Yerkezhan Zhumakankyzy Akhmetzaki
Full Text Available The paper examines the potential determinants of foreign direct investment inflows into the region of Eurasian Economic Union, as well as incentives for investment into other neighboring countries. In the first model, the authors test a hypothesis on country specific foreign direct investment determinants for the Eurasian Economic Union region. The results of fixed effects estimation show that gross domestic product, infrastructure development and secondary education enrollment have a positive statistically significant effect on the foreign direct investment inflows into the region. Conversely, the impact of Customs Union on foreign direct investment appeared to be negative. Furthermore, in the second model of the natural experiment, the authors empirically test the hypothesis on Customs Union’s effect on foreign direct investment while controlling for both country and time effects. The model includes evaluating the impact of the policy change on foreign investment inflows. The natural experiment outcome also points to the negative effect of Eurasian economic integration on foreign direct investment inflows. Although the countries of Eurasian Economic Union have relatively business friendly regulations, such procedures as enforcing contracts, resolving insolvencies and dealing with construction permits are time-consuming. For attracting foreign investment, it is advisable to facilitate such procedures and make the process of setting up a new business less onerous. The research can be used as an outline for further examining of Eurasian economic integration and apart from that, the study results can be applied for practical purposes of policy elaboration aimed at stimulating foreign direct investment into the Eurasian Economic Union.
Uren, Kenneth R.; Schoor, George van; Rand, Carel P. du; Botha, Anrika
Highlights: • An integrated sensor fault detection and isolation method for nuclear power plants. • Utilise techniques such as non-temporal parity space and principal component analysis. • Utilise statistical methods and fuzzy systems for sensor fault isolation. • Allow the detection of multiple sensor faults. • Proposed methodology suitable for online implementation. - Abstract: Sensor fault detection and isolation (FDI) is an important element in modern nuclear power plant (NPP) diagnostic systems. In this respect, sensor FDI of generation II and III water-cooled nuclear energy systems has become an active research topic to continually improve levels of reliability, safety, and operation. However, evolutionary advances in reactor and component technology together with different energy conversion methodologies support the investigation of alternative approaches to sensor FDI. Within this context, the basic aim of this two part series is to propose, implement and evaluate an integrated approach for sensor FDI and signal reconstruction in generation IV nuclear high temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTGRs). In part I of this two part series, the methodology and theoretical background of the integrated sensor FDI and signal reconstruction approach are given. This approach combines techniques such as non-temporal parity space analysis (PSA), principal component analysis (PCA), sensor fusion and fuzzy decision systems to form a more powerful sensor FDI methodology that exploits the strengths of the individual techniques. An illustrative example of the PCA algorithm is given making use of actual data retrieved from a pilot plant called the pebble bed micro model (PBMM). This is a prototype gas turbine power plant based on the first design configuration of the pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR). In part II, the described integrated sensor fault detection approach will be evaluated by means of two case studies. In the first case study the approach will be evaluated
Full Text Available This research challenges the contemporary view of economic policy makers in transition European economies that the EU integration process will lead to a greater inflow of Foreign Direct Investments (FDI, thereby increasing living standards. With the Brexit referendum, the integration of the EU has been threatened by a distressing existential question: is EU membership valuable for transition countries if even developed countries (like the UK vote to leave or decided not to align like Switzerland and Norway in the past? Our analysis considers the success of several countries in Eastern Europe in attracting and benefiting from FDI on their way to EU membership. Analyzing a 13-year panel data of 16 transition countries, we found no statistically significant positive association between FDI inflow and EU accession. We argue, that it is also important to consider the welfare for domestic economies that can emerge from those investments. We illustrate this through the case study of a successful combination of institutional development and local content policies implementation accompanied by sufficient FDI inflows in a non-EU country - Kazakhstan.
Jindra, B.; Hassan, S. S.; Gunther, J.
countries (CEECs) within the EU 27 (1996-2010). We find that the EU integration process is related with increasing importance of market access and less emphasis on labour cost advantages. We find heterogeneity in the valuation of foreign knowledge-related assets. The location probability within the EU15......The European Union (EU) Member States in central and eastern Europe (CEE) witnessed a surge in outward foreign direct investment (OFDI) between 2000 and the start of the global financial crisis. This article investigates whether the European integration process altered the relative importance...
Full Text Available Southeast European countries have experienced significant economic integration into the world economy since 2000, through international capital flows and especially foreign direct investment (FDI. The work sheds light on recent trends in Italy-Western Balkans economic integration through FDI and other non-equity modes (NEMs. The methodology applied is based on country-level analysis, enriched by a case study approach. Main trends, characteristics and motivation of investments in the area are investigated. Based on this evidence, we suggest that the phenomenon of Italian integration in the Western Balkans is broader than official statistics would indicate, since Italian firms often set up subsidiaries through various non-equity arrangements. The surge in FDI in the area is recent, therefore it is not surprising that the main determinants are cost reductions and new market opportunities. What is interesting in this context is that local entrepreneurs regard efficiency-seeking investments as profitable only if they are connected to market-seeking goals. We find evidence also of localized industrial development stimulated by the entry of Italian firms, which is activating subcontracting relationships with existing companies in the host region. Further and in depth studies are needed to investigate the phenomenon
Bujac, Andreea Ioana; Corado Cretu, Emanuel
Conducting a systematic literature review on the topic of FDI and Economic Growth and investigating this relationship, along with the determinants of an economy that attract FDI and the externalities resulting from Foreign activities, it is found that FDI does have a positive effect on a host...... country’s economic growth but only with the preexistence of certain determinants which facilitate the absorption capacity of the host country on reaping the spillover effects (externalities) of FDI. Lastly, a framework was built to illustrate the interaction between FDI, Determinants and condition...... of the host economy, barriers to growth, economic growth and externalities....
FDI = Foreign direct investment. - Eesti õigusaktidest (välisinvesteeringute seadus, tulumaksuseadus, äriseadustik, litsentsimine), rahvusvahelistest lepingutest, topeltmaksustamise vältimise lepingutest
Arpaia, P; Lucariello, G; Spiezia, G
At European Centre of Nuclear Research (CERN), within the new Large Hadron Collider (LHC) project, measurements of magnetic flux with uncertainty of 10 ppm at a few of decades of Hz for several minutes are required. With this aim, a new Fast Digital Integrator (FDI) has been developed in cooperation with University of Sannio, Italy . This paper deals with the final design tuning for achieving target uncertainty by means of experimental statistical parameter design.
Savornin, M.; Furet, M.
As a result of technological progress it is now possible to achieve more elaborate protection functions able to follow more closely the phenomena to be supervised. For this reason the CEA, Framatome and Merlin/Gerin/CERCI have undertaken in commonn to develop a Digital Integrated Protection System (D.I.P.S.). This system is designed with the following aims: to improve the safety of the station, . to improve its availability, . to facilitate installation, . to facilitate tests and maintenance. The main characteristics adopted are: . possibilities of obtaining more elaborate monitoring and protection algorithm treatments, . order 4 redundancy of transducers, associated instruments and signal processing, . possibility of inhibiting part of the protection system, . standardisation of equipment, physical and electrical separation of redundant units, . use of multiplexed connections, . automation of tests. Four flow charts are presented: - DIPS with four APUP (Acquisition and Processing Unit for Protection) - APUP - LSU (Logic Safeguard Unit), number LSU corresponding to number fluidic safeguard circuits, - structure of a function unit, - main functions of the APUP [fr
ABSTRACT Since 1991, after the external payment crisis in India, there has been liberalization of various policies by the Government of India. Due to this there has been rapid surge of FDI inflows in India. The current investment climate has attracted many foreign investors to India in various sectors. India is considered as one of the favorable destination of FDI. However the country also suffers from few weaknesses and constraints in terms of policy and regulatory framework, which rest...
In 1963, Ivan Sutherland at MIT in his doctoral dissertation, “Sketchpad” introduced a program that has hence been broadly acknowledged as a major step towards drawing digitally. 43 years later the majority of industrial designers within diverse businesses to a high degree still lean upon the use...... of the original “paper and pencil” tools and procedures for conceptual sketching of product style. Through presentation of literature studies and by case studies in the fashion business (eyewear design), this paper puts forward why the penetration of digital tools and methodologies for conceptual styling so far...... has been low. This paper advocates for a paradigm shift. The claim is that implementing digital tools and methodologies is a necessity in order to heighten concept generation productivity - and the outcome. For businesses seeking incremental as well as radical innovation there is no alternative....
In this paper, we examine how the future age structure of the nation helps explaining the current ratio of FPI over FDI in a country’s foreign asset stock. Firstly, we present a theoretical foundation of the relation and then we test it empirically. Theoretical foundations are based on the theore......In this paper, we examine how the future age structure of the nation helps explaining the current ratio of FPI over FDI in a country’s foreign asset stock. Firstly, we present a theoretical foundation of the relation and then we test it empirically. Theoretical foundations are based...... on the theoretical model of Goldstein and Razin (2006). The ratio of FPI over FDI is modelled by using fixed effects unbalanced panel data and Arellano-Bond dynamic panel GMM estimators....
Full Text Available FDI analysis is usually performed within the frame of the win-win hypothesis. However, we believe that certain circumstances (MNEs following their own business objectives, lack of appropriate regulations, non-observance of the arm’s length principle may generate disproportionate advantages at the level of FDI stakeholders. The disequilibrium between reinvested profits and repatriated profits may be viewed as a proof of such disproportionate advantages of stakeholders involved in FDI. In addition to figures showing the comparison between reinvested and repatriated profits, as well as the way in which such indicators vary e.g. in case of abnormal business conditions (global economy collapse, we try to show that lack/misuse of transfer pricing regulations may generate even more disequilibrium, the MNEs using intra-group transactions as an additional way of repatriating non-taxable/low tax profits.
FDI is important in building a sustainable and diversified knowledge-based UAE economy. The stock of FDI grew at an average annual growth rate of 45.3 percent over the past decade reaching US$ 95 billion or nearly 27 percent of GDP in 2012. FDI flows have not recovered from the global financial crises. Most FDI stock is concentrated in finance, construction, and real estate. Recent greenfield FDI is concentrated in construction, while more than half of top M&A deals took place in finance, tra...
Geishecker, Ingo; Nielsen, Jørgen Ulff-Møller; Pawlik, Konrad
This paper investigates the link between export performance and multinational enterprise presence utilizing trade and industry data for Polish manufacturing industries for the years 1994-2002. Decomposing trade into final and intermediate goods and assessing the impact of foreign-owned capital...... on the respective export performance of Polish industries, we suggest a significant role of export-platform FDI into Poland, while the importance of FDI for vertical integration is limited suggesting that the sourcing of intermediate goods from Poland primarily occurs through arm's-length contractual outsourcing...
This paper scrutinizes FDI from a wide range of emerging economies (including newly industrializing Asian countries, Latin American countries and East European transition economies) that adopted different growth models in the past. The overarching research question of this paper is to which...... the integration of firms from different emerging economies via FDI into the global economy is linked to technological upgrading. We assume that technology seeking in advanced economies should be reflected in the relevance of particular location factors such as knowledge spillover. We analyses a large firm level...
Broesch, J.D.; Strait, E.J.; Snider, R.T.
A prototype digital integrator with very long integration capabilities has been developed and field tested on an inductive magnetic sensor on the DIII-D Tokamak. The integrator is being developed for use on ITER with a pulse length of 1000 s, and has direct applications for other long pulse Tokamaks. Inductive magnetic sensors are routinely used on existing Tokamaks, are well understood, and are extremely robust, however, they require integration of the signal to determine the magnetic field strength. The next generation of Tokamaks, will have pulse lengths of 1000 s or longer, require integrators with drift and noise characteristics compatible with the very long pulse lengths. This paper will discuss the architecture, algorithms, and programming of the Long Pulse Integrator (LPI). Of particular interest are the noise control and the built-in offset correction techniques used in this application
Dahlström, Tobias; Johnson, Andreas
This paper adds to the limited number of studies analysing the relationship between host country corruption and FDI inflows. A model describes the incentives foreign MNEs and host country bureaucrats have for engaging in corruption and shows how corruption increases the MNE costs of operations in the host country. The model predicts that the costs caused by corruption reduce FDI inflows. Regression analysis using panel data finds that host country corruption has a significant negative effect ...
In this paper, I first briefly introduce Moon & Roehl’s (1993, 2001) imbalance theory of FDI, then I identify its three deficiencies that may be responsible for the relative lack of impact of the potentially powerful imbalance logic, and then I propose an asymmetry reduction theory (ARC) of FDI...... and explain its aspiration-resource-control (ARC) framework. I conclude the paper with a brief discussion of the OLI framework being a special case of the ARC framework....
Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad
Full Text Available Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis, using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper is that natural resources measured by oil rents have a negative association with FDI inflows; this negative impact is robust even when other FDI determinates of FDI are included. FDI inflows decreased between 0.15 and 0.92% when oil rents increased by 1%. In addition, the empirical results show that trade openness and labour force are the main factors that encourage FDI, while political instability and corruption deter FDI inflows into GCC countries.
Kokko, Ari; Taotao, Chen; Tingvall, Patrick Gustavsson
Using a fixed effect variance decomposition model we estimate SUR models to analyse FDI spillovers from contagion and spillovers from competition on local firms in China. While the former type of spillover mainly depends on the degree of foreign presence, the latter kind is related to how foreign...... and local firms interact. The main conclusion is that FDI has been beneficial for the Chinese economy but that spillovers are not evenly distributed across firms and industries. Spillovers from contagion tend to exhibit an inverse U-shaped pattern with respect to the degree of foreign presence...
Mohamed Mahjoub Elheddad
Natural resources are a blessing for some countries to attract FDI but cursed for others. Existing literature argues the suggestion that resource-rich countries attract less FDI because of resource (oil) price volatility. This study examines that natural resources discourage FDI in GCC countries (the FDI-Natural resources curse hypothesis), using panel data analysis for six oil dependent countries during 1980-2013 and applying several econometrics techniques. The main findings of this paper i...
Hajderllari, Luljeta; Karantininis, Konstantinos; Lawson, Lartey Godwin
We investigate factors affecting Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) outflow from Danish agrifood firms to the rest of the world. We develop a conceptual model and subsequently use a gravity model based on data from 127 countries receiving Danish FDI in agri-food in 2004-2008. We find higher Danish FDI...
Keiser, Bernhard E
What is "digital telephony"? To the authors, the term digital telephony denotes the technology used to provide a completely digital telecommunication system from end-to-end. This implies the use of digital technology from one end instru ment through transmission facilities and switching centers to another end instru ment. Digital telephony has become possible only because of the recent and on going surge of semiconductor developments, allowing microminiaturization and high reliability along with reduced costs. This book deals with both the future and the present. Thus, the first chapter is entitled, "A Network in Transition." As baselines, Chapters 2 and 11 provide the reader with the present status of teler-hone technology in terms of voice digiti zation as well as switching principles. The book is an outgrowth of the authors' consulting and teaching experience in the field since the early 1980s. The book has been written to provide both the engineering student and the practicing engineer a working k...
Jay van Wyk
Full Text Available The explanatory power of institutional and macroeconomic variables for FDI stock accumulation in developing countries is investigated. Hypotheses are tested by means of pooled least squares regressions. The impact of institutional variables on FDI flows produced mixed results: levels of economic freedom facilitate inward FDI; political risk dampens investment. Some macroeconomic variables displayed significant explanatory power: market size (as measured by per capita income in the base year and absolute growth of GDP positively impacts FDI inflows. Other key macroeconomic variables, such as lower current account balance, appreciation of host country’s currency, and lower inflation rate stimulate FDI inflows.
Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI has been viewed as a power affecting economic growth (EG directly and indirectly during the past few decades. Foreign direct investment (FDI in developing countries brings economic development and enhances the international competitiveness of domestic enterprises. It is argued in the existing literature that foreign direct investment (FDI influences economic growth through technology diffusion, human capital formation, etc. FDI accounts for the largest and most important proportion of foreign capital in Albania, which undoubtedly plays an important role in the Albania’s economic development growth. However, as the country’s FDI increases, and in this paper I want to make an empirical research how the FDI has influenced the economic growth of the country. The findings revealed that there is a strong positive relationship between the FDI inflows and the GDP for the studied period which covers 1995 to 2012, thus a positive effect on the economic growth.
Liu, Ying; Li, Ming Hua; Lu, Jiangyong
In this paper we evaluate the mechanisms underlying dynamic linkages between inward FDI and outward internationalization in the Chinese automobile industry. While several studies have examined the relationship between outward and inward investment using empirical data, this is among the first to ...... may be more driven to expand internationally while firms with IJVs may face constraints from venturing abroad. Our study further delineates strategies for how automakers without IJVs may rely on external growth to springboard back into the domestic car market....
We empirically investigate the factors that drive China's outward FDI using dynamic panel methods for 27 countries from 1995 to 2002. Based on the literature review we test three hypotheses: comparative advantages in low wage countries, vertical integration towards resource and human capital
Small, low cost, radar systems have exciting applications in monitoring and imaging for the industrial, healthcare and Internet of Things (IoT) sectors. We here explore, and show the feasibility of, several single bit square wave radar architectures; that benefits from the continuous improvement in digital technologies for system-on-chip digital integration. By analysis, simulation and measurements we explore novel and harmonic-rich continuous wave (CW), stepped-frequency CW (SFCW) and freque...
Agnifili, A.; DiStefano, G.; Salcito, G.; Passariello, R.
This paper reports on a pilot project for the functional integration of digital radiologic equipment. Four different systems (a digital subtraction angiography unit, a DF unit, a computer radiography prototype, and a film digitizer) were connected with a link in an Ethernet LAN.ACR-NEMA standards were used to process the images of the different units in the same way. The central computer manages the long-term optical archive and the film laser printer. Some graphic workstations are connected to the picture archiving and communications system, which allows fast retrieval and processing of the images. Patients; data are acquired through the RIS and stored together with the images
Alismail, Halah Ahmed
In the 21st century, educators believe using technology can be an effective factor in education for the new generation, making educational goals easier to achieve. In fact, technology is being studied by teachers and implemented into classrooms for a positive effect on student learning. Many teachers are integrating multimedia tools in teaching…
Facing the digital world with all it's challenges is not a new situation for librarians, it is just that creative solutions have to be implemented far quicker than what was required in the era of printed publications. Complex libraries comprising collections of preprints, reports, journals, books etc., with all their holdings neatly listed in card catalogues, bibliographies, abstract journals etc., are about to be merged into one unique "simple" information source: the digital library. CERN Scientific information Service is playing an active role in these developments. Digital content is being integrated to the highest possible level in order to meet the requirements of the particle physics community. The paper gives an overview of the steps CERN has made towards the digital library from the day the laboratory conceived the World Wide Web to present.
Kokko, Ari; Kravtsova, Victoria
mainly driven by the development in western Ukraine, whereas inward FDI in eastern Ukraine did not seem to have any impact on local productivity growth and technical change. !ese results arguably reflect deep economic and institutional differences between the two parts of Ukraine, which have led...... to differences in the character of incoming FDI and differences in the ability of local firms to benefit from FDI. The conclusion is that the impact of FDI on the host economy may vary even at the sub-national level, depending on the specific local environment....
Hipple, James D.; Wedding, Daniel K.; Wedding, Donald K., Sr.
The development of an integrated digitizing and display surface, which utilizes touch entry and flat panel display (FPD) technology, is a significant hardware advance in the field of geographic information systems (GIS). Inherent qualities of the FPD, notably the ac gas plasma display, makes such a marriage inevitable. Large diagonal sizes, high resolution color, screen flatness, and monitor thickness are desirable features of an integrated digitizing and display surface. Recently, the GIS literature has addressed a need for such an innovation. The development of graphics displays based on sophisticated technologies include `photorealistic' (or high definition) imaging at resolutions of 2048 X 2048 or greater, palates of 16.7 million colors, formats greater than 30 inches diagonal, and integrated touch entry. In this paper, there is an evaluation of FPDs and data input technologies in the development of such a product.
Henningsson, Stefan; Toppenberg, Gustav
providers to extend the platform core and to derive network effects by consolidating platform user groups, and (b) complement providers to create monopoly positions for the complements and for innovation complementarity. To enable these acquisition benefits, acquirers face technological integration...... challenges in process and product integration. Through a case study of Network Solutions Corp. (NSC), a Fortune 500 company that has acquired more than 175 business units, we develop four propositions explaining how the benefits of platform core and complement acquisitions are differently contingent......Acquisitions have become essential tools to retain the technological edge in digital industries. This paper analyses the technological integration challenges in such acquisitions. Acquirers in digital industries are typically platform leaders in platform markets. They acquire (a) other platform...
Tao, Yizheng; Li, Xinglan; Li, Wei; Tang, Dingyong
It is necessarily to adapt development of advanced optical manufacturing technology with modern science technology development. To solved these problems which low of ration, ratio of finished product, repetition, consistent in big size and high precision in advanced optical component manufacturing. Applied business driven and method of Rational Unified Process, this paper has researched advanced optical manufacturing process flow, requirement of Advanced Optical Manufacturing integrated System, and put forward architecture and key technology of it. Designed Optical component core and Manufacturing process driven of Advanced Optical Manufacturing Digital Integrated System. the result displayed effective well, realized dynamic planning Manufacturing process, information integration improved ratio of production manufactory.
Casau, Pedro; Rosa, Paulo; Tabatabaeipour, Mojtaba
A complete methodology to design robust Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) filters and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) schemes for Linear Parameter Varying (LPV) systems is proposed, with particular focus on its applicability to wind turbines. The paper takes advantage of the recent advances in model...... falsification using Set-Valued Observers (SVOs) that led to the development of FDI methods for uncertain linear time-varying systems, with promising results in terms of the time required to diagnose faults. An integration of such SVO-based FDI methods with robust control synthesis is described, in order...
Full Text Available This paper attempts to investigate the relationship among economic growth, energy consumption, CO2 emission, FDI and natural gas usage in Bangladesh through co-integration and Vector Error Correction model (VECM over the period 1978 to 2010. Using ADP unit root tests it is found that all the four variables are integrated in first difference. The Johansen co-integration tests indicate that there is existence of long-run relationship among the variables. The VECM long run causality model indicates that there is a long run causality running from energy consumption and natural gas usage by industrial sector to GDP as well as from CO2 emission to FDI. Likewise in the short run a causal relationships have also been found among the variables. Moreover our model is found be error free based on several statistical test. Our results provide important policy suggestions regarding our foreign direct investment, environmental issues and economic growth nexus in Bangladesh.
Delannay, Damien; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Mas Ribes, Joan M.; Boucqueau, Jean M.; Nivart, Jean-Francois
This paper describes the functional model of a combined conditional access and fingerprinting copyright (-or projectionright) protection system in a digital cinema framework. In the cinema industry, a large part of early movie piracy comes from copies made in the theater itself with a camera. The evolution towards digital cinema broadcast enables watermark based fingerprinting protection systems. Besides an appropriate fingerprinting technology, a number of well defined security/cryptographic tools are integrated in order to guaranty the integrity of the whole system. The requirements are two-fold: On one side, we must ensure that the media content is only accessible at exhibition time (under specific authorization obtained after an ad-hoc film rental agreement) and contains the related exhibition fingerprint. At the other end, we must prove our ability to retrieve the fingerprint information from an illegal copy of the media.
Völlmecke, Dominik; Jindra, Björn; Marek, Philipp
within Central and East European countries (CEECs), where we find indications of a poverty trap. In contrast to FDI, regional human capital seems to be associated with higher income levels. However, we identify a positive interaction of FDI and human capital in their relation with income growth dynamics....
Popovici, Oana Cristina
Full Text Available Given the importance of FDI for the economic growth of both home and host countries, the aim of this paper is to assess the importance granted to location advantages during the development of FDI theory. We start with the earliest theoretical directions as regards FDI location issues and extend our study to describing less debated theories, but of a particular importance for this theme. In this way, we have the opportunity to emphasize the changes in FDI location determinants. We find that a direction of the FDI theories’ expansion is due to the incorporation of new variables on location, although the location advantages are barely mentioned in the first explanations regarding the international activity of the firms.
Both the digital library and the digital reference service were invented and have been developed under the networked environment. Among their intersections, the fundamental thing is their symbiotic interest--serving the user in a more efficient way. The article starts by discussing the digital library and its service and the digital reference…
Full Text Available Theory and previous evidences provide conflicting predictions concerning the growth effects of foreign direct investment (FDI. The mainstream ideas support FDI as an engine of employment, technological progress, productivity improvements, and ultimately economic growth. Because of these significant benefits, attracting FDI has become one of the integral parts of economic development strategies in many countries. There are two schools of thought that hypothesize the FDI determinants: economic factors and political factors. For the latter school of thought, the central questions are directed to determine whether political regime affect country’s trade policy or not. In the advanced industrial countries where labour tends to be scarce, are left political regimes more protectionist than right ones, which represent capital owners? Prior evidence had demonstrated an association between the type of political regimes and trade policies (FDI policies.
Full Text Available The paper describes research being carried out in relation to prefabricated high density affordablehousing under a grant from the Partnership for the Advancement of Technology in Housing(PATH and the National Science Foundation (NSF in the USA. The objective is to demonstratehow a new paradigm for the conceptualization and construction of buildings can be conceivedof as an entirely factory based process that creates advantages for construction through industrialsystems technology transfer. Our approach is intended to transform design methodologythrough demonstrating how alternative construction concepts, using entirely pre-manufacturedvolumetric units, can be adopted. This involves digital modeling that facilitates parametric variationsfor creating customized prefabricated products from design conceptualization through tofinal product delivery. The paper discusses key areas under investigation in relation to a manufacturingparadigm used in the automotive industry that integrates virtual prototyping and industrialmanufacturing systems. Our research explores a type of monocoque volumetric unit prefabricatedin steel, which will be pre-finished as part of a modular factory-built approach usingindustrialized methodologies that will facilitate customized manufacture of a high quality energyefficient product for affordable housing.The paper addresses the automotive industry methods of manufacture that have served increasedautomobile performance and economics through mass production for over a century. In starkcontrast, the building industry and in particular the housing industry is still a century behind. It issuggested that a move away from tradition will require an industry wide initiative, just like HenryFord led the way with mass production. By embracing the increasing sophistication and capabilitythat digital technology offers, it is shown how digital tools are implemented towards masscustomization in house design using virtual modeling in the
Full Text Available Globalization and neo liberal policies such as liberalization and privatization have generated a significant growth for FDI and considered an important source for capital and foreign currency, capable of spurring economic growth in developing countries. One sector that received particular attention, due to its significant contributions towards economic development, especially in Indonesia, is tourism. Tourism investments in Indonesia are mainly focused on the development of fully-integrated resort sites that help boost the construction of tourist facilities such as hotels and the development of the surrounding environment through social and cultural aspects. The total contribution of travel and tourism to GDP was IDR736.3 billion or 8.9% of GDP in 2012. Foreign direct tourism investments grew by 210% between 2011 and 2012, or at an annual compound average growth rate of 38% between 2006 and 2012. While the implications are at national level, not much could be gathered on the local perspectives. This paper intends to explore the implication of FDI in tourism sector towards economic growth in one of tourism attraction provinces in Indonesia—Sumatra Utara. Specifically, which economic factors contributed towards FDI inflows and their impacts on economic growth in Sumatra Utara.
Gheorghe H. Popescu
Full Text Available This paper discusses the major trends in scholarship about the role of FDI and exports on economic growth, the effect of tax policies on FDI, the formation of the economic catch up of the Central and Eastern Europe (CEE region and the determinants of FDI inflows in CEE nations. I am specifically interested in how previous research investigated the influence of FDI on host country economic growth, the inward FDI stock as a percentage of GDP, the features and restrictions of fiscal schemes in CEE economies and the institutional soundness displayed in policies towards FDI. The analysis presented in this paper contributes to research on FDI as a mechanism in the transition to the market, the dissimilarities in the FDI-assisted development methods among the CEE nations, the impact of FDI inflows for productivity convergence in CEE and the current slowing of growth in emerging Europe.
Huang, H. W.; Shih, C.; Wang, J. R.; Huang, K. C.
This work developed an integration technique for digital I and C system upgrade, the utility can replace the I and C systems step by step systematically by this method. Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin-Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo-Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) Procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (I) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR- 1011710 (2005) 'Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems' which was published by the Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SVandV), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure Events. A
Huang, H. W. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, 32546, Taiwan (China); Shih, C. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China); Wang, J. R. [Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wenhua Road, Chiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County, 32546, Taiwan (China); Huang, K. C. [Inst. of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua Univ., 101, Sec. 2, Kuang Fu Rd, Hsinchu, Taiwan (China)
This work developed an integration technique for digital I and C system upgrade, the utility can replace the I and C systems step by step systematically by this method. Inst. of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin-Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo-Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) Procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (I) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR- 1011710 (2005) 'Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems' which was published by the Electric Power Research Inst. (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SVandV), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of Watchdog Timer, Evaluation of Electromagnetic Compatibility (EMC), Evaluation of Grounding for System/Component, Seismic Evaluation, Witness and Inspection, Lessons Learnt from the Digital I and C Failure
This article presents the results of a survey addressing methods of securing digital content and ensuring the content's authenticity and integrity, as well as the perceived importance of authenticity and integrity. The survey was sent to 40 digital repositories in the United States and Canada between June 30 and July 19, 2003. Twenty-two…
Özyurt, Selin; Mitze, Timo
Since the introduction of its “open door” policy in the late 1970s, China has been attracting a growing share of FDI inflows and its international trade integration has advanced considerably. In this study, we take a closer look at the regional growth impact of the Chinese internationalization......-run relationship, regional labour productivity is indeed driven by direct and indirect spatial effects of FDI and trade activity next to further supply side factors such as the regional infrastructure equipment and human capital endowment. Similarly, in the short-run, changes in FDI activity and especially human...
I outline the effect of business networks on trade, FDI and welfare in a two-country, two-firm duopoly. The network effect, following Greaney (2002), is modelled as a marginal cost disadvantage facing a firm from Foreign in selling to Home. Unlike traditional trade costs, this cost cannot be avoided by investing in Home. My main addition is a Nash game between governments in which they subsidise the fixed costs of inward FDI. While the network effect is shown to lead to favourable outcomes fo...
Full Text Available Tourism is one of the most rapidly growing industries in the world. Many developing countries consider it as possibility for raising export earnings. Most important role in the internationalization of production has foreign direct investment. This paper investigates the contribution of FDI (Foreign direct investment on economic growth, how does it reflect on tourism in Croatia. FDI are important for development of technology, unfortunately most foreign investment went to infrastructure, in terms of high unemployment and stagnating exports priority should be investment in the industrial structure since they have the greatest multiplier effect overall economic growth. Croatian export structure is obsolete. The share of technologically advanced products is small.
Batrakov, A.M.; Pavlenko, A.V.
The digital integration method based on using high-speed precision analog-to-digital converters (ADC) has become widely used over the recent years. The paper analyzes the limitations of this method that are caused by the signal properties, ADC sampling rate and noise spectral density of the ADC signal path. This analysis allowed creating digital integrators with accurate synchronization and achieving an integration error of less than 10 −5 in the time range from microseconds to tens of seconds. The structure of the integrator is described and its basic parameters are presented. The possibilities of different ADC chips in terms of their applicability to digital integrators are discussed. A comparison with other integrating devices is presented.
Analysing the evolution and determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI) in Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania, this paper argues that sound economic policies have created an environment conducive for FDI. Overall, FDI has contributed to economic growth in the Baltic economies, having financed around one-fifth of fixed investment. However, their small size makes the Baltic countries relatively less attractive for market-seeking FDI in manufacturing. Moreover, at the outset of transition, their ...
Raghu Bir Bista
Full Text Available This research examined the relationship between FDI (Foreign Direct Investment and GDP (Gross Domestic Product along with the impact of FDI determinants on FDI inflow in Nepal. This research used literature review by doing multiple regression models. This research used an econometric model based on Cobb Douglas Production Model and a theoretical growth model based on Solow Growth. The result indicates the positive relationship between GDP and FDI. Furthermore, liberalization and privatization policies are positive, but insecurity is disturbing.
Huang, Hui-Wen; Yang, Wen-Long
Highlights: ► A digital I and C replacement integration technique have been developed. ► Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline. ► Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization. ► Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization. ► Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. -- Abstract: Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER) developed a digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) replacement integration technique on the basis of requirement of the three existing nuclear power plants (NPPs), which are Chin–Shan (CS) NPP, Kuo–Sheng (KS) NPP, and Maanshan (MS) NPP, in Taiwan, and also developed the related Critical Digital Review (CDR) procedure. The digital I and C replacement integration technique includes: (1) Establishment of Nuclear Power Plant Digital Replacement Integration Guideline, (2) Preliminary Investigation on I and C System Digitalization, (3) Evaluation on I and C System Digitalization, and (4) Establishment of I and C System Digitalization Architectures. These works can be a reference for performing I and C system digital replacement integration of the three existing NPPs of Taiwan Power Company (TPC). A CDR is the review for a critical system digital I and C replacement. The major reference of this procedure is EPRI TR-1011710 (2005) “Handbook for Evaluating Critical Digital Equipment and Systems” which was published by the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). With this document, INER developed a TPC-specific CDR procedure. Currently, CDR becomes one of the policies for digital I and C replacement in TPC. The contents of this CDR procedure include: Scope, Responsibility, Operation Procedure, Operation Flow Chart, CDR review items. The CDR review items include the comparison of the design change, Software Verification and Validation (SV and V), Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA), Evaluation of Diversity and Defense-in-depth (D3), Evaluation of
Ali, Muhammad; Cantner, Uwe; Roy, Ipsita
considering quality-adjusted human capital, countries with better human capital are found to benefit not only from direct productivity effects, but also from absorption and transmission of international knowledge spillovers through imports and inward FDI. Finally, technological distance with the frontier does...
Kleinendorst, S.M.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Geers, M.G.D.; Lamberti, L.; Lin, M.-T.; Furlong, C.; Sciammarella, C.
Mechanical Shape Correlation (MSC) is a novel integrated digital image correlation technique, used to determine the optimal set of constitutive parameters to describe the experimentally observed mechanical behavior of a test specimen, based on digital images taken during the experiment. In contrast
Full Text Available Pro-Foreign Domestic Investment (FDI policies have become a pillar of the development convention. While the literature has provided numerous studies on the effects of FDI on growth and investment in host country, very little is known about how domestic investment itself affects FDI inflows. The paper is an attempt to fill this gap. Evidences from a large cross-country sample (68 countries, over a long period (1984-2004, show that lagged domestic investment has a strong influence on FDI inflows in the host economy, implying that domestic investment is a strong catalyst for FDI in developing countries and that multinational companies do follow economic development.
Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.; Blaysat, Benoî t; Lubineau, Gilles; Geers, Marc G D
, but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical
Farquhar, Adam; Hockx-Yu, Helen
The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.
Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.
Chakraborty, Debashis; Mukherjee, Jaydeep; Lee, Jaewook
The deepening waves of globalization since late eighties and the growth in the international integrated production networks (IPN) over the past decade have significantly increased both Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and merchandise trade flows. India is no exception to this trend, whose share in global FDI inward stock and global merchandise exports have increased from 0.08 percent to 1.13 percent and 0.51 percent to 1.60 percent over 1989-2015 respectively. The current paper attempts to exp...
Luo, Pan-dian; Li, Hong-bin; Li, Zhen-hua
The Rogowski current transducers have been widely used in AC current measurement, but their accuracy is mainly subject to the analog integrators, which have typical problems such as poor long-term stability and being susceptible to environmental conditions. The digital integrators can be another choice, but they cannot obtain a stable and accurate output for the reason that the DC component in original signal can be accumulated, which will lead to output DC drift. Unknown initial conditions can also result in integral output DC offset. This paper proposes two improved digital integrators used in Rogowski current transducers instead of traditional analog integrators for high measuring accuracy. A proportional-integral-derivative (PID) feedback controller and an attenuation coefficient have been applied in improving the Al-Alaoui integrator to change its DC response and get an ideal frequency response. For the special design in the field of digital signal processing, the improved digital integrators have better performance than analog integrators. Simulation models are built for the purpose of verification and comparison. The experiments prove that the designed integrators can achieve higher accuracy than analog integrators in steady-state response, transient-state response, and temperature changing condition.
Full Text Available This paper is focused on the paradigm of integrated marketing communications (IMC in digital environment. The integration is analysed through five aspects. First, integration in terms of media; it means that IMC are performed through the mix of traditional media (print - newspapers, magazines; radio; television; direct-response media - telephone, direct mail, catalogue marketing; billboards; other 'specific media': product - especially brand, packaging; price; place; people; process; physical evidence; traditional/offline consumers - WOM communications and digital media ( the Internet; mobile phones and other mobile devices; digital newspapers and magazines through the Internet and mobile devices; digital radio; digital TV; digital consumers - digital WOM communications. Second, integration in terms of communication methods, it means that IMC are a mix of traditional promotion (advertising, personal selling, public relations & publicity, direct marketing, sales promotion, digital communications/interactions (Internet communications, mobile communications, communications via digital radio and TV and WOM communications/interactions (offline and online. Third, integration in terms of time of communications and possibilities for interaction, it means that IMC are a mix of traditionalstatic communications ('monologue' towards the target audience and dynamic communications ('dialogue' in real time. Fourth, integration in terms of actors, it means that IMC are a mix of communications initiated both by consumers (WOM communications - offline and online/e/digital and organizations. Fifth, integration in terms of content creation, it means that IMC are a mix of communications based on consumer generated content and marketing content (created by organisations.
Hajji, Tarik; Itahriouan, Zakaria; Ouazzani Jamil, Mohammed
Digital image signature is a technique used to protect the image integrity. The application of this technique can serve several areas of imaging applied to smart cities. The objective of this work is to propose two methods to protect digital image integrity. We present a description of two approaches using artificial neural networks (ANN) to digitally sign an image. The first one is “Direct Signature without learning” and the second is “Direct Signature with learning”. This paper presents the theory of proposed approaches and an experimental study to test their effectiveness.
Saleem, Shahzad; Popov, Oliver
RFC 3227 provides general guidelines for digital evidence collection and archiving, while the International Organization on Computer Evidence offers guidelines for best practice in the digital forensic examination. In the light of these guidelines we will analyze integrity protection mechanism provided by EnCase and FTK which is mainly based on Message Digest Codes (MDCs). MDCs for integrity protection are not tamper proof, hence they can be forged. With the proposed model for protecting digital evidence integrity by using smart cards (PIDESC) that establishes a secure platform for digitally signing the MDC (in general for a whole range of cryptographic services) in combination with Public Key Cryptography (PKC), one can show that this weakness might be overcome.
Tucker, J. H.; Tapia, M. A.; Bennett, A. W.
The concept of Boolean integration is introduced and developed. When the changes in a desired function are specified in terms of changes in its arguments, then ways of 'integrating' (i.e., realizing) the function, if it exists, are presented. Boolean integral calculus has applications in design of logic circuits.
Zechariahs Benapugha OWUTUAMOR
Full Text Available This study examining the impact of foreign direct investment (FDI and other macroeconomic variables on agricultural growth in Nigeria from 1981 to 2014, using annual time series data from Central Bank of Nigeria (CBN, World Bank and the United States of America (US Federal Reserve System. Data was analysed using trend analyses, unit root tests, co-integration tests, ordinary least squares (OLS regression and Granger causality tests, while the hypothesis was tested with F-test. Results revealed very low FDI inflow into agriculture, not commensurate with the share of agriculture to GDP. All significance were taken at the 5% probability level, i.e. p<0.05. There was positive non-significant relationship between agricultural growth and FDI in agriculture, meaning that FDI in agriculture has no direct impact on agricultural growth or the impact on agricultural growth is masked by other macroeconomic variables. Significant positive relationship exists between agricultural growth and macroeconomic instability, while interest rate differential had a significant negative relationship. There was unidirectional causality running from FDI in agriculture, stock of gross external debts, and variability of consumers’ price index to agricultural growth, while agricultural growth was significant in granger causing macroeconomic instability. Recommendations are government should not involve itself in business, but seek for and encourage more FDI for the agricultural sector, encourage joint ventures between foreign and domestic investors/entrepreneurs, ensure stability and consistency in its macroeconomic policies, while monetary policy rates should be fixed in such a way that it would attract the right amount of investments in agriculture.
Emadi, Ali; Nie, Zhong
Non-isolated DC-DC ConvertersBuck ConverterBoost ConverterBuck-Boost ConverterIsolated DC-DC ConvertersFlyback ConverterForward ConverterPush-Pull ConverterFull-Bridge ConverterHalf-Bridge ConverterPower Factor CorrectionConcept of PFCGeneral Classification of PFC CircuitsHigh Switching Frequency Topologies for PFCApplication of PFC in Advanced Motor DrivesIntegrated Switched-Mode Power ConvertersSwitched-Mode Power SuppliesThe Concept of Integrated ConverterDefinition of Integrated Switched-Mode Power Supplies (ISMPS)Boost-Type Integrated TopologiesGeneral Structure of Boost-Type Integrated T
Shared electronic health and social care records in some service systems are already showing some of the benefits of digital technology and digital data for integrating health and social care. These records are one example of the beginning "digitalisation" of services that gives a glimpse of the potential of digital technology and systems for building coordinated and individualized integrated care. Yet the promise has been greater than the benefits, and progress has been slow compared to other industries. This paper describes for non-technical readers how information technology was used to support integrated care schemes in six EU services, and suggests practical ways forward to use the new opportunities to build person-centered integrated care.
If some years ago 'better' pictures was the motive to opt for the novel digital technology in radiographic systems, the goals today are rationalisation of the workflow and reduction of costs, with equal diagnostic image quality and - if possible - reduction of patient doses being taken for granted. Cost reductions, however, can be achieved only in terms of current costs, as the new digital equipment requires high investment. Possibilities of reducing current costs are opened up through higher patient throughput due to faster, better and less complicated examination technique, optimisation of communication systems for data and image transmission within the radiology department and to the clinical departments, and through reducing or avoiding materials costs, such as for radiographic films and film development. (orig./CB) [de
Czauderna, M.; Peplowski, A.
A study of the precision attainable by two methods of γ-ray photopeak computation has been carried out. The 'total peak area' method (TPA) and the proposed new method have been compared. The method offered is digital and simulates repeatedly accumulations of γ-ray spectra. The method described here computes the apparent net peak are without a clear distinction between peak and non-peak related channels. The proposed method is considered to be the most advantageous because of its relatively high precision. (author) 10 refs.; 1 fig.; 3 tabs
Berger, H.J.; Eisner, R.L.; Gober, A.; Plankey, M.; Fajman, W.
Although most of the new non-nuclear imaging techniques are fully digital, there has been a reluctance in nuclear medicine to abandon traditional analog planar imaging in favor of digital acquisition and display. The authors evaluated a prototype digital camera system (GE STARCAM) in which all of the analog acquisition components are replaced by microprocessor controls and digital circuitry. To compare the relative effects of acquisition matrix size on image quality and to ascertain whether digital techniques could be used in place of analog imaging, Tc-99m bone scans were obtained on this digital system and on a comparable analog camera in 10 patients. The dedicated computer is used for camera setup including definition of the energy window, spatial energy correction, and spatial distortion correction. The display monitor, which is used for patient positioning and image analysis, is 512/sup 2/ non-interlaced, allowing high resolution imaging. Data acquisition and processing can be performed simultaneously. Thus, the development of a fully integrated digital camera-computer system with optimized display should allow routine utilization of non-analog studies in nuclear medicine and the ultimate establishment of fully digital nuclear imaging laboratories
Iulia Monica OEHLER-ŞINCAI
Full Text Available In this essay, we intend to review the theory of the FDI, since its origins to the present days, focusing on its corner stones. We present the FDI theory through the lens of the strategic management and try to bring to the forefront the main contributions to this framework. At the same time, we underline the scholars’ frequent return to the “springs” of the FDI theory, either those generated by Hymer or the internalization theory or the OLI paradigm, in order to consolidate the theoretical FDI construction.
Full Text Available This survey analyses aspects of the relationship between FDI and sustainable development within the Romanian economy, focusing in particular on volume, dynamics and structure of FDI companies in Romania, impact on imports and exports as well as ratio between repatriated profit and profit reinvested in the host country. A series of proposals have been made for increasing the contribution of FDI in the sustainable development of Romania by attracting FDI in particular to the tradable sector and for increasing the favourable propagation effects to Romanian companies.
Marc Lautier; François Moreau
Pro-Foreign Domestic Investment (FDI) policies have become a pillar of the development convention. While the literature has provided numerous studies on the effects of FDI on growth and investment in host country, very little is known about how domestic investment itself affects FDI inflows. The paper is an attempt to fill this gap. Evidences from a large cross-country sample (68 countries), over a long period (1984-2004), show that lagged domestic investment has a strong influence on FDI inf...
Raghavan, Sriram; Clark, Andrew; Mohay, George
The analysis and value of digital evidence in an investigation has been the domain of discourse in the digital forensic community for several years. While many works have considered different approaches to model digital evidence, a comprehensive understanding of the process of merging different evidence items recovered during a forensic analysis is still a distant dream. With the advent of modern technologies, pro-active measures are integral to keeping abreast of all forms of cyber crimes and attacks. This paper motivates the need to formalize the process of analyzing digital evidence from multiple sources simultaneously. In this paper, we present the forensic integration architecture (FIA) which provides a framework for abstracting the evidence source and storage format information from digital evidence and explores the concept of integrating evidence information from multiple sources. The FIA architecture identifies evidence information from multiple sources that enables an investigator to build theories to reconstruct the past. FIA is hierarchically composed of multiple layers and adopts a technology independent approach. FIA is also open and extensible making it simple to adapt to technological changes. We present a case study using a hypothetical car theft case to demonstrate the concepts and illustrate the value it brings into the field.
Huntoon, R. B.
Communication, navigation, flight control, and search sensor management are avionics functions which constitute every Search and Rescue (SAR) operation. Routine cockpit duties monopolize crew attention during SAR operations and thus impair crew effectiveness. The United States Coast Guard challenged industry to build an avionics system that automates routine tasks and frees the crew to focus on the mission tasks. The HH-64A SAR avionics systems of communication, navigation, search sensors, and flight control have existed independently. On the SRR helicopter, the flight management system (FMS) was introduced. H coordinates or integrates these functions. The pilot interacts with the FMS rather than the individual subsystems, using simple, straightforward procedures to address distinct mission tasks and the flight management system, in turn, orchestrates integrated system response.
Klitgaard, Jens; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning
The aim of this research is to look into integrated digital design and analysis tools in order to find out if it is suited for use by architects and designers or only by specialists and technicians - and if not, then to look at what can be done to make them more available to architects and design...
de Campos, Luis M.; Fernandez-Luna, Juan M.; Huete, Juan F.; Martin-Dancausa, Carlos J.; Tagua-Jimenez, Antonio; Tur-Vigil, Carmen
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of the reorganisation of the Andalusian Parliament's digital library to improve the electronic representation and access of its official corpus by taking advantage of a document's internal organisation. Video recordings of the parliamentary sessions have also been integrated with their…
Full Text Available The application of extended digital surface models often reveals, that despite an acceptable global accuracy for a given dataset, the local accuracy of the model can vary in a wide range. For high resolution applications which cover the spatial extent of a whole country, this can be a major drawback. Within the Swiss National Forest Inventory (NFI, two digital surface models are available, one derived from LiDAR point data and the other from aerial images. Automatic photogrammetric image matching with ADS80 aerial infrared images with 25cm and 50cm resolution is used to generate a surface model (ADS-DSM with 1m resolution covering whole switzerland (approx. 41000 km2. The spatially corresponding LiDAR dataset has a global point density of 0.5 points per m2 and is mainly used in applications as interpolated grid with 2m resolution (LiDAR-DSM. Although both surface models seem to offer a comparable accuracy from a global view, local analysis shows significant differences. Both datasets have been acquired over several years. Concerning LiDAR-DSM, different flight patterns and inconsistent quality control result in a significantly varying point density. The image acquisition of the ADS-DSM is also stretched over several years and the model generation is hampered by clouds, varying illumination and shadow effects. Nevertheless many classification and feature extraction applications requiring high resolution data depend on the local accuracy of the used surface model, therefore precise knowledge of the local data quality is essential. The commercial photogrammetric software NGATE (part of SOCET SET generates the image based surface model (ADS-DSM and delivers also a map with figures of merit (FOM of the matching process for each calculated height pixel. The FOM-map contains matching codes like high slope, excessive shift or low correlation. For the generation of the LiDAR-DSM only first- and last-pulse data was available. Therefore only the point
Full Text Available In order to invest there are some incentives needed, including among them, certainly, the ones discussed and analysed in the scientific literature such as: specific earning chances (expectations of each participant (wage, profit, dividend, budget revenue, etc., potential investor’s general or current state, etc.. Less visible incentives from complex areas not obviously related to the investment are, however, less considered. Among these could be incentives arising from inherited or education and culture transmitted philosophy, generally regarding earnings, business and investment. We notice these incentives in case of FDI in different shades and intensities.Investor’s decision to acquire, sell or to carry out projects in a particular area, region or country is not only due to purely economic, commercial or financial reasoning. In such operations, meeting among businessmen, managers and other professionals in the field is, first of all, meeting in specific circumstances, among more or less different cultures.Both theory and practice must be concerned in what way and to what extent these factors influence the investment intention, outcome and yield. Our study proposes a list of the most important cultural type incentives for investment (mainly FDI, based on a set of cases, through a logical and empirical research, using some of the most relevant and recent studies and several real situations to which we got access. These are early data and analysis that will allow us to draw attention to the problem and to develop further research to reach generalizable results
Full Text Available International flow of capital in the form of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI is considered to be the primary form of capital transfer in the global economy. It plays an important role among other forms of international capital flows, due to the intensity of its streams and its strength of impact on local economies. Host countries use FDI to finance activities such as industry restructuring and transfer of technology. The aim of this paper is to present current achievements in the field of theoretical explanations of FDI – its main motives. The article relates also to current selected trends in FDI flows during the economic downturn caused by the recent financial crisis. Above all ,however, this paper aims at showing FDI theories in terms of a knowledge intensive economy.
Vu Hoang Duong
Full Text Available The study examines technical efficiency of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI firms in the Vietnamese manufacturing sector by applying stochastic production frontier model and making use of cross-sectional data in the period 2009-2013. The average level of technical efficiency of FDI firms is about 60% and it is higher than that of domestic firms (including private firms and state-owned firms. In addition, the study also analyses correlation between technical efficiency of FDI firms and other factors. It finds that there are positive correlations between FDI technical efficiency and net revenue per labour, firm’s age or export activities in 2013. However, the study is unable to find evidence of a relationship between FDI technical efficiency and infrastructure or firm’s investment activities.
Del Bo, Chiara F.
The European electricity sector has undergone significant reforms in recent years, in the direction of market opening, integration and privatization. National and regional markets are now characterized by the presence of domestic and foreign firms, both privately and publicly owned. Did foreign entry induce positive productivity spillovers to domestic firms in the electricity sector, both at the aggregate and disaggregated level, while also controlling for domestic firms' ownership? This paper examines this issue by focusing on regional foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers in the aggregated electricity sector and in the disaggregated sub-sectors of generation and distribution. The results show the importance of industry aggregation in determining the existence and sign of regional FDI spillovers for domestic firms. FDI spillovers are then calculated based on a purely geographic scale, by considering the distance between each firm's city of location and firms in neighboring cities. The importance and sign of FDI spillovers is different with respect to the analysis based on regional administrative boundaries, suggesting that spatial aggregation, along with industrial aggregation, is relevant in accounting for productivity spillover effects of foreign presence in the EU electricity sector. - Highlights: • Has the post-reform entry of foreign firms in the EU electricity sector induced spillover effects? • Spatial and industrial disaggregation are important when evaluating foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers. • Positive horizontal spillovers are found only in the distribution segment of the industry. • Vertical spillovers in generation are negative; positive in distribution. • Spillover intensity in distribution decreasing with distance; regional dimension relevant in generation
This paper describes a method to integrate digital topology informations in image-processing libraries. This additional information allows a library user to write algorithms respecting topological constraints, for example, a seed fill or a skeletonization algorithm. As digital topology is absent from most image-processing libraries, such constraints cannot be fulfilled. We describe and give code samples for all the structures necessary for this integration, and show a use case in the form of a homotopic thinning filter inside ITK. The obtained filter can be up to a hundred times as fast as ITK's thinning filter and works for any image dimension. This paper mainly deals of integration within ITK, but can be adapted with only minor modifications to other image-processing libraries.
Mehler, Ronald W
For those with a basic understanding of digital design, this book teaches the essential skills to design digital integrated circuits using Verilog and the relevant extensions of SystemVerilog. In addition to covering the syntax of Verilog and SystemVerilog, the author provides an appreciation of design challenges and solutions for producing working circuits. The book covers not only the syntax and limitations of HDL coding, but deals extensively with design problems such as partitioning and synchronization, helping you to produce designs that are not only logically correct, but will actually
In the first part of this work, we describe the hardware and software used to design integrated systems able to acquire, memorize, process and visualize 1024 x 1024 x 8 bits images. In the second part, we present and analyse the first realised prototype system which is a digital radiology one. After a technical and economical digital radiology study, we present the angiographic and tomographic results. In the third part, we indicate possible evolution of this system and we show how the adopted structure and developed hardware allow applications in various fields [fr
Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Neggers, J.; Blaysat, Benoît; Hild, François; Geers, M.G.D.; Jin, H.; Sciammarella, C.; Yoshida, S.; Lamberti, L.
A generic one-step Integrated Digital Image Correlation (I-DIC) inverse parameter identification approach is introduced that enables direct identification of constitutive model parameters by intimately integrating a Finite Elements Method (FEM) with Digital Image Correlation (DIC), directly
Chailyan, Anna; Tramontano, Anna; Marcatili, Paolo
The DIGIT (Database of ImmunoGlobulins with Integrated Tools) database (http://biocomputing.it/digit) is an integrated resource storing sequences of annotated immunoglobulin variable domains and enriched with tools for searching and analyzing them. The annotations in the database include information on the type of antigen, the respective germline sequences and on pairing information between light and heavy chains. Other annotations, such as the identification of the complementarity determining regions, assignment of their structural class and identification of mutations with respect to the germline, are computed on the fly and can also be obtained for user-submitted sequences. The system allows customized BLAST searches and automatic building of 3D models of the domains to be performed.
The DIGIT (Database of ImmunoGlobulins with Integrated Tools) database (http://biocomputing.it/digit) is an integrated resource storing sequences of annotated immunoglobulin variable domains and enriched with tools for searching and analyzing them. The annotations in the database include information on the type of antigen, the respective germline sequences and on pairing information between light and heavy chains. Other annotations, such as the identification of the complementarity determining regions, assignment of their structural class and identification of mutations with respect to the germline, are computed on the fly and can also be obtained for user-submitted sequences. The system allows customized BLAST searches and automatic building of 3D models of the domains to be performed.
POHIT, Sanjib; BISWAS, Pradip
Abstract. Of late, India has emerged as an attractive destination of foreign direct investment (FDI). Along with it, multinationals have been investing significantly in research and development in India. In this context, this paper makes an attempt to analyze salient features of FDI in R&D and makes an assessment of the gains from R&D initiatives of MNCs in India. To be specific, the paper attempts to demystify the FDI flows in R&D with a view to understand whether these types o...
Full Text Available This paper aims at extending the empirical literature on foreign direct investment(FDI determinants by examining how FDI reacts to corporate tax rates andwhether this reaction is conditional on some other economic factors, such asagglomeration economies. To that end, we gather the relevant data on developedmarket economies and employ an appropriateeconometric technique (PooledMean Group- PMG estimator which allows for both dynamics and parameterheterogeneity to be included in the model. Our results suggest that both taxationand agglomeration economies play an important role in attracting FDI.
Rakić Beba; Rakić Mira
This paper is focused on the paradigm of integrated marketing communications (IMC) in digital environment. The integration is analysed through five aspects. First, integration in terms of media; it means that IMC are performed through the mix of traditional media (print - newspapers, magazines; radio; television; direct-response media - telephone, direct mail, catalogue marketing; billboards; other 'specific media': product - especially brand, packaging; price; place; people; process; physica...
Roehner, F.; Schmucker, M.; Henne, K.; Bruggmoser, G.; Grosu, A.L.; Frommhold, H.; Heinemann, F.E.; Momm, F.
Background and purpose: At the Clinic of Radiotherapy at the University Hospital Freiburg, all relevant workflow is paperless. After implementing the Operating Schedule System (OSS) as a framework, all processes are being implemented into the departmental system MOSAIQ. Designing a digital workflow for radiotherapy irradiation planning is a large challenge, it requires interdisciplinary expertise and therefore the interfaces between the professions also have to be interdisciplinary. For every single step of radiotherapy irradiation planning, distinct responsibilities have to be defined and documented. All aspects of digital storage, backup and long-term availability of data were considered and have already been realized during the OSS project. Method: After an analysis of the complete workflow and the statutory requirements, a detailed project plan was designed. In an interdisciplinary workgroup, problems were discussed and a detailed flowchart was developed. The new functionalities were implemented in a testing environment by the Clinical and Administrative IT Department (CAI). After extensive tests they were integrated into the new modular department system. Results and conclusion: The Clinic of Radiotherapy succeeded in realizing a completely digital workflow for radiotherapy irradiation planning. During the testing phase, our digital workflow was examined and afterwards was approved by the responsible authority. (orig.)
The causal relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and the ... of selected west African countries: Panel ARDL/Granger Causality Analysis. ... among this developing countries and an important revelation for policy implication.
Full Text Available This study investigates the determinants of FDI to Nigeria during 1970-2006. This study suggests that the endowment of natural resources, trade intensity, macroeconomic risk factors such as inflation and exchange rates are significant determinants of FDI flow to Nigeria. The findings suggest that in long run, market size is not the significant factor for attracting FDI to Nigeria, it contradicts the existing literature. The findings indicate that FDI to Nigeria is resource-seeking. Results also suggest that trading partner like the UK in North-South (N - S and China in South-South (S - S trade relation have strong influence on Nigeria’s natural resource outflow.
Full Text Available This study examines the factors determining FDI inflows of BRICS countries using annual dataset from the period 1975 to 2007 (for Russia required data set is available from 1990 onwards. The study employs Panel data analysis and finds that the selected variables Market size, Labour cost, Infrastructure, Currency value and Gross Capital formation as the potential determinants of FDI inflows of BRICS countries. The Economic Stability and Growth prospects (measured by inflation rate and Industrial production respectively, Trade openness (measured by the ratio of total trade to GDP are seems to be the insignificant determinant of FDI inflows of the BRICS countries. The empirical results are robust in general for alternative variables determining FDI flows.
Since the outburst of the financial crisis, FDI flows into Korea have dramatically increased, causing great concern regarding the rapid penetration of FDI and its concentrating effects on the economy. The study explores the issue of how FDI impacts on market structure and competition in Korea. The preliminary conclusions are that FDI seems to have an upward influence on concentration while at the same time, concentration leads to higher price cost margin, and through this channel, FDI would i...
Tan, D C; Meyer, Klaus E
Outward FDI strategies are driven by firms' resource endowments, which in turn are conditioned by their home environment. In emerging economies, thus, the pattern of outward FDI is shaped by local firms' idiosyncratic contexts and the resources that these firms developed to fit the contexts. This includes business groups, a dominant organizational form in many emerging economies, competing with context-bound resources. When they wish to transcend their home context, they need internationally ...
Fritsche, Dennis R.; Liu, Victor; Markandey, Vishal; Heimbuch, Scott
New developments in visual communication technologies, and the increasingly digital nature of the industry infrastructure as a whole, are converging to enable new visual environments with an enhanced visual component in interaction, entertainment, and education. New applications and markets can be created, but this depends on the ability of the visual communications industry to provide market solutions that are cost effective and user friendly. Industry-wide cooperation in the development of integrated, open architecture applications enables the realization of such market solutions. This paper describes the work being done by Texas Instruments, in the development of its Digital Light ProcessingTM technology, to support the development of new visual communications technologies and applications.
Full Text Available This paper describes an Afghanistan digital library initiative of building an integrated library system (ILS for Afghanistan universities and colleges based on open-source software. As one of the goals of the Afghan eQuality Digital Libraries Alliance, the authors applied systems analysis approach, evaluated different open-source ILSs, and customized the selected software to accommodate users’ needs. Improvements include Arabic and Persian language support, user interface changes, call number label printing, and ISBN-13 support. To our knowledge, this ILS is the first at a large academic library running on open-source software.
Jin-yun Chen; Shen Zhang; Wei-ran Zuo [China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou (China). School of Chemical Engineering and Technology
A three-layer model for digital communication in a mine is proposed. Two basic platforms are discussed: a uniform transmission network and a uniform data warehouse. An actual, ControlNet based, transmission network platform suitable for the Jining No.3 coal mine in China is presented. This network is an information superhighway intended to integrate all existing and new automation subsystems. Its standard interface can be used with future subsystems. The network, data structure and management decision-making all employ this uniform hardware and software. This effectively avoids the problems of system and information islands seen in traditional mine-automation systems. The construction of the network provides a stable foundation for digital communication in the Jining No.3 coal mine. 9 refs., 5 figs.
S. K. Debroy
Full Text Available A new Operational Amplifier (OA-RC integrator network is described. The novelties of the design are used of single grounded capacitor, ideal integration function realization with dual-input capability and design flexibility for extremely large time constant involving an enlargement factor (K using product of resistor ratios. The aspect of the digital control of K through a programmable resistor array (PRA controlled by a microprocessor has also been implemented. The effect of the OA-poles has been analyzed which indicates degradation of the integrator-Q at higher frequencies. An appropriate Q-compensation design scheme exhibiting 1 : |A|2 order of Q-improvement has been proposed with supporting experimental observations.
Full Text Available The unprecedented growth in foreign direct investment in the last few decades has caused drastic changes in the labor markets of the host countries. The major part of FDI takes place in low-tech industries, where the wages and skills are low, or in high-tech, where they offer a wage premium for the highly skilled workers. This mechanism may increase the polarization of employment into high-wage and low-wage jobs, at the expense of middle-skill jobs. This paper looks at the effects of two types of FDI inflows, namely foreign investment in high-skill and low-skill activities, on job polarization. We match data on greenfield FDI aggregated by country and sector with data on employment by occupational skill to investigate the extent to which different types of greenfield FDI are responsible for skill polarization. Our results show that low-skill foreign investment shifts employment from high- to medium- and low-skill jobs, while skill-intensive FDI generally leads to skill upgrading. Only FDI in information and communication technology (ICT is associated with job polarization, but only when accounting for the plurality of job polarization patterns across European sectors.
Full Text Available The Republic of Kosovo declared independence from Serbia in 2008. Kosovo's neighbor to the north, Serbia does not recognize it as a sovereign state, but has begun to normalize relations in accordance with the Brussels Agreement of April 2013. With a population of 1.8 million and land area 6,765 square miles, landlocked Kosovo is considered Europe’s poorest country, yet it does have some mineral and coal deposits. Kosovo’s official unemployment rate is 35.3 percent, although some estimates are as high as 45 percent. Unemployment levels for youth and first-time job seekers are considerably higher than the official rate. According to the World Bank, Kosovo’s economy is characterized by: limited integration into the global economy; the success of its Diaspora in foreign labor markets resulting in a steady stream of remittances; pro-growth budgetary priorities; and continued international financial support. Political instability coupled with corruption -- practiced and perceived -- unreliable energy supply, a large informal economy estimated at 35 percent of GDP, and a lack of contract enforcement have created significant barriers to foreign investment. Establishing appropriate policies regarding emigration and the status of the Kosovo Diaspora are of key importance for stimulating growth reducing macroeconomic imbalances in Kosovo. With appropriate policies and incentives, the Diaspora could contribute more effectively, both in terms of human capital and financial resources, to economic growth and job creation in Kosovo. Kosovo is at an early stage in developing a functioning market economy. Some progress was made, particularly on supporting export-oriented businesses, improving contract enforcement, especially within the financial sector, and access to finance. However, the fiscally unsustainable decisions related to war-veterans' benefits may have a negative effect on the macroeconomic stability of Kosovo and its relations with international
Buchholz, F.I.; Kohlmann, J.; Khabipov, M.; Brandt, C.M.; Hagedorn, D.; Balashov, D.; Maibaum, F.; Tolkacheva, E.; Niemeyer, J.
This report presents the results, which were reached in the framework of the BMBF cooperative plan ''Quantum Synthesizer'' in the partial plan ''Integrated Digital Superconducting Logic Circuits''. As essential goal of the plan a novel instrument on the base of quantum-coherent superconducting circuits should be developed. which allows to generate praxis-relevant wave forms with quantum accuracy, the quantum synthesizer. The main topics of development of the reported partial plan lied at the one hand in the development of integrated, digital, superconducting circuit in rapid-single-flux (RSFQ) quantum logics for the pattern generator of the quantum synthesizer, at the other hand in the further development of the fabrication technology for the aiming of high circuit complexity. In order to fulfil these requirements at the PTB a new design system was implemented, based on the software of Cadence. Together with the required RSFQ extensions for the design of digital superconducting circuits was a platform generated, on which the reachable circuit complexity is exclusively limited by the technology parameters of the available fabrication technology: Physical simulations are with PSCAN up to a complexity of more than 1000 circuit elements possible; furthermore VHDL allows the verification of arbitrarily large circuit architectures. In accordance for this the production line at the PTB was brought to a level, which allows in Nb/Al-Al x O y /Nb SIS technology implementation the fabrication of highly integrable RSFQ circuit architectures. The developed and fabricated basic circuits of the pattern generator have proved correct functionality and reliability in the measuring operation. Thereby for the circular RSFQ shift registers a key role as local memories in the construction of the pattern generator is devolved upon. The registers were realized with the aimed bit lengths up to 128 bit and with reachable signal-processing speeds of above 10 GHz. At the interface RSFQ
Fractal capacitive electrodes have been successfully integrated into a digital microfluidic open-platform. These electrodes perform actuation and withstand voltages up to 300V without insulation-layer breakdown. They were used to quantify the concentration levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) to determine the risk of cardiovascular disease. The capacitance increased sevenfold and stabilized in less than 5 minutes. The sensor shows a decreasing trend of capacitance readouts with the increase of concentrations. The same immunoassay was tested with untreated electrodes and showed no significant response, which suggests that immobilization was necessary. This configuration allows the electrodes to be used as biosensors.
This paper uses panel data of 10 ASEAN countries from 1995 to 2008 and studies the cross-country and industrial distribution of North and South FDI, investigates host country-specific determinants of the inflows of total FDI, North FDI and South FDI, and also compares the effects of North and South FDI on economic and industrial growth in the region.
Wang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z.
We present a scheme of integrated optical 3-D digital imaging (IO3DI) based on digital signal processor (DSP), which can acquire range images independently without PC support. This scheme is based on a parallel hardware structure with aid of DSP and field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize 3-D imaging. In this integrated scheme of 3-D imaging, the phase measurement profilometry is adopted. To realize the pipeline processing of the fringe projection, image acquisition and fringe pattern analysis, we present a multi-threads application program that is developed under the environment of DSP/BIOS RTOS (real-time operating system). Since RTOS provides a preemptive kernel and powerful configuration tool, with which we are able to achieve a real-time scheduling and synchronization. To accelerate automatic fringe analysis and phase unwrapping, we make use of the technique of software optimization. The proposed scheme can reach a performance of 39.5 f/s (frames per second), so it may well fit into real-time fringe-pattern analysis and can implement fast 3-D imaging. Experiment results are also presented to show the validity of proposed scheme.
Shen, Rao; Fox, Edward A
This is the second book based on the 5S (Societies, Scenarios, Spaces, Structures, Streams) approach to digital libraries (DLs). Leveraging the first volume, on Theoretical Foundations, we focus on the key issues of evaluation and integration. These cross-cutting issues serve as a bridge for those interested in DLs, connecting the introduction and formal discussion in the first book, with the coverage of key technologies in the third book, and of illustrative applications in the fourth book. These two topics have central importance in the DL field, allowing it to be treated scientifically as well as practically. In the scholarly world, we only really understand something if we know how to measure and evaluate it. In the Internet era of distributed information systems, we only can be practical at scale if we integrate across both systems and their associated content. Evaluation of DLs must take place atmultiple levels,so we can address the different entities and their associated measures. Thus, for digital obj...
Prince, J.L.; Draper, B.L.; Rapp, E.A.; Kromberg, J.N.; Fitch, L.T.
Results of investigations of the performance and reliability of digital bipolar and CMOS integrated circuits over the 25 to 340/sup 0/C range are reported. Included in these results are both parametric variation information and analysis of the functional failure mechanisms. Although most of the work was done using commercially available circuits (TTL and CMOS) and test chips from commercially compatible processes, some results of experimental simulations of dielectrically isolated CMOS are also discussed. It was found that commercial Schottky clamped TTL, and dielectrically isolated, low power Schottky-clamped TTL, functioned to junction temperatures in excess of 325/sup 0/C. Standard gold doped TTL functioned only to 250/sup 0/C, while commercial, isolated I/sup 2/L functioned to the range 250/sup 0/C to 275/sup 0/C. Commercial junction isolated CMOS, buffered and unbuffered, functioned to the range 280/sup 0/C to 310/sup 0/C/sup +/, depending on the manufacturer. Experimental simulations of simple dielectrically isolated CMOS integrated circuits, fabricated with heavier doping levels than normal, functioned to temperatures in excess of 340/sup 0/C. High temperature life testing of experimental, silicone-encapsulated simple TTL and CMOS integrated circuits have shown no obvious life limiting problems to date. No barrier to reliable functionality of TTL bipolar or CMOS integrated ciruits at temperatures in excess of 300/sup 0/C has been found.
Doytch, Nadia; Narayan, Seema
This study examines the link between foreign direct investment (FDI) and energy demand. FDI is a source of financing that allows businesses to grow. At the same time, FDI can be a source of innovation that promotes energy efficiency. Existing evidence on the impact of aggregate FDI inflows on energy consumption is scarce and inconclusive. In the current study, we disaggregate FDI inflows into mining, manufacturing, total services, and financial services components and examine the impact of these FDI flows on renewable – and non-renewable industrial energy – sources for 74 countries for the period 1985–2012. We employ a Blundell–Bond dynamic panel estimator to control for endogeneity and omitted variable biases in our panels. The results point broadly to an energy consumption-reducing effect with respect to non-renewable sources of energy and an energy consumption-augmenting effects with respect to renewable energy. We find that these effects vary in magnitude and significance by sectoral FDI. - Highlights: • FDI generally discourages the use of unclean energy. • Economic growth promotes non-renewable energy consumption. • Service FDI save energy and encourage the switch to renewable energy. • Mining FDI to low and lower middle-income panels save energy. • These results are mainly consistent with the FDI halo effect.
Full Text Available Despite the increase of total foreign direct investments (FDI in developing countries, the distribution of these investments among countries is disproportional. The inflows have been directed only to a limited number of developing countries. The most significant effect of FDI on the country’s economy is the injection of needed capital and employment to overcome the gap between the savings of a developing economy, which does not invest much in new business, hindering so the employment increase. The idea that possible determinants of FDIs are not only determinants of economic nature, but also other factors that have impacts in attracting FDI inflows are progressively increasing. New studies realized that social capital is a factor, which is considered by foreign enterprises before investment decisions.
Baskaran, Angathevar; Ju, Liu; Muchie, Mammo
A new trend has emerged in the flow of foreign direct investment (FDI) in recent times. FDI from the emerging and developing economies such as China, India, South Africa and Brazil is flowing to both developed and developing economies. There is more flexibility of movement of capital and knowledge...... developing economies and the shape and nature of this flow. For this, we employ case studies of companies from China, India and South Africa. The results show that the main motivating factors behind OFDI are: to emerge as a global player/ leader or regional player; to achieve international competitiveness...
Bardsley, J. N.
The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multiple sources or a composite image from a single source. The more rapid rate of technological improvements and the higher cost of flat panel displays raise the incentive for greater planning and guidance in the acquisition and integration of high performance displays into large organizations, such as LLNL. The goal of the Digital Display Integration Project (DDIP) is to provide such support. This will be achieved through collaboration with leading suppliers of displays, communications equipment and image-processing products, and by greater exchange of information within the Laboratory. The project will start in October 1999. During the first two years (FY2000-1), the primary focus of the program will be upon: introducing displays with high information content (over 5M pixels); facilitating the transition from analog to digital interfaces; enabling data transfer from key computer platforms; incorporating optical communications to remove length restrictions on data
Puah, Chin-Hong; Kueh, Jerome Swee-Hui; Lau, Evan
The relationship between Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) and Gross Domestic Products (GDP) had become the centre piece of recent researches in identifying the short run and long run implications between the two variables. Using the hypotheses of FDI led GDP and GDP led FDI as theoretical framework, this study intends to analyze the implications of the rise of China towards the ASEAN-5 countries, namely Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore and Thailand from the perspective of FDI an...
Hansen, Henrik; Rand, John
We analyse the Granger causal relationships between foreign direct investment (FDI) and GDP in a sample of 31 developing countries covering 31 years. Using estimators for heterogeneous panel data we find bi-directional causality between the FDI-to-GDP ratio and the level of GDP. FDI has a lasting...... of the hypotheses that FDI has an impact on GDP via knowledge transfers and adoption of new technology...
Paul Arthur Berkman
Full Text Available Access to information is necessary, but not sufficient in our digital era. The challenge is to objectively integrate digital resources based on user-defined objectives for the purpose of discovering information relationships that facilitate interpretations and decision making. The Antarctic Treaty Searchable Database (http://aspire.nvi.net, which is in its sixth edition, provides an example of digital integration based on the automated generation of information granules that can be dynamically combined to reveal objective relationships within and between digital information resources. This case study further demonstrates that automated granularity and dynamic integration can be accomplished simply by utilizing the inherent structure of the digital information resources. Such information integration is relevant to library and archival programs that require long-term preservation of authentic digital resources.
Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.
Interfacial delamination is a key reliability challenge in composites and micro-electronic systems due to (high-density) integration of dissimilar materials. Predictive finite element models are used to minimize delamination failures during design, but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical interface behavior from in-situ delamination experiments. Recently, a novel miniature delamination setup was presented that enables in-situ microscopic characterization of interface delamination while sensitively measuring global load-displacement curves for all mode mixities. Nevertheless, extraction of detailed mechanical interface behavior from measured images is challenging, because deformations are tiny and measurement noise large. Therefore, an advanced I-GDIC methodology is developed which correlates the image patterns by only deforming the images using kinematically-admissible \\'eigenmodes\\' that correspond to the few parameters controlling the interface tractions in an analytic description of the crack tip deformation field, thereby greatly enhancing accuracy and robustness. This method is validated on virtual delamination experiments, simulated using a recently developed self-adaptive cohesive zone (CZ) finite element framework. © The Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc. 2014.
Rangel, Frits A.; Maal, Thomas J. J.; Bergé, Stefaan J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used in maxillofacial surgery. The CBCT image of the dental arches, however, is of insufficient quality to use in digital planning of orthognathic surgery. Several authors have described methods to integrate digital dental casts into CBCT scans, but all reported methods have drawbacks. The aim of this feasibility study is to present a new simplified method to integrate digital dental casts into CBCT scans. In a patient scheduled for orthognathic ...
Mulder-Nijkamp, Maaike; Eggink, Wouter
In this paper we discuss the application of new opportunities and chances of digital learning in design education by means of the implementation of a digital sketching forum into a sketching course. The so called ‘blended learning’ method combines face to face education and a digital forum called
PROMOTING ACCESS TO AFRICAN RESEARCH. AFRICAN JOURNALS ... This paper empirically examines the short and long term FDI impact of Gulf Cooperation Countries (GCC) countries contracting of bilateral investment treaties and distinguishes it by the income level of the contracting partner. Using panel data for ...
In line with this,. China has bilateral trade and economic cooperation with many sub-Saharan. African countries. 4.2 Trends of Chinese FDI across sectors and Countries. China has become the leading country in foreign direct investment in Africa. During the year 2011, trade between Africa and China increased a staggering.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the impact of foreign direct investment on the economic growth of the Republic of Serbia. The aim is to analyze the effects of the economic crisis on foreign direct investment impact on the economic performance of the Serbian economy. This paper analyzes the period of 2000 - 2014, using the Inward FDI Performance Index and Pearson’s coefficient of simple linear correlation. The period before the economic crises (2000-2007 and the period after the beginning of the economic crisis (2008-2014 are analyzed separately, in order to observe the linear correlation between FDI and economic growth. The results of the research speak in favor of the existence of a strong and statistically significant correlation between FDI and observed macroeconomic indicators in the period of 2000-2007. The second sub-period was characterized by an absence correlation between FDI inflows and all the observed macroeconomic indicators. The results for the period of 2008-2014 can be explained by the effects of the global crisis on the Serbian economy and the deterioration of all macroeconomic indicators in the given period. Effects of the crisis on the Serbian economy were very strong.
Bendtsen, Jan Dimon; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh
threshold value. In the paper a method for determining this threshold based on the neural network model is proposed, which can be used for a design strategy to handle residual sensitivity to input variations. The proposed method is used for successful FDI of a diesel engine gain fault in a ship propulsion...
(FDI). In theory, foreign investment may only initially bring scarce capital and the subsequent investment can be financed locally. Foreign-owned companies may appear more attractive borrowers, and crowd out domestic firms from hostcountry imperfect capital markets. Both hypotheses are rejected because...
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the role of human capital in attracting FDI in the light of selected empirical studies conducted in Poland and globally. The literature on factors determining FDI location, including those relating to the importance of human capital, is dominated with studies at national or supranational level. Attracting foreign investment has become a key component of national strategies for the CEE countries. The paper makes an attempt to assess the relevance of human capital for FDI inflow at regional and local levels in Poland. At the same time, results of analyses were contrasted with quantitative surveys conducted in Central and Eastern Europe. Investing in education and human capital is important for creating good climate for investment. Evidence shows that achieving a certain minimum level of education is the precondition for a country to attract and maintain foreign direct investment and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital and maximise indirect effects connected with human capital and resulting from the presence of businesses with foreign capital. We should also stress that such a minimum is different for different sectors of the economy. Results of the study conducted in the Lodz Region demonstrated that human capital is an important factor, which attracts FDI to the region.
Hiller, Sanne; Yalcin, Erdal
-concentration trade-off with a stochastic productivity evolution, we analyze the transition dynamics between domestic market serving, exporting and FDI. We find that a stochastic productivity development generates hysteresis, and thereby confirm a general real option result. Market serving mode switching is driven...
POPOVICI OANA CRISTINA
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to identify if the drivers of inward foreign direct investments’ stocks in Central and Eastern European countries changed in the last 20 years, given two substantial economic evolutions encountered in this period: the transition process and the adhesion at the European Union. We are interested if foreign investors are attracted by the quality of institutions, the labour market or by the telecommunications infrastructure, expressed by 10 variables, in the 11 newest EU member states. Therefore, we use a fixed effects panel data approach during 1994-2013 which we apply in two stages. In the first stage, we find the variables that strongly influence FDI in each of the three groups of determinants. In the second stage, the panel data analysis is applied only for the variables previously find as significant for FDI, to which we add traditional FDI determinants, such as trade openness and GDP per capita. Also, the mentioned years are divided into two sub periods, the first representing the transition period (from 1994 until 2003 and the second one the years comprising the EU adhesion process (from 2004 until 2013. The results confirm that there are changes in FDI determinants in these countries. During 1994 to 2003, investors were mostly interested in the quality of institutions, the openness of the economies and the environments capable of growth, where the products can be sold. For the period starting with 2004, the analyzed countries are attractive mainly through their capacity of providing labour force with low costs and created resources, such as the development of the mobile networks. The results obtained are of particular importance for the public policy decision makers, as the changes in FDI determinants require the adaptation of public policies in the CEE countries in order to remain attractive for foreign investors.
Full Text Available The health of a nation is gauged not only by the quantum of FDI it attracts but also the trend it follows. In turn this is dependent on the economic policies formulated and practiced and the willingness of all concerned to engage with global economic practices. Since the early 1990’s when the government embarked on a policy of liberalization it has been observed that FDI inflows showed a steady increase until the last couple of years when in fact there has been a de-growth particularly 2010 over 2009 by almost 30%. On the other hand China has attracted FDI more than 4 times the quantum of India during the same period. Investors will look to invest in ‘opportunities’ as they see bearing the most attractive returns within a given frame work considering both the ‘home’ as well as ‘host’ country. Facts and figures very clearly indicate the positive impact even in India for certain sectors when FDI has been embraced. On the other hand, India most urgently requires gathering as much as investment as is possible to keep the momentum of growth going and one such opportunity is the organizing of our retail segment which would support development endeavor in a big way. The issue of embracing partial FDI in retail has seen some level of procrastination which requires more urgent and serious attention. Can India afford to lose this opportunity? This paper attempts to study the implications for this investment as also providing some suggestions.
The digital microfluidic (DMF) platform introduces many applications in biomedical assays. If it is to be commercially available to the public, it needs to have the essential features of smart sensing and a compact size. In this work, we report on a fractal electrode biosensor that is used for both droplet actuation and sensing C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration levels to assess cardiac disease risk. Our proposed electrode is the first two-terminal electrode design to be integrated into DMF platforms. A simulation of the electrical field distribution shows reduced peak intensities and uniform distribution of the field. When compared to a V-notch square electrode, the fractal electrode shows a superior performance in both aspects, i.e. field uniformity and intensity. These improvements are translated into a successful and responsive actuation of a water droplet with 100V. Likewise, the effective dielectric strength is improved by a 33% increase in the fractal electrode breakdown voltage. Additionally, the capability of the fractal electrode to work as a capacitive biosensor is evaluated with CRP quantification test. Selected fractal electrodes undergo a surface treatment to immobilize anti-CRP antibodies on their surface. The measurement shows a response to the added CRP in capacitance within three minutes. When the untreated electrodes were used for quantification, there was no significant change in capacitance, and this suggested that immobilization was necessary. The electrodes configuration in the fabricated DMF platform allows the fractal electrodes to be selectively used as biosensors, which means the device could be integrated into point-of-care applications.
Diana D. COCONOIU
Full Text Available Influencing factors of FDI are economic, social and political. The contextual factors can have a substantial influence on FDI inflows and outflows. The proposed analysis will identify whether there is a direct relationship between economic growth and FDI flows. In this paper, I will analyse the situation of four countries, namely Romania, Hungary, Bulgaria, the United Kingdom and the European Union to see the influence of GDP growth per capita on increasing the share of FDI in GDP and to what extent. Another potential factor influencing FDI inflows is represented by the exports and imports of a country, most of the studies concluding on a significant positive relationship of the trade flows over the FDI inflows. This will prove that FDI is not a substitute of the trade flows but an additional element, together contributing to increase the role of the state in the global economic system.Abstract will be written in English.
Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. Problem statement: Following South Africa's reintegration into the world economy in 1994, foreign direct investment has been seen as a potential driver of growth and development. Concerns about the low investment rate in South Africa raise the possibility of augmenting domestic with foreign investment expenditure. The potential of technology spillovers and skills transfer from foreign direct investment have also been emphasised. As a result, Trade and Investment South Africa is involved in identifying, packaging and promoting investment opportunities. However, investments tend to be place-specific and this has lead to the decentralisation of foreign direct investment promotion. Currently the nine provincial development agencies are competing to attract investors and the larger local governments are also getting involved in the fray. This paper argues that some places have better potential to attract foreign investment than others. A first step to use scarce investment promotion resources more efficiently would be to measure the inward FDI potential of South African regions. Approach: This paper uses principal components analysis to construct an index that captures the factors expected to affect a local economy's attractiveness to foreign investors. This approach draws on UNCTAD's Inward FDI Potential Index and applies it to 354 magisterial districts in South Africa for the periods 1996, 2001 and 2006. The index creates a summary measure of FDI potential. Findings: The results show that different places present differential potential in urbanization and localization economies and market size. The high-potential locations are typically found in or around the major agglomerations, but there are a few smaller places on the periphery that offer FDI potential. Contribution: The index should aid
Pitt, Sharon P.; Updike, Christina B.; Guthrie, Miriam E.
Describes an Internet-based image database system connected to a flexible, in-class teaching and learning tool (the Madison Digital Image Database) developed at James Madison University to bring digital images to the arts and humanities classroom. Discusses content, copyright issues, ensuring system effectiveness, instructional impact, sharing the…
Sheffield, Rachel; Blackley, Susan; Moro, Paul
Contemporary teachers have an obligation to support and scaffold students' learning in digital technologies and to do this in authentic contexts. In order for teachers to be successful in this, their own competency in digital technologies needs to be high, and their own 21st century learning skills of communication, collaboration, creativity and…
Butta, Mattia; Janosek, Michal; Ripka, Pavel
In this paper, a digital magnetometer based on printed circuit board fluxgate is presented. The fluxgate is pulse excited and the signal is extracted by gate integration. We investigate the possibility to perform integration on very narrow gates (typically 500 ns) by using digital techniques. The magnetometer is based on field-programmable gate array (FPGA) card: we will show all the advantages and disadvantages, given by digitalization of fluxgate output voltage by means of analog-to-digital converter on FPGA card, as well as digitalization performed by external digitizer. Due to very narrow gate, it is shown that a magnetometer entirely based on a FPGA card is preferable, because it avoids noise due to trigger instability. Both open loop and feedback operative mode are described and achieved results are presented.
Chen, Jinyu; Luo, Zhaofeng; Li, Lin; He, Jinlong; Li, Luoquan; Zhu, Jianwei; Wu, Ping; He, Liqun
The droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) is becoming more and more popular in diagnostic applications in academia and industry. In commercially available ddPCR systems, after they have been made by a generator, the droplets have to be transferred manually to modules for amplification and detection. In practice, some of the droplets (∼10%) are lost during manual transfer, leading to underestimation of the targets. In addition, the droplets are also at risk of cross-contamination during transfer. By contrast, in labs, some chip-based ddPCRs have been demonstrated where droplets always run in channels. However, the droplets easily coalesce to large ones in chips due to wall wetting as well as thermal oscillation. The loss of droplets becomes serious when such ddPCRs are applied to absolutely quantify rare mutations, such as in early diagnostics in clinical research or when measuring biological diversity at the cell level. Here, we propose a capillary-based integrated ddPCR system that is used for the first time to realize absolute quantification in this way. In this system, a HPLC T-junction is used to generate droplets and a long HPLC capillary connects the generator with both a capillary-based thermocycler and a capillary-based cytometer. The performance of the system is validated by absolute quantification of a gene specific to lung cancer (LunX). The results show that this system has very good linearity (0.9988) at concentrations ranging from NTC to 2.4 × 10 -4 copies per μL. As compared to qPCR, the all-in-one scheme is superior both in terms of the detection limit and the smaller fold changes measurement. The system of ddPCR might provide a powerful approach for clinical or academic applications where rare events are mostly considered.
Full Text Available The paper illustrates the results of a research on integrated digital survey of the "Fontana Rustica" in the gardens of the Quirinale, artifact somewhat atypical for its particular organical configuration, and whose history is still to be discovered. The activity is performed by Critevat, interdepartmental research center in Rieti, within of the scientific collaboration with the Office for the conservation of artistic heritage of the Quirinale Palace. The integrated digital survey in recent years has had a strong impulse thanks to the technological development of the shape acquisition instruments. The research has analyzed the problems of interaction and integration of digital data obtainable using the latest digital technologies such as 3D laser-scanner and digital photogrammetry. A further level of research has focused on the possibility of management of 3D models in relation to data obtained by instruments and methods of investigation of different scientific culture such as seismic transmission tomography and thermografy.
Paris, L.; Troiano, W.
The paper illustrates the results of a research on integrated digital survey of the "Fontana Rustica" in the gardens of the Quirinale, artifact somewhat atypical for its particular organical configuration, and whose history is still to be discovered. The activity is performed by Critevat, interdepartmental research center in Rieti, within of the scientific collaboration with the Office for the conservation of artistic heritage of the Quirinale Palace. The integrated digital survey in recent years has had a strong impulse thanks to the technological development of the shape acquisition instruments. The research has analyzed the problems of interaction and integration of digital data obtainable using the latest digital technologies such as 3D laser-scanner and digital photogrammetry. A further level of research has focused on the possibility of management of 3D models in relation to data obtained by instruments and methods of investigation of different scientific culture such as seismic transmission tomography and thermografy.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to empirically assess the recently introduced models of subsidy competition based on the classical oligopoly theories. Three crucial scenarios (coordination, weak competition, and fierce competition are tested employing iteratively re-weighted least squares, fixed effects, and dynamic Blundell-Bond estimator on the data from the World Competitiveness Yearbook. The results suggest that none of the scenarios can be strongly supported – although there is some weak support for cooperation –, and thus that empirical evidence is not in accordance with the tested models. There is no evidence for a significant international competition for FDI. It seems that, however, by means of FDI incentives, governments try to compensate foreign investors for high wages and low productivity of their countries’ labor force.
Full Text Available This paper examines long-term developments in the quality and efficiency of free market institutional systems across thirteen emerging economies from South, South-east, and East Asia over the 1995–2014 period. The paper also empirically assesses the impact of free market institutions on a country’s inward foreign direct investment (FDI performance. We find that the free market institutional framework in most economies is still relatively inefficient, restrictive, and underdeveloped but has, nevertheless, substantially improved during the last twenty-year period. Our empirical results also indicate that a free market institutional system in a host-country is a factor that attracts inward FDI to emerging Asian economies by multinational companies. Consequently, policy makers should focus on further improving the quality of free market institutions.
Strandskov, Jesper; Pedersen, Kurt
at the world stage. Not only should we expect this to happen, we should also welcome it for precisely the same reasons that we should welcome increasing world trade. If FDI is a more efficient way to handle foreign markets – combining comparative and competitive advantages – the global welfare gains......The recent wave of foreign direct investments from less developed nations, notably India and The Peoples Republic of China, has taken the world with some surprise. Indian wind turbine producers and Chinese multinationals in electronics operate in US and EU from partly or wholly owned subsidiaries...... comparative advantages are slowly ironed out as far Eastern growth rates keep beating Western rates. In relation to FDI the economic arguments are comprehensively put together in Dunning´s Investment Development Path. The argument is that with increasing output per capita nations move from being net...
The Integrated Digital Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System has been developed and applied to non-safety grade I and C systems in the latest 5 Japanese PWR plants in 1990's. Based on the experience in these plants, the Integrated Digital I and C System will be planned to apply also to safety grade I and C systems in Advanced PWR (APWR) as the overall application of digital technology. The basic design task has been just started for APWR which is to be in commercial operation in early 2000's and under the development about various issues of safety grade digital I and C systems. On the other hand, in conventional Japanese PWR plants, digital I and C systems have been applied step by step since 1980's. For example, digital I and C systems for radio-active waste processing system have been adopted to 13 units, and dedicated digital I and C systems for Local loop control system to 8 units. The trend and status of development and application of the digital I and C systems, especially the Integrated Digital I and C System in Japanese PWR plants are presented. (5 refs., 4 figs.)
Sverdlov, Oleksandr; van Dam, Joris; Hannesdottir, Kristin; Thornton-Wells, Tricia
Digital therapeutics represent a new treatment modality in which digital systems such as smartphone apps are used as regulatory-approved, prescribed therapeutic interventions to treat medical conditions. In this article we provide a critical overview of the rationale for investing in such novel modalities, including the unmet medical needs addressed by digital therapeutics and the potential for reducing current costs of medical care. We also discuss emerging pathways to regulatory approval and how innovative business models are enabling further growth in the development of digital therapeutics. We conclude by providing some recent examples of digital therapeutics that have gained regulatory approval and highlight opportunities for the near future. © 2018 American Society for Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.
Rangel, F.A.; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, A.M.
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used in maxillofacial surgery. The CBCT image of the dental arches, however, is of insufficient quality to use in digital planning of orthognathic surgery. Several authors have described methods to integrate digital dental casts into CBCT scans, but all
Sockman, Beth Rajan; Sutton, Rhonda; Herrmann, Michele
This study determined the usefulness of digital comic creation with 77 graduate students in a teacher technology course. Students completed an assigned reading and created digital comics that addressed technology integration concerns in the schools and society. Using practical action research, 77 student-created comics were analyzed. The findings…
... Integrated Circuit Devices and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation; Institution of... integrated circuit devices and components thereof by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent... after importation of certain digital televisions containing integrated circuit devices and components...
This paper considers the impact of business and social networks on international trade and foreign direct investment (FDI). I propose that differences in the strength of network effects across countries can produce asymmetric trade and investment flows that may lead to trade friction. This proposition is examined using a model of multi-product producers of a differentiated product. A firm from a country with strong network effects has a cost advantage in selling to buyers from its own country...
Coon, Michael; Neumann, Rebecca
This paper explores the relationship between foreign direct investment and remittance flows. Using a panel of 79 countries, we estimate a random effects model and find a positive and significant relationship between the two capital flows. We account for the potential endogeneity of FDI to remittances by utilize a two-stage Instrumental Variables approach. These findings are indicative of a desire among the emigrant community to invest their income earned abroad in their home countries. We als...
Full Text Available FDI are considered a key instrument in the process of transforming the former centrally planned economies and stimulate economic growth in the transition period. Economic theory suggests that FDI are an important factor for the economic growth of the host-country, while according to empirical research in general, there is a positive correlation between FDI and the economic growth, but the causality direction is not clear: FDI inflow stimulates economic growth, but in the same time FDI inflows grow with the country’s economic development. Therefore, the objective of research in the paper is the relationship between FDI and economic growth in SEE and CIS countries. The relationship between the FDI and the economic growth in transition countries is examined by linear regression correlation of the relevant variables, covering the period from 2004 to 2011. Through the Pierce coefficient and the coefficient of determination, the interaction between the relevant variables and the dependence intensity is examine, and in this context general conclusions are drawn about the effects of FDI in the SEE and CIS countries. At the same time, the beta-coefficient is used to examine the value of the change in each variable separately, in order to make a more detailed analysis of the results obtained. In order to determine the direction of causality between the FDI and the economic growth of the country, research is carried out the influence of the transition indicators on the FDI inflow in the SEE and CIS countries from 2004 to 2011.
Arndt, Steven A.
It has been suggested that by categorizing the various digital systems used in safety critical applications in nuclear power plants, it would be possible to determine which systems should be modeled in the analysis of the larger plant wide PRA, at what level of detail the digital system should be modeled and using which methods. The research reported in this paper develops a categorization method using system attributes to permit a modeler to more effectively model the systems that will likely have the most critical contributions to the overall plant safety and to more effectively model system interactions for those digital systems where the interactions are most important to the overall accuracy and completeness of the plant PRA. The proposed methodology will categorize digital systems based on certain attributes of the systems themselves and how they will be used in the specific application. This will help determine what digital systems need to be modeled and at what level of detail, and can be used to guide PRA analysis and regulatory reviews. The three-attribute categorization strategy that was proposed by Arndt is used as the basis for the categorization methodology developed here. The first attribute, digital system complexity, is based on Type Il interactions defined by Aldemir and an overall digital system size and complexity index. The size and complexity index used are previously defined software complexity metrics. Potential sub-attributes of digital system complexity include, design complexity, software complexity, hardware complexity, system function complexity and testability. The second attribute, digital system interactions/inter-conductivity, is a combination of Rushby's coupling and Ademir's Type I interactions. Digital systems that are loosely coupled and/or have very few Type I interaction would not interact dynamically with the overall system and would have a low interactions/inter-conductivity score. Potential sub-attributes of digital system
Arndt, Steven A. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington D.C. (United States)
It has been suggested that by categorizing the various digital systems used in safety critical applications in nuclear power plants, it would be possible to determine which systems should be modeled in the analysis of the larger plant wide PRA, at what level of detail the digital system should be modeled and using which methods. The research reported in this paper develops a categorization method using system attributes to permit a modeler to more effectively model the systems that will likely have the most critical contributions to the overall plant safety and to more effectively model system interactions for those digital systems where the interactions are most important to the overall accuracy and completeness of the plant PRA. The proposed methodology will categorize digital systems based on certain attributes of the systems themselves and how they will be used in the specific application. This will help determine what digital systems need to be modeled and at what level of detail, and can be used to guide PRA analysis and regulatory reviews. The three-attribute categorization strategy that was proposed by Arndt is used as the basis for the categorization methodology developed here. The first attribute, digital system complexity, is based on Type Il interactions defined by Aldemir and an overall digital system size and complexity index. The size and complexity index used are previously defined software complexity metrics. Potential sub-attributes of digital system complexity include, design complexity, software complexity, hardware complexity, system function complexity and testability. The second attribute, digital system interactions/inter-conductivity, is a combination of Rushby's coupling and Ademir's Type I interactions. Digital systems that are loosely coupled and/or have very few Type I interaction would not interact dynamically with the overall system and would have a low interactions/inter-conductivity score. Potential sub-attributes of
Baranauskas, Dalius (Inventor); Baranauskas, Gytis (Inventor); Zelenin, Denis (Inventor); Kangaslahti, Pekka (Inventor); Tanner, Alan B. (Inventor); Lim, Boon H. (Inventor)
According to one embodiment, a cross-correlator comprises a plurality of analog front ends (AFEs), a cross-correlation circuit and a data serializer. Each of the AFEs comprises a variable gain amplifier (VGA) and a corresponding analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in which the VGA receives and modifies a unique analog signal associates with a measured analog radio frequency (RF) signal and the ADC produces digital data associated with the modified analog signal. Communicatively coupled to the AFEs, the cross-correlation circuit performs a cross-correlation operation on the digital data produced from different measured analog RF signals. The data serializer is communicatively coupled to the summing and cross-correlating matrix and continuously outputs a prescribed amount of the correlated digital data.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) for select U.S. coastal regions. These integrated...
Angheluţǎ, L. M.; Ratoiu, L.; Chelmus, A. I.; Rǎdvan, R.; Petculescu, A.
This paper presents a newly started demonstrative project regarding the implementation and validation of an interdisciplinary research model for the Aluniş-Bozioru (Romania) cultural landscape, with the development of an online interactive digital product. This digital product would provide complementary data about the historical monuments and their environment, and also, constant updates and statistical comparison in order to generate an accurate evaluation of the state of conservation for this specific cultural landscape. Furthermore, the resulted information will contribute in the decision making process for the regional development policies. The project is developed by an interdisciplinary joint team of researchers consisted of technical scientists with great experience in advanced non-invasive characterization of the cultural heritage (NIRD for Optoelectronics - INOE 2000) and a group of experts from geology and biology (Romanian Academy's "Emil Racoviţǎ" Institute of Speleology - ISER). Resulted scientific data will include: 3D digital models of the selected historical monuments, microclimate monitoring, Ground Penetrating Radar survey, airborne LIDAR, multispectral and thermal imaging, soil and rock characterization, environmental studies. This digital product is constituted by an intuitive website with a database that allows data corroboration, visualization and comparison of the 3D digital models, as well as a digital mapping in the GIS system.
Tzu-Han YANG; Deng-Shing HUANG
The phenomenon of fast-growing business activities of multinational corporations around the world has generated much interest in understanding its implications for the development of the world economy as well as the relationships among national economies. By analyzing the world's top 2000 firms published by Forbes Magazine (the Forbes Global 2000), this article first investigates the contents and structural evolution of these giant multinational firms and their relationship with national fore...
Full Text Available Since the outburst of the financial crisis, FDI flows into Korea have dramatically increased, causing great concern regarding the rapid penetration of FDI and its concentrating effects on the economy. The study explores the issue of how FDI impacts on market structure and competition in Korea. The preliminary conclusions are that FDI seems to have an upward influence on concentration while at the same time, concentration leads to higher price cost margin, and through this channel, FDI would indirectly contribute to increasing price cost margin. The direct impact of FDI on price cost margin is not conclusive, but seems to suggest that multinationals are attracted to markets where profits are stable (and probably high, but compete profit away as they enter these markets.
Full Text Available Despite the growing interest in foreign direct investments (FDI, substantial uncertainty still exists regarding what stimulates foreign investors to operate in a foreign market and uneven distribution of FDI across countries. Using panel data for 2001 -2012 period, the major determinants of the FDI inflows into the Central and Eastern European Countries are analysed in this study. Strong evidence are found that while EU CR indices, EU and USA real GDP growth rates and global financial crisis have power to explain FDI inflows among all other push factors, labour cost, electricity price, real exchange rate and host CR indices have strong influential on FDI as the most effective pull factors. However, study fails to find any effect of openness, tax rates on commercial profits, USA CR indices, interest rate differentials and host real GDP growth on FDI.
Pandej Chintrakarn; Dierk Herzer; Peter Nunnenkamp
This study employs state-level panel data to explore the relationship between inward foreign direct investment (FDI) and income inequality in the United States. Using panel cointegration techniques that allow for cross-sectional heterogeneity, cross-sectional dependence, and endogenous regressors, we find that the short-run effects of FDI on income inequality are insignificant or weakly significant and negative. In the long run, however, FDI exerts a significant and robust negative effect on ...
Mohd Zaini Abd Karim; Yusairi Othman
Foreign direct investment (FDI) plays an important role in the rapid economic development of the newly industrializing and developing economies of Southeast Asia. In terms of the regions attractiveness, ASEAN region is a leading recipient of FDI flows in the developing world, with five ASEAN countries in the top 20 developing-countries recipients of long-term global capital flows from 1997 to 1998. While the creation of AFTA may help FDI inflows to ASEAN countries, China's entry into World Tr...
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate empirically the impact of FDI on economic growth for Azerbaijan, Kyrgyz Republic, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan over the period 1997-2010. The Johansen cointegration and Granger causality tests are used in order to analyze the causal relationship between FDI and economic growth. It is crucial to see the directions of causality between two variables for the policy makers to encourage private sectors. The cointegration test results indicated that FDI and Economic Growth variables are cointegrated for Azerbaijan and Turkmenistan. By using Granger Causality test we found that FDI causes GDP for Azerbaijan and bidirectional causality is observed for Turkmenistan.
Moazeni, Sarah Leila
Digital Humanities (DH) is a hot topic, in demand and on the rise. This article begins with excerpts from job listings that were posted to the American Library Association's job list in a two-month span in spring 2015 and they seem to indicate that DH is an increasingly important competency and interest for academic librarians who perform…
There is a growing interest among academic institutions in managing institutional digital content produced in and for research, teaching and learning. This article argues for an integrated approach to this activity and examines the role of libraries in facilitating this. It then considers some existing approaches to providing software to support this. Australian initiatives consistent with this integrated model are then discussed.
Shared electronic health and social care records in some service systems are already showing some of the benefits of digital technology and digital data for integrating health and social care. These records are one example of the beginning “digitalisation” of services that gives a glimpse of the potential of digital technology and systems for building coordinated and individualized integrated care. Yet the promise has been greater than the benefits, and progress has been slow compared to other industries. This paper describes for non-technical readers how information technology was used to support integrated care schemes in six EU services, and suggests practical ways forward to use the new opportunities to build person-centered integrated care. PMID:29588629
Full Text Available Shared electronic health and social care records in some service systems are already showing some of the benefits of digital technology and digital data for integrating health and social care. These records are one example of the beginning “digitalisation” of services that gives a glimpse of the potential of digital technology and systems for building coordinated and individualized integrated care. Yet the promise has been greater than the benefits, and progress has been slow compared to other industries. This paper describes for non-technical readers how information technology was used to support integrated care schemes in six EU services, and suggests practical ways forward to use the new opportunities to build person-centered integrated care.
¬quately to changing demands in their business activities. However many companies find it dif¬ficult to achieve the full poten¬tial of these technologies as practical advices that can help companies and the management in their decision-making, selecting and implementing new technology are rare (Boer and Krabbendam......, 1998). The intention of this paper is, through illustrative case studies from France and Denmark within the highly competitive business of optical frame design (fashion) to present a model for strategy as well as a practical model for improvement of time to market of styling objects by use of digital...... platforms. Aspects are: 1) selection of platform from a strategic point of view, 2) selection of 2D and 3D CAD from a practical point of view and 3) creation and implementation of digital platforms. Finally, briefly aspects of teaching of platform theory at the department of Architecture & Industrial design...
Narula, Rajneesh; Marin, Anabel
spillovers accrue from MNE activity, and provide apreliminary understanding of why MNE spillovers remain somewhat ambiguous,particularly in developing countries, paying particular attention to human capitaldevelopment. Our analysis is supported by data from the Innovation Survey in Argentina.On the whole......It is nowadays generally accepted that inward foreign direct investment (FDI) is crucialas a source of technological spillovers. One of the objectives of this paper is to review theevidence on the quantity and quality of human capital employed by domestic and foreignfirms. We examine whether...
Full Text Available Based on data for the years 1995 to 2002, this paper has established a panel data model that reflects the relationship between China's foreign direct investment and China's exports, and regarding this, empirical analysis is made. The selected countries and regions include: Hong Kong of China, China's Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, the European Union, and the United States. We have found that the relationship between the accumulated FDI (FDE stock of different countries and regions in China and Chinese exports to the target countries is quite strong.
Gammeltoft, Peter; Fasshauer, Kirsten
The present study of direct investment from mainland China into Europe complements and extends prior studies by building on a firm-level database comprising of 548 Chinese subsidiaries in 26 countries in EU and EFTA. The study identifies and characterises three segments of subsidiaries...... are particularly important host country factors for attracting Chinese FDI. There is no strong correlation between aggregate national R&D spending and Chinese knowledge-seeking investments, reflecting that such investments tend to be individual and highly idiosyncratic cases. Rather than a wholesale adoption...
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the causal relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth in Nigeria using annual data covering the period 1970 to 2002. The study employed the Granger causality procedure to test the direction of causality between foreign direct investment and economic growth for the Nigerian economy. The endogenous production function was derived to accommodate foreign investment and other domestic policies that could influence growth and foreign investment. The study found a one-way causality between from foreign direct investment to economic growth. The implication arising from this study is that Nigeria should adopt policy whereby FDI is attracted to promote economic growth.
Finnemann, Niels Ole
what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...
interaction between a digital data bus and an avionic system. Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) ICs and multiversion software, which make up digital...1984, the Sperry Corporation developed a fault tolerant system which employed multiversion programming, voting, and monitoring for error detection and...formulate all the significant behavior of a system. MULTIVERSION PROGRAMMING. N-version programming. N-VERSION PROGRAMMING. The independent coding of a
Zhang, Xiao-Juan; He, Li; Guo, Hong-Ming; Tian, Jie; Bai, Yu-Xing; Li, Song
Objective To assess the accuracy of anterior tooth movement using clear aligners in integrated three-dimensional digital models. Methods Cone-beam computed tomography was performed before and after treatment with clear aligners in 32 patients. Plaster casts were laser-scanned for virtual setup and aligner fabrication. Differences in predicted and achieved root and crown positions of anterior teeth were compared on superimposed maxillofacial digital images and virtual models and analyzed by St...
Marlino, M. R.; Pandya, R. E.
The rapid changes in the geoscience research environment have prompted educators to request support for their efforts to reform geoscience educational practices. DLESE, the Digital Library for Earth System Education, responds to this request by providing a single point of access to high-quality educational resources for teaching about the Earth as a system. DLESE is supported by the National Science Foundation and is an operational library used by tens of thousands of educators every month. DLESE resources include a variety of media formats, from text-based lesson plans to highly-sophisticated tools for interactive three-dimensional visualization of authentic scientific data. The DLESE community is particularly interested in partnering with scientific researchers to ensure that the tools of practicing scientists become widely available to geoscience educators. Two emerging large-scale scientific efforts, the GEON project and EarthScope, provide compelling illustrations of the potential of these partnerships. Both are cutting-edge, cross-disciplinary projects that use digital tools in a distributed environment to support scientific investigation. Both have also made a deep commitment to use these same tools to support geoscience education, and both are including DLESE as part of that commitment. Our interactive presentation will allow users to discover a variety of educational resources and communication services within the library. We will highlight those library resources and services that take particular advantage of the digital media to support new modes of learning and teaching. For example, annotation tools allow educators to add tips on the most effective way to use a specific resource. Data services will help educators find and use real-time data to illustrate geoscience phenomena. Multi-dimensional visualization tools allow students to interact with authentic student data in inquiry-based learning environment. DLESE will continue to actively collaborate
Birulev, M.S.; Fefilov, B.V.
A simple circuit of a current integrator has been developed making possible not only the measurement but also integration of currents in the range from 10 -10 to 10 -3 A. The integrator consists of a scaler and a digital amperevoltmeter. A basic circuit of the scaler comprising four integrated-circuit decades is presented. The integrator possesses a rather high sensitivity and low input resistance which is of special importance in measuring small currents in accelerator targets having a relatively low and instable resistance
Beugelsdijk, Sjoerd; Hennart, Jean-Francois; Slangen, Arjen; Smeets, Roger
Many international business (IB) studies have used foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks to measure the aggregate value adding activity of multinational enterprises (MNE) affiliates in host countries We argue that FDI stocks are a biased measure of that activity, because the degree to which they
Beugelsdijk, S.; Hennart, J.-F.; Slangen, A.; Smeets, R.
Many international business (IB) studies have used foreign direct investment (FDI) stocks to measure the aggregate value-adding activity of multinational enterprises (MNE) affiliates in host countries. We argue that FDI stocks are a biased measure of that activity, because the degree to which they
Martijn A. Boermans; Zhang Yi; Hein Roelfsema
We empirically investigate the factors that drive the uneven regional distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) across Chinese provinces from 1995 to 2006. We first perform a factor analysis to summarize information embodied in around 40 variables and derive four FDI determinants:
In this paper, we propose an energy-efficient 13-bit capacitive sensor interface circuit. The proposed design fully relies on successive approximation algorithm, which eliminates the need for oversampling and digital decimation filtering, and thus low-power consumption is achieved. The proposed architecture employs a charge amplifier stage to acheive parasitic insensitive operation and fine absolute resolution. Moreover, the output code is not affected by offset voltages or charge injection. The successive approximation algorithm is implemented in the capacitance-domain using a coarse-fine programmable capacitor array, which allows digitizing wide capacitance range in compact area. Analysis for the maximum achievable resolution due to mismatch is provided. The proposed design is insensitive to any reference voltage or current which translates to low temperature sensitivity. The operation of a prototype fabricated in a standard CMOS technology is experimentally verified using both on-chip and off-chip capacitive sensors. Compared to similar prior work, the fabricated prototype achieves and excellent energy efficiency of 34 pJ/step.
Mashraei, Yousof; Sivashankar, Shilpa; Buttner, Ulrich; Salama, Khaled N.
fractal electrode biosensor that is used for both droplet actuation and sensing C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration levels to assess cardiac disease risk. Our proposed electrode is the first two-terminal electrode design to be integrated into DMF
Laura DIACONU (MAXIM
Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to analyse the impact of FDI on the labour markets of the states that joined the EU in 2004, before and after the EU accession and in the context of the global economic crisis. To achieve this objective, we have investigated the literature and carried out a pooled OLS regression estimation. The analysis shows that, until 2003, FDI neither enhanced the labour force participation rate, nor reduced the youth unemployment in the analysed states. After EU adhesion, FDI had only one significant positive effect, exerted on real labour productivity, and negative effects on employment and labour force participation rate. In the context of the crisis, FDI had beneficial effects on the unemployment, but to a lesser extent on the youth unemployment. FDI did not have any significant effect on annual net earnings in none of the three periods.
Manuel Portugal Ferreira; Helder Costa Carreira; Dan Li; Fernando Ribeiro Serra
Prior research has identified a negative impact of corruption on countries’ ability to attract Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) but has been scant in assessing the investors’ home country effects. We extend prior research by distinguishing the pervasiveness and arbitrariness of host country corruption and their effects on FDI inflows. We also test whether the investors’ home country corruption affects FDI decisions. Results show that host country pervasive corruption negatively drives FDI infl...
de Macedo, J. A.; Voelzke, M. R.
This study presents results of a survey conducted at the Federal Institution of Education, Science and Technology in the North of Minas Gerais (IFNMG), and aimed to investigate the potential uses of interactive materials in the teaching of astronomy. Despite being part of official documents, proposals included in the curriculum of several states, and having contributed to human and technological development, astronomy is rarely taught adequately in the Brazilian basic education. When it is taught, it is with unsatisfactory results as presented by students and teachers as shown by several studies, such as those carried out by (Voelzke and Gonzaga, 2013). Digital technologies are commonly used by youth, but neglected by the majority of teachers. In this sense, a survey with the aim of pointing out the potential use of digital technologies in teaching astronomy was developed. An advanced course in astronomy was offered for participants with the goal to help them understand astronomical phenomena. The following steps were to be taken: i) analysis of the pedagogical projects (PPC) of the licenciates at the IFNMG, with its Campus Januária as research locus; ii) analysis of students' preconceptions about astronomy and digital technologies, identified by the application of an initial questionnaire; iii) preparation of the course taking into account the students' previous knowledge; iv) application of the education proposal developed under part-time presence modality, using various interactive tools; v) application and analysis of the final questionnaire. The test consisted of thirty-two students of physics, mathematics and biology and was conducted with the qualitative and quantitative methodology, combined with a content analysis. Among other results, it was verified that: (i) In the IFNMG only the licenciate-course in physics includes astronomy content diluted in various subjects of the curriculum; (ii) the analysis of the initial questionnaire showed even that group
Krotoff, H.; Benski, C.
The inclusion of programmed digital techniques in the SPIN system provides the used with the capability of performing sophisticated processing operations. However, it causes the quantitative evaluation of the overall failure probabilities to become somewhat more intricate by reason that: A single component may be involved in several functions; Self-tests may readily be incorporated for the purpose of monitoring the dependable operation of the equipment at all times. This paper describes the methods as implemented by MERLIN GERIN for the purpose of evaluating: The probabilities for the protective actions not to be initiated (dangerous failures); The probabilities for such protective actions to be initiated accidentally. Although the communication is focused on the programmed portion of the SPIN (UAIP) it will also deal with the evaluation performed within the scope of study works that do not exclusively cover the UAIPs
Bardsley, J N
The electronic display industry is changing in three important ways. First, the dominance of the cathode ray tube (CRT) is being challenged by the development of flat panel displays (FPDs). This will lead to the availability of displays of higher performance, albeit at greater cost. Secondly, the analog interfaces between displays that show data and the computers that generate the data are being replaced by digital connections. Finally, a high-resolution display is becoming the most expensive component in computer system for homes and small offices. It is therefore desirable that the useful lifetime of the display extend over several years and that the electronics allows the display to be used with many different image sources. Hopefully, the necessity of having three or four large CRTs in one office to accommodate different computer operating systems or communication protocols will soon disappear. Instead, we hope to see a set of flat panels that can be switched to show several independent images from multip...
Full Text Available Following a five-year period of uninterrupted growth and reaching a historical peak in 2007, world foreign direct investment flows (FDI declined in 2008, in large part as a result of the global financial and economic crisis. The European Union (EU as a major source and recipient of FDI flows in the world has been particularly badly hit, reflecting the close economic relationship which exists between the EU and the rest of the world, on the one hand, and among the Member States, on the other hand. The paper analyses the impact of the current crisis on EU's FDI inflows and outflows, in terms of dynamics and volume, as well as the short term and long-term prospects for FDI. Special attention is devoted to disentangling the transmission channels of the crisis, the key features of the FDI downturn and its underlying factors. The empirical investigation relies on UNCTAD data for tracing the evolution of FDI flows at the European level as compared to worldwide trends, while Eurostat data are used to highlight the impact of the crisis on intra-EU FDI flows. Whenever possible, a distinctive analysis is carried out for the old and new EU Member States. The paper is organized around six sections. Its findings reveal, inter alia, that notwithstanding the sharp fall in total FDI flows in 2008, the EU maintains its position as a global leader in terms of FDI flows. However, it will take quite a long time until recovering from the negative effects of the present crisis in terms of investments. Besides, the EU is not likely to be the driving force behind the next wave of FDI surge in the world as this role will be taken over by emerging economies like China, India and Brazilia.
Hearn, W.E.; Wright, M.E.
A fully integrated CMOS pulse shaping amplifier has been developed at LBL. All frequency dependent networks are included on the chip. Provision is made for tuning to compensate for process variations. The overall architecture and details of the circuitry are discussed. Test results are presented
Salomon, Anna M.
Today's teachers are tasked with the integration of technology in their curriculum and their classrooms. In order to do that, teachers require professional development/training and support. Further, schools are encountering a unique landscape of teaching with digital natives becoming teachers alongside digital immigrants. This study aimed to…
Rangel, Frits A.; Maal, Thomas J. J.; Bergé, Stefaan J.; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne Marie
Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) is widely used in maxillofacial surgery. The CBCT image of the dental arches, however, is of insufficient quality to use in digital planning of orthognathic surgery. Several authors have described methods to integrate digital dental casts into CBCT scans, but all reported methods have drawbacks. The aim of this feasibility study is to present a new simplified method to integrate digital dental casts into CBCT scans. In a patient scheduled for orthognathic surgery, titanium markers were glued to the gingiva. Next, a CBCT scan and dental impressions were made. During the impression-taking procedure, the titanium markers were transferred to the impression. The impressions were scanned, and all CBCT datasets were exported in DICOM format. The two datasets were matched, and the dentition derived from the scanned impressions was transferred to the CBCT of the patient. After matching the two datasets, the average distance between the corresponding markers was 0.1 mm. This novel method allows for the integration of digital dental casts into CBCT scans, overcoming problems such as unwanted extra radiation exposure, distortion of soft tissues due to the use of bite jigs, and time-consuming digital data handling. PMID:23050159
Asrizal, A.; Amran, A.; Ananda, A.; Festiyed, F.
Educational graduates should have good competencies to compete in the 21st century. Integrated learning is a good way to develop competence of students in this century. Besides that, literacy skills are very important for students to get success in their learning and daily life. For this reason, integrated science learning and literacy skills are important in 2013 curriculum. However, integrated science learning and integration of literacy in learning can’t be implemented well. Solution of this problem is to develop adaptive contextual learning model by integrating digital age literacy. The purpose of the research is to determine the effectiveness of adaptive contextual learning model to improve competence of grade VIII students in junior high school. This research is a part of the research and development or R&D. Research design which used in limited field testing was before and after treatment. The research instruments consist of three parts namely test sheet of learning outcome for assessing knowledge competence, observation sheet for assessing attitudes, and performance sheet for assessing skills of students. Data of student’s competence were analyzed by three kinds of analysis, namely descriptive statistics, normality test and homogeneity test, and paired comparison test. From the data analysis result, it can be stated that the implementation of adaptive contextual learning model of integrated science by integrating digital age literacy is effective to improve the knowledge, attitude, and literacy skills competences of grade VIII students in junior high school at 95% confidence level.
Mennicken, Sarah; Kim, David; Huang, Elaine May
With the growing adoption of smart home technologies, inhabitants are faced with the challenge of making sense of the data that their homes can collect to configure automated behaviors that benefit their routines. Current commercial smart home interfaces usually provide information on individual devices instead of a more comprehensive overview of a home’s behavior. To reduce the complexity of smart home data and integrate it better into inhabitants’ lives, we turned to the familiar metaphor o...
Simona Ibba; Filippo Eros Pani
Interoperability and social implication are two current challenges in the digital library (DL) context. To resolve the problem of interoperability, our work aims to find a relationship between the main metadata schemas. In particular, we want to formalize knowledge through the creation of a metadata taxonomy built with the analysis and the integration of existing schemas associated with DLs. We developed a method to integrate and combine Instagram metadata and hashtags. The final result is a ...
Petrenko, A. I.; Sliusar, P. B.; Timchenko, A. P.
Various aspects of the generation of macromodels of digital integrated circuits are examined, and their effective application in program packages of circuit engineering design is considered. Three levels of macromodels are identified, and the application of such models to the simulation of circuit outputs is discussed.
This article reviews MIT Lincoln Laboratory's work over the past 20 years to develop photon-sensitive image sensors based on arrays of silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes. Integration of these detectors to all-digital CMOS readout circuits enable exquisitely sensitive solid-state imagers for lidar, wavefront sensing, and passive imaging.
van den Bos, Maarten; Coll Ardanuy, Mariona; Sporleder, Caroline
It has been said that media is an important but mostly overlooked player in European integration history. Now, the mass digitisation of newspapers and the introduction of new digital techniques promise great potential to remedy this inattention. With the conjecture that people are drivers and
Kleinendorst, S.M.; Verhaegh, B.J.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Ruybalid, A.; van der Sluis, O.; Geers, M.G.D.; Lamberti, L.; Lin, M.-T.; Furlong, C.; Sciammarella, C.
In integrated digital image correlation (IDIC) methods attention must be paid to the influence of using a correct geometric and material model, but also to make the boundary conditions in the FE simulation match the real experiment. Another issue is the robustness and convergence of the IDIC
Kilpatrick, Jennifer Renée; Saulsburry, Rachel; Dostal, Hannah M.; Wolbers, Kimberly A.; Graham, Steve
The purpose of this chapter is to gain insight from the ways a group of elementary teachers of the deaf and hard of hearing chose to integrate digital tools into evidence-based writing instruction and the ways these technologies were used to support student learning. After professional development that exposed these teachers to twelve new digital…
A. Paz Alencar (Amanda); T. de la Hera Conde-Pumpido (Teresa)
textabstractIn the Netherlands, the growing presence of immigrant children in schools has fueled scholarly interest in and concerns for examining the process of integration in school environments. The use of digital games has found to be an effective tool to reinforce teaching/learning practices.
Charlier, Nathalie; De Fraine, Biecke
As educational technology is rapidly changing, greater emphasis has been placed on preparing the next generation of teachers for effective technology integration into the classrooms. In this article, the authors describe the design, implementation, and evaluation of a course on digital game-based learning (DGBL) developed for the preservice…
Ahmadi Mehr, S.A.R.; Tohidian, M.; Staszeski, R.B.
In modern RF system on chips (SoCs), the digital content consumes up to 85% of the IC chip area. The recent push to integrate multiple RF-SoC cores is met with heavy resistance by the remaining RF/analog circuitry, which creates numerous strong aggressors and weak victims leading to RF performance
Ana Flavia Bonzaninit
Full Text Available Neste trabalho analisamos os impactos de dois canais de transferência internacional de tecnologia, investimento direto estrangeiro e licenciamento (FDI e licensing, sobre o crescimento da produtividade total de fatores (TFP numa amostra de 88 países, para o período 1980-2006. Em relação a Pessoa (2008, trazemos aqui três contribuições originais: incluímos na especificação do modelo econométrico uma variável de composição dos fluxos estrangeiros de capital; nossa amostra compreende também países pobres e em desenvolvimento, e não só da OCDE; oferecemos um tratamento do problema de endogeneidade típico em regressões de crescimento tendo como variáveis explicativas medidas do tipo "abertura financeira" dos países.We analyze the impacts of two international technology transfer channels, foreign direct investment (FDI and licensing, on total factor productivity (TFP growth in a sample of 88 countries for the period 1980-2006. Comparing with Pessoa (2008, we bring here three original contributions: we include in the econometric model specification a variable which captures the composition of foreign capital flows; our sample comprises poor and developing countries too, not only OECD's; we offer a treatment for the typical endogeneity problem found in growth regressions which have as explanatory variables measures like countries' "financial openness".
Sadaf, Ayesha; Johnson, Barbara L.
This study explored teachers' behavioral, normative, and control beliefs related to digital literacy integration into their classrooms. Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) was used as a theoretical framework to collect and analyze data. Findings revealed that teachers' integration of digital literacy were related to their behavioral beliefs…
Full Text Available The inclusion of Indonesia as a net importer of oil, gas and high energy expenditure compared with oil and gas revenues is because of the lack of investment in upstream oil and gas in Indonesia. Indonesian oil and gas potential is relatively large, especially within eastern Indonesia. Taking into the account of the financial condition, risk and technological capabilities, the state still needs FDI to increase the upstream oil and gas operations in Indonesia. This study examined the FDI determinants by using panel data regression from 2003 until 2013 with a cross section of 82 mining areas. In addition, this study also analyzed the impact of FDI on energy security (proxy production and state revenues, then compared them with domestic direct investment (DDI represented by the state. Based on the data regression panel results, the variables which have positive influences on FDI were infrastructure, technology, education, corruption free index, raw oil price, oil and gas reservation, and BPMIGAS dispersion. Meanwhile, variables which hold negative influences were the market size, inflation, and economical openness. FDI holds positive impact on the state production and revenue level, nevertheless, from the production side, DDI gave bigger impact compared to FDI.Keywords: determinants, impact, FDI upstream oil and gas industry, and panel data
Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI on South Asian economies' output growth, utilizing recent panel cointegration testing and estimation techniques. Annual panel data on eight SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation member countries' macroeconomic variables over the period 1960- 2013 are employed in empirical analysis. Using various heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel causality tests, a bi-directional relationship between FDI and growth is found. We find evidence for both FDI-led growth and growth-induced FDI hypotheses for the South Asian economies over the sample period. Individual member countries exhibit heterogeneity in terms of the direction or existence of causality subject to their idiosyncratic economic conditions. Among various regressors, FDI, financial development, human capital, and government consumption show the most significant positive effects on output growth. As determinants of FDI, GDP, financial development, human capital, and government consumption are found significant in the region. The bi-directional causality between FDI and growth is found robust to the inclusion of other control variables and using different estimation techniques.
Full Text Available Globalization is the process whereby geographical distance becomes a less important factor in establishing and developing cross-border economic, political and socio-cultural relations; therefore production networks and Foreign Direct Investment (FDI flows represent the main factors that play a key role in the process of getting international and worldwide spreading. Globalization phenomenon involves a process of deepening and widening of interdependence relations between different economic entities and spheres and takes into account international trade relations, the cross-border movement of international production factors, but mostly the expansion of FDI flows, having significant positive effects on the welfare of nations or geographical areas. The impact of the global economic crisis on FDI flows is a heterogeneous one, as the effects of the depression came to light in many different ways, depending on the level of development, the geographical area or the economic field. The overall fall in global FDI flows during the crisis was accompanied by a significant shift in the traditional pattern of FDI: emerging countries well-endowed with natural resources were becoming a growing source of FDI for developed countries, due to internationalization strategies carried out by their multinational companies (MNCs. Based on recent forecasts, UNCTAD specialists estimate that global FDI will recover to its pre-crisis level in 2011, rising to $1.4-1.6 trillion, approaching its 2007 peak in 2013. However, the business environment remains volatile and MNCs are cautious rather than optimistic regarding their investment plans.
Nor Hakimah Haji Mohd
Full Text Available This study examines the role of banking development quality in the FDI-growth nexus from 1998 to 2009. Banking development quality is measured using two standardized intermediation cost indicators and an index of banking development quality that is constructed based on the following indicators: overhead costs to total assets and net interest margin. The results for developed countries show that, on its own, FDI is negatively related to economic growth. However, when FDI is interacted with a banking development quality index, the quality of banking development is found to play a positive role in influencing the effects of FDI on economic growth. This suggests that the quality of banking development serves as an absorptive capacity that allows developed countries to benefit from the positive growth effects of FDI. On the contrary, for emerging countries, the findings indicate that banking development quality plays no role in influencing the impact of FDI on economic growth. This implies that the quality of banking development in emerging countries has yet to reach a level that allows it to importantly influence the growth effects of FDI.
Full Text Available Purpose: There is a close relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization. the objective of this research is to analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu and Guangdong provinces in costal areas.Design/methodology/approach: The author uses the modern econometric methods by panel unit root test, cointegration test, random effects models and fixed effects models, and the data of FDI (2000-2012, urbanization rate, industrial structure and regional GDP of Nanjing, Xuzhou, Suzhou, Wuxi and other 13 cities in Jiangsu Province, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and other 19 cities in Guangdong province, researches the relationship between FDI and urbanization rate.Findings: Models show, FDI was closely correlated with urbanization rate in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, the highly correlated with industrial structure, while it negatively correlated with the growth of GDP, and the degree of correlation is not high in Jiangsu province, but the high negative correlation in Guangdong province. The results shows the industrial structure and the urbanization rate mainly cause FDI growth.Research limitations/implications: There are many provinces in costal areas of China, this paper just research the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in Jiangsu province and Guangdong province, there are some limitations in the study areas and results.Originality/value: The study was the first to successfully apply on random effects model and fixed effects model to study the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in coastal areas by competitive analysis. Guangdong and Jiangsu province are the most developed regions, they are the most representative provinces in costal areas of China. Taking these two province as an example, we can analyze the relationship between FDI and the level of urbanization in central and western regions.
Registered foreign direct investments (FDI) in energy/ electricity projects in central and eastern Europe and the CIS are weak and disappointing compared with expectations and business opportunities. In addition, energy FDI is highly concentrated in oil and gas exploration/extraction. FDI opportunities in electricity generation, transmission and distribution while being explored, have not been implemented, mostly for legislation restriction reasons towards foreign participation. The major issue appears to be the extent of privatization of this politically and socially sensitive industry. Progress are made in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. A significant breakthrough depends on political stability, economic recovery and progress in privatization. 2 figs
Full Text Available An autoregressive distributed lag (ARDL model is applied to examine the short- and long-run relationships among foreign direct investment (FDI, economic growth, and the environment in China and India. We find that, for China, FDI tends to deteriorate environmental quality in both the short- and long-run. For India, on the other hand, FDI is found to have a detrimental effect on the environment in the short-run, but has little effect in the long-run. Finally, it is found that income growth in both countries tends to worsen the environment in both short- and long-run.
Mitze, Timo; Alecke, Björn; Untiedt, Gerhard
We analyse the nature of German trade-FDI linkages within the EU27 based on a simultaneous equation gravity approach for imports, exports, in- and outward FDI stocks.We adopt both a Hausman-Taylor (1981) IV approach (3SLS-GMM) and rival non-IV estimation (the system extension to the Fixed Effects...... substitutive links between trade flows and outward FDI in line with earlier empirical evidence for Germany. Building upon German state level data we are also able to analyse the sensitivity of the results for regional sub-samples. The latter disaggregation hints at structural differences among the trade...
Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...
Chien, E. S. K.; Marinho, J. A.; Russell, J. E., Sr.
The Cellular Access Digital Network (CADN) is the access vehicle through which cellular technology is brought into the mainstream of the evolving integrated telecommunications network. Beyond the integrated end-to-end digital access and per call network services provisioning of the Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN), the CADN engenders the added capability of mobility freedom via wireless access. One key element of the CADN network architecture is the standard user to network interface that is independent of RF transmission technology. Since the Mobile Satellite System (MSS) is envisioned to not only complement but also enhance the capabilities of the terrestrial cellular telecommunications network, compatibility and interoperability between terrestrial cellular and mobile satellite systems are vitally important to provide an integrated moving telecommunications network of the future. From a network standpoint, there exist very strong commonalities between the terrestrial cellular system and the mobile satellite system. Therefore, the MSS architecture should be designed as an integral part of the CADN. This paper describes the concept of the CADN, the functional architecture of the MSS, and the user-network interface signaling protocols.
Bijan Kumar Roy
Full Text Available The paper discusses the nature of Knowledge Organization Systems (KOSs and shows how these can support digital library users. It demonstrates processes related to integration of KOS like the Dewey Decimal Classification, 22nd edition (DDC22 in DSpace software (http://www.dspace.org/ for organizing and retrieving (browsing and searching scholarly objects. An attempt has been made to use the DDC22 available in Bengali language and highlights the required mechanisms for system-level integration. It may help repository administrator to build IDR (Institutional Digital Repository integrated with SKOS-enabled multilingual subject access systems for supporting subject descriptors based indexing (DC.Subject metadata element, structured navigation (browsing and efficient searching.
Full Text Available Irish educational policy acknowledges the importance of integrating technology meaningfully into teaching and learning at the primary level. Much remains to be done, however, in terms of developing, practically implementing and evaluating the use of technology in the Irish primary classroom. This paper describes a study on the use of a structured approach to digital storytelling as a tool for meaningful technology integration with children at primary level. In this study, the researcher developed a structured approach for implementing digital storytelling with primary school children, and collaborated with a class teacher in an Irish primary school to prepare to implement the approach. Multiple qualitative methods were used to evaluate the implementation, including interviews with the teacher, classroom observation, and focus group interviews with participating children. The results suggested that this structured approach to digital storytelling has the potential to be used successfully as a meaningful technology integration approach with this cohort. The findings also explored implications for the implementation of digital storytelling at primary level, and identified aspects on which further research should be undertaken to enhance and extend the approach that was used.
Full Text Available The main goal of this article was identifying cost elements in syntactic integrating digital library systems in Iran. The levels of integration are content, technical, and organizational. It is obvious we could access some sub goals such as identifying current situation of information systems from the view points of data storage, needed standard outputs, and the current situation of interoperability in Iran, and suitable integration model in Iranian digital libraries. The analytical survey method was used in this research. Research population included 11 digital library systems that were used in Iranian digital libraries. In order to gather information, a researcher made questionnaire was used because of not existing standard collecting data tool. Findings demonstrated that we should search on three levels of interoperability: content, technical, and organizational level in order to identifying cost-adoption elements in syntactic interoperability. Also, findings showed that the elements of organizational level were too important level in cost-adoption elements. Also this research demonstrated that the high cost of adoption was related to libraries and their organizations.
Full Text Available This paper proposes using a fractional-order digital loop integrator to improve the robust stability of Sigma-Delta modulator, thus extending the integer-order Sigma-Delta modulator to a non-integer-order (fractional-order one in the Sigma-Delta ADC design field. The proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator has reasonable noise characteristics, dynamic range, and bandwidth; moreover the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR is improved remarkably. In particular, a 2nd-order digital loop integrator and a digital PIλDμ controller are combined to work as the fractional-order digital loop integrator, which is realized using FPGA; this will reduce the ASIC analog circuit layout design and chip testing difficulties. The parameters of the proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator are tuned by using swarm intelligent algorithm, which offers opportunity to simplify the process of tuning parameters and further improve the noise performance. Simulation results are given and they demonstrate the efficiency of the proposed fractional-order Sigma-Delta modulator.
Wu, Chueh-Yu; Lu, Jau-Ching; Liu, Man-Chi; Tung, Yi-Chung
Microfluidic technology plays an essential role in various lab on a chip devices due to its desired advantages. An automated microfluidic system integrated with actuators and sensors can further achieve better controllability. A number of microfluidic actuation schemes have been well developed. In contrast, most of the existing sensing methods still heavily rely on optical observations and external transducers, which have drawbacks including: costly instrumentation, professional operation, tedious interfacing, and difficulties of scaling up and further signal processing. This paper reports the concept of electrofluidic circuits - electrical circuits which are constructed using ionic liquid (IL)-filled fluidic channels. The developed electrofluidic circuits can be fabricated using a well-developed multi-layer soft lithography (MSL) process with polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) microfluidic channels. Electrofluidic circuits allow seamless integration of pressure sensors with analog and digital operation functions into microfluidic systems and provide electrical readouts for further signal processing. In the experiments, the analog operation device is constructed based on electrofluidic Wheatstone bridge circuits with electrical outputs of the addition and subtraction results of the applied pressures. The digital operation (AND, OR, and XOR) devices are constructed using the electrofluidic pressure controlled switches, and output electrical signals of digital operations of the applied pressures. The experimental results demonstrate the designed functions for analog and digital operations of applied pressures are successfully achieved using the developed electrofluidic circuits, making them promising to develop integrated microfluidic systems with capabilities of precise pressure monitoring and further feedback control for advanced lab on a chip applications.
Ham, Chang Shik; Kim, Jung Soo; Jung, Chul Hwan; Hwang, In Koo; Kim, Tak Hwane; Kim, Tae Hwane; Park, Jin Ho; Kyung, Sung Yoon; Hyeon, Ryu Kye; Seong, Joo Hyun; Kim, Georn Myung; Eun, Sung Hun; Kwack, Jin Gu; Park, Joon Hee
The primary function of loose part monitoring system (LPMS) is to detect the occurrence of any loose part in the primary coolant system caused by being parted or loosened from the mechanical structure during normal operation and refueling times. The existing LPMSs generates an alarm when the detected signal from the accelerometer sensors attached to the surface of the primary pressure boundary was bigger than the alarm threshold value. The internal vibration monitoring system (IVMS) senses a change of vibration of the reactor vessel internal structure using the ex-core neutron signals. The vibrations of internal mechanical structure are caused by the high velocity flow of the pressurized primary coolant. If the flow-induced vibration forces to loosen the internal components supporting the fuel assembly, the safety of nuclear reactor will be affected. The IVMS provides the information of abnormality in the vibration pattern and amplitude for plant operators to take proper actions against the abnormal condition for nuclear power plants (NPPs). An advanced LPMS should be capable to identify the physical characteristics of the potential loose part from the detected signal. Those improved diagnostic function will be the capabilities to analyze the detected signal and to estimate the expected impact position and mass automatically. The technologies and methods of estimation for impact mass and position as well as a new modeling method of reactor internal vibration modes were developed and provided to Woojin Co. from Korea Energy Research Institute (KAERI). Based on the transferred technologies, Woojin Co. has designed the hardware system of LPMS and IVMS. Some of the hardware components were integrated and the hardware-oriented software modules were also developed and designed. (author)
Silveira, Maurício de Souza; Cogo, Ana Luísa Petersen
To analyze the contributions of digital educational technologies used in teaching nursing skills. Integrative literature review, search in five databases, from 2006 to 2015 combining the descriptors 'education, nursing', 'educational technology', 'computer-assisted instruction' or related terms in English. Sample of 30 articles grouped in the thematic categories 'technology in the simulation with manikin', 'incentive to learning' and 'teaching of nursing skills'. It was identified different formats of digital educational technologies used in teaching Nursing skills such as videos, learning management system, applications, hypertext, games, virtual reality simulators. These digital materials collaborated in the acquisition of theoretical references that subsidize the practices, enhancing the teaching and enable the use of active learning methods, breaking with the traditional teaching of demonstrating and repeating procedures.
Full Text Available The recognition of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI as a source of funding to foster economic development in both developed and developing countries has been in ascendancy. The prime purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the determinants of FDI for the “landlocked countries” in Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1995–2013. By employing panel data analysis, the result of the study revealed that domestic investment, trade (openness, human capital, political constraint, natural resource endowment and the market size (with the GDP growth as proxy as having positive impact on determining FDI flow into the sample countries with only the countries’ tax policies seen otherwise. Our study not only contributes to existing literature on FDI determinants by investigating landlocked countries of Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA for the first time but also includes natural resources that the landlocked countries are endowed with, tax policies and political constraints in such countries for the stipulated period.
Registered foreign direct investments (or equity finance) in energy and electricity projects in central and eastern Europe (CEE) and the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) presently stand at about US$ 3 billion (flows) and US$ 5.5 billion (stock). This is insignificant compared with world FDI and disappointing compared with expectations and business opportunities. In addition, energy FDI is concentrated in oil and gas exploration/extraction, primarily in Russia, Kazakhstan and Azerbaijan. FDI opportunities in electricity generation, transmission and distribution while being explored (see list), have not been implemented: legislation was either restrictive as regards foreign participation, or not yet finalized, or not yet enacted. The major issue at present appears to be the extent of privatisation of this politically and socially sensitive industry. 1995 will see progress in Hungary, Poland and the Czech Republic. Related FDI would, however, still be modest. A significant breakthrough depends on political stability, economic recovery and progress in privatisation. (author)
Full Text Available Previous literatures on both studies of pollution haven and FDI-corruption nexus have produced inconclusive results. This study uses Generalized Method of Moments (GMM to address potential endogeneity of independent variables and country-specific effects issues when assessing the relationship between foreign direct investment (FDI, stringency of environmental regulations and corruption. FDI inflows are found to be discouraged by stricter environmental regulations and high level of corruption will induce FDI. Surprisingly, we find new evidence that both effects are changed after each of them exceeds threshold levels. Countries have to pass the threshold levels in order to gain positive impact of both stricter regulations and low level of corruption.
Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between FDI, technology and environment with an assessment of aggregated relationship, by technical composition and the mode of technology transferability through FDI. A panel data for 19 developing countries has been used to for 14 years of data. The empirical results have suggested that FDI is the significant variable in explaining the carbon emission in developing countries followed by energy consumption and technology transformation. Our findings suggest that to manage both energy consumption and FDI flows via investment in research and development (RDY or energy efficiency demand to reduce CO2 emissions is not possible without stringent environmental regulations and without retaining the developing countries’ competitiveness.
Dinh Hong Linh
Full Text Available This study examines the dynamic relationships between CO2 emissions, energy consumption, FDI and economic growth for Vietnam IN the period from 1980 to 2010 based on Environmental Kuznets Curve (EKC approach, cointegration, and Granger causality tests. The empirical results do not support the EKC theory in Vietnam. However, the cointegration and Granger causality test results indicate a dynamic relationship among CO2 emissions, energy consumption, FDI and economic growth. The short run bidirectional relationship between Vietnam’s income and FDI inflows implies that the increase in Vietnam’s income will attract more capital from overseas. Inversely, FDI inflow is also driver of national income growth. The existence of bidirectional relationships in the long-run provides important policy implications. We recommend implementing a dual strategy of increasing investment in energy infrastructure and promulgating energy conservation policies to increase energy efficiency and reduce wastage of energy.
Full Text Available Pakistan is an agricultural based economy, therefore, agricultural sector is one of the most important sectors of Pakistan as it provides employment opportunities to millions of people, contributes significantly in GDP, fulfills local demand for food items, export variety of commodities to foreign countries, boosts foreign exchange reserves and eventually enhances economic growth rate of Pakistan’s economy. This study has investigated the determinants of FDI in agricultural sector of Pakistan. The results have shown that GDP and trade openness have positive and significant relationship with FDI inflows in Pakistan agricultural sector whereas government debt has negative and significant relationship. The results have further revealed that inflation has positive whereas exchange rate has negative relationship with FDI inflows in Pakistan’s agricultural sector but both of these variables have insignificant relationship with FDI.
Yonghong Tu; Xiao Tan
Purpose-This paper aims to empirically analyze the role of FDI technology spillover effects in the development patterns of ASEAN.Design/methodology/approach-The paper is based on the analytical framework of Borensztein by utilizing time-series data between 1990 and 2008 in ASEAN countries.Models (1)-(3) estimate parameters by adopting OLS,and Model (4) uses dummy saturation methods in PC Give,Oxmetrics 6 to determine significant dummy variables automatically.By judging the overall significance of each variable and the model,Model (4) has a substantial improvement,and is finally selected to judge the education threshold of each country.Findings-The empirical results render support to the existence of technology spillovers in ASEAN.The regression results also suggest that it is necessary to combine FDI technology spillovers with domestic human capital,that is,in the process of promoting economic development.China's FDI in ASEAN requires lower education threshold,and also has positive effect on economy growth in six countries of ASEAN.Research limitations/implications-As this paper investigates data from many countries,there are some unavoidable differences in the statistical sources and the calibre of data.It is inevitable to have some inaccuracies.This paper tries to process the data into similar calibres and units.Practical implications-The paper examined whether total FDI,intra-ASEAN FDI and FDI from China have played exactly the same role in ASEAN countries.Accordingly,the paper put forward suggestions after combining the characteristics of FDI from China with different local situations of ASEAN host countries.Originality/value-The paper,respectively,takes data of total FDI,intra-ASEAN FDI,FDI from China into the FDI variable in the model,and get three sets of results for each country.The year dummy variable is newly added to the original framework of Borensztein in order to test whether the dependent variable can be affected to a large extent by potential great
Onaran, Özlem; Stockhammer, Engelbert
The aim of this paper is to estimate the effect of FDI and trade openness on wages in the CEECs in the post-transition era. We utilize a cross-country sector-specific eceonometric analysis based on one-digit level panel data for manufacturing industry in the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, for the period of 2000-2004. The results suggest that the increases in productivity are reflected in wages only to a modest extent, even in the long-term, leading to a steady decline in...
Nils Herger; Christos Kotsogiannis; Steve McCorriston
While there is a well-established body of empirical research documenting the negative effect of taxation on foreign direct investment (FDI), there is scant evidence on the extent to which international tax considerations (double taxation, international tax relief stipulated in bilateral tax treaties and the effect of withholding taxes) affect the role of taxation for FDI, and how tax issues differ according to the investment strategies—‘horizontal’ and ‘vertical’—pursued by %multinational fir...
Air transportation facilitates face-to-face interactions across borders for the spatial expansion of manufacturing production. I investigate the impact of international flights on FDI entry by Japanese firms. I find that FDI entry significantly increases with the weekly frequency of flights from Japan, and the positive impact increases with a proxy for an intensity of face-to-face communication between the parent firm and foreign affiliate. The results are robust to estimation methods, additi...
Rjoub, Husam; Aga, Mehmet; Alrub, Ahmad Abu; Bein, Murad
The recognition of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) as a source of funding to foster economic development in both developed and developing countries has been in ascendancy. The prime purpose of this study is to empirically investigate the determinants of FDI for the “landlocked countries” in Sub-Saharan Africa over the period 1995–2013. By employing panel data analysis, the result of the study revealed that domestic investment, trade (openness), human capital, political constraint, natural res...
At the occasion of delivering the fiscal year 2003 policy speech, Prime Minister Junichiro Koizumi proposed to double foreign direct investment (hereafter, FDI) stock into Japan within five years to revitalize the Japanese economy. Against this background, various measures aimed at promoting FDI into Japan have been investigated and implemented by the government and concerned ministries. A number of significant measures implemented in the most recent years to improve the investment environmen...
This paper examines the effects of foreign direct investment (FDI) on South Asian economies' output growth, utilizing recent panel cointegration testing and estimation techniques. Annual panel data on eight SAARC (South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation) member countries' macroeconomic variables over the period 1960- 2013 are employed in empirical analysis. Using various heterogeneous panel cointegration and panel causality tests, a bi-directional relationship between FDI and growth ...
Yudi Iskandar; Bambang Juanda; Suwinto Johan
The inclusion of Indonesia as a net importer of oil, gas and high energy expenditure compared with oil and gas revenues is because of the lack of investment in upstream oil and gas in Indonesia. Indonesian oil and gas potential is relatively large, especially within eastern Indonesia. Taking into the account of the financial condition, risk and technological capabilities, the state still needs FDI to increase the upstream oil and gas operations in Indonesia. This study examined the FDI determ...
Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.
The three tank benchmark system is considered in this paper in connection with combined feedback control and fault detection and identification (FDI). The combined design problem is formulated as an H-infinity design problem by using a standard system setup......The three tank benchmark system is considered in this paper in connection with combined feedback control and fault detection and identification (FDI). The combined design problem is formulated as an H-infinity design problem by using a standard system setup...
Chantasasawat, Busakorn; Fung, K. C.; Iizaka, Hitomi; Siu, Alan
China in recent years has emerged as the largest recipient of foreign direct investment (FDI) in the world. Many analysts and government officials in the developing world have increasingly expressed concerns that they are losing competitiveness to China. Is China diverting FDI from other developing countries? Theoretically, a growing China can add to other countries’ direct investment by creating more opportunities for production networking and raising the need for raw materials and ...
Lien, Y-C.; Filatotchev, I.
Building on agency theory and international business research, this paper explores how parent firm and subsidiary ownership factors affect FDI location decisions in emerging economies. Our analysis suggests that ownerships of block-shareholders in the parent firm (i.e., controlling family, non-family TMT members and institutional investors) and equity stake in a subsidiary owned by the parent company are positively associated with FDI location decisions in less-explored and risky areas. Howev...
Lootsma, T.F.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Nijmeijer, H.
A geometric approach for input-affine nonlinear systems is briefly described and then applied to a ship propulsion benchmark. The obtained results are used to design a diagnostic nonlinear observer for successful FDI of the diesel engine gain fault......A geometric approach for input-affine nonlinear systems is briefly described and then applied to a ship propulsion benchmark. The obtained results are used to design a diagnostic nonlinear observer for successful FDI of the diesel engine gain fault...
Lootsma, T.F.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh; Nijmeijer, H.
A geometric approach for input-affine nonlinear systems is briefly described and then applied to a ship propulsion benchmark. The obtained results are used to design a diagnostic nonlinear observer for successful FDI of the diesel engine gain fault.......A geometric approach for input-affine nonlinear systems is briefly described and then applied to a ship propulsion benchmark. The obtained results are used to design a diagnostic nonlinear observer for successful FDI of the diesel engine gain fault....
Dukic, Maja; Todorov, Vencislav; Andany, Santiago; Nievergelt, Adrian P.; Yang, Chen; Hosseini, Nahid; Fantner, Georg E.
Nearly all scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) contain a feedback controller, which is used to move the scanner in the direction of the z-axis in order to maintain a constant setpoint based on the tip-sample interaction. The most frequently used feedback controller in SPMs is the proportional-integral (PI) controller. The bandwidth of the PI controller presents one of the speed limiting factors in high-speed SPMs, where higher bandwidths enable faster scanning speeds and higher imaging resolution. Most SPM systems use digital signal processor-based PI feedback controllers, which require analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converters. These converters introduce additional feedback delays which limit the achievable imaging speed and resolution. In this paper, we present a digitally controlled analog proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. The controller implementation allows tunability of the PID gains over a large amplification and frequency range, while also providing precise control of the system and reproducibility of the gain parameters. By using the analog PID controller, we were able to perform successful atomic force microscopy imaging of a standard silicon calibration grating at line rates up to several kHz.
Tutiya, Akiyoshi; Sanbe, Takayuki; Hayashi, Hiroshi
In Tomari nuclear power station Unit No.3, integrated digital I and C facilities was applied for each control unit including safety protection system overall and which connect them by bus (a network), and perform data communications for the first time as a Japanese PWR power station. For the continuation of safe and stable operation of Tomari nuclear power station Unit No.3 which is our greatest power supply, it is important to perform appropriate maintenance jobs about integrated digital I and C System at the time of normal operation, periodical inspection and trouble outbreak. For the assured accomplishment of these work by maintenance personnel, we clarified goal of necessary knowledge and skills and examined training facilities and curriculums. (author)
Jordanov, V.T.; Knoll, G.F.
A novel configuration for pulse-shape analysis and discrimination has been developed. The current pulse from detector is sent to a gated integrator and then sampled by a flash analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The sampled data are processed digitally, thus allowing implementation of a near-optimum weighting function and elimination some of the instabilities associated with the gated integrator. The analyzer incorporates pileup rejection circuit that reduces the pileup effects at high counting rates. The system was tested liquid scintillator. Figures of merit for neutron-gamma pulse-shape discrimination were found to be: 0.78 for 25 keV (electron equivalent energy) and 3.5 for 500 keV. The technique described in this paper was developed to be used in a near tissue-equivalent neutron-gamma dosimeter which employs a liquid scintillator detector
Full Text Available Environmental friendly renewable energy plays an indispensable role in energy industry development. Foreign direct investment (FDI in advanced renewable energy technology spillover is promising to improve technological capability and promote China’s energy industry performance growth. In this paper, the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance are analyzed based on theoretical and empirical studies. Firstly, three hypotheses are proposed to illustrate the relationships between FDI renewable energy technology spillover and three energy industry performances including economic, environmental, and innovative performances. To verify the hypotheses, techniques including factor analysis and data envelopment analysis (DEA are employed to quantify the FDI renewable energy technology spillover and the energy industry performance of China, respectively. Furthermore, a panel data regression model is proposed to measure the impacts of FDI renewable energy technology spillover on China’s energy industry performance. Finally, energy industries of 30 different provinces in China based on the yearbook data from 2005 to 2011 are comparatively analyzed for evaluating the impacts through the empirical research. The results demonstrate that FDI renewable energy technology spillover has positive impacts on China’s energy industry performance. It can also be found that the technology spillover effects are more obvious in economic and technological developed regions. Finally, four suggestions are provided to enhance energy industry performance and promote renewable energy technology spillover in China.
Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI may have a positive effect on the level of pollution in host countries, as described by the pollution haven hypothesis (PHH. However, this kind of effect may depend on the economic conditions in host countries. In this study, we conduct research on the FDI’s effect on China’s CO2 emissions during the market-oriented reform. The results are as follows. Firstly, FDI directly promotes China’s CO2 emissions. Secondly, with market-oriented reform, this positive effect from FDI is lowering year by year, which indicates that the market-oriented reform could alleviate the positive effect of FDI on China’s CO2 emissions. Thirdly, as China’s market-oriented reform was implemented gradually from experimental zones to the whole country, regional market development is uneven, and as such so is FDI’s effect on local CO2 emissions. Provinces in the eastern area generally evidenced higher market development and lower CO2 emissions from FDI, while four provinces in west area evidenced both lower market development and higher CO2 emissions from FDI.
Mohd Zaini Abd Karim
Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI plays an important role in the rapid economic development of the newly industrializing and developing economies of Southeast Asia. In terms of the regions attractiveness, ASEAN region is a leading recipient of FDI flows in the developing world, with five ASEAN countries in the top 20 developing-countries recipients of long-term global capital flows from 1997 to 1998. While the creation of AFTA may help FDI inflows to ASEAN countries, China's entry into World Trade Organization (WTO will be the opposite and has caused a great deal of worry to ASEAN countries. The objective of this paper is to empirically determine the effect of ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA and China's entry into WTO on the inflows of FDI into ASEAN countries. To achieve the objectives, Seemingly Unrelated Regression (SUR method was used to estimate the FDI equation. In general, the results indicate that the establishment of AFTA had a positive effect on FDI inflows to ASEAN countries while China's entry into WTO is the opposite.
Alina Georgeta Ailincă
Full Text Available About FDI there are numerous studies, some of them have mostly theoretical character and others mostly practical. This article aims at capturing and analyzing the most important trends in the short, medium and long term on FDI flows worldwide, thus this study has a rather practical approach. Also, the paper aims to discern how FDI flows may influence the sustainable development and the national interest. The analysis starts from studying the past in the most significant developments of the world economy in terms of inflows of investment attraction, drawing marginally some advantages or disadvantages of joining a political entity with regional vocation (e.g. European Union or a currency area (e.g. E.M.U.. It should also be noted that, beyond the analysis of past trends, the direction towards which worldwide foreign direct investment (FDI should be considered in relationship with the ability to infer certain areas which in future can attract FDI for a sustainable and balanced national economy development, serving to the national interest. Thus, the article aims, through a broad set of indicators, to seize these structural or cyclical advantages of world economies and, to the extent that can be applied to the Romanian economy, to contribute to the restructuring of objectives of macroeconomic policies in order to mobilize the country's potential to attract FDI.
Corey, Robert C.
In the last two decades, technology use has escalated and educators grapple with its advances and integration into the classroom. Issues surrounding what constitutes a literate society, the clarion calls for educational reform emanating from US presidents to parent teacher organizations, and educators' ability to cope with advances in technology in the classroom demand attention. Therefore, the purpose of this qualitative study was to explore and understand the professional and educational experiences of six English faculty members teaching undergraduate courses at Midwest universities. Using the framework of Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge -- TPACK (Koehler and Mishra 2008), the major focus of the study was to determine how faculty members understood what characterized the nature of teaching with technology in undergraduate classrooms. Results of this study revealed five themes showing how the participants were introduced to technology, how they assimilated it into their pedagogy, and how they integrated it into teaching practice. This study has the potential to impact the nature of illustrating the methods and techniques used by the six participants as they merge technology, pedagogy, and content knowledge and set in motion classroom practices that assist faculty at all levels to develop and teach technology skills necessary for the 21st century and to better prepare students for thinking critically about how to use digital advances.
Hara, Cristina Yuri Nakata; Aredes, Natália Del Angelo; Fonseca, Luciana Mara Monti; Silveira, Renata Cristina de Campos Pereira; Camargo, Rosangela Andrade Aukar; de Goes, Fernanda Santos Nogueira
This review aimed to analyze the available evidences in literature about clinical case studies inserted in digital technologies for nursing education, characterizing the technology resources and cognitive, procedural and attitudinal learnings. Integrative review of literature with the following steps: development of the research problem, data collection, data extraction and critic evaluation, data analysis and interpretation and presentation of results. The research question was: how does the clinical case study inserted in educational digital technology collaborate for cognitive, attitudinal and procedural learning of nursing students? data bases LILACS, PUBMED, CINAHL and Scopus. the search resulted in 437 studies: 136 from LILACS, 122 from PUBMED, 104 from Scopus and 75 from CINAHL. Of these, 143 did not meet the including criteria, 93 were duplicated and four studies were unavailable. After analyzing all abstracts based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, there were selected 197 studies and after full text analysis the final sample resulted in 21 primary studies. Case study use in educational digital technologies allowed the students to build different types of learning: cognitive learning (n 16 studies), attitudinal learning (n=12 studies) and procedural learning (n=8 studies). It is possible to conclude that case studies can collaborate with the students to develop different learnings which can be built integrate, continuous, informative and formative, aiming integral formation and aligned to policies of formation in nursing, both national and international. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This article presents a color light detection system integrated in 130 nm CMOS technology. The sensors and corresponding electronics detect light in a CIE XYZ color luminosity space using on-chip integrated sensors without any additional process steps, high-resolution analog-to-digital converter, and dedicated DSP algorithm. The sensor consists of a set of laterally arranged integrated photodiodes that are partly covered by metal, where color separation between the photodiodes is achieved by lateral carrier diffusion together with wavelength-dependent absorption. A high resolution, hybrid, ∑∆ ADC converts each photo diode’s current into a 22-bit digital result, canceling the dark current of the photo diodes. The digital results are further processed by the DSP, which calculates normalized XYZ or RGB color and intensity parameters using linear transformations of the three photo diode responses by multiplication of the data with a transformation matrix, where the coefficients are extracted by training in combination with a pseudo-inverse operation and the least-mean square approximation. The sensor system detects the color light parameters with 22-bit accuracy, consumes less than 60 μA on average at 10 readings per second, and occupies approx. 0.8 mm2 of silicon area (including three photodiodes and the analog part of the ADC. The DSP is currently implemented on FPGA.
Strle, Drago; Nahtigal, Uroš; Batistell, Graciele; Zhang, Vincent Chi; Ofner, Erwin; Fant, Andrea; Sturm, Johannes
This article presents a color light detection system integrated in 130 nm CMOS technology. The sensors and corresponding electronics detect light in a CIE XYZ color luminosity space using on-chip integrated sensors without any additional process steps, high-resolution analog-to-digital converter, and dedicated DSP algorithm. The sensor consists of a set of laterally arranged integrated photodiodes that are partly covered by metal, where color separation between the photodiodes is achieved by lateral carrier diffusion together with wavelength-dependent absorption. A high resolution, hybrid, ∑∆ ADC converts each photo diode's current into a 22-bit digital result, canceling the dark current of the photo diodes. The digital results are further processed by the DSP, which calculates normalized XYZ or RGB color and intensity parameters using linear transformations of the three photo diode responses by multiplication of the data with a transformation matrix, where the coefficients are extracted by training in combination with a pseudo-inverse operation and the least-mean square approximation. The sensor system detects the color light parameters with 22-bit accuracy, consumes less than 60 μA on average at 10 readings per second, and occupies approx. 0.8 mm(2) of silicon area (including three photodiodes and the analog part of the ADC). The DSP is currently implemented on FPGA.
Straker, E.A.; Thomas, N.C.
The nuclear industry's current attitude toward verification and validation (V and V) is realized through the experiences gained to date. On the basis of these experiences, V and V can effectively be applied as an integral part of digital system development for nuclear electric power applications. An overview of a typical approach for integrating V and V with system development is presented. This approach represents a balance between V and V as applied in the aerospace industry and the standard practice commonly applied within the nuclear industry today
Full Text Available The 90s marked the remarcable increase of foreign direct investment (FDI flows globally. Thus, global FDI outflows increased from 244 billion dollars in 1990 to 1,35 trillion dollars in 2014, with a peak record of 2,13 trillion dollars in 2007, according to UNCTAD statistics. In Romania, the value of outward FDI stock increased from 66,1 million dollars in 1990 and reached a peak in 2010, when total outward FDI stock cumulated 1510,7 million dollars. As the global economic and financial crisis has led to the unfavorable evolution of the Romanian economy, the business opportunities and the investment resources of Romanian companies have decreased significantly. Since 2011 the value of outward FDI stock entered a downtrend that was maintained until 2014, when outward FDI stock cumulated 695,7 million dollars. As a percentage of GDP, Romania’s outward FDI stock recorded only sub-unit values from 1990 to present. The aim of this empirical research is to analyze the influence of several macroeconomic factors on outward FDI from Romania, during 1991-2014. Using simple regression models, the empirical study reveals that factors such as interest rate, inflation rate, money supply, exchange rate and gross domestic product (GDP have an important role in explaining outward FDI from Romania, while the influence of trade openness is weak. Between the outward FDI stock and money supply, exchange rate, gross domestic product, respectively trade openness, there is a direct and linear correlation and between the outward foreign direct investment stock and the interest rate, respectively the inflation rate, there is an inverse linear correlation. The results obtained from our empirical study emphasize that the evolution of macroeconomic factors in Romania, as a home country, represents an important stimulus for Romanian companies to invest abroad. The presence of Romanian companies on the international market was very limited and that is why an increase of the
Immigrant students face a multitude of problems, among which are poor social adaptation and school integration. On the other hand, although digital narrations are widely used in education, they are rarely used for aiding students or for the resolution of complex problems. This study exploits the potential of digital narrations towards this end, by…
Mohamed M. Elheddad
Full Text Available This paper extends a high influential contribution by Poelhekke and Van der Ploeg (2013, on the new mechanism of natural resource curse which is FDI. Using panel data of FDI inflows (aggregate and disaggregate for six oil dependent countries (GCC during a period 1980-2013; our main findings are as follows. First, total FDI is negatively correlated with natural resources measured by oil prices constant 2000 in the long run and short term. This negative impact ranged between 0.21% and 0.41% if oil prices changed by one percent increase. Secondly, FDI in resource sector falls by around 0.44-0.47%, but non-resource FDI increased by about 0.21- 0.29% when the interaction term between oil revenues and initial oil prices (1980 increases by 1%. These results are robust even after including other FDI determinants.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Crystal Research, Inc. proposes an integrated high-speed digital optical true-time-delay module for advanced synthetic aperture radars. The unique feature of this...
Mazhar Yasin MUGHAL; Natalia VECHIU
This paper studies the impact of FDI inflows on higher education in developing countries for the period 1998-2008. A large panel of developing countries is analyzed using different econometric techniques and specifications. We find evidence of short-term negative effect of the FDI on tertiary education measured by school enrolment. The negative effect of FDI is confirmed for both secondary and tertiary education when measured as the adult population having acquired the level. Among other cont...
The purpose of this study was to review product integration in digital games and recognize the benefits of the promotional channel. Another aim was to analyze previous research and identify gaps in general knowledge. Finally the concept of neuromarketing was examined as a potential modern research method for future research in the area of product integration in digital games. A qualitative method was applied. The study examined secondary data collected from sources that include: scholarl...
Beuville, E.; Cederstroem, B.; Danielsson, M.; Luo, L.; Nygren, D.; Oltman, E.; Vestlund, J.
We have developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and data acquisition system for digital X-ray imaging. The chip consists of 16 parallel channels, each containing preamplifier, shaper, comparator and a 16 bit counter. We have demonstrated noiseless single-photon counting over a threshold of 7.2 keV using Silicon detectors and are presently capable of maximum counting rates of 2 MHz per channel. The ASIC is controlled by a personal computer through a commercial PCI card, which is also used for data acquisition. The content of the 16 bit counters are loaded into a shift register and transferred to the PC at any time at a rate of 20 MHz. The system is non-complicated, low cost and high performance and is optimised for digital X-ray imaging applications. (orig.)
Pechousek, J; Prochazka, R; Mashlan, M; Jancik, D; Frydrych, J
The digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) velocity controller used in the Mössbauer spectrometer implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA) is based on the National Instruments CompactRIO embedded system and LabVIEW graphical programming tools. The system works as a remote system accessible via the Ethernet. The digital controller operates in real-time conditions, and the maximum sampling frequency is approximately 227 kS s −1 . The system was tested with standard sample measurements of α-Fe and α- 57 Fe 2 O 3 on two different electromechanical velocity transducers. The nonlinearities of the velocity scales in the relative form are better than 0.2%. The replacement of the standard analog PID controller by the new system brings the possibility of optimizing the control process more precisely. (technical design note)
Beuville, E.; Cederstroem, B.; Danielsson, M.; Luo, L.; Nygren, D.; Oltman, E.; Vestlund, J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States)
We have developed an application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) and data acquisition system for digital X-ray imaging. The chip consists of 16 parallel channels, each containing preamplifier, shaper, comparator and a 16 bit counter. We have demonstrated noiseless single-photon counting over a threshold of 7.2 keV using Silicon detectors and are presently capable of maximum counting rates of 2 MHz per channel. The ASIC is controlled by a personal computer through a commercial PCI card, which is also used for data acquisition. The content of the 16 bit counters are loaded into a shift register and transferred to the PC at any time at a rate of 20 MHz. The system is non-complicated, low cost and high performance and is optimised for digital X-ray imaging applications. (orig.). 11 refs.
Pechousek, J.; Prochazka, R.; Mashlan, M.; Jancik, D.; Frydrych, J.
The digital proportional-integral-derivative (PID) velocity controller used in the Mössbauer spectrometer implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA) is based on the National Instruments CompactRIO embedded system and LabVIEW graphical programming tools. The system works as a remote system accessible via the Ethernet. The digital controller operates in real-time conditions, and the maximum sampling frequency is approximately 227 kS s-1. The system was tested with standard sample measurements of α-Fe and α-57Fe2O3 on two different electromechanical velocity transducers. The nonlinearities of the velocity scales in the relative form are better than 0.2%. The replacement of the standard analog PID controller by the new system brings the possibility of optimizing the control process more precisely.
Zhang, Xiao-Juan; He, Li; Guo, Hong-Ming; Tian, Jie; Bai, Yu-Xing; Li, Song
To assess the accuracy of anterior tooth movement using clear aligners in integrated three-dimensional digital models. Cone-beam computed tomography was performed before and after treatment with clear aligners in 32 patients. Plaster casts were laser-scanned for virtual setup and aligner fabrication. Differences in predicted and achieved root and crown positions of anterior teeth were compared on superimposed maxillofacial digital images and virtual models and analyzed by Student's t-test. The mean discrepancies in maxillary and mandibular crown positions were 0.376 ± 0.041 mm and 0.398 ± 0.037 mm, respectively. Maxillary and mandibular root positions differed by 2.062 ± 0.128 mm and 1.941 ± 0.154 mm, respectively. Crowns but not roots of anterior teeth can be moved to designated positions using clear aligners, because these appliances cause tooth movement by tilting motion.
Giansanti, Daniele; Cerroni, Fabio; Amodeo, Rachele; Filoni, Marco; Giovagnoli, Maria Rosaria
Up to date, tele-pathology in the three different forms of application, "dynamic", "static" and "virtual microscopy" has been mainly based on tele-hystology remote consulting. Today the diffusion of specialized WAN connections is guiding the research of new applications of tele-pathology. A specific analysis has been conducted, focused on digital cytology, in the biomedical laboratory of Sant'Andrea Hospital to investigate the technologies potentially useful to integrate in the LAN/WAN for telemedicine applications. Among the possible tools useful to be integrated in the LAN/WAN for telemedicine applications, the cytometry equipment available in the technical unity of cytometry has been considered important. The study finally provides a proposal for a tele-consulting architecture for the integration of cytometry reports both in the hospital LAN and the WAN for possible cooperative diagnosis and second opinion support.
Full Text Available Up to date, tele-pathology in the three different forms of application, "dynamic", "static" and "virtual microscopy" has been mainly based on tele-hystology remote consulting. Today the diffusion of specialized WAN connections is guiding the research of new applications of tele-pathology. A specific analysis has been conducted, focused on digital cytology, in the biomedical laboratory of Sant'Andrea Hospital to investigate the technologies potentially useful to integrate in the LAN/WAN for telemedicine applications. Among the possible tools useful to be integrated in the LAN/WAN for telemedicine applications, the cytometry equipment available in the technical unity of cytometry has been considered important. The study finally provides a proposal for a tele-consulting architecture for the integration of cytometry reports both in the hospital LAN and the WAN for possible cooperative diagnosis and second opinion support.
Kurihara, Kenichi; Kawamata, Youichi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment
Long-time D-T burning operation in a tokamak requires that a magnetic sensor must work in an environment of 14-MeV intense neutron field, and that the measurement system must output precise magnetic field values. A method of time-integration of voltage produced in a simple pick-up coil seems to have preferable features of good time response, easy maintenance, and resistance to neutron irradiation. However, an inevitably-produced signal drift makes it difficult to apply the method to the long-time integral operation. To solve this problem, we have developed a new digital integrator (a voltage-to-frequency converter and an up-down counter) with testing the trial boards in the JT-60 magnetic measurements. This reports all of the problems and their measures through the development steps in details, and shows how to apply this method to the ITER operation. (author)
Full Text Available This paper looks at the interlinking of inward FDI, EU accession, and transition-related structural reform processes, and identifies the largest lags of SEE-6 countries in EU accession and transition processes, whose removal would have a positive impact on inward FDI. The analysis is based on EBRD Transition Indicators, the World Bank Doing Business Index, and the World Bank Governance Index. We find an obvious correlation of inward FDI, transition, and EU accession processes of NMS-10 countries and claim that SEE-6 countries will broadly follow the same pattern: their relative position as FDI recipients will gradually improve along with the progress of EU accession and transition processes. The analysis identifies the following main gaps of the SEE-6 in these processes: (i in terms of economic system development - enterprise restructuring and governance, and sectoral reforms in energy, infrastructure, capital markets, and private equity; (ii in terms of the governance of economy and society at large - regulatory quality and rule of law; and (iii in terms of the business environment - dealing with construction permits, enforcing contracts, and registering property. Progress in narrowing down these gaps would mean a step forward in EU accession and transition, and consequently an improvement of SEE-6 countries’ positions as locations for inward FDI.
Full Text Available In the heart of the debate on the appropriate level of the profit tax burden on host countries lies a challenging question: How does FDI respond to tax rates? Studies analyzing inter-state fluctuation show that, on average, FDI decreases by 3.7% when corporate tax rates increase by one percentage point, other studies show that the FDI decline varies between 0 and 5%. Such variations reflect differences between nations and industries studied, as well as differences between time periods which have been considered. More recent studies show that FDI becomes increasingly sensitive to tax reflecting a growing mobility of capital as non-tax barriers, previously in the way of FDI, are eliminated (OCDE, 2008.The present article aims to study the effects of tax upon foreign direct investment in Romania. The period studied prolongs on ten years, from 1999 to 2009, with the aim to observe the effects of modifications upon tax revenues, direct tax and indirect tax on foreign investment in Romania. To study the relationship between the variables, econometric modelling has been used thanks to the software package Eviews 5.0. This paper’s main conclusion is that foreign direct investment are not discouraged by the level of tax in Romania, on the contrary, they are stimulated by an eventual increase in tax revenue.
Kwasi Boakye – Gyasi
Full Text Available One of the major concerns of governments in Africa in general and Ghana in particular is unemployment and underemployment. Most developing countries especially African countries compete to attract foreign direct investment (FDI into their economies with the desire of improving employment level and securing a sustainable development leading to economic growth. In view of this, the creation of jobs for the unemployed and technology transfer through Chinese investments has become complementary since Chinese FDI can be an important source for employment, economic growth and transformation processes. This study focuses on the contribution of China’s FDI on employment generation in the building and construction sector of Ghana. By using a robust regression model, the results show that, Chinese FDI flows on employment through direct effects on building and construction sector of Ghana have positive and significance on employment growth. This means that, Chinese FDI contributes to an efficient workforce which benefits an economy from high productivity and leads to growth in individual household incomes.
High Energy Physics research (HEP) involves the design of readout electron- ics for its experiments, which generate a high radiation ¯eld in the detectors. The several integrated circuits placed in the future Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiments' environment have to resist the radiation and carry out their normal operation. In this thesis I will describe in detail what, during my 10-months partic- ipation in the digital section of the Microelectronics group at CERN, I had the possibility to work on: - The design of a radiation-tolerant data readout digital integrated cir- cuit in a 0.25 ¹m CMOS technology, called \\the Kchip", for the CMS preshower front-end system. This will be described in Chapter 3. - The design of a radiation-tolerant SRAM integrated circuit in a 0.13 ¹m CMOS technology, for technology radiation testing purposes and fu- ture applications in the HEP ¯eld. The SRAM will be described in Chapter 4. All the work has carried out under the supervision and with the help of Dr. Kostas Klouki...
Halavi, Maryam; Polavaram, Sridevi; Donohue, Duncan E; Hamilton, Gail; Hoyt, Jeffrey; Smith, Kenneth P; Ascoli, Giorgio A
Neuronal morphology affects network connectivity, plasticity, and information processing. Uncovering the design principles and functional consequences of dendritic and axonal shape necessitates quantitative analysis and computational modeling of detailed experimental data. Digital reconstructions provide the required neuromorphological descriptions in a parsimonious, comprehensive, and reliable numerical format. NeuroMorpho.Org is the largest web-accessible repository service for digitally reconstructed neurons and one of the integrated resources in the Neuroscience Information Framework (NIF). Here we describe the NeuroMorpho.Org approach as an exemplary experience in designing, creating, populating, and curating a neuroscience digital resource. The simple three-tier architecture of NeuroMorpho.Org (web client, web server, and relational database) encompasses all necessary elements to support a large-scale, integrate-able repository. The data content, while heterogeneous in scientific scope and experimental origin, is unified in format and presentation by an in house standardization protocol. The server application (MRALD) is secure, customizable, and developer-friendly. Centralized processing and expert annotation yields a comprehensive set of metadata that enriches and complements the raw data. The thoroughly tested interface design allows for optimal and effective data search and retrieval. Availability of data in both original and standardized formats ensures compatibility with existing resources and fosters further tool development. Other key functions enable extensive exploration and discovery, including 3D and interactive visualization of branching, frequently measured morphometrics, and reciprocal links to the original PubMed publications. The integration of NeuroMorpho.Org with version-1 of the NIF (NIFv1) provides the opportunity to access morphological data in the context of other relevant resources and diverse subdomains of neuroscience, opening
Full Text Available Based on the discussion about the place of identity on contemporary life, this article seeks to provide some clues to understand that "youth identity”, traditionally sought as a way to distance itself from the old to gain autonomy, is now more associated than ever to the ability to handle exchanges of information or, if preferred, to the communications revolution. In the era of globalization and the "digital culture", we do not know yet how the familiarity of young people with ICT and its languages will impact on integration processes with the adult world.
Dawson, Melissa D.; Todd, nancy S.; Lofgren, Gary E.
The Google Moon Apollo Lunar Sample Data Integration project is part of a larger, LASER-funded 4-year lunar rock photo restoration project by NASA s Acquisition and Curation Office . The objective of this project is to enhance the Apollo mission data already available on Google Moon with information about the lunar samples collected during the Apollo missions. To this end, we have combined rock sample data from various sources, including Curation databases, mission documentation and lunar sample catalogs, with newly available digital photography of rock samples to create a user-friendly, interactive tool for learning about the Apollo Moon samples
The digital revolution brought lasting benefits for scientific research, but it also brought new challenges. Perhaps one of the biggest current challenges is how digital data can be handled in an integer and sustainable way. In this small-scale study we conducted in-depth interviews with fourteen
Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe
Advanced aircraft will require flight critical computer systems for stability augmentation as well as guidance and control that must perform reliably in adverse, as well as nominal, operating environments. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that can occur in electromagnetically harsh environments, involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. A strategy is presented for dynamic upset detection to be used in the evaluation of critical digital controllers during the design and/or validation phases of development. Critical controllers must be able to be used in adverse environments that result from disturbances caused by an electromagnetic source such as lightning, high intensity radiated field (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The upset detection strategy presented provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity that can result from redundancy management errors and control command calculation error that could occur in an electromagnetically harsh operating environment. The use is discussed of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors, redundancy management errors, and control effectiveness.
Kalinski, Thomas; Hofmann, Harald; Franke, Dagmar-Sybilla; Roessner, Albert
Picture archiving and communication systems have been widely used in radiology thus far. Owing to the progress made in digital photo technology, their use in medicine opens up further opportunities. In the field of pathology, digital imaging offers new possiblities for the documentation of macroscopic and microscopic findings. Digital imaging has the advantage that the data is permanently and readily available, independent of conventional archives. In the past, PACS was a separate entity. Meanwhile, however, PACS has been integrated in DIS, the department information system, which was also run separately in former times. The combination of these two systems makes the administration of patient data, findings and images easier. Moreover, thanks to the introduction of special communication standards, a data exchange between different department information systems and hospital information systems (HIS) is possible. This provides the basis for a communication platform in medicine, constituting an electronic patient record (EPR) that permits an interdisciplinary treatment of patients by providing data of findings and images from clinics treating the same patient. As the pathologic diagnosis represents a central and often therapy-determining component, it is of utmost importance to add pathologic diagnoses to the EPR. Furthermore, the pathologist's work is considerably facilitated when he is able to retrieve additional data from the patient file. In this article, we describe our experience gained with the combined PACS and DIS systems recently installed at the Department of Pathology, University of Magdeburg. Moreover, we evaluate the current situation and future prospects for PACS in pathology.
Farzbod, Ali; Moon, Hyejin
This paper presents the demonstration of on-chip fabrication of a potassium-selective sensor array enabled by electrowetting on dielectric digital microfluidics for the first time. This demonstration proves the concept that electrochemical sensors can be seamlessly integrated with sample preparation units in a digital microfluidic platform. More significantly, the successful on-chip fabrication of a sensor array indicates that sensors become reconfigurable and have longer lifetime in a digital microfluidic platform. The on-chip fabrication of ion-selective electrodes includes electroplating Ag followed by forming AgCl layer by chemical oxidation and depositing a thin layer of desired polymer-based ion selective membrane on one of the sensor electrodes. In this study, potassium ionophores work as potassium ion channels and make the membrane selective to potassium ions. This selectiveness results in the voltage difference across the membrane layer, which is correlated with potassium ion concentration. The calibration curve of the fabricated potassium-selective electrode demonstrates the slope of 58 mV/dec for potassium concentration in KCl sample solutions and shows good agreement with the ideal Nernstian response. The proposed sensor platform is an outstanding candidate for a portable home-use for continuous monitoring of ions thanks to its advantages such as easy automation of sample preparation and detection processes, elongated sensor lifetime, minimal membrane and sample consumption, and user-definable/reconfigurable sensor array. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
For spatial data with a sufficiently long time dimension, the concept of global cointegration has been recently included in the econometrics research agenda. Global cointegration arises when non-stationary time series are cointegrated both within and between spatial units. In this paper, we analyze...... the role of globally cointegrated variable relationships using German regional data (NUTS 1 level) for GDP, trade, and FDI activity during the period 1976–2005. Applying various homogeneous and heterogeneous panel data estimators to a Spatial Panel Error Correction Model (SpECM) for regional output growth...... allows us to analyze the short- and long-run impacts of internationalization activities. For the long-run cointegration equation, the empirical results support the hypothesis of export- and FDI-led growth. We also show that for export and outward FDI activity positive cross-regional eff ects are at work...
Full Text Available Researchers over the years have shown that the FDI has had a positive influence on national economic growth and development. This research examines the FDI Inflow in Ghana and the contribution of the Selected Countries observed FDI inflows between 2000 and 2014. While comparing the quantitative data, the study showed that the selected countries contributed more to the Agriculture, Manufacturing, Building/Construction, and Service sectors of Ghana in terms of volumes of investments and projects as compared to other sectors of the economy due to incentives attached to prioritized economic sectors. On employment generation, the selected countries percentage share of domestic employment was higher than that of expatriate employment due to Ghana investment laws that allows investor with a specific minimum capital of three hundred thousand dollars to employ minimum of ten Ghanaians for every foreign employee hired.
Full Text Available Unemployment has become one of the major problems in Indonesia in the last eight years. SBY administration decides many economic policies in order to overcome the problem, but it seems not enough. However, the rate of foreign direct investment in Indonesia is increasing in the last three years. Macroeconomic indicators show that everything in its right track. This research analyzes the effects of FDI rate to employment rate in Indonesia. This research uses empirical data from ADB from 1983-2004. This research uses error correction model as a tool of analyses. The result shows that FDI rate does not have effect to employment rate. It means that FDI does not open job opportunity for many unemployer in Indonesia. In the end, this paper discusses the possibility of industrial policy in order to provide direction for government to develop Indonesia’s industry.
Full Text Available FDI flows are internationally recognized for the benefits they generate (technological transfer, know – how, industrial reorganization, raising the number of working places. Foreign capitals increased significantly under the impact of globalization and accelerated the interdependencies between economies up to 2007, but, in the current crisis, the dynamic of FDI flows was affected in a negative manner, both in developed economies and in the developing ones. The aim of this paper is to reveal and analyze the evolution of FDI flows in the period 2007 – 2010, emphasizing the strong impact that economic crisis exerts. The results of the analysis presents the descending trend up to 2009, since 2010 being noticed a slight recovery which continued in the first trimester of 2011 and according to the forecasts will continue in the future.
Full Text Available This paper analyzes the location decision for foreign direct investments (FDI in Central and Eastern European (CEE countries based on the attractiveness of policies most influenced by public officials. Our assessment of the FDI inflows in a country is based on four pillars: infrastructure, quality of institutions, labor market and taxes. The attraction degree of the CEE countries in 2007 and 2010 is calculated using the Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS method, a tool usually used for decision-making issues. The empirical result indicates that Estonia is the most attractive country for investments (as regards the public policy approach. Globally, the paper establishes the state’s role in attracting FDI and identifies whether there is room for further improvement on the public policy side.
Full Text Available The key goal of this research is to empirically determine the effects of terrorism on FDI of the selected EU and EEA member countries. The methodology is based on a system-GMM estimator for dynamic panel data models on a sample covering up to 29 countries, and 13-year periods from 2000 to 2013. The main results confirm that terrorism incidents, economic and institutional variables are found to depress FDI of analysed EU and EEA countries. It can be concluded that terrorism and institutional stability are most influential on FDI inflows of the observed EU and EEA countries. The results indicate that terrorist activities reduce security and confidence of investors in countries exposed to terrorist activities, reducing the inflow of foreign direct investment. The recommendations and proposals are given based on the results of empirical analysis.
Schwartz, Linda Matula; Iobst, Barbara
Integrating knowledge-based resources at the point of care is an important opportunity for hospital library involvement. In the progression of an IAIMS planning grant, the digital library is recognized as pivotal to the success of information domain integration throughout the institution. The planning process, data collection, and evolution of the planning project are discussed.
Full Text Available The correct design of complex hardware continues to challenge engineers. Bugs in a design that are not uncovered in early design stages can be extremely expensive. Simulation is a predominantly used tool to validate a design in industry. Formal verification overcomes the weakness of exhaustive simulation by applying mathematical methodologies to validate a design. The work described here focuses upon a technique that integrates the best characteristics of both simulation and formal verification methods to provide an effective design validation tool, referred as Integrated Design Validation (IDV. The novelty in this approach consists of three components, circuit complexity analysis, partitioning based on design hierarchy, and coverage analysis. The circuit complexity analyzer and partitioning decompose a large design into sub-components and feed sub-components to different verification and/or simulation tools based upon known existing strengths of modern verification and simulation tools. The coverage analysis unit computes the coverage of design validation and improves the coverage by further partitioning. Various simulation and verification tools comprising IDV are evaluated and an example is used to illustrate the overall validation process. The overall process successfully validates the example to a high coverage rate within a short time. The experimental result shows that our approach is a very promising design validation method.
Full Text Available Interoperability and social implication are two current challenges in the digital library (DL context. To resolve the problem of interoperability, our work aims to find a relationship between the main metadata schemas. In particular, we want to formalize knowledge through the creation of a metadata taxonomy built with the analysis and the integration of existing schemas associated with DLs. We developed a method to integrate and combine Instagram metadata and hashtags. The final result is a taxonomy, which provides innovative metadata with respect to the classification of resources, as images of Instagram and the user-generated content, that play a primary role in the context of modern DLs. The possibility of Instagram to localize the photos inserted by users allows us to interpret the most relevant and interesting informative content for a specific user type and in a specific location and to improve access, visibility and searching of library content.
Thomas, R.W.; Whitacre, R.F.; Klingler, W.B.
The Sodium Loop Safety Facility experimental program has demonstrated that in-pile loop fuel failure transient tests can be digitally controlled and protected with reliability and precision. This was done in four nuclear experiments conducted in the Engineering Test Reactor operated by EG and G Idaho, Inc., at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Loop sodium flow and reactor power transients can be programmed to sponsor requirements and verified prior to the test. Each controller has redundancy, which reduces the effect of single failures occurring during test transients. Feedback and reject criteria are included in the reactor power control. Timed sequencing integrates the initiation of the controllers, programmed safety set-points, and other experiment actions (e.g., planned scram). Off-line and on-line testing is included. Loss-of-flow, loss-of-piping-integrity, boiling-window, transient-overpower, and local fault tests have been successfully run using this system
Liu Dechang; Sun Maorong; Zhu Deling; Zhang Jingbo; He Jianguo; Dong Xiuzhen
The geologic metallogenetic environment of uranium at Lian Shan Guan region has been studied by using digital image integration technique of multi-geoscience information with aerial radiometric measurements. It includes the classification of uranium-bearing rock, recognizing patterns of ore-forming and geologic mapping in ore field. Some new tectonic structure was found in this region that gives significant information for further exploring of uranium ore. After multi-parameters screening of aerial radiometric data, patterns recognizing and multi-geoscience information integration analysis, four prospective metallogenetic zones were predicted, and the predication was proved by further geologic survey. Three of the four zones are very encouraging, where ore-forming structures, hydrothermal deposits, wall-rock alteration, primary and secondary uranium ore and rich uranium mineralization are discovered. The department of geologic exploring has decided that these zones will enjoy priority in the examination for further prospecting of uranium ores
High performance thin film transistor (TFT) can be a great driving force for display, sensor/actuator, integrated electronics, and distributed computation for Internet of Everything applications. While semiconducting oxides like zinc oxide (ZnO) present promising opportunity in that regard, still wide area of improvement exists to increase the performance further. Here, we show a wavy channel (WC) architecture for ZnO integrated TFT which increases transistor width without chip area penalty, enabling high performance in material agnostic way. We further demonstrate digital logic NAND circuit using the WC architecture and compare it to the conventional planar architecture. The WC architecture circuits have shown 2× higher peak-to-peak output voltage for the same input voltage. They also have 3× lower high-to-low propagation delay times, respectively, when compared to the planar architecture. The performance enhancement is attributed to both extra device width and enhanced field effect mobility due to higher gate field electrostatics control.
Zaslavsky, Ilya; Baldock, Richard A; Boline, Jyl
Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today's data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF) initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI). A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS), a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML): XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POI)s, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems (SRSs) and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas Project.
Full Text Available Biomedical research entails capture and analysis of massive data volumes and new discoveries arise from data-integration and mining. This is only possible if data can be mapped onto a common framework such as the genome for genomic data. In neuroscience, the framework is intrinsically spatial and based on a number of paper atlases. This cannot meet today’s data-intensive analysis and integration challenges. A scalable and extensible software infrastructure that is standards based but open for novel data and resources, is required for integrating information such as signal distributions, gene-expression, neuronal connectivity, electrophysiology, anatomy, and developmental processes. Therefore, the International Neuroinformatics Coordinating Facility (INCF initiated the development of a spatial framework for neuroscience data integration with an associated Digital Atlasing Infrastructure (DAI. A prototype implementation of this infrastructure for the rodent brain is reported here. The infrastructure is based on a collection of reference spaces to which data is mapped at the required resolution, such as the Waxholm Space (WHS, a 3D reconstruction of the brain generated using high-resolution, multi-channel microMRI. The core standards of the digital atlasing service-oriented infrastructure include Waxholm Markup Language (WaxML: XML schema expressing a uniform information model for key elements such as coordinate systems, transformations, points of interest (POIs, labels, and annotations; and Atlas Web Services: interfaces for querying and updating atlas data. The services return WaxML-encoded documents with information about capabilities, spatial reference systems and structures, and execute coordinate transformations and POI-based requests. Key elements of INCF-DAI cyberinfrastructure have been prototyped for both mouse and rat brain atlas sources, including the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, UCSD Cell-Centered Database, and Edinburgh Mouse Atlas
Hoang Duong Vu
Full Text Available This study empirically examines relationship between FDI spill-overs and technical efficiency of domestic firms and role of the absorptive capacity of domestic firms. Data on Vietnamese Annual Enterprises Survey are exploited to build a firm-level panel data on the Vietnamese wearing apparel industry from 2009 to 2013. By applying stochastic production frontier model, this paper shows that there are positive vertical spill-over effects but no horizontal effects. Moreover, this study finds the negative impact of the absorptive capacity of domestic firms on benefits reaped from FDI externalities.
Mitze, T.; Ozyurt, S.
This paper analyses the major determinants of long- and short-run labour productivity evolution for Chinese provinces between 1978 and 2010. The role played by openness to trade and foreign direct investment (FDI) constitutes the main focus of this analysis. From a methodological perspective, our...... main contribution is the inclusion of spatial effects into a dynamic error correction modelling framework. The results show that, in addition to domestic factors such as investment intensity and infrastructure use, trade openness and inward FDI also exert a direct impact on labour productivity...
William L. Casey, Jr.
Full Text Available An important debate in the economics literature focuses on the role of foreign direct investment (FDI in supporting the growth and development of the lesser developed countries (LDCs globally. The ability of LDCs to capture the positive spillovers of FDI inflows depends in part on the organizational structures and corporate strategies of investing multinational enterprises (MNEs relating to the establishment of operating subsidiaries in host countries. Investment promotion policies and practices in LDCs should be formulated with the objective of capturing the positive spillovers arising from the organizational characteristics of MNEs.
Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to evaluate determinants of the general FDI flow to Visegrad countries and the effect of participation in EMU and EU. It was decided to investigate how augmented Gravity Model of trade allows identifying and evaluating the significance of pull and push factors of FDI. In an empirical analysis of panel data Hausman‐Taylor estimator was used because of the time‐invariant variables presence. While investment decisions regarding the choice of country are determined by the size of the target market, the distance is still a negative factor in creation of FDI volume. Additionally, it was proven that membership in EMU, differences in taxation, historical background, access to the sea and prices stability have significant impact of FDI stock formation in each country belonging to V4. Is was also noted that Poland became a leader of the V4 as well as EU‐12 FDI market sourcing from the old EU Member States. It is necessary to develop an “FDI attracting mechanism” using existing resources. Business regulations and taxation policy as well as main macroeconomic variables which are responsible for the economy standing are also examined as attracting the FDI flow. The originality of this work lies in studying some aspects of FDI inflow into the group of both similar and different countries in economic measures terms.
Kobozeva Alla A.
Full Text Available The new common approach for integrity checking of digital images is developed. The new features of formal parameters defining image are revealed, theoretically grounded and practically tested. The characteristics of the mutual arrangement of left and right singular vectors corresponding to the largest singular value of the image’s matrix (block of matrix and the vector composed of singular numbers is obtained. Formal parameters are obtained using normal singular decomposition of matrix (block of matrix which is uniquely determined. It is shown that for most blocks of original image (no matter lossy or lossless the angle between the left (right mentioned singular vector and vector composed of singular numbers is defined by the angle between the n-optimal vector and the vector of standard basis of the range corresponding dimension. It is shown that the determined feature brakes for the mentioned formal parameters in a non-original image. This shows the integrity violation of the image, i.e. the existence of the additional information embedded using steganography algorithms. So this can be used as a basis for development of new universal steganography methods and algorithms, and one example of the realization is proposed. The efficiency of the proposed algorithm won’t depend on the details of steganography method used for embedding. All the obtained results can be easily adapted for the digital video and audio analysis.
Full Text Available In this paper a special case of digital stochastic measurement of the third power of definite integral of sinusoidal signal’s absolute value, using 2-bit AD converters is presented. This case of digital stochastic method had emerged from the need to measure power and energy of the wind. Power and energy are proportional to the third power of wind speed. Anemometer output signal is sinusoidal. Therefore an integral of the third power of sinusoidal signal is zero. Two approaches are proposed for the third power calculation of the wind speed signal. One approach is to use absolute value of sinusoidal signal (before AD conversion for which there is no need of multiplier hardware change. The second approach requires small multiplier hardware change, but input signal remains unchanged. For the second approach proposed minimal hardware change was made to calculate absolute value of the result after AD conversion. Simulations have confirmed theoretical analysis. Expected precision of wind energy measurement of proposed device is better than 0,00051% of full scale. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR32019
Rowe, J.C.; Spille, R.F.; Zimmermann, S.D.
The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is part of a continuing effort within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and extend the capabilities of remote manipulation and maintenance technology. The AIMS is a totally integrated approach to remote handling in hazardous environments. State-of-the-art computer systems connected through a high-speed distributed control system that supports the flexibility and expandability needed for large integrated maintenance applications. A man-Machine Interface provides high-level human interaction through a powerful color graphics menu-controlled operator console. An auxiliary control system handles the real-time processing needs for a variety of support hardware. A pair of dedicated fiber-optic-linked master/slave computer systems control the Advanced Servomanipulator master/slave arms using powerful distributed digital processing methods. The FORTH language was used as a real-time operating and development environment for the entire system, and all of these components are integrated into a control room concept that represents the latest advancements in the development of remote maintenance facilities for hazardous environments
Rowe, J.C.; Spille, R.F.; Zimmermann, S.D.
The Advanced Integrated Maintenance System (AIMS) is part of a continuing effort within the Consolidated Fuel Reprocessing Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop and extend the capabilities of remote manipulation and maintenance technology. The AIMS is a totally integrated approach to remote handling in hazardous environments. State-of-the-art computer systems connected through a high-speed communication network provide a real-time distributed control system that supports the flexibility and expandability needed for large integrated maintenance applications. A Man-Machine Interface provides high-level human interaction through a powerful color graphics menu-controlled operator console. An auxiliary control system handles the real-time processing needs for a variety of support hardware. A pair of dedicated fiber-optic-linked master/slave computer system control the Advanced Servomanipulator master/slave arms using powerful distributed digital processing methods. The FORTH language was used as a real-time operating and development environment for the entire system, and all of these components are integrated into a control room concept that represents the latest advancements in the development of remote maintenance facilities for hazardous environments
Rosa, Paulo Andre Nobre; Casau, Pedro; Silvestre, Carlos
A complete methodology to design robust Fault Detection and Isolation (FDI) filters and Fault Tolerant Control (FTC) schemes for Linear Time-Varying (LTV) systems is proposed. The paper takes advantage of the recent advances in model invalidation using Set-Valued Observers (SVOs) that led...
Full Text Available Studies on the productivity spillovers of FDI have concentrated on the nationalsectoral level. As a result, little is known about the impact of FDI on absolute and relative regional economic performance. In this paper we examine this issue by relying on a unique dataset of over 20,000 Greek firms for the period 2002-2006 covering all sectors of economic activity. We examine the spatial distribution of foreign-owned firms in the country and analyse the effect that their presence – at the local, regional and national levels – has on the productivity of domestic firms. We find strong evidence suggesting that foreignowned firms self-select into regions and sectors of high productivity. Net of this selection effect, the impact of foreign presence on domestic productivity is negative – although at the very local level some positive spillover effects are identifiable. The bulk of the effects concentrate in non-manufacturing activities, high-tech sectors, and medium-sized high-productivity firms. Importantly, this effect is not constant across space however. Productivity spillovers tend to be negative in the regions hosting the main urban areas in the country but positive in smaller and more peripheral regions. In this way, despite the tendency of FDI to concentrate in a limited number of areas within the country – those of the highest level of development – the externalities that FDI activity generates to the local economies appear to be of a rather equilibrating character.
Popovici Oana Cristina
Full Text Available The target of this paper is to determine whether taxation affects the attractiveness of Central and EasternEurope (CEE countries for foreign investors. In this scope, the paper analyzes the impact of taxation for thelocation decision of foreign direct investment (FDI in CEE countries both in 2007 and 2010. A taxation indexinvesting the effect of multiple host country taxes is developed in order to draw the attractiveness matrix for thecountries taken into account. The taxation level comprises the corporate income tax rate, representing directtaxation, the value-added tax (VAT and the social security contributions expressing indirect taxation and finally theease of paying taxes, as provided in Doing Business report. The results indicate that relieving the burden of payingtaxes by tackling the taxation issue is a mean for improving the FDI attractiveness of a country. Still, there are otherfactors that have higher influence on FDI inflows. The main finding is that there is no perfect correspondencebetween the shifts in taxation rankings and the FDI inflows performance.
Boermans, M.; Roelfsema, H.J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/239815815; Yi, Zhang|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328058335
We empirically investigate the factors that drive the uneven regional distribution of foreign direct investment (FDI) inflows to China’s 31 provinces from 1995 to 2006. The aim of this paper is to explain the investment patterns in (partly) foreign funded firms across these provinces. We use factor
Sunesen, Eva Rytter
country to another. This will have implications for the way investors evaluate the return and risk of investing abroad. This paper utilises a simple mean-variance optimisation framework where global and regonal factors capture the interdependence between countries. The model implies that FDI is driven...
Full Text Available This paper examines Korea's intra-industry trade (IIT by disentangling vertical from horizontal IIT, and analyzes the determinants of both IIT types in trade with East Asian countries during the period of 1991-2005. Korea's IIT with East Asian countries has increased rapidly, especially its high quality IIT, which has increased faster than horizontal IIT and low quality IIT, implying that Korea's product quality has improved over time. Korea's high quality IIT is larger in trade with developing countries, but its low quality IIT is larger in trade with Japan. The regression results show that the income differences between countries have a negative effect on horizontal IIT, and that Korea's high quality IIT becomes larger when Korea's income is higher than the income of partner countries. This supports the theory of IIT. Foreign direct investment (FDI inflow has had a positive effect on increases in IIT, but the effects of FDI outflow are not certain. This suggests a policy implication that FDI inflow has a more positive effect on IIT than FDI outflow.
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to investigate how foreign direct investment (FDI affects domestic investment in the Republic of Croatia. More precisely, the general purpose of this study is to determine the impact of net inflow of foreign capital on domestic investment in order to gain a clearer picture about the sensitivity and efficiency of domestic investment. After parsing domestic investment and FDI in Croatia, according to Croatian Bureau of Statistics and the Croatian National Bank, a historical overview of their movement from 1995 to 2014 was analyzed. In the following an overview and comparison of studies from around the world which deal with similar topic was made. In the empirical part; domestic gross fixed capital formation, changes in domestic stocks, net FDI and GDP growth rate was used as variables. Quarterly time series data ranging from the Q1 2001 to Q4 2014 were processed with the subset VAR (vector autoregressive econometric model. The results shows that FDI have negative influence on domestic investment in the Republic of Croatia with time lag.
Gorodnichenko, Y.; Švejnar, Jan; Terrell, K.
-, č. 6546 (2007), s. 1-53 ISSN 0265-8003 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : foreign direct investment s * efficiency of domestic firms * FDI spillovers Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://www.cepr.org/pubs/new-dps/dplist.asp?dpno=6546.asp
Emmanuel O. Nwosu; Anthony Orji; Nathaniel Urama; Joseph I. Amuka
The importance of regional integration in stimulating foreign direct investment cannot be overemphasized. With a special focus on the ASEAN countries, this research paper investigates the role of regional integration in attracting foreign direct investment. We bring a novelty to this paper by dividing foreign direct investment into Inter-and Intra-ASEAN to see if both are determined by the same set of factors. If economic integration drives intra-ASEAN FDI we would expect such FDI to be unrel...
Full Text Available Scholars with different backgrounds have carried out extensive surveys centred on how 3D digital models, data acquisition and processing have changed over the years in fields of archaeology and architecture and more in general in the Cultural Heritage panorama: the current framework focused on reality-based modelling is then split in several branches: acquisition, communication and analysis of buildings (Pintus et alii, 2014. Despite the wide set of well-structured and all-encompassing surveys on the IT application in Cultural Heritage, several open issues still seem to be present, in particular once the purpose of digital simulacra is the one to fit with the “pre-informatics" legacy of architectural/archaeological representation (historical drawings with their graphic codes and aesthetics. Starting from a series of heterogeneous matters that came up studying two Italian UNESCO sites, this paper aims at underlining the importance of integrating different pipelines from different technological fields, in order to achieve multipurpose models, capable to comply with graphic codes of traditional survey, as well as semantic enrichment, and last but not least, data compression/portability and texture reliability under different lighting simulation.
Silver, A.; Akerling, G.; Auten, R.
High temperature superconductors (HTS) promise to achieve electrical performance superior to that of conventional electronics. For application in space systems, HTS systems must simultaneously achieve lower power, weight, and volume than conventional electronics, and meet stringent space qualification and reliability requirements. Most effort to date has focused on passive RF/microwave applications. However, incorporation of active microwave components such as amplifiers, mixers, and phase shifters, and on-board high data rate digital signal processing is limited by the power and weight of their spacecraft electronic and support modules. Absence of data on active HTS components will prevent their utilization in space. To validate the feasibility in space of HTS circuits and components based on Josephson junctions, one needs to demonstrate HTS circuits and critical supporting technologies, such as space-qualified packaging and interconnects, closed-cycle cryocooling, and interface electronics. This paper describes the packaging, performance, and space test plan of an integrated, space-qualified experimental package consisting of HTS Josephson junction circuits and all the supporting components for NRL's high temperature superconductor space experiment (HTSSE-II). Most of the technical challenges and approaches are equally applicable to passive and active RF/microwave and digital electronic components, and this experiment will provide valuable validation data
Mei, Ping; Whiting, Gregory L.; Schwartz, David E.; Ng, Tse Nga; Krusor, Brent S.; Ready, Steve E.; Daniel, George; Veres, Janos; Street, Bob
Wireless sensing has broad applications in a wide variety of fields such as infrastructure monitoring, chemistry, environmental engineering and cold supply chain management. Further development of sensing systems will focus on achieving light weight, flexibility, low power consumption and low cost. Fully printed electronics provide excellent flexibility and customizability, as well as the potential for low cost and large area applications, but lack solutions for high-density, high-performance circuitry. Conventional electronics mounted on flexible printed circuit boards provide high performance but are not digitally fabricated or readily customizable. Incorporation of small silicon dies or packaged chips into a printed platform enables high performance without compromising flexibility or cost. At PARC, we combine high functionality c-Si CMOS and digitally printed components and interconnects to create an integrated platform that can read and process multiple discrete sensors. Our approach facilitates customization to a wide variety of sensors and user interfaces suitable for a broad range of applications including remote monitoring of health, structures and environment. This talk will describe several examples of printed wireless sensing systems. The technologies required for these sensor systems are a mix of novel sensors, printing processes, conventional microchips, flexible substrates and energy harvesting power solutions.
Ronan, M.T.; Lee, K.L.; Corredoura, P.; Judkins, J.G.
In order to fill the PEP and SPEAR storage rings with beams from the SLC linac and damping rings, precise control of the linac subharmonic buncher and the damping ring RF is required. Recently several companies have developed resettable GaAs master/slave D-type flip-flops which are capable of operating at frequencies of 3 GHz and higher. Using these digital devices as frequency dividers, one can phase shift the SLAC CW-RF systems to optimize the timing for filling the storage rings. The authors have evaluated the performance of integrated circuits from two vendors for our particular application. Using microstrip circuit techniques, they have built and operated in the accelerator several chassis to synchronize a reset signal from the storage rings to the SLAC 2.856 GHz RF and to phase shift divide-by-four and divide-by-sixteen frequency dividers to the nearest 350 psec bucket required for filling
Feibert, Diana Cordes; Hansen, Mette Sanne; Jacobsen, Peter
The maritime transport industry operates in an environment characterized by fluctuating fuel prices and low freight rates in a dynamic competitive market. Shipping companies must therefore adopt responsive supply chains whilst containing costs. This study investigates what extant literature can...... offer from an integrated digitalization and business process management perspective to enhance supply chain performance for shipping companies. The main themes identified in literature have been categorized according to their contributions to achieving responsive and efficient supply chains. Furthermore......, the drivers of enhanced supply chain performance have been identified and an agenda for future research is proposed. This study therefore contributes to the research field of maritime transport by enfolding extant literature and guiding decision makers in their efforts to achieve responsive and adaptive...
J. van Leeuwen
We proposed a workflow solution enabling the representation of decision models as externalized executable tasks in the process definition. Our approach separates the task implementations from the workflow model, ensuring scalability and allowing for the inclusion of complex decision logic in the workflow execution. In we depict a simplified model of a pathology diagnosis workflow (starting with the digitization of the slides, represented according to the BPMN modeling conventions. The example shows a workflow sequence that automatically orders a HER2 FISH when IHC is borderline according to defined customizable thresholds. The process model integrates an image analysis algorithm that scores images. Based on the score and the thresholds the decision model evaluates the condition and recommends the pre-ordering of an additional test when the score falls between the two thresholds. This leads to faster diagnosis and allows balancing the costs of an additional test versus the overhead of the pathologist by choosing the values of the thresholds.
Hester, Robert L.; Summers, Richard L.; lIescu, Radu; Esters, Joyee; Coleman, Thomas G.
Mathematical models and simulation are important tools in discovering the key causal relationships governing physiological processes and improving medical intervention when physiological complexity is a central issue. We have developed a model of integrative human physiology called DigitalHuman (DH) consisting of -5000 variables modeling human physiology describing cardiovascular, renal, respiratory, endocrine, neural and metabolic physiology. Users can view time-dependent solutions and interactively introduce perturbations by altering numerical parameters to investigate new hypotheses. The variables, parameters and quantitative relationships as well as all other model details are described in XML text files. All aspects of the model, including the mathematical equations describing the physiological processes are written in XML open source, text-readable files. Model structure is based upon empirical data of physiological responses documented within the peer-reviewed literature. The model can be used to understand proposed physiological mechanisms and physiological interactions that may not be otherwise intUitively evident. Some of the current uses of this model include the analyses of renal control of blood pressure, the central role of the liver in creating and maintaining insulin resistance, and the mechanisms causing orthostatic hypotension in astronauts. Additionally the open source aspect of the modeling environment allows any investigator to add detailed descriptions of human physiology to test new concepts. The model accurately predicts both qualitative and more importantly quantitative changes in clinically and experimentally observed responses. DigitalHuman provides scientists a modeling environment to understand the complex interactions of integrative physiology. This research was supported by.NIH HL 51971, NSF EPSCoR, and NASA
Husson, J. M.; Peters, S. E.; Livny, M.; Ross, I.
Recent developments in machine reading and learning approaches to text and data mining hold considerable promise for accelerating the pace and quality of literature-based data synthesis, but these advances have outpaced even basic levels of access to the published literature. For many geoscience domains, particularly those based on physical samples and field-based descriptions, this limitation is significant. Here we describe a general infrastructure to support published literature-based machine reading and learning approaches to information integration and knowledge base creation. This infrastructure supports rate-controlled automated fetching of original documents, along with full bibliographic citation metadata, from remote servers, the secure storage of original documents, and the utilization of considerable high-throughput computing resources for the pre-processing of these documents by optical character recognition, natural language parsing, and other document annotation and parsing software tools. New tools and versions of existing tools can be automatically deployed against original documents when they are made available. The products of these tools (text/XML files) are managed by MongoDB and are available for use in data extraction applications. Basic search and discovery functionality is provided by ElasticSearch, which is used to identify documents of potential relevance to a given data extraction task. Relevant files derived from the original documents are then combined into basic starting points for application building; these starting points are kept up-to-date as new relevant documents are incorporated into the digital library. Currently, our digital library stores contains more than 360K documents supplied by Elsevier and the USGS and we are actively seeking additional content providers. By focusing on building a dependable infrastructure to support the retrieval, storage, and pre-processing of published content, we are establishing a foundation for
Ranscombe, Charlie; Bissett-Johnson, Katherine
Literature on the use of design tools in educational settings notes an uneasy relationship between student use of traditional hand sketching and digital modelling tools (CAD) during the industrial design process. This is often manifested in the transition from sketching to CAD and exacerbated by a preference of current students to use CAD. In this…
Full Text Available This paper examines the major determinants of foreign direct investment (FDI inflows in 26 European Union (EU countries using panel data. Our empirical study takes a different approach by separating European countries into two groups: Western (EU-15 countries and Central and Eastern European (CEE countries. The results from the panel data analysis of FDI inflows to 26 EU countries for the period 1994-2012 show that: (1 traditional location variables such as market size, trade openness, unemployment, infrastructure, tax rate and unit labour costs are able, to a large extent, to explain FDI flows to both groups of countries; (2 there are country-specific factors such as economic growth, unit labour costs and credit risk that contribute to the differences in FDI patterns across EU-15 and CEECs; and (3 policy and institutional quality factors are found to play an important role for both groups of countries. When analyzing host countries based on their relative level of performance, we find that the top ten FDI performers are able to attract a significant amount of FDI because of their macroeconomic stability and high level of institutional development, while for EU countries with low FDI dominance, policy and institutional risk factors play a more important role.
Kuehl, C. Stephen
Video signal system performance can be compromised in a military aircraft cockpit management system (CMS) with the tailoring of vintage Electronics Industries Association (EIA) RS170 and RS343A video interface standards. Video analog interfaces degrade when induced system noise is present. Further signal degradation has been traditionally associated with signal data conversions between avionics sensor outputs and the cockpit display system. If the CMS engineering process is not carefully applied during the avionics video and computing architecture development, extensive and costly redesign will occur when visual sensor technology upgrades are incorporated. Close monitoring and technical involvement in video standards groups provides the knowledge-base necessary for avionic systems engineering organizations to architect adaptable and extendible cockpit management systems. With the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) in the process of adopting the Digital HDTV Grand Alliance System standard proposed by the Advanced Television Systems Committee (ATSC), the entertainment and telecommunications industries are adopting and supporting the emergence of new serial/parallel digital video interfaces and data compression standards that will drastically alter present NTSC-M video processing architectures. The re-engineering of the U.S. Broadcasting system must initially preserve the electronic equipment wiring networks within broadcast facilities to make the transition to HDTV affordable. International committee activities in technical forums like ITU-R (former CCIR), ANSI/SMPTE, IEEE, and ISO/IEC are establishing global consensus on video signal parameterizations that support a smooth transition from existing analog based broadcasting facilities to fully digital computerized systems. An opportunity exists for implementing these new video interface standards over existing video coax/triax cabling in military aircraft cockpit management systems. Reductions in signal
Kim, Man Cheol; Seong, Poong Hyun
In the nuclear industry, the difficulty of proving the reliabilities of digital systems prohibits the widespread use of digital systems in various nuclear application such as plant protection system. Even though there exist a few models which are used to estimate the reliabilities of digital systems, we develop a new integrated model which is more realistic than the existing models. We divide the process of estimating the reliability of a digital system into two phases, a high-level phase and a low-level phase, and the boundary of two phases is the reliabilities of subsystems. We apply software control flow method to the low-level phase and fault tree analysis to the high-level phase. The application of the model to Dynamic Safety System(DDS) shows that the estimated reliability of the system is quite reasonable and realistic
Kim, Man Cheol; Seong, Poong Hyun
In nuclear industry, the difficulty of proving the reliabilities of digital systems prohibits the widespread use of digital systems in various nuclear application such as plant protection system. Even though there exist a few models which are used to estimate the reliabilities of digital systems, we develop a new integrated model which is more realistic than the existing models. We divide the process of estimating the reliability of a digital system into two phases, a high-level phase and a low-level phase, and the boundary of two phases is the reliabilities of subsystems. We apply software control flow method to the low-level phase and fault tree analysis to the high-level phase. The application of the model of dynamic safety system (DSS) shows that the estimated reliability of the system is quite reasonable and realistic. (author)
Smeets, Roger; Wei, Yingqi
Smeets R. and Wei Y. Productivity effects of United States multinational enterprises: the roles of market orientation and regional integration, Regional Studies. This paper considers the role of market orientation and regional integration in foreign direct investment (FDI) productivity effects.
Yafia, Mohamed; Ahmadi, Ali; Hoorfar, Mina; Najjaran, Homayoun
Portable sensors and biomedical devices are influenced by the recent advances in microfluidics technologies, compact fabrication techniques, improved detection limits and enhanced analysis capabilities. This paper reports the development of an integrated ultraportable, low-cost, and modular digital microfluidic (DMF) system and its successful integration with a smartphone used as a high-level controller and post processing station. Low power and cost effective electronic circuits are designed...
Craig, Thomas; Smelick, Chris; Tacutu, Robi; Wuttke, Daniel; Wood, Shona H; Stanley, Henry; Janssens, Georges; Savitskaya, Ekaterina; Moskalev, Alexey; Arking, Robert; de Magalhães, João Pedro
Multiple studies characterizing the human ageing phenotype have been conducted for decades. However, there is no centralized resource in which data on multiple age-related changes are collated. Currently, researchers must consult several sources, including primary publications, in order to obtain age-related data at various levels. To address this and facilitate integrative, system-level studies of ageing we developed the Digital Ageing Atlas (DAA). The DAA is a one-stop collection of human age-related data covering different biological levels (molecular, cellular, physiological, psychological and pathological) that is freely available online (http://ageing-map.org/). Each of the >3000 age-related changes is associated with a specific tissue and has its own page displaying a variety of information, including at least one reference. Age-related changes can also be linked to each other in hierarchical trees to represent different types of relationships. In addition, we developed an intuitive and user-friendly interface that allows searching, browsing and retrieving information in an integrated and interactive fashion. Overall, the DAA offers a new approach to systemizing ageing resources, providing a manually-curated and readily accessible source of age-related changes. © The Author(s) 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.
Here we describe molecular implementations of integrated digital circuits, including a three-input AND logic gate, a two-input multiplexer, and 1-to-2 decoder using allosteric ribozymes. Furthermore, we demonstrate a multiplexer-decoder circuit. The ribozymes are designed to seek-and-destroy specific RNAs with a certain length by a fully computerized procedure. The algorithm can accurately predict one base substitution that alters the ribozyme's logic function. The ability to sense the length of RNA molecules enables single ribozymes to be used as platforms for multiple interactions. These ribozymes can work as integrated circuits with the functionality of up to five logic gates. The ribozyme design is universal since the allosteric and substrate domains can be altered to sense different RNAs. In addition, the ribozymes can specifically cleave RNA molecules with triplet-repeat expansions observed in genetic disorders such as oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy. Therefore, the designer ribozymes can be employed for scaling up computing and diagnostic networks in the fields of molecular computing and diagnostics and RNA synthetic biology.
Kilic, Çigdem; Sancar-Tokmak, Hatice
This case study investigates how preservice primary school teachers describe their experiences with digital story-based problem solving applications and their plans for the future integration of this technology into their teaching. Totally 113 preservice primary school teachers participated in the study. Data collection tools included a…
Liou, Wei-Kai; Bhagat, Kaushal Kumar; Chang, Chun-Yen
The aim of this study is to design and implement a digital interactive globe system (DIGS), by integrating low-cost equipment to make DIGS cost-effective. DIGS includes a data processing unit, a wireless control unit, an image-capturing unit, a laser emission unit, and a three-dimensional hemispheric body-imaging screen. A quasi-experimental study…
Chinese manufacture poor employees' safety practices, the Chinese imports negative ... companies, domestic processing, and integrating the natural resources ...... countries in such areas as leather, textiles and others like cement, bricks and.
Consumer digital piracy in media contexts is one of the most publicized adverse developments brought on by the Internet and digitization of data. Since the turn of the millennium, it has irrevocably changed the business environment for the creative industries. The sharp decrease of recorded music sales, especially in the physical album format, is perhaps the best example of the negative effects digital piracy. However, the growth of legal services in digital music and ...
he IAEA's activities in the area of nuclear power plant operating performance and life cycle management are aimed at increasing Member State capabilities in utilizing good engineering and management practices as developed and transferred by the IAEA. In particular, the IAEA supports the improvement of nuclear power plant performance, plant life management, training, power uprating, operational license renewal, and the modernization of instrumentation and control (I and C) systems of plants. The issue of the integration of analog and digital I and C systems in hybrid control rooms was suggested by the IAEA Technical Working Group on Nuclear Power Plant Control and Instrumentation (TWG-NPPCI) at its meetings in 2003 and 2005. The subject was then approved by the IAEA and included in its work programmes for 2006-2009. The purpose of this report is to help nuclear utilities in planning control room and other human system interface (HSI) changes, making appropriate use of modern technologies. These technologies would aid in managing ageing and obsolescence, and facilitate improvements in plant performance and safety. This report covers a broad spectrum of potential changes to the control room ranging from the replacement of a few obsolete components with newer digital devices to a fully computerized control room. New digital technologies offer significant opportunities to improve access to and presentation of information to the user, e.g. operators, maintenance staff and management. However, this technology should be used prudently. In some cases, modernization is undertaken to resolve ageing and obsolescence or to meet regulatory requirements for license renewal. The integration of new technologies during main control room (MCR) modernizations should be performed cautiously and all affected aspects of plant maintenance, and operation should be carefully considered, paying particular attention to the human factors elements of these aspects. This report describes a
de la Hera Conde-Pumpido, T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/331869063; Paz Aléncar, Amanda
The use of digital games has found to be an effective tool to reinforce teaching/learning practices. Several studies have already shown the benefits of the use of digital games in educational contexts. However, most of these studies are focused on how digital games can be used as a mediation tool in
Full Text Available Background: Sharing digital pathology images for enterprise- wide use into a picture archiving and communication system (PACS is not yet widely adopted. We share our solution and 3-year experience of transmitting such images to an enterprise image server (EIS. Methods: Gross pathology images acquired by prosectors were integrated with clinical cases into the laboratory information system′s image management module, and stored in JPEG2000 format on a networked image server. Automated daily searches for cases with gross images were used to compile an ASCII text file that was forwarded to a separate institutional Enterprise Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM Wrapper (EDW server. Concurrently, an HL7-based image order for these cases was generated, containing the locations of images and patient data, and forwarded to the EDW, which combined data in these locations to generate images with patient data, as required by DICOM standards. The image and data were then "wrapped" according to DICOM standards, transferred to the PACS servers, and made accessible on an institution-wide basis. Results: In total, 26,966 gross images from 9,733 cases were transmitted over the 3-year period from the laboratory information system to the EIS. The average process time for cases with successful automatic uploads (n=9,688 to the EIS was 98 seconds. Only 45 cases (0.5% failed requiring manual intervention. Uploaded images were immediately available to institution- wide PACS users. Since inception, user feedback has been positive. Conclusions: Enterprise- wide PACS- based sharing of pathology images is feasible, provides useful services to clinical staff, and utilizes existing information system and telecommunications infrastructure. PACS-shared pathology images, however, require a "DICOM wrapper" for multisystem compatibility.
House, P. K.
The combination of traditional methods of geologic mapping with rapidly developing web-based geospatial applications ('the geoweb') and the various collaborative opportunities of web 2.0 have the potential to change the nature, value, and relevance of geologic maps and related field studies. Parallel advances in basic GPS technology, digital photography, and related integrative applications provide practicing geologic mappers with greatly enhanced methods for collecting, visualizing, interpreting, and disseminating geologic information. Even a cursory application of available tools can make field and office work more enriching and efficient; whereas more advanced and systematic applications provide new avenues for collaboration, outreach, and public education. Moreover, they ensure a much broader audience among an immense number of internet savvy end-users with very specific expectations for geospatial data availability. Perplexingly, the geologic community as a whole is not fully exploring this opportunity despite the inevitable revolution in portends. The slow acceptance follows a broad generational trend wherein seasoned professionals are lagging behind geology students and recent graduates in their grasp of and interest in the capabilities of the geoweb and web 2.0 types of applications. Possible explanations for this include: fear of the unknown, fear of learning curve, lack of interest, lack of academic/professional incentive, and (hopefully not) reluctance toward open collaboration. Although some aspects of the expanding geoweb are cloaked in arcane computer code, others are extremely simple to understand and use. A particularly obvious and simple application to enhance any field study is photo geotagging, the digital documentation of the locations of key outcrops, illustrative vistas, and particularly complicated geologic field relations. Viewing geotagged photos in their appropriate context on a virtual globe with high-resolution imagery can be an
Full Text Available the increase use of hand held devices such as smart phones to access multimedia content in the cloud is increasing with rise and growth in information technology. Mobile cloud computing is increasingly used today because it allows users to have access to variety of resources in the cloud such as image video audio and software applications with minimal usage of their inbuilt resources such as storage memory by using the one available in the cloud. The major challenge faced with mobile cloud computing is security. Watermarking and digital signature are some techniques used to provide security and authentication on user data in the cloud. Watermarking is a technique used to embed digital data within a multimedia content such as image video or audio in order to prevent authorized access to those content by intruders whereas digital signature is used to identify and verify user data when accessed. In this work we implemented digital signature and robust reversible image watermarking in order enhance mobile cloud computing security and integrity of data by providing double authentication techniques. The results obtained show the effectiveness of combining the two techniques robust reversible watermarking and digital signature by providing strong authentication to ensures data integrity and extract the original content watermarked without changes.
Belcastro, Celeste M.; Fischl, Robert; Kam, Moshe
This paper presents a strategy for dynamically monitoring digital controllers in the laboratory for susceptibility to electromagnetic disturbances that compromise control integrity. The integrity of digital control systems operating in harsh electromagnetic environments can be compromised by upsets caused by induced transient electrical signals. Digital system upset is a functional error mode that involves no component damage, can occur simultaneously in all channels of a redundant control computer, and is software dependent. The motivation for this work is the need to develop tools and techniques that can be used in the laboratory to validate and/or certify critical aircraft controllers operating in electromagnetically adverse environments that result from lightning, high-intensity radiated fields (HIRF), and nuclear electromagnetic pulses (NEMP). The detection strategy presented in this paper provides dynamic monitoring of a given control computer for degraded functional integrity resulting from redundancy management errors, control calculation errors, and control correctness/effectiveness errors. In particular, this paper discusses the use of Kalman filtering, data fusion, and statistical decision theory in monitoring a given digital controller for control calculation errors.
Guidi, G.; Russo, M.; Angheleddu, D.
The methodology proposed in this paper in based on an integrated approach for creating a 3D digital reconstruction of an archaeological site, using extensively the 3D documentation of the site in its current state, followed by an iterative interaction between archaeologists and digital modelers, leading to a progressive refinement of the reconstructive hypotheses. The starting point of the method is the reality-based model, which, together with ancient drawings and documents, is used for generating the first reconstructive step. Such rough approximation of a possible architectural structure can be annotated through archaeological considerations that has to be confronted with geometrical constraints, producing a reduction of the reconstructive hypotheses to a limited set, each one to be archaeologically evaluated. This refinement loop on the reconstructive choices is iterated until the result become convincing by both points of view, integrating in the best way all the available sources. The proposed method has been verified on the ruins of five temples in the My Son site, a wide archaeological area located in central Vietnam. The integration of 3D surveyed data and historical documentation has allowed to support a digital reconstruction of not existing architectures, developing their three-dimensional digital models step by step, from rough shapes to highly sophisticate virtual prototypes.
Full Text Available This article revisits the relationship between corruption and Foreign Direct Investment inflows in a panel of 42 countries from 1984 to 2012 using pooled mean group estimator in a dynamic heterogeneous panel setting using Westerlund and ARDL panel cointegration tests where the estimations are carried out by three different estimators: the pooled mean group (PMG, mean group (MG, and the dynamic fixed effect (DFE estimators in order to examine both the long- and short-term effects of corruption on FDI inflows. The results suggest that corruption has a positive impact on FDI inflows in the case of Asia and Africa; and a negative impact in the case of Latin America.
Full Text Available This paper investigates the extent to which foreign direct investment (FDI influenced intra-industry trade (IIT in automotive products in six New EU Member States (the Czech Republic, Hungary, Poland, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia in the 1995–2014 period. Changes in IIT intensity are analysed using the Grubel-Lloyd indices. To examine the IIT pattern, IIT indices are divided into two types of trade: IIT in vertically differentiated products (low and high quality VIIT and IIT in horizontally differentiated products (HIIT. The research indicates that IIT in automotive products allowed manufacturers and consumers from the new EU Member States to benefit more from international trade. FDI inflow to the automotive sector of the NMS has been a key factor shaping IIT in automotive products.
Silvia Dal Bianco
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact of price and real exchange rate volatility on Foreign Direct Investment (FDI inflows in a panel of 10 Latin American and Caribbean countries, observed between 1990 and 2012. Both price and exchange rate volatility series are estimated through the Generalized Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity model (GARCH. Our results obtained, employing the Fixed Effects estimator, confirm the theory of hysteresis and option value, in so far as a statistically significant negative effect of exchange rate volatility on FDI is found. Price volatility, instead, turns out to be positive but insignificant. Moreover, we show that human capital and trade openness are key for attracting foreign capital. From the policy perspective, our analysis suggests the importance of stabilization policies as well as the policy of government credibility in promoting trade openness and human capital formation.
Seltzer, S. M.
The problem discussed is to design a digital controller for a typical satellite. The controlled plant is considered to be a rigid body acting in a plane. The controller is assumed to be a digital computer which, when combined with the proposed control algorithm, can be represented as a sampled-data system. The objective is to present a design strategy and technique for selecting numerical values for the control gains (assuming position, integral, and derivative feedback) and the sample rate. The technique is based on the parameter plane method and requires that the system be amenable to z-transform analysis.
Alfarisy, Muhammad Farid
This paper aims to examine the economic and institutional attractiveness to FDI (Foreign Direct Investment) inflows to ASEAN countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, and Thailand) during 1996-2010 periods. By using panel data analysis, this study argues that in addition to economic attractiveness, FDI inflow is also influenced by institutional quality. This study uses WGI (World Governance Indicators) as measure of institution quality, and shows that improving the quality of public services, making th...
Due to the trend of economic globalisation and Taiwan’s deteriorating business environment, Taiwanese manufacturers have lost their competitive advantages in cost production to international rivals; this impact is especially strong for small and medium sized enterprises (SMEs). Along with the theories and empirical evidence developed by previous scholars, this research examines the significant determinants of FDI practices and the timely entry of Taiwanese manufacturing SMEs. In addition, the...
Nunnenkamp, Peter; Sosa Andrés, Maximiliano
Using count data on Indian joint ventures (JVs) and wholly owned subsidiaries (WOS), we present an empirical analysis of FDI-related ownership choices and their relation with host country characteristics and indicators of transaction costs. Our Negative Binomial regression models offer only weak support for the bargaining perspective, according to which JVs should be more likely if the host countries were particularly attractive in terms of market access or resource endowments. Geographical a...
Kasim Mansur; Markos Mamalakis; Sidah Idris
What are the prospects and future of Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in Malaysia now? Malaysia is undoubtedly a development success story. Throughout the post-independence period since 1957, Malaysia has enjoyed rapid economic growth with rising per capita income and price stability. Rising living standards, greater urbanization and access to health and education, and an improvement in the distribution of income have accompanied economic growth. Malaysian performance has been particularly rem...
Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to assess whether, and in what fashion, managers of Polish cluster organizations perceive the attractiveness of foreign direct investment in Polish clusters This research is exploratory and qualitative in nature. The complex nature of Polish clusters, which can benefit from and be competitively challenged by, FDI are identified and a conceptual framework for assessing that nature is proposed; specifically, research using the grounded theory method (GTM.
Full Text Available The authors analyze the relationship between GDP, imports-coverage ratio (NEX, FDI and gross fixed capital formation (GFC in selected CEE countries by using an error correction model. The empirical results confirm a positive long-run influence of the imports coverage ratio, FDI and GFC on GDP growth for all of the countries, except Croatia. In the case of Croatia, there is a significant negative feedback between FDI and GDP growth in the long run and a positive one in the short run. By using B. Horvat’s research on this subject, a logical explanation of this sort of paradoxical behavior is suggested. The second uncommon result is the long-run positive relationship between GDP and the imports-coverage ratio. The obtained result speaks in favor of a conservative approach to running a national economy, where the current account and the imports-coverage ratio are taken into account and the economic growth is achieved through slower but stable, internally driven growth.
Li, Su; Angelino, Antonio; Yin, Haitao; Spigarelli, Francesca
Foreign direct investments (FDIs) have been widely recognized as a crucial feature of the Chinese industrial development process. Over the past decades, China has been attracting huge amounts of inward FDIs as a consequence of both spontaneous market dynamics and place-based preferential policies at the sub-national level. However, the Chinese market exhibits large dissimilarities in terms of FDI localization across territories that are worth investigating at a more disaggregated level. In this regards, our study explores the determinants of attraction of inward FDIs in China, at the county level. It focuses on the pharmaceutical industry and attempts to assess whether factors related to location advantages, agglomeration dynamics, information cost effects and environmental regulation costs affect foreign firms' localization choices as well as invested amounts in that location. By means of discrete choice models, our paper confirms the findings of the prevalent literature about the positive effects of location advantages on pharmaceutical FDI attraction. Different from our expectations, a higher proportion of foreign enterprises do not stimulate significant effects on FDI localization, while preferential policies and sectoral agglomeration are positively correlated with the localization of pharmaceutical foreign firms. Finally, our results suggest that investing firms tend to avoid areas with strict environment regulation.
Full Text Available Since 2007, when Bulgaria became a full member of the EU and 2012, when Serbia was granted the status of candidate for EU membership, these countries have become very attractive investment destinations. The object of this research is the movements of FDI in the mentioned countries in 2013 and their structure by economic activities. The scientific problem is related to the positive effects of FDI on the host country, making an attractive investment environment, creating incentives for foreign investors and comparing the structure of FDI in Bulgaria and Serbia with simultaneous comparison with the European average. It may be noted that this is a current theoretical and empirical research that deals with modern state of the subject. The necessary quantitative data have been collected using the desk method and using the secondary data source and the method of description as well as the comparative method were used in the ensuing analysis. The aim of the study is to, by applying the above methods, determine the most attractive investment areas, analyze the current investment incentives and provide recommendations on adjustments to be made to improve the actual investment strategies and create attractive investment locations in Bulgaria and Serbia.
Asrizal; Amran, A.; Ananda, A.; Festiyed; Khairani, S.
Integrated science learning and literacy skills are relevant issues in Indonesian’s education. However, the use of the integrated science learning and the integration of literacy in learning cannot be implemented well. An alternative solution of this problem is to develop integrated science instructional material on pressure in daily life theme by integrating digital age literacy. Purpose of research is to investigate the effectiveness of the use of integrated science instructional material on pressure in daily life theme to improve knowledge competence, attitudes competence and literacy skills of students. This research was a part of development research which has been conducted. In the product testing stage of this research and development was used before and after design of treatment for one sample group. Instruments to collect the data consist of learning outcomes test sheet, attitude observation sheet, and performance assessment sheet of students. Data analysis techniques include descriptive statistics analysis, normality test, homogeneity test, and paired comparison test. Therefore, the important result of research is the use of integrated science instructional material on pressure in daily life theme is effective in scientific approach to improve knowledge competence, attitudes competence, and digital age literacy skills of grade VIII students at 95% confidence level.
Thaitrong, Numrin; Kim, Hanyoup; Renzi, Ronald F; Bartsch, Michael S; Meagher, Robert J; Patel, Kamlesh D
We have developed an automated quality control (QC) platform for next-generation sequencing (NGS) library characterization by integrating a droplet-based digital microfluidic (DMF) system with a capillary-based reagent delivery unit and a quantitative CE module. Using an in-plane capillary-DMF interface, a prepared sample droplet was actuated into position between the ground electrode and the inlet of the separation capillary to complete the circuit for an electrokinetic injection. Using a DNA ladder as an internal standard, the CE module with a compact LIF detector was capable of detecting dsDNA in the range of 5-100 pg/μL, suitable for the amount of DNA required by the Illumina Genome Analyzer sequencing platform. This DMF-CE platform consumes tenfold less sample volume than the current Agilent BioAnalyzer QC technique, preserving precious sample while providing necessary sensitivity and accuracy for optimal sequencing performance. The ability of this microfluidic system to validate NGS library preparation was demonstrated by examining the effects of limited-cycle PCR amplification on the size distribution and the yield of Illumina-compatible libraries, demonstrating that as few as ten cycles of PCR bias the size distribution of the library toward undesirable larger fragments. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Ronan, M.T.; Lee, K.L.; Corredoura, P.; Judkins, J.G.
In order to fill the PEP and SPEAR storage rings with beams from the SLC linac and damping rings, precise control of the linac subharmonic buncher and the damping ring RF is required. Recently several companies have developed resettable GaAs master/slave D-type flip-flops which are capable of operating at frequencies of 3 GHz and higher. Using these digital devices as frequency dividers, one can phase shift the SLAC CW-RF systems to optimize the timing for filling the storage rings. We have evaluated the performance of integrated circuits from two vendors for our particular application. Using microstrip circuit techniques, we have built and operated in the accelerator several chassis to synchronize a reset signal from the storage rings to the SLAC 2.856 GHz RF and to phase shift divide-by-four and divide-by-sixteen frequency dividers to the nearest 350 psec bucket required for filling. 4 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Houle, Pascal-Simon; Beaulieu, Eric; Liu, Zhaoheng
This paper presents a recently developed custom footwear system, which integrates 3D digitization technology, range image fusion techniques, a 3D graphical environment for corrective actions, parametric curved surface representation and computer numerical control (CNC) machining. In this system, a support designed with the help of biomechanics experts can stabilize the foot in a correct and neutral position. The foot surface is then captured by a 3D camera using active ranging techniques. A software using a library of documented foot pathologies suggests corrective actions on the orthosis. Three kinds of deformations can be achieved. The first method uses previously scanned pad surfaces by our 3D scanner, which can be easily mapped onto the foot surface to locally modify the surface shape. The second kind of deformation is construction of B-Spline surfaces by manipulating control points and modifying knot vectors in a 3D graphical environment to build desired deformation. The last one is a manual electronic 3D pen, which may be of different shapes and sizes, and has an adjustable 'pressure' information. All applied deformations should respect a G1 surface continuity, which ensure that the surface can accustom a foot. Once the surface modification process is completed, the resulting data is sent to manufacturing software for CNC machining.
Shahrokhi, Farzaneh; Abdelhalim, Karim; Serletis, Demitre; Carlen, Peter L; Genov, Roman
We present a fully differential 128-channel integrated neural interface. It consists of an array of 8 X 16 low-power low-noise signal-recording and generation circuits for electrical neural activity monitoring and stimulation, respectively. The recording channel has two stages of signal amplification and conditioning with and a fully differential 8-b column-parallel successive approximation (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC). The total measured power consumption of each recording channel, including the SAR ADC, is 15.5 ¿W. The measured input-referred noise is 6.08 ¿ Vrms over a 5-kHz bandwidth, resulting in a noise efficiency factor of 5.6. The stimulation channel performs monophasic or biphasic voltage-mode stimulation, with a maximum stimulation current of 5 mA and a quiescent power dissipation of 51.5 ¿W. The design is implemented in 0.35-¿m complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology with the channel pitch of 200 ¿m for a total die size of 3.4 mm × 2.5 mm and a total power consumption of 9.33 mW. The neural interface was validated in in vitro recording of a low-Mg(2+)/high-K(+) epileptic seizure model in an intact hippocampus of a mouse.
Pesci, Arianna; Fabris, Massimo; Conforti, Dario; Loddo, Fabiana; Baldi, Paolo; Anzidei, Marco
This work deals with the integration of different surveying methodologies for the definition of very accurate Digital Terrain Models (DTM) and/or Digital Surface Models (DSM): in particular, the aerial digital photogrammetry and the terrestrial laser scanning were used to survey the Vesuvio volcano, allowing the total coverage of the internal cone and surroundings (the whole surveyed area was about 3 km × 3 km). The possibility to reach a very high precision, especially from the laser scanner data set, allowed a detailed description of the morphology of the volcano. The comparisons of models obtained in repeated surveys allow a detailed map of residuals providing a data set that can be used for detailed studies of the morphological evolution. Moreover, the reflectivity information, highly correlated to materials properties, allows for the measurement and quantification of some morphological variations in areas where structural discontinuities and displacements are present.
Dogon-yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.
Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition and structural changes of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting tree features include; ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraint, such as labour intensive field work, a lot of financial requirement, influences by weather condition and topographical covers which can be overcome by means of integrated airborne based LiDAR and very high resolution digital image datasets. This study presented a semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated airborne based LIDAR and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The above scheme includes detection and extraction of shadow free vegetation features based on spectral properties of digital images using shadow index and NDVI techniques and automated extraction of 3D information about vegetation features from the integrated processing of shadow free vegetation image and LiDAR point cloud datasets. The ability of the developed algorithms shows a promising result as an automated and cost effective approach to estimating and delineated 3D information of urban trees. The research also proved that integrated datasets is a suitable technology and a viable source of information for city managers to be used in urban trees management.
Graham, Amanda L; Burke, Michael V; Jacobs, Megan A; Cha, Sarah; Croghan, Ivana T; Schroeder, Darrell R; Moriarty, James P; Borah, Bijan J; Rasmussen, Donna F; Brookover, M Jody; Suesse, Dale B; Midthun, David E; Hays, J Taylor
Delivering effective tobacco dependence treatment that is feasible within lung cancer screening (LCS) programs is crucial for realizing the health benefits and cost savings of screening. Large-scale trials and systematic reviews have demonstrated that digital cessation interventions (i.e. web-based and text message) are effective, sustainable over the long-term, scalable, and cost-efficient. Use of digital technologies is commonplace among older adults, making this a feasible approach within LCS programs. Use of cessation treatment has been improved with models that proactively connect smokers to treatment rather than passive referrals. Proactive referral to cessation treatment has been advanced through healthcare systems changes such as modifying the electronic health record to automatically link smokers to treatment. This study evaluates the impact of a proactive enrollment strategy that links LCS-eligible smokers with an evidence-based intervention comprised of a web-based (WEB) program and integrated text messaging (TXT) in a three-arm randomized trial with repeated measures at one, three, six, and 12 months post randomization. The primary outcome is biochemically confirmed abstinence at 12 months post randomization. We will randomize 1650 smokers who present for a clinical LCS to: (1) a usual care control condition (UC) which consists of Ask-Advise-Refer; (2) a digital (WEB + TXT) cessation intervention; or (3) a digital cessation intervention combined with tobacco treatment specialist (TTS) counseling (WEB + TXT + TTS). The scalability and sustainability of a digital intervention may represent the most cost-effective and feasible approach for LCS programs to proactively engage large numbers of smokers in effective cessation treatment. We will also evaluate the impact and cost-effectiveness of adding proven clinical intervention provided by a TTS. We expect that a combined digital/clinical intervention will yield higher quit rates than digital
Corey, Robert C.
In the last two decades, technology use has escalated and educators grapple with its advances and integration into the classroom. Issues surrounding what constitutes a literate society, the clarion calls for educational reform emanating from US presidents to parent teacher organizations, and educators' ability to cope with advances in technology…
Full Text Available Immigrant students face a multitude of problems, among which are poor social adaptation and school integration. On the other hand, although digital narrations are widely used in education, they are rarely used for aiding students or for the resolution of complex problems. This study exploits the potential of digital narrations towards this end, by examining how the development and presentation of an autobiographical digital narration can assist immigrant students in overcoming their adaptation difficulties. For that matter, a female student presenting substantial problems was selected as the study’s subject. Data was collected from all the participating parties (subject, teacher, classmates using a variety of tools, before, during, and after the intervention. It was found that through the digital narration she was able to externalize her thoughts and feelings and this, in turn, helped her in achieving a smoother integration in the school environment. In addition, the attitudes and perceptions of the other students for their foreign classmate were positively influenced. The intervention was short in duration and it did not require special settings. Hence, it can be easily applied and educators can consider using similar interventions. On the other hand, further research is recommended to establish the generalizability of the study’s findings.
In the past five years, there have been significant changes concerning the material and design properties of digital books, with an impact on children's enjoyment and learning from reading on screen. Despite the rapid advances in technology, research on children's digital books is disjointed. This is because of no consistent approach to the study…
van Cleeff, A.; Pieters, Wolter; Wieringa, Roelf J.; van Tiel, F.
Virtualization is one of the enabling technologies of cloud computing. It turns once dedicated physical computing resources such as servers into digital resources that can be provisioned on demand. Cloud computing thus tends to replace physical with digital security controls, and cloud security must
This essay develops a theory of "digital liminality" as a way to analyze the role of technology in the classroom and in students' lives. It is also a report on the English as a Second Language (ESL) classroom as a site of intercultural exchange between instructors and Muslim students. The role of digital media in higher education was a…
Tobagi, Fouad A.; Dalgic, Ismail; Pang, Joseph
The design and implementation of interface units for high speed Fiber Optic Local Area Networks and Broadband Integrated Services Digital Networks are discussed. During the last years, a number of network adapters that are designed to support high speed communications have emerged. This approach to the design of a high speed network interface unit was to implement package processing functions in hardware, using VLSI technology. The VLSI hardware implementation of a buffer management unit, which is required in such architectures, is described.
Full Text Available e-Learning systems increasingly support learning management and self-organized learning processes. Since the latter have been studied in the field of progressive education extensively, it is worthwhile to consider them for developing digital learning environments to support self-regulated learning processes. In this paper we aim at transforming one of the most prominent and sustainable approaches to self-organized learning, the “Dalton Plan” as proposed by Helen Parkhurst. Its assignment structure supports learners when managing their learning tasks, thus triggering self-organized acquisition of knowledge, and its feedback graphs enable transparent learning processes. Since e-learning environments have become common use, rather than creating another system, we propose a modular approach that can be used for extending existing e-learning environments. In order to design a respective component, we interviewed experts in self-organized e-learning. Their input facilitated integrating the Dalton Plan with existing features of e-learning environments. After representing each interview in concept maps, we were able to aggregate them for deriving e-learning requirements conform to the Dalton Plan instruments. In the course of implementing them, particular attention had to be paid to the asynchrony of interaction during runtime. Java Server Faces technology enable the Dalton Plan component to be migrated into existing web 2.0 e-learning platforms. The result was evaluated based on the acquired concept maps, as they also captured the transformation process of the Dalton Plan to e-learning features. The findings encourage embodying further progressive education approaches in this way, since the structured (concept mapping of the Dalton Plan to e-learning features turned out to be accurate. The experts were able to recognize the potential of the approach both in terms of structuring the knowledge acquisition process, and in terms of developing
Tirupathi, S.; McKenna, S. A.; Fleming, K.; Wambua, M.; Waweru, P.; Ondula, E.
Groundwater management has traditionally been observed as a study for long term policy measures to ensure that the water resource is sustainable. IBM Research, in association with the World Bank, extended this traditional analysis to include realtime groundwater management by building a context-aware, water rights management and permitting system. As part of this effort, one of the primary objectives was to develop a groundwater flow model that can help the policy makers with a visual overview of the current groundwater distribution. In addition, the system helps the policy makers simulate a range of scenarios and check the sustainability of the groundwater resource in a given region. The system also enables a license provider to check the effect of the introduction of a new well on the existing wells in the domain as well as the groundwater resource in general. This process simplifies how an engineer will determine if a new well should be approved. Distance to the nearest well neighbors and the maximum decreases in water levels of nearby wells are continually assessed and presented as evidence for an engineer to make the final judgment on approving the permit. The system also facilitates updated insights on the amount of groundwater left in an area and provides advice on how water fees should be structured to balance conservation and economic development goals. In this talk, we will discuss the concept of Digital Aquifer, the challenges in integrating modeling, technical and software aspects to develop a management system that helps policy makers and license providers with a robust decision making tool. We will concentrate on the groundwater model developed using the analytic element method that plays a very important role in the decision making aspects. Finally, the efficiency of this system and methodology is shown through a case study in Laguna Province, Philippines, which was done in collaboration with the National Water Resource Board, Philippines and World
Sun, Peizhen; Parvathaneni, Prasanna; Schilling, Kurt G.; Gao, Yurui; Janve, Vaibhav; Anderson, Adam; Landman, Bennett A.
This effort is a continuation of development of a digital brain atlas of the common squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus, a New World monkey with functional and microstructural organization of central nervous system similar to that of humans. Here, we present the integration of histology with multi-modal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) atlas constructed from the brain of an adult female squirrel monkey. The central concept of this work is to use block face photography to establish an intermediate common space in coordinate system which preserves the high resolution in-plane resolution of histology while enabling 3-D correspondence with MRI. In vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging (300 μm isotropic) and low resolution diffusion tensor imaging (600 um isotropic). Ex vivo MRI acquisitions include high resolution T2 structural imaging and high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (both 300 μm isotropic). Cortical regions were manually annotated on the co-registered volumes based on published histological sections in-plane. We describe mapping of histology and MRI based data of the common squirrel monkey and construction of a viewing tool that enable online viewing of these datasets. The previously descried atlas MRI is used for its deformation to provide accurate conformation to the MRI, thus adding information at the histological level to the MRI volume. This paper presents the mapping of single 2D image slice in block face as a proof of concept and this can be extended to map the atlas space in 3D coordinate system as part of the future work and can be loaded to an XNAT system for further use.
Full Text Available The objective of the article is to present key theoretical relationships between economic integration and FDI flows. The research method used is a comprehensive literature review. Most influential publications, including books, articles, working papers, etc. contributing to the subject were identified. The review consists of two essential parts: theory of FDI, and theoretical relationships between economic integration and FDI flows. Finally, the outlined publications were discussed and critiqued, including the empirical context, i.e. empirical verification of the presented links.
Full Text Available In this study; digital culture and digital library which have a vital connection with each other are examined together. The content of the research consists of the interaction of culture, information, digital culture, intellectual technologies, and digital library concepts. The study is an entry work to integrity of digital culture and digital library theories and aims to expand the symmetry. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the relation between the digital culture and digital library theories acting intersection of the subjects that are examined. Also the perspective of the study is based on examining the literature and analytical evaluation in both studies (digital culture and digital library. Within this context, the methodology of the study is essentially descriptive and has an attribute for the transmission and synthesis of distributed findings produced in the field of the research. According to the findings of the study results, digital culture is an inclusive term that describes the effects of intellectual technologies in the field of information and communication. Information becomes energy and the spectrum of the information is expanding in the vertical rise through the digital culture. In this context, the digital library appears as a new living space of a new environment. In essence, the digital library is information-oriented; has intellectual technology support and digital platform; is in a digital format; combines information resources and tools in relationship/communication/cooperation by connectedness, and also it is the dynamic face of the digital culture in time and space independence. Resolved with the study is that the digital libraries are active and effective in the formation of global knowing and/or mass wisdom in the process of digital culture.
Brown, Gail Laverne
The presence of a digital divide, computer and information technology integration effectiveness, and barriers to continued usage of computer and information technology were investigated. Thirty-four African American and Caucasian American students (17 males and 17 females) in grades 9--11 from 2 Georgia high school science classes were exposed to 30 hours of hands-on computer and information technology skills. The purpose of the exposure was to improve students' computer and information technology skills. Pre-study and post-study skills surveys, and structured interviews were used to compare race, gender, income, grade-level, and age differences with respect to computer usage. A paired t-test and McNemar test determined mean differences between student pre-study and post-study perceived skills levels. The results were consistent with findings of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (2000) that indicated the presence of a digital divide and digital inclusion. Caucasian American participants were found to have more at-home computer and Internet access than African American participants, indicating that there is a digital divide by ethnicity. Caucasian American females were found to have more computer and Internet access which was an indication of digital inclusion. Sophomores had more at-home computer access and Internet access than other levels indicating digital inclusion. Students receiving regular meals had more computer and Internet access than students receiving free/reduced meals. Older students had more computer and Internet access than younger students. African American males had been using computer and information technology the longest which is an indication of inclusion. The paired t-test and McNemar test revealed significant perceived student increases in all skills levels. Interviews did not reveal any barriers to continued usage of the computer and information technology skills.
It is widely accepted that the digital game-based learning approach has the advantage of stimulating students' learning motivation, but simply using digital games in the classroom does not guarantee satisfactory learning achievement, especially in the case of the absence of a teacher. Integrating appropriate learning strategies into a game can…
Achenbach, R; Aharrouche, M; Andrei, V; Åsman, B; Barnett, B M; Bauss, B; Bendel, M; Bohm, C; Booth, J R A; Bracinik, J; Brawn, I P; Charlton, D G; Childers, J T; Collins, N J; Curtis, C J; Davis, A O; Eckweiler, S; Eisenhandler, E F; Faulkner, P J W; Fleckner, J; Föhlisch, F; Gee, C N P; Gillman, A R; Goringer, C; Groll, M; Hadley, D R; Hanke, P; Hellman, S; Hidvegi, A; Hillier, S J; Johansen, M; Kluge, E E; Kühl, T; Landon, M; Lendermann, V; Lilley, J N; Mahboubi, K; Mahout, G; Meier, K; Middleton, R P; Moa, T; Morris, J D; Müller, F; Neusiedl, A; Ohm, C; Oltmann, B; Perera, V J O; Prieur, D P F; Qian, W; Rieke, S; Rühr, F; Sankey, D P C; Schäfer, U; Schmitt, K; Schultz-Coulon, H C; Silverstein, S; Sjölin, J; Staley, R J; Stamen, R; Stockton, M C; Tan, C L A; Tapprogge, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, P D; Watkins, P M; Watson, A; Weber, P; Wessels, M; Wildt, M
The ATLAS Level-1 calorimeter trigger is a hardware-based system with the goal of identifying high-pT objects and to measure total and missing ET in the ATLAS calorimeters within an overall latency of 2.5 microseconds. This trigger system is composed of the Preprocessor which digitises about 7200 analogue input channels and two digital processors to identify high-pT signatures and to calculate the energy sums. The digital part consists of multi-stage, pipelined custom-built modules. The high demands on connectivity between the initial analogue stage and digital part and between the custom-built modules are presented. Furthermore the techniques to establish timing regimes and verify connectivity and stable operation of these digital links will be described.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) is building high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) to support individual coastal States as part of the...
Full Text Available There is a strong body of literature that finds a direct connection between inward foreign direct investment and economic growth in the host country. At the same time, economic growth in the host country attracts additional Foreign Direct Investment (FDI. This bidirectional relationship can be supported by the IMF through its lending program to countries to assist in dealing with short-term shocks as well as managing more long-term structural issues. In fact, the IMF programs in theory should provide an indicator to potential investors that the country is committed to making a change and opening its economy, which are typical requirements under IMF conditions. IMF intervention should lead to a positive impact on inward FDI. This study examines the impact of IMF-support programs on inward FDI for a sample of Latin American and Caribbean Countries. The results from this study reveal that being on an IMF borrowing program has a negative impact on inward FDI in the second and third year. We argue that being on an IMF borrowing program does not provide inward FDI with the seal of approval that it requires in making an investment.
Vaccarini, Katiuscia; Lattemann, Christoph; Spigarelli, Francesca; Tavoletti, Ernesto
Countries vary in dimensions such as culture, language, business practices, policy-making, regulations, etc. Research shows that distances between countries concerning these dimensions affect foreign direct investment (FDI) flows. The higher the distances, the higher the difficulties for businesses, as managers’ decision-making is based on their perception of those distances. This paper analyzes the perception of distances between China and Germany by surveying Chinese managers who invested in Germany in the renewable energy (RE) sector, using Child et al.’s (2009) measure of psychic distance (PD) as a guide. The RE sector is young and highly dynamic, and the dimensions of PD are constantly changing. Mismatches in the perception of PD ex ante and ex post the decision to engage in FDI may lead to possible FDI failure. We use a five-company multiple case study to analyze if Chinese managers perceive distances in various dimensions, particularly regulation-based, and if there is a mismatch of perceptions between the pre-market and post-market entry period to investigate if managers’ perceptions change over time. Our findings lead to recommendations for practitioners and international business scholars, and policy making in the RE sector, by showing that operationalizing the PD construct should be complemented by dynamic analysis. - Highlights: • Chinese managers investing in Germany cope with distances on various dimensions • Decision-making is based on managers’ perception of those distances • This is particularly true for the RE sector and the relative regulation-based dimensions • “Prior experience” is a moderating variable and impacts managers’ perceptions. • Literature gap: perceptions vary over time and learning effects are detected.
Full Text Available This paper considers the robust fault detection and isolation (FDI problem for a class of nonlinear networked systems (NSs with randomly occurring quantisations (ROQs. After vector augmentation, Lyapunov function is introduced to ensure the asymptotically mean-square stability of fault detection system. By transforming the quantisation effects into sector-bounded parameter uncertainties, sufficient conditions ensuring the existence of fault detection filter are proposed, which can reduce the difference between output residuals and fault signals as small as possible under H∞ framework. Finally, an example linearized from a vehicle system is introduced to show the efficiency of the proposed fault detection filter.
", Pazli; Srikandi, Naomi Citra
Energy is one of the important main sources for the industrialization of country. However, some countries has limited natural resources. China that has energy security cooperates with Indonesia that has more energy and natural resources. Finally, The name of cooperation is Indonesia-China Energy Forum (ICEF). In 2002, theres 3 (tree) of Chinas company that operation in Indonesia, thats CNPC, CNOOC, and SINOPEC.This research describes about the interest of China in FDI coorporation about...
Full Text Available This paper investigates the impact that human capital, information and communication technology (ICT and foreign direct investment (FDI have on GDP. Crosssectional data from a set of 20 OECD and 24 non-OECD countries in 2007 are analysed employing data envelopment analysis (DEA and classification and regression tree (CART techniques. The paper illustrates that the level and quality of access to ICT infrastructures plays an important role in determining a country’s level of technical efficiency. The paper also indicates the presence of a catch-up process, led by technological innovation, on the part of emerging countries.
Full Text Available The purpose of the paper is to analyze the influence of foreign direct investment (FDI and financial development (qualitative and quantitative changes in the financial system and its components on the dynamics of economic growth in V4 countries. In modern conditions, the financial system is a transfer mechanism of the business cycle and therefore affects the structure and dynamics of foreign direct investment, and especially the efficiency of their assimilation. The subject of the survey is the financial development and the FDI flows impact on economic growth. Methodology. The survey is based on the evaluation of the equation, which is the Barro regression specification. This model helps to find out the impact of the volume and depth of financial system on the dynamics of economic growth. GDP growth per capita is used as an indicator of economic growth. The paper proposes modeling results for the group countries (Hungary, Poland, Slovak and Czech Republic. Static data have been used for the period from 1992 to 2016. Results. FDI has an important role in reforming and developing the national economies of the countries in Visegrad Group. However, today, there is a problem with the stability of FDI inflows and with the efficiency of their development, which negatively affects the dynamics of economic growth. An important factor is the insufficient level of national financial system development of the Visegrad countries. All countries of the group have bank-oriented financial systems that are heavily dependent on foreign capital. At the same time, governments pay particular attention to the stability of banking sectors and set high standards for their sustainability. This holds back the financial development of the national economies of the Visegrad Group. At the same time, regression models for all countries confirm the importance of financial development in economic growth. The most important for V4 countries is to increase the size of the
Stoustrup, Jakob; Yang, Zhenyu
From the system recoverable point of view, this paper discusses robust reconfigurable control synthesis for LTI systems and a class of nonlinear control systems with parametric and additive faults as well as derivations generated by FDI algorithms. By following the model-matching strategy......, an augmented optimal control problem is constructed based on the considered faulty and fictitious nominal systems, such that the robust control design techniques, such as H-infinity control and mu synthesis, can be employed for the reconfigurable control design....
A new device, a selective digital integrator (SDI), for the acquisition of modulated polarization spectroscopy (MPS) signals is described. Special attention is given to the accurate measurement of very small (AC component of interest 50 kHz) signals at or below noise levels. Various data acquisition methods and problems associated with the collection of modulated signals are discussed. The SDI solves most of these problems and has the following advantages: it provides the average-time resolved profile of a modulated signal; it eliminates errors if the modulation is not sinusoidal; it enables separate measurements of the various phases of the signal modulation cycle; it permits simultaneous measurement of absorption, circular dichroism (CD) and linear dichroism (LD) spectra; it facilitates 3-D absorbance measurements; it has a wide gain-switching-free dynamic range (10 orders of magnitude or more); it offers a constant S/N ratio mode of operation; it eliminates the need for photomultiplier voltage feedback, and it has faster scanning speeds. The time-resolution, selectivity, wide dynamic range, and low-overhead on-the-fly data processing are useful for other modulated spectroscopy (MS) and non-MS experiments such as pulse height distribution and time-resolved pulse counting measurements. The advantages of the MPS-SDI method are tested on the first Rydberg electronic transitions of (+)-3- methylcyclopentanone. The experimental results validate the predicted SDI capabilities. However, they also point to two difficulties that had not been noted previously: the presence of LD in a gaseous sample and a pressure- dependence of the relative peak heights of the CD spectrum. Models for these anomalies are proposed. The presence of the oscillatory LD (but not an LD background) is explained with a sample cell model based on the observed polarization-dependent time-resolved profiles of transmitted light intensity. To obtain expressions for these intensities, a theoretical
Kornhaber, Rachel; Betihavas, Vasiliki; Baber, Rodney J
Digital photography has simplified the process of capturing and utilizing medical images. The process of taking high-quality digital photographs has been recognized as efficient, timely, and cost-effective. In particular, the evolution of smartphone and comparable technologies has become a vital component in teaching and learning of health care professionals. However, ethical standards in relation to digital photography for teaching and learning have not always been of the highest standard. The inappropriate utilization of digital images within the health care setting has the capacity to compromise patient confidentiality and increase the risk of litigation. Therefore, the aim of this review was to investigate the literature concerning the ethical implications for health professionals utilizing digital photography for teaching and learning. A literature search was conducted utilizing five electronic databases, PubMed, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, and Scopus, limited to English language. Studies that endeavored to evaluate the ethical implications of digital photography for teaching and learning purposes in the health care setting were included. The search strategy identified 514 papers of which nine were retrieved for full review. Four papers were excluded based on the inclusion criteria, leaving five papers for final analysis. Three key themes were developed: knowledge deficit, consent and beyond, and standards driving scope of practice. The assimilation of evidence in this review suggests that there is value for health professionals utilizing digital photography for teaching purposes in health education. However, there is limited understanding of the process of obtaining and storage and use of such mediums for teaching purposes. Disparity was also highlighted related to policy and guideline identification and development in clinical practice. Therefore, the
Different Remote Sensing technologies, including photogrammetry and LIDAR, allow collecting 3D dataset that can be used to create 3D digital representations of outcrop surfaces, called Digital Outcrop Models (DOM), or sometimes Virtual Outcrop Models (VOM). Irrespective of the Remote Sensing technique used, DOMs can be represented either by photorealistic point clouds (PC-DOM) or textured surfaces (TS-DOM). The first are datasets composed of millions of points with XYZ coordinates and RGB colour, whilst the latter are triangulated surfaces onto which images of the outcrop have been mapped or "textured" (applying a tech-nology originally developed for movies and videogames). Here we present a workflow that allows exploiting in an integrated and efficient, yet flexible way, both kinds of dataset: PC-DOMs and TS-DOMs. The workflow is composed of three main steps: (1) data collection and processing, (2) interpretation, and (3) modelling. Data collection can be performed with photogrammetry, LIDAR, or other techniques. The quality of photogrammetric datasets obtained with Structure From Motion (SFM) techniques has shown a tremendous improvement over the past few years, and this is becoming the more effective way to collect DOM datasets. The main advantages of photogrammetry over LIDAR are represented by the very simple and lightweight field equipment (a digital camera), and by the arbitrary spatial resolution, that can be increased simply getting closer to the out-crop or by using a different lens. It must be noted that concerns about the precision of close-range photogrammetric surveys, that were justified in the past, are no more a problem if modern software and acquisition schemas are applied. In any case, LIDAR is a well-tested technology and it is still very common. Irrespective of the data collection technology, the output will be a photorealistic point cloud and a collection of oriented photos, plus additional imagery in special projects (e.g. infrared images
Tsukuda, Masahiko; Wiederkehr, Rodrigo Sergio; Cai, Qing; Majeed, Bivragh; Fiorini, Paolo; Stakenborg, Tim; Matsuno, Toshinobu
A silicon microfluidic chip was developed for microRNA (miRNA) quantitative analysis. It performs sequentially reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction in a digital droplet format. Individual processes take place on different cavities, and reagent and sample mixing is carried out on a chip, prior to entering each compartment. The droplets are generated on a T-junction channel before the polymerase chain reaction step. Also, a miniaturized fluorescence detector was developed, based on an optical pick-up head of digital versatile disc (DVD) and a micro-photomultiplier tube. The chip integrated in the detection system was tested using synthetic miRNA with known concentrations, ranging from 300 to 3,000 templates/µL. Results proved the functionality of the system.
Full Text Available With reference to the case studies of Shanghai, Suzhou, and Wuxi, in the Yangtze Delta, China, this paper demonstrates the local possibilities and various development paths for developing an indigenous semiconductor industry, using the government support within foreign direct investment (FDI-dominated clusters for the New Industrializing Countries (NICs. Two important policy lessons are identified. The first is that the government may attract FDI and develop high-tech clustering by using policy support, but it does not necessarily provide conducive and positive influences on the sustainable development of domestic semiconductors. The second lesson is that the sustainability of the domestic semiconductor industry in the FDI cluster may start from three connected elements: (1 a pragmatic goal of government support; (2 complementarities of the domestic semiconductors with international leading firms in the market, technology and equipment linkages; and (3 a sustainable capacity of technical learning to drive local developments.
Fischer, Karl Peter
Digital Signage for in-store advertising at gas stations/retail stores in Germany: A field study Digital Signage networks provide a novel means of advertising with the advantage of easily changeable and highly customizable animated content. Despite the potential and increasing use of these media empirical research is scarce. In a field study at 8 gas stations (with integrated convenience stores) we studied the effect of digital signage advertising on sales for different products and servi...
Full Text Available Rachel Kornhaber,1–3 Vasiliki Betihavas,4 Rodney J Baber,5 1School of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health, University of Tasmania, Rozelle, NSW, 2School of Nursing, The University of Adelaide, Adelaide, SA, 3Severe Burns Injury Unit, Royal North Shore Hospital, St Leonards, NSW, 4School of Nursing, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, 5Discipline of Obstetrics, Gynaecology and Neonatology, Sydney Medical School, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Digital photography has simplified the process of capturing and utilizing medical images. The process of taking high-quality digital photographs has been recognized as efficient, timely, and cost-effective. In particular, the evolution of smartphone and comparable technologies has become a vital component in teaching and learning of health care professionals. However, ethical standards in relation to digital photography for teaching and learning have not always been of the highest standard. The inappropriate utilization of digital images within the health care setting has the capacity to compromise patient confidentiality and increase the risk of litigation. Therefore, the aim of this review was to investigate the literature concerning the ethical implications for health professionals utilizing digital photography for teaching and learning. Methods: A literature search was conducted utilizing five electronic databases, PubMed, Embase (Excerpta Medica Database, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Educational Resources Information Center, and Scopus, limited to English language. Studies that endeavored to evaluate the ethical implications of digital photography for teaching and learning purposes in the health care setting were included. Results: The search strategy identified 514 papers of which nine were retrieved for full review. Four papers were excluded based on the inclusion criteria, leaving five papers for final analysis. Three key themes were developed
Full Text Available China is top FDI destination for Korean Textile firms. This paper, using survey data for 41 Korean textile firms invested in China, measured their performance and analysed its determinants. Regression results show that localization of the business management, level of wages, the investment-to-employee ratio, ratio of raw materials sourced from Korea, and export ratio of the parent company have positive relations with the firm's performance. On the contrary, domestic sales (i.e. sales within China ratio is not significantly related with the performance. This survey also reveals some difficulties which Korean-invested textile firms in China usually face in the operation stages of investment. The biggest trouble is the rapid rise of production cost, and many firms feel growing competition from local competitors and have difficulties with entering local market. They also suffer from lack of skilled workers and high ratio of labor turnover. Besides, they have trouble financing operation funds in China. Meanwhile, according to the survey result, the ratio of local procurement of raw materials continues to rise rapidly, being expected to amount 77 percent within the next few years. This indicates that the export induction effect of FDI would be in a sharp decline, possibly resulting in enlargement of Korean textile industry's trade deficit with China.
Park, S. H.; Kim, D. H.; Cho, S. W.
As one of the processes for a localized severe accident analysis code, KAERI is developing a severe accident code MIDAS. The MIDAS code is being developed based on MELCOR. The existing data saving method of MELCOR uses pointer variables for a fix-sized storage management, and it deteriorates the readability, maintainability and portability of the code. As a most important process for a localized severe accident analysis code, it is needed convenient method for data handling. So, it has been used the new features in FORTRAN90 such as a dynamic allocation for the restructuring. The restructuring of the data saving and transferring method of the existing code makes it easy to understand the code. Before an entire restructuring of the code, a restructuring template for a simple package was developed and tested. The target for the restructuring in this paper was the CAV and FDI packages. The CAV(cavity) package is responsible for modeling the attack on the basement concrete by hot core materials. The FDI(Fuel Dispersal Interactions) package is responsible for modeling both low and high pressure molten fuel ejection from the RPV into the reactor cavity, control volumes and surfaces. The verification was done through comparing the results before and after the restructuring
Gutman, David A; Cobb, Jake; Somanna, Dhananjaya; Park, Yuna; Wang, Fusheng; Kurc, Tahsin; Saltz, Joel H; Brat, Daniel J; Cooper, Lee A D
Background The integration and visualization of multimodal datasets is a common challenge in biomedical informatics. Several recent studies of The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) data have illustrated important relationships between morphology observed in whole-slide images, outcome, and genetic events. The pairing of genomics and rich clinical descriptions with whole-slide imaging provided by TCGA presents a unique opportunity to perform these correlative studies. However, better tools are needed to integrate the vast and disparate data types. Objective To build an integrated web-based platform supporting whole-slide pathology image visualization and data integration. Materials and methods All images and genomic data were directly obtained from the TCGA and National Cancer Institute (NCI) websites. Results The Cancer Digital Slide Archive (CDSA) produced is accessible to the public (http://cancer.digitalslidearchive.net) and currently hosts more than 20 000 whole-slide images from 22 cancer types. Discussion The capabilities of CDSA are demonstrated using TCGA datasets to integrate pathology imaging with associated clinical, genomic and MRI measurements in glioblastomas and can be extended to other tumor types. CDSA also allows URL-based sharing of whole-slide images, and has preliminary support for directly sharing regions of interest and other annotations. Images can also be selected on the basis of other metadata, such as mutational profile, patient age, and other relevant characteristics. Conclusions With the increasing availability of whole-slide scanners, analysis of digitized pathology images will become increasingly important in linking morphologic observations with genomic and clinical endpoints. PMID:23893318
Eggen, J.H.; Aarts, E.H.L.; Ernst, xx
What will the digital future look like? If we would ask technologists, we probably would get different answers than the responses 'ordinary' people would give us. In this paper, we explore viewpoints from both sides. First, we present the Philips Ambient Intelligence vision on the future of
What's keeping your school behind the technology curve? Is it a fear of the unfamiliar? Expenses? Or some other myth? Have you considered how students with special needs or students learning a second language may benefit from using digital tools? If you've fallen for the perception that technology is too expensive, unnecessary for real learning,…
Woodard, Rebecca; Machado, Emily
Using ethnographic methods, this article looks closely at how a team of first-grade teachers and digital media artists in an urban elementary school used video in innovative ways during professional development over the course of one year. Extending a body of literature that primarily documents how video can be used as a tool in professional…
Gelineck, Steven; Serafin, Stefania
This paper explores a longitudinal approach to the qualitative evaluation of a set of digital musical instruments, which were developed with a focus on creativity and exploration. The instruments were lent to three electronic musicians/composers for a duration of four weeks. Free exploration...
Spiller, Lisa; Tuten, Tracy
Modern digital and social media formats have revolutionized marketing measurement, producing an abundance of data, meaningful metrics, new tools, and methodologies. This increased emphasis on metrics in the marketing industry signifies the need for increased quantitative and critical thinking content in our marketing coursework if we are to…
Kovářík, Jaromír; Brañas-Garza, P.; Davidson, M. W.; Haim, D. A.; Carcelli, S.; Fowler, J. H.
Roč. 5, č. 4 (2017), s. 476-489 ISSN 2050-1242 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA14-22044S Institutional support: RVO:67985998 Keywords : social networks * digit ratio * prenatal and rogens Subject RIV: AH - Economics OBOR OECD: Applied Economics, Econometrics
Full Text Available The Investment Canada Act (ICA needs an overhaul. This reform must include a paradigm shift in thinking to a much less restrictive view about the benefits of foreign direct investment in Canada. Currently, the ICA operates under the presumption that foreign firms behave detrimentally to the Canadian economy: foreign acquirers are required to show “net benefit” to Canada and may need to make onerous commitments for maintaining output or employment. This attitude, a holdover from the ICA’s predecessor, the Foreign Investment Review Agency, has created an atmosphere which fosters protectionism and relies on economically incoherent factors to assess the merit of proposed transactions. It is time to shed that archaic attitude and adopt a more reasoned perspective. Rather than requiring each proposed transaction to provide proof for the specific benefit to Canada, the ICA should assume that foreign acquisitions benefit Canada unless there is proof to the contrary. A more welcoming, balanced and rational perspective would be that foreign acquisitions actually improve the productivity of Canadian companies and contribute to the wellbeing of Canada’s economy. The ICA is flawed in other ways, too. Some reviews of proposed transactions have become unnecessarily fraught with politics. Think of the recent politically enmeshed fretting over the bid that the state-owned Chinese Offshore National Company made for Nexen Energy, or Malaysia’s state-owned Petronas’ bid for Progress Energy Resources Corp. Indeed, there has been a very real fear of traditionally Canadian-owned institutions losing their Canadian essence to foreign ownership. Then, too, there is the federal government’s built-in ability to impose onerous conditions, or undertakings, on foreign acquirers. All this is clearly a deterrent to potentially beneficial foreign investment in Canada. Canada needs a new regime without nationalism, protectionism and politics. Ideally, this new regime would require decisions based on economically-grounded criteria, with the onus placed on the federal government to prove that a given transaction would be detrimental to the domestic economy. This would shift the government’s role from its current one, in which the minister of innovation, science and economic development approves a proposal deemed to be beneficial to Canada, and has broad powers to withhold federal approval. This leaves the rejected foreign acquirer with no impartial avenue of appeal, such as a specialized tribunal. The reforms to the ICA should also include establishing a specialized tribunal where foreign acquirers can challenge negative decisions, just as the Competition Act provides a means for challenging antitrust aspects of mergers and acquisitions more broadly. There is extensive empirical evidence demonstrating that foreign investment is beneficial to Canada because it results in improvements in productivity and competitiveness. As well, foreign-controlled firms in Canada pay higher wages, make large investments in R&D, innovation and skilled labour, experience fewer layoffs during economic downturns, and impart their technologies to domestic firms, among other benefits. Indeed, from 1980 to 1999, 2/3 of Canada’s manufacturing sector labour productivity growth came from foreign-controlled companies, even though they comprised only 40 per cent of that sector’s employment. Not only could the Competition Act with its tribunal model serve as a framework for these much-needed reforms to the ICA, but, as well, reform of the ICA should similarly entrench the promotion of competition, economic efficiency and domestic welfare as its core objectives. That translates to not treating foreign investment as an end in itself, but as a means to promote economic efficiency through competition in both markets for products and corporate control.
Full Text Available ABSTRACT It is well-known that conducting experimental research aiming the characterization of canopy structure of forests can be a difficult and costly task and, generally, requires an expert to extract, in loco, relevant information. Aiming at easing studies related to canopy structures, several techniques have been proposed in the literature and, among them, various are based on canopy digital image analysis. The research work described in this paper empirically compares two techniques that measure the integrity of the canopy structure of a forest fragment; one of them is based on central parts of canopy cover images and, the other, on canopy closure images. For the experiments, 22 central parts of canopy cover images and 22 canopy closure images were used. The images were captured along two transects: T1 (located in the conserved area and T2 (located in the naturally disturbance area. The canopy digital images were computationally processed and analyzed using the MATLAB platform for the canopy cover images and the Gap Light Analyzer (GLA, for the canopy closure images. The results obtained using these two techniques showed that canopy cover images and, among the employed algorithms, the Jseg, characterize the canopy integrity best. It is worth mentioning that part of the analysis can be automatically conducted, as a quick and precise process, with low material costs involved.
Baze, M.P.; Bartholet, W.G.; Braatz, J.C.; Dao, T.A.
An approach has been developed for the design and utilization of SEU test structures for digital CMOS ASICs. This approach minimizes the number of test structures required by categorizing ASIC library cells according to their SEU response and designing a structure to characterize each response for each category. Critical SEU response parameters extracted from these structures are used to evaluate the SEU hardness of ASIC libraries and predict the hardness of ASIC chips
Villoutreix, Paul; Delile, Julien; Rizzi, Barbara; Duloquin, Louise; Savy, Thierry; Bourgine, Paul; Doursat, Ren?; Peyri?ras, Nadine
We conducted a quantitative comparison of developing sea urchin embryos based on the analysis of five digital specimens obtained by automatic processing of in toto 3D+ time image data. These measurements served the reconstruction of a prototypical cell lineage tree able to predict the spatiotemporal cellular organisation of a normal sea urchin blastula. The reconstruction was achieved by designing and tuning a multi-level probabilistic model that reproduced embryo-level dynamics from a small ...
Kovářík, Jaromír; Branas-Garza, Pablo; Davidson, Michael W.; Haim, Dotan A.; Carcelli, Shannon; Fowler, James H.
The position people occupy in their social and professional networks is related to their social status and has strong effects on their access to social resources. While attainment of particular positions is driven by behavioral traits, many biological factors predispose individuals to certain behaviors and motivations. Prior work on exposure to fetal androgens (measured by second-to-fourth digit ratio, 2D:4D) shows that it correlates with behaviors and traits related to social status, which m...
Oziengbe Scott Aigheyisi
Full Text Available The objective of the paper is to investigate whether stock market development plays any role in the effect of foreign direct investment (FDI on economic growth in Nigeria. Using annual time series data that span the period from 1981 to 2014, and employing the fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS estimation technique, the empirical evidence indicates that FDI, domestic investment and stock market development positively and significantly affect economic growth, but the effect of the interaction between stock market development and FDI on economic growth is negative and significant, indicating that the Nigerian bourse is not yet fully developed to engender positive growth effect of FDI. The study further finds that government consumption expenditure and trade openness adversely affect the growth of the country’s real GDP per capita. Recommendations of the paper include efforts by the government to design and implement programmes and policies aimed at enhancing the attractiveness of the country to foreign and local investors, efforts by capital market regulators to enhance stock market efficiency, reduction of government consumption expenditures and import control.
Sørensen, Diana Ransgaard; Bogers, Toine; Larsen, Birger
Integrated search is defined as searching across different document types and representations simultaneously, with the goal of presenting the user with a single ranked result list containing the optimal mix of document types. In this paper, we compare various approaches to integrating three diffe...
Bandick, Roger; Hansson, Pär
We observe a substantial increase in foreign ownership in Sweden in the 1990s. Did that have any effect on relative demand for skilled labor? Has technology transfers-often associated with inward FDI-led to an increased demand for skills due to skilled-biased technical change? Are there any grounds...... for the concerns in the public Swedish debate that more skilled activities have been moved to other countries where the headquarters are located? Estimating relative labor demand at the firm level and using propensity score matching with difference-in-difference estimation, we obtain support for that relative...... demand for skilled labor tend to rise in non-multinationals (non-MNEs)-but not in multinationals (MNEs)-that become foreign-owned. Other interesting findings are that larger presence of foreign MNEs in an industry appears to have a positive impact on the relative demand for skills in Swedish MNEs within...
Full Text Available Foreign direct investment (FDI could be a significant source for performance improvements of a company because aside capital, they bring knowledge, skills, technologies, as well as contacts and customers which they had in the home country. Foreign investors are motivated by realization of longterm increasing profits through a company in which they invest. Since profit depends on revenue and costs, the motives of investors can be looked for in increasing revenue (market expansion, in reducing costs (lower cost of resources, or in the simultaneous effect on revenue and costs through increased efficiency. This paper analyzes six Southeast European countries (SEE-6 as well as the EU-27 with the aim of assessing the attractiveness of destination. Using the PROMETHEE (Preference Ranking Organization Method for Enrichment Evaluations multi-criteria decision making method, authors show advantages and disadvantages of each country, creating the basis for the creation and redefinition of macroeconomic policies to address them.
Full Text Available During the last two decades, Romanian economy suffered numerous changes, with direct impact in the socio-economic and political life. This affected also the investment environment, the degree of attractiveness for investors and the flow of FDIs. As the economic system has a global dimension, the need of evaluating different countries from a risk perspective (that will serve as starting point for investor’s decision has increased the role of rating agencies, especially in the economic crisis context. Therefore, by applying two econometric models, we will determine in which degree the risk rating (using the Euromoney index is influencing the FDI flow in Romania, having as evidence the period 1996-2012.
Full Text Available In December 2012, after Ottawa approved the takeover of Canada’s Nexen by the state-owned Chinese oil giant, CNOOC Ltd., Prime Minister Stephen Harper offered an explanation to clarify the government’s evolving position on takeovers from foreign state-owned enterprises. But rather than clarifying, the government succeeded instead in adding further ambiguity to an already opaque approvals process. Such takeovers would face “strengthened scrutiny” over the extent and nature of the foreign government’s corporate control, he said, and would only be permitted in “exceptional circumstance.” In other words, an approvals process already contingent on subjective judgment — thanks to the lack of transparency inherent in the pivotal “net-benefits test,” and the onus it puts on the bidder to prove itself a worthy buyer — would now involve even more layers of subjective judgment. This is particularly ironic given that, as Canada’s foreign-investment rules become cloudier and more prone to government interference, in China itself, regimes governing foreign direct investment (FDI and state-owned enterprises are becoming increasingly transparent and market-oriented. The government’s enhanced stringency may be a response to popular fears that China is “buying up” Canadian assets. Such fears are, for the time being at least, overblown: China’s global outward FDI stocks are still lower than Canada’s, and a fraction of those held by the U.S., the U.K. and Germany — although China will undoubtedly continue to expand its foreign investment portfolio. But China’s investment strategies are little different these days than those of western investors: China’s government has planned to reduce its role in commercial decision-making, and seems more comfortable with allowing both nationalized and (increasingly private businesses to pursue growth based on maximizing shareholder value, rather than enhancing national security. Moreover
Full Text Available This paper aims to investigate the causal relationship between foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings in Bangladesh over a period of 1985-2007. In doing so, Johansen cointegration technique and error correction methods are employed to examine the long run and short run relationship between foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings. To determine the direction of causality, we used innovation accounting approach. Results suggest that there exist bi-directional causal relationship between foreign direct investment and gross domestic savings but the movement is stronger from domestic savings to foreign direct investment. The result also implies complimentary relationship between them and as such, policy makers in Bangladesh need to focus on the determinants of both FDI and domestic savings in order to accelerate its growth.
M. A. Dogon-Yaro
Full Text Available Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.
Dogon-Yaro, M. A.; Kumar, P.; Rahman, A. Abdul; Buyuksalih, G.
Mapping of trees plays an important role in modern urban spatial data management, as many benefits and applications inherit from this detailed up-to-date data sources. Timely and accurate acquisition of information on the condition of urban trees serves as a tool for decision makers to better appreciate urban ecosystems and their numerous values which are critical to building up strategies for sustainable development. The conventional techniques used for extracting trees include ground surveying and interpretation of the aerial photography. However, these techniques are associated with some constraints, such as labour intensive field work and a lot of financial requirement which can be overcome by means of integrated LiDAR and digital image datasets. Compared to predominant studies on trees extraction mainly in purely forested areas, this study concentrates on urban areas, which have a high structural complexity with a multitude of different objects. This paper presented a workflow about semi-automated approach for extracting urban trees from integrated processing of airborne based LiDAR point cloud and multispectral digital image datasets over Istanbul city of Turkey. The paper reveals that the integrated datasets is a suitable technology and viable source of information for urban trees management. As a conclusion, therefore, the extracted information provides a snapshot about location, composition and extent of trees in the study area useful to city planners and other decision makers in order to understand how much canopy cover exists, identify new planting, removal, or reforestation opportunities and what locations have the greatest need or potential to maximize benefits of return on investment. It can also help track trends or changes to the urban trees over time and inform future management decisions.
Luo, Yan; Ho, Tsung-Yi
This book describes a comprehensive framework for hardware/software co-design, optimization, and use of robust, low-cost, and cyberphysical digital microfluidic systems. Readers with a background in electronic design automation will find this book to be a valuable reference for leveraging conventional VLSI CAD techniques for emerging technologies, e.g., biochips or bioMEMS. Readers from the circuit/system design community will benefit from methods presented to extend design and testing techniques from microelectronics to mixed-technology microsystems. For readers from the microfluidics domain,
Isobe, Yuji; Nakamura, Shingo
Development of a new nuclear instrumentation (NI) system has been done. The new system is suitable for the digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. Higher reliability and lower development costs have been achieved by applying good performance circuits with sufficient experience of the conventional NI system. Human-system interface (HSI) and maintainability have been improved comparing with the conventional NI system because of the partial digitalisation. The new NI system has been manufactured and validated. We are finally verifying the total performance now
Isobe, Yuji [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Tokyo (Japan); Nakamura, Shingo [Mitsubishi, Electric Corporation, Tokyo (Japan)
Development of a new nuclear instrumentation (NI) system has been done. The new system is suitable for the digital instrumentation and control (I and C) systems. Higher reliability and lower development costs have been achieved by applying good performance circuits with sufficient experience of the conventional NI system. Human-system interface (HSI) and maintainability have been improved comparing with the conventional NI system because of the partial digitalisation. The new NI system has been manufactured and validated. We are finally verifying the total performance now.
Yoo, Jun Beom; Kim, Eui Sub; Lee, Dong Ah; Choi, Jong Gyun
NuDE 2.0 (Nuclear Development Environment) is a model-based software development environment for safety- critical digital systems in nuclear power plants. It makes possible to develop PLC-based systems as well as FPGA-based systems simultaneously from the same requirement or design specifications. The case study showed that the NuDE 2.0 can be adopted as an effective method of bridging the gap between the existing PLC and upcoming FPGA-based developments as well as a means of gaining diversity
Yoo, Jun Beom; Kim, Eui Sub; Lee, Dong Ah [Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Gyun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
NuDE 2.0 (Nuclear Development Environment) is a model-based software development environment for safety- critical digital systems in nuclear power plants. It makes possible to develop PLC-based systems as well as FPGA-based systems simultaneously from the same requirement or design specifications. The case study showed that the NuDE 2.0 can be adopted as an effective method of bridging the gap between the existing PLC and upcoming FPGA-based developments as well as a means of gaining diversity.
Moniem, Tamer A.; El-Din, Eman S.
A novel design of all optical 3 bit digital to analog (DAC) converter will be presented in this paper based on 2 Dimension photonic crystals (PhC). The proposed structure is based on the photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRR) with combining the nonlinear Kerr effect on the PCRR. The total size of the proposed optical 3 bit DAC is equal to 44 μm × 37 μm of 2D square lattice photonic crystals of silicon rods with refractive index equal to 3.4. The finite different time domain (FDTD) and Plane Wave Expansion (PWE) methods are used to back the overall operation of the proposed optical DAC.
Norman, Thomas L
Integrated Security Systems Design, 2nd Edition, is recognized as the industry-leading book on the subject of security systems design. It explains how to design a fully integrated security system that ties together numerous subsystems into one complete, highly coordinated, and highly functional system. With a flexible and scalable enterprise-level system, security decision makers can make better informed decisions when incidents occur and improve their operational efficiencies in ways never before possible. The revised edition covers why designing an integrated security system is essential a
This paper reviews the evolution of the economic and political relationship between the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Member States and Japan since the 1970s, from the perspectives of trade in goods and services, foreign direct investment (FDI) and international labour movements. ASEAN economic integration is likely to yield mutual benefits for both ASEAN Member States and Japan. The larger ASEAN market will not only attract new Japanese FDI but also encourage Japanese multin...
Full Text Available The Borobudur temple (Indonesia is one of the greatest Buddhist monuments in the world, now listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site. The present state of the temple is the result of restorations after being exposed to natural disasters several times. Today there is still a growing rate of deterioration of the building stones whose causes need further researches. Monitoring programs, supported at institutional level, have been effectively executed to observe the problem. The paper presents the latest efforts to digitally document the Borobudur Temple and its surrounding area in 3D with photogrammetric techniques. UAV and terrestrial images were acquired to completely digitize the temple, produce DEM, orthoimages and maps at 1:100 and 1:1000 scale. The results of the project are now employed by the local government organizations to manage the heritage area and plan new policies for the conservation and preservation of the UNESCO site. In order to help data management and policy makers, a web-based information system of the heritage area was also built to visualize and easily access all the data and achieved 3D results.
Agustin, R. R.; Liliasari; Sinaga, P.; Rochintaniawati, D.
The use of technology into science learning encounters problems. One of the problem is teachers’ less technological pedagogical and content knowledge (TPACK) on the implementation of technology itself. The purpose of this study was to investigate science teachers’ experience in using digital technology into science classroom. Through this study science teachers’ technological knowledge (TK) and technological content knowledge (TCK) can be unpacked. Descriptive method was used to depict science teachers’ TK and TCK through questionnaire that consisted of 20 questions. Subjects of this study were 25 science teachers in Bandung, Indonesia. The study was conducted in the context of teacher professional training. Result shows that science teachers still have less TK, yet they have high TCK. The teachers consider characteristics of concepts as main aspect for implementing technology into science teaching. This finding describes teachers’ high technological content knowledge. Meanwhile, science teachers’ technological knowledge was found to be still low since only few of them who can exemplify digital technology that can be implemented into several science concept. Therefore, training about technology implementation into science teaching and learning is necessary as a means to improve teachers’ technological knowledge.
Hanna, Amir; Hussain, Aftab M.; Omran, Hesham; Alshareef, Sarah; Salama, Khaled N.; Hussain, Muhammad Mustafa
High performance thin film transistor (TFT) can be a great driving force for display, sensor/actuator, integrated electronics, and distributed computation for Internet of Everything applications. While semiconducting oxides like zinc oxide (Zn
Fusaeda, Shigeki; Yanagisawa, Ichiro; Imamura, Naoko
In this study, a design study on 'Digital Geological Disposal System' has been carried out in order to define the developmental goal for the first phase (- FY2002) system and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system development. The key conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) As the result of the basic design of the Integrated Analysis Platform (IAP), the representation method for PLAN (Process Linkage Analysis Network), the PLAN objects configuration and definition and the execution control mechanism of PLAN are newly proposed in order to enhance the flexibility of IAP. (2) A prototyping study concerning an optimization problem that includes cavity stability analysis and thermal analysis, showed that the design of IAP is practical one and also has enough flexibility to solve complex problems expected in the repository design processes. (3) The development plan for the Digital Geological Disposal System' has been investigated based on the discussions about the system usage by the potential users such as the regulators, the implementation body and the research institutes, as well as the technical discussions. As a result, short-term (for the first phase) and long-term development plans have been proposed. (author)
Fusaeda, Shigeki; Yanagisawa, Ichiro; Imamura, Naoko
In this study, a design study on 'Digital Geological Disposal System' has been carried out in order to define the developmental goal for the first phase (-FY2002) system and to demonstrate the feasibility of the system development. The key conclusions are summarized as follows: (1) As the result of the basic design of the Integrated Analysis Platform (IAP), the representation method for the procedure of analysis that is called analysis network, the configuration of the object that makes up the analysis network, and the execution control mechanism of the analysis network are newly proposed in order to enhance the flexibility of IAP. (2) A prototyping study concerning an optimization problem that includes cavity stability analysis and thermal analysis, showed that the design of IAP is practical one and also has enough flexibility to solve complex problems expected in the repository design processes. (3) The development plan for the 'Digital Geological Disposal System' has been investigated based on the discussions about the system usage by the potential users such as the regulators, the implementation body and the research institutes, as well as the technical discussions. As a result, short-term (for the first phase) and long-term development plans have been proposed. (author)
Gao, Qin; Yu, Wenzhu; Jiang, Xiang; Song, Fei; Pan, Jiajie; Li, Zhizhong
Computer-based procedures (CBPs) are expected to improve operator performance in nuclear power plants (NPPs), but they may reduce the openness of interaction between team members and harm teamwork consequently. To support teamwork in the main control room of an NPP, this study proposed a team-level integrated CBP that presents team members' operation status and execution histories to one another. Through a laboratory experiment, we compared the new integrated design and the existing individual CBP design. Sixty participants, randomly divided into twenty teams of three people each, were assigned to the two conditions to perform simulated emergency operating procedures. The results showed that compared with the existing CBP design, the integrated CBP reduced the effort of team communication and improved team transparency. The results suggest that this novel design is effective to optim team process, but its impact on the behavioural outcomes may be moderated by more factors, such as task duration. The study proposed and evaluated a team-level integrated computer-based procedure, which present team members' operation status and execution history to one another. The experimental results show that compared with the traditional procedure design, the integrated design reduces the effort of team communication and improves team transparency.
He, Yejun; Liu, Deming; Zhu, Guangxi; Jiang, Tao; Sun, Gongxian
As video on demand (VOD) services are deployed, cable operators will experience a fundamental shift in their business, moving from broadcast to unicast content delivery. Another significant change is the introduction of Gigabit Ethernet into their network, which is providing an unprecedented opportunity to turn the cable operator's infrastructure into a sustainable competitive advantage. However, Gigabit Ethernet is more than just transport; it's the foundation of the Next-Generation Digital Video Network. IPQAM modulator, which is a main equipment, aren't made in China so far. It is the first time that we did design IPQAM modulator and will apply it to interactive TV based on DWDM (dense wavelength-division multiplexing). This paper introduces the principle of IPQAM modulator and transmission approach. The differences between IPQAM and conventional QAM are analysed. Some key techniques such as scrambling, statistical multiplexing, Data over Cable Service Interface Specification (DOCSIS) 3.0, software defined radio as well as DVB simulcrypt are also studied.
Sul, Onejae; Kim, Kyumin; Jung, Yungwoo; Choi, Eunsuk; Lee, Seung-Beck
The ambipolar band structure of graphene presents unique opportunities for novel electronic device applications. A cycle of gate voltage sweep in a conventional graphene transistor produces a frequency-doubled output current. To increase the frequency further, we used various graphene doping control techniques to produce Dirac voltage engineered graphene channels. The various surface treatments and substrate conditions produced differently doped graphene channels that were integrated on a single substrate and multiple Dirac voltages were observed by applying a single gate voltage sweep. We applied the Dirac voltage engineering techniques to graphene field-effect transistors on a single chip for the fabrication of a frequency multiplier and a logic inverter demonstrating analog and digital circuit application possibilities.
Sul, Onejae; Kim, Kyumin; Jung, Yungwoo; Choi, Eunsuk; Lee, Seung-Beck
The ambipolar band structure of graphene presents unique opportunities for novel electronic device applications. A cycle of gate voltage sweep in a conventional graphene transistor produces a frequency-doubled output current. To increase the frequency further, we used various graphene doping control techniques to produce Dirac voltage engineered graphene channels. The various surface treatments and substrate conditions produced differently doped graphene channels that were integrated on a single substrate and multiple Dirac voltages were observed by applying a single gate voltage sweep. We applied the Dirac voltage engineering techniques to graphene field-effect transistors on a single chip for the fabrication of a frequency multiplier and a logic inverter demonstrating analog and digital circuit application possibilities.
Lohmann, U.; Jahns, J.; Limmer, S.; Fey, D.
We consider the implementation of a dynamic crossbar interconnect using planar-integrated free-space optics (PIFSO) and a digital mirror-device™ (DMD). Because of the 3D nature of free-space optics, this approach is able to solve geometrical problems with crossings of the signal paths that occur in waveguide optical and electrical interconnection, especially for large number of connections. The DMD device allows one to route the signals dynamically. Due to the large number of individual mirror elements in the DMD, different optical path configurations are possible, thus offering the chance for optimizing the network configuration. The optimization is achieved by using an evolutionary algorithm for finding best values for a skewless parallel interconnection. Here, we present results and experimental examples for the use of the PIFSO/DMD-setup.
Full Text Available This qualitative research study explores the relationship between the quality of curriculum designs that integrate ICTs and the quality of teachers’ actual implementation of these designs. To analyze them, we selected 10 qualities that build on TPACK (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge and the Teaching for Understanding framework (TfU. We selected three curriculum designs that integrate ICTs and conducted in-depth interviews to 6 secondary teachers, 34 students and 3 curriculum designers in Argentina, Mexico and Colombia. When themajority of the qualities were present in the curriculum designs, the majority of the qualities were also present in the teachers’ implementations. High quality curriculum designs that integrate ICTs tended to promote high quality teacher practices.
Jahnke, Isa; Kumar, Swapna
This research presents five examples of how teachers integrated iPads into their classrooms, as part of a larger study of 15 Danish classrooms. Classroom observations and interviews with teachers revealed the use of multiple apps and a focus on creativity, production, and collaboration in the learning process. We discuss the results in the context…
Data acquire meaning through circulation. Yet most approaches to high-quality data aim to flatten this stratification of meanings. In government, data quality is achieved through integrated systems of authentic registers that reduce multiple trajectories to a single, official one. These systems can
, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting...
An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th
The author reports an experimental study which aimed at measuring the doubling time with a CFU7 fission chamber by using an integration method on the Siloette pile with a new core and with a spent core, and at comparing results with those obtained with a specific instrument which receives information from an ionisation chamber. The interest of this method relies on the fact that the fission chamber is insensitive to gamma radiations
Full Text Available Portable sensors and biomedical devices are influenced by the recent advances in microfluidics technologies, compact fabrication techniques, improved detection limits and enhanced analysis capabilities. This paper reports the development of an integrated ultraportable, low-cost, and modular digital microfluidic (DMF system and its successful integration with a smartphone used as a high-level controller and post processing station. Low power and cost effective electronic circuits are designed to generate the high voltages required for DMF operations in both open and closed configurations (from 100 to 800 V. The smartphone in turn commands a microcontroller that manipulate the voltage signals required for droplet actuation in the DMF chip and communicates wirelessly with the microcontroller via Bluetooth module. Moreover, the smartphone acts as a detection and image analysis station with an attached microscopic lens. The holder assembly is fabricated using three-dimensional (3D printing technology to facilitate rapid prototyping. The holder features a modular design that enables convenient attachment/detachment of a variety of DMF chips to/from an electrical busbar. The electrical circuits, controller and communication system are designed to minimize the power consumption in order to run the device on small lithium ion batteries. Successful controlled DMF operations and a basic colorimetric assay using the smartphone are demonstrated.
Full Text Available Since its introduction, IoT (Internet of Things has enjoyed vigorous support from governments and research institutions around the world, and remarkable achievements have been obtained. The perception layer of IoT plays an important role as a link between the IoT and the real world; the security has become a bottleneck restricting the further development of IoT. The perception layer is a self-organizing network system consisting of various resource-constrained sensor nodes through wireless communication. Accordingly, the costly encryption mechanism cannot be applied to the perception layer. In this paper, a novel lightweight data integrity protection scheme based on fragile watermark is proposed to solve the contradiction between the security and restricted resource of perception layer. To improve the security, we design a position random watermark (PRW strategy to calculate the embedding position by temporal dynamics of sensing data. The digital watermark is generated by one-way hash function SHA-1 before embedding to the dynamic computed position. In this way, the security vulnerabilities introduced by fixed embedding position can not only be solved effectively, but also achieve zero disturbance to the data. The security analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the integrity of the data at low cost.
Laurinaviciene, Aida; Plancoulaine, Benoit; Baltrusaityte, Indra; Meskauskas, Raimundas; Besusparis, Justinas; Lesciute-Krilaviciene, Daiva; Raudeliunas, Darius; Iqbal, Yasir; Herlin, Paulette; Laurinavicius, Arvydas
Digital immunohistochemistry (IHC) is one of the most promising applications brought by new generation image analysis (IA). While conventional IHC staining quality is monitored by semi-quantitative visual evaluation of tissue controls, IA may require more sensitive measurement. We designed an automated system to digitally monitor IHC multi-tissue controls, based on SQL-level integration of laboratory information system with image and statistical analysis tools. Consecutive sections of TMA containing 10 cores of breast cancer tissue were used as tissue controls in routine Ki67 IHC testing. Ventana slide label barcode ID was sent to the LIS to register the serial section sequence. The slides were stained and scanned (Aperio ScanScope XT), IA was performed by the Aperio/Leica Colocalization and Genie Classifier/Nuclear algorithms. SQL-based integration ensured automated statistical analysis of the IA data by the SAS Enterprise Guide project. Factor analysis and plot visualizations were performed to explore slide-to-slide variation of the Ki67 IHC staining results in the control tissue. Slide-to-slide intra-core IHC staining analysis revealed rather significant variation of the variables reflecting the sample size, while Brown and Blue Intensity were relatively stable. To further investigate this variation, the IA results from the 10 cores were aggregated to minimize tissue-related variance. Factor analysis revealed association between the variables reflecting the sample size detected by IA and Blue Intensity. Since the main feature to be extracted from the tissue controls was staining intensity, we further explored the variation of the intensity variables in the individual cores. MeanBrownBlue Intensity ((Brown+Blue)/2) and DiffBrownBlue Intensity (Brown-Blue) were introduced to better contrast the absolute intensity and the colour balance variation in each core; relevant factor scores were extracted. Finally, tissue-related factors of IHC staining variance were
Butin, V I; Trofimov, Eh N
Typical responses of the bipolar digital integrated circuits (DIC) of the combination type under the action of pulse gamma radiation are presented. Analysis of the DIC transients is carried out. A calculation-experimental method for forecasting the temporal serviceability loss of bipolar DIC is proposed. The reliability of the method is confirmed experimentally. 1 fig.
Technology, digital media and popular culture form an important aspect of young children's life-worlds in contemporary post-industrial societies. A problem for early childhood educators is how to most effectively integrate these aspects of children's life-worlds into the provision of play-based learning. Traditionally, research has considered…
Schlosser, Peter Allen
This paper reports on an investigation into how Marketing and Business Education Teachers utilize and integrate educational technology into curriculum through the use of photography. The ontology of this visual, technological, and language interface is explored with an eye toward visual literacy, digital literacy, and pedagogical praxis, focusing…
Even though the implications of foreign direct investment (FDI) have been studied greatly, only a small part have focused on Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). With young and relatively talented workforce, SSA will provide enormous opportunities for multinationals entering the region. The purpose of this research is to examine whether FDI from China has a significant impact on economic development in Sub-Saharan African countries. In addition, it identifies the difference between the motivations o...
Puig Cayuela, Vicenç; Blesa Izquierdo, Joaquim
In this paper, a methodology for limnimeter and rain-gauge fault detection and isolation (FDI) in sewer networks is presented. The proposed model based FDI approach uses interval parity equations for fault detection in order to enhance robustness against modelling errors and noise. They both are assumed unknown but bounded, following the so-called interval (or set-membership) approach. On the other hand, fault isolation relies on an algorithm that reasons using several fault signature matrice...
Ahmad Rizal Mohd Yusof; Zarina Othman; A.B. Shamsul; Mohamed Abu Bakar Kassim
Liberia has initiated a paradigm shift to develop its agriculture sector through Foreign Direct Investment (FDI). An investment from Sime Darby Plantations has created social impact towards the local, culture and land use. Center for International Conflict Resolution or CICR has seen these problems as a threat to social development in Liberia. Eleven recommendations have been delivered to Sime Darby as a solution to cater all problems that should conserve the local, culture and the land use. ...
Full Text Available In the early 2000s, Vietnam’s government concentrated on the promotion of supporting industries which can be seen as a “key” solution to sustaining economic growth, thereby improving the national welfare. However, Vietnam’s supporting industries still exhibit lower development and competitive weakness. The main reason for this condition is due to a lack of capital, technological innovation, and necessary management skills for development. Therefore, attracting foreign direct investment (FDI for developing supporting industries offers the best strategy to realize this solution. However, attracting FDI to develop supporting industries represents a weakness which lies in both the quantity (total capital and projects and quality of investment. So which factors are effective to attract FDI for developing supporting industries in Vietnam? This investigation establishes an analytical hierarchy framework available to the Vietnamese government and to policymakers in order to evaluate the influence of criteria needed to attract FDI for developing supporting industries based on eight main criteria. They include legal and institutional criteria, the market size of supporting industries, human resources, infrastructure facilities, technological development and innovation, domestic supply capacity, international cooperation and competition, and other criteria. This paper uses fuzzy preference relations (FPR to evaluate the influence of criteria necessary to attract FDI for developing supporting industries, and these analytical results demonstrate that legal and institutional criteria, domestic supply capacity, human resources, technology development and innovation are all major considerations for attracting FDI.
Wang, Hui; Liu, Huifang; Cao, Zhiyong; Wang, Bowen
This paper presents a new perspective that there is a double-threshold effect in terms of the technology gap existing in the foreign direct investment (FDI) technology spillover process in different regional Chinese industrial sectors. In this paper, a double-threshold regression model was established to examine the relation between the threshold effect of the technology gap and technology spillover. Based on the provincial panel data of Chinese industrial sectors from 2000 to 2011, the empirical results reveal that there are two threshold values, which are 1.254 and 2.163, in terms of the technology gap in the industrial sector in eastern China. There are also two threshold values in both the central and western industrial sector, which are 1.516, 2.694 and 1.635, 2.714, respectively. The technology spillover is a decreasing function of the technology gap in both the eastern and western industrial sectors, but a concave curve function of the technology gap is in the central industrial sectors. Furthermore, the FDI technology spillover has increased gradually in recent years. Based on the empirical results, suggestions were proposed to elucidate the introduction of the FDI and the improvement in the industrial added value in different regions of China.
Kell, Kathryn; Aymerich, Marie-Anne; Horn, Virginie
Twelve years ago, FDI World Dental Federation and Unilever Oral Care began a partnership to raise awareness of oral health globally. This aim reflects FDI's mission to "lead the world to optimal oral health", and one of the goals set by the Unilever Sustainable Living Plan "to improve health and well-being for more than 1 billion" by 2020. This partnership has developed a series of public health programmes to improve the brushing habits of targeted populations through health promotion and educational campaigns worldwide. Building on the success of the first two phases of the partnership, the third phase (Phase III), named Brush Day & Night, aimed to educate children in brushing twice-daily with fluoride toothpaste via a 21 Day school programme. This article reports the main outcomes of the past 12 years of this partnership, in particular the key outreach and figures of Phase III evaluation. School programmes were implemented in 10 countries, where local teams collected data from children aged between 2 and 12 years to monitor their oral health behaviours using specific indicators. In addition to the school programme, the World Oral Health Day was used as a vehicle to convey oral health awareness to influential governing bodies and the public. As a result, over 4 million people were directly reached by the programme in 2016. © 2018 FDI World Dental Federation.
Hassenstein, A.; Richard, G.; Inhoffen, W.; Scholz, F.
The new integration method (DIM) provides for the first time the anatomically precise integration of the OCT-scan position into the angiogram (fluorescein angiography, FLA), using reference marker at corresponding vessel crossings. Therefore an exact correlation of angiographic and morphological pathological findings is possible und leads to a better understanding of OCT and FLA. Occult findings in FLA were the patient group which profited most. Occult leakages could gain additional information using DIM such as serous detachment of the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) in a topography. So far it was unclear whether the same localization in the lesion was examined by FLA and OCT especially when different staff were performing and interpreting the examination. Using DIM this problem could be solved using objective markers. This technique is the requirement for follow-up examinations by OCT. Using DIM for an objective, reliable and precise correlation of OCT and FLA-findings it is now possible to provide the identical scan-position in follow-up. Therefore for follow-up in clinical studies it is mandatory to use DIM to improve the evidence-based statement of OCT and the quality of the study. (author) [de
Volynskaya, Zoya; Chow, Hung; Evans, Andrew; Wolff, Alan; Lagmay-Traya, Cecilia; Asa, Sylvia L
- The critical role of pathology in diagnosis, prognosis, and prediction demands high-quality subspecialty diagnostics that integrates information from multiple laboratories. - To identify key requirements and to establish a systematic approach to providing high-quality pathology in a health care system that is responsible for services across a large geographic area. - This report focuses on the development of a multisite pathology informatics platform to support high-quality surgical pathology and hematopathology using a sophisticated laboratory information system and whole slide imaging for histology and immunohistochemistry, integrated with ancillary tools, including electron microscopy, flow cytometry, cytogenetics, and molecular diagnostics. - These tools enable patients in numerous geographic locations access to a model of subspecialty pathology that allows reporting of every specimen by the right pathologist at the right time. The use of whole slide imaging for multidisciplinary case conferences enables better communication among members of patient care teams. The system encourages data collection using a discrete data synoptic reporting module, has implemented documentation of quality assurance activities, and allows workload measurement, providing examples of additional benefits that can be gained by this electronic approach to pathology. - This approach builds the foundation for accurate big data collection and high-quality personalized and precision medicine.
Aldhafeeri, Fayiz; Palaiologou, Ioanna; Folorunsho, Aderonke
Scholars in the field of early childhood education are still debating the inclusion of digital technologies in play-based pedagogy and our understanding of digital play in early childhood education is still developing. This research paper examines early childhood education teachers' views, aptitudes and attitudes towards digital technologies in…
Southall, Sarah Parker
The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate digital native preservice teachers' self-efficacy beliefs regarding their technology experiences and skills at the beginning and at the end of their field placement semester. Digital natives, as defined by Prensky (2001), are students born after 1980 who have been raised with digital media…
Alexandr A. Lobanov
Full Text Available This article provides an analysis of methods for digital modeling in the area of Earth Sciences. The author illustrates the difference between digital modeling in radio communication and that in the area of Earth Sciences. The article examines the integration aspect of digital models, demonstrates the advantages of digital over analog models, and illustrates that digital models are discrete. The author outlines the characteristics of digital modeling and illustrates the logical structure of digital models.
Aboard the International Space Station (ISS), the Tissue Culture Module (TCM) is the stationary bioreactor vessel in which cell cultures grow. However, for the Cellular Biotechnology Operations Support Systems-Fluid Dynamics Investigation (CBOSS-FDI), color polystyrene beads are used to measure the effectiveness of various mixing procedures. Uniform mixing is a crucial component of CBOSS experiments involving the immune response of human lymphoid cell suspensions. In this picture, the beads are trapped in the injection port shortly after injection. Swirls of beads indicate, event to the naked eye, the contents of the TCM are not fully mixed. The beads are similar in size and density to human lymphoid cells. The goal is to develop procedures that are both convenient for the flight crew and are optimal in providing uniform and reproducible mixing of all components, including cells. The average bead density in a well mixed TCM will be uniform, with no bubbles, and it will be measured using the absorption of light
To get funding approved for medical device integration, ClOs suggest focusing on specific patient safety or staff efficiency pain points. Organizations that make clinical engineering part of their IT team report fewer chain-of-command issues. It also helps IT people understand the clinical goals because the engineering people have been working closely with clinicians for years. A new organization has formed to work on collaboration between clinical engineers and IT professionals. For more information, go to www.ceitcollaboration.org. ECRI Institute has written a guide to handling the convergence of medical technology and hospital networks. Its "Medical Technology for the IT Professional: An Essential Guide for Working in Today's Healthcare Setting" also details how IT professionals can assist hospital technology planning and acquisition, and provide ongoing support for IT-based medical technologies. For more information, visit www.ecri.org/ITresource.
Wein, B B
Parallel to the introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) for the reimbursement of hospitals, a marked reduction of financial means within the healthcare system is taking place. Healthcare enterprise information systems will play an increasing role to accommodate the new working conditions by developing reliable and efficient workflow solutions. Interfacing the systems currently in use can meet considerable obstacles. By offering high connectivity, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise), which was initiated by concerted actions of users and vendors, ensures improved health care delivery and, furthermore, assists in acquiring new information systems in the future. IHE is not a standard but makes extensive use of existing international standards, such as HL7 and DICOM. National IHE demonstrations confirmed the power of this approach and presented its mission to large groups of users and vendors. The concept continues to grow and for the first time provides groups of various interests cooperative solutions to the problems encountered in collecting and distributing information.
Parallel to the introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) for the reimbursement of hospitals, a marked reduction of financial means within the healthcare system is taking place. Healthcare enterprise information systems will play an increasing role to accommodate the new working conditions by developing reliable and efficient workflow solutions. Interfacing the systems currently in use can meet considerable obstacles. By offering high connectivity, IHE (Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise), which was initiated by concerted actions of users and vendors, ensures improved health care delivery and, furthermore, assists in acquiring new information systems in the future. IHE is not a standard but makes extensive use of existing international standards, such as HL7 and DICOM. National IHE demonstrations confirmed the power of this approach and presented its mission to large groups of users and vendors. The concept continues to grow and for the first time provides groups of various interests cooperative solutions to the problems encountered in collecting and distributing information. (orig.) [de
Judy A. Kraatz
Full Text Available This research is focused on realizing productivity benefits for the delivery of transport infrastructure in the Australian construction industry through the use of building information modeling (BIM, virtual design and construction (VDC and integrated project delivery (IPD. Specific objectives include: (I building an understanding of the institutional environment, business systems and support mechanisms (e.g., training and skilling which impact on the uptake of BIM/VDC; (II gathering data to undertake a cross-country analysis of these environments; and (III providing strategic and practical outcomes to guide the uptake of such processes in Australia. Activities which will inform this research include a review of academic literature and industry documentation, semi-formal interviews in Australia and Sweden, and a cross-country comparative analysis to determine factors affecting uptake and associated productivity improvements. These activities will seek to highlight the gaps between current-practice and best-practice which are impacting on widespread adoption of BIM/VDC and IPD. Early findings will be discussed with intended outcomes of this research being used to: inform a national public procurement strategy; provide guidelines for new contractual frameworks; and contribute to closing skill gaps.
Gelişmekte Olan Ülkelerde Doğrudan Yabancı Yatırımlar ve Ekonomik Entegrasyon:ASEAN ve MERCOSUR Örneği(Foreign Direct Investments and Economic Integration in Developing Countries: The Cases of ASEAN and MERCOSUR
Full Text Available It is known that membership in regional economic integrations has an important effect in determining foreign direct investments (FDI. In this study, the effect of regional economic integration on FDI was empirically analysed for ASEAN and MERCOSUR established by developing countries. The model constructed in this paper included a dummy variable for regional economic integrations for the 1980-2007 period and fixed effects panel data method is used. According to estimated results, membership to regional economic integrations together with other factors has increased FDI flows. With the current increasing regionalization trend, this study suggests that in order to attract higher amounts of FDI, developing countries should emphasize regional economic integration, or at least they should make trade agreements.
Aida Rustamovna Nurutdinova
Full Text Available Future generations will need more than just mastery of subject matter; they will need mastery of learning. The presented study outlines some major changes we expect to make over the next decade, including shifts from teacher-centeredness to student-centeredness and the increasing use of technology-enhanced learning. The outcomes of learning must be reviewed, reformulated and approaches to higher education design and delivery revised to match. The research paper states that the training process should be the whole spectrum of competencies, as well as the research activity. The research study advocates the re-examination of the many pressing and critical issues facing our universities. The research aspects are intended to assist academics, educators and policy-makers in a process of critical reflection of the outcomes and effectiveness of our practices in providing higher education to the present generation in relation to the demand of an industrialised Russia 2020. Research aspects were selected from a variety of areas important for this critical reflection. In the presented research issue we tried to pull together case observations, analysis of local scenarios and new imperatives of university so as to attain viability and comprehensiveness these include their research and development (R&D, human resource development and foresight on the use of electronic technology and innovative “products” packaging as an alternative instructional mode to enhance the teaching-learning process. Universities 3:0 must be prepared and able to deal effectively with the three basic perspectives confronting them. The resulting scenario, the Cybernetic Campus, is the reform of the Knowledge-Research-Business that is integrated with, and accountable to, the public that hosts it. Purpose. The main purpose of this research paper is the attempt to apply situational analysis, built on formally different grounds, however trying to take into account the subject
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. [Lam.] ranks among the top six most important food crops in the world. It is widely grown throughout the world with high and stable yield, strong adaptability, rich nutrient content, and multiple uses. However, little is known about the molecular biology of this important non-model organism due to lack of genomic resources. Hence, studies based on high-throughput sequencing technologies are needed to get a comprehensive and integrated genomic resource and better understanding of gene expression patterns in different tissues and at various developmental stages. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Illumina paired-end (PE RNA-Sequencing was performed, and generated 48.7 million of 75 bp PE reads. These reads were de novo assembled into 128,052 transcripts (≥ 100 bp, which correspond to 41.1 million base pairs, by using a combined assembly strategy. Transcripts were annotated by Blast2GO and 51,763 transcripts got BLASTX hits, in which 39,677 transcripts have GO terms and 14,117 have ECs that are associated with 147 KEGG pathways. Furthermore, transcriptome differences of seven tissues were analyzed by using Illumina digital gene expression (DGE tag profiling and numerous differentially and specifically expressed transcripts were identified. Moreover, the expression characteristics of genes involved in viral genomes, starch metabolism and potential stress tolerance and insect resistance were also identified. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The combined de novo transcriptome assembly strategy can be applied to other organisms whose reference genomes are not available. The data provided here represent the most comprehensive and integrated genomic resources for cloning and identifying genes of interest in sweet potato. Characterization of sweet potato transcriptome provides an effective tool for better understanding the molecular mechanisms of cellular processes including development of leaves and storage roots
Mestrovic, Ante; Otto, Karl; Nichol, Alan; Clark, Brenda G
The main objective of this manuscript is to propose a new approach to on-line adaptive radiation therapy (ART) in which daily image acquisition, plan adaptation and radiation delivery are integrated together and performed concurrently. A method is described in which on-line ART is performed based on intra-fractional digital tomosynthesis (DTS) images. Intra-fractional DTS images were reconstructed as the gantry rotated between treatment positions. An edge detection algorithm was used to automatically segment the DTS images as the gantry arrived at each treatment position. At each treatment position, radiation was delivered based on the treatment plan re-optimized for the most recent DTS image contours. To investigate the feasibility of this method, a model representing a typical prostate, bladder and rectum was used. To simulate prostate deformations, three clinically relevant, non-rigid deformations (small, medium and large) were modeled by systematically deforming the original anatomy. Using our approach to on-line ART, the original treatment plan was successfully adapted to arrive at a clinically acceptable plan for all three non-rigid deformations. In conclusion, we have proposed a new approach to on-line ART in which plan adaptation is performed based on intra-fractional DTS images. The study findings indicate that this approach can be used to re-optimize the original treatment plan to account for non-rigid anatomical deformations. The advantages of this approach are 1) image acquisition and radiation delivery are integrated in a single gantry rotation around the patient, reducing the treatment time, and 2) intra-fractional DTS images can be used to detect and correct for patient motion prior to the delivery of each beam (intra-fractional patient motion).
Řezník, T.; Kepka, M.; Charvát, K.; Charvát, K., Jr.; Horáková, S.; Lukas, V.
From a global perspective, agriculture is the single largest user of freshwater resources, each country using an average of 70% of all its surface water supplies. An essential proportion of agricultural water is recycled back to surface water and/or groundwater. Agriculture and water pollution is therefore the subject of (inter)national legislation, such as the Clean Water Act in the United States of America, the European Water Framework Directive, and the Law of the People's Republic of China on the Prevention and Control of Water Pollution. Regular monitoring by means of sensor networks is needed in order to provide evidence of water pollution in agriculture. This paper describes the benefits of, and open issues stemming from, regular sensor monitoring provided by an Open Farm Management Information System. Emphasis is placed on descriptions of the processes and functionalities available to users, the underlying open data model, and definitions of open and lightweight application programming interfaces for the efficient management of collected (spatial) data. The presented Open Farm Management Information System has already been successfully registered under Phase 8 of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Architecture Implementation Pilot in order to support the wide variety of demands that are primarily aimed at agriculture pollution monitoring. The final part of the paper deals with the integration of the Open Farm Management Information System into the Digital Earth framework.
Andrew Weisenberger; Fernando Barbosa; T. D. Green; R. Hoefer; Cynthia Keppel; Brian Kross; Stanislaw Majewski; Vladimir Popov; Randolph Wojcik
A small field of view gamma camera has been developed for integration with a commercial stereotactic core biopsy system. The goal is to develop and implement a dual-modality imaging system utilizing scintimammography and digital radiography to evaluate the reliability of scintimammography in predicting the malignancy of suspected breast lesions from conventional X-ray mammography. The scintimammography gamma camera is a custom-built mini gamma camera with an active area of 5.3 cm /spl times/ 5.3 cm and is based on a 2 /spl times/ 2 array of Hamamatsu R7600-C8 position-sensitive photomultiplier tubes. The spatial resolution of the gamma camera at the collimator surface is < 4 mm full-width at half-maximum and a sensitivity of /spl sim/ 4000 Hz/mCi. The system is also capable of acquiring dynamic scintimammographic data to allow for dynamic uptake studies. Sample images of preliminary clinical results are presented to demonstrate the performance of the system.
Acciavatti, Raymond J.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.
is a binary function given as zero or unity everywhere. In analyzing the model detector with Gaussian blurring, the difference in NPS and DQE between the two detector types is found to increase with the blurring of the x-ray converter. Ultimately, the expression for the additive white noise of the photon counter is compared against the expression for electronic noise and secondary quantum noise in an energy integrator. Thus, a method is provided to determine the average secondary quanta that the energy integrator must produce for each x ray to have superior DQE to a photon counter with the same PSF. Conclusions: This article develops analytical models of OTF, NPS, and DQE for energy integrating and photon counting digital x-ray detectors. While many subtleties of real imaging systems have not been modeled, this work is illustrative in demonstrating an additive source of white noise in photon counting detectors which has not yet been described in the literature. One benefit of this analysis is a framework for determining the average secondary quanta that an energy integrating detector must produce for each x ray to have superior DQE to competing photon counting technology.
Lee, Seungwon; Park, Ilkwon; Kim, Manbae; Byun, Hyeran
As digital broadcasting technologies have been rapidly progressed, users' expectations for realistic and interactive broadcasting services also have been increased. As one of such services, 3D multi-view broadcasting has received much attention recently. In general, all the view sequences acquired at the server are transmitted to the client. Then, the user can select a part of views or all the views according to display capabilities. However, this kind of system requires high processing power of the server as well as the client, thus posing a difficulty in practical applications. To overcome this problem, a relatively simple method is to transmit only two view-sequences requested by the client in order to deliver a stereoscopic video. In this system, effective communication between the server and the client is one of important aspects. In this paper, we propose an efficient multi-view system that transmits two view-sequences and their depth maps according to user's request. The view selection process is integrated into MPEG-21 DIA (Digital Item Adaptation) so that our system is compatible to MPEG-21 multimedia framework. DIA is generally composed of resource adaptation and descriptor adaptation. It is one of merits that SVA (stereoscopic video adaptation) descriptors defined in DIA standard are used to deliver users' preferences and device capabilities. Furthermore, multi-view descriptions related to multi-view camera and system are newly introduced. The syntax of the descriptions and their elements is represented in XML (eXtensible Markup Language) schema. If the client requests an adapted descriptor (e.g., view numbers) to the server, then the server sends its associated view sequences. Finally, we present a method which can reduce user's visual discomfort that might occur while viewing stereoscopic video. This phenomenon happens when view changes as well as when a stereoscopic image produces excessive disparity caused by a large baseline between two cameras. To
Mummah, Sarah Ann; Robinson, Thomas N; King, Abby C; Gardner, Christopher D; Sutton, Stephen
Developing effective digital interventions to change health behavior has been a challenging goal for academics and industry players alike. Guiding intervention design using the best combination of approaches available is necessary if effective technologies are to be developed. Behavioral theory, design thinking, user-centered design, rigorous evaluation, and dissemination each have widely acknowledged merits in their application to digital health interventions. This paper introduces IDEAS, a step-by-step process for integrating these approaches to guide the development and evaluation of more effective digital interventions. IDEAS is comprised of 10 phases (empathize, specify, ground, ideate, prototype, gather, build, pilot, evaluate, and share), grouped into 4 overarching stages: Integrate, Design, Assess, and Share (IDEAS). Each of these phases is described and a summary of theory-based behavioral strategies that may inform intervention design is provided. The IDEAS framework strives to provide sufficient detail without being overly prescriptive so that it may be useful and readily applied by both investigators and industry partners in the development of their own mHealth, eHealth, and other digital health behavior change interventions. ©Sarah Ann Mummah, Thomas N Robinson, Abby C King, Christopher D Gardner, Stephen Sutton. Originally published in the Journal of Medical Internet Research (http://www.jmir.org), 16.12.2016.
Full Text Available HBIM technology makes great contributions to 3D digital preservation and management of the existing traditional architectures, and VR technology has also been gradually emphasized by 3D users in recent years, especially 3D immersive situation makes users more likely to experience the real space field. Taking Han type traditional architecture with relatively complex geometrical structure as an example, this research carries out digital preservation through HBIM technology and tries to switch to VR platform to allow users to enter 3D immersive scene for management and display. It is shown in the research results that the application of integration of HBIM and VR technology to Han type traditional architecture needs to consider 3D digital model of the architecture, and the number of polygon shall be controlled below about 2 million, which can make the operation in VR environment more smooth; the integration of two technologies can achieve the purpose of 3D immersive digital management, which can provide the humanized application close to the real experience for the display of subsequent management of ancient relics and architectural aesthetics.
Full Text Available The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to different criteria. A digital watermark can be categorised as visible or invisible and as robust or fragile. In contrast to the visible watermark where a visible pattern or image is embedded into the original image, the invisible watermark does not change the visual appearance of the image. The existence of such a watermark can be determined only through a watermark ex¬traction or detection algorithm. The robust watermark is used for copyright protection, while the fragile watermark is designed for authentication and integrity verification of multimedia content. A watermark must be detectable or extractable to be useful. In some watermarking schemes, a watermark can be extracted in its exact form, in other cases, we can detect only whether a specific given watermarking signal is present in an image. Digital libraries, through which cultural institutions will make multimedia contents available, should support a wide range of service models for intellectual property protection, where digital watermarking may play an important role.
Cunha, Edson Ricardo Soares Pereira da
This work is focused on the geotectonic context of the Carajas Mineral Province, Amazon Craton, which represents the most important Brazilian Mineral Province and hosts iron, cooper, gold, manganese and nickel deposits. At the end of Archean age, during the techno-metamorphic evolution, moderated alkaline granitoids were generated, such as, Estrela Granite Complex (EGC). This work has used digital integration products with the purpose of study the granite suite, its host rock, and the surrounded area. The digital integrated data were gamma-ray and geological data with satellite images (SAR-SAREX e TM-Landsat). The geophysics data, originally in 32 bits and grid format, were interpolated and converted to 8 bits images. The geological data (facies map) was digitalized and converted to a raster format. The remote sensing images were geometrically corrected to guarantee an accuracy on the geological mapping. On the data processing phase, SAR images were digital integrated with gamma-ray data, TM-Landsat image and the raster facies map. The IHS transformation was used as the technique to integrate the multi-source data. On the photogeological interpretation, SAR data were extremely important to permit the extraction of the main tectonic lineaments which occur on the following directions: +/- N45W, +/- N70W, +/- NS, +/- N20E, +/- N45E e +/- N75E. This procedure was done both in analogic and automatic form, being the automatic process more useful to complement information in the extracting process. Among the digital products generated, SAR/GAMA products (uranium, thorium and total count) were the ones that give the most important contribution. The interpretation of the SAR/GAMA's products added to the field campaign have allowed to map the limits of units that occur in the region and four facies of the Estrela Granite Complex were detected. The origin of the granite suite might be related to a magmatic differentiation or to distinct intrusion pulses. The use of the
O'Halloran, Kay L.; Tan, Sabine; Pham, Duc-Son; Bateman, John; Vande Moere, Andrew
This article demonstrates how a digital environment offers new opportunities for transforming qualitative data into quantitative data in order to use data mining and information visualization for mixed methods research. The digital approach to mixed methods research is illustrated by a framework which combines qualitative methods of multimodal…
Full Text Available This paper studies the relevance of political stability on foreign direct investment (FDI and the relevance of FDI on economic growth, in three panels. The first panel contains 11 very small economies; the second contains five well-developed and politically stable economies with highly positive FDI net inflows, while the third is a panel with economies that are prone to political violence or targeted by the terrorist attacks. We employ a Granger causality test and implement a vector autoregressive (VAR framework within the panel setting. In order to test the sensitivity of the results and avoid robust errors, we employ an ARDL model for each of the countries within every panel. Based upon our results, we conclude that there is a long-term relationship between political stability and FDI for the panel of small economies, while we find no empiric evidence of such a relationship for both panels of larger and more developed economies. Similarly to the original hypothesis of Lucas (1990, we find that FDI outflows tend to go towards politically less stable countries. On the other hand, the empiric methodology employed did not find such conclusive evidence in the panels of politically more developed countries or in the small economies that this paper observes.
Hamming, Richard W
Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s
Yohannes Kamadi; Soekarno.
The electrical voltage measuring equipment with digital display has been made. This equipment uses four digits display with single polarity measurement and integrating system. Pulses from the oscillator will be counted and converted to the staircase voltages, and compared to the voltage measured. When the balance is already achieved, the pulse will appear at the comparator circuit. This pulse will be used to trigger univibrator circuit. The univibrator output is used as signal for stopping the counting, and when reading time T already stops, the counting system will be reset. (authors)
Hockly, Nicky; Pegrum, Mark
Dramatic shifts in our communication landscape have made it crucial for language teaching to go beyond print literacy and encompass the digital literacies which are increasingly central to learners' personal, social, educational and professional lives. By situating these digital literacies within a clear theoretical framework, this book provides educators and students alike with not just the background for a deeper understanding of these key 21st-century skills, but also the rationale for integrating these skills into classroom practice. This is the first methodology book to address not jus
Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D. [Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 (United States); Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States); Thayer School of Engineering, Dartmouth College, Hanover, New Hampshire 03755 and Department of Diagnostic Radiology, Dartmouth Medical School, Lebanon, New Hampshire 03756 (United States)
Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking
Michaelsen, Kelly; Krishnaswamy, Venkat; Pogue, Brian W.; Poplack, Steven P.; Paulsen, Keith D.
Purpose: Design optimization and phantom validation of an integrated digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) and near-infrared spectral tomography (NIRST) system targeting improvement in sensitivity and specificity of breast cancer detection is presented. Factors affecting instrumentation design include minimization of cost, complexity, and examination time while maintaining high fidelity NIRST measurements with sufficient information to recover accurate optical property maps. Methods: Reconstructed DBT slices from eight patients with abnormal mammograms provided anatomical information for the NIRST simulations. A limited frequency domain (FD) and extensive continuous wave (CW) NIRST system was modeled. The FD components provided tissue scattering estimations used in the reconstruction of the CW data. Scattering estimates were perturbed to study the effects on hemoglobin recovery. Breast mimicking agar phantoms with inclusions were imaged using the combined DBT/NIRST system for comparison with simulation results. Results: Patient simulations derived from DBT images show successful reconstruction of both normal and malignant lesions in the breast. They also demonstrate the importance of accurately quantifying tissue scattering. Specifically, 20% errors in optical scattering resulted in 22.6% or 35.1% error in quantification of total hemoglobin concentrations, depending on whether scattering was over- or underestimated, respectively. Limited frequency-domain optical signal sampling provided two regions scattering estimates (for fat and fibroglandular tissues) that led to hemoglobin concentrations that reduced the error in the tumor region by 31% relative to when a single estimate of optical scattering was used throughout the breast volume of interest. Acquiring frequency-domain data with six wavelengths instead of three did not significantly improve the hemoglobin concentration estimates. Simulation results were confirmed through experiments in two-region breast mimicking
Olitsky, Stacy; Becker, Elizabeth A.; Jayo, Ignacio; Vinogradov, Philip; Montcalmo, Joseph
This study explores the implications of a redesign of a college course that entailed a new partnership between a college neuroscience classroom and a high school. In this course, the college students engaged in original research projects which included conducting brain surgery and behavioural tests on rats. They used digital storytelling and social networking to communicate with high school students and were visited by the students during the semester. The aims of the redesign were to align the course with science conducted in the field and to provide opportunities to disseminate scientific knowledge through emerging technologies. This study investigates the impact of these innovations on the college and high school students' perceptions of authentic science, including their relationship with science-centred communities. We found that these collaborative tools increased college students' perceptions that authentic science entailed communication with the general public, in addition to supporting prior perceptions of the importance of conducting experiments and presenting results to experts. In addition, the view of science as high-status knowledge was attenuated as students integrated non-formal communication practices into presentations, showing the backstage process of learning, incorporating music and youth discourse styles, and displaying emotional engagement. An impact of these hybrid presentation approaches was an increase in the high school students' perceptions of the accessibility of laboratory science. We discuss how the use of technologies that are familiar to youth, such as iPads, social networking sites, and multimedia presentations, has the potential to prioritize students' voices and promote a more inclusive view of science.
Petersson Brooks, Eva; Brooks, Anthony Lewis
This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from children’s play with technology in early childhood learning practices. The paper addresses questions related to how digital technology can foster creativity in early childhood learning environments. It consists of an analysis of children......’s interaction with the KidSmart furniture focusing on digital creativity potentials and play values suggested by the technology. The study applied a qualitative approach and included125 children (aged three to five), 10 pedagogues, and two librarians. The results suggests that educators should sensitively...... consider intervening when children are interacting with technology, and rather put emphasize into the integration of the technology into the environment and to the curriculum in order to shape playful structures for children’s digital creativity....
DING Guoping; ZHOU Zude; HU Yefa; ZHAO Liang
With the globalization and diversification of the market and the rapid development of Information Technology (IT) and Artificial Intelligence (AI), the digital revolution of manufacturing is coming. One of the key technologies in digital manufacturing is product digital modeling. This paper firstly analyzes the information and features of the product digital model during each stage in the product whole lifecycle, then researches on the three critical technologies of digital modeling in digital manufacturing-product modeling, standard for the exchange of product model data and digital product data management. And the potential signification of the product digital model during the process of digital manufacturing is concluded-product digital model integrates primary features of each stage during the product whole lifecycle based on graphic features, applies STEP as data exchange mechanism, and establishes PDM system to manage the large amount, complicated and dynamic product data to implement the product digital model data exchange, sharing and integration.
The reality of students' cyber lives has thrust upon educators a new approach: creating character education programs tuned to digital youth that are proactive and aggressive. This will help integrate students' digital activities within the context of the communities in which they live, both local and digital. The digital age beckons a new era of…
Ambrosia, Vincent G.; Myers, Jeffrey S.; Ekstrand, Robert E.; Fitzgerald, Michael T.
A simple method for enhancing the spatial and spectral resolution of disparate data sets is presented. Two data sets, digitized aerial photography at a nominal spatial resolution 3,7 meters and TMS digital data at 24.6 meters, were coregistered through a bilinear interpolation to solve the problem of blocky pixel groups resulting from rectification expansion. The two data sets were then subjected to intensity-saturation-hue (ISH) transformations in order to 'blend' the high-spatial-resolution (3.7 m) digitized RC-10 photography with the high spectral (12-bands) and lower spatial (24.6 m) resolution TMS digital data. The resultant merged products make it possible to perform large-scale mapping, ease photointerpretation, and can be derived for any of the 12 available TMS spectral bands.
Digital ecosystems are one of the most important strategic issues in the current digital economy. Digital ecosystems are dynamic and generative. They evolve as new firms join and as heterogeneous systems are integrated into other systems. These features digital ecosystems determine economic and technological success in the competition among…
Park, Ji Hyeong
This book contains twelve chapters, which deals with digitization of broadcast signal such as digital open, digitization of video signal and sound signal digitization of broadcasting equipment like DTPP and digital VTR, digitization of equipment to transmit such as digital STL, digital FPU and digital SNG, digitization of transmit about digital TV transmit and radio transmit, digital broadcasting system on necessity and advantage, digital broadcasting system abroad and Korea, digital broadcasting of outline, advantage of digital TV, ripple effect of digital broadcasting and consideration of digital broadcasting, ground wave digital broadcasting of DVB-T in Europe DTV in U.S.A and ISDB-T in Japan, HDTV broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital TV broadcasting in Korea, digital radio broadcasting and new broadcasting service.
Iulia Monica Oehler-Șincai
Full Text Available Taking into consideration its economic scale and growth potential, we can assert that China represents a regional as well a global player. Gradually, its growth model centred on exports becomes one based on innovation in which exports have a complementary role. Our objective is to reflect China’s role in the field of trade and FDI at regional and global level as well as its transformation into an economy centred on innovation. Following this rationale, the present paper is structured around four main sections, as follows. First, we bring to the forefront the impact of the financial and economic crisis on the Chinese economy and on two of its growth engines: the internal demand and exports. Second, we present China’s trade in goods as one of the main engines of its economic growth. Third, we demonstrate that China represents the linkage between the Eastern, Southern and South-Eastern Asian countries through FDI flows. Fourth, we reflect how China becomes gradually an economy centred on innovation.
Adouni, Amel; Chariag, Dhia; Diallo, Demba; Ben Hamed, Mouna; Sbita, Lassaâd
As per modern electrical grid rules, Wind Turbine needs to operate continually even in presence severe grid faults as Low Voltage Ride Through (LVRT). Hence, a new LVRT Fault Detection and Identification (FDI) procedure has been developed to take the appropriate decision in order to develop the convenient control strategy. To obtain much better decision and enhanced FDI during grid fault, the proposed procedure is based on voltage indicators analysis using a new Artificial Neural Network architecture (ANN). In fact, two features are extracted (the amplitude and the angle phase). It is divided into two steps. The first is fault indicators generation and the second is indicators analysis for fault diagnosis. The first step is composed of six ANNs which are dedicated to describe the three phases of the grid (three amplitudes and three angle phases). Regarding to the second step, it is composed of a single ANN which analysis the indicators and generates a decision signal that describes the function mode (healthy or faulty). On other hand, the decision signal identifies the fault type. It allows distinguishing between the four faulty types. The diagnosis procedure is tested in simulation and experimental prototype. The obtained results confirm and approve its efficiency, rapidity, robustness and immunity to the noise and unknown inputs. Copyright © 2016 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Elitez, İrem; Yaltırak, Cenk; Zabcı, Cengiz; Şahin, Murat
The precise geological mapping is one of the most important issues in geological studies. Documenting the spatial distribution of geological bodies and their contacts play a crucial role on interpreting the tectonic evolution of any region. Although the traditional field techniques are still accepted to be the most fundamental tools in construction of geological maps, we suggest that the integration of digital technologies to the classical methods significantly increases the resolution and the quality of such products. We simply follow the following steps in integration of the digital data with the traditional field observations. First, we create the digital elevation model (DEM) of the region of interest by interpolating the digital contours of 1:25000 scale topographic maps to 10 m of ground pixel resolution. The non-commercial Google Earth satellite imagery and geological maps of previous studies are draped over the interpolated DEMs in the second stage. The integration of all spatial data is done by using the market leading GIS software, ESRI ArcGIS. We make the preliminary interpretation of major structures as tectonic lineaments and stratigraphic contacts. These preliminary maps are controlled and precisely coordinated during the field studies by using mobile tablets and/or phablets with GPS receivers. The same devices are also used in measuring and recording the geologic structures of the study region. Finally, all digitally collected measurements and observations are added to the GIS database and we finalise our geological map with all available information. We applied this integrated method to map the Burdur-Fethiye Shear Zone (BFSZ) in the southwest Turkey. The BFSZ is an active sinistral 60-to-90 km-wide shear zone, which prolongs about 300 km-long between Suhut-Cay in the northeast and Köyceğiz Lake-Kalkan in the southwest on land. The numerous studies suggest contradictory models not only about the evolution but also about the fault geometry of this
Batterton, P. G.; Arpasi, D. J.; Baumbick, R. J.
A digitally implemented integrated inlet-engine control system was designed and tested on a mixed-compression, axisymmetric, Mach 2.5, supersonic inlet with 45 percent internal supersonic area contraction and a TF30-P-3 augmented turbofan engine. The control matched engine airflow to available inlet airflow. By monitoring inlet terminal shock position and over-board bypass door command, the control adjusted engine speed so that in steady state, the shock would be at the desired location and the overboard bypass doors would be closed. During engine-induced transients, such as augmentor light-off and cutoff, the inlet operating point was momentarily changed to a more supercritical point to minimize unstarts. The digital control also provided automatic inlet restart. A variable inlet throat bleed control, based on throat Mach number, provided additional inlet stability margin.
Gauchel, J. [WIBc, Objektorientierte Systeme fuer Gebaeudeplanung und -management, Karlsruhe (Germany)
In chapter 4 of the anthology about building control integrated digital planning and management tools are described. Integrated planning and management tools are task-orientated data processing applications, which are integrated into a data management and a common user-interface. The following aspects are discussed: realistic modelling, CAD-systems, object-orientated system architecture as well as building management. (BWI) [Deutsch] Kapitel 4 des Sammelbandes ueber Building Control ist Integrierten digitalen Planungs- und Managementwerkzeugen gewindmet. Unter Integrierten Planungs- und Managementwerkzeugen werden dabei aufgabenorientierte EDV-Anwendungen verstanden, die in eine gemeinsame Datenverwaltung und ein gemeinsames Nutzer-Interface eingebunden sind. Folgende Themen werden angesprochen: Realistische Modellierung, CAD-Systeme, objektorientierte Systemarchitekturen sowie Gebaeudemanagement. (BWI)
Rafini, F.; Priaminiarti, M.; Sukardi, I.; Lessang, R.
The healing of periodontal splinting can be detected both with clinical and radiographic examination. In this study, the alveolar bone was evaluated by radiographic digital periapical analysis. Periodontal tooth splinting is periodontal support therapy used to prevent periodontal injury during repair and regeneration of periodontal therapy. Radiographic digital periapical analysis of alveolar bone in the mandibular anterior region with chronic periodontitis and 2/3 cervical bone loss after three months of periodontal splinting. Eighty four proximal site (43 mesial and 41 distal) from 16 patients with chronic periodontitis and treated with spinting were examined by taking periapical digital radiographic at day 1 and 91. The bone loss, bone density and utility of lamina dura were evaluated. The statistical analysis after three months evaluation using T-test for bone loss, Wilcoxon sign rank test for bone density and utility lamina dura showed no significantly differences (pchronic periodontitis with 2/3 alveolar bone loss after three months splinting.
Wu, Xiaojun; She, Manrong; Li, Zhizhong; Song, Fei; Sang, Wei
In the main control rooms of nuclear power plants (NPPs), operators frequently switch between alarm displays and system-information displays to incorporate information from different screens. In this study, we investigated two integrated designs of alarm and process information - integrating alarm information into process displays (denoted as Alarm2Process integration) and integrating process information into alarm displays (denoted as Process2Alarm integration). To analyse the effects of the two integration approaches and time pressure on the diagnosis performance, a laboratory experiment was conducted with ninety-six students. The results show that compared with the non-integrated case, Process2Alarm integration yields better diagnosis performance in terms of diagnosis accuracy, time required to generate correct hypothesis and completion time. In contrast, the Alarm2Process integration leads to higher levels of workload, with no improvement in diagnosis performance. The diagnosis performance of Process2Alarm integration was consistently better than that of Alarm2Process integration, regardless of the levels of time pressure. Practitioner Summary: To facilitate operator's synthesis of NPP information when performing diagnosis tasks, we proposed to integrate process information into alarm displays. The laboratory validation shows that the integration approach significantly improves the diagnosis performance for both low and high time-pressure levels.
An integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international telecommunication between Samsung Medical Center and Hokkaido University using telecommunication helped radiotherapy planning and information system (THERAPIS).
Huh, S J; Shirato, H; Hashimoto, S; Shimizu, S; Kim, D Y; Ahn, Y C; Choi, D; Miyasaka, K; Mizuno, J
This study introduces the integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international teleradiotherapy system (THERAPIS) in radiation oncology between hospitals in Seoul, South Korea and in Sapporo, Japan. THERAPIS has the following functions: (1) exchange of patient's image data, (2) real-time teleconference, and (3) communication of the treatment planning, dose calculation and distribution, and of portal verification images between the remote hospitals. Our preliminary results of applications on eight patients demonstrated that the international telecommunication using THERAPIS was clinically useful and satisfactory with sufficient bandwidth for the transfer of patient data for clinical use in radiation oncology.
An integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international telecommunication between Samsung Medical Center and Hokkaido University using telecommunication helped radiotherapy planning and information system (THERAPIS)
Huh, S.J.; Kim, D.Y.; Ahn, Y.C.; Choi, D.; Shirato, H.; Hashimoto, S.; Shimizu, S.; Miyasaka, K.; Mizuno, J.
This study introduces the integrated service digital network (ISDN)-based international teleradiotherapy system (THERAPIS) in radiation oncology between hospitals in Seoul, South Korea and in Sapporo, Japan. THERAPIS has the following functions: (1) exchange of patient's image data, (2) real-time teleconference, and (3) communication of the treatment planning, dose calculation and distribution, and of portal verification images between the remote hospitals. Our preliminary results of applications on eight patients demonstrated that the international telecommunication using THERAPIS was clinically useful and satisfactory with sufficient bandwidth for the transfer of patient data for clinical use in radiation oncology. (author)
Full Text Available The main objective of this paper is to examine the impact of FDI inflow on local entrepreneurship in Georgia. The secondary objective of the article is to determine what effects the business climate in the country has on the growth of local entrepreneurs. To verify the impact of foreign investments on domestic entrepreneurship, dynamics of active local enterprises in Georgia in the years 2005-2014 is used as a dependent variable. In regard with business climate, international business and credit rankings were selected to show how they are interrelated with foreign investments and how they affect domestic entrepreneurs. FDI has no significant effect on local entrepreneurship in Georgia, neither on their growth, nor on their fall, as Its share in the local economy is nominal. It is noteworthy, however, that inflow of foreign capital has positive impact on the country’s business climate, promoting its image and rising international recognition. The favorable business climate can help many local enterprises, especially SMEs, to benefit from liberal environment, financial and tax incentives, less regulation and bureaucracy. This paper intends to enrich relatively poor literature about FDI effects on Transcaucasian countries, providing a clear understanding to what extend the local entrepreneurship are under the influence of FDI and general business climate in the country.
Mackall, D. A.; Ishmael, S. D.; Regenie, V. A.
Qualification considerations for assuring the safety of a life-critical digital flight control system include four major areas: systems interactions, verification, validation, and configuration control. The AFTI/F-16 design, development, and qualification illustrate these considerations. In this paper, qualification concepts, procedures, and methodologies are discussed and illustrated through specific examples.
Rupp, André A.; Nugent, Rebecca; Nelson, Brian
In recent years the educational community has increasingly embraced digital technologies for the purposes of developing alternative learning environments, providing diagnostic feedback, and fostering the development of so-called 21st-century skills. This special issue is dedicated to bridging recent work from the disciplines of educational and…
Rauwers, F.; Voorveld, H.A.M.; Neijens, P.C.
This study investigates the effects of external and internal communication features on consumers' digital magazine attitude, and the processes (i.e., perceived interactivity and social presence) underlying these effects. Both feature types enable communication between two or more people. Though, in
Kreijns, Karel; Vermeulen, Marjan; Van Acker, Frederik; Van Buuren, Hans
In this article, we report on a study that investigated the motivational (e.g., intrinsic motivation) and dispositional variables (e.g., attitudes) that determine teachers’ intention to use or not to use Digital Learning Materials (DLMs). To understand the direct and indirect relationships between
Kerkhoff, Hans G.; Wan, J.
Heterogeneous SoC devices, including sensors, analogue and mixed-signal front-end circuits and the availability of massive digital processing capability, are being increasingly used in safety-critical applications like in the automotive, medical, and the security arena. Already a significant amount
Khushi, Matloob; Edwards, Georgina; de Marcos, Diego Alonso; Carpenter, Jane E; Graham, J Dinny; Clarke, Christine L
Virtual microscopy includes digitisation of histology slides and the use of computer technologies for complex investigation of diseases such as cancer. However, automated image analysis, or website publishing of such digital images, is hampered by their large file sizes. We have developed two Java based open source tools: Snapshot Creator and NDPI-Splitter. Snapshot Creator converts a portion of a large digital slide into a desired quality JPEG image. The image is linked to the patient's clinical and treatment information in a customised open source cancer data management software (Caisis) in use at the Australian Breast Cancer Tissue Bank (ABCTB) and then published on the ABCTB website (http://www.abctb.org.au) using Deep Zoom open source technology. Using the ABCTB online search engine, digital images can be searched by defining various criteria such as cancer type, or biomarkers expressed. NDPI-Splitter splits a large image file into smaller sections of TIFF images so that they can be easily analysed by image analysis software such as Metamorph or Matlab. NDPI-Splitter also has the capacity to filter out empty images. Snapshot Creator and NDPI-Splitter are novel open source Java tools. They convert digital slides into files of smaller size for further processing. In conjunction with other open source tools such as Deep Zoom and Caisis, this suite of tools is used for the management and archiving of digital microscopy images, enabling digitised images to be explored and zoomed online. Our online image repository also has the capacity to be used as a teaching resource. These tools also enable large files to be sectioned for image analysis. The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5330903258483934.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Virtual microscopy includes digitisation of histology slides and the use of computer technologies for complex investigation of diseases such as cancer. However, automated image analysis, or website publishing of such digital images, is hampered by their large file sizes. Results We have developed two Java based open source tools: Snapshot Creator and NDPI-Splitter. Snapshot Creator converts a portion of a large digital slide into a desired quality JPEG image. The image is linked to the patient’s clinical and treatment information in a customised open source cancer data management software (Caisis in use at the Australian Breast Cancer Tissue Bank (ABCTB and then published on the ABCTB website (http://www.abctb.org.au using Deep Zoom open source technology. Using the ABCTB online search engine, digital images can be searched by defining various criteria such as cancer type, or biomarkers expressed. NDPI-Splitter splits a large image file into smaller sections of TIFF images so that they can be easily analysed by image analysis software such as Metamorph or Matlab. NDPI-Splitter also has the capacity to filter out empty images. Conclusions Snapshot Creator and NDPI-Splitter are novel open source Java tools. They convert digital slides into files of smaller size for further processing. In conjunction with other open source tools such as Deep Zoom and Caisis, this suite of tools is used for the management and archiving of digital microscopy images, enabling digitised images to be explored and zoomed online. Our online image repository also has the capacity to be used as a teaching resource. These tools also enable large files to be sectioned for image analysis. Virtual Slides The virtual slide(s for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnosticpathology.diagnomx.eu/vs/5330903258483934
The TRT - Transition Radiation Tracker - is a sub detector of the particle detector ATLAS - A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS. About 420,000 detecting elements are distributed over 22 m3. They produce each second approximately 20 Tbit of data, which has to be transferred from the front-end electronics inside the detector to the back-end electronics outside the detector for further processing. The task of this thesis is to guarantee the integrity of the signals and the electromagnetic compatibility inside the TRT as well as to the aggressive surroundings. The electromagnetic environment of particle detectors in high-energy physics adds special constraints to the high data rates and the high complexity: high sensibility of the detecting elements and their pre amplifiers, confined space, limited material budget, a radioactive environment, and high static magnetic fields. Thus many industrial standard measures have to be abandoned. Special design is essential to compensate this disadvantage. (author)
The Transition Radiation Tracker (TRT) is a sub detector of the particle detector ATLAS (A Toroidal LHC ApparatuS). About 420,000 detecting elements are distributed over 22 m3. They produce each second approximately 20 Tbit of data which has to be transferred from the front-end electronics inside the detector to the back-end electronics outside the detector for further processing. The task of this thesis is to guarantee the integrity of the signals and the electromagnetic compatibility inside the TRT as well as to the aggressive surroundings. The electromagnetic environment of particle detectors in high-energy physics adds special constraints to the high data rates and the high complexity: high sensibility of the detecting elements and their pre amplifiers, confined space, limited material budget, a radioactive environment, and high static magnetic fields. Thus many industrial standard measures have to be abandoned. Special design is essential to compensate this disadvantage.