventional image and a digital image were taken. Gruen's model of seven distinct regions of interest was used for evaluations. Five experienced radiologists observed the seven regions and noted in a protocol the following distances: stem-cement; cement-bone; and stem-bone. All images were printed on hard copies and were read twice. Weighted kappa, κ w , analyses were used. The two most frequently loosening regions, stem-cement region 1 and cement-bone region 7, were closely analyzed. In region 1 the five observers had an agreement of 86.75-97.92% between analog and digital images in stem-cement, which is a varied κ w 0.29-0.71. For cement-bone region 7 an agreement of 87.21-90.45% was found, which is a varied κ w of 0.48-0.58. All the kappa values differ significantly from nil. The result shows that digital technique is as good as analog radiographs for diagnosing possible loosening of hip prostheses. (orig.)

  12. Are digital images good enough? A comparative study of conventional film-screen vs digital radiographs on printed images of total hip replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, K.; Jonsson, K.; Lindblom, G.; Lundin, B.; Sanfridsson, J.; Sloth, M. [Department of Radiology, Center for Medical Imaging and Physiology, Lund University Hospital, 22185, Lund (Sweden); Sivberg, B. [Department of Nursing, Faculty of Medicine, Lund University, P.O. Box 157, 22100, Lund (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the inter- and intra-observer variability and to find differences in diagnostic safety between digital and analog technique in diagnostic zones around hip prostheses. In 80 patients who had had a total hip replacement (THR) for more than 2 years, a conventional image and a digital image were taken. Gruen's model of seven distinct regions of interest was used for evaluations. Five experienced radiologists observed the seven regions and noted in a protocol the following distances: stem-cement; cement-bone; and stem-bone. All images were printed on hard copies and were read twice. Weighted kappa, {kappa}{sub w}, analyses were used. The two most frequently loosening regions, stem-cement region 1 and cement-bone region 7, were closely analyzed. In region 1 the five observers had an agreement of 86.75-97.92% between analog and digital images in stem-cement, which is a varied {kappa}{sub w} 0.29-0.71. For cement-bone region 7 an agreement of 87.21-90.45% was found, which is a varied {kappa}{sub w} of 0.48-0.58. All the kappa values differ significantly from nil. The result shows that digital technique is as good as analog radiographs for diagnosing possible loosening of hip prostheses. (orig.)

  13. LESIONS ASSOCIATED WITH SUBCLINICAL LAMINITIS AND DIGITAL RADIOGRAPHIC EXAM IN HOLSTEIN COWS IN THE TRANSITIONAL PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Amaral Barbosa

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Subclinical laminitis has been responsible for economic losses in dairy industry; thus, its diagnostic    is very important to prevent negative responses to milk production industry. The aim of this study  was to identify lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period with presence or absence of radiographic signs linked to this disease in Holstein cows. The cows were evaluated during the transition period and categorized into two groups (with and without laminitis according to the lesions associated with this subclinical disease. The radiological dynamic was performed in two target points during the transition period (prepartum and postpartum, with the objective of determining capsular position possible alterations and third phalanx bone degeneration (F3. There was no effect of the presence of lesions associated with subclinical laminitis regarding the position of the third phalanx to the hoof wall (p>0.05. Significant radiographic angular differences (p0.05. Overall, this study did not show radiographic signs of phalangeal misalignment in the hoof of dairy cows with lesions associated with subclinical laminitis during the transition period . Keywords:  aseptic pododermatitis; bovines; complementary exams; hoof.

  14. Standard practice for digital imaging and communication in nondestructive evaluation (DICONDE) for digital radiographic (DR) test methods

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This practice facilitates the interoperability of digital X-ray imaging equipment by specifying image data transfer and archival methods in commonly accepted terms. This document is intended to be used in conjunction with Practice E2339 on Digital Imaging and Communication in Nondestructive Evaluation (DICONDE). Practice E2339 defines an industrial adaptation of the NEMA Standards Publication titled Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM, see http://medical.nema.org), an international standard for image data acquisition, review, storage and archival storage. The goal of Practice E2339, commonly referred to as DICONDE, is to provide a standard that facilitates the display and analysis of NDE results on any system conforming to the DICONDE standard. Toward that end, Practice E2339 provides a data dictionary and a set of information modules that are applicable to all NDE modalities. This practice supplements Practice E2339 by providing information object definitions, information modules and a ...

  15. Parameters in panoramic radiography for differentiation of radiolucent lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Raitz

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aims of this study were to establish parameters in panoramic radiography for interpretation of unilocular radiolucent lesions, and to compare the accuracy of diagnoses given by examiners before and after using these parameters. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In Part I, 12 specialists analyzed 24 images and the diagnostic criteria used by each examiner to make correct diagnoses were used to build a list of basic radiographic parameters for each pathology (ameloblastoma, keratocystic odontogenic tumor, dentigerous cyst, and idiopathic bone cavity. In Part II, this list was used by 6 undergraduate students (Un, 8 recently graduated dentists (D, 3 oral pathologists, 3 stomatologists, 3 oral radiologists, and 3 oral surgeons to diagnose the corresponding pathologies in the other set of 24 panoramic radiographs (T2. The same analysis occurred without using this list (T1. The method of generalized estimating equations (GEE was used in order to estimate the probability of making a correct diagnosis depending on the specialty of the examiner, type of lesion, and moment of the evaluation, T1 or T2 (before or after they had access to the list of parameters, respectively. RESULTS: Higher values were obtained for the probability (GEE of making a correct diagnosis on T2; the group Un presented the highest improvement (14.6 %; no differences between the probabilities were observed either between Un and D, or among the different groups of specialists. CONCLUSIONS: The use of panoramic radiographic parameters did allow improving the diagnostic accuracy for all groups of examiners.

  16. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol

    1994-01-01

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  17. Digitized hand-wrist radiographs: comparison of subjective and software-derived image quality at various compression ratios.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCord, Layne K; Scarfe, William C; Naylor, Rachel H; Scheetz, James P; Silveira, Anibal; Gillespie, Kevin R

    2007-05-01

    The objectives of this study were to compare the effect of JPEG 2000 compression of hand-wrist radiographs on observer image quality qualitative assessment and to compare with a software-derived quantitative image quality index. Fifteen hand-wrist radiographs were digitized and saved as TIFF and JPEG 2000 images at 4 levels of compression (20:1, 40:1, 60:1, and 80:1). The images, including rereads, were viewed by 13 orthodontic residents who determined the image quality rating on a scale of 1 to 5. A quantitative analysis was also performed by using a readily available software based on the human visual system (Image Quality Measure Computer Program, version 6.2, Mitre, Bedford, Mass). ANOVA was used to determine the optimal compression level (P quality. When we used quantitative indexes, the JPEG 2000 images had lower quality at all compression ratios compared with the original TIFF images. There was excellent correlation (R2 >0.92) between qualitative and quantitative indexes. Image Quality Measure indexes are more sensitive than subjective image quality assessments in quantifying image degradation with compression. There is potential for this software-based quantitative method in determining the optimal compression ratio for any image without the use of subjective raters.

  18. Computer-aided detection of lung nodules in digital chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giger, M.L.; Doi, K.; MacMahon, H.M.

    1986-01-01

    The authors are developing an automated method to detect lung nodules by eliminating the ''camouflaging: effect of the lung background. In order to increase the conspicuity of the nodules, we created, from a single chest radiograph, two images: one in which the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the nodule is maximized and another in which that S/N is suppressed. The difference between these two processed images was subjected to feature-extraction technique in order to isolate the nodules. The detection accuracy of the computer-aided detection scheme, as compared with unaided radiologists' performance, was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis

  19. Optimization of Dose and Image Quality in Full-fiand Computed Radiography Systems for Common Digital Radiographic Examinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soo-Foon Moey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionA fine balance of image quality and radiation dose can be achieved by optimization to minimize stochastic and deterministic effects. This study aimed in ensuring that images of acceptable quality for common radiographic examinations in digital imaging were produced without causing harmful effects. Materials and MethodsThe study was conducted in three phases. The pre-optimization involved ninety physically abled patients aged between 20 to 60 years and weighed between 60 and 80 kilograms for four common digital radiographic examinations. Kerma X_plus, DAP meter was utilized to measure the entrance surface dose (ESD while effective dose (ED was estimated using CALDose_X 5.0 Monte Carlo software. The second phase, an experimental study utilized an anthropomorphic phantom (PBU-50 and Leeds test object TOR CDR for relative comparison of image quality. For the optimization phase, the imaging parameters with acceptable image quality and lowest ESD from the experimental study was related to patient’s body thickness. Image quality were evaluated by two radiologists using the modified evaluation criteria score lists. ResultsSignificant differences were found for image quality for all examinations. However significant difference for ESD were found for PA chest and AP abdomen only. The ESD for three of the examinations were lower than all published data. Additionally, the ESD and ED obtained for all examinations were lower than that recommended by radiation regulatory bodies. ConclusionOptimization of image quality and dose was achieved by utilizing an appropriate tube potential, calibrated automatic exposure control and additional filtration of 0.2mm copper.

  20. Evaluation of the accuracy of panoramic radiography in linear measurements of the jaws

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoseini, S. H.; Bagherpour, A.; Javadian Langaroodi, A.; Ahmadian Yazdi, A.; Safaei, A.

    2011-01-01

    Panoramic radiography has a great place among imaging techniques because of its enormous advantages. One of the characteristics of an ideal imaging technique is to supply precise measurement. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the accuracy of linear measurements of the jaws on panoramic radiographs. Patients and Methods: In this study, the vertical distances between the metal markers were measured by panoramic radiography in seven sites of two skulls in various head positions. Then the radiographic measurements were compared with the actual values. Results: Eighty three percent of the measurements were underestimated, 8.5% were overestimated on panoramic radiography and 8.5% of the measurements had no difference with the real measurements. Overestimation was not greater than 1 mm. The difference between actual and radiographic measurements was less in the posterior areas and in the mandible . In all head positions, the greatest difference between actual and radiographic measurements occurred in the anterior area. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, linear measurements on panoramic radiography are more reliable in the posterior areas and may be used in early clinical measurements.

  1. Radiologic-anatomic correlation of thoracic vertebrae and rib shadows in chest digital radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isao; Itoh, Harumi

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide an introduction to parsing the radiologic appearance of thoracic vertebrae and ribs. In the study, the radiologic-anatomic correlation technique was applied to promote further understanding of normal chest radiographs. The thoracic vertebrae and ribs of chest radiographs were compared with each macroscopic radiologic and computed tomography (CT) image. The rib parsed the linear shadow of the body of the rib. The macroscopic and radiologic images of thoracic vertebrae and ribs were evaluated to explain their normal radiologic findings. The results of such correlation were summarized as follows: The lamina of the vertebral arch was visualized due to anterior rotation of the upper thoracic vertebrae. The density ratio of the thoracic-vertebrae shadow was almost the same in the vertebral body and vertebral arch. The linear shadow superimposed on the rib corresponded to the inferior margin of the rib. The radiologic-anatomic correlation technique was useful to evaluate normal radiologic findings, and the study was useful to radiological technologists. (author)

  2. A study on the geometric correction for the digital subtraction radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, Suk Young; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2001-01-01

    To develop a new subtraction program for registering digital images based on the correspondence of anatomic structures. The digital periapical images were obtained by Digora system with Rinn XCP equipment after translation of 1-16 mm, and rotation of 2-20 at the premolar and molar areas of the human dried mandible. The new subtraction program, NIH Image program and Emago/Advanced program were compared by the peak-signal -to noise ratio (PSNR). The new subtraction program was superior to NIH Images program and Emago/Advanced program up to 16 mm translation and horizontal angulation up to 4. The new subtraction program can be used for subtracting digital periapical images

  3. Comparison between the implementation of quality criteria of radiographic image in conventional and digital mammography equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcantara, M.C.; Sordi, G.M.A.A.; Caldas, L.V.E.; Furquim, T.A.C.

    2008-01-01

    The mammographic examination needs a strict quality control. A publication of the European Commission provides guidelines on quality criteria for the images of the breast, quantifying the quality obtained in the image. Following the recommendations of the European Commission, two kinds of mammographic equipments, at a same institution, were evaluated to compare the quality of the conventional and digital images. Besides of that, the Average Glandular Dose (AGD) and the Entrance Surface Dose (ESD) were measured by using an ionization chamber (Radcal, 6M) in the radiation beams of each equipment. The digital equipment fulfills more quality criteria than the conventional equipment, provided ESD values, AGD values and a rejection index lower than the conventional equipment. Therefore, the digital mammography can be considered more adequate than the conventional one, both for criteria analyses and for dose optimization. (author)

  4. Determining paediatric patient thickness from a single digital radiograph-a proof of principle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worrall, Mark; Vinnicombe, Sarah; Sutton, David G

    2018-04-05

    This work presents a proof of principle for a method of estimating the thickness of an attenuator from a single radiograph using the image, the exposure factors with which it was acquired and a priori knowledge of the characteristics of the X-ray unit and detector used for the exposure. It is intended this could be developed into a clinical tool to assist with paediatric patient dose audit, for which a measurement of patient size is required. The proof of principle used measured pixel value and effective linear attenuation coefficient to estimate the thickness of a Solid Water attenuator. The kerma at the detector was estimated using a measurement of pixel value on the image and measured detector calibrations. The initial kerma was estimated using a lookup table of measured output values. The effective linear attenuation coefficient was measured for Solid Water at varying kV p . 11 test images of known and varying thicknesses of Solid Water were acquired at 60, 70 and 81 kV p . Estimates of attenuator thickness were made using the model and the results compared to the known thickness. Estimates of attenuator thickness made using the model differed from the known thickness by 3.8 mm (3.2%) on average, with a range of 0.5-10.8 mm (0.5-9%). A proof of principle is presented for a method of estimating the thickness of an attenuator using a single radiograph of the attenuator. The method has been shown to be accurate using a Solid Water attenuator, with a maximum difference between estimated and known attenuator thickness of 10.8 mm (9%). The method shows promise as a clinical tool for estimating abdominal paediatric patient thickness for paediatric patient dose audit, and is only contingent on the type of data routinely collected by Medical Physics departments. Advances in knowledge: A computational model has been created that is capable of accurately estimating the thickness of a uniform attenuator using only the radiographic image, the exposure factors with which

  5. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Moon [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology and Dental Research Institute, College of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-02-15

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  6. Comparison of the clinical examination with the panoramic radiography in the diagnosis of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Hang Moon

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare clinical examination of of dental caries and secondary caries with panoramic examination, and to examine bone lesions and dental anomaly of unerupted state. In this study, clinical records and panoramic radiographs were available for 89 first grade students in elementary school. Dental caries of occlusal surfaces, proximal surfaces, and buccolingual surfaces were examined. Secondary caries was examined too. In addition, the central lesion and dental anomaly of unerupted state were examined in panoramic radiographs. The obtained results were as followed :1. Carious detectability of clinical examination in occlusal and buccolingual surface was higher than that of panoramic examination, but it is statistically insignificant (p>0.05). In proximal surface, carious detectability of panoramic examination was higher than that of clinical examination, and it is statistically significant (p<0.01). 2. In contrast to clinical examination only, when the two examination methods were combined, there was additional detection of dental caries (26.7% in occlusal surface, 48.2% in proximal surface, 33.3% in buccolingual surface, and 38.3% totally). 3. In detection of secondary caries, panoramic examination had lower ability than clinical examination in all three surfaces, but in case that both methods were combined, totally 36.0% extra carious lesions were detected. 4. In panoramic examination, detectability of secondary caries in upper teeth is lower than lower teeth. 5. In panoramic examination, it was possible to detect the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state which cannot be detected in clinical examination. It is useful to combine the panoramic examination with clinical examination in order to increase carious detectability and to evaluate the central lesions and dental anomalies of unerupted state.

  7. Radiographic diagnosis of a rare case of oculo-dento-digital dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Chandra Parashari

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Oculodentodigital dysplasia (ODDD, also known as oculodento-osseous dysplasia, is an extremely rare autosomal dominant disorder with high penetrance, intra- and interfamilial phenotypic variability, and advanced paternal age in sporadic cases. The incidence of this disease is not precisely known, with only 243 cases reported in the scientific literature, suggesting an incidence of around 1 in 10 million people. It is marked mainly by eye abnormalities, craniofacial dysmorphism, dental anomalies, hand and foot malformations, various skeletal defects, and mildly delayed mental development. Neurological changes may appear earlier in each subsequent generation. This case report describes a radiological diagnosis of ODDD based on physical appearance, clinical features and radiographic findings in a 16-year-old girl.

  8. Subjective image quality comparison between two digital dental radiographic systems and conventional dental film

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Ajmal

    2014-10-01

    Recommendations: Improved software and hardware for digital imaging systems are now available and these improvements may now yield images that are comparable in quality to conventional film. However, we recommend that studies still use more observers and other statistical methods to produce ideal results.

  9. An evaluation of the impact of digital imaging on radiographic practice and patient doses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrocks, J.; Violaki, K.

    2015-09-01

    Direct digital imaging technology was implemented in all areas in general and mobile radiology at Barts and the Royal London Hospitals in 2012. Evidence from recent radiation incident investigations indicates optimum exposure factors are not consistently selected, with the greater dynamic range of the digital detectors allowing sub-optimal practice. To investigate further patient dose data were extracted from the Radiology Information System for adult chest X-ray examinations in 2014, covering over 50,000 studies in the Trust. Chest X-ray examinations were selected as they are low dose but frequent examinations. The patient dose data were evaluated taking into account X-ray system type and detector performance measurements, and individual cases studies were used to highlight where practice can be improved.

  10. [Industrial production of the LDRD "Siberia-N" digital radiographic devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baru, S E; Ukraintsev, Iu G

    2004-01-01

    It is envisaged, as a key task, in the Federal Program on Tuberculosis Monitoring, that preventive measures and early TB detection is a priority. Fluorography, which is important for the recognition of pulmonary tuberculosis at its early stages, has been used in the diagnostics of pulmonary pathologies. However, according to the statistics provided by the Russian Ministry of Healthcare, around 80% of available medical equipment is now worn and obsolete. Owing to a fruitful research activity related with designing a digital low-dose X-Ray unit (Siberia-N) carried out by the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Novosibirsk), a certain progress can be stated in perfecting the fluorography equipment in Russia. The above unit incorporates all advanced achievements in the field of digital X-Ray diagnostics.

  11. The digital radiographic and computed tomography imaging of two types of explosive devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galiano Riveros, Eduardo

    2002-01-01

    Two well-established medical imaging methods, digital radiography (DR) and computed tomography (CT), were employed to obtain images of two types of explosive devices, model rocket engines and shotgun shells. The images were evaluated from an airport security perspective. In terms of geometrical shape, the detection probability of the explosive devices appears to be higher with DR imaging, but in terms of the actual explosive compounds in the devices, CT appears to offer a higher detection probability. DR imaging offers a low detection probability for the explosive powder in the shotgun shells, but a rather significant detection probability for the explosive propellant in the model rocket engines

  12. Effectiveness of digital subtraction radiography in detecting artificially created osteophytes and erosions in the temporomandibular joint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocasarac, Husniye Demirturk [Dept. of Comprehensive Dentistry, The University of Texas Health Science Center, San Antonio (United States); Celenk, Peruze [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ondokuz Mayis University, Samsun (Turkmenistan)

    2017-06-15

    Erosions and osteophytes are radiographic characteristics that are found in different stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. This study assessed the effectiveness of digital subtraction radiography (DSR) in diagnosing simulated osteophytes and erosions in the TMJ. Five intact, dry human skulls were used to assess the effectiveness of DSR in detecting osteophytes. Four cortical bone chips of varying thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2.0 mm) were placed at the medial, central, and lateral aspects of the condyle anterior surface. Two defects of varying depth (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) were created on the lateral, central, and medial poles of the condyles of 2 skulls to simulate erosions. Panoramic images of the condyles were acquired before and after artificially creating the changes. Digital subtraction was performed with Emago dental image archiving software. Five observers familiar with the interpretation of TMJ radiographs evaluated the images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the imaging methods. The area under the ROC curve (Az) value for the overall diagnostic accuracy of DSR in detecting osteophytic changes was 0.931. The Az value for the overall diagnostic accuracy of panoramic imaging was 0.695. The accuracy of DSR in detecting erosive changes was 0.854 and 0.696 for panoramic imaging. DSR was remarkably more accurate than panoramic imaging in detecting simulated osteophytic and erosive changes. The accuracy of panoramic imaging in detecting degenerative changes was significantly lower than the accuracy of DSR (P<.05). DSR improved the accuracy of detection using panoramic images.

  13. Effectiveness of digital subtraction radiography in detecting artificially created osteophytes and erosions in the temporomandibular joint

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocasarac, Husniye Demirturk; Celenk, Peruze

    2017-01-01

    Erosions and osteophytes are radiographic characteristics that are found in different stages of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) osteoarthritis. This study assessed the effectiveness of digital subtraction radiography (DSR) in diagnosing simulated osteophytes and erosions in the TMJ. Five intact, dry human skulls were used to assess the effectiveness of DSR in detecting osteophytes. Four cortical bone chips of varying thicknesses (0.5 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.5 mm, and 2.0 mm) were placed at the medial, central, and lateral aspects of the condyle anterior surface. Two defects of varying depth (1.0 mm and 1.5 mm) were created on the lateral, central, and medial poles of the condyles of 2 skulls to simulate erosions. Panoramic images of the condyles were acquired before and after artificially creating the changes. Digital subtraction was performed with Emago dental image archiving software. Five observers familiar with the interpretation of TMJ radiographs evaluated the images. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the imaging methods. The area under the ROC curve (Az) value for the overall diagnostic accuracy of DSR in detecting osteophytic changes was 0.931. The Az value for the overall diagnostic accuracy of panoramic imaging was 0.695. The accuracy of DSR in detecting erosive changes was 0.854 and 0.696 for panoramic imaging. DSR was remarkably more accurate than panoramic imaging in detecting simulated osteophytic and erosive changes. The accuracy of panoramic imaging in detecting degenerative changes was significantly lower than the accuracy of DSR (P<.05). DSR improved the accuracy of detection using panoramic images

  14. Resolution requirements for monitor viewing of digital flat-panel detector radiographs: a contrast detail analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peer, Siegfried; Giacomuzzi, Salvatore M.; Peer, Regina; Gassner, Eva; Steingruber, Iris; Jaschke, Werner

    2003-01-01

    With the introduction of digital flat-panel detector systems into clinical practice, the still unresolved question of resolution requirements for picture archiving communication system (PACS) workstation monitors has gained new momentum. This contrast detail analysis was thus performed to define the differences in observer performance in the detection of small low-contrast objects on clinical 1K and 2K monitor workstations. Images of the CDRAD 2.0 phantom were acquired at varying exposures on an indirect-type digital flat-panel detector. Three observers evaluated a total of 15 images each with respect to the threshold contrast for each detail size. The numbers of correctly identified objects were determined for all image subsets. No significant difference in the correct detection ratio was detected among the observers; however, the difference between the two types of workstations (1K vs 2K monitors) despite less than 3% was significant at a 95% confidence level. Slight but statistically significant differences exist in the detection of low-contrast nodular details visualized on 1K- and 2K-monitor workstations. Further work is needed to see if this result holds true also for comparison of clinical flat-panel detector images and may, for example, exert an influence on the diagnostic accuracy of chest X-ray readings. (orig.)

  15. Pneumothorax size measurements on digital chest radiographs: Intra- and inter- rater reliability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thelle, Andreas; Gjerdevik, Miriam; Grydeland, Thomas; Skorge, Trude D; Wentzel-Larsen, Tore; Bakke, Per S

    2015-10-01

    Detailed and reliable methods may be important for discussions on the importance of pneumothorax size in clinical decision-making. Rhea's method is widely used to estimate pneumothorax size in percent based on chest X-rays (CXRs) from three measure points. Choi's addendum is used for anterioposterior projections. The aim of this study was to examine the intrarater and interrater reliability of the Rhea and Choi method using digital CXR in the ward based PACS monitors. Three physicians examined a retrospective series of 80 digital CXRs showing pneumothorax, using Rhea and Choi's method, then repeated in a random order two weeks later. We used the analysis of variance technique by Eliasziw et al. to assess the intrarater and interrater reliability in altogether 480 estimations of pneumothorax size. Estimated pneumothorax sizes ranged between 5% and 100%. The intrarater reliability coefficient was 0.98 (95% one-sided lower-limit confidence interval C 0.96), and the interrater reliability coefficient was 0.95 (95% one-sided lower-limit confidence interval 0.93). This study has shown that the Rhea and Choi method for calculating pneumothorax size has high intrarater and interrater reliability. These results are valid across gender, side of pneumothorax and whether the patient is diagnosed with primary or secondary pneumothorax. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Evaluation of a flat panel digital radiographic system for low-dose portable imaging of neonates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Hill, Jeanne G.; Frey, G. Donald; Southgate, W. Michael; Mah, Eugene; Delong, David

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the clinical utility of an investigational flat-panel digital radiography system for low-dose portable neonatal imaging. Thirty image-pairs from neonatal intensive care unit patients were acquired with a commercial Computed Radiography system (Agfa, ADC 70), and with the investigational system (Varian, Paxscan 2520) at one-quarter of the exposure. The images were evaluated for conspicuity and localization of the endings of ancillary catheters and tubes in two observer performance experiments with three pediatric radiologists and three neonatologists serving as observers. The results indicated no statistically significant difference in diagnostic quality between the images from the investigational system and from CR. Given the investigational system's superior resolution and noise characteristics, observer results suggest that the high detective quantum efficiency of flat-panel digital radiography systems can be utilized to decrease the radiation dose/exposure to neonatal patients, although post-processing of the images remains to be optimized. The rapid availability of flat-panel images in portable imaging was found to be an added advantage for timely clinical decision-making

  17. Adaptive panoramic tomography with a circular rotational movement for the formation of multifocal image layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, D. S.; Cho, H. S.; Park, Y. O.; Je, U. K.; Hong, D. K.; Choi, S. I.; Koo, Y. S. [Yonsei University, Wonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Panoramic radiography with which only structures within a certain image layer are in focus and others out of focus on the panoramic image has become a popular imaging technique especially in dentistry. However, the major drawback to the technique is a mismatch between the structures to be focused and the predefined image layer mainly due to the various shapes and sizes of dental arches and/or to malpositioning of the patient. These result in image quality typically inferior to that obtained using intraoral radiographic techniques. In this paper, to overcome these difficulties, we suggest a new panoramic reconstruction algorithm, the so-called adaptive panoramic tomography (APT), capable of reconstructing multifocal image layers with no additional exposure. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, we performed systematic simulation studies with a circular rotational movement and investigated the image performance.

  18. Low-cost panoramic infrared surveillance system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kecskes, Ian; Engel, Ezra; Wolfe, Christopher M.; Thomson, George

    2017-05-01

    A nighttime surveillance concept consisting of a single surface omnidirectional mirror assembly and an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) longwave infrared (LWIR) camera has been developed. This configuration provides a continuous field of view spanning 360° in azimuth and more than 110° in elevation. Both the camera and the mirror are readily available, off-the-shelf, inexpensive products. The mirror assembly is marketed for use in the visible spectrum and requires only minor modifications to function in the LWIR spectrum. The compactness and portability of this optical package offers significant advantages over many existing infrared surveillance systems. The developed system was evaluated on its ability to detect moving, human-sized heat sources at ranges between 10 m and 70 m. Raw camera images captured by the system are converted from rectangular coordinates in the camera focal plane to polar coordinates and then unwrapped into the users azimuth and elevation system. Digital background subtraction and color mapping are applied to the images to increase the users ability to extract moving items from background clutter. A second optical system consisting of a commercially available 50 mm f/1.2 ATHERM lens and a second LWIR camera is used to examine the details of objects of interest identified using the panoramic imager. A description of the components of the proof of concept is given, followed by a presentation of raw images taken by the panoramic LWIR imager. A description of the method by which these images are analyzed is given, along with a presentation of these results side-by-side with the output of the 50 mm LWIR imager and a panoramic visible light imager. Finally, a discussion of the concept and its future development are given.

  19. The reliability of tablet computers in depicting maxillofacial radiographic landmarks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Mahdian, Mina; Sheth, Sonam; Chandhoke, Taranpreet K.; Gopalakrishna, Aadarsh; Potluri, Anitha; Yadav, Sumit [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the reliability of the identification of anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs on a standard medical grade picture archiving communication system (PACS) monitor and a tablet computer (iPad 5). A total of 1000 radiographs, including 500 panoramic and 500 lateral cephalometric radiographs, were retrieved from the de-identified dataset of the archive of the Section of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of the University Of Connecticut School Of Dental Medicine. Major radiographic anatomical landmarks were independently reviewed by two examiners on both displays. The examiners initially reviewed ten panoramic and ten lateral cephalometric radiographs using each imaging system, in order to verify interoperator agreement in landmark identification. The images were scored on a four-point scale reflecting the diagnostic image quality and exposure level of the images. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference between the two displays regarding the visibility and clarity of the landmarks in either the panoramic or cephalometric radiographs. Tablet computers can reliably show anatomical landmarks in panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs.

  20. Clinical image quality evaluation for panoramic radiography in Korean dental clinics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Bo Ram; Choi, Da Hye; Huh, Kyung Hoe; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Choi, Soon Chul; Bae, Kwang Hak; Lee, Sam Sun [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the level of clinical image quality of panoramic radiographs and to analyze the parameters that influence the overall image quality. Korean dental clinics were asked to provide three randomly selected panoramic radiographs. An oral and maxillofacial radiology specialist evaluated those images using our self-developed Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart. Three evaluators classified the overall image quality of the panoramic radiographs and evaluated the causes of imaging errors. A total of 297 panoramic radiographs were collected from 99 dental hospitals and clinics. The mean of the scores according to the Clinical Image Quality Evaluation Chart was 79.9. In the classification of the overall image quality, 17 images were deemed 'optimal for obtaining diagnostic information,' 153 were 'adequate for diagnosis,' 109 were 'poor but diagnosable,' and nine were 'unrecognizable and too poor for diagnosis'. The results of the analysis of the causes of the errors in all the images are as follows: 139 errors in the positioning, 135 in the processing, 50 from the radiographic unit, and 13 due to anatomic abnormality. Panoramic radiographs taken at local dental clinics generally have a normal or higher-level image quality. Principal factors affecting image quality were positioning of the patient and image density, sharpness, and contrast. Therefore, when images are taken, the patient position should be adjusted with great care. Also, standardizing objective criteria of image density, sharpness, and contrast is required to evaluate image quality effectively.

  1. Research and implementation of the algorithm for unwrapped and distortion correction basing on CORDIC for panoramic image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenhai; Li, Kejie; Wu, Xiaobing; Zhang, Shujiang

    2008-03-01

    The unwrapped and correcting algorithm based on Coordinate Rotation Digital Computer (CORDIC) and bilinear interpolation algorithm was presented in this paper, with the purpose of processing dynamic panoramic annular image. An original annular panoramic image captured by panoramic annular lens (PAL) can be unwrapped and corrected to conventional rectangular image without distortion, which is much more coincident with people's vision. The algorithm for panoramic image processing is modeled by VHDL and implemented in FPGA. The experimental results show that the proposed panoramic image algorithm for unwrapped and distortion correction has the lower computation complexity and the architecture for dynamic panoramic image processing has lower hardware cost and power consumption. And the proposed algorithm is valid.

  2. Magnetic Resonance-Based Treatment Planning for Prostate Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: Creation of Digitally Reconstructed Radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Lili; Nguyen, Thai-Binh; Jones, Elan; Chen Zuoqun; Luo Wei; Wang Lu; Price, Robert A.; Pollack, Alan; Ma, C.-M. Charlie

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a technique to create magnetic resonance (MR)-based digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) for initial patient setup for routine clinical applications of MR-based treatment planning for prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: Twenty prostate cancer patients' computed tomography (CT) and MR images were used for the study. Computed tomography and MR images were fused. The pelvic bony structures, including femoral heads, pubic rami, ischium, and ischial tuberosity, that are relevant for routine clinical patient setup were manually contoured on axial MR images. The contoured bony structures were then assigned a bulk density of 2.0 g/cm 3 . The MR-based DRRs were generated. The accuracy of the MR-based DDRs was quantitatively evaluated by comparing MR-based DRRs with CT-based DRRs for these patients. For each patient, eight measuring points on both coronal and sagittal DRRs were used for quantitative evaluation. Results: The maximum difference in the mean values of these measurement points was 1.3 ± 1.6 mm, and the maximum difference in absolute positions was within 3 mm for the 20 patients investigated. Conclusions: Magnetic resonance-based DRRs are comparable to CT-based DRRs for prostate intensity-modulated radiotherapy and can be used for patient treatment setup when MR-based treatment planning is applied clinically

  3. Comparison of two immobilization techniques using portal film and digitally reconstructed radiographs for pediatric patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yunping; Stovall, John; Butler, Laura; Ji Qing; Gaber, M. Waleed; Samant, Sanjiv; Sontag, Marc R.; Armendi, Alberto J. de; Merchant, Thomas E.

    2000-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the accuracy of two immobilization techniques for pediatric brain tumor patients. Methods and Materials: We analyzed data from 128 treatments involving 22 patients. Patients were immobilized with either a relocatable head frame (12 patients) or a vacuum bag (10 patients). Orthogonal portal films were used as verification images. Errors in patient positioning were measured by comparing verification images with digitally reconstructed radiographs generated by a three-dimensional treatment-planning system. Results: With the head frame, systematic errors ranged from 1.4 mm to 2.1 mm; random errors, from 1.7 mm to 2.1 mm. With the vacuum bag, systematic errors ranged from 2.1 mm to 2.5 mm; random errors, from 2.0 mm to 2.6 mm. For the head frame, the mean length of the radial displacement was 4.4 mm; 90% of the total three-dimensional deviation was less than 6.8 mm. The corresponding values for the vacuum bag were 5.0 and 6.6 mm, respectively. Conclusions: The head frame and vacuum bag techniques limit the random and systematic errors in each of the three directions to within ± 5 mm. We have used these results to determine the margin used to create the planning target volume for conformal radiation therapy

  4. Optimum image compression rate maintaining diagnostic image quality of digital intraoral radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Ju Seop; Koh, Kwang Joon

    2000-01-01

    The aims of the present study are to determine the optimum compression rate in terms of file size reduction and diagnostic quality of the images after compression and evaluate the transmission speed of original or each compressed images. The material consisted of 24 extracted human premolars and molars. The occlusal surfaces and proximal surfaces of the teeth had a clinical disease spectrum that ranged from sound to varying degrees of fissure discoloration and cavitation. The images from Digora system were exported in TIFF and the images from conventional intraoral film were scanned and digitalized in TIFF by Nikon SF-200 scanner(Nikon, Japan). And six compression factors were chosen and applied on the basis of the results from a pilot study. The total number of images to be assessed were 336. Three radiologists assessed the occlusal and proximal surfaces of the teeth with 5-rank scale. Finally diagnosed as either sound or carious lesion by one expert oral pathologist. And sensitivity and specificity and kappa value for diagnostic agreement was calculated. Also the area (Az) values under the ROC curve were calculated and paired t-test and oneway ANOVA test was performed. Thereafter, transmission time of the image files of the each compression level were compared with that of the original image files. No significant difference was found between original and the corresponding images up to 7% (1:14) compression ratio for both the occlusal and proximal caries (p<0.05). JPEG3 (1:14) image files are transmitted fast more than 10 times, maintained diagnostic information in image, compared with original image files. 1:14 compressed image file may be used instead of the original image and reduce storage needs and transmission time.

  5. Fundamental imaging characteristics of a slot-scan digital chest radiographic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samei, Ehsan; Saunders, Robert S.; Lo, Joseph Y.; Dobbins, James T. III; Jesneck, Jonathan L.; Floyd, Carey E.; Ravin, Carl E.

    2004-01-01

    Our purpose in this study was to evaluate the fundamental image quality characteristics of a new slot-scan digital chest radiography system (ThoraScan, Delft Imaging Systems/Nucletron, Veenendaal, The Netherlands). The linearity of the system was measured over a wide exposure range at 90, 117, and 140 kVp with added Al filtration. System uniformity and reproducibility were established with an analysis of images from repeated exposures. The modulation transfer function (MTF) was evaluated using an established edge method. The noise power spectrum (NPS) and the detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of the system were evaluated at the three kilo-voltages over a range of exposures. Scatter fraction (SF) measurements were made using a posterior beam stop method and a geometrical chest phantom. The system demonstrated excellent linearity, but some structured nonuniformities. The 0.1 MTF values occurred between 3.3-3.5 mm -1 . The DQE(0.15) and DQE(2.5) were 0.21 and 0.07 at 90 kVp, 0.18 and 0.05 at 117 kVp, and 0.16 and 0.03 at 140 kVp, respectively. The system exhibited remarkably lower SFs compared to conventional full-field systems with anti-scatter grid, measuring 0.13 in the lungs and 0.43 in the mediastinum. The findings indicated that the slot-scan design provides marked scatter reduction leading to high effective DQE (DQE eff ) of the system and reduced patient dose required to achieve high image quality

  6. Radiographic examination for successful dental implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul

    2005-01-01

    Recently implant has become an important field in dental clinic. Radiographic examination of pre- and post-operation is essential for successful treatment. Clinicians should have knowledge about the purpose of the radiographic examination, suitable imaging modality for the cases, anatomic landmarks of tooth and jaw bone, advantage and limitation of panoramic radiographic examination for implant, principle and interpretation of cross-sectional imaging, bone mineral density, post-operative radiographic examination. This paper will be helpful to get above information for dentists who want to do dental implant successfully.

  7. 21 CFR 1020.31 - Radiographic equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH PERFORMANCE STANDARDS FOR IONIZING RADIATION EMITTING PRODUCTS § 1020.31 Radiographic... and time, a preset number of pulses, or a preset radiation exposure to the image receptor. (i) Except... exposure of greater than one-half second. Except during panoramic dental radiography, termination of...

  8. Comparison of different radiographic methods for the detection of the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    2003-01-01

    To compare the visibility of the mandibular canal at the different radiographic methods such as conventional panoramic radiographs, Vimplant multiplanar reformatting (MPR)-CT panoramic images, Vimplant MPR-CT paraxial images and film-based DentaScan MPR-CT images. Data of 11 mandibular dental implant patients, who had been planned treatment utilizing both panoramic and MPR-CT examination with DentaScan software (GE Medical systems, Milwaukee, USA), were used in this study. The archived axial CT data stored on CD-R discs were transferred to a personal computer with 17' LCD monitor. Paraxial and panoramic images were reconstructed using Vimplant software (CyberMed Inc., Seoul, Korea). Conventional panoramic radiographs, monitor-based Vimplant MPR-CT panoramic images, monitor-based Vimplant MPR-CT paraxial images, and film-based DentaScan MPR-CT images were evaluated for visibility of the mandibular canal at the mental foramen, 1 cm, 2 cm, and 3 cm posterior to mental foramen using the 4-point grading score. Vimplant MPR-CT panoramic, paraxial, and DentaScan MPR-CT images revealed significantly clearer images than conventional panoramic radiographs. Particularly at the region 1 cm posterior to mental foramen, conventional panoramic radiographs showed a markedly lower percentage of 'excellent' mandibular canal images than images produced by other modalities. Vimplant MPR-CT and DentaScan MPR-CT images did not show significant difference in visibility of the mandibular canal. The study results shoe that Vimplant and DentaScan MPR-CT imaging systems offer significantly better images of the mandibular canal than conventional panoramic radiograph.

  9. Assessment of endodontically treated teeth by using different radiographic methods: an ex vivo comparison between CBCT and other radiographic techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demiralp, Kemal Oeaguer; Uecok, Oezlem [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Gazi University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Kamburoglu, Kivanc [Dept. of Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, Faculty of Dentistry, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Selcen Yuesel, Kahraman Guengoer [Dept. of Biostatistics, Faculty of Medicine, Ankara University, Ankara (Turkmenistan); Demiralp, Gokcen [Dept. of Endodontics, Tepebasi Dental Health Center, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2012-09-15

    To compare different radiographic methods for assessing endodontically treated teeth. Root canal treatments were applied in 120 extracted mandibular teeth, which were divided into four groups: (1) ideal root canal treatment (60 teeth), (2) insufficient lateral condensation (20 teeth), (3) root canals filled short of the apex (20 teeth), (4) overfilled root canal treatment (20 teeth). The teeth were imaged using intraoral film, panoramic film, digital intraoral systems (CCD and PSP), CCD obtained with portable X-ray source, digital panoramic, and CBCT images obtained at 0.3 mm{sup 3} and 0.2 mm'3 voxel size. Images were evaluated separately by three observers, twice. Kappa coefficients were calculated. The percentage of correct readings obtained from each modality was calculated and compared using a t-test (p<0.05). The intra-observer kappa for each observer ranged between 0.327 and 0.849. The inter-observer kappa for each observer for both readings ranged between 0.312 and 0.749. For the ideal root canal treatment group, CBCT with 0.2 mm{sup 3} voxel images revealed the best results. For insufficient lateral condensation, the best readings were found with periapical film followed by CCD and PSP. The assessment of teeth with root canals filled short of the apex showed the highest percentage of correct readings by CBCT and CCD. For the overfilled canal treatment group, PSP images and conventional periapical film radiographs had the best scores. CBCT was found to be successful in the assessment of teeth with ideal root canal treatment and teeth with canals filled short of the apex.

  10. Exposure reduction in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapa, S.F.; Platin, E.

    1990-01-01

    Increased receptor speed in panoramic radiography is useful in reducing patient exposure if it doesn't substantially decrease the diagnostic quality of the resultant image. In a laboratory investigation four rare earth screen/film combinations were evaluated ranging in relative speed from 400 to 1200. The results indicated that an exposure reduction of approximately 15 percent can be achieved by substituting a 1200 speed system for a 400 speed system without significantly affecting the diagnostic quality of the image

  11. Experiments in interactive panoramic cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Scott S.; Anderson, Steve; Ruiz, Susana; Naimark, Michael; Hoberman, Perry; Bolas, Mark; Weinberg, Richard

    2005-03-01

    For most of the past 100 years, cinema has been the premier medium for defining and expressing relations to the visible world. However, cinematic spectacles delivered in darkened theaters are predicated on a denial of both the body and the physical surroundings of the spectators who are watching it. To overcome these deficiencies, filmmakers have historically turned to narrative, seducing audiences with compelling stories and providing realistic characters with whom to identify. This paper describes several research projects in interactive panoramic cinema that attempt to sidestep the narrative preoccupations of conventional cinema and instead are based on notions of space, movement and embodied spectatorship rather than traditional storytelling. Example projects include interactive works developed with the use of a unique 360 degree camera and editing system, and also development of panoramic imagery for a large projection environment with 14 screens on 3 adjacent walls in a 5-4-5 configuration with observations and findings from an experiment projecting panoramic video on 12 of the 14, in a 4-4-4 270 degree configuration.

  12. Radiographic evaluation of apical root resorption following fixed orthodontic treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Sina Haghanifar; Valiollah Arash; Farhad Soboti; Nasim Jafari

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims: Apical root resorption is an adverse side effect of fixed orthodontic treatment which cannot be repaired. The aim of this study was to use panoramic radiographs to compare the root resorption before and after the orthodontic treatment with standard edgewise .018 appliance.Materials and Methods: The before and after treatment panoramic views of sixty-three patients needed fixed orthodontic treatment included 1520 teeth were categorized into 3 Grades (G0: without resorption...

  13. Accuracy of panoramic radiography and linear tomography in mandibular canal localization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bashizadeh Fakhar H.

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Accurate bone measurements are essential to determine the optimal size and length of dental implants. The magnification factor of radiographic images may vary with the imaging technique used. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of linear tomography and panoramic radiography in vertical measurements, as well as the accuracy of linear tomography in mandibular width estimation. "nMaterials and Methods: In this test evaluation study, the vertical distances between the crest and the superior border of the inferior alveolar canal, marked with a metal ball, was measured by linear tomography and panoramic radiography in 23 sites of four dry mandible bones. Also the mandibular width was measured at the same sites. Then, the bones were sectioned through the marked spots and the radiographic measurements were compared with actual values. "nResults: The vertical magnification factor in tomograms and panoramic radiographs was 1.79 (SD=0.17 and 1.69 (SD=0.23, respectively. The horizontal magnification of tomograms was 1.47 (SD=0.17. A significant correlation was found between the linear tomographic and actual values, regarding vertical dimensions (p<0.001, r=0.968 and width (p<0.001, r=0.813. The correlation was significant but lower in panoramic radiographs (p<0.001, r=0.795. Applying the magnification values suggested by the manufacturer, the mean difference of vertical measurements between the tomographic sections was 2.5 mm (SD=3.4 but 3.8 mm (SD=1.65 in panoramic radiographs. The mean of absolute difference in mandibular width between the tomographic sections and reality was 0.3mm (SD=1.13. In the linear tomograms, 4.3% of vertical and 56.5% of the width measurements were in the ±1mm error limit. Only 4.3% of the vertical measurements were within this range in the panthomographs. The linear regression equation between the actual values and those obtained by radiography in vertical dimensions showed that 87.5% of

  14. Accuracy and precision of patient positioning for pelvic MR-only radiation therapy using digitally reconstructed radiographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemppainen, R.; Vaara, T.; Joensuu, T.; Kiljunen, T.

    2018-03-01

    Background and Purpose. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has in recent years emerged as an imaging modality to drive precise contouring of targets and organs at risk in external beam radiation therapy. Moreover, recent advances in MRI enable treatment of cancer without computed tomography (CT) simulation. A commercially available MR-only solution, MRCAT, offers a single-modality approach that provides density information for dose calculation and generation of positioning reference images. We evaluated the accuracy of patient positioning based on MRCAT digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) by comparing to standard CT based workflow. Materials and Methods. Twenty consecutive prostate cancer patients being treated with external beam radiation therapy were included in the study. DRRs were generated for each patient based on the planning CT and MRCAT. The accuracy assessment was performed by manually registering the DRR images to planar kV setup images using bony landmarks. A Bayesian linear mixed effects model was used to separate systematic and random components (inter- and intra-observer variation) in the assessment. In addition, method agreement was assessed using a Bland-Altman analysis. Results. The systematic difference between MRCAT and CT based patient positioning, averaged over the study population, were found to be (mean [95% CI])  -0.49 [-0.85 to  -0.13] mm, 0.11 [-0.33 to  +0.57] mm and  -0.05 [-0.23 to  +0.36] mm in vertical, longitudinal and lateral directions, respectively. The increases in total random uncertainty were estimated to be below 0.5 mm for all directions, when using MR-only workflow instead of CT. Conclusions. The MRCAT pseudo-CT method provides clinically acceptable accuracy and precision for patient positioning for pelvic radiation therapy based on planar DRR images. Furthermore, due to the reduction of geometric uncertainty, compared to dual-modality workflow, the approach is likely to improve the total

  15. Thermal infrared panoramic imaging sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K.; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-05-01

    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset control, security including port security, perimeter security, video surveillance, border control, airport security, coastguard operations, search and rescue, intrusion detection, and many others. Automatic detection, location, and tracking of targets outside protected area ensures maximum protection and at the same time reduces the workload on personnel, increases reliability and confidence of target detection, and enables both man-in-the-loop and fully automated system operation. Thermal imaging provides the benefits of all-weather, 24-hour day/night operation with no downtime. In addition, thermal signatures of different target types facilitate better classification, beyond the limits set by camera's spatial resolution. The useful range of catadioptric panoramic cameras is affected by their limited resolution. In many existing systems the resolution is optics-limited. Reflectors customarily used in catadioptric imagers introduce aberrations that may become significant at large camera apertures, such as required in low-light and thermal imaging. Advantages of panoramic imagers with high image resolution include increased area coverage with fewer cameras, instantaneous full horizon detection, location and tracking of multiple targets simultaneously, extended range, and others. The Automatic Panoramic Thermal Integrated Sensor (APTIS), being jointly developed by Applied Science Innovative, Inc. (ASI) and the Armament Research, Development and Engineering Center (ARDEC) combines the strengths of improved, high-resolution panoramic optics with thermal imaging in the 8 - 14 micron spectral range, leveraged by intelligent video processing for automated detection, location, and tracking of moving targets. The work in progress supports the Future Combat Systems (FCS) and the

  16. Assessment of panoral radiograph quality in a dental treatment center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hana Abdul-Wahab

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The quality of orthopantogram (OPG images is primarily a function of patient positioning during image capture. The purpose of the investigation was to evaluate the quality of digital panoral radiographic images obtained by using the same imaging device in a large dental treatment center on the basis of the radiography technician operator securing the image. Materials and Methods: Three hundred OPGs radiographs taken on a Kodak 8000C Digital Panoramic and Cephalometric System device in a large dental treatment center comprised the sample. The most recent OPGs beginning at May 2010 through 2007 were selected for three radiography technicians until subgroups of 100 OPGs per technician were obtained. Each panoral was evaluated by two investigators for 21 OPG image errors. Results: Mean panoral total score was 14.71 and mean grade was 2.41 for the entire sample indicating a “good” quality. Significant differences were found among technicians for 3 of 21 panoral fault variables. The relative contribution to inferior OPG quality was greatest for the following positioning faults in rank order: Gazebo effect (11.3%, condyles pushed out (11.0%, unclear nasal structures (10.0%, airspace over U6s (9.5%, and condyles image top (9.0%. Conclusions: There were no significant differences among technicians for overall quality indicators (total score and grade. However, statistically significant differences among the three technicians were found for image error wide anterior teeth, Gazebo effect, and unclear nasal structures.

  17. Multispectral Panoramic Imaging System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — International Electronic Machines Corporation, a leader in the design of precision imaging systems, will develop an innovative multispectral, panoramic imaging...

  18. Diagnostic accuracy of the detection of bone change using panoramic TMJ projection. Comparative study with limited cone-beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araki, Kazuyuki; Okano, Tomohiro; Kataoka, Ryuta; Honda, Kazuya; Endo, Atsushi; Kaneko, Norikazu; Funahashi, Itsuo

    2008-01-01

    Panoramic temporoman joint (TMJ) projection is one of the alternative methods of conventional radiography, such as transcranial projection, for diagnosing temporomandibular joint disorder. There have been a few reports describing the diagnostic ability of this method. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of detecting bone change with panoramic TMJ projection. Fifty TMJs in 25 patients were examined. All TMJs were examined by panoramic TMJ projection (Hyper XF) and limited cone-beam CT (3D Accuitomo FPD; 3DX). Two observers evaluated the presence of bone change in the TMJ region using panoramic TMJ projection. One other observer evaluated the limited cone-beam CT for the presence and the pattern of bone changes in the TMJ region as the gold standard. Panoramic TMJ findings were evaluated with regard to sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy. Sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of the panoramic TMJ projection were 0.86, 0.76, and 0.82, respectively. These results and those of previous reports on other radiographic methods for TMJ suggest that panoramic TMJ projection is a useful method of screening for bone change due to TMJ disorder. (author)

  19. Visibility of the mandibular canal and the mental foramen in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Seon Jin; Choi, Eui Hwan; Kim, Jae Duk

    2001-01-01

    To determine the head position that the superior border of the mandibular canal as well as mental foramen can be more clearly visualized in panoramic radiography. Ten dry mandibles were radiography bilaterally using PM 2002 CC panoramic machine. A 20 mm thick aluminium filter was added to the slit collimator to obtain radiographs with acceptable density. The specimens were tilted by 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 degrees downward with and without radiopaque markers. Radiopaque markers were inserted into the mandibular canals and the mental canals of each side of the specimens to serve as reference image when assessing the radiographs. The obtained results were analyzed statistically. Mandibular canals were significantly more clearly visible in the radiographs with 4 and 6 degree downward position on both sides (P<0.05). Mental foramen were significantly more clearly visible in the was not significant difference between right and left sides. Panoramic radiographs with 4 to 6 degree downward tilting could be valuable in locating the mandibular canal as well as the mental foramen

  20. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matos, Luiz Felipe; Giordano, Marcos; Cardoso, Gustavo Novaes; Farias, Rafael Baptista; E Albuquerque, Rodrigo Pires

    2015-01-01

    To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP) view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film. An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements. From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements. Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  1. Comparative radiographic analysis on the anatomical axis in knee osteoarthritis cases: inter and intraobserver evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe Matos

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To make a comparative inter and intraobserver analysis on measurements of the anatomical axis between panoramic radiographs of the lower limbs in anteroposterior (AP view with bipedal weight-bearing, on short film.METHODS: An accuracy study comparing radiographic measurements on 47 knees of patients attending the knee surgery outpatient clinic due to osteoarthritis. The radiographic evaluation used was as standardized for the total knee arthroplasty program, including panoramic AP views of the lower limbs and short radiographs of the knees in AP and lateral views, all with bipedal weight-bearing. Following this, the anatomical axis of the lower limbs or the femorotibial angle was measured by five independent examiners on the panoramic and short AP radiographs; three of the examiners were considered to be more experienced and two, less experienced. All the measurements were made again by the same examiners after an interval of not less than 15 days. The statistical analysis was performed using the intraclass correlation coefficient, in order to evaluate the inter and intraobserver concordance of the anatomical axis measurements.RESULTS: From the statistical analysis, it was observed that there was strongly significant concordance between the anatomical axis measurements on the panoramic and short radiographs, for all the five examiners and for both measurements.CONCLUSIONS: Under the conditions studied, short radiographs were equivalent to panoramic radiographs for evaluating the anatomical axis of the lower limbs in patients with advanced osteoarthritis. The measurements used also showed high rates of inter and intraobserver concordance and reproducibility.

  2. The radiographic localization of unerupted maxillary incisors and supernumeraries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Lee, Chang Yul; You, Choong Hyun

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the use of the vertical tube shift from a panoramic film and a periapical film to localize unerupted maxillary incisors and supernumeraries. The total of 103 displaced maxillary incisors or embedded supernumeraries were examined in this study. The vertical tube shift technique with panoramic and periapical radiography by normal projection taken and compared to localize the position of the embedded maxillary incisors or supernumeraries by a radiologist and 5 general dentists. The gold standard used for the radiographic comparisons was the true position of the embedded tooth as confirmed by horizontal tube shift technique using three periapical radiographs. The general dentist examiners were instructed on the use of the modified acronym 'SLDOBU' by the radiologist as it pertains to panoramic radiographs as the principle of vertical tube shift. All of the embedded maxillary incisors and supernumeraries were successfully located using the vertical tube shift from a panoramic and a maxillary anterior periapical radiograph by the radiologist and 5 general dentists. The use of a panoramic film with a periapical film combination for a vertical tube shift can be useful to localize unerupted maxillary incisors and supernumeraries.

  3. Small animals bone density and morphometry analysis with a dual energy X-rays absorptiometry bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boudousq, V.; Bordy, T.; Gonon, G.; Dinten, J.M.

    2004-01-01

    LEXXOS (DMS, Montpellier, France) is the first axial and total body cone beam bone densitometer using a 2D digital radiographic detector. In previous papers, technical principles and patients' Bone Mineral Density (BMD) measurement performances were presented. Bone densitometers are also used on small animals for drug development. In this presentation, we show how LEXXOS can be adapted for small animals' examinations and evaluate its performances. At first, in order to take advantage of the whole area of the 20 x 20 cm 2 digital radiographic detector, it has been made profit of X-Rays magnification by adapting the geometrical configuration. Secondly, as small animals present low BMD, a specific dual energy calibration has been defined. This adapted system has then been evaluated on two sets of mice: six reference mice and six ovariectomized mice. Each month, these two populations have been examined and the averaged total body BMD has been measured. This evaluation shows that the right order of BMD magnitude is obtained and, as expected, BMD increases on two sets until a period around puberty and the ovariectomized set presents a significant decrease after. Moreover, the bone image obtained by dual energy processing on LEXXOS presents a radiographic image quality providing useful complementary information on bone morphometry and architecture. This study shows that LEXXOS cone beam bone densitometer provides simultaneously useful quantitative and qualitative information for analysis of bone evolution on small animals. In the future, same system architecture and processing methodology can be used with higher resolution detectors in order to refine information on bone architecture. (authors)

  4. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulze, Ralf K.W.; Grimm, Stefanie; Schulze, Dirk; Voss, Kai; Keller, Hans-Peter; Wedel, Matthias

    2011-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding ±2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  5. Diagnostic yield of ink-jet prints from digital radiographs for the assessment of approximal carious lesions: ROC-analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulze, Ralf K.W., E-mail: rschulze@mail.uni-mainz.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Grimm, Stefanie, E-mail: StefanieGrimm@gmx.de [Poliklinik fuer Zahnaerztliche Chirurgie, University Medical Center of the Johannes Gutenberg-University, Augustusplatz 2, D-55131 Mainz (Germany); Schulze, Dirk, E-mail: dirk.schulze@uniklinik-freiburg.de [Klinik fuer Mund,- Kiefer- und Gesichtschirurgie, Sektion Roentgen, Universitaetsklinikum Freiburg, Hugstetterstr. 55, D-79106 Freiburg (Germany); Voss, Kai, E-mail: zahnarzt@drvoss.eu [Zahnaerztekammer Schleswig-Holstein, Vorstand fuer Praxisfuehrung, Westring 496, D- 24106 Kiel (Germany); Keller, Hans-Peter, E-mail: hans-peter.keller@din.de [NA Dental (NADENT) im DIN, Alexander-Wellendorff-Str. 2, D-75172 Pforzheim (Germany); Wedel, Matthias, E-mail: matthias.wedel@siemens.com [Siemens AG, Medical Solutions, Postfach 32 60, D-91050 Erlangen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Aims: To investigate the diagnostic quality of different quality, individually calibrated ink-jet printers for the very challenging dental radiographic task of approximal carious lesion detection. Materials and methods: A test-pattern evaluating resolution, contrast and homogeneity of the ink-jet prints was developed. 50 standardized dental radiographs each showing two neighbouring teeth in natural contact were printed on glossy paper with calibrated, randomly selected ink-jet printers (Canon S520 and iP4500, Epson Stylus Photo R2400). Printing size equalled the viewing size on a 17'' cathode-ray-tube monitor daily quality-tested according to German regulations. The true caries status was determined from serial sectioning and microscopic evaluation. 16 experienced observers evaluated the radiographs on a five-point confidence scale on all prints plus the viewing monitor with respect to the visibility of a carious lesion. A non-parametric Receiver-Operating Characteristics (ROC-) analysis was performed explicitly designed for the evaluation of readings stemming from identical samples but different modality. Significant differences are expressed by a critical ratio z exceeding {+-}2. Diagnostic accuracy was determined by the area (Az) underneath the ROC-curves. Results: Average Az-values ranged between 0.62 (S520 and R2400) and 0.64 (monitor, iP4500), with no significant difference between modalities (P = 0.172). Neither significant (range mean z: -0.40 (S520) and -0.11 (iP4500)) nor clinically relevant differences were found between printers and viewing monitor. Conclusions: Our results for a challenging task in dental radiography indicate that calibrated, off-the-shelf ink-jet printers are able to reproduce (dental) radiographs at quality levels sufficient for radiographic diagnosis in a typical dental working environment.

  6. Interexaminer agreement in caries radiographic diagnosis by conventional and digital radiographs Avaliação interexaminadores no diagnóstico de cáries por meio de radiografias convencionais e digitais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Sílvia Penteado Setti da Rocha

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to compare two digital storage phosphor systems and conventional film, as well as verify the interexaminer agreement in radiographic diagnosis on occlusal and proximal cavities. Two digital systems and conventional radiographic film were used to evaluate 144 tooth surfaces with and without cavities; the radiographs were analyzed and scored in a scale of 4 points. Thirteen undergraduates and an oral radiologist participated as examiners. A light microscopy analysis was accomplished in order to validate the research. The results showed that there was no significant difference between the radiographic systems, however all of them had significant differences when compared to light microscopy, except for the Digora system on the proximal surface when the radiologist was the examiner. In the interexaminer evaluation, a moderate agreement level was obtained, and a fair to moderate level was obtained between the students and the oral radiologist. Regarding the validation (sensitivity, specificity, positive predict and negative predict the values were similar between students and the oral radiologist, except for the sensitivity value on the occlusal surface. The students had the highest number of false-positive results and the oral radiologist the highest number of false-negative results.O objetivo desta pesquisa foi comparar dois sistemas digitais de armazenamento de fósforo e filme convencional, assim como verificar a concordância interexaminadores em diagnóstico radiográfico de cáries oclusais e proximais. Dois sistemas radiográficos digitais e filme convencional foram usados para avaliar 144 superfícies dentais com e sem cavitação; as radiografias foram analisadas e classificadas em uma escala de 4 pontos. Participaram como examinadores 13 alunos de graduação e um radiologista odontológico. Para validar esta pesquisa foram realizadas análises em microscopia ótica. Os resultados mostraram não haver

  7. Dentists' use of digital radiographic techniques: Part I - intraoral X-ray: a questionnaire study of Swedish dentists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svenson, Björn; Ståhlnacke, Katri; Karlsson, Reet; Fält, Anna

    2018-03-01

    The present study aims to gain knowledge about the dentist's use and choice of digital intraoral imaging methods. A questionnaire sent to 2481 dentists within the Swedish Dental Society contained questions about the type of X-ray technique used, problems experienced with digital radiography, and reasons for choosing digital technology, and about indications, clinic size and type of service. Response rate was 53%. Ninety-eight percent of the dentists had made the transition to digital radiography; only 2% used film technique, and solid-state detector (SSD) was the most used digital technique. More years in service decreases the likelihood of applying individual indications for performing a full mouth examination. More retakes were done with SSDs compared to storage phosphor plates. Reasons for choosing digital techniques were that work was easier and communication with the patients improved. However, dentists also experienced problems with digital techniques, such as exposure and projection errors and inadequate image quality. The Swedish Radiation Safety Authority states that all radiological examinations should be justified, something not always followed. This study showed that 98% of the respondents, Swedish dentists within the Swedish Dental Society, used digital techniques, and the most used was the solid-state technique.

  8. Parotid-Absorbed Doses: A Comparison Between Spiral Tomography and Panoramic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsan Hekmatian

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Jaws spiral tomography and panoramic radiography have wide applications in dentistry, and the parotid gland is one of the most sensitive organs of the head and neck. Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the parotid-absorbed dose in spiral tomography and panoramic radiographs using a thermoluminescent dosimeter. Materials and Methods A radiation analog dosimetry phantom was placed in a Cranex Tome radiograph device, and a parotid absorbed dose was measured in both techniques. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were placed bilaterally in the parotid region (on the tube side and the opposite side. Spiral tomography dosimetry was done for the upper and lower jaws in the anterior and posterior regions. Each region contained four slices of 2 mm and four slices of 4 mm in thickness. The results were analyzed by a Wilcoxon test. Results For the tube side parotid, the average absorbed doses in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.70/1.40 and 1.65/1.60 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.65/1.70 and 1.75/1.57 mGy, respectively. For the opposite parotid, the average absorbed dose in spiral tomography of the anterior and posterior parts of the maxilla and mandible, with the 2 mm slice thickness, were 1.40/1.30 and 1.40/1.67 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed doses with the 4mm slices were 1.50/1.66 and 1.40/1.50 mGy, respectively. The average absorbed dose of the panoramic radiograph was 1.40 mGy. Conclusions There was no statistically significant difference in the parotid absorbed dose between spiral tomography and a panoramic radiograph (P value = 0.18. The overall results of this study were similar to other studies.

  9. A comparison of the diagnostic utility of two image receptors for panoramic radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, F A; Hirschmann, P N; Scaife, B; Sheard, L; Mackenzie, A

    2000-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic utility of two screen-film systems for panoramic radiography, one based on green and the other on ultraviolet light. Two hundred consecutive adult patients with teeth in all four quadrants requiring panoramic radiographs were randomly allocated to one of two groups. One group was imaged with OGA L (CEA AB, Strängnäs, Sweden) film using Lanex Regular (Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY, USA) screens (the Lanex group). The other group was imaged using Ultra-Vision (Dupont UK Limited, Hertfordshire, UK) film and screens (the Ultra-vision group). Two different panoramic machines were used, a Planmeca (Planmeca OY, Helsinki, Finland) and Cranex (Soredex Orion Corporation, Helsinki, Finland). The radiographs were evaluated by two radiographers for overall quality and any faults recorded. Two dental radiologists evaluated the crestal and apical areas of every standing tooth on a 4-point scale. The likelihood of getting a high-quality image with the different films was modelled using logistic regression, adjusting for the radiologist and the area of the tooth being examined. Inter- and intra-examiner agreement was calculated using Kappa and weighted Kappa where appropriate. The radiographers recorded no significant differences in positioning errors between the two groups of film. However, the films produced on the Cranex were less likely to be recorded as excellent. The radiologists' interexaminer agreement for the lower molars and upper incisors was only moderate at best (kappa = 0.56). No significant differences were found between the likelihood of the two types of film providing a high-quality image. Crestal areas were more likely to be scored well than apical areas. There were no differences in ease of discerning apical and crestal areas between the two screen-film systems. There was only poor to moderate agreement between the two radiologists. Ultra-Vision can be recommended as an alternative to existing rare earth systems for panoramic

  10. Panoramic three-dimensional CT imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamata, Akitoshi; Fujishita, Masami

    1998-01-01

    Panoramic radiography is a unique projection technique for producing a single image of both maxillary and mandibular arches and many other anatomical structures. To obtain a similar panoramic image without panoramic radiography system, a modified three-dimensional (3D) CT imaging technique was designed. A set of CT slice image data extending from the chin to the orbit was used for 3D reconstruction. The CT machine used in this study was the X-Vision (TOSHIBA, Japan). The helical scan technique was used. The slice thickness of reconstructed image was one or 1.5 mm. The occlusal plane or Frankfort horizontal (FH) plane was used as the reference line. The resultant slice image data was stored on a magnetic optical disk and then used to create panoramic 3D-CT images on a Macintosh computer systems (Power Macintosh 8600/250, Apple Computer Inc., USA). To create the panoramic 3D-CT image, the following procedure was designed: Design a curved panoramic 3D-CT imaging layer using the imaging layer and the movement of the x-ray beam in panoramic radiography system as a template; Cut this imaging layer from each slice image, then the trimmed image was transformed to a rectangular layer using the ''still image warping'' special effect in the Elastic Reality special effects system (Elastic Reality Inc., USA); Create panoramic 3D-CT image using the Voxel View (Vital Images Inc., USA) rendering system and volume rendering technique. Although the image quality was primitive, a panoramic view of maxillofacial region was obtained by this technique. (author)

  11. Radiographic enhancement and analysis system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlosser, M.S.

    1981-01-01

    Radiographic image enhancement and analysis techniques are discussed as they apply to nondestructive inspection. A system is described which has been developed to enhance and quantitatively evaluate radiographic images using digital computer techniques. Some examples of typical applications are also presented as an introduction to this new inspection technique. (author)

  12. Efficacy of panoramic radiography as a screening procedure in dental examination compared with clinical evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of panoramic radiography by comparing the results of clinical examination with radiographic findings. We studied 190 patients (20 men and 170 women; mean age, 40 years; range, 22 to 68 years) who visited the health promotion center of Korea Medical Science Institute and were examined both clinically and by panoramic radiography. We compared results from both examinations. Treatment options by clinical examination were described as 'no treatment indicated', 'treatment of dental caries', 'removal of calculus', 'treatment of periodontal disease'. 'prothodonic treatment' and 'extraction of the third molar'. Findings taken from the panoramic radiography were: dental caries, peroapical lesion, alveolar bone loss, calculus deposition, retained root, impaction of the third molar, disease of maxillary sinus, bony change of mandibular condyle, etc. The prevalence of panoramic findings were: 37.9% of dental caries, 17.4% of periapical lesions, 44.7% of alveolar bone losses, 62.6% of calculi deposition. 7.9% of retained roots, 26.8% of third molar impactions, 6.3% of disease of maxillary sinus, 2.1% of bony changes of mandibular condlye and 35.8% of miscellaneous lesions. Abnormal conditions revealed by panoramic radiography which had not been discovered on clinical examination were: 24.2% of the patients had dental caries, 17.4% had periapical lesions, 7.4% had calculi deposition, 5.3% had retained roots, 15.3% had third molar impactions. The opposite cases were: 5.2% had dental caries, 12.6% had calculi deposition, and 9.5% had third molar impactions. The use of panoramic radiography as a supplement to the clinical examination might be a valuable screening technique

  13. Efficacy of panoramic radiography as a screening procedure in dental examination compared with clinical evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Seo Young; An, Chang Hyeon; Choi, Karp Shik [Kyungpook National Univ. School of Dentistry, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of panoramic radiography by comparing the results of clinical examination with radiographic findings. We studied 190 patients (20 men and 170 women; mean age, 40 years; range, 22 to 68 years) who visited the health promotion center of Korea Medical Science Institute and were examined both clinically and by panoramic radiography. We compared results from both examinations. Treatment options by clinical examination were described as 'no treatment indicated', 'treatment of dental caries', 'removal of calculus', 'treatment of periodontal disease'. 'prothodonic treatment' and 'extraction of the third molar'. Findings taken from the panoramic radiography were: dental caries, peroapical lesion, alveolar bone loss, calculus deposition, retained root, impaction of the third molar, disease of maxillary sinus, bony change of mandibular condyle, etc. The prevalence of panoramic findings were: 37.9% of dental caries, 17.4% of periapical lesions, 44.7% of alveolar bone losses, 62.6% of calculi deposition. 7.9% of retained roots, 26.8% of third molar impactions, 6.3% of disease of maxillary sinus, 2.1% of bony changes of mandibular condlye and 35.8% of miscellaneous lesions. Abnormal conditions revealed by panoramic radiography which had not been discovered on clinical examination were: 24.2% of the patients had dental caries, 17.4% had periapical lesions, 7.4% had calculi deposition, 5.3% had retained roots, 15.3% had third molar impactions. The opposite cases were: 5.2% had dental caries, 12.6% had calculi deposition, and 9.5% had third molar impactions. The use of panoramic radiography as a supplement to the clinical examination might be a valuable screening technique.

  14. Automatic Thermal Infrared Panoramic Imaging Sensor

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gutin, Mikhail; Tsui, Eddy K; Gutin, Olga; Wang, Xu-Ming; Gutin, Alexey

    2006-01-01

    Panoramic cameras offer true real-time, 360-degree coverage of the surrounding area, valuable for a variety of defense and security applications, including force protection, asset protection, asset...

  15. Radiographic evaluations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    The author describes how to: perform a systematic evaluation of a chest radiograph; state the classic radiographic description of hyaline membrane disease; list the conditions that cause hyperaeration and describe the radiologic feature of hyperaeration; describe the radiograph of a patient with a congenital diaphragmatic hernia; identify optimum placement of an endotracheal tube, gastric feeding tube, and umbilical artery catheter on a radiograph; differentiate between pulmonary interstitial air and hyaline membrane disease; select radiographic features that would indicate the presence of a tension pneumothorax; describe a lateral decubitus projection and state the type of problem it is most often used to identify; explain the procedure used in obtaining a lateral neck radiograph and list two problems that may require this view; and describe the radiograph of a patient with cystic fibrosis

  16. Radiographic localization of unerupted mandibular anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, S G

    2000-10-01

    The parallax method and the use of 2 radiographs taken at right angles to each other are the 2 methods generally used to accurately localize teeth. For the parallax method, the combination of a rotational panoramic radiograph with an occlusal radiograph is recommended. This combination involves a vertical x-ray tube shift. Three case reports are presented that illustrate: (1) how this combination can accurately localize unerupted mandibular anterior teeth, (2) how a deceptive appearance of the labiolingual position of the unerupted tooth can be produced in an occlusal radiograph, (3) how increasing the vertical angle of the tube for the occlusal radiograph makes the tube shift easier to discern, (4) why occlusal radiographs are preferable to periapical radiographs for tube shifts, and (5) how localization can also be carried out with 2 radiographs at right angles to each other, one of which is an occlusal radiograph taken with the x-ray tube directed along the long axis of the reference tooth.

  17. Radiographic findings of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The aim of this study is to assess radiographic findings of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (BRONJ) and to evaluate the efficiency of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) and panoramic radiography (PR) by comparing with each other. Materials and Methods: The data of 46 patients treated ...

  18. The usefulness of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler for dental implant planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Hee; Lee, Seong Geun; Kim, Sung Min; Oh, Kyong Seung; Huh, Jin Do; Joh, Young Duk

    2000-01-01

    If damage to the neurovascular bundle of the mandibular canal during dental implant surgery of the mandible is to be prevented, accurate measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and the mandibular canal, as seen on panoramic radiographs, is important. The purpose of this study was to compare the accuracy of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler with that of computed tomography for the measurement of the distance between the alveolar crest and superior border of the mandibular canal and to evaluate the usefulness of panoramic radiography using a lead ruler. For control study, panoramic radiography of the dry mandible was undertaken using a lead ruler, and computed tomography was added. The distances between the alveolar crest and the superior border of the mandibular canal and between the alveolar crest and the lowest border of the body of the mandible were measured at the level of the 2nd premolar to the 3rd molar. These measurements were compared with actual measurements of the dry mandible in the same areas. The cases of 87 patients (49 men, 38 women; age range, 20-84 (mean, 42) years) who had undergone panoramic radiography using a lead ruler were reviewed. They were categorized according to sex, the presence of teeth, and whether under or over 50 years of age. All measurements were compared and analyzed using the Student t-test. Measured values obtained from a panoramic radiograph using a lead ruler (magnification:100.32% ± 5.92) and from a computed tomograph (magnification:100.22 ± 5.55) deviated less from actual measurements on the dry mandible (p greater than 0.05). The distance from the 2nd premolar to the 3rd molar was greater in male adults (19.62 mm ± 3.95) than in female (17.54 mm ± 4.04) (p less than 0.05), except the 3rd molar. In addition, the distance was greater in dentulous patients (18.81 mm ± 3.33) than in edentulous (16.23 mm ± 1.75) (p less than 0.05), except the 3rd molar. There was, however, no significant difference

  19. Radiographic evaluation of dentigerous cyst with cone beam CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yong Chan; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to accurately analyze the radiographic characteristics of dentigerous cyst (DC) with multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty eight radiographically and histopathologically proven cases of DCs were analyzed with panoramic radiograph and CBCT, retrospectively. The radiographic CT pattern, symmetry of radiolucency around the unerupted tooth crown, ratio of long length to short length, degree of cortical bone alternation, effects on adjacent tooth, and cyst size were analyzed. Relative frequencies of these radiographic features were evaluated. In order to compare the CBCT features of DC with those of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), 9 cases of OKCs were analyzed with the same method radiographically. DCs consisted of thirty unilocular cases (79.0%), seven lobulated cases (18.4%) and one multilocular case (2.6%). Eight were asymmetric (21.0%) and thirty were symmetric (79.0%). Maxillary DC showed rounder shape than mandibular DC (L/S ratio; maxilla 1.32, mandible 1.67). Alternations of lingual cortical bone (14 cases, 48.2%) were more frequent than those of buccal side (7 cases, 24.1%). CBCT images of DC showed definite root resorption and bucco-lingual tooth displacement. These findings were hardly observed on panoramic radiographs of DCs. Comparison of CBCT features of DC with those of OKC showed several different features. CBCT images of DC showed various characteristic radiographic features. Therefore, CBCT can be helpful for the diagnosis of DC radiographically.

  20. Radiographic evaluation of dentigerous cyst with cone beam CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yong Chan; Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung Do [School of Dentisity, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-09-15

    The purpose of this study was to accurately analyze the radiographic characteristics of dentigerous cyst (DC) with multiplanar images of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Thirty eight radiographically and histopathologically proven cases of DCs were analyzed with panoramic radiograph and CBCT, retrospectively. The radiographic CT pattern, symmetry of radiolucency around the unerupted tooth crown, ratio of long length to short length, degree of cortical bone alternation, effects on adjacent tooth, and cyst size were analyzed. Relative frequencies of these radiographic features were evaluated. In order to compare the CBCT features of DC with those of odontogenic keratocyst (OKC), 9 cases of OKCs were analyzed with the same method radiographically. DCs consisted of thirty unilocular cases (79.0%), seven lobulated cases (18.4%) and one multilocular case (2.6%). Eight were asymmetric (21.0%) and thirty were symmetric (79.0%). Maxillary DC showed rounder shape than mandibular DC (L/S ratio; maxilla 1.32, mandible 1.67). Alternations of lingual cortical bone (14 cases, 48.2%) were more frequent than those of buccal side (7 cases, 24.1%). CBCT images of DC showed definite root resorption and bucco-lingual tooth displacement. These findings were hardly observed on panoramic radiographs of DCs. Comparison of CBCT features of DC with those of OKC showed several different features. CBCT images of DC showed various characteristic radiographic features. Therefore, CBCT can be helpful for the diagnosis of DC radiographically.

  1. Chesneys' radiographic imaging. 5. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.; Price, T.

    1989-01-01

    This new edition of Chesney and Chesney: Radiographic Imaging has been completely written by two new authors. The book reflects the change in emphasis in radiology from photographic processes towards electronic imaging methods. There is new material on image intensifiers and television imaging, digital imaging and digital subtractions. Analyses of the various characteristics of, and defects in, images on radiographs, xeroradiographs and the television screen are included. The methods, equipment and materials used to record the cathode ray tube image are described and there is new material on the principles of alternative diagnostic imaging techniques such as ultrasound, computed tomography and radionuclide imaging which provide cathode ray tube images. The book is primarily for student radiographers studying for the Diploma of the College of Radiographers, but radiographers studying for postdiplomate qualifications such as the Higher Diploma (HDCR) will also find the book helpful. (author)

  2. An in vitro radiographic analysis of the density of dental luting cements as measured by CCD-based digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Jevremovic, Danimir; Jovanovic, Svetlana; Obradovic-Djuricic, Kosovka

    2012-05-01

    According to the ISO, the radiopacity of luting cements should be equal to or greater than that of aluminum. The aim of this in vitro study was to determine the radiopacity of 13 commercially available dental luting cements and compare them with human enamel and dentin. Five classes of luting cements were evaluated: zinc phosphate (Cegal N and Harvard Zinc Phosphate), zinc polycarboxylate (Harvard Polycarboxylate and Hoffmann's Carboxylate), glass ionomers (Ketac Cem Easymix, Ketac Cem Radiopaque, and Fuji I), resin-modified glass ionomer (Rely X Luting), and resin cements (Multilink Automix, Variolink II, Speed CEM, Rely X Unicem Automix, and three shades of Variolink Veneer). Tooth slices served as controls. Five specimens of each material measuring 8 mm in diameter and 1 mm thick were prepared and radiographed alongside tooth slices and an aluminum stepwedge using a Trophy RVG sensor. The radiopacity values were expressed in mm Al and analyzed by the ANOVA and Tukey tests (P cements examined except Variolink Veneer had significantly higher radiopacities than that of dentin. Rely X Unicem Automix, glass ionomer, and resin-modified glass-ionomer cements demonstrated radiopacities that were not significantly different with respect to enamel. Zinc phosphate, zinc polycarboxylate, and three of the resin cements presented radiopacity values that were significantly greater than that of enamel. Almost all the investigated materials presented an acceptable radiopacity. Radiopacity of dental cements seems to depend more on the presence of elements with high atomic numbers than on the type of the material.

  3. The comparison of mandibular radiomorphometric indices in panoramic radiography between patients with chronic periodontitis and healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeintaghavi, Amir; Hosseinizarch, Hossein; Tabassi, Sara Mohammadzadeh

    2014-07-01

    Osteoporosis and periodontitis are two separate diseases with different origins and manifestations. It is believed that these diseases linked together, because they both lead to bone damage, some risk factors are similar, they both have the highest prevalence in middle-aged and older women. Some studies showed that the use of panoramic radiography and special indices could be reliable tools for osteoporosis screening. This study was performed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and jaw osteoporotic indices. Eighty-two patients with chronic periodontitis and 80 healthy individuals were selected, they had been referred to a private oral and maxillofacial radiology clinic to take a panoramic radiograph. Then panoramic indicators; including the mandibular cortical index (MCI), mental index (MI), and panoramic mandible index (PMI) in both groups were measured, recorded and analyzed. The mean age of investigated individuals was 39/8 ± 9/33. 58.6% of participants were females and 41.4% were males. MI and PMI levels in the periodontal group were more than the periodontally healthy group, but the differences between the two groups was not statistically significant (p = 0.808 and p = 0.102 respectively). The MCI level was significantly different between two groups (p = 0.028). The results of this study showed that there is significant relationship between MCI in panoramic radiography and chronic periodontitis. It is suggested to perform more studies to confrm if this index could be used for screening and indicating of bone status in high risk individuals. This study did not show a strong evidence of a relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis. Since panoramic radiographs are routinely used for screening in dental practice, any association between radiomorphometric indices of mandible in periodontitis patients might be useful in prediction of osteoporosis in patients referring to dental clinics.

  4. Radiographic testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuster, J.

    1978-01-01

    In view of great differencies in X-ray transmission it is more difficult to get optimum radiographs of plastics and especially of reinforced plastics than for example of metals. A procedure will be reported how to get with little effort optimum radiographs especially also in the range of long wave-length radiation corresponding 10 to 25 kV.P. (orig.) [de

  5. Conversion into numerical form of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappabianca, C.; Della Rocca, A.B.; Ferriani, S.

    1986-01-01

    Radiographic means are widely used for non destructive testing. However, human and technological factors strongly influence reliability of the results and further use of these technique. Image Processing can help to overtake those difficulties if radiographic films are previously digitized. This paper shows methods and equipments used in this field. The system EDI (Enea Digital. Imagery) operating in Casaccia Energy Research Centre is described

  6. Measure by image analysis of industrial radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1988-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system for non destructive testing intends to provide the expert with computer tool, to precisely quantify radiographic images. The author describes the main problems, from the image formation to its characterization. She also insists on the necessity to define a precise process in order to automatize the system. Some examples illustrate the efficiency of digital processing for radiographic images [fr

  7. Comparison of the image quality of digital radiography system and film screen system - Radiologist' rating of the visibility of normal anatomic - Structures in chest PA, Skull radiograph and K. U. B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Kounn Sik; Kim, Young Goo; Lee, Jong Beum; Kim, Kun Sang

    1987-01-01

    Digital image acquisition and display is widely used in computed tomography, ultrasonography, digital subtraction angiography, nuclear medicine and magnetic resonance image. But most of the radiological examinations performed in radiology department are made by using conventional system. The development of the digital radiography system is essential if totally digitized radiology department is desired. The advantages of digitizing the radiographic information are usually discussed in terms of PACS (picture archiving and communication system), furthermore there are many other advantages such as contrast modification, spatial filtering subtraction and superimposition of the images through the image processing by computer. Currently several approaches are under development or in clinical use, the most promising approach is the use of imaging plate composed of photostimulate phosphors such as barium fluorohalide crystal read with a He-Ne laser to produce digital radiographic images. Another promising approach is scan projection radiography. The authors performed the clinical study of comparing the image qualities of digital radiography system using scanning laser luminescence (FCR) and conventional film-screen system in chest PA, skull radiography and K. U. B. in terms of the visibility of the normal anatomic structure rating those (qualities) on a scale of 0 to 3 and obtained the following results. Normal contrast digital images are comparable to conventional film-screen images, but the images of high frequency enhancement is far superior to conventional film-screen especially in peripherally located structures such as skin, subcutaneous fat, musculoskeletal systems, nasal bone, inner and outer table of the skull including the diploic space, paranasal sinuses, nasopharynx and larynx, trachea and main bronchi, mediastinal structures, retrocardiac and subphrenic vascular markings. Another promising aspects of digital radiography system is its wide exposure latitude and

  8. Using Vertical Panoramic Images to Record a Historic Cemetery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommaselli, A. M. G.; Polidori, L.; Hasegawa, J. K.; Camargo, P. O.; Hirao, H.; Moraes, M. V. A.; Rissate, E. A., Jr.; Henrique, G. R.; Abreu, P. A. G.; Berveglieri, A.; Marcato, J., Jr.

    2013-07-01

    In 1919, during colonization of the West Region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the Ogassawara family built a cemetery and a school with donations received from the newspaper Osaka Mainichi Shimbum, in Osaka, Japan. The cemetery was closed by President Getúlio Vargas in 1942, during the Second World War. The architecture of the Japanese cemetery is a unique feature in Latin America. Even considering its historical and cultural relevance, there is a lack of geometric documentation about the location and features of the tombs and other buildings within the cemetery. As an alternative to provide detailed and fast georeferenced information about the area, it is proposed to use near vertical panoramic images taken with a digital camera with fisheye lens as the primary data followed by bundle adjustment and photogrammetric restitution. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study on the proposed technique with the assessment of the results with a strip of five panoramic images, taken over some graves in the Japanese cemetery. The results showed that a plant in a scale of 1 : 200 can be produced with photogrammetric restitution at a very low cost, when compared to topographic surveying or laser scanning. The paper will address the main advantages of this technique as well as its drawbacks, with quantitative analysis of the results achieved in this experiment.

  9. USING VERTICAL PANORAMIC IMAGES TO RECORD A HISTORIC CEMETERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. G. Tommaselli

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1919, during colonization of the West Region of São Paulo State, Brazil, the Ogassawara family built a cemetery and a school with donations received from the newspaper Osaka Mainichi Shimbum, in Osaka, Japan. The cemetery was closed by President Getúlio Vargas in 1942, during the Second World War. The architecture of the Japanese cemetery is a unique feature in Latin America. Even considering its historical and cultural relevance, there is a lack of geometric documentation about the location and features of the tombs and other buildings within the cemetery. As an alternative to provide detailed and fast georeferenced information about the area, it is proposed to use near vertical panoramic images taken with a digital camera with fisheye lens as the primary data followed by bundle adjustment and photogrammetric restitution. The aim of this paper is to present a feasibility study on the proposed technique with the assessment of the results with a strip of five panoramic images, taken over some graves in the Japanese cemetery. The results showed that a plant in a scale of 1 : 200 can be produced with photogrammetric restitution at a very low cost, when compared to topographic surveying or laser scanning. The paper will address the main advantages of this technique as well as its drawbacks, with quantitative analysis of the results achieved in this experiment.

  10. Digital radiographic evaluation of mandibular third molar for age estimation in young adults and adolescents of South Indian population using modified Demirjian's method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Rezwana Begum; Koganti, Ravichandra; Kalyan, Siva V; Tircouveluri, Saritha; Singh, Johar Rajvinder; Srinivasulu, Enganti

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, it has become increasingly important to determine the age of living people for a variety of reasons, including identifying criminal and legal responsibility and for many other social events such as birth certificate, marriage, beginning a job, joining the army and retirement. The aim of this study was to assess the developmental stages of mandibular third molar for estimation of dental age (DA) in different age groups and to evaluate the possible correlation between DA and chronological age (CA) in South Indian population. Digital orthopantomography of 330 subjects (165 males, 165 females) who fit the study and the criteria were obtained. Assessment of mandibular third molar development was performed using Demirjian et al., modified method and DA was assessed using tooth specific stages. The present study showed a significant correlation between DA and CA in both males and females. Third molar development commenced around 9 years and root completion takes place around 18.9 years in males and in females 9 years and 18.6 years respectively. Demirjian modified method underestimated the mean age of males by 0.8 years and females by 0.5 years and also showed that females mature earlier than males in selected population. Digital radiographic assessment of mandibular third molar development can be used to generate mean DA using Demirjian modified method and also the estimated age range for an individual of unknown CA. Since the Demirjian method is based on French-Canadian population, to enhance the accuracy of forensic age estimates based on third molar development, the use of population-specific standards is recommended.

  11. Intraosseous Benign Lesions of the Jaws: A Radiographic Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javadian Langaroodi, Adineh; Lari, Sima Sadat; Shokri, Abbas; Hoseini Zarch, Seyed Hossein; Jamshidi, Shokofeh; Akbari, Peyman

    2014-01-01

    Benign maxillo-mandibular tumors and cysts, which are relatively common findings on radiographs, namely the ubiquitous panoramic view, have to be dealt with by dentists on a daily basis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the panoramic radiographic findings pertaining to benign and tumoral lesions in the maxilla and mandible. Applying a case series method, panoramic images of 61 patients with cysts, benign tumors and tumor-like lesions in the jaws who were referred to Hamedan dental school between 2009 and 2011 were evaluated by two radiologists. They were both blind to histopathological results as well as the objectives of our study. Lesions were assessed based on their location, periphery, internal structure and impaction on the surrounding structures. Then the obtained data were analyzed using descriptive tables. Cysts were mostly more common in men despite the equal propensity of both genders to benign tumors. In contrast, women showed a higher frequency of tumor-like lesions. The most common site of involvement was the posterior mandible, with peri-apical tooth lesions as the most prevalent dental association. Radiographically, what we most encountered was unilocular radiolucency pertaining to cysts and benign tumors; nevertheless, tumor-like lesions tended to present with a well-defined radiopacity. Despite its known shortcomings, like every other diagnostic tool, panoramic radiography can contribute to the early detection of maxillary/mandibular lesions that in turn enable the dentist to devise an appropriate treatment plan

  12. Radiographic evaluation of the course and visibility of the mandibular canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Yun Hoa; Cho, Bong Hae

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the course of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiography and the visibility of this canal on both panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). The study consisted of panoramic radiographs and CBCT images from 262 patients. The course of the mandibular canal, as seen in panoramic radiographs, was classified into four types: linear, elliptical, spoon-shaped, and turning curves. The visibility of this canal from the first to the third molar region was evaluated by visually determining whether the mandibular canal was clearly visible, probably visible, or invisible. The visibility of the canal on panoramic radiographs was compared with that on CBCT images. Elliptical curves were most frequently observed along the course of the mandibular canal. The percentage of clearly visible mandibular canals was the highest among the spoon-shaped curves and the lowest among the linear curves. On panoramic radiographs, invisible mandibular canals were found in 22.7% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 11.8% in the second molar region, and 1.3% in the third molar region. On CBCT cross-sectional images, the mandibular canal was invisible in 8.2% of the examined sites in the first molar region, 5.7% in the second molar region, and 0.2% in the third molar region. The visibility of this canal was lower in the first molar region than in the third molar region. The mandibular canal presented better visibility on CBCT images than on panoramic radiographs.

  13. Film-screen digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwenker, R.P.; Eger, H.

    1985-01-01

    The excellent performance of the digital film-screen system as a receptor for projection radiographic data is discussed. An experimental system for obtaining high quality digital radiographic data by laser scanning radiographic films is described. This system is being used to evaluate the clinical utility of various digital image processing algorithms. Future plans include an investigation of quantitative analysis of projection radiographic data. Digital data obtained by film scanning can be used with digital image archiving and communications systems. (author)

  14. WE-G-204-08: Optimized Digital Radiographic Technique for Lost Surgical Devices/Needle Identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorman, A; Seabrook, G; Brakken, A; Dubois, M; Marn, C; Wilson, C; Jacobson, D; Liu, Y

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Small surgical devices and needles are used in many surgical procedures. Conventionally, an x-ray film is taken to identify missing devices/needles if post procedure count is incorrect. There is no data to indicate smallest surgical devices/needles that can be identified with digital radiography (DR), and its optimized acquisition technique. Methods: In this study, the DR equipment used is a Canon RadPro mobile with CXDI-70c wireless DR plate, and the same DR plate on a fixed Siemens Multix unit. Small surgical devices and needles tested include Rubber Shod, Bulldog, Fogarty Hydrogrip, and needles with sizes 3-0 C-T1 through 8-0 BV175-6. They are imaged with PMMA block phantoms with thickness of 2–8 inch, and an abdomen phantom. Various DR techniques are used. Images are reviewed on the portable x-ray acquisition display, a clinical workstation, and a diagnostic workstation. Results: all small surgical devices and needles are visible in portable DR images with 2–8 inch of PMMA. However, when they are imaged with the abdomen phantom plus 2 inch of PMMA, needles smaller than 9.3 mm length can not be visualized at the optimized technique of 81 kV and 16 mAs. There is no significant difference in visualization with various techniques, or between mobile and fixed radiography unit. However, there is noticeable difference in visualizing the smallest needle on a diagnostic reading workstation compared to the acquisition display on a portable x-ray unit. Conclusion: DR images should be reviewed on a diagnostic reading workstation. Using optimized DR techniques, the smallest needle that can be identified on all phantom studies is 9.3 mm. Sample DR images of various small surgical devices/needles available on diagnostic workstation for comparison may improve their identification. Further in vivo study is needed to confirm the optimized digital radiography technique for identification of lost small surgical devices and needles

  15. Dosimetric evaluation in panoramic and tele-radiography procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Georgge Gomes

    2004-01-01

    The present work had as an objective to evaluate the skin surface entrance dose in panoramic and tele radiography procedures in three clinics in Recife - Pernambuco - Brazil, and to contribute with data for the determination of reference levels for super cited extra oral procedures, for this purpose, operational conditions in 3 clinics were evaluated in Recife, aiming to evaluate the existence and integrity of the radioprotection equipment, manner and conditions of image processing; and radiographic equipment parameters such as the dimension of the irradiation filed, the total filtration, the exposure time and the potential applied to the X ray tube. For an estimation of the skin entrance dose of the patient, the phantom Randon Alderson and thermoluminescence dosemeters were used. From these values and the conversion factors determined by the Monte Carlo technique, with the phantom MAX it was possible to estimate the dose absorbed in the organ due to the tele radiography procedures. Regarding panoramic radiography the study showed that the more elevated doses occurred in the parotid gland region which is near rotational venters. In the case of tele radiography the highest dose value occurred in the regions corresponding to the temporal lobe of the brain, followed by linfonodes, ears and parotid glands. The doses absorbed in the eyes and the thyroid gland were, 0.037 mGy and 0.002 mGy in Clinic A and 0.062 mGy and 0.003 mGy in Clinic C, respectively. Regarding equipment test, inadequacy was found in the beam collimation in Clinic A and in the reproducibility of the X ray exposure in Clinic C. The total filtration in both clinics was inadequate.(author)

  16. Radiographic study of dental anomalies in brazilian patients with neuropsychomotor disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erick Nelo Pedreira

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to investigate radiographically the dental and maxillomandibular in patients with neuropsychomotor disorders and determine the role of panoramic radiographs for quantitative and qualitative analyses of dental alterations. A total of 322 panoramic radiographs from 190 males and 132 females aged 4 to 57 years were obtained from the files of the Center for Care to Patients with Special Needs (CAPE; Dental School, University of São Paulo and subdivided into syndromes, special needs, neurological, neuromuscular or cerebral disorders, and sequels of diseases. 32% of dental alterations were in tooth position, with 69% of this group associated with tooth rotation. The mandible accounted for 54.62% of alterations. The male gender (55.85% and the permanent dentition (78.7% were most affected. Panoramic radiographs were proved to be well suited for quantitative evaluation of dental anomalies of epidemiological nature. Panoramic radiographs are important diagnostic resources when applied to patients with special needs because of the difficulty to place intraoral films and held them correctly positioned during the radiographic technique.

  17. Radiographic positioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenberg, R.L.; Dennis, C.A.; May, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book concentrates on the routine radiographic examinations commonly performed. It details the wide variety of examinations possible and their place in initial learning and in the radiology department as references for those occasions when an unusual examination is requested. This book provides information ranging from basic terminology to skeletal positioning to special procedures. Positions are discussed and supplemented with a picture of a patient, the resulting radiograph, and a labeled diagram. Immobilization and proper shielding of the patient are also shown

  18. Radiographic Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, H.J; Yang, S.H. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    2002-07-01

    This report contains theory, procedure technique and interpretation of radiographic examination and written for whom preparing radiographic test Level II. To determine this baseline of technical competence in the examination, the individual must demonstrate a knowledge of radiography physics, radiation safety, technique development, radiation detection and measurement, facility design, and the characteristics of radiation-producing devices and their principles of operation. (author) 98 figs., 23 tabs.

  19. Studies on the Fuji computed radiography depended on the panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Satoshi; Shiota, Satoru; Takazawa, Kazuyoshi; Yoshida, Toru; Takagi, Yoshiko; Funamoto, Choichiro

    1986-01-01

    The Fuji Computed Radiography (FCR) developed recently involves the following procedures; photography in the same way as the hitherto radiography, printing auto imaging plate of photostimulable phospher, conversion to electric signals, and recording reproduced images by computerization. Highly valuable images for diagnoses in the medical field have already been obtained by the FCR. Then, we attempted to study FCR images panoramically radiographed for jaw lesions in the field of oral surgery. Method for study: As the samples to be studied, the selected subjects were cases of periodontal diseases, fracture of the jaw, odontogenic cyst and tumor, etc. In the present study the FCR images of panoramic radiography were compared with hitherto panoramic flat radiograms. Result of study: Although the images of the FCR vary depending on the methods of treatment, that is, on how gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement are, the method of purpose-fitting treatment provided diagnostically significant images for grasping bone lesions. The images obtained from this FCR permitted us to grasp more distinctly condition of alveolar bone resorption in periodontal diseases, running of minute fracture lines in fracture of the jaw, and characteristic images of bone resorption in odontogenic cysts and tumor, etc. Thus the images of the FCR are highly useful in diagnosing bone lesions, but granularity of the images themselves have still been questioned, and additionally the images vary depending on the methods of gradient processing and spatial frequency enhancement. Therefore further repeat studies are probably needed for these questions. (author)

  20. Quality metric for spherical panoramic video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakharchenko, Vladyslav; Choi, Kwang Pyo; Park, Jeong Hoon

    2016-09-01

    Virtual reality (VR)/ augmented reality (AR) applications allow users to view artificial content of a surrounding space simulating presence effect with a help of special applications or devices. Synthetic contents production is well known process form computer graphics domain and pipeline has been already fixed in the industry. However emerging multimedia formats for immersive entertainment applications such as free-viewpoint television (FTV) or spherical panoramic video require different approaches in content management and quality assessment. The international standardization on FTV has been promoted by MPEG. This paper is dedicated to discussion of immersive media distribution format and quality estimation process. Accuracy and reliability of the proposed objective quality estimation method had been verified with spherical panoramic images demonstrating good correlation results with subjective quality estimation held by a group of experts.

  1. Panoramic irradiator dose mapping with pin photodiodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Danilo Cardenuto; Napolitano, Celia Marina; Bueno, Carmen Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this work we study the possibility of using commercial silicon PIN photodiodes (Siemens, SFH 00206) for dose mapping in the Panoramic Irradiator facility at IPEN-CNEN/SP. The chosen photodiode, that is encased in 1.2 mm thickness polymer layer, displays promising dosimetric characteristics such as small size (sensitive area of 7.00 mm 2 ), high sensitivity and low dark current (≅ 300 pA, at 0 V) together with low-cost and wide availability. The Panoramic facility is an irradiator Type II with absorbed dose certificated by International Dose Assurance Service (IDAS) offered by the International Agency Energy Atomic (IAEA). The charge registered by the diode as a function of the absorbed dose was in excellent agreement with that one calibrated by IDAS. Besides this, the easy handling and fast response of the SFH00206 diode compared to Fricke chemical dosimeters encouraged us to perform dose mapping around the source. (author)

  2. Animal radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1993-01-01

    This chapter presents historical x rays of a wide variety of animals taken within 5 years of the discovery of x radiation. Such photos were used as tests or as illustrations for radiographic publications. Numerous historical photographs are included. 10 refs

  3. Panoramic dental radiography image intensification employing minification techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cushman, R.H.

    1981-01-01

    Panoramic dental x-ray machine wherein an x-ray source-camera assembly orbits a seated patient is described. A slot in the camera assembly collimates the x-rays which are continuously generated by the x-ray source, which x-rays are converted to light images of the patient's dental arch structure by only a single intensifying screen which remains stationary. This screen comprises about 1/40 the area of conventional intensifying screens and is made thicker for providing improved detection efficiency. A fiber optic minifying lens reduces the size of the image from the screen while proportionately increasing the light intensity of the image, thus making it possible to provide useable film images at reduced x-ray exposures due to non-linear film exposure versus optical density characteristics. The resultant minified, light-intensified image may now be recorded on 35 mm roll film, for example, as opposed to standard radiographic film of 5'' X 12'' size, or 12.70 cm X 30.48 cm

  4. Creating Panoramic Images for Bladder Fluorescence Endoscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Behrens

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The medical diagnostic analysis and therapy of urinary bladder cancer based on endoscopes are state of the art in urological medicine. Due to the limited field of view of endoscopes, the physician can examine only a small part of the whole operating field at once. This constraint makes visual control and navigation difficult, especially in hollow organs. A panoramic image, covering a larger field of view, can overcome this difficulty. Directly motivated by a physician we developed an image mosaicing algorithm for endoscopic bladder fluorescence video sequences. In this paper, we present an approach which is capable of stitching single endoscopic video images to a combined panoramic image. Based on SIFT features we estimate a 2-D homography for each image pair, using an affine model and an iterative model-fitting algorithm. We then apply the stitching process and perform a mutual linear interpolation. Our panoramic image results show a correct stitching and lead to a better overview and understanding of the operation field. 

  5. An investigation into dental digital radiography in dental practices in West Kent following the introduction of the 2006 NHS General Dental Services contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauthe, Peter W; Eaton, Kenneth A

    2011-04-01

    The primary aims of the study were to investigate the use of digital radiography within primary dental care practices in the West Kent Primary Care Trust (PCT) area and general dental practitioners' (GDPs) self-reported change in radiographic prescribing patterns following the introduction of the nGDS contract in 2006. Data were gathered via a piloted, self-completed questionnaire, and circulated to all GDPs listed on the National Health Service (NHS) Choices website as practising in the West Kent PCT area. There were three mailings and follow-up telephone calls. The resulting data were entered into a statistical software database and, where relevant, statistically tested, using the chi-square test and Pearson correlation coefficient. Of 223 GDPs, 168 (75%) responded. There were 163 usable questionnaires. The respondents represented 85% of the general dental practices in West Kent. Eighty (49%) respondents were using digital intra-oral radiography. Of those who used digital radiography, 44 (55%) reported that they used phosphor plate systems and 36 (45%) that they used direct digital sensors. Eighty-three (51%) had a panoramic machine in their practice, 46 of whom (55%) were using digital systems; of these, 32 (67%) were using a direct digital system. Seventy-one GDPs reported that they worked exclusively or mainly in private practice. Forty (56%) of these 'mainly private' GDPs reported that they used digital radiographic systems, whereas only 40 (44%) of the 89 'mainly NHS' GDPs reported using digital radio-graphic systems. On average, mainly private GDPs made the transition to a digital radiographic system six months before mainly NHS GDPs. Of those who provided NHS dentistry before and after April 2006, only 18 (14%) reported taking fewer radiographs and seven (6%) taking more. In February 2010, of the West Kent GDPs who responded to the questionnaire, just under 50% used digital radio graphy. Mainly private GDPs were more likely to use digital radiography than

  6. A radiographic analysis of implant component misfit.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sharkey, Seamus

    2011-07-01

    Radiographs are commonly used to assess the fit of implant components, but there is no clear agreement on the amount of misfit that can be detected by this method. This study investigated the effect of gap size and the relative angle at which a radiograph was taken on the detection of component misfit. Different types of implant connections (internal or external) and radiographic modalities (film or digital) were assessed.

  7. Accuracy of panoramic, panoramic with palpation and tube shift technique to localize maxillary impacted cuspid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GoodarziPour D.

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground and Aim: Impaction of maxillary cuspids is the most common after third molars with 1% to 3% prevalence. Localization of these impacted teeth may affect orthodontic or surgical treatment plan. Therefore, different techniques have been introduced to localize impacted canines. The present study was conducted to compare the accuracy of panoramic, tube shift and panoramic plus palpation in determination of the position of maxillary impacted canine."nMaterials and Methods: 47 patients (20 females, 27 males with the age of more than 12 years (mean age of 25.4 years old whom referred to Dental School, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, with at least one impacted maxillary canine included. An oral and maxillofacial radiologist localized impacted canine first by using panoramic then tube shift technique blindly. After that, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon localized the canine by panoramic and palpation of the area before surgery. Data obtained from radiologist and surgeon were compared with true location of canine after surgery. Statistical analysis was done using sensitivity and specificity."nResults: Among total 47 impacted maxillary canines, 11 cases (23.4% showed buccal impactions and 36 cases (76.6% palatal impactions. Sensitivity (ability of technique to localize palatal impaction of all of the techniques were same (100% but specificity (ability of technique to localize buccal impaction of tube shift (100% was more than two others (0%."nConclusion: The tube shift technique was the most accurate technique to localize maxillary unerupted canines compared to the others. Due to the ability of panoramic and panoramic with palpation in prediction of palatal canine impactions and failure of these techniques to predict buccal impactions, both methods are not suitable in localization of impacted maxillary canines and they must be used as adjunctive techniques.

  8. Radiation-absorbed doses and energy imparted from panoramic tomography, cephalometric radiography, and occlusal film radiography in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bankvall, G.; Hakansson, H.A.

    1982-01-01

    The absorbed doses and energy imparted from radiographic examinations of children, using panoramic tomography (PTG), cephalometric radiography (CPR), and maxillary frontal occlusal overview (FOO), were examined. The absorbed dose at various sites of the head were measured with TL dosimeters in a phantom and in patients. The energy imparted was calculated from measurements of areal exposure using a planparallel ionization chamber. The maximum absorbed doses for panoramic tomography were located around the lateral rotation center, for cephalometric radiography in the left (tube side) parotid region, and for frontal occlusal radiography in the nose. The absorbed doses in the eyes, thyroid gland, and skin are discussed and compared with previous reports and, for the most part, are found to be in agreement. The mean energy imparted from all three examination methods is 5 mJ with about 57 percent from panoramic, 33 percent from cephalometric, and 10 percent from frontal occlusal examinations. The energy imparted from cephalometric radiography can be reduced to about 10 percent with the use of an improved examination technique, leaving panoramic tomography responsible for contributing about 80 percent of the total energy imparted

  9. Characteristic findings on panoramic radiography and cone-beam CT to predict paresthesia after extraction of impacted third molar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harada, Nana; Beloor Vasudeva, Subash; Matsuda, Yukiko; Seki, Kenji; Kapila, Rishabh; Ishikawa, Noboru; Okano, Tomohiro; Sano, Tsukasa

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare findings on the relationship between impacted molar roots and the mandibular canal in panoramic and three-dimensional cone-beam CT (CBCT) images to identify those that indicated risk of postoperative paresthesia. The relationship between impacted molars and the mandibular canal was first classified using panoramic images. Only patients in whom the molar roots were either in contact with or superimposed on the canal were evaluated using CBCT. Of 466 patients examined using both panoramic and CBCT images, 280 underwent surgical extraction of an impacted molar, and 15 of these (5%) reported postoperative paresthesia. The spatial relationship between the impacted third molar root and the mandibular canal was determined by examining para-sagittal sections (lingual, buccal, inter-radicular, inferior, and combinations) obtained from the canal to the molar root and establishing the proximity of the canal to the molar root (in contact with or without loss of the cortical border and separate). The results revealed that darkening of the roots with interruption of the mandibular canal on panoramic radiographs and the inter-radicular position of the canal in CBCT images were characteristic findings indicative of risk of postoperative paresthesia. These results suggest that careful surgical intervention is required in patients with the above characteristics.

  10. Practical measurement of radiation dose in pediatric radiology: use of the dose-area product on digital fluoroscopy and neonatal chest radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chateil, J.F.; Rouby, C.; Brun, M.; Labessan, C.; Diard, F.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose. Control of radiation dose in pediatric radiology requires knowledge of the reference levels for all examinations. These data are useful for daily quality assessment, but are not perfectly known for some radiographic examinations. The purpose of our study was to evaluate the dose related to voiding cysto-urethrograms (VCUG), upper GI (UGI) and intravenous urography (IVU). Neonatal chest radiographs in the intensive care unit were also evaluated. Material and methods. For examinations with contrast material (478VCUG, 220UGI, 80IVU), the children were divided in groups based on their weight, from 5 to 30 Kg. Measurements were performed using an ionization chamber and expressed with the-dose-area product (DAP). For chest radiographs, a direct measurement of the entrance-skin dose was performed, with secondary calculation of the DAP. Results. For-VCUGs, the DAP ranged between 42.89 cGy.cm 2 and 125.41 cGy.cm 2 . The range was between 76.43, and 150.62 cGy.cm 2 for UGIs and between 49.06 and 83.33 cGy.cm 2 for IVUs. For neonate chest radiographs, DAP calculations were between 0.29 and 0.99 cGy.cm 2 . Conclusion. These values represent our reference doses. They allow continuous monitoring of our radiographic technical parameters and radiographic equipment and help to correct and improve them if necessary. (author)

  11. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  12. Linear density analysis of bone repair in rats using digital direct radiograph Análise de densidade linear para reparo ósseo em ratos utilizando radiografia digital direta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo de Oliveira Bozzo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess bone density measurements for analysis of repairing fractures in rats using direct digital radiography under Dexamethasone effects. Thirty (30 young adult male Wistar rats were used, with an average weight of 200g, which were submitted to general anesthetics by ethyl ether. One rib of each animal was fractured by surgical technique. The rats were divided into 2 groups, named Control group - intraperitoneal administration of saline solution 1 hour prior to operation, and Group 1: intraperitoneal administration of Dexamethasone 0.1mg/Kg of weight 1 hour prior to operation, and two postoperative doses every 12 hours. The animals were sacrificed at 2, 3, 4, 7 and 14 days. The parts containing the hemi-thorax with the fractured rib were removed and submitted to direct digital radiography, where the linear density of the two extremities of the fracture were analyzed by the Digora System. The results showed that in the control group and in Group 1 there was a gradual and significant increase in linear density. The method used made it feasible to supply data that were statistically significant in assessing the gain in bone density during the period of time analyzed. In conclusion, direct digital radiograph is useful for bone density analysis for fracture repairing. The dose of Dexamethasone was not sufficient to alter the gain in bone density at the extremities of fracture.O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar densidade linear utilizando o sistema de radiografia digital direta intrabucal para verificar o ganho de densidade óssea em fraturas de ratos sob os efeitos da Dexametasona. Trinta (30 ratos Wistar machos, adultos jóvens de 200 g em média foram usados. Os animais foram submetidos á anestesia geral por inalação de éter etílico e 01 costela de cada animal foi fraturada através de técnica cirúrgica. Os ratos foram divididos em grupos de 03 repetições para cada grupo em cada período de tempo

  13. Panoramic radiology. Seminars on maxillofacial imaging and interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farman, Allan G. (ed.) [Louisville Univ., KY (United States). Dept. of Surgical and Hospital Dentistry

    2007-07-01

    Complete up-to-date collection of information on panoramic radiography usage. Up-to-date terminology validated by representatives of individual special disciplines within dentistry. Each chapter with educational objectives and review questions. Panoramic radiology systems are currently being used in more practices than at other any time in the past. The practitioner now has decisions to make regarding detector technology selection for image acquisition and must remain informed about appropriate usage. This book is applicable to all panoramic dental images and equipment. It approaches panoramic radiology usage in the context of general and specialty applications. (orig.)

  14. Comparison of Findings from Oblique Radiographs of the Raised Limb with Those of the Weight-bearing Limb for Selected Diseases of the Equine Digit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Šterc

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the radiographic examination of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints was performed in 43 randomly selected horses. A total of 86 forelimbs were examined. On the forelimbs, dorsolateral-palmaromedial, and dorsomedial-palmarolateral oblique views were performed. The oblique views were performed on raised limbs placed in a navicular block and on weight-bearing limbs placed on a pedestal made at the equine clinic. In total, 688 dorsolateral-palmaromedial and dorsomedial-palmarolateral views were taken. During the evaluation of the radiographs we focused on the detection of signs of degenerative joint disease of the distal and proximal iterphalangeal joints, and the detection of new bone formation in the phalanx regions, not associated with a disease of the distal or proximal interphalangeal joints. Based on the radiographic signs visible on these views, we diagnosed 9 cases of degenerative joint disease of the distal intraphalangeal joint, 13 cases of the degenerative joint disease of the proximal intraphalangeal joint and 21 cases of new bone formation in the phalanx regions. These signs were observed in 253 of 688 oblique views. Positive radiographic findings of the above-mentioned disorders were shown on 127 oblique views of the raised limb placed in the navicular block and 126 oblique views of the weight-bearing limb placed on the pedestal we made. When 128 oblique views of the weight-bearing limb (placed on the pedestal were compared with those of the raised limb (in the navicular block, there were different radiographic findings in three cases only. The differences in detection rates of radiographic signs between different type views showed no statistical significance (p ≥ 0.05. Therefore we assume that the pedestal we made can be routinely used for the radiographic examination of the distal and proximal interphalangeal joints on DL-PM and DM-PL oblique views, as part of pre-purchase examination or diagnosis

  15. Bone loss in unclassified polyarthritis and early rheumatoid arthritis is better detected by digital x ray radiogrammetry than dual x ray absorptiometry: relationship with disease activity and radiographic outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, T; Klarlund, Mette; Hansen, M

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in regional bone mineral density (BMD) of the metacarpal joints measured by dual x ray absorptiometry (DXA) and digital x ray radiogrammetry (DXR) in relation to disease activity and radiographic outcome in a two year follow up study of patients with early RA...... polyarthritis. The patients with RA were divided into groups according to mean disease activity, average glucocorticoid dose, and MRI and x ray detected bone erosions in the hands. Clinical and biochemical measurements were made every month and an x ray examination of the hands and BMD of the metacarpal joints...

  16. The algorithm to generate color point-cloud with the registration between panoramic image and laser point-cloud

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeng, Fanyang; Zhong, Ruofei

    2014-01-01

    Laser point cloud contains only intensity information and it is necessary for visual interpretation to obtain color information from other sensor. Cameras can provide texture, color, and other information of the corresponding object. Points with color information of corresponding pixels in digital images can be used to generate color point-cloud and is conducive to the visualization, classification and modeling of point-cloud. Different types of digital cameras are used in different Mobile Measurement Systems (MMS).the principles and processes for generating color point-cloud in different systems are not the same. The most prominent feature of the panoramic images is the field of 360 degrees view angle in the horizontal direction, to obtain the image information around the camera as much as possible. In this paper, we introduce a method to generate color point-cloud with panoramic image and laser point-cloud, and deduce the equation of the correspondence between points in panoramic images and laser point-clouds. The fusion of panoramic image and laser point-cloud is according to the collinear principle of three points (the center of the omnidirectional multi-camera system, the image point on the sphere, the object point). The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm and formulae in this paper are correct

  17. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  18. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  19. Radiographic element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, T.I.; Jones, C.G.

    1984-01-01

    Radiographic elements are disclosed comprised of first and second silver halide emulsion layers separated by an interposed support capable of transmitting radiation to which the second image portion is responsive. At least the first imaging portion contains a silver halide emulsion in which thin tubular silver halide grains of intermediate aspect ratios (from 5:1 to 8:1) are present. Spectral sensitizing dye is adsorbed to the surface of the tubular grains. Increased photographic speeds can be realized at comparable levels of crossover. (author)

  20. Dose reduction of radiographs of the pediatric pelvis for diagnosing hip dysplasia using a digital flat-panel detector system; Dosisreduktion bei Roentgenaufnahmen des kindlichen Beckenskelettes zur Diagnostik der Hueftgelenksdysplasie unter Verwendung eines digitalen Flachdetektorsystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludwig, K.; Ahlers, K.; Kloska, S.; Vieth, V.; Meier, N.; Heindel, W. [Inst. fuer Klinische Radiologie, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ. Muenster (Germany); Sandmann, C.; Gosheger, G. [Orthopaedische Klinik, Westfaelische Wilhelms-Univ. Muenster (Germany)

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate a possible dose reduction in pediatric pelvic radiographs in congenital hip dysplasia using a digital flat-panel system instead of a phosphor-storage system. Materials and Methods: During a six-month period, all pediatric patients referred for pelvic radiography for the evaluation of congenital hip dysplasia were randomely assigned to be examined by either a phosphor-storage system or a digital flat-panel system, whereby the latter system was operated with half the radiation dose. Thirty pairs of radiographs were assessed for the visibility of 16 anatomic details and for 5 orthopedic-radiographic measurements (5-point scale with 1 = excellent; three independent observers). The projection indices of Ball and Kommenda and of Toennis and Brunken were calculated for all radiographs. The Student's t-test was used to compare the flat-panel and the phosphor-storage radiographs for observers' assessments, patients' age and projection indices. Results: In a total of 7560 observations, the scores for the visibility of anatomic details and orthopedic-radiographic measurements were respectively 2.72 and 2.64 for the flat-panel system and 2.93 and 2.79 for the phosphor-storage system. No significant differences were found between both systems (p > 0.05) and between patient age and projection indices (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Pediatric pelvic radiographs can be obtained with a digital flat-panel system using half the radiation dose instead of a phosphor-storage system without sacrificing relevant information in the diagnosis of congenital hip dysplasia. (orig.) [German] Zielsetzung: Evaluation einer moeglichen Dosisreduktion bei kindlichen Beckenroentgenaufnahmen zur Diagnostik der Hueftgelenksdysplasie mit einem digitalen Flachdetektorsystem im Vergleich zu einem digitalen Speicherfoliensystem. Material und Methoden: Prospektiv wurden alle ueber einen Zeitraum von 6 Monaten zur Roentgenaufnahme des Beckenskelettes im Rahmen der Diagnostik der

  1. Influence of central panoramic curve deviation of the mandibular image reconstruction in the implant CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Rae Jeong; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; Park, Tae Won; You, Dong Soo

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate an influence of the change of central panoramic curves on the image reconstruction in the dental implant CT. The author designed three experimental groups according to the location of central panoramic curve. In group A, central panoramic curve was determined as the curve connecting the center of roots from the first premolar to the first molar. In group B, central panoramic curve was determined as the line connecting the lingual cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first premolar with the buccal cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first molar. In group C, central panoramic curve was determined as the line connecting the buccal cortical plate at the level of the mesial aspect of the first molar. Twenty four reformatted CT images was acquired from four mandibles embedded in the resin block and twenty four contact radiographs of dog specimens were acquired. Each image was processed under Adobe Photoshop program analysed by MSPA (mandible/maxilla shape pattern analysis) variables such as MXVD, MXHD, UHD, MHD, and LHD. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The mean of MXVD variable was 19.9, 20.2, and 20.0 in group A, B, and C, respectively, which were smaller than actual value 20.5. But, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (p>0.05). 2. The mean of MXHD, UHD, MHD, and LHD variables in group A, B, and C was 11.9, 12.2, and 12.3; 9.3, 9.5, and 9.6; 10.0, 10.3,and 10.3; 9.2, 9.3, and 9.4 respectively which were equal to or greater than the actual value 11.8, 9.3, 10.0. But, there was no significant difference among 3 groups (p>0.05). 3. The number of noneffective observations with difference over or under 1 mm with comparison to the actual value was 24 (20%), 58 (48.3%), and 52 (43.3%), respectively, in group A, B, and C. 4. In group A, the number of observations over 1mm and under 1 mm was 9 and 15, respectively, but in group B and C, the number of observations over 1

  2. Simulation of 3D-treatment plans in head and neck tumors aided by matching of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and on-line distortion corrected simulator images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lohr, Frank; Schramm, Oliver; Schraube, Peter; Sroka-Perez, Gabriele; Seeber, Steffen; Schlepple, Gerd; Schlegel, Wolfgang; Wannenmacher, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Background and purpose: Simulation of 3D-treatment plans for head and neck malignancy is difficult due to complex anatomy. Therefore, CT-simulation and stereotactic techniques are becoming more common in the treatment preparation, overcoming the need for simulation. However, if simulation is still performed, it is an important step in the treatment preparation/execution chain, since simulation errors, if not detected immediately, can compromise the success of treatment. A recently developed PC-based system for on-line image matching and comparison of digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and distortion corrected simulator monitor images that enables instant correction of field placement errors during the simulation process was evaluated. The range of field placement errors with noncomputer aided simulation is reported. Materials and methods: For 14 patients either a primary 3D-treatment plan or a 3D-boost plan after initial treatment with opposing laterals for head and neck malignancy with a coplanar or non-coplanar two- or three-field technique was simulated. After determining the robustness of the matching process and the accuracy of field placement error detection with phantom measurements, DRRs were generated from the treatment planning CT-dataset of each patient and were interactively matched with on-line simulator images that had undergone correction for geometrical distortion, using a landmark algorithm. Translational field placement errors in all three planes as well as in-plane rotational errors were studied and were corrected immediately. Results: The interactive matching process is very robust with a tolerance of <2 mm when suitable anatomical landmarks are chosen. The accuracy for detection of translational errors in phantom measurements was <1 mm and for in-plane rotational errors the accuracy had a maximum of only 1.5 deg.. For patient simulation, the mean absolute distance of the planned versus simulated isocenter was 6.4 ± 3.9 mm. The in

  3. Panoramic 3d Vision on the ExoMars Rover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paar, G.; Griffiths, A. D.; Barnes, D. P.; Coates, A. J.; Jaumann, R.; Oberst, J.; Gao, Y.; Ellery, A.; Li, R.

    The Pasteur payload on the ESA ExoMars Rover 2011/2013 is designed to search for evidence of extant or extinct life either on or up to ˜2 m below the surface of Mars. The rover will be equipped by a panoramic imaging system to be developed by a UK, German, Austrian, Swiss, Italian and French team for visual characterization of the rover's surroundings and (in conjunction with an infrared imaging spectrometer) remote detection of potential sample sites. The Panoramic Camera system consists of a wide angle multispectral stereo pair with 65° field-of-view (WAC; 1.1 mrad/pixel) and a high resolution monoscopic camera (HRC; current design having 59.7 µrad/pixel with 3.5° field-of-view) . Its scientific goals and operational requirements can be summarized as follows: • Determination of objects to be investigated in situ by other instruments for operations planning • Backup and Support for the rover visual navigation system (path planning, determination of subsequent rover positions and orientation/tilt within the 3d environment), and localization of the landing site (by stellar navigation or by combination of orbiter and ground panoramic images) • Geological characterization (using narrow band geology filters) and cartography of the local environments (local Digital Terrain Model or DTM). • Study of atmospheric properties and variable phenomena near the Martian surface (e.g. aerosol opacity, water vapour column density, clouds, dust devils, meteors, surface frosts,) 1 • Geodetic studies (observations of Sun, bright stars, Phobos/Deimos). The performance of 3d data processing is a key element of mission planning and scientific data analysis. The 3d Vision Team within the Panoramic Camera development Consortium reports on the current status of development, consisting of the following items: • Hardware Layout & Engineering: The geometric setup of the system (location on the mast & viewing angles, mutual mounting between WAC and HRC) needs to be optimized w

  4. Dynamic Image Stitching for Panoramic Video

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Yu Shieh

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The design of this paper is based on the Dynamic image titching for panoramic video. By utilizing OpenCV visual function data library and SIFT algorithm as the basis for presentation, this article brings forward Gaussian second differenced MoG which is processed basing on DoG Gaussian Difference Map to reduce order in synthesizing dynamic images and simplify the algorithm of the Gaussian pyramid structure. MSIFT matches with overlapping segmentation method to simplify the scope of feature extraction in order to enhance speed. And through this method traditional image synthesis can be improved without having to take lots of time in calculation and being limited by space and angle. This research uses four normal Webcams and two IPCAM coupled with several-wide angle lenses. By using wide-angle lenses to monitor over a wide range of an area and then by using image stitching panoramic effect is achieved. In terms of overall image application and control interface, Microsoft Visual Studio C# is adopted to a construct software interface. On a personal computer with 2.4-GHz CPU and 2-GB RAM and with the cameras fixed to it, the execution speed is three images per second, which reduces calculation time of the traditional algorithm.

  5. Quality assurance in digital dental imaging: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsälä, Eija; Henner, Anja; Ekholm, Marja

    2014-07-01

    Doses induced by individual dental examinations are low. However, dental radiography accounts for nearly one third of the total number of radiological examinations in the European Union. Therefore, special attention is needed with regard to radiation protection. In order to lower patient doses, the staff performing dental examinations must have competence in imaging as well as in radiation protection issues. This paper presents a systematic review about the core competencies needed by the healthcare staff in performing digital dental radiological imaging quality assurance. The following databases were searched: Pubmed, Cinahl, Pro Quest and IEEXplore digital library. Also volumes of some dental imaging journals and doctoral theses of the Finnish universities educating dentists were searched. The search was performed using both MeSH terms and keywords using the option 'search all text'. The original keywords were: dental imaging, digital, x-ray, panoramic, quality, assurance, competence, competency, skills, knowledge, radiographer, radiologist technician, dentist, oral hygienist, radiation protection and their Finnish synonyms. Core competencies needed by the healthcare staff performing digital dental radiological imaging quality assurance described in the selected studies were: management of dental imaging equipment, competence in image quality and factors associated with it, dose optimization and quality assurance. In the future there will be higher doses in dental imaging due to increasing use of CBCT and digital imaging. The staff performing dental imaging must have competence in dental imaging quality assurance issues found in this review. They also have to practice ethical radiation safety culture in clinical practice.

  6. Description of the EDF research and development laboratory's radiographic picture processing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brillault, B.

    1985-01-01

    A digital radiographic picture processing system has been developed at the EDF Research and Development Laboratory to be supplied to EDF radiography experts. We describe it in pointing out the difficulties of radiograph digitization but also the numerous processing possibilities. The final goal of the Laboratory work is to extract the information from industrial radiographs by digital means. Our study is divided into three parts: digitization by a microdensitometer; display, processing and quantization of flaws; and, digital storing. 5 refs

  7. Radiation dose of cone-beam computed tomography compared to conventional radiographs in orthodontics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Signorelli, Luca; Patcas, Raphael; Peltomäki, Timo; Schätzle, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine radiation doses of different cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) scan modes in comparison to a conventional set of orthodontic radiographs (COR) by means of phantom dosimetry. Thermoluminescent dosimeter (TLD) chips (3 × 1 × 1 mm) were used on an adult male tissue-equivalent phantom to record the distribution of the absorbed radiation dose. Three different scanning modes (i.e., portrait, normal landscape, and fast scan landscape) were compared to CORs [i.e., conventional lateral (LC) and posteroanterior (PA) cephalograms and digital panoramic radiograph (OPG)]. The following radiation levels were measured: 131.7, 91, and 77 μSv in the portrait, normal landscape, and fast landscape modes, respectively. The overall effective dose for a COR was 35.81 μSv (PA: 8.90 μSv; OPG: 21.87 μSv; LC: 5.03 μSv). Although one CBCT scan may replace all CORs, one set of CORs still entails 2-4 times less radiation than one CBCT. Depending on the scan mode, the radiation dose of a CBCT is about 3-6 times an OPG, 8-14 times a PA, and 15-26 times a lateral LC. Finally, in order to fully reconstruct cephalograms including the cranial base and other important structures, the CBCT portrait mode must be chosen, rendering the difference in radiation exposure even clearer (131.7 vs. 35.81 μSv). Shielding radiation-sensitive organs can reduce the effective dose considerably. CBCT should not be recommended for use in all orthodontic patients as a substitute for a conventional set of radiographs. In CBCT, reducing the height of the field of view and shielding the thyroid are advisable methods and must be implemented to lower the exposure dose.

  8. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapidus, S.N.

    1979-01-01

    Raytheon Company, U.S.A. have patented an on-line electronic system of normalising the responses from the photomultiplier tubes used in conjunction with a scintillator in an X-ray radiographic camera. A problem with present cameras is that the individual photomultipliers have different intensity responses which also change in time with respect to each other. The individual responses of each photomultiplier tube are measured with a uniform sheet of radioactive material in front of the camera. The associated electronic equipment then calculates scaling factors which give all photomultiplier tubes an identical response and then places these factors in an addressable store. The store is then addressed in an on-line mode to produce a visual display of the transmitted X-rays. (U.K.)

  9. Radiographic apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalton, B.L.

    1984-01-01

    This patent application describes a radiographic apparatus including an array of radiation sensors, a source of radiation for projecting a beam through a body and means for moving one of said source and array relative to the body and for producing an electrical signal representative of the movement of the other of said source and array needed to bring the array into register with the beam. Drive means are arranged to move the other of said source and array in response to the electrical signal. In one embodiment, the source is rotated by an amount measured by a grating and associated electronics. The required movement of the array to maintain registration is calculated and transmitted to a driver. Alternatively, a laser may be mounted with the same and the array driven so that the laser beam continuously impinges on a photocell mounted with the array. (author)

  10. Avaliação de métodos indiretos de digitalização de radiografias cefalométricas em comparação ao método digital direto Evaluation of indirect methods of digitization of cephalometric radiographs in comparison with the direct digital method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleomar Donizeth Rodrigues

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: avaliar métodos de digitalização indireta de radiografias cefalométricas em comparação ao método digital direto. MÉTODOS: a amostra foi composta de dez radiografias cefalométricas adquiridas pelo Orthopantomograph OP100/Orthocef OC100 (GE - Instrumentarium, digital direto. As imagens foram inseridas no programa Adobe Photoshop® e cinco pontos cefalométricos foram marcados. Procedeu-se a impressão em transparência e foi feita a digitalização indireta das imagens impressas, por meio das câmeras fotográficas digitais Sony® DSC-W5 e Canon® Rebel XT/EOS 350D, fixas em estativa, nas distâncias de 25cm e 60cm e com o scanner Scan Jet 4C Hewlett Packard®. As imagens diretas e indiretas foram inseridas e calibradas no software Radiocef Studio (Radiomemory®, Brasil, marcando-se o centro dos pontos previamente assinalados. A análise cefalométrica computadorizada gerou três grandezas angulares e quatro lineares, as quais foram submetidas a tratamento estatístico. RESULTADOS: as imagens do scanner Scan Jet 4C HP® demonstraram pequenas alterações significativas, porém, sem relevância clínica. Quando da digitalização a 60cm da radiografia, as duas câmeras causaram distorções que foram significativas mas clinicamente aceitáveis; e, a 25cm, causaram as maiores distorções, com importância clínica, na Canon® Rebel XT. CONCLUSÃO: o scanner Scan Jet 4C HP® com leitor de transparências foi o melhor método e as câmeras operando a 60cm mostraram-se adequadas para digitalização de radiografias. As câmeras na distância de 25cm causaram distorções na imagem que alteraram as medidas lineares, podendo a Canon® Rebel XT comprometer o diagnóstico ortodôntico.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the indirect digitization method of cephalometric radiographs in comparison with the direct digital method. METHODS: The sample was composed of ten cephalometric radiographs acquired by Orthopantomograph OP100/Orthocef OC100 (GE

  11. The relationship between panoramic indices and dental implant failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Jung; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Jin Koo; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); An, Chang Hyeon [Kyungpook National University College of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-03-15

    Several panoramic indices have been suggested to assess bone quality from the morphology and width of mandibular cortex on panoramic radiography. The purpose of this study was to compare dental implant failure group with control group in panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical index (MCI), and gonion index (GI) and to determine the effect of these panoramic indices on dental implant failure. A case-control study was designed. Test group (n = 42) consisted of the patients who had their implants extracted because of peri-implantitis. Control group (n = 139) consisted of the patients who retained their implants over one year without any pathologic changes and had been followed up periodically. They had dental implants installed in their mandibles without bone augmentation surgery from 1991 to 2001. The following measures were collected for each patients: 1) PMI, MCI, and GI were measured twice at one-week interval on preoperative panoramic views; and 2) age, sex, implant length, implant type, installed location, occluding dentition state, and complication were investigated from the chart record. The PMI showed moderate level of repeatability. The intra-observer agreement of MCI and GI were good. There was statistically significant difference in PMI between two groups. There were significant different patterns of distribution of MCI and GI between two groups. Among the panoramic indices, PMI and MCI showed significant correlation with dental implant failure. Panoramic indices can be used as reference data in estimating bone quality of edentulous patients who are to have implants installed in their mandibles.

  12. The relationship between panoramic indices and dental implant failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Jung; Yi, Won Jin; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Jin Koo; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Soon Chul; An, Chang Hyeon

    2004-01-01

    Several panoramic indices have been suggested to assess bone quality from the morphology and width of mandibular cortex on panoramic radiography. The purpose of this study was to compare dental implant failure group with control group in panoramic mandibular index (PMI), mandibular cortical index (MCI), and gonion index (GI) and to determine the effect of these panoramic indices on dental implant failure. A case-control study was designed. Test group (n = 42) consisted of the patients who had their implants extracted because of peri-implantitis. Control group (n = 139) consisted of the patients who retained their implants over one year without any pathologic changes and had been followed up periodically. They had dental implants installed in their mandibles without bone augmentation surgery from 1991 to 2001. The following measures were collected for each patients: 1) PMI, MCI, and GI were measured twice at one-week interval on preoperative panoramic views; and 2) age, sex, implant length, implant type, installed location, occluding dentition state, and complication were investigated from the chart record. The PMI showed moderate level of repeatability. The intra-observer agreement of MCI and GI were good. There was statistically significant difference in PMI between two groups. There were significant different patterns of distribution of MCI and GI between two groups. Among the panoramic indices, PMI and MCI showed significant correlation with dental implant failure. Panoramic indices can be used as reference data in estimating bone quality of edentulous patients who are to have implants installed in their mandibles.

  13. Radiographers and trainee radiologists reporting accident radiographs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buskov, L; Abild, A; Christensen, A

    2013-01-01

    To compare the diagnostic accuracy and clinical validity of reporting radiographers with that of trainee radiologists whom they have recently joined in reporting emergency room radiographs at Bispebjerg University Hospital....

  14. Prevalence of dental developmental anomalies: a radiographic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ezoddini, Ardakani F; Sheikhha, M H; Ahmadi, H

    2007-09-01

    To determine the prevalence of developmental dental anomalies in patients attending the Dental Faculty of Medical University of Yazd, Iran and the gender differences of these anomalies. A retrospective study based on the panoramic radiographs of 480 patients. Patients referred for panoramic radiographs were clinically examined, a detailed family history of any dental anomalies in their first and second degree relatives was obtained and finally their radiographs were studied in detail for the presence of dental anomalies. 40.8% of the patients had dental anomalies. The more common anomalies were dilaceration (15%), impacted teeth (8.3%) and taurodontism (7.5%) and supernumerary teeth (3.5%). Macrodontia and fusion were detected in a few radiographs (0.2%). 49.1% of male patients had dental anomalies compared to 33.8% of females. Dilaceration, taurodontism and supernumerary teeth were found to be more prevalent in men than women, whereas impacted teeth, microdontia and gemination were more frequent in women. Family history of dental anomalies was positive in 34% of the cases.. Taurodontism, gemination, dens in dente and talon cusp were specifically limited to the patients under 20 year's old, while the prevalence of other anomalies was almost the same in all groups. Dilaceration, impaction and taurodontism were relatively common in the studied populaton. A family history of dental anomalies was positive in a third of cases.

  15. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der; Spruijt, R.J.; Mosekilde, L.

    1998-01-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach's α>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  16. Agreement between radiographic and photographic trabecular patterns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korstjens, C.M.; Geraets, W.G.M.; Stelt, P.F. van der [Dept. of Oral Radiology, Academic Centre for Dentistry, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Spruijt, R.J. [Div. of Psychosocial Research and Epidemiology, Netherlands Cancer Inst., Amsterdam (Netherlands); Mosekilde, L. [Dept. of Cell Biology, Univ. of Aarhus (Denmark)

    1998-11-01

    Purpose: It has been hypothesized that photographs can facilitate the interpretation of the radiographic characteristics of trabecular bone. The reliability of these photographic and radiographic approaches has been determined, as have various agreements between the two approaches and their correlations with biomechanical characteristics. Material and Methods: Fourteen vertebral bodies were obtained at autopsy from 6 women and 8 men aged 22-76 years. Photographs (n=28) and radiographs (n=28) were taken of midsagittal slices from the third lumbar vertebra. The radiographs and photographs were digitized and the geometric properties of the trabecular architecture were then determined with a digital images analysis technique. Information on the compressive strength and ash density of the vertebral body was also available. Results: The geometric properties of both radiographs and photographs could be measured with a high degree of reliability (Cronbach`s {alpha}>0.85). Agreement between the radiographic and photographic approaches was mediocre as only the radiographic measurements showed insignificant correlations (p<0.05) with the biomechanical characteristics. We suggest that optical phenomena may result in the significant correlations between the photographs and the biomechanical characteristics. Conclusion: For digital image processing, radiography offers a superior description of the architecture of trabecular bone to that offered by photography. (orig.)

  17. Effect of eliminating administrative radiographs on patient exposure and accuracy of provisional treatment plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kantor, M.L.; Slome, B.A.

    1987-01-01

    Published reports and recommendations suggest that radiographs are often ordered because of administrative policies during the screening and selection of patients for dental school clinics. This study examined the prescription of radiographs for two groups of patients: those who were radiographically examined according to an administrative policy and those whose radiographic needs were determined by a clinical examination. The provisional treatment needs assessment based on the screening examination was compared to the final treatment plan based on a complete diagnostic workup for both groups of patients to assess the effect of a change in school policy. Clinicians ordered half the number of panoramic radiographs as would have been ordered by administrative policy. There was no significant difference in the agreement between the provisional and final treatment plans under the two policies. These results suggest that dental schools can comply with federal recommendations against administrative radiographs without compromising patient selection

  18. Radiographic tales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    Purpose Until now a large number of scientific studies have focused on technological aspects of radiography. This study is a step in another direction which examines the relationship between man and technology within radiography instead of considering man and technology as separate entities. Meth...... of their narrative alertness. Errors and failure to keep the time schedule can, however, lead the radiographers to a change of perspective that makes them displace man from the scene of radiography by playing on the premises of technology.......Purpose Until now a large number of scientific studies have focused on technological aspects of radiography. This study is a step in another direction which examines the relationship between man and technology within radiography instead of considering man and technology as separate entities...... a practice in which the relationship between man and technology is marked by a struggle of domination of one over the other. The struggle expresses itself through two competing plots: A diagnostic plot with a prevailing, but not merely chronological structure mostly composed of events tied to pathology...

  19. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  20. Relationship among panoramic radiography findings, biochemical markers of bone turnover and hip bone mineral density in the diagnosis of postmenopausal osteoporosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johari Khatoonabad, M.; Aghamohammadzade, N.; Taghilu, H.; Esmaeili, F.; Jabbari Khamnei, H.

    2011-01-01

    Recent investigations have shown that panoramic radiography might be a useful tool in the early diagnosis of osteoporosis. In addition, bone turnover biochemical marker might be valuable in predicting osteoporosis and fracture risks in the elderly, especially in post-menopausal women. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationship among the radio morphometric indices of the mandible, biochemical markers of the bone turnover and hip bone mineral density in a group of post-menopausal women. Patients and Methods: Evaluations of mandibular cortical width, mandibular cortical index, panoramic index and alveolar crest resorption ration (M/M ration) were carried out on panoramic radiographs of 140 post-menopausal women with an age range of 44-82 years. Hip bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Bone mineral density values were divided into three groups of normal (T score>-1.0), Osteopenic (T score, -2.5 to -1.0) and Osteoporotic (T score<-2.5). Serum alkaline phosphatase and 25(OH) D3 were measured. Results: A decrease in mandibular cortical width by 1 mm increases the likelihood of osteopenia or osteoporosis up to 40%, having taken into consideration the effect of menopause duration. A 1 mm decrease in mandibular cortical width increased the likelihood of moderate or severe erosion of the lower cortex of the mandible up to 28% by taking age into consideration. The results did not demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between bone turnover markers and mandibular radio morphometric indices. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography gives sufficient information to make an early diagnosis regarding osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. Panoramic radiographs may be valuable in the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in elderly women.

  1. Non-destructive assay employing 2D and 3D digital radiographic imaging acquired with thermal neutrons and reactor-produced radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silvani, Maria Ines; Almeida, Gevaldo Lisboa de; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    The inner structure of some objects can only be visualized by using suitable techniques, when safety reasons or expensive costs preclude the application of invasive procedures. The kind of agent rendering an object partially transparent, unveiling thus its features, depends upon the object size and composition. As a rough rule of thumb, light materials are transparent to gamma and X-rays while the heavy ones are transparent to neutrons. When, after traversing an object, they hit a proper 2-D detector, a radiograph is produced representing a convoluted cross section, called projection, of that object. Taking a large number of such projections for different object attitudes, it is possible to obtain a 3-D tomography of the object as a map of attenuation coefficients. This procedure however, besides a time-consuming task, requires specially tailored equipment and software, not always available or affordable. Yet, in some circumstances it is feasible to replace the 3-D tomography by a stereoscopy, allowing one to visualize the spatial configuration of the object under analysis. In this work, 2-D and 3-D radiographic images have been acquired using thermal neutrons and reactor-produced radioisotopes and proper imaging plates as detectors. The stereographic vision has been achieved by taking two radiographs of the same object at different angles, from the detector point of view. After a treatment to render them red-white and green-white they were properly merged to yield a single image capable to be watched with red-green glasses. All the image treatment and rendering has been performed with the software ImageJ. (author)

  2. Automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-ray

    OpenAIRE

    Abdi, Amir Hossein; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2015-01-01

    As the panoramic x-ray is the most common extraoral radiography in dentistry, segmentation of its anatomical structures facilitates diagnosis and registration of dental records. This study presents a fast and accurate method for automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-rays. In the proposed four-step algorithm, a superior border is extracted through horizontal integral projections. A modified Canny edge detector accompanied by morphological operators extracts the inferior border of t...

  3. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-05-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts.

  4. Leaded apron for use in panoramic dental radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitcher, B.L.; Gratt, B.M.; Sickles, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    The leaded aprons currently available for use during dental radiography do not protect the thyroid gland from radiation. Conventional aprons may produce artifacts when used with panoramic dental x-ray units. This study measures the dose reduction obtained with an experimental leaded apron designed for use with panoramic dental x-ray units. Skin exposures measured at the thyroid and at the sternum were reduced with the use of the apron. Films produced during the study were free from apron artifacts

  5. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coulomb, M.; Dal Soglio, S.; Pittet-Barbier, L.; Ranchoup, Y.; Thony, F.; Ferretti, G.; Robert, F.

    1992-01-01

    Digital projection radiography may replace conventional radiography some day, provided it can meet several requirements: equal or better diagnostic effectiveness of the screen-film systems; reasonable image cost; real improvement in the productivity of the Departments of Imaging. All digital radiographic systems include an X-ray source, an image acquisition and formatting sub-system, a display and manipulation sub-system, and archiving subsystem and a laser editing system, preferably shared by other sources of digital images. Three digitization processes are available: digitization of the radiographic film, digital fluorography and phospholuminescent detectors with memory. The advantages of digital fluoroscopy are appealing: real-time image acquisition, suppression of cassettes; but its disadvantages are far from negligible: it cannot be applied to bedside radiography, the field of examination is limited, and the wide-field spatial resolution is poor. Phospholuminescent detectors with memory have great advantages: they can be used for bedside radiographs and on all the common radiographic systems; spatial resolution is satisfactory; its current disadvantages are considerable. These two systems, have common properties making up the entire philosophy of digital radiology and specific features that must guide our choice according to the application. Digital fluorography is best applied in pediatric radiology. However, evaluation works have showed that it was applicable with sufficient quality to many indications of general radiology in which a fluoroscopic control and fast acquisition of the images are essential; the time gained on the examination may be considerable, as well as the savings on film. Detectors with memory are required for bedside radiographs, in osteoarticular and thoracic radiology, in all cases of traumatic emergency and in the resuscitation and intensive care departments

  6. Radiographic evaluation of the maxillary sinus prior to dental implant therapy: A comparison between two dimensional and three dimensional radiographic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tadinada, Aditya; Fung, Karen; Thacker, Sejal; Mahdian, Mina; Jadhaw, Aniket; Schincaglia, Gian Pietro [University of Connecticut School of Dental Medicine, Farmington (United States)

    2015-09-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiography and cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in detecting sinus pathology. This study was based on a retrospective evaluation of patients who had undergone both a panoramic radiograph and a CBCT exam. A total of 100 maxillary sinuses were evaluated. Four examiners with various levels of expertise evaluated the images using a five-point scoring system. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of the two modalities. The image analysis was repeated twice, with at least two weeks between the evaluation sessions. Interobserver reliability was assessed using Cronbach's alpha, and intraobserver reliability was assessed using Cohen's kappa. Maxillary sinus pathology was detected in 72% of the patients. High interobserver and intraobserver reliability were observed for both imaging modalities and among the four examiners. Statistical analyses using ROC curves demonstrated that the CBCT images had a larger area under the curve (0.940) than the panoramic radiographs (0.579). Three-dimensional evaluation of the sinus with CBCT was significantly more reliable in detecting pathology than panoramic imaging.

  7. PACS influence the radiographer's work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fridell, Kent; Aspelin, Peter; Edgren, Lars; Lindskoeld, Lars; Lundberg, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Radiological departments are changing rapidly due to the implementation of digital images and PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems). The introduction of new technology seems to dissolve boundaries between the professions in the work environment where the technology is introduced. This process tends to change the organization and its routines. The aim of this qualitative study is to explore changes in radiographers' work with regard to skills, work practice and technology. The study used open-ended interviews to explore the radiographers' perceptions of such changes, and to identify problems and solutions pertaining to work practice. Inspiration is taken from grounded theory to explain the changes in work that were found. Respondents were selected from a total of 133 potential participants as a theoretical or purposive sample. The changing trends within the professional role indicated that radiographers, as image producers, shifted their focus from the ability to set the optimal exposure parameters in order to obtain the optimal image for diagnosis to become expert in exposure parameters, projection techniques and diagnostic practice, having multifaceted skills, as being the jack of all trades. When implementing PACS there was an obvious change in image production. At the start there were visions of new routines, and therefore the radiographers became early adopters to the new technology; in practice the organization was stacked in old routines, as the routines were inflexible and PACS work was pushed into old work routines. Although inflexible, this does not mean that they cannot change, and obviously in 2006 new routines had been implemented making it possible for the radiographers in finding new ways for collaborating with colleagues. The new technology immediately created a vision of improved service to the clinicians. In order to optimize the service the radiographers developed an insight into the need for a more comprehensive change in work using

  8. Rank distributions: A panoramic macroscopic outlook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliazar, Iddo I.; Cohen, Morrel H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a panoramic macroscopic outlook of rank distributions. We establish a general framework for the analysis of rank distributions, which classifies them into five macroscopic "socioeconomic" states: monarchy, oligarchy-feudalism, criticality, socialism-capitalism, and communism. Oligarchy-feudalism is shown to be characterized by discrete macroscopic rank distributions, and socialism-capitalism is shown to be characterized by continuous macroscopic size distributions. Criticality is a transition state between oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, which can manifest allometric scaling with multifractal spectra. Monarchy and communism are extreme forms of oligarchy-feudalism and socialism-capitalism, respectively, in which the intrinsic randomness vanishes. The general framework is applied to three different models of rank distributions—top-down, bottom-up, and global—and unveils each model's macroscopic universality and versatility. The global model yields a macroscopic classification of the generalized Zipf law, an omnipresent form of rank distributions observed across the sciences. An amalgamation of the three models establishes a universal rank-distribution explanation for the macroscopic emergence of a prevalent class of continuous size distributions, ones governed by unimodal densities with both Pareto and inverse-Pareto power-law tails.

  9. Radiographic Findings in Patients with Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Lopes Cardoso

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A retrospective study was conducted of the records and panoramic radiographs of 35 patients treated with bisphosphonates (BP and diagnosed with MRONJ. Panoramic radiography was used for evaluation, by two examiners, the following findings were subject of search: osteolysis (OT, cortical bone erosion (EC, bone sclerosis focal (FS and diffuse (DS, bone sequestration (BS, thickening of lamina dura (TD, prominence of the inferior alveolar nerve canal (IAN, persisting alveolar sockets (SK, and the presence of a pathological fracture (PF. Medical information and staging were also recorded in order to correlate with radiographic findings. Bone sclerosis was the most frequent alteration, followed by OT and TD. The mandible was more affected than the maxilla. There was no significant difference between genders or significant correlation between the number of injuries with age and duration of BP usage. Considering the association between the radiographic findings and MRONJ staging, EC was predominant in stage 3 and DS in stage 2. IAN and PF demonstrated greater association with stage 3. In conclusion, the higher the clinical staging, the greater the severity of the bone alteration. Panoramic radiographic examination is a useful screening tool in patients submitted to antiresorptive therapy.

  10. Black Lung Benefits Act: standards for chest radiographs. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-17

    Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for administering and interpreting film-based chest radiographs. This final rule updates the Department's existing film-radiograph standards and provides parallel standards for digital radiographs. This rule also updates outdated terminology and removes certain obsolete provisions.

  11. Use of semiconductor detector c-Si microstrip type in obtaining the digital radiographic imaging of phantoms and biological samples of mammary glands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leyva, A.; Cabal, A.; Pinera, I.; Abreu, Y.; Cruz, C. M.; Montano, L. M.; Diaz, C. C.; Fontaine, M.; Ortiz, C. M.; Padilla, F.; De la Mora, R.

    2009-01-01

    The present work synthesizes the experimental results obtained in the characterization of 64 micro strips crystalline silicon detector designed for experiments in high energies physics, with the objective of studying its possible application in advanced medical radiography, specifically in digital mammography and angiography. The research includes the acquisition of two-dimensional radiography of a mammography phantom using the scanning method, and its comparison with similar images simulated mathematically for different X rays sources. The paper also shows the experimental radiography of two biological samples taken from biopsies of mammas, where it is possible to identify the presence of possible pathological lesions. The results reached in this work point positively toward the effective possibility of satisfactorily introducing those advanced detectors in medical digital imaging applications. (Author)

  12. A comparative study of the detectability of TMJ radiographic techniques for artificial mandibular condylar lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hee Jeong; Jung, Yeon Hwa; Cho, Bong Hae

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the detectability of various radiographic techniques for mandibular condylar lesions. Erosive lesion, osteophyte and flattening were formed on the artificial mandibular condyle, and panoramic, transcranial, transorbital radiography, lateral and frontal tomography were taken. The results were as follows; 1. The detectability for erosive lesions was superior in the order of frontal tomography (96%), lateral tomography (78%), transorbital (59%), transcranial (56%) and panoramic (48%) radiography. 2. The location of erosive lesion that showed the highest detectability was the medial third in panoramic, the lateral third in transcranial, the central portion of anteroposterior direction in transorbital, the central portion of mediolateral direction and the posterior third in lateral tomography. Frontal tomography disclosed all erosive lesions except one anterolateral lesion. 3. The detectability of osteophyte was 100% in lateral tomography, 78% in transcranial and 56% in panoramic radiography. 4. For flattening, lateral tomography showed the flattened condyle, but both panoramic and transcranial views showed only decreased bone density without the change of condylar shape.

  13. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.K.

    1986-01-01

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection, has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justication for automating is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 8 x 10 9 bits per 14 x 17. The equivalent to 2200 computer floppy discs. Parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14 x 17 (inch) film in 6 - 8 seconds can digitize film information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for Film Digital Radiography System) is moving toward 50 micron (*approx* 16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. We expect the automated system to appear first in parts (modules) as certain operations are automated. The future will see it all come together in an automated film radiographic NDT system (author) [pt

  14. Effective dose for patient in multimode panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yasaki, Shiro; Daibo, Motoji

    1999-01-01

    In recent years, multimode panoramic radiography has had various functions, such as the auto exposure function, auto focus function (auto function), TMJ radiography and tomogram radiography functions. The purpose of this study was to estimate the effective dose for patients in each mode of the new multimode panoramic radiography (J. MORITA MFG. CORP. Dental Panorama X-ray Apparatus: Veraview Scope X 600). The absorbed doses in important organs involved in the causation of stochastic effects were measured by a thermoluminescent dosimeter using RANDO phantom. The effective doses were calculated using modified tissue weighting factors recommended by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) in 1999. The mean field size over skin in typical panoramic and tomographic examinations was about 3% and 0.4% of the total body surface area of 15000 cm 2 . Assuming that the incidence of skin cancer is proportional to the area of skin exposed to ionizing radiation, the tissue weighting factor of skin can be estimated to be about 0.0003 and 0.00004. The estimate in effective dose was lower (5.3 μSv) in the panoramic auto function mode (an average exposure condition of 69 kV 7 mA) than that (6.5-13.8 μSv) in the linear tomogram modes. Since the linear tomogram mode requires a scout view, such as standard panoramic radiography, the dose in the linear tomogram mode becomes higher than other modes. A percentage of gonad doses in effective doses was negligible. (author)

  15. Intraoperative panoramic image using alignment grid, is it accurate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apivatthakakul, T; Duanghakrung, M; Luevitoonvechkit, S; Patumasutra, S

    2013-07-01

    Minimally invasive orthopedic trauma surgery relies heavily on intraoperative fluoroscopic images to evaluate the quality of fracture reduction and fixation. However, fluoroscopic images have a narrow field of view and often cannot visualize the entire long bone axis. To compare the coronal femoral alignment between conventional X-rays to that achieved with a new method of acquiring a panoramic intraoperative image. Twenty-four cadaveric femurs with simple diaphyseal fractures were fixed with an angulated broad DCP to create coronal plane malalignment. An intraoperative alignment grid was used to help stitch different fluoroscopic images together to produce a panoramic image. A conventional X-ray of the entire femur was then performed. The coronal plane angulation in the panoramic images was then compared to the conventional X-rays using a Wilcoxon signed rank test. The mean angle measured from the panoramic view was 173.9° (range 169.3°-178.0°) with median of 173.2°. The mean angle measured from the conventional X-ray was 173.4° (range 167.7°-178.7°) with a median angle of 173.5°. There was no significant difference between both methods of measurement (P = 0.48). Panoramic images produced by stitching fluoroscopic images together with help of an alignment grid demonstrated the same accuracy at evaluating the coronal plane alignment of femur fractures as conventional X-rays.

  16. IMAGE ACQUISITION CONSTRAINTS FOR PANORAMIC FRAME CAMERA IMAGING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kauhanen

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes an approach to quantify the amount of projective error produced by an offset of projection centres in a panoramic imaging workflow. We have limited this research to such panoramic workflows in which several sub-images using planar image sensor are taken and then stitched together as a large panoramic image mosaic. The aim is to simulate how large the offset can be before it introduces significant error to the dataset. The method uses geometrical analysis to calculate the error in various cases. Constraints for shooting distance, focal length and the depth of the area of interest are taken into account. Considering these constraints, it is possible to safely use even poorly calibrated panoramic camera rig with noticeable offset in projection centre locations. The aim is to create datasets suited for photogrammetric reconstruction. Similar constraints can be used also for finding recommended areas from the image planes for automatic feature matching and thus improve stitching of sub-images into full panoramic mosaics. The results are mainly designed to be used with long focal length cameras where the offset of projection centre of sub-images can seem to be significant but on the other hand the shooting distance is also long. We show that in such situations the error introduced by the offset of the projection centres results only in negligible error when stitching a metric panorama. Even if the main use of the results is with cameras of long focal length, they are feasible for all focal lengths.

  17. Evaluation of the radiopacity of root canal sealers by digitization of radiographic images Avaliação da radiopacidade de cimentos endodônticos por meio da digitalização de imagens radiográficas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliane Maria Guerreiro Tanomaru

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of a zinc oxide and eugenol-based (Endofill, a calcium hydroxide-based (Sealapex, two resin-based (Sealer 26 and AH Plus, and a silicone-based root canal sealer (Roeko Seal. Specimens, measuring 10mm in diameter and 1mm in thickness, were radiographed simultaneously with an aluminum step wedge using occlusal films, according to ISO 6876/2001 standards. Radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity of sealers was compared to the different thicknesses of the aluminum step wedge, using the VIXWIN 2000 software. Results demonstrated that AH Plus was the most radiopaque sealer, while Sealapex was the least radiopaque (pO objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a radiopacidade de cimentos endodônticos à base de óxido de zinco e eugenol (Endofill, hidróxido de cálcio (Sealapex, resina (Sealer 26 e AH Plus e silicone (Roeko Seal. Os corpos de prova foram padronizados com 10 milímetros de diâmetro e 1 milímetro de espessura e radiografados conjuntamente com uma escala de alumínio empregando-se filmes oclusais, de acordo com as Normas ISO 6876/2001. As radiografias foram digitalizadas e as radiopacidades dos cimentos comparadas à escala de alumínio com diferentes espessuras, utilizando o software VIXWIN 2000. Os resultados demonstraram que o AH Plus foi o cimento mais radiopaco e o Sealapex apresentou menor radiopacidade (p<0,05, sendo intermediários os resultados para os cimentos Roeko Seal, Endofill e Sealer 26. Sealapex apresenta menor radiopacidade que outros tipos de cimentos endodônticos.

  18. Radiographic imaging. 4 ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chesney, D.N.; Chesney, M.O.

    1981-01-01

    This is a revised edition of the textbook previously entitled 'Radiographic Photography' and accords with the current syllabus of training for the Diploma of the Royal College of Radiographers. The aim is a non-mathematical approach to provide a guide for the student to the knowledge and understanding of the theoretical concepts which affect the quality of radiographic image; materials and practices are also reviewed, particularly in relation to the characteristics of the radiographic image, and to processing equipment and processing areas. The subject is dealt with under the following headings: the photographic process, film materials in x-ray departments, sensitometry, storage of film materials and radiographs, intensifying screens and cassettes, film processing, developing, fixing, rinsing, washing, drying, the processing area and equipment, systems for daylight film handling, the radiographic image, management of the quality, presentation of the radiograph, light images and their recording, fluorography, some special imaging processes, e.g. xerography, copying radiographs. (U.K.)

  19. A retrospective study of panoramic radiographs for zygomatic air cell defect in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srikanth H Srivathsa

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: This study described the prevalence and characteristics of ZACD among selected Indian children. It is essential to know and determine this variant of normal anatomy and differentiate it from pathologies.

  20. Automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-ray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdi, Amir Hossein; Kasaei, Shohreh; Mehdizadeh, Mojdeh

    2015-10-01

    As the panoramic x-ray is the most common extraoral radiography in dentistry, segmentation of its anatomical structures facilitates diagnosis and registration of dental records. This study presents a fast and accurate method for automatic segmentation of mandible in panoramic x-rays. In the proposed four-step algorithm, a superior border is extracted through horizontal integral projections. A modified Canny edge detector accompanied by morphological operators extracts the inferior border of the mandible body. The exterior borders of ramuses are extracted through a contour tracing method based on the average model of mandible. The best-matched template is fetched from the atlas of mandibles to complete the contour of left and right processes. The algorithm was tested on a set of 95 panoramic x-rays. Evaluating the results against manual segmentations of three expert dentists showed that the method is robust. It achieved an average performance of [Formula: see text] in Dice similarity, specificity, and sensitivity.

  1. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manousaridis, G.; Koukorava, C.; Hourdakis, C.J.; Kamenopoulou, V.; Yakoumakis, E.; Tsiklakis, K.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from K i , air and field size. (authors)

  2. Flash radiographic technique applied to fuel injector sprays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vantine, H.C.

    1977-01-01

    A flash radiographic technique, using 50 ns exposure times, was used to study the pattern and density distribution of a fuel injector spray. The experimental apparatus and method are described. An 85 kVp flash x-ray generator, designed and fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory, is utilized. Radiographic images, recorded on standard x-ray films, are digitized and computer processed

  3. Quality of radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdul Nassir Ibrahim; Azali Muhammad; Ab. Razak Hamzah; Abd. Aziz Mohamed; Mohamad Pauzi Ismail

    2008-01-01

    This chapter discussed on how to get a good radiograph. There are several factors that can make good radiograph such as density of radiograph, the contrast of radiograph, definition of radiograph, the present of artifact and backscattering. All of this factor will discuss detailed on each unit of chapter with some figure, picture to make the reader understand more when read this book. And at the end, the reader will introduce with penetrameter, one of device to determine the level of quality of the radiograph. There are two type of penetrameter like wire type or holes type. This standard must be followed by all the radiographer around the world to produce the good result that is standard and more reliable.

  4. Algorithms for boundary detection in radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzaga, Adilson; Franca, Celso Aparecido de

    1996-01-01

    Edge detecting techniques applied to radiographic digital images are discussed. Some algorithms have been implemented and the results are displayed to enhance boundary or hide details. An algorithm applied in a pre processed image with contrast enhanced is proposed and the results are discussed

  5. Efficacy of conventional and digital radiographic imaging methods for diagnosis of simulated external root resorption Eficácia dos métodos radiográficos convencional e digital no diagnóstico de reabsorções radiculares simuladas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Portela Ditzel Westphalen

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated and compared the efficacy of conventional (Kodak F-speed (Insight, Kodak and a digital (DRS Gnatus System, Gnatus radiographic imaging for diagnosis of simulated external root resorption cavities. Human mandibles containing teeth were covered with bovine muscle slices in order to simulate the soft tissues. Nine teeth out of each group of teeth were investigated. Initially, three periapical radiographs of each tooth were taken using a tube shift technique with mesial and distal angulations in both methods. All teeth were subsequently extracted and had 0.7 and 1.0-mm deep cavities prepared on their buccal, mesial and distal surfaces at the cervical, middle and apical thirds. Steel cylinder burs (DORMER® - HSS with 0.7 and 1.0-mm diameter were used. Each tooth was replaced on its socket and new radiographs were taken. Three examiners, an endodontist (1, a radiologist (2 and a general dentist (3, evaluated the images. Results were compared by z-test and showed a higher number of cavities detected by the digital method compared to the conventional, regardless of the deepness of the cavity. In decreasing order, examiners 2, 3 and 1 exhibited different potentials of detection of cavities with the conventional method. Examiners 1 and 3 exhibited superior potential than examiner 2 for detection of cavities of different sizes with the digital method.O presente estudo visou avaliar e comparar, in vitro, a eficácia dos métodos radiográficos convencional (filmes de grupos de sensibilidade E/F Kodak Insight e digital (Sistema Gnatus DRS, no diagnóstico de cavidades simulando reabsorções radiculares externas, em dentes contidos em mandíbulas humanas secas com músculo bovino simulando o tecido mole. As variáveis consideradas foram: tamanhos das cavidades e examinadores envolvidos. Foram utilizadas nove unidades de cada grupo dentário, incisivos (central e lateral, caninos, pré-molares e molares, sem lesões periapicais

  6. Digital Imaging. Chapter 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clunie, D. [CoreLab Partners, Princeton (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The original means of recording X ray images was a photographic plate. Nowadays, all medical imaging modalities provide for digital acquisition, though globally, the use of radiographic film is still widespread. Many modalities are fundamentally digital in that they require image reconstruction from quantified digital signals, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  7. Simultaneous high speed digital cinematographic and X-ray radiographic imaging of a intense multi-fluid interaction with rapid phase changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansson, Roberta Concilio; Park, Hyun Sun; Dinh, Truc-Nam [Royal Institute of Technology, Division of Nuclear Power Safety, AlbaNova, Stockholm SE-106 91 (Sweden)

    2009-04-15

    As typical for the study of the vapor explosions, the qualitative and quantitative understanding of the phenomena requires visualization of both material and interface dynamics. A new approach to multi-fluid multiphase visualization is presented with the focus on the development of a synchronized high-speed visualization by digital cinematography and X-ray radiography. The developed system, named SHARP (simultaneous high-speed acquisition of X-ray radiography and photography), and its image processing methodology, directed to an image synchronization procedure and a separate quantification of vapor and molten material dynamics, is presented in this paper. Furthermore, we exploit an intrinsic property of the X-ray radiation, namely the differences in linear mass attenuation coefficients over the beam path through a multi-component system, to characterize the evolution of molten material distribution. Analysis of the data obtained by the SHARP system and image processing procedure developed granted new insights into the physics of the vapor explosion phenomena, as well as, quantitative information of the associated dynamic micro-interactions. (author)

  8. Designing 3 Dimensional Virtual Reality Using Panoramic Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Abd Arif, Wan Norazlinawati; Wan Ahmad, Wan Fatimah; Nordin, Shahrina Md.; Abdullah, Azrai; Sivapalan, Subarna

    The high demand to improve the quality of the presentation in the knowledge sharing field is to compete with rapidly growing technology. The needs for development of technology based learning and training lead to an idea to develop an Oil and Gas Plant Virtual Environment (OGPVE) for the benefit of our future. Panoramic Virtual Reality learning based environment is essential in order to help educators overcome the limitations in traditional technical writing lesson. Virtual reality will help users to understand better by providing the simulations of real-world and hard to reach environment with high degree of realistic experience and interactivity. Thus, in order to create a courseware which will achieve the objective, accurate images of intended scenarios must be acquired. The panorama shows the OGPVE and helps to generate ideas to users on what they have learnt. This paper discusses part of the development in panoramic virtual reality. The important phases for developing successful panoramic image are image acquisition and image stitching or mosaicing. In this paper, the combination of wide field-of-view (FOV) and close up image used in this panoramic development are also discussed.

  9. Automatic registration of terrestrial point cloud using panoramic reflectance images

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kang, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Much attention is paid to registration of terrestrial point clouds nowadays. Research is carried out towards improved efficiency and automation of the registration process. This paper reports a new approach for point clouds registration utilizing reflectance panoramic images. The approach follows a

  10. Dental panoramic tomography: an approach for the general radiologist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeddinghaus, R.; Whyte, A.

    2006-01-01

    Dental panoramic tomography is commonly presented to radiologists with no dental training for interpretation. An overview of the technique, basic anatomy and nomenclature and common pathology is presented with examples to show the anatomy and nomenclature, the artefacts and common pathology

  11. Manual on panoramic gamma irradiators (categories 2 and 4)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    In addition to a basic guide to the principles of production of ionizing radiation and to the methods of radiation protection and dosimetry, this document considers the procedures that should be employed when using panoramic gamma irradiators. Applications for such irradiators are described and radiation protection procedures discussed

  12. The prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of cemento-osseous dysplasia in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo

    2007-01-01

    This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4.982 males and 5.664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due tp the multiplicity of FOCD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesion examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women

  13. The prevalence, clinical and radiographic characteristics of cemento-osseous dysplasia in Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Bong Hae; Jung, Yun Hoa; Nah, Kyung Soo [Pusan National Univ. College of Dentistry, Pusan (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    This study was intended to estimate the prevalence of cemento-osseous dysplasia (COD) in the Korean population and to assess the clinical and radiographic characteristics of this condition. Panoramic radiographs from 10,646 patients (4.982 males and 5.664 females, age range from 6 to 91 years) were reviewed for evidence of COD. Their demographics, clinical characteristics, and radiographic features were retrospectively assessed. Of 10,646 panoramic radiographs, 33 radiographs (0.31%) exhibited evidence of COD. The prevalence of COD increased to over 1% in women over 40-years old. Of these 33 patients, 16 had florid cemento-osseous dysplasia (FCOD) and 17 had focal COD. Due tp the multiplicity of FOCD, a total of 63 COD lesions were assessed. These lesions were most common in the mandibular molar area. Most of the COD lesion examined (61.9%) were less than 10 mm and the majority (82.5%) showed radiopacity. COD has a predilection for the mandibular molar area of middle-aged and older women.

  14. Fast radiographic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Domanus, J.C.

    1984-08-01

    Industrial radiography can be performed with shorter exposure times, when instead of X-ray film with lead intensifying screens the radiographic paper with fluorescent screen is used. With paper radiography one can obtain lower material, equipment, and labor costs, shorter exposure and processing times, and easier radiation protection. The speed of the radiographic inspection can also be increased by the use of fluorometallic intensifying screens together with a special brand of X-ray film. Before accepting either of the two fast radiographic systems one must be sure that they can produce radiographs of adequate image quality. Therefore an investigation was performed on that subject using ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters. The radiographic image quality was tested for aluminium and steel up to 30 mm thick using various brands of radiographic paper and X-ray film with fluorometallic screens and comparing them with fast X-ray films with lead screens. Both systems give satisfactory results. (author)

  15. Radiographic assessment of third molars development and it's relation to dental and chronological age in an Iranian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monirifard, Mohamad; Yaraghi, Navid; Vali, Ava; Vali, Asana; Vali, Amrita

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to estimate chronological age based on third molar development and to determine the association between dental age and third molar calcification stages. In this cross-sectional study, 505 digital panoramic radiographs of 223 males (44.2%) and 282 females (55.8%) between the age of 6 and 17 were selected from patients who were treated in Departments of Pediatrics and Orthodontics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences between the years of 2009 and 2013. Correlation between chronological age and third molar development was analyzed with SPSS 21 using Spearman's Rank correlation coefficient, Chi-square test and multiple regression statistical tests (P third molars demonstrated a highly significant correlation with dental age (P age were mandibular left third molar in males and mandibular right third molar in females (r s = 0.072). When multiple regression was used to predict dental age based on molar calcification stage, the only significant correlation was between maxillary left third molar in males (P third molars in females. Relationship between chronological age and molars development stage was significant in all age subgroups and in both gender (P third molars and dental age in males. Results showed that third molar calcification stage can be used as an age predictor and in general mandibular teeth seems to be more reliable for this purpose in both genders and in all ages.

  16. Clinically Detectable Dental Identifiers Observed in Intra-oral Photographs and Extra-oral Radiographs, Validated for Human Identification Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelakopoulos, Nikolaos; Franco, Ademir; Willems, Guy; Fieuws, Steffen; Thevissen, Patrick

    2017-07-01

    Screening the prevalence and pattern of dental identifiers contributes toward the process of human identification. This research investigated the uniqueness of clinical dental identifiers in photographs and radiographs. Panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs and five intra-oral photographs of 1727 subjects were used. In a target set, two observers examined different subjects. In a subset, both observers examined the same subjects (source set). The distance between source and target subjects was quantified for each identifier. The percentage of subjects in the target set being at least as close as the correct subject was assessed. The number of molars (34.6%), missing teeth (42%), and displaced teeth (59.9%) were the most unique identifiers in photographs and panoramic and lateral cephalometric radiographs, respectively. The pattern of rotated teeth (14.9%) was the most unique in photographs, while displaced teeth was in panoramic (37.6%) and lateral cephalometric (54.8%) radiographs. Morphological identifiers were the most unique, highlighting their importance for human identifications. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Radiographic constant exposure technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domanus, Joseph Czeslaw

    1985-01-01

    The constant exposure technique has been applied to assess various industrial radiographic systems. Different X-ray films and radiographic papers of two producers were compared. Special attention was given to fast film and paper used with fluorometallic screens. Radiographic image quality...... was tested by the use of ISO wire IQI's and ASTM penetrameters used on Al and Fe test plates. Relative speed and reduction of kilovoltage obtained with the constant exposure technique were calculated. The advantages of fast radiographic systems are pointed out...

  18. Visual simulation of radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laguna, G.

    1985-01-01

    A method for computer simulation of radiographs has been added to the LLNL version of the solid modeler TIPS-1 (Technical Information Processing System-1). This new tool will enable an engineer to compare an actual radiograph of a solid to its computer-generated counterpart. The appearance of discrepancies between the two can be an indication of flaws in the solid object. Simulated radiographs can also be used to preview the placement of x-ray sources to focus on areas of concern before actual radiographs are made

  19. Automating the radiographic NDT process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.K.

    1988-01-01

    Automation, the removal of the human element in inspection has not been generally applied to film radiographic NDT. The justification for automation is not only productivity but also reliability of results. Film remains in the automated system of the future because of its extremely high image content, approximately 3x10 (to the power of nine) bits per 14x17. This is equivalent to 2200 computer floppy disks parts handling systems and robotics applied for manufacturing and some NDT modalities, should now be applied to film radiographic NDT systems. Automatic film handling can be achieved with the daylight NDT film handling system. Automatic film processing is becoming the standard in industry and can be coupled to the daylight system. Robots offer the opportunity to automate fully the exposure step. Finally, a computer aided interpretation appears on the horizon. A unit which laser scans a 14x27 (inch) film in 6-8 seconds can digitize film in information for further manipulation and possible automatic interrogations (computer aided interpretation). The system called FDRS (for film digital radiography system) is moving toward 50 micron (16 lines/mm) resolution. This is believed to meet the need of the majority of image content needs. (Author). 4 refs.; 21 figs

  20. Radiographic and Clinical Analysis of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shillito, Matthew; Soong, Maximillian; Martin, Nicholas

    2017-06-01

    The literature suggests that radiographs may be unnecessary in the initial evaluation of lateral epicondylitis because treatment is rarely altered as a result of the radiographic findings. The most commonly reported radiographic finding is calcification at the lateral epicondyle. Our goal was to perform a quantitative and qualitative analysis of this finding to determine its importance and possible relationship with various clinical factors and patient-reported measures. All patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis by a single surgeon during a 5-year period were retrospectively reviewed. Age, sex, laterality, hand dominance, pain visual analog scale, duration of symptoms, Quick-Disability of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand questionnaire score, and history of steroid injection were recorded. Calcifications on standard elbow radiographs, acquired digitally and viewed at 200% magnification on a 24-inch monitor, were characterized by size and relationship with the lateral epicondyle. We reviewed 245 patients diagnosed with lateral epicondylitis. A total of 115 elbows (47%) demonstrated lateral epicondyle calcifications. Patients with and without calcifications were similar with regard to clinical factors, as were patients with larger or smaller lesions. Eighty-five elbows (35%) had additional radiographic findings. Treatment was not altered by the radiographic findings in any case. Lateral epicondyle calcifications are much more common in lateral epicondylitis than previously reported, possibly owing to modern digital radiography and magnification, although they do not appear to be related to clinical factors including patient-reported measures. Thus, patients and surgeons should be careful to avoid overinterpretation of such findings. Although radiographs may be helpful in ruling out additional pathology, we did not find other clinically important contributions to the initial evaluation and management of this condition, and thus we do not recommend their routine use

  1. Digital mammography; Mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, M.; Torres, R.

    2010-07-01

    Mammography represents one of the most demanding radiographic applications, simultaneously requiring excellent contrast sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. Film/screen is the most widely extended image receptor in mammography due to both its high spatial resolution and contrast. The film/screen limitations are related with its narrow latitude, structural noise and that is at the same time the medium for the image acquisition, storage and presentation. Several digital detector made with different technologies can overcome these difficulties. Here, these technologies as well as their main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. Also it is discussed its impact on the mammography examinations, mainly on the breast screening programs. (Author).

  2. Black Lung Benefits Act: standards for chest radiographs. Direct final rule; request for comments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-13

    Physicians and adjudicators use chest radiographs (X-rays) as a tool in evaluating whether a coal miner suffers from pneumoconiosis (black lung disease). Accordingly, the Department's regulations implementing the Black Lung Benefits Act allow the submission of radiographs in connection with benefit claims and set out quality standards for their performance. These standards are currently limited to film radiographs. In recent years, many medical facilities have phased out film radiography in favor of digital radiography. This direct final rule updates the existing film-radiograph standards and provides parallel standards for digital radiographs. This rule also updates outdated terminology and removes certain obsolete provisions.

  3. Diagnostic performance of dental students in identifying mandibular condyle fractures by panoramic radiography and the usefulness of reference images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Bong Hae

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic performance of dental students in detection of mandibular condyle fractures and the effectiveness of reference panoramic images. Forty-six undergraduates evaluated 25 panoramic radiographs for condylar fractures and the data were analyzed through receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. After a month, they were divided into two homogeneous groups based on the first results and re-evaluated the images with (group A) or without (group B) reference images. Eight reference images included indications showing either typical condylar fractures or anatomic structures which could be confused with fractures. Paired t-test was used for statistical analysis of the difference between the first and the second evaluations for each group, and student's t-test was used between the two groups in the second evaluation. The intra- and inter-observer agreements were evaluated with Kappa statistics. Intra- and inter-observer agreements were substantial (k=0.66) and moderate (k=0.53), respectively. The area under the ROC curve (Az) in the first evaluation was 0.802. In the second evaluation, it was increased to 0.823 for group A and 0.814 for group B. The difference between the first and second evaluations for group A was statistically significant (p<0.05), however there was no statistically significant difference between the two groups in the second evaluation. Providing reference images to less experienced clinicians would be a good way to improve the diagnostic ability in detecting condylar fracture.

  4. The one-leg standing radiograph

    OpenAIRE

    Pinsornsak, P.; Naratrikun, K.; Kanitnate, S.; Sangkomkamhang, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the joint space width between one-leg and both-legs standing radiographs in order to diagnose a primary osteoarthritis of the knee. Methods Digital radiographs of 100 medial osteoarthritic knees in 50 patients were performed. The patients had undergone one-leg standing anteroposterior (AP) views by standing on the affected leg while a both-legs standing AP view was undertaken while standing on both legs. The severity of the osteoarthritis wa...

  5. Image rejects/retakes--radiographic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waaler, D; Hofmann, B

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5 %. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter-subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted.

  6. Image rejects/retakes-radiographic challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waaler, D.; Hofmann, B.

    2010-01-01

    A general held position among radiological personnel prior to digitalisation was that the problem of image rejects/retakes should more or less vanish. However, rejects/retakes still impose several challenges within radiographic imaging; they occupy unnecessary resources, expose patients to unnecessary ionizing radiation and may also indicate suboptimal quality management. The latter is the main objective of this paper, which is based on a survey of international papers published both for screen/film and digital technology. The digital revolution in imaging seems to have reduced the percentage of image rejects/retakes from 10-15 to 3-5%. The major contribution to the decrease appears to be the dramatic reduction of incorrect exposures. At the same time, rejects/retakes due to lack of operator competence (positioning, etc.) are almost unchanged, or perhaps slightly increased (due to lack of proper technical competence, incorrect organ coding, etc.). However, the causes of rejects/retakes are in many cases defined and reported with reference to radiographers' subjective evaluations. Thus, unless radiographers share common views on image quality and acceptance criteria, objective measurements and assessments of reject/retake rates are challenging tasks. Interestingly, none of the investigated papers employs image quality parameters such as 'too much noise' as categories for rejects/retakes. Surprisingly, no reject/retake analysis seems yet to have been conducted for direct digital radiography departments. An increased percentage of rejects/retakes is related to 'digital skills' of radiographers and therefore points to areas for extended education and training. Furthermore, there is a need to investigate the inter subjectivity of radiographers' perception of, and attitude towards, both technical and clinical image quality criteria. Finally, there may be a need to validate whether reject/retake rate analysis is such an effective quality indicator as has been asserted

  7. A radiographic study on the mucosal cyst of the maxillary sinus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Eun Chun; Kim, Jae Duck [Dept. of Oral Radiology, College of Dentistry, Chosun University, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-08-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the role Waters' view and panoramic view for the interpretation of mucosal cyst of the maxillary sinus and to determine the radiographic features of that according to the sites and sizes. For this study, clinically 25 cases of mucosal cyst of the maxillary sinus were used, and experimentally with who dry skulls, rubber ball of 15 mm in diameter for marked radiopacity, and two jelly balls of 8 and 20 mm in diameter for the similar radiopacity to cyst were used. The 25 cases with 25 panoramic views and 15 Waters' views were first analyzed, and secondly, the radiographic features of artificial lesions attached to the each wall of the antrum on Waters' view and panoramic view were analyzed. The obtained results were as follows: At clinical analysis, 1. 4 cases of 13-14 mm, 4 cases of 15-19 mm, 14 cases of 20-25 mm, 3 cases of over 30 mm in diameter were found on panoramic views. And 24 cases of 25 cases showed no relationship with teeth, and only 1 case was associated with advanced periodontal disease. 2. The majority of mucosal cysts appeared to arise the posterior portion of the floor of the sinus and were superimposed with the inominate line of zygoma and the horizontally linear image of hard palate on panoramic view. 3. Only 2 cases of 15 cases were identified on both films.At experimental analysis, 4. On Waters' view, the images of the artificial lesion of the anterior portion and midportion of the floor of the sinus were lessened in diameter compared with the real size. On panoramic views, the images of the lesion were more radiolucent with lessened diameter than images on Waters' view. 5. The images of the lesion of the posterior wall and the posterior portion of the floor of sinus on panoramic view were well detected by the preedjucated group but not or poorly detected by the non-preeducated observer group. 6. On Waters' view, both observer groups recognized that the cystic images of the

  8. Progress in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappelle, A.

    2016-01-01

    Because of its practical aspect digital radiography is more and more used in the industrial sector. There are 2 kinds of digital radiography. First, the 'computed radiography' that uses a photon-stimulated screen, and after radiation exposure this screen must be read by an analyser to get a digit image. The second type is the 'direct radiography' that allows one to get a digit radiograph of the object directly. Digital radiography uses the same radioactive nuclides as radiography with silver films: cobalt, iridium or selenium. The spatial resolution of digital radiography is less good than with classical silver film radiography but digital radiography offers a better visual contrast. (A.C.)

  9. Legalities of the radiograph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bundy, A.L.

    1988-01-01

    The radiograph itself plays a major role in medical malpractice cases. Also, many questions arise concerning the rights to and storage of x-ray films. These issues are addressed in this chapter. To keep the terminology simple, the word radiograph represents all imaging documentation on hard copy film (x-rays, nuclear medicine, computer-assisted studies, ultrasound, and magnetic resonance imaging)

  10. Digital X-Radiography Scanning Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Generates digital X-radiographic images of sediment cores that portray density variations, sediment stratigraphy, bioturbation, and inclusions.DESCRIPTION:...

  11. The Yosemite Extreme Panoramic Imaging Project: Monitoring Rockfall in Yosemite Valley with High-Resolution, Three-Dimensional Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stock, G. M.; Hansen, E.; Downing, G.

    2008-12-01

    Yosemite Valley experiences numerous rockfalls each year, with over 600 rockfall events documented since 1850. However, monitoring rockfall activity has proved challenging without high-resolution "basemap" imagery of the Valley walls. The Yosemite Extreme Panoramic Imaging Project, a partnership between the National Park Service and xRez Studio, has created an unprecedented image of Yosemite Valley's walls by utilizing gigapixel panoramic photography, LiDAR-based digital terrain modeling, and three-dimensional computer rendering. Photographic capture was accomplished by 20 separate teams shooting from key overlapping locations throughout Yosemite Valley. The shots were taken simultaneously in order to ensure uniform lighting, with each team taking over 500 overlapping shots from each vantage point. Each team's shots were then assembled into 20 gigapixel panoramas. In addition, all 20 gigapixel panoramas were projected onto a 1 meter resolution digital terrain model in three-dimensional rendering software, unifying Yosemite Valley's walls into a vertical orthographic view. The resulting image reveals the geologic complexity of Yosemite Valley in high resolution and represents one of the world's largest photographic captures of a single area. Several rockfalls have already occurred since image capture, and repeat photography of these areas clearly delineates rockfall source areas and failure dynamics. Thus, the imagery has already proven to be a valuable tool for monitoring and understanding rockfall in Yosemite Valley. It also sets a new benchmark for the quality of information a photographic image, enabled with powerful new imaging technology, can provide for the earth sciences.

  12. Mesiodistal tooth angulation to segmental occlusal plane in panoramic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo; You, Choong Hyun

    2005-01-01

    To evaluate the stability of the segmental occlusal plane and anatomical line as the reference line for measuring the mesiodistal tooth angulation in panoramic radiography and to determine the mean angle and the range of the mesiodistal tooth angulation in Korean population with normal occlusions. Twenty nine subjects (15 men, 14 women) with normal occlusion were selected. A total of 29 panoramic radiograms were taken at normal head position and then 10 images of 5 subjects selected were repeatedly taken with repositioning 2 times at each of the head down (V-shaped occlusion) and up (horizontal occulsion) for evaluation of stability of adopted reference lines by using PM2002CC (Planmeca, Finland). The images were traced with adoption of two test reference lines and the long axes of the teeth. The mesial angles formed by each reference line and the long axes of the teeth were measured and analyzed. With anatomical reference line, the mesiodistal tooth angulations of the molars showed the significant difference by over 5 degree between the normal and each changed head position. With segmented occlusal reference line, deviations of mesiodistal tooth angulations by the two changed head positions were less than 1 degree. The means, standard deviations, and maximum and minimum values of mesiodistal tooth angulations to segmental occlusal reference line on panoramic radiography were determined. It would appear that mesiodistal tooth angulations to segmental occlusal plane as reference line in panograms are predictable as standards of normal occlusion and useful for evaluation of tooth arrangement between adjacent teeth.

  13. Mesiodistal tooth angulation to segmental occlusal plane in panoramic radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jae Duk; Kim, Jin Soo; You, Choong Hyun [Chosun University College of Medicine, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    To evaluate the stability of the segmental occlusal plane and anatomical line as the reference line for measuring the mesiodistal tooth angulation in panoramic radiography and to determine the mean angle and the range of the mesiodistal tooth angulation in Korean population with normal occlusions. Twenty nine subjects (15 men, 14 women) with normal occlusion were selected. A total of 29 panoramic radiograms were taken at normal head position and then 10 images of 5 subjects selected were repeatedly taken with repositioning 2 times at each of the head down (V-shaped occlusion) and up (horizontal occulsion) for evaluation of stability of adopted reference lines by using PM2002CC (Planmeca, Finland). The images were traced with adoption of two test reference lines and the long axes of the teeth. The mesial angles formed by each reference line and the long axes of the teeth were measured and analyzed. With anatomical reference line, the mesiodistal tooth angulations of the molars showed the significant difference by over 5 degree between the normal and each changed head position. With segmented occlusal reference line, deviations of mesiodistal tooth angulations by the two changed head positions were less than 1 degree. The means, standard deviations, and maximum and minimum values of mesiodistal tooth angulations to segmental occlusal reference line on panoramic radiography were determined. It would appear that mesiodistal tooth angulations to segmental occlusal plane as reference line in panograms are predictable as standards of normal occlusion and useful for evaluation of tooth arrangement between adjacent teeth.

  14. TU-FG-209-09: Mathematical Estimation and Experimental Measurement of Patient Free-In-Air Skin Entrance Exposure During a Panoramic Dental X-Ray Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Errico, A; Behrman, R; Li, B [Boston University Medical Center, Boston, MA (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a simple mathematical model for estimating the patient free-in-air skin entrance exposure (SEE) during a panoramic dental x-ray that does not require the use of a head phantom. This eliminates issues associated with phantom centering and the mounting of a detector on the phantom for routine QC testing. Methods: We used a Sirona Orthophos XG panoramic radiographic unit and a Radcal Accu-Gold system for this study. A solid state detector was attached over the slit of the Orthophos’ sensor with the help of a custom-built jig. A single measurement of the free-in-air exposure at this position was taken over a full panoramic scan. A mathematical model for estimating the SEE was developed based upon this measurement, the system geometry, x-ray field beam width, and x-ray sweep angle. To validate the model, patient geometry was simulated by a 16 cm diameter PMMA CTDI phantom centered at the machine’s isocenter. Measurements taken on the phantom’s surface were made using a solid state detector with lead backing, an ion chamber, and the ion chamber with the phantom wrapped in lead to mitigate backscatter. Measurements were taken near the start position of the tube and at 90 degrees from the start position. Results: Using the solid state detector, the average SEE was 23.5+/−0.02 mR and 55.5+/−0.08 mR at 64 kVp and 73 kVp, respectively. With the lead-wrapping, the measurements from the ion chamber matched those of the solid state detector to within 0.1%. Preliminary results gave the difference between the mathematical model and the phantom measurements to be approximately 5% at both kVps. Conclusion: Reasonable estimates of patient SEE for panoramic dental radiography can be made using a simple mathematical model without the need for a head phantom.

  15. TU-FG-209-09: Mathematical Estimation and Experimental Measurement of Patient Free-In-Air Skin Entrance Exposure During a Panoramic Dental X-Ray Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Errico, A; Behrman, R; Li, B

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a simple mathematical model for estimating the patient free-in-air skin entrance exposure (SEE) during a panoramic dental x-ray that does not require the use of a head phantom. This eliminates issues associated with phantom centering and the mounting of a detector on the phantom for routine QC testing. Methods: We used a Sirona Orthophos XG panoramic radiographic unit and a Radcal Accu-Gold system for this study. A solid state detector was attached over the slit of the Orthophos’ sensor with the help of a custom-built jig. A single measurement of the free-in-air exposure at this position was taken over a full panoramic scan. A mathematical model for estimating the SEE was developed based upon this measurement, the system geometry, x-ray field beam width, and x-ray sweep angle. To validate the model, patient geometry was simulated by a 16 cm diameter PMMA CTDI phantom centered at the machine’s isocenter. Measurements taken on the phantom’s surface were made using a solid state detector with lead backing, an ion chamber, and the ion chamber with the phantom wrapped in lead to mitigate backscatter. Measurements were taken near the start position of the tube and at 90 degrees from the start position. Results: Using the solid state detector, the average SEE was 23.5+/−0.02 mR and 55.5+/−0.08 mR at 64 kVp and 73 kVp, respectively. With the lead-wrapping, the measurements from the ion chamber matched those of the solid state detector to within 0.1%. Preliminary results gave the difference between the mathematical model and the phantom measurements to be approximately 5% at both kVps. Conclusion: Reasonable estimates of patient SEE for panoramic dental radiography can be made using a simple mathematical model without the need for a head phantom.

  16. Development of optimized techniques and requirements for computer enhancement of structural weld radiographs. Volume 1: Technical report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, J. R.; Hawley, S. W.; Peterson, G. R.; Salinger, S. S.; Workman, R. A.

    1971-01-01

    A hardware and software specification covering requirements for the computer enhancement of structural weld radiographs was considered. Three scanning systems were used to digitize more than 15 weld radiographs. The performance of these systems was evaluated by determining modulation transfer functions and noise characteristics. Enhancement techniques were developed and applied to the digitized radiographs. The scanning parameters of spot size and spacing and film density were studied to optimize the information content of the digital representation of the image.

  17. Digital radiographic evaluation of optical density of porcelains used for fabrication of inlay/onlay prosthesis Avaliação da densidade óptica de porcelanas usadas para confecção de próteses inlay/onlay por meio de radiografia digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio Cezar de Melo Castilho

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article was to compare the mean value of optical density of four porcelains commonly used for fabrication of inlay/onlay prostheses using direct digital radiograph. The sample consisted of 20 2-mm thick porcelain specimens (measured by digital pachymeter: Empress (Ivoclair, Simbios (Degussa, Vita Omega 900 and Vitadur Alpha (Vita Zahnfabrik. The values of optical density of the specimens were expressed in millimeters aluminum equivalent (mm eq Al. The samples were X-rayed using two charge coupled devices (CCD - RVG (Trophy - Visualix (Gendex and a phosphor plate system - Digora (Soredex. The optical density reading was performed with Image Tool 1.28 in a total of 110 measurements. Statistical analysis showed that there were statistically significant differences in all materials studied (p Objetivo desse trabalho é comparar valores médios de densidade óptica de quatro porcelanas comumente utilizadas para confecção de inlay/onlay por meio da densidade óptica usando radiografia digital. A amostra constou de 20 corpos de prova com espessura de 2mm (mensurados em paquímetro digital das porcelanas: Empress (Ivoclair, Simbios (Degussa, Vita Omega 900 e Vitadur Alpha (Vita Zahnfabrik. Os valores de densidade óptica das amostras foram expressos em milímetros equivalente em alumínio (mm eq Al. Os espécimes foram radiografados, utilizando dois sistemas de dispositivo de carga acoplada (CCD - RVG (Trophy - Visualix (Gendex e um sistema de placa de fósforo - Digora (Soredex. A leitura da densidade óptica foi realizada no programa Image Tool 1.28 totalizando 110 medições. As leituras de densidade ópticas foram feitas no programa Image Tool 1.28 totalizando 110 mensurações. A análise estatística demonstrou que houve diferença estatisticamente significante entre a densidade óptica das porcelanas estudadas independentemente do sistema de radiografia empregado (p < 0,05. A porcelana Omega 900 obteve 1,8988mmeq

  18. Producing quality radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullinan, A.M.

    1987-01-01

    This book gives an overview of physics, equipment, imaging, and quality assurance in the radiology department. The chapters are laid out with generous use of subheads to allow for quick reference, Points are illustrated with clear, uncluttered line diagrams and well-produced images. The accompanying explanations are miniature lessons by themselves. Inserted at various points throughout the text are important notes that highlight key concepts. The chapter ''Image Evaluation and Application of Radiographic Principles'' present a systematic approach to evaluating radiographs and contains several sample radiographs to illustrate the points made

  19. Evaluation of body simulator for chest and abdomen in digital X-ray equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, Sidney S.; Cardoso, Gabriela P.; Oliveira, Giovanni Antônio P.; Batista, Adriana S.M.; Pereira, Esther Lorrayne M.

    2017-01-01

    The use of body simulators to control the quality of X-ray images is a practice that guarantees the control of essential parameters for diagnosis by the technique. The evolution of the equipment, between the analogue, digital computerized radiology (CR) and direct radiography (DR), requires evaluation of the equivalence in grayscale, of simulators, for an adjustment according to the specific technology of obtaining the image. In this sense, the present work presents the evaluation of a body simulator with regard to the representation of mean values of signal, noise and contrast obtained in chest radiographs and panoramic of the abdomen. For the thorax the cardiac region was considered as simulation target and for the abdomen simulation of the liver and small intestine. We used a retrospective study of images obtained with X-ray equipment - CR system, in which the images were studied using the ImageJ program, generating a data catalog. These were subsequently compared with those obtained experimentally using gel filled polymer body simulator. For the validation of the simulator, it was observed the gel equivalence of filling of the polymer box required to reach the image parameters of the cataloged radiographs. The results are discussed as to the physical principles of radiation interaction with biological and equivalent tissues

  20. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shokri, A bbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, taurodontism, and dens invagination); (b) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia, and hyperdontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and dentin dysplasia); and (d) position (including displacement, impaction, and dilacerations). The reliability between the two observers was 79.56% according to the Kappa statistics. The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 29%. Anomalies of position and number were the most common types of abnormalities, and anomalies of shape and structure were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (44.76%), dilacerations (21.11%), hypodontia (15.88%), taurodontism (9.29%), and hyperdontia (6.76%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. The anomalies of shape and number were more common in the age groups of 7-12 years and 13-15 years, respectively, while the anomalies of structure and position were more common among the other age groups. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies, and structure anomalies were the least in this Iranian population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies.

  1. Prevalence of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old people in Hamadan, Iran in 2012-2013 as observed using panoramic radiographys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, A bbas; Poorolajal, Jalal; Khajeh, Samira; Faramarzi, Farhad; Kahnamoui, Hanieh Mogaver [Hamadan University of Medical Sciences, Hamadan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    This study was performed to evaluate the prevalence of all types and subtypes of dental anomalies among 7- to 35-year-old patients by using panoramic radiographs. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 1649 people in Hamadan City, in 2012-2013. The prevalence of four types and 12 subtypes of dental anomalies was evaluated by two observers separately by using panoramic radiography. Dental anomalies were divided into four types: (a) shape (including fusion, taurodontism, and dens invagination); (b) number (including hypodontia, oligodontia, and hyperdontia); (c) structure (including amelogenesis imperfecta, dentinogenesis imperfecta, and dentin dysplasia); and (d) position (including displacement, impaction, and dilacerations). The reliability between the two observers was 79.56% according to the Kappa statistics. The prevalence of dental anomalies diagnosed by panoramic radiographs was 29%. Anomalies of position and number were the most common types of abnormalities, and anomalies of shape and structure were the least in both genders. Anomalies of impaction (44.76%), dilacerations (21.11%), hypodontia (15.88%), taurodontism (9.29%), and hyperdontia (6.76%) were the most common subtypes of dental anomalies. The anomalies of shape and number were more common in the age groups of 7-12 years and 13-15 years, respectively, while the anomalies of structure and position were more common among the other age groups. Anomalies of tooth position were the most common type of dental anomalies, and structure anomalies were the least in this Iranian population. The frequency and type of dental anomalies vary within and between populations, confirming the role of racial factors in the prevalence of dental anomalies.

  2. Rapidly processable radiographic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brabandere, L.A. de; Borginon, H.A.; Pattyn, H.A.; Pollet, R.J.

    1981-01-01

    A new rapidly processable radiographic silver halide material is described for use in mammography and non-destructive testing of industrial materials. The radiographic material is used for direct exposure to penetrating radiation without the use of fluorescent-intensifying screens. It consists of a transparent support with a layer of hydrophilic colloid silver halide emulsion on one or both sides. Examples of the preparation of three different silver halide emulsions are given including the use of different chemical sensitizers. These new radiographic materials have good resistance to the formation of pressure marks in rapid processing apparatus and they have improved sensitivity for direct exposure to penetrating radiation compared to conventional radiographic emulsions. (U.K.)

  3. Assessment of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool: review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo [School of Dentistry, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-03-15

    The purpose of this review is to evaluate the possibility of panoramic radiography as a national oral examination tool. This report was carried out by review of the literatures. Panoramic radiography has sufficient diagnostic accuracy in dental caries, periodontal diseases, and other lesions. Also, the effective dose of panoramic radiography is lower than traditional full-mouth periapical radiography. Panoramic radiography will improve the efficacy of dental examination in national oral examination. However, more studies are required to evaluate the benefit, financial cost, and operation time and also to make selection criteria and quality management program.

  4. Panoramic Images Mapping Tools Integrated Within the ESRI ArcGIS Software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Jiao; Zhong, Ruofei; Zeng, Fanyang

    2014-01-01

    There is a general study on panoramic images which are presented along with appearance of the Google street map. Despite 360 degree viewing of street, we can realize more applications over panoramic images. This paper developed a toolkits plugged in ArcGIS, which can view panoramic photographs at street level directly from ArcMap and measure and capture all visible elements as frontages, trees and bridges. We use a series of panoramic images adjoined with absolute coordinate through GPS and IMU. There are two methods in this paper to measure object from these panoramic images: one is to intersect object position through a stereogram; the other one is multichip matching involved more than three images which all cover the object. While someone wants to measure objects from these panoramic images, each two panoramic images which both contain the object can be chosen to display on ArcMap. Then we calculate correlation coefficient of the two chosen panoramic images so as to calculate the coordinate of object. Our study test different patterns of panoramic pairs and compare the results of measurement to the real value of objects so as to offer the best choosing suggestion. The article has mainly elaborated the principles of calculating correlation coefficient and multichip matching

  5. Radiographic manifestations of hypochondroplasia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heselson, N G; Cremin, B J [Groote Schuur Hospital, Cape Town (South Africa); Beighton, P

    1979-01-01

    Hypochrondroplasia is an inherited skeletal dysplasia that resembles achondroplasia in mild degree. Radiographic manifestations encountered in 12 affected individuals in South Africa include slight shortening of all segments of the tubular bones, moderate caudal diminution of the lumbar interpedicular distances, increased lumbar lordosis with cacral tilt and distal prolongation of the fibular. Hypochondroplasia can be distinguished from other osteochondrodystrophies such as achondroplasia, pseudo-achondroplasia and metaphyseal chondroplasia by the recognition of it clinical and radiographic manifestations.

  6. Gout: radiographic findings mimicking infection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, I.; Raymond-Tremblay, D.; Cardinal, E.; Beauregard, C.G.; Braunstein, E.M.; Saint-Pierre, A.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To describe radiographic features of gout that may mimic infection. Design and patients: We report five patients with acute bacterial gout who presented with clinical as well as radiological findings mimicking acute bacterial septic arthritis or osteomyelitis. Three patients had delay in the appropriate treatment with the final diagnosis being established after needle aspiration and identification of urate crystals under polarized light microscopy. Two patients underwent digit amputation for not responding to antibiotic treatment and had histological findings confirming the diagnosis of gout. Conclusion: It is important for the radiologist to be aware of the radiological manifestations of acute gout that can resemble infection in order to avoid inappropriate diagnosis and delay in adequate treatment. The definitive diagnosis should rely on needle aspiration and a specific search for urate crystals. (orig.)

  7. THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PANORAMIC MAPS DESIGN: A PRELIMINARY STUDY BASED ON MOBILE EYE-TRACKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Balzarini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents preliminary results from an ongoing research based on the study of vi