WorldWideScience

Sample records for digital image processing

  1. Digital image processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rafael C; Woods, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    Completely self-contained-and heavily illustrated-this introduction to basic concepts and methodologies for digital image processing is written at a level that truly is suitable for seniors and first...

  2. Methods of digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doeler, W.

    1985-01-01

    Increasing use of computerized methods for diagnostical imaging of radiological problems will open up a wide field of applications for digital image processing. The requirements set by routine diagnostics in medical radiology point to picture data storage and documentation and communication as the main points of interest for application of digital image processing. As to the purely radiological problems, the value of digital image processing is to be sought in the improved interpretability of the image information in those cases where the expert's experience and image interpretation by human visual capacities do not suffice. There are many other domains of imaging in medical physics where digital image processing and evaluation is very useful. The paper reviews the various methods available for a variety of problem solutions, and explains the hardware available for the tasks discussed. (orig.) [de

  3. Digital image processing

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gonzalez, Rafael C; Woods, Richard E

    2008-01-01

    ...-year graduate students in almost any technical discipline. The leading textbook in its field for more than twenty years, it continues its cutting-edge focus on contemporary developments in all mainstream areas of image processing-e.g...

  4. Introduction to digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Pratt, William K

    2013-01-01

    CONTINUOUS IMAGE CHARACTERIZATION Continuous Image Mathematical Characterization Image RepresentationTwo-Dimensional SystemsTwo-Dimensional Fourier TransformImage Stochastic CharacterizationPsychophysical Vision Properties Light PerceptionEye PhysiologyVisual PhenomenaMonochrome Vision ModelColor Vision ModelPhotometry and ColorimetryPhotometryColor MatchingColorimetry ConceptsColor SpacesDIGITAL IMAGE CHARACTERIZATION Image Sampling and Reconstruction Image Sampling and Reconstruction ConceptsMonochrome Image Sampling SystemsMonochrome Image Reconstruction SystemsColor Image Sampling SystemsImage QuantizationScalar QuantizationProcessing Quantized VariablesMonochrome and Color Image QuantizationDISCRETE TWO-DIMENSIONAL LINEAR PROCESSING Discrete Image Mathematical Characterization Vector-Space Image RepresentationGeneralized Two-Dimensional Linear OperatorImage Statistical CharacterizationImage Probability Density ModelsLinear Operator Statistical RepresentationSuperposition and ConvolutionFinite-Area Superp...

  5. Digital Data Processing of Images

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital data processing was investigated to perform image processing. Image smoothing and restoration were explored and promising results obtained. The use of the computer, not only as a data management device, but as an important tool to render quantitative information, was illustrated by lung function determination.

  6. Digital processing of radiographic images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, A. D.; Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1973-01-01

    Some techniques are presented and the software documentation for the digital enhancement of radiographs. Both image handling and image processing operations are considered. The image handling operations dealt with are: (1) conversion of format of data from packed to unpacked and vice versa; (2) automatic extraction of image data arrays; (3) transposition and 90 deg rotations of large data arrays; (4) translation of data arrays for registration; and (5) reduction of the dimensions of data arrays by integral factors. Both the frequency and the spatial domain approaches are presented for the design and implementation of the image processing operation. It is shown that spatial domain recursive implementation of filters is much faster than nonrecursive implementations using fast fourier transforms (FFT) for the cases of interest in this work. The recursive implementation of a class of matched filters for enhancing image signal to noise ratio is described. Test patterns are used to illustrate the filtering operations. The application of the techniques to radiographic images of metallic structures is demonstrated through several examples.

  7. Digital image processing techniques in archaeology

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Santanam, K.; Vaithiyanathan, R.; Tripati, S.

    Digital image processing involves the manipulation and interpretation of digital images with the aid of a computer. This form of remote sensing actually began in the 1960's with a limited number of researchers analysing multispectral scanner data...

  8. Digital image processing mathematical and computational methods

    CERN Document Server

    Blackledge, J M

    2005-01-01

    This authoritative text (the second part of a complete MSc course) provides mathematical methods required to describe images, image formation and different imaging systems, coupled with the principle techniques used for processing digital images. It is based on a course for postgraduates reading physics, electronic engineering, telecommunications engineering, information technology and computer science. This book relates the methods of processing and interpreting digital images to the 'physics' of imaging systems. Case studies reinforce the methods discussed, with examples of current research

  9. How Digital Image Processing Became Really Easy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Michael

    1988-02-01

    In the early and mid-1970s, digital image processing was the subject of intense university and corporate research. The research lay along two lines: (1) developing mathematical techniques for improving the appearance of or analyzing the contents of images represented in digital form, and (2) creating cost-effective hardware to carry out these techniques. The research has been very effective, as evidenced by the continued decline of image processing as a research topic, and the rapid increase of commercial companies to market digital image processing software and hardware.

  10. Eliminating "Hotspots" in Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomon, P. M.

    1984-01-01

    Signals from defective picture elements rejected. Image processing program for use with charge-coupled device (CCD) or other mosaic imager augmented with algorithm that compensates for common type of electronic defect. Algorithm prevents false interpretation of "hotspots". Used for robotics, image enhancement, image analysis and digital television.

  11. Digital image processing in art conservation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zitová, Barbara; Flusser, Jan

    č. 53 (2003), s. 44-45 ISSN 0926-4981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1075907 Keywords : art conservation * digital image processing * change detection Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics

  12. Image processing in digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manninen, H.; Partanen, K.; Lehtovirta, J.; Matsi, P.; Soimakallio, S.

    1992-01-01

    The usefulness of digital image processing of chest radiographs was evaluated in a clinical study. In 54 patients, chest radiographs in the posteroanterior projection were obtained by both 14 inch digital image intensifier equipment and the conventional screen-film technique. The digital radiographs (512x512 image format) viewed on a 625 line monitor were processed in 3 different ways: 1.standard display; 2.digital edge enhancement for the standard display; 3.inverse intensity display. The radiographs were interpreted independently by 3 radiologists. Diagnoses were confirmed by CT, follow-up radiographs and clinical records. Chest abnormalities of the films analyzed included 21 primary lung tumors, 44 pulmonary nodules, 16 cases with mediastinal disease, 17 with pneumonia /atelectasis. Interstitial lung disease, pleural plaques, and pulmonary emphysema were found in 30, 18 and 19 cases respectively. Sensitivity of conventional radiography when averaged overall findings was better than that of digital techniques (P<0.001). Differences in diagnostic accuracy measured by sensitivity and specificity between the 3 digital display modes were small. Standard image display showed better sensitivity for pulmonary nodules (0.74 vs 0.66; P<0.05) but poorer specificity for pulmonary emphysema (0.85 vs 0.93; P<0.05) compared with inverse intensity display. It is concluded that when using 512x512 image format, the routine use of digital edge enhancement and tone reversal at digital chest radiographs is not warranted. (author). 12 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs

  13. Digital Data Processing of Images

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    be concerned with the image enhancement of scintigrams. Two applications of image ... obtained from scintigraphic equipment, image enhance- ment by computer was ... used as an example. ..... Using video-tape display, areas of interest are ...

  14. Crack Length Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    1990-01-01

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better then that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  15. Crack Detection by Digital Image Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, Janus; Brincker, Rune

    It is described how digital image processing is used for measuring the length of fatigue cracks. The system is installed in a Personal, Computer equipped with image processing hardware and performs automated measuring on plane metal specimens used in fatigue testing. Normally one can not achieve...... a resolution better than that of the image processing equipment. To overcome this problem an extrapolation technique is used resulting in a better resolution. The system was tested on a specimen loaded with different loads. The error σa was less than 0.031 mm, which is of the same size as human measuring...

  16. Fundamental concepts of digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twogood, R.E.

    1983-03-01

    The field of a digital-image processing has experienced dramatic growth and increasingly widespread applicability in recent years. Fortunately, advances in computer technology have kept pace with the rapid growth in volume of image data in these and other applications. Digital image processing has become economical in many fields of research and in industrial and military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more extensive computation. The trend is toward real-time and interactive operations, where the user of the system obtains preliminary results within a short enough time that the next decision can be made by the human processor without loss of concentration on the task at hand. An example of this is the obtaining of two-dimensional (2-D) computer-aided tomography (CAT) images. A medical decision might be made while the patient is still under observation rather than days later.

  17. Fundamental Concepts of Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Twogood, R. E.

    1983-03-01

    The field of a digital-image processing has experienced dramatic growth and increasingly widespread applicability in recent years. Fortunately, advances in computer technology have kept pace with the rapid growth in volume of image data in these and other applications. Digital image processing has become economical in many fields of research and in industrial and military applications. While each application has requirements unique from the others, all are concerned with faster, cheaper, more accurate, and more extensive computation. The trend is toward real-time and interactive operations, where the user of the system obtains preliminary results within a short enough time that the next decision can be made by the human processor without loss of concentration on the task at hand. An example of this is the obtaining of two-dimensional (2-D) computer-aided tomography (CAT) images. A medical decision might be made while the patient is still under observation rather than days later.

  18. Image processing techniques for digital orthophotoquad production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Joy J.; Ladner, L. J.; Champion, Richard A.

    1989-01-01

    Orthophotographs have long been recognized for their value as supplements or alternatives to standard maps. Recent trends towards digital cartography have resulted in efforts by the US Geological Survey to develop a digital orthophotoquad production system. Digital image files were created by scanning color infrared photographs on a microdensitometer. Rectification techniques were applied to remove tile and relief displacement, thereby creating digital orthophotos. Image mosaicking software was then used to join the rectified images, producing digital orthophotos in quadrangle format.

  19. Speckle pattern processing by digital image correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gubarev Fedor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Testing the method of speckle pattern processing based on the digital image correlation is carried out in the current work. Three the most widely used formulas of the correlation coefficient are tested. To determine the accuracy of the speckle pattern processing, test speckle patterns with known displacement are used. The optimal size of a speckle pattern template used for determination of correlation and corresponding the speckle pattern displacement is also considered in the work.

  20. [Digital thoracic radiology: devices, image processing, limits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frija, J; de Géry, S; Lallouet, F; Guermazi, A; Zagdanski, A M; De Kerviler, E

    2001-09-01

    In a first part, the different techniques of digital thoracic radiography are described. Since computed radiography with phosphore plates are the most commercialized it is more emphasized. But the other detectors are also described, as the drum coated with selenium and the direct digital radiography with selenium detectors. The other detectors are also studied in particular indirect flat panels detectors and the system with four high resolution CCD cameras. In a second step the most important image processing are discussed: the gradation curves, the unsharp mask processing, the system MUSICA, the dynamic range compression or reduction, the soustraction with dual energy. In the last part the advantages and the drawbacks of computed thoracic radiography are emphasized. The most important are the almost constant good quality of the pictures and the possibilities of image processing.

  1. Digital image processing in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, S.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron radiography is a method for the visualization of the macroscopic inner-structure and material distributions of various samples. The basic experimental arrangement consists of a neutron source, a collimator functioning as beam formatting assembly and of a plane position sensitive integrating detector. The object is placed between the collimator exit and the detector, which records a two dimensional image. This image contains information about the composition and structure of the sample-interior, as a result of the interaction of neutrons by penetrating matter. Due to rapid developments of detector and computer technology as well as deployments in the field of digital image processing, new technologies are nowadays available which have the potential to improve the performance of neutron radiographic investigations enormously. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a state-of-the art digital imaging device, suitable for the two neutron radiography stations located at the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten and furthermore, to identify and develop two and three dimensional digital image processing methods suitable for neutron radiographic and tomographic applications, and to implement and optimize them within data processing strategies. The first step was the development of a new imaging device fulfilling the requirements of a high reproducibility, easy handling, high spatial resolution, a large dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The detector output should be inherently digitized. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of these requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a CCD-camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD-camera. This detector design enables to place the camera out of the direct neutron beam. The whole assembly is placed in a light shielded aluminum box. The camera is controlled by a

  2. Digital image processing in neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koerner, S.

    2000-11-01

    Neutron radiography is a method for the visualization of the macroscopic inner-structure and material distributions of various materials. The basic experimental arrangement consists of a neutron source, a collimator functioning as beam formatting assembly and of a plane position sensitive integrating detector. The object is placed between the collimator exit and the detector, which records a two dimensional image. This image contains information about the composition and structure of the sample-interior, as a result of the interaction of neutrons by penetrating matter. Due to rapid developments of detector and computer technology as well as deployments in the field of digital image processing, new technologies are nowadays available which have the potential to improve the performance of neutron radiographic investigations enormously. Therefore, the aim of this work was to develop a state-of-the art digital imaging device, suitable for the two neutron radiography stations located at the 250 kW TRIGA Mark II reactor at the Atominstitut der Oesterreichischen Universitaeten and furthermore, to identify and develop two and three dimensional digital image processing methods suitable for neutron radiographic and tomographic applications, and to implement and optimize them within data processing strategies. The first step was the development of a new imaging device fulfilling the requirements of a high reproducibility, easy handling, high spatial resolution, a large dynamic range, high efficiency and a good linearity. The detector output should be inherently digitized. The key components of the detector system selected on the basis of these requirements consist of a neutron sensitive scintillator screen, a CCD-camera and a mirror to reflect the light emitted by the scintillator to the CCD-camera. This detector design enables to place the camera out of the direct neutron beam. The whole assembly is placed in a light shielded aluminum box. The camera is controlled by a

  3. Surface Distresses Detection of Pavement Based on Digital Image Processing

    OpenAIRE

    Ouyang , Aiguo; Luo , Chagen; Zhou , Chao

    2010-01-01

    International audience; Pavement crack is the main form of early diseases of pavement. The use of digital photography to record pavement images and subsequent crack detection and classification has undergone continuous improvements over the past decade. Digital image processing has been applied to detect the pavement crack for its advantages of large amount of information and automatic detection. The applications of digital image processing in pavement crack detection, distresses classificati...

  4. Digital image sequence processing, compression, and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Reed, Todd R

    2004-01-01

    IntroductionTodd R. ReedCONTENT-BASED IMAGE SEQUENCE REPRESENTATIONPedro M. Q. Aguiar, Radu S. Jasinschi, José M. F. Moura, andCharnchai PluempitiwiriyawejTHE COMPUTATION OF MOTIONChristoph Stiller, Sören Kammel, Jan Horn, and Thao DangMOTION ANALYSIS AND DISPLACEMENT ESTIMATION IN THE FREQUENCY DOMAINLuca Lucchese and Guido Maria CortelazzoQUALITY OF SERVICE ASSESSMENT IN NEW GENERATION WIRELESS VIDEO COMMUNICATIONSGaetano GiuntaERROR CONCEALMENT IN DIGITAL VIDEOFrancesco G.B. De NataleIMAGE SEQUENCE RESTORATION: A WIDER PERSPECTIVEAnil KokaramVIDEO SUMMARIZATIONCuneyt M. Taskiran and Edward

  5. Image processing by use of the digital cross-correlator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katou, Yoshinori

    1982-01-01

    We manufactured for trial an instrument which achieved the image processing using digital correlators. A digital correlator perform 64-bit parallel correlation at 20 MH. The output of a digital correlator is a 7-bit word representing. An A-D converter is used to quantize it a precision of six bits. The resulting 6-bit word is fed to six correlators, wired in parallel. The image processing achieved in 12 bits, whose digital outputs converted an analog signal by a D-A converter. This instrument is named the digital cross-correlator. The method which was used in the image processing system calculated the convolution with the digital correlator. It makes various digital filters. In the experiment with the image processing video signals from TV camera were used. The digital image processing time was approximately 5 μs. The contrast was enhanced and smoothed. The digital cross-correlator has the image processing of 16 sorts, and was produced inexpensively. (author)

  6. Digital image processing for radiography in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidt, H.; Rose, P.; Raabe, P.; Daum, W.

    1985-01-01

    With the help of digital processing of radiographic images from reactor-components it is possible to increase the security and objectiveness of the evaluation. Several examples of image processing procedures (contrast enhancement, density profiles, shading correction, digital filtering, superposition of images etc.) show the advantages for the visualization and evaluation of radiographs. Digital image processing can reduce some of the restrictions of radiography in nuclear power plants. In addition a higher degree of automation can be cost-saving and increase the quality of radiographic evaluation. The aim of the work performed was to to improve the readability of radiographs for the human observer. The main problem is lack of contrast and the presence of disturbing structures like weld seams. Digital image processing of film radiographs starts with the digitization of the image. Conventional systems use TV-cameras or scanners and provide a dynamic range of 1.5. to 3 density units, which are digitized to 256 grey levels. For the enhancement process it is necessary that the grey level range covers the density range of the important regions of the presented film. On the other hand the grey level coverage should not be wider than necessary to minimize the width of digitization steps. Poor digitization makes flaws and cracks invisible and spoils all further image processing

  7. Detecting jaundice by using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Ramos, J.; Toxqui-Quitl, C.; Villa Manriquez, F.; Orozco-Guillen, E.; Padilla-Vivanco, A.; Sánchez-Escobar, JJ.

    2014-03-01

    When strong Jaundice is presented, babies or adults should be subject to clinical exam like "serum bilirubin" which can cause traumas in patients. Often jaundice is presented in liver disease such as hepatitis or liver cancer. In order to avoid additional traumas we propose to detect jaundice (icterus) in newborns or adults by using a not pain method. By acquiring digital images in color, in palm, soles and forehead, we analyze RGB attributes and diffuse reflectance spectra as the parameter to characterize patients with either jaundice or not, and we correlate that parameters with the level of bilirubin. By applying support vector machine we distinguish between healthy and sick patients.

  8. Effects of optimization and image processing in digital chest radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheddache, S.; Maansson, L.G.; Angelhed, J.E.; Denbratt, L.; Gottfridsson, B.; Schlossman, D.

    1991-01-01

    A digital system for chest radiography based on a large image intensifier was compared to a conventional film-screen system. The digital system was optimized with regard to spatial and contrast resolution and dose. The images were digitally processed for contrast and edge enhancement. A simulated pneumothorax and two and two simulated nodules were positioned over the lungs and the mediastinum of an anthro-pomorphic phantom. Observer performance was evaluated with Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis. Five observers assessed the processed digital images and the conventional full-size radiographs. The time spent viewing the full-size radiographs and the digital images was recorded. For the simulated pneumothorax, the results showed perfect performance for the full-size radiographs and detectability was high also for the processed digital images. No significant differences in the detectability of the simulated nodules was seen between the two imaging systems. The results for the digital images showed a significantly improved detectability for the nodules in the mediastinum as compared to a previous ROC study where no optimization and image processing was available. No significant difference in detectability was seen between the former and the present ROC study for small nodules in the lung. No difference was seen in the time spent assessing the conventional full-size radiographs and the digital images. The study indicates that processed digital images produced by a large image intensifier are equal in image quality to conventional full-size radiographs for low-contrast objects such as nodules. (author). 38 refs.; 4 figs.; 1 tab

  9. Digital image processing applied Rock Art tracing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Montero Ruiz, Ignacio

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available Adequate graphic recording has been one of the main objectives of rock art research. Photography has increased its role as a documentary technique. Now, digital image and its treatment allows new ways to observe the details of the figures and to develop a recording procedure which is as, or more, accurate than direct tracing. This technique also avoid deterioration of the rock paintings. The mathematical basis of this method is also presented.

    La correcta documentación del arte rupestre ha sido una preocupación constante por parte de los investigadores. En el desarrollo de nuevas técnicas de registro, directas e indirectas, la fotografía ha ido adquiriendo mayor protagonismo. La imagen digital y su tratamiento permiten nuevas posibilidades de observación de las figuras representadas y, en consecuencia, una lectura mediante la realización de calcos indirectos de tanta o mayor fiabilidad que la observación directa. Este sistema evita los riesgos de deterioro que provocan los calcos directos. Se incluyen las bases matemáticas que sustentan el método.

  10. Post-processing of digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, Luca; Politi, Marco; Foschi, Raffaella; Masini, Valentina; Reale, Francesca; Costantini, Alessandro Maria; Marano, Pasquale

    2003-01-01

    Post-processing of bi- and three-dimensional images plays a major role for clinicians and surgeons in both diagnosis and therapy. The new spiral (single and multislice) CT and MRI machines have allowed better quality of images. With the associated development of hardware and software, post-processing has become indispensable in many radiologic applications in order to address precise clinical questions. In particular, in CT the acquisition technique is fundamental and should be targeted and optimized to obtain good image reconstruction. Multiplanar reconstructions ensure simple, immediate display of sections along different planes. Three-dimensional reconstructions include numerous procedures: multiplanar techniques as maximum intensity projections (MIP); surface rendering techniques as the Shaded Surface Display (SSD); volume techniques as the Volume Rendering Technique; techniques of virtual endoscopy. In surgery computer-aided techniques as the neuronavigator, which with information provided by neuroimaging helps the neurosurgeon in simulating and performing the operation, are extremely interesting.

  11. Digital image processing an algorithmic approach with Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Qidwai, Uvais

    2009-01-01

    Introduction to Image Processing and the MATLAB EnvironmentIntroduction Digital Image Definitions: Theoretical Account Image Properties MATLAB Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage Acquisition, Types, and File I/OImage Acquisition Image Types and File I/O Basics of Color Images Other Color Spaces Algorithmic Account MATLAB CodeImage ArithmeticIntroduction Operator Basics Theoretical TreatmentAlgorithmic Treatment Coding ExamplesAffine and Logical Operations, Distortions, and Noise in ImagesIntroduction Affine Operations Logical Operators Noise in Images Distortions in ImagesAlgorithmic Account

  12. The Digital Microscope and Its Image Processing Utility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Wahyu Supardi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many institutions, including high schools, own a large number of analog or ordinary microscopes. These microscopes are used to observe small objects. Unfortunately, object observations on the ordinary microscope require precision and visual acuity of the user. This paper discusses the development of a high-resolution digital microscope from an analog microscope, including the image processing utility, which allows the digital microscope users to capture, store and process the digital images of the object being observed. The proposed microscope is constructed from hardware components that can be easily found in Indonesia. The image processing software is capable of performing brightness adjustment, contrast enhancement, histogram equalization, scaling and cropping. The proposed digital microscope has a maximum magnification of 1600x, and image resolution can be varied from 320x240 pixels up to 2592x1944 pixels. The microscope was tested with various objects with a variety of magnification, and image processing was carried out on the image of the object. The results showed that the digital microscope and its image processing system were capable of enhancing the observed object and other operations in accordance with the user need. The digital microscope has eliminated the need for direct observation by human eye as with the traditional microscope.

  13. Digital image processing in NDT : Application to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aguirre, J.; Gonzales, C.; Pereira, D.

    1988-01-01

    Digital image processing techniques are applied to image enhancement discontinuity detection and characterization is radiographic test. Processing is performed mainly by image histogram modification, edge enhancement, texture and user interactive segmentation. Implementation was achieved in a microcomputer with video image capture system. Results are compared with those obtained through more specialized equipment main frame computers and high precision mechanical scanning digitisers. Procedures are intended as a precious stage for automatic defect detection

  14. The study of image processing of parallel digital signal processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Jie

    2000-01-01

    The author analyzes the basic characteristic of parallel DSP (digital signal processor) TMS320C80 and proposes related optimized image algorithm and the parallel processing method based on parallel DSP. The realtime for many image processing can be achieved in this way

  15. Digital Data Processing of Images | Lotter | South African Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital data processing was investigated to perform image processing. Image smoothing and restoration were explored and promising results obtained. The use of the computer, not only as a data management device, but as an important tool to render quantitative information, was illustrated by lung function determination.

  16. A report on digital image processing and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, B.; Alex, J.; Haridasan, G.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents developments in software, connected with digital image processing and analysis in the Centre. In image processing, one resorts to either alteration of grey level values so as to enhance features in the image or resorts to transform domain operations for restoration or filtering. Typical transform domain operations like Karhunen-Loeve transforms are statistical in nature and are used for a good registration of images or template - matching. Image analysis procedures segment grey level images into images contained within selectable windows, for the purpose of estimating geometrical features in the image, like area, perimeter, projections etc. In short, in image processing both the input and output are images, whereas in image analyses, the input is an image whereas the output is a set of numbers and graphs. (author). 19 refs

  17. Digital signal and image processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2015-01-01

    The most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals, the theory being supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications.   More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLAB® language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject.  Following on from the first volume, this second installation takes a more practical stance, provi

  18. Digital signal and image processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Blanchet , Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This fully revised and updated second edition presents the most important theoretical aspects of Image and Signal Processing (ISP) for both deterministic and random signals. The theory is supported by exercises and computer simulations relating to real applications. More than 200 programs and functions are provided in the MATLABÒ language, with useful comments and guidance, to enable numerical experiments to be carried out, thus allowing readers to develop a deeper understanding of both the theoretical and practical aspects of this subject. This fully revised new edition updates : - the

  19. New possibilities of digital luminescence radiography (DLR) and digital image processing for verification and portal imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmermann, J.S.; Blume, J.; Wendhausen, H.; Hebbinghaus, D.; Kovacs, G.; Eilf, K.; Schultze, J.; Kimmig, B.N.

    1995-01-01

    We developed a method, using digital luminescence radiography (DLR), not only for portal imaging of photon beams in an excellent quality, but also for verification of electron beams. Furtheron, DLR was used as basic instrument for image fusion of portal and verification film and simulation film respectively for image processing in ''beams-eye-view'' verification (BEVV) of rotating beams or conformation therapy. Digital radiographs of an excellent quality are gained for verification of photon and electron beams. In photon beams, quality improvement vs. conventional portal imaging may be dramatic, even more for high energy beams (e.g. 15-MV-photon beams) than for Co-60. In electron beams, excellent results may be easily obtained. By digital image fusion of 1 or more verification films on simulation film or MRI-planning film, more precise judgement even on small differences between simulation and verification films becomes possible. Using BEVV, it is possible to compare computer aided simulation in rotating beams or conformation therapy with the really applied treatment. The basic principle of BEVV is also suitable for dynamic multileaf collimation. (orig.) [de

  20. Digital image processing as an aid in forensic medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.; Wenz, W.; Friedrich, G.

    1992-01-01

    Radiology plays an important role in the identification of unknown corpses. Positive radiographic identification by comparison with antemortem films is an established technique in this setting. Technical defects together with non-well-preserved films make it sometimes difficult or even impossible to establish a confident comparison. Digital image processing after secondary digitalization of ante- and postmortem films represents an important development and aid in forensic medicine. The application of this method is demonstrated on a single case. (orig.) [de

  1. Integrating digital topology in image-processing libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamy, Julien

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a method to integrate digital topology informations in image-processing libraries. This additional information allows a library user to write algorithms respecting topological constraints, for example, a seed fill or a skeletonization algorithm. As digital topology is absent from most image-processing libraries, such constraints cannot be fulfilled. We describe and give code samples for all the structures necessary for this integration, and show a use case in the form of a homotopic thinning filter inside ITK. The obtained filter can be up to a hundred times as fast as ITK's thinning filter and works for any image dimension. This paper mainly deals of integration within ITK, but can be adapted with only minor modifications to other image-processing libraries.

  2. Matching rendered and real world images by digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitjà, Carles; Bover, Toni; Bigas, Miquel; Escofet, Jaume

    2010-05-01

    Recent advances in computer-generated images (CGI) have been used in commercial and industrial photography providing a broad scope in product advertising. Mixing real world images with those rendered from virtual space software shows a more or less visible mismatching between corresponding image quality performance. Rendered images are produced by software which quality performance is only limited by the resolution output. Real world images are taken with cameras with some amount of image degradation factors as lens residual aberrations, diffraction, sensor low pass anti aliasing filters, color pattern demosaicing, etc. The effect of all those image quality degradation factors can be characterized by the system Point Spread Function (PSF). Because the image is the convolution of the object by the system PSF, its characterization shows the amount of image degradation added to any taken picture. This work explores the use of image processing to degrade the rendered images following the parameters indicated by the real system PSF, attempting to match both virtual and real world image qualities. The system MTF is determined by the slanted edge method both in laboratory conditions and in the real picture environment in order to compare the influence of the working conditions on the device performance; an approximation to the system PSF is derived from the two measurements. The rendered images are filtered through a Gaussian filter obtained from the taking system PSF. Results with and without filtering are shown and compared measuring the contrast achieved in different final image regions.

  3. Operational digital image processing within the Bureau of Land Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Work, E.A.; Story, M.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of the use of operational digital image processing at the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (BLM) is presented. The BLM digital image analysis facility for the processing and analysis of aerial photography and satellite data is described, and its role within the Bureau's operational structure is explained. Attention is given to examples of BLM digital data analysis projects that have utilized Landsat (MSS and TM), NOAA-AVHRR, or SPOT data. These projects include: landcover mapping to assist land use planning or special projects; monitoring of wilderness units to detect unauthorized activities; stratification aid for detailed field inventories; identification/quantification of unauthorized use (agricultural and mineral trespass); and fire fuels mapping and updates. 3 refs

  4. Computer processing of the scintigraphic image using digital filtering techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuo, Michimasa

    1976-01-01

    The theory of digital filtering was studied as a method for the computer processing of scintigraphic images. The characteristics and design techniques of finite impulse response (FIR) digital filters with linear phases were examined using the z-transform. The conventional data processing method, smoothing, could be recognized as one kind of linear phase FIR low-pass digital filtering. Ten representatives of FIR low-pass digital filters with various cut-off frequencies were scrutinized from the frequency domain in one-dimension and two-dimensions. These filters were applied to phantom studies with cold targets, using a Scinticamera-Minicomputer on-line System. These studies revealed that the resultant images had a direct connection with the magnitude response of the filter, that is, they could be estimated fairly well from the frequency response of the digital filter used. The filter, which was estimated from phantom studies as optimal for liver scintigrams using 198 Au-colloid, was successfully applied in clinical use for detecting true cold lesions and, at the same time, for eliminating spurious images. (J.P.N.)

  5. Evaluation of clinical image processing algorithms used in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanca, Federica; Jacobs, Jurgen; Van Ongeval, Chantal; Claus, Filip; Celis, Valerie; Geniets, Catherine; Provost, Veerle; Pauwels, Herman; Marchal, Guy; Bosmans, Hilde

    2009-03-01

    Screening is the only proven approach to reduce the mortality of breast cancer, but significant numbers of breast cancers remain undetected even when all quality assurance guidelines are implemented. With the increasing adoption of digital mammography systems, image processing may be a key factor in the imaging chain. Although to our knowledge statistically significant effects of manufacturer-recommended image processings have not been previously demonstrated, the subjective experience of our radiologists, that the apparent image quality can vary considerably between different algorithms, motivated this study. This article addresses the impact of five such algorithms on the detection of clusters of microcalcifications. A database of unprocessed (raw) images of 200 normal digital mammograms, acquired with the Siemens Novation DR, was collected retrospectively. Realistic simulated microcalcification clusters were inserted in half of the unprocessed images. All unprocessed images were subsequently processed with five manufacturer-recommended image processing algorithms (Agfa Musica 1, IMS Raffaello Mammo 1.2, Sectra Mamea AB Sigmoid, Siemens OPVIEW v2, and Siemens OPVIEW v1). Four breast imaging radiologists were asked to locate and score the clusters in each image on a five point rating scale. The free-response data were analyzed by the jackknife free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) method and, for comparison, also with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) method. JAFROC analysis revealed highly significant differences between the image processings (F = 8.51, p < 0.0001), suggesting that image processing strongly impacts the detectability of clusters. Siemens OPVIEW2 and Siemens OPVIEW1 yielded the highest and lowest performances, respectively. ROC analysis of the data also revealed significant differences between the processing but at lower significance (F = 3.47, p = 0.0305) than JAFROC. Both statistical analysis methods revealed that the

  6. Digital image processing of mandibular trabeculae on radiographs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogino, Toshi

    1987-06-01

    The present study was aimed to reveal the texture patterns of the radiographs of the mandibular trabeculae by digital image processing. The 32 cases of normal subjects and the 13 cases of patients with mandibular diseases of ameloblastoma, primordial cysts, squamous cell carcinoma and odontoma were analyzed by their intra-oral radiographs in the right premolar regions. The radiograms were digitized by the use of a drum scanner densitometry method. The input radiographic images were processed by a histogram equalization method. The result are as follows : First, the histogram equalization method enhances the image contrast of the textures. Second, the output images of the textures for normal mandible-trabeculae radiograms are of network pattern in nature. Third, the output images for the patients are characterized by the non-network pattern and replaced by the patterns of the fabric texture, intertwined plants (karakusa-pattern), scattered small masses and amorphous texture. Thus, these results indicates that the present digital image system is expected to be useful for revealing the texture patterns of the radiographs and in the future for the texture analysis of the clinical radiographs to obtain quantitative diagnostic findings.

  7. Digital Image Processing Overview For Helmet Mounted Displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parise, Michael J.

    1989-09-01

    Digital image processing provides a means to manipulate an image and presents a user with a variety of display formats that are not available in the analog image processing environment. When performed in real time and presented on a Helmet Mounted Display, system capability and flexibility are greatly enhanced. The information content of a display can be increased by the addition of real time insets and static windows from secondary sensor sources, near real time 3-D imaging from a single sensor can be achieved, graphical information can be added, and enhancement techniques can be employed. Such increased functionality is generating a considerable amount of interest in the military and commercial markets. This paper discusses some of these image processing techniques and their applications.

  8. Some computer applications and digital image processing in nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowinger, T.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of digital image processing are applied to problems in nuclear medicine imaging. The symmetry properties of central nervous system lesions are exploited in an attempt to determine the three-dimensional radioisotope density distribution within the lesions. An algorithm developed by astronomers at the end of the 19th century to determine the distribution of matter in globular clusters is applied to tumors. This algorithm permits the emission-computed-tomographic reconstruction of spherical lesions from a single view. The three-dimensional radioisotope distribution derived by the application of the algorithm can be used to characterize the lesions. The applicability to nuclear medicine images of ten edge detection methods in general usage in digital image processing were evaluated. A general model of image formation by scintillation cameras is developed. The model assumes that objects to be imaged are composed of a finite set of points. The validity of the model has been verified by its ability to duplicate experimental results. Practical applications of this work involve quantitative assessment of the distribution of radipharmaceuticals under clinical situations and the study of image processing algorithms

  9. Osteoporosis: a new approach of digital processing of radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salles, Adilson Dias; Braz, Valeria Silva

    1998-01-01

    The authors applied a method based on digital processing of radiological images (fast Fourier transform) to analyze the radius distal epiphysis and calcaneus spongy bone architecture. The study revealed distinct patterns of trabecular distribution. Prior studies about osteoporosis have focused on bone density quantification and its role on fracture prediction. However, resistance to fractures (mechanical strength) is also determined by structural arrangement of bone. THe digital processing (spectral analysis) was applied to radiological images of the radius and calcaneus from 15 normal and osteopenic individuals. Normal bone trabeculae showed an individualized behavior (stress lines). On the other hand, porotic bone trabeculae revealed a diffuse pattern (honey comb). The scattered frequency components showed that the porotic bone trabeculae were remodeled. This process would be responsible for the maintenance of its physical properties. (author)

  10. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru

    1992-01-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author)

  11. Problems and image processing in X-ray film digitization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Syousuke; Yoshita, Hisashi; Kuranishi, Makoto; Itoh, Hajime; Mori, Kouichi; Konishi, Minoru (Toyama Medical and Pharmaceutical Univ. (Japan). Hospital)

    1992-11-01

    Aiming at the realization of PACS, a study was conducted on the present state of, and various problems associated with, X-ray film digitization using a He-Ne laser-type film digitizer. Image quality was evaluated physically and clinically. With regard to the gradation specificity, the linear specificity was shown in a dynamic range of 4 figures. With regard to resolution specificity, visual evaluation was performed using a Hawlet Chart, with almost no difference being found between the CRT and laser printer output images and the decrease in resolution becoming more pronounced as the sampling pitch became greater. Clinical evaluation was performed with reference to the literature. The general evaluation of the clinicians was that although there was some deterioration for all of the shadows, (I have read this many times, but could not understand the last part.) by performing each of the kinds of image-processing enhancement of diagnostic ability was achieved, with a diagnosis being possible. The problem of unhindered diagnosis due to the development of artifacts from optical interference of the grid images projected onto the clinical pictures and digitizer sampling pitch was studied. As countermeasures, the use of a high density grid and adoption of a low-pass filter were useful in impending the development of artifacts. Regarding the operating problems, the inputting of index information requires a considerable number of manhours and a method of automatic recognition from digital data was introduced to overcome this problem. As future-prospects, the concepts of a practical system of X-ray film digitization and a film-screen system adapted to digitization were described. (author).

  12. Digital processing methodology applied to exploring of radiological images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz

    2004-01-01

    In this work, digital image processing is applied as a automatic computational method, aimed for exploring of radiological images. It was developed an automatic routine, from the segmentation and post-processing techniques to the radiology images acquired from an arrangement, consisting of a X-ray tube, target and filter of molybdenum, of 0.4 mm and 0.03 mm, respectively, and CCD detector. The efficiency of the methodology developed is showed in this work, through a case study, where internal injuries in mangoes are automatically detected and monitored. This methodology is a possible tool to be introduced in the post-harvest process in packing houses. A dichotomic test was applied to evaluate a efficiency of the method. The results show a success of 87.7% to correct diagnosis and 12.3% to failures to correct diagnosis with a sensibility of 93% and specificity of 80%. (author)

  13. Digital image processing and analysis human and computer vision applications with CVIPtools

    CERN Document Server

    Umbaugh, Scott E

    2010-01-01

    Section I Introduction to Digital Image Processing and AnalysisDigital Image Processing and AnalysisOverviewImage Analysis and Computer VisionImage Processing and Human VisionKey PointsExercisesReferencesFurther ReadingComputer Imaging SystemsImaging Systems OverviewImage Formation and SensingCVIPtools SoftwareImage RepresentationKey PointsExercisesSupplementary ExercisesReferencesFurther ReadingSection II Digital Image Analysis and Computer VisionIntroduction to Digital Image AnalysisIntroductionPreprocessingBinary Image AnalysisKey PointsExercisesSupplementary ExercisesReferencesFurther Read

  14. IMAGEP - A FORTRAN ALGORITHM FOR DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, D. J.

    1994-01-01

    IMAGEP is a FORTRAN computer algorithm containing various image processing, analysis, and enhancement functions. It is a keyboard-driven program organized into nine subroutines. Within the subroutines are other routines, also, selected via keyboard. Some of the functions performed by IMAGEP include digitization, storage and retrieval of images; image enhancement by contrast expansion, addition and subtraction, magnification, inversion, and bit shifting; display and movement of cursor; display of grey level histogram of image; and display of the variation of grey level intensity as a function of image position. This algorithm has possible scientific, industrial, and biomedical applications in material flaw studies, steel and ore analysis, and pathology, respectively. IMAGEP is written in VAX FORTRAN for DEC VAX series computers running VMS. The program requires the use of a Grinnell 274 image processor which can be obtained from Mark McCloud Associates, Campbell, CA. An object library of the required GMR series software is included on the distribution media. IMAGEP requires 1Mb of RAM for execution. The standard distribution medium for this program is a 1600 BPI 9track magnetic tape in VAX FILES-11 format. It is also available on a TK50 tape cartridge in VAX FILES-11 format. This program was developed in 1991. DEC, VAX, VMS, and TK50 are trademarks of Digital Equipment Corporation.

  15. Digital Signal Processing for Medical Imaging Using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2013-01-01

    This book describes medical imaging systems, such as X-ray, Computed tomography, MRI, etc. from the point of view of digital signal processing. Readers will see techniques applied to medical imaging such as Radon transformation, image reconstruction, image rendering, image enhancement and restoration, and more. This book also outlines the physics behind medical imaging required to understand the techniques being described. The presentation is designed to be accessible to beginners who are doing research in DSP for medical imaging. Matlab programs and illustrations are used wherever possible to reinforce the concepts being discussed.  ·         Acts as a “starter kit” for beginners doing research in DSP for medical imaging; ·         Uses Matlab programs and illustrations throughout to make content accessible, particularly with techniques such as Radon transformation and image rendering; ·         Includes discussion of the basic principles behind the various medical imaging tec...

  16. Infective endocarditis detection through SPECT/CT images digital processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Albino; Valdés, Raquel; Jiménez, Luis; Vallejo, Enrique; Hernández, Salvador; Soto, Gabriel

    2014-03-01

    Infective endocarditis (IE) is a difficult-to-diagnose pathology, since its manifestation in patients is highly variable. In this work, it was proposed a semiautomatic algorithm based on SPECT images digital processing for the detection of IE using a CT images volume as a spatial reference. The heart/lung rate was calculated using the SPECT images information. There were no statistically significant differences between the heart/lung rates values of a group of patients diagnosed with IE (2.62+/-0.47) and a group of healthy or control subjects (2.84+/-0.68). However, it is necessary to increase the study sample of both the individuals diagnosed with IE and the control group subjects, as well as to improve the images quality.

  17. The Digital Image Processing And Quantitative Analysis In Microscopic Image Characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardisasmita, M. Syamsa

    2000-01-01

    Many electron microscopes although have produced digital images, but not all of them are equipped with a supporting unit to process and analyse image data quantitatively. Generally the analysis of image has to be made visually and the measurement is realized manually. The development of mathematical method for geometric analysis and pattern recognition, allows automatic microscopic image analysis with computer. Image processing program can be used for image texture and structure periodic analysis by the application of Fourier transform. Because the development of composite materials. Fourier analysis in frequency domain become important for measure the crystallography orientation. The periodic structure analysis and crystal orientation are the key to understand many material properties like mechanical strength. stress, heat conductivity, resistance, capacitance and other material electric and magnetic properties. In this paper will be shown the application of digital image processing in microscopic image characterization and analysis in microscopic image

  18. Influence of Digital Camera Errors on the Photogrammetric Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sužiedelytė-Visockienė, Jūratė; Bručas, Domantas

    2009-01-01

    The paper deals with the calibration of digital camera Canon EOS 350D, often used for the photogrammetric 3D digitalisation and measurements of industrial and construction site objects. During the calibration data on the optical and electronic parameters, influencing the distortion of images, such as correction of the principal point, focal length of the objective, radial symmetrical and non-symmetrical distortions were obtained. The calibration was performed by means of the Tcc software implementing the polynomial of Chebichev and using a special test-field with the marks, coordinates of which are precisely known. The main task of the research - to determine how parameters of the camera calibration influence the processing of images, i. e. the creation of geometric model, the results of triangulation calculations and stereo-digitalisation. Two photogrammetric projects were created for this task. In first project the non-corrected and in the second the corrected ones, considering the optical errors of the camera obtained during the calibration, images were used. The results of analysis of the images processing is shown in the images and tables. The conclusions are given.

  19. Evaluation of display on CRT by various processing digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyama, Yasuhiko; Akagi, Naoki; Ohara, Shuichi; Maeda, Tomoho; Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Kouji

    1986-01-01

    In this study, we digitized three sheets of thin line chart X-ray photographs altered the photographic density. By selecting the width of the photographic density at displaying the images on the CRT, We could augment the contrast of images and more easily recognize line images compared with original X-ray photos. This characteristic was clearly observed within the region of low wave length. Though the easy recognition was got by adjusting the contrast, the sharpness of line images was not in accordance with it. As mentioned above, we discussed the relation between the contrast and the sharpness of digitized images obtained with a multi-format camera. (author)

  20. Evaluation of display on CRT by various processing digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toyama, Yasuhiko; Akagi, Naoki; Ohara, Shuichi; Maeda, Tomoho; Kitazoe, Yasuhiro; Yamamoto, Kouji

    1986-12-01

    In this study, we digitized three sheets of thin line chart X-ray photographs altered the photographic density. By selecting the width of the photographic density at displaying the images on the CRT, We could augment the contrast of images and more easily recognize line images compared with original X-ray photos. This characteristic was clearly observed within the region of low wave length. Though the easy recognition was got by adjusting the contrast, the sharpness of line images was not in accordance with it. As mentioned above, we discussed the relation between the contrast and the sharpness of digitized images obtained with a multi-format camera.

  1. Digital Image Processing Technique for Breast Cancer Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzmán-Cabrera, R.; Guzmán-Sepúlveda, J. R.; Torres-Cisneros, M.; May-Arrioja, D. A.; Ruiz-Pinales, J.; Ibarra-Manzano, O. G.; Aviña-Cervantes, G.; Parada, A. González

    2013-09-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cause of death in women and the second leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Primary prevention in the early stages of the disease becomes complex as the causes remain almost unknown. However, some typical signatures of this disease, such as masses and microcalcifications appearing on mammograms, can be used to improve early diagnostic techniques, which is critical for women’s quality of life. X-ray mammography is the main test used for screening and early diagnosis, and its analysis and processing are the keys to improving breast cancer prognosis. As masses and benign glandular tissue typically appear with low contrast and often very blurred, several computer-aided diagnosis schemes have been developed to support radiologists and internists in their diagnosis. In this article, an approach is proposed to effectively analyze digital mammograms based on texture segmentation for the detection of early stage tumors. The proposed algorithm was tested over several images taken from the digital database for screening mammography for cancer research and diagnosis, and it was found to be absolutely suitable to distinguish masses and microcalcifications from the background tissue using morphological operators and then extract them through machine learning techniques and a clustering algorithm for intensity-based segmentation.

  2. The effects of gray scale image processing on digital mammography interpretation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Elodia B; Pisano, Etta D; Zeng, Donglin; Muller, Keith; Aylward, Stephen R; Park, Sungwook; Kuzmiak, Cherie; Koomen, Marcia; Pavic, Dag; Walsh, Ruth; Baker, Jay; Gimenez, Edgardo I; Freimanis, Rita

    2005-05-01

    To determine the effects of three image-processing algorithms on diagnostic accuracy of digital mammography in comparison with conventional screen-film mammography. A total of 201 cases consisting of nonprocessed soft copy versions of the digital mammograms acquired from GE, Fischer, and Trex digital mammography systems (1997-1999) and conventional screen-film mammograms of the same patients were interpreted by nine radiologists. The raw digital data were processed with each of three different image-processing algorithms creating three presentations-manufacturer's default (applied and laser printed to film by each of the manufacturers), MUSICA, and PLAHE-were presented in soft copy display. There were three radiologists per presentation. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for GE digital mass cases was worse than screen-film for all digital presentations. The area under the receiver operating characteristic for Trex digital mass cases was better, but only with images processed with the manufacturer's default algorithm. Sensitivity for GE digital mass cases was worse than screen film for all digital presentations. Specificity for Fischer digital calcifications cases was worse than screen film for images processed in default and PLAHE algorithms. Specificity for Trex digital calcifications cases was worse than screen film for images processed with MUSICA. Specific image-processing algorithms may be necessary for optimal presentation for interpretation based on machine and lesion type.

  3. Recent developments at JPL in the application of digital image processing techniques to astronomical images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorre, J. J.; Lynn, D. J.; Benton, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    Several techniques of a digital image-processing nature are illustrated which have proved useful in visual analysis of astronomical pictorial data. Processed digital scans of photographic plates of Stephans Quintet and NGC 4151 are used as examples to show how faint nebulosity is enhanced by high-pass filtering, how foreground stars are suppressed by linear interpolation, and how relative color differences between two images recorded on plates with different spectral sensitivities can be revealed by generating ratio images. Analyses are outlined which are intended to compensate partially for the blurring effects of the atmosphere on images of Stephans Quintet and to obtain more detailed information about Saturn's ring structure from low- and high-resolution scans of the planet and its ring system. The employment of a correlation picture to determine the tilt angle of an average spectral line in a low-quality spectrum is demonstrated for a section of the spectrum of Uranus.

  4. Quality assessment of the digitalization process of analog x-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, D.

    2014-01-01

    Computer-assisted diagnosis enabled doctors for a second point-of-view on the test results. This improves the diseases' early detection and significantly reduces the chance of errors. These methods very nicely complemented the possibilities of digital medical imaging apparatus, but in analog images their applicability and results entirely depend on the quality of analog images digitalisation. Today many standards and remarks for good practices discuss the digital apparatus image quality but the digitalisation process of analog medical images is not a part of them. Medical imaging apparatus have become digital, but within an entirely digital medical environment is necessary for their ability to blend with the old analog medical imaging carriers. The life of patients doesn't start with the beginning of digital era and for the aim of tracking diseases it is necessary to use the new digital images as well as older analog ones. For the generation of 40-50 years a large archive of images is piled up, which should be accounted of in the diagnosis process. This article is the author's study of the digitalized image quality problem. It offers a new approach to the x-ray image digitalisation - getting the HDR-image by optical sensor. After the HDR-image generation method offers to be used a digital signal processing to improve the quality of the final 16 bit gray scale medical image. The new method for medical image enhancement is proposed - it improves the image contrast, it increases or preserves the dynamic range and it doesn't lead to the loss of small low contrast structures in the image. Key words: Quality of Digital X-Rays Images

  5. Digital image processing for real-time neutron radiography and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujine, Shigenori

    1989-01-01

    The present paper describes several digital image processing approaches for the real-time neutron radiography (neutron television-NTV), such as image integration, adaptive smoothing and image enhancement, which have beneficial effects on image improvements, and also describes how to use these techniques for applications. Details invisible in direct images of NTV are able to be revealed by digital image processing, such as reversed image, gray level correction, gray scale transformation, contoured image, subtraction technique, pseudo color display and so on. For real-time application a contouring operation and an averaging approach can also be utilized effectively. (author)

  6. Digital image processing software system using an array processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherwood, R.J.; Portnoff, M.R.; Journeay, C.H.; Twogood, R.E.

    1981-01-01

    A versatile array processor-based system for general-purpose image processing was developed. At the heart of this system is an extensive, flexible software package that incorporates the array processor for effective interactive image processing. The software system is described in detail, and its application to a diverse set of applications at LLNL is briefly discussed. 4 figures, 1 table

  7. Bispectral methods of signal processing applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration

    CERN Document Server

    Totsky, Alexander V; Kravchenko, Victor F

    2015-01-01

    By studying applications in radar, telecommunications and digital image restoration, this monograph discusses signal processing techniques based on bispectral methods. Improved robustness against different forms of noise as well as preservation of phase information render this method a valuable alternative to common power-spectrum analysis used in radar object recognition, digital wireless communications, and jitter removal in images.

  8. A REVIEW ON DIAGNOSIS OF NUTRIENT DEFICIENCY SYMPTOMS IN PLANT LEAF IMAGE USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Jeyalakshmi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Plants, for their growth and survival, need 13 mineral nutrients. Toxicity or deficiency in any one or more of these nutrients affects the growth of plant and may even cause the destruction of the plant. Hence, a constant monitoring system for tracking the nutrient status in plants becomes essential for increase in production as well as quality of yield. A diagnostic system using digital image processing would diagnose the deficiency symptoms much earlier than human eyes could recognize. This will enable the farmers to adopt appropriate remedial action in time. This paper focuses on the review of work using image processing techniques for diagnosing nutrient deficiency in plants.

  9. Enhancing the Teaching of Digital Processing of Remote Sensing Image Course through Geospatial Web Processing Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    di, L.; Deng, M.

    2010-12-01

    Remote sensing (RS) is an essential method to collect data for Earth science research. Huge amount of remote sensing data, most of them in the image form, have been acquired. Almost all geography departments in the world offer courses in digital processing of remote sensing images. Such courses place emphasis on how to digitally process large amount of multi-source images for solving real world problems. However, due to the diversity and complexity of RS images and the shortcomings of current data and processing infrastructure, obstacles for effectively teaching such courses still remain. The major obstacles include 1) difficulties in finding, accessing, integrating and using massive RS images by students and educators, and 2) inadequate processing functions and computing facilities for students to freely explore the massive data. Recent development in geospatial Web processing service systems, which make massive data, computing powers, and processing capabilities to average Internet users anywhere in the world, promises the removal of the obstacles. The GeoBrain system developed by CSISS is an example of such systems. All functions available in GRASS Open Source GIS have been implemented as Web services in GeoBrain. Petabytes of remote sensing images in NASA data centers, the USGS Landsat data archive, and NOAA CLASS are accessible transparently and processable through GeoBrain. The GeoBrain system is operated on a high performance cluster server with large disk storage and fast Internet connection. All GeoBrain capabilities can be accessed by any Internet-connected Web browser. Dozens of universities have used GeoBrain as an ideal platform to support data-intensive remote sensing education. This presentation gives a specific example of using GeoBrain geoprocessing services to enhance the teaching of GGS 588, Digital Remote Sensing taught at the Department of Geography and Geoinformation Science, George Mason University. The course uses the textbook "Introductory

  10. Interaction of image noise, spatial resolution, and low contrast fine detail preservation in digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artmann, Uwe; Wueller, Dietmar

    2009-01-01

    We present a method to improve the validity of noise and resolution measurements on digital cameras. If non-linear adaptive noise reduction is part of the signal processing in the camera, the measurement results for image noise and spatial resolution can be good, while the image quality is low due to the loss of fine details and a watercolor like appearance of the image. To improve the correlation between objective measurement and subjective image quality we propose to supplement the standard test methods with an additional measurement of the texture preserving capabilities of the camera. The proposed method uses a test target showing white Gaussian noise. The camera under test reproduces this target and the image is analyzed. We propose to use the kurtosis of the derivative of the image as a metric for the texture preservation of the camera. Kurtosis is a statistical measure for the closeness of a distribution compared to the Gaussian distribution. It can be shown, that the distribution of digital values in the derivative of the image showing the chart becomes the more leptokurtic (increased kurtosis) the stronger the noise reduction has an impact on the image.

  11. Mathematical methods in time series analysis and digital image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Kurths, J; Maass, P; Timmer, J

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this volume is to bring together research directions in theoretical signal and imaging processing developed rather independently in electrical engineering, theoretical physics, mathematics and the computer sciences. In particular, mathematically justified algorithms and methods, the mathematical analysis of these algorithms, and methods as well as the investigation of connections between methods from time series analysis and image processing are reviewed. An interdisciplinary comparison of these methods, drawing upon common sets of test problems from medicine and geophysical/enviromental sciences, is also addressed. This volume coherently summarizes work carried out in the field of theoretical signal and image processing. It focuses on non-linear and non-parametric models for time series as well as on adaptive methods in image processing.

  12. Application of digital image processing to industrial radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodson; Varcin; Crescenzo; Theulot

    1985-01-01

    Radiography is widely used for quality control of fabrication of large reactor components. Image processing methods are applied to industrial radiographs in order to help to take a decision as well as to reduce costs and delays for examination. Films, performed in representative operating conditions, are used to test results obtained with algorithms for the restauration of images and for the detection, characterisation of indications in order to determine the possibility of an automatic radiographs processing [fr

  13. Implementation of real-time digital endoscopic image processing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Chul Gyu; Lee, Young Mook; Lee, Sang Min; Kim, Won Ky; Lee, Jae Ho; Lee, Myoung Ho

    1997-10-01

    Endoscopy has become a crucial diagnostic and therapeutic procedure in clinical areas. Over the past four years, we have developed a computerized system to record and store clinical data pertaining to endoscopic surgery of laparascopic cholecystectomy, pelviscopic endometriosis, and surgical arthroscopy. In this study, we developed a computer system, which is composed of a frame grabber, a sound board, a VCR control board, a LAN card and EDMS. Also, computer system controls peripheral instruments such as a color video printer, a video cassette recorder, and endoscopic input/output signals. Digital endoscopic data management system is based on open architecture and a set of widely available industry standards; namely Microsoft Windows as an operating system, TCP/IP as a network protocol and a time sequential database that handles both images and speech. For the purpose of data storage, we used MOD and CD- R. Digital endoscopic system was designed to be able to store, recreate, change, and compress signals and medical images. Computerized endoscopy enables us to generate and manipulate the original visual document, making it accessible to a virtually unlimited number of physicians.

  14. Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Kuan eLin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Digital Imaging Processing (DIP requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and digital imaging processing service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1 automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC, Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI to RAW formats; (2 speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3 display high level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle- layer database, a stand-alone DIP server and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data a multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services.

  15. Digital imaging in health care

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    This volume describes equipment for the generation and processing of digital images in medicine. Separate chapters deal with international trade i this equipment, with economic and social considerations of digital imaging, with experiences in the use and production of digital imaging equipment and with the current status and likely trends in applications of digital imaging. 84 refs, figs and tabs

  16. Adaptive digital image processing in real time: First clinical experiences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, M.P.; Baily, N.A.; Hier, R.G.; Edwards, D.K.; Tainer, L.B.; Sartoris, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    The promise of computer image processing has generally not been realized in radiology, partly because the methods advanced to date have been expensive, time-consuming, or inconvenient for clinical use. The authors describe a low-cost system which performs complex image processing operations on-line at video rates. The method uses a combination of unsharp mask subtraction (for low-frequency suppression) and statistical differencing (which adjusts the gain at each point of the image on the basis of its variation from a local mean). The operator interactively adjusts aperture size, contrast gain, background subtraction, and spatial noise reduction. The system is being evaluated for on-line fluoroscopic enhancement, for which phantom measurements and clinical results, including lithotripsy, are presented. When used with a video camera, postprocessing of radiographs was advantageous in a variety of studies, including neonatal chest studies. Real-time speed allows use of the system in the reading room as a ''variable view box.''

  17. Digital cardiovascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Myerowitz, P.D.; Mistretta, C.A.; Shaw, C.-G.; Van Lysel, M.S.; Swanson, D.K.; Lasser, T.A.; Dhanani, S.P.; Zarnstorff, W.C.; Vander Ark, C.R.; Dobbins, J.T.; Peppler, W.W.; Crummy, A.B.

    1982-01-01

    The authors have previously reported on real time digital fluoroscopic subtraction techniques developed in the laboratory during the past 10 years. This paper outlines basic apparatus configuration and imaging modes used for preliminary studies involving visualization of the canine and human heart. All of the techniques involve the use of real time digital subtraction processing of data from an image intensified television fluoroscopy system. Based on the configuration of the digital processing equipment a number of different imaging modalities are possible. A brief description of the apparatus and these imaging modes is given. (Auth.)

  18. Digital Signal Processing For Low Bit Rate TV Image Codecs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, K. R.

    1987-06-01

    In view of the 56 KBPS digital switched network services and the ISDN, low bit rate codecs for providing real time full motion color video are under various stages of development. Some companies have already brought the codecs into the market. They are being used by industry and some Federal Agencies for video teleconferencing. In general, these codecs have various features such as multiplexing audio and data, high resolution graphics, encryption, error detection and correction, self diagnostics, freezeframe, split video, text overlay etc. To transmit the original color video on a 56 KBPS network requires bit rate reduction of the order of 1400:1. Such a large scale bandwidth compression can be realized only by implementing a number of sophisticated,digital signal processing techniques. This paper provides an overview of such techniques and outlines the newer concepts that are being investigated. Before resorting to the data compression techniques, various preprocessing operations such as noise filtering, composite-component transformation and horizontal and vertical blanking interval removal are to be implemented. Invariably spatio-temporal subsampling is achieved by appropriate filtering. Transform and/or prediction coupled with motion estimation and strengthened by adaptive features are some of the tools in the arsenal of the data reduction methods. Other essential blocks in the system are quantizer, bit allocation, buffer, multiplexer, channel coding etc.

  19. [Evaluating the maturity of IT-supported clinical imaging and diagnosis using the Digital Imaging Adoption Model : Are your clinical imaging processes ready for the digital era?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Studzinski, J

    2017-06-01

    The Digital Imaging Adoption Model (DIAM) has been jointly developed by HIMSS Analytics and the European Society of Radiology (ESR). It helps evaluate the maturity of IT-supported processes in medical imaging, particularly in radiology. This eight-stage maturity model drives your organisational, strategic and tactical alignment towards imaging-IT planning. The key audience for the model comprises hospitals with imaging centers, as well as external imaging centers that collaborate with hospitals. The assessment focuses on different dimensions relevant to digital imaging, such as software infrastructure and usage, workflow security, clinical documentation and decision support, data exchange and analytical capabilities. With its standardised approach, it enables regional, national and international benchmarking. All DIAM participants receive a structured report that can be used as a basis for presenting, e.g. budget planning and investment decisions at management level.

  20. Digital image analysis in breast pathology-from image processing techniques to artificial intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Stephanie; Azizpour, Hossein; Smith, Kevin; Hartman, Johan

    2018-04-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignant disease in women worldwide. In recent decades, earlier diagnosis and better adjuvant therapy have substantially improved patient outcome. Diagnosis by histopathology has proven to be instrumental to guide breast cancer treatment, but new challenges have emerged as our increasing understanding of cancer over the years has revealed its complex nature. As patient demand for personalized breast cancer therapy grows, we face an urgent need for more precise biomarker assessment and more accurate histopathologic breast cancer diagnosis to make better therapy decisions. The digitization of pathology data has opened the door to faster, more reproducible, and more precise diagnoses through computerized image analysis. Software to assist diagnostic breast pathology through image processing techniques have been around for years. But recent breakthroughs in artificial intelligence (AI) promise to fundamentally change the way we detect and treat breast cancer in the near future. Machine learning, a subfield of AI that applies statistical methods to learn from data, has seen an explosion of interest in recent years because of its ability to recognize patterns in data with less need for human instruction. One technique in particular, known as deep learning, has produced groundbreaking results in many important problems including image classification and speech recognition. In this review, we will cover the use of AI and deep learning in diagnostic breast pathology, and other recent developments in digital image analysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Computerized digital image processing on radiographs of canine filariosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyatake, K.; Okamoto, Y.; Minami, S.

    1999-01-01

    For objective evaluation in the lung arterial lesions, density histogram revealed by survey thoracic radiographies of fifteen canine filariosis and five normal canine were digitally analyzed, and preparation of pulmonary artery angiogram with inflated-fixed lung, the changes in the histogram and the pulmonary arterial lesion by a soft X-ray examination were compared. In the lung areas affected by filariosis, the density histogram increased the white level and decreased the black level in each part compared to a normal lung. In comparison with the normal parameters, those of the filariosis it were significantly increased in minimum grey level values (Min), maximum grey level values (Max), and the maximum frequency grey level values (Mode) and, it was significantly decreased in maximum frequency values (MaF). The pulmonary arterial lesion of the filariosis showed obvious morphological changes such as in distinction, pruning, angiectasis, and meandering. In the grade of pulmonary arterial lesion, the parameter Min, Max, Mode and MaF were changed significantly. From these results, it was clear that the methods for the lung arterial lesions analysis of X-ray images were confirmed to be highly beneficial in the lung arterial lesions for objective diagnosis

  2. FOOT ROT DISEASE IDENTIFICATION FOR VELLAIKODI VARIETY OF BETELVINE PLANTS USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Vijayakumar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Betelvine plants are infected variety of diseases in the complete plantation without any premature warning of the diseases. The aim of this paper is to detection of foot rot disease in the vellaikodi variety of betelvine plants using digital image processing techniques. The digital images of the uninfected or normal betelvine leaves and the digital images of the infected in foot rot diseased betelvine leaves at different stages are collected from different Betelvine plants using a high resolution digital camera and collected betelvine images are stored with JPEG format. The digital images of the betelvine leaves analyses are done using the image processing toolbox in MATLAB which gives the normal patterns of the digital images. Using RGB encoding process, the RGB components of the betelvine leaves are separated. The mean and median values for all sample leaves are computed and calculated values are stored in the system. The mean and median values of test leaves are computed and compared with the stored values. As the result of this comparison, it is identified whether test leaves are affected by foot rot disease or not. Finally this analysis helps to recognize the foot rot disease can be identified before it spreads to entire crop.

  3. Digital-image processing improves man-machine communication at a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, S.A.; Harrington, T.P.; Toffer, H.

    1982-01-01

    The application of digital image processing to improve man-machine communication in a nuclear reactor control room is illustrated. At the Hanford N Reactor, operated by UNC Nuclear Industries for the United States Department of Energy, in Richland, Washington, digital image processing is applied to flow, temperature, and tube power data. Color displays are used to present the data in a clear and concise fashion. Specific examples are used to demonstrate the capabilities and benefits of digital image processing of reactor data. N Reactor flow and power maps for routine reactor operations and for perturbed reactor conditions are displayed. The advantages of difference mapping are demonstrated. Image processing techniques have also been applied to results of analytical reactor models; two examples are shown. The potential of combining experimental and analytical information with digital image processing to produce predictive and adaptive reactor core models is discussed. The applications demonstrate that digital image processing can provide new more effective ways for control room personnel to assess reactor status, to locate problems and explore corrective actions. 10 figures

  4. Interpretation of medical imaging data with a mobile application: a mobile digital imaging processing environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Meng Kuan; Nicolini, Oliver; Waxenegger, Harald; Galloway, Graham J; Ullmann, Jeremy F P; Janke, Andrew L

    2013-01-01

    Digital Imaging Processing (DIP) requires data extraction and output from a visualization tool to be consistent. Data handling and transmission between the server and a user is a systematic process in service interpretation. The use of integrated medical services for management and viewing of imaging data in combination with a mobile visualization tool can be greatly facilitated by data analysis and interpretation. This paper presents an integrated mobile application and DIP service, called M-DIP. The objective of the system is to (1) automate the direct data tiling, conversion, pre-tiling of brain images from Medical Imaging NetCDF (MINC), Neuroimaging Informatics Technology Initiative (NIFTI) to RAW formats; (2) speed up querying of imaging measurement; and (3) display high-level of images with three dimensions in real world coordinates. In addition, M-DIP provides the ability to work on a mobile or tablet device without any software installation using web-based protocols. M-DIP implements three levels of architecture with a relational middle-layer database, a stand-alone DIP server, and a mobile application logic middle level realizing user interpretation for direct querying and communication. This imaging software has the ability to display biological imaging data at multiple zoom levels and to increase its quality to meet users' expectations. Interpretation of bioimaging data is facilitated by an interface analogous to online mapping services using real world coordinate browsing. This allows mobile devices to display multiple datasets simultaneously from a remote site. M-DIP can be used as a measurement repository that can be accessed by any network environment, such as a portable mobile or tablet device. In addition, this system and combination with mobile applications are establishing a virtualization tool in the neuroinformatics field to speed interpretation services.

  5. A software for digital image processing used in constructions of voxels phantoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vieira, Jose Wilson; Fernando Roberto de Andrade

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents, based on menus and menu items, the second version of software DIP-Digital Image Processing, that reads, edits and writes binary files containing the matrix 3D corresponding to a transversal voxels images of a certain geometry that may be a human body or other volume of interest

  6. On the technique of digital X-ray image processing, especially of digital substraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiler, M.; Marhoff, P.

    1983-01-01

    Digital radiography, especially in the form of subtraction angiography, has found special consideration during the last two years as could be noted at many radiological conventions. Also a series of symposia was especially devoted to this subject. The extensive picture material shown at these conventions does not only document an important extension of the fields of application, but also an important increment in clinical and technical experience. Two pictures may represent many other examples: with a time lag of less than one year the improvement of objective and subjective image quality is easy to recognize. The principle and the technology of digital radiography were demonstrated at these conventions as well as in this magazine, and they also were discussed in detail; therefore a comprehensive review with only a few concepts necessary for defining the topic is sufficient here. Of the different imaging techniques, the fluorographic and the pulsed operation techniques are discussed, especially with regard to the storage method used. The definition of these concepts follows later. Special emphasis is put on some considerations of the signal-to-noise ratio that represents an essential criterion of the image quality. (orig.) [de

  7. PC image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwa, Mok Jin Il; Am, Ha Jeng Ung

    1995-04-01

    This book starts summary of digital image processing and personal computer, and classification of personal computer image processing system, digital image processing, development of personal computer and image processing, image processing system, basic method of image processing such as color image processing and video processing, software and interface, computer graphics, video image and video processing application cases on image processing like satellite image processing, color transformation of image processing in high speed and portrait work system.

  8. An overview of digital image processing in the field of nuclear medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okuyama, Yasuo

    1992-01-01

    The current status and remaining problems of digital image processing in nuclear medicine were discussed. Digitalization of nuclear medicine images has made it possible, in conjunction with computers, to obtain new information (Fourier analysis, Factor analysis, etc.) with added value from images, in place of the fixed concepts that had formerly been drawn only from images. However, the basis of this technology is the special QC and QA of nuclear medicine examinations, and those techniques have not yet been adequately established. The advantage of digitalization is the flexibility that comes from the programs, but the element of the subjectivity of each individual plays a large role, and it can be said that there is also the risk that the logic of image diagnosis established to date will be destroyed. Accordingly, the creation of digital image processing technique with specifications will give birth to standardized digital nuclear medicine images, and these development will certainly lead to progress in nuclear medicine diagnosis. In addition, in comparison with other modalities, the field of nuclear medicine involves a lesser amount of information, and this simplifiers the digitalization of images. At present, equipment is being designed and developed with incorporation of the concept of a work station. A serious problem that remains in this field is the standardization of image transmission. In summary, the main problem that must be solved in the field of nuclear medicine examinations is the establishment of QC and QA methods and practical algorithms for the software. It is hoped that there will be open access to information, etc., related to the software. (author)

  9. Digital imaging primer

    CERN Document Server

    Parkin, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Digital Imaging targets everyyone with an interest in digital imaging, be they professional or private, who uses even quite modest equipment such as a PC, digital camera and scanner, a graphics editor such as Paint, and an inkjet printer. Uniquely, it is intended to fill the gap between highly technical texts for academics (with access to expensive equipment) and superficial introductions for amateurs. The four-part treatment spans theory, technology, programs and practice. Theory covers integer arithmetic, additive and subtractive color, greyscales, computational geometry, and a new presentation of discrete Fourier analysis; Technology considers bitmap file structures, scanners, digital cameras, graphic editors, and inkjet printers; Programs develops several processing tools for use in conjunction with a standard Paint graphics editor and supplementary processing tools; Practice discusses 1-bit, greyscale, 4-bit, 8-bit, and 24-bit images for the practice section. Relevant QBASIC code is supplied an accompa...

  10. Computational analysis of Pelton bucket tip erosion using digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bim Prasad; Gautam, Bijaya; Bajracharya, Tri Ratna

    2008-03-01

    Erosion of hydro turbine components through sand laden river is one of the biggest problems in Himalayas. Even with sediment trapping systems, complete removal of fine sediment from water is impossible and uneconomical; hence most of the turbine components in Himalayan Rivers are exposed to sand laden water and subject to erode. Pelton bucket which are being wildly used in different hydropower generation plant undergoes erosion on the continuous presence of sand particles in water. The subsequent erosion causes increase in splitter thickness, which is supposed to be theoretically zero. This increase in splitter thickness gives rise to back hitting of water followed by decrease in turbine efficiency. This paper describes the process of measurement of sharp edges like bucket tip using digital image processing. Image of each bucket is captured and allowed to run for 72 hours; sand concentration in water hitting the bucket is closely controlled and monitored. Later, the image of the test bucket is taken in the same condition. The process is repeated for 10 times. In this paper digital image processing which encompasses processes that performs image enhancement in both spatial and frequency domain. In addition, the processes that extract attributes from images, up to and including the measurement of splitter's tip. Processing of image has been done in MATLAB 6.5 platform. The result shows that quantitative measurement of edge erosion of sharp edges could accurately be detected and the erosion profile could be generated using image processing technique.

  11. Digital video image processing applications to two phase flow measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biscos, Y.; Bismes, F.; Hebrard, P.; Lavergne, G.

    1987-01-01

    Liquid spraying is common in various fields (combustion, cooling of hot surfaces, spray drying,...). For two phase flows modeling, it is necessary to test elementary laws (vaporizing drops, equation of motion of drops or bubbles, heat transfer..). For example, the knowledge of the laws related to the behavior of vaporizing liquid drop in a hot airstream and impinging drops on a hot surface is important for two phase flow modeling. In order to test these different laws in elementary cases, the authors developed different measurement techniques, associating video and microcomputers. The test section (built in perpex or glass) is illuminated with a thin sheet of light generated by a 15mW He-Ne laser and appropriate optical arrangement. Drops, bubbles or liquid film are observed at right angle by a video camera synchronised with a microcomputer either directly or with an optical device (lens, telescope, microscope) providing sufficient magnification. Digitizing the video picture in real time associated with an appropriate numerical treatment allows to obtain, in a non interfering way, a lot of informations relative to the pulverisation and the vaporization as function of space and time (drop size distribution; Sauter mean diameter as function of main flow parameters: air velocity, surface tension, temperature; isoconcentration curves, size evolution relative to vaporizing drops, film thickness evolution spreading on a hot surface...)

  12. Image analysis of microsialograms of the mouse parotid gland using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshiura, K.; Ohki, M.; Yamada, N.

    1991-01-01

    The authors compared two digital-image feature-extraction methods for the analysis of microsialograms of the mouse parotid gland following either overfilling, experimentally induced acute sialoadenitis or irradiation. Microsialograms were digitized using a drum-scanning microdensitometer. The grey levels were then partitioned into four bands representing soft tissue, peripheral minor, middle-sized and major ducts, and run-length and histogram analysis of the digital images performed. Serial analysis of microsialograms during progressive filling showed that both methods depicted the structural characteristics of the ducts at each grey level. However, in the experimental groups, run-length analysis showed slight changes in the peripheral duct system more clearly. This method was therefore considered more effective than histogram analysis

  13. A Method for Identifying Contours in Processing Digital Images from Computer Tomograph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roşu, Şerban; Pater, Flavius; Costea, Dan; Munteanu, Mihnea; Roşu, Doina; Fratila, Mihaela

    2011-09-01

    The first step in digital processing of two-dimensional computed tomography images is to identify the contour of component elements. This paper deals with the collective work of specialists in medicine and applied mathematics in computer science on elaborating new algorithms and methods in medical 2D and 3D imagery.

  14. Angiographic determination of the left-ventricular myocardial volume with the help of digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radtke, W.

    1981-01-01

    In this paper, digital image processing could for the first time be introduced as a new method to screen the myocardium in the left-ventricular angiocardiography. The method makes a reliable quantitative determination of the muscle mass of the left ventricle possible. (orig./MG) [de

  15. Digital processing methods for bronchograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamilyaev, R.M.; Popova, N.P.; Matsulevich, T.V.

    1989-01-01

    The technique of digital processing of bronchograms with the aim of separating morphological details of bronchi and increasing the clarity in the outlines of contrasted bronchi, is described. The block diagram of digital processing on the automatized system of image processing is given. It is shown that digital processing of bronchograms permits to clearly outline bronchi walls and makes the measurements of bronchi diameters easier and more reliable. Considerable advantages of digital processing of images as compared with the optical methods, are shown

  16. Analog and digital image quality:

    OpenAIRE

    Sardo, Alberto

    2004-01-01

    Background. Lastly the X ray facilities are moving to a slow, but continuous process of digitalization. The dry laser printers allow hardcopy images with optimum resolution and contrast for all the modalities. In breast imaging, thedelay of digitalization depends to the high cost of digital systems and, attimes, to the doubts of the diagnostic accuracy of reading the breast digital images. Conclusions. The Screen film mammography (SFM) is the most efficient diagnostic modality to detect the b...

  17. Qualification process of CR system and quantification of digital image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, P.; Hun, L.; Klein, J.; Lemerle, C.

    2013-01-01

    CEA Valduc uses several X-Ray generators to carry out many inspections: void search, welding expertise, gap measurements, etc. Most of these inspections are carried out on silver based plates. For several years, the CEA/Valduc has decided to qualify new devices such as digital plates or CCD/flat panel plates. On one hand, the choice of this technological orientation is to forecast the assumed and eventual disappearance of silver based plates; on the other hand, it is also to keep our skills mastering up-to-date. The main improvement brought by numerical plates is the continuous progress of the measurement accuracy, especially with image data processing. It is now common to measure defects thickness or depth position within a part. In such applications, data image processing is used to obtain complementary information compared to scanned silver based plates. This scanning procedure is harmful for measurements which imply a data corruption of the resolution, the adding of numerical noise and is time expensive. Digital plates enable to suppress the scanning procedure and to increase resolution. It is nonetheless difficult to define, for digital images, single criteria for the image quality. A procedure has to be defined in order to estimate quality of the digital data itself; the impact of the scanning device and the configuration parameters are also to be taken into account. This presentation deals with the qualification process developed by CEA/Valduc for digital plates (DUR-NDT) based on the study of quantitative criteria chosen to define a direct numerical image quality that could be compared with scanned silver based pictures and the classical optical density. The versatility of the X-Ray parameters is also discussed (X-ray tension, intensity, time exposure). The aim is to be able to transfer the year long experience of CEA/Valduc with silver-based plates inspection to these new digital plates supports. This is an industrial stake.

  18. Simulating Optical Correlation on a Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Bryan

    1998-04-01

    Optical Correlation is a useful tool for recognizing objects in video scenes. In this paper, we explore the characteristics of a composite filter known as the equal correlation peak synthetic discriminant function (ECP SDF). Although the ECP SDF is commonly used in coherent optical correlation systems, the authors simulated the operation of a correlator using an EPIX frame grabber/image processor board to complete this work. Issues pertaining to simulating correlation using an EPIX board will be discussed. Additionally, the ability of the ECP SDF to detect objects that have been subjected to inplane rotation and small scale changes will be addressed by correlating filters against true-class objects placed randomly within a scene. To test the robustness of the filters, the results of correlating the filter against false-class objects that closely resemble the true class will also be presented.

  19. Comparison of various filtering methods for digital X-ray image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfluger, T.; Reinfelder, H.E.; Dorschky, K.; Oppelt, A.; Siemens A.G., Erlangen

    1987-01-01

    Three filtering methods are explained and compared that are used for border edge enhancement of digitally processed X-ray images. The filters are compared by two examples, a radiograph of the chest, and one of the knee joint. The unsharpness mask is found to yield the best compromise between edge enhancement and image noise intensifying effect, whereas the results obtained by the high-pass filter or the Wallis filter are less good for diagnostic evaluation. The filtered images better display narrow lines, structural borders and edges, and finely spotted areas, than the original radiograph, so that diagnostic evaluation is easier after image filtering. (orig.) [de

  20. Digital processing methodology applied to exploring of radiological images; Metodologia de processamento digital aplicada a exploracao de imagens radiologicas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz

    2004-07-01

    In this work, digital image processing is applied as a automatic computational method, aimed for exploring of radiological images. It was developed an automatic routine, from the segmentation and post-processing techniques to the radiology images acquired from an arrangement, consisting of a X-ray tube, target and filter of molybdenum, of 0.4 mm and 0.03 mm, respectively, and CCD detector. The efficiency of the methodology developed is showed in this work, through a case study, where internal injuries in mangoes are automatically detected and monitored. This methodology is a possible tool to be introduced in the post-harvest process in packing houses. A dichotomic test was applied to evaluate a efficiency of the method. The results show a success of 87.7% to correct diagnosis and 12.3% to failures to correct diagnosis with a sensibility of 93% and specificity of 80%. (author)

  1. Oversampling of digitized images. [effects on interpolation in signal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischel, D.

    1976-01-01

    Oversampling is defined as sampling with a device whose characteristic width is greater than the interval between samples. This paper shows why oversampling should be avoided and discusses the limitations in data processing if circumstances dictate that oversampling cannot be circumvented. Principally, oversampling should not be used to provide interpolating data points. Rather, the time spent oversampling should be used to obtain more signal with less relative error, and the Sampling Theorem should be employed to provide any desired interpolated values. The concepts are applicable to single-element and multielement detectors.

  2. Film-based X-ray tomography combined with digital image processing: investigation of an ancient pattern-welded sword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindegaard-Andersen, A.; Vedel, T.; Jeppesen, L.; Gottlieb, B.

    1988-01-01

    Film-based X-ray tomography and digital image processing have been used to investigate an inhomogeneous object of non-circular cross-section. The feasibility of using digital image processing to compensate for the poor contrast resolution inherent in film-based tomography has been demonstrated. (author)

  3. New tools for digital medical image processing implemented in DIP software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Araujo, Erica A.C.; Santana, Ivan E.; Lima, Fernando R.A.; Viera, Jose W.

    2011-01-01

    The anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry, also called phantoms, are mostly built from stacks of images CT (Computed Tomography) or MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) obtained from scans of patients or volunteers. The construction of voxel phantoms requires computational processing for transforming image formats, dimensional image compression (2D) to form three-dimensional arrays (3D), quantization, resampling, enhancement, restoration and image segmentation, among others. Hardly the computational dosimetry researcher finds all these skills into a single software and often it results in a decreased development of their research or inadequate use of alternative tools. The need to integrate the various tasks of the original digital image processing to obtain an image that can be used in a computational model of exposure led to the development of software DIP (Digital Image Processing). This software reads, writes and edits binary files containing the 3D matrix corresponding to a stack of cross-sectional images of a given geometry that can be a human body or other volume of interest. It can also read any type of computer image and do conversions. When the task involves only one output image, it is saved in the JPEG standard Windows. When it involves a stack of images, the binary output file is called SGI (Interactive Graphic Simulations, a symbol already used in other publications of the Research Group in Numerical Dosimetry). The following paper presents the third version of the DIP software and emphasizes the new tools it implemented. Currently it has the menus Basics, Views, Spatial Domain, Frequency Domain, Segmentations and Study. Each menu contains items and subitems with features that generally require an image as input and produce an image or an attribute in the output. (author)

  4. Optimization of digital image processing to determine quantum dots' height and density from atomic force microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J E; Paciornik, S; Pinto, L D; Ptak, F; Pires, M P; Souza, P L

    2018-01-01

    An optimized method of digital image processing to interpret quantum dots' height measurements obtained by atomic force microscopy is presented. The method was developed by combining well-known digital image processing techniques and particle recognition algorithms. The properties of quantum dot structures strongly depend on dots' height, among other features. Determination of their height is sensitive to small variations in their digital image processing parameters, which can generate misleading results. Comparing the results obtained with two image processing techniques - a conventional method and the new method proposed herein - with the data obtained by determining the height of quantum dots one by one within a fixed area, showed that the optimized method leads to more accurate results. Moreover, the log-normal distribution, which is often used to represent natural processes, shows a better fit to the quantum dots' height histogram obtained with the proposed method. Finally, the quantum dots' height obtained were used to calculate the predicted photoluminescence peak energies which were compared with the experimental data. Again, a better match was observed when using the proposed method to evaluate the quantum dots' height. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Digital color imaging

    CERN Document Server

    Fernandez-Maloigne, Christine; Macaire, Ludovic

    2013-01-01

    This collective work identifies the latest developments in the field of the automatic processing and analysis of digital color images.For researchers and students, it represents a critical state of the art on the scientific issues raised by the various steps constituting the chain of color image processing.It covers a wide range of topics related to computational color imaging, including color filtering and segmentation, color texture characterization, color invariant for object recognition, color and motion analysis, as well as color image and video indexing and retrieval. <

  6. [Optimization of digital chest radiography image post-processing in diagnosis of pneumoconiosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Bing-yong; Mao, Ling; Zhou, Shao-wei; Shi, Jin

    2013-11-01

    To establish the optimal image post-processing parameters for digital chest radiography as preliminary research for introducing digital radiography (DR) to pneumoconiosis diagnosis in China. A total of 204 pneumoconiosis patients and 31 dust-exposed workers were enrolled as the subjects in this research. Film-screen radiography (FSR) and DR images were taken for all subjects. DR films were printed after raw images were processed and parameters were altered using DR workstation (GE Healthcare, U.S.A.). Image gradations, lung textures, and the imaging of thoracic vertebra were evaluated by pneumoconiosis experts, and the optimal post-processing parameters were selected. Optical density was measured for both DR films and FSR films. For the DR machine used in this research, the contrast adjustment (CA) and brightness adjustment (BA) were the main parameters that determine the brightness and gray levels of images. The optimal ranges for CA and BA were 115%∼120% and 160%∼165%, respectively. The quality of DR chest films would be optimized when tissue contrast was adjusted to a maximum of 0.15, edge to a minimum of 1, and both noise reduction and tissue equalization to0.The failure rate of chest DR (0.4%) was significantly lower than that of chest FSR (17%) (P image post-processing on DR machine purchased from GE Healthcare, the DR chest films can meet all requirements for the quality of chest X-ray films in the Chinese diagnostic criteria for pneumoconiosis.

  7. Reproducibility of lateral cephalometric landmarks on conventional radiographs and spatial frequency-processed digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jeong Won; Heo, Min Suk; Lee, Sam Sun; Choi, Hyun Bae; Choi, Soon Chul; Choi, Hang Moon

    2002-01-01

    Computed radiography (CR) has been used in cephalometric radiography and many studies have been carried out to improve image quality using various digital enhancement and filtering techniques. During CR image acquisition, the frequency rank and type affect to the image quality. The aim of this study was to compare the diagnostic quality of conventional cephalometric radiographs to those of computed radiography. The diagnostic quality of conventional cephalometric radiographs (M0) and their digital image counterparts were compared, and at the same time, six modalities (M1-M6) of spatial frequency-processed digital images were compared by evaluating the reproducibility of 23 cephalometric landmark locations. Reproducibility was defined as an observer's deviation (in mm) from the mean between all observers. In comparison with the conventional cephalometric radiograph (M0), M1 showed statistically significant differences in 8 locations, M2 in 9, M3 12, M4 in 7, M5 in 12, and M6 showed significant differences in 14 of 23 landmark locations (p<0.05). The number of reproducible landmarks that each modality possesses were 7 in M6, 6 in M5, 5 in M3, 4 in M4, 3 in M2, 2 in M1, and 1 location in M0. The image modality that observers selected as having the best image quality was M5.

  8. Digital Imaging. Chapter 16

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clunie, D. [CoreLab Partners, Princeton (United States)

    2014-09-15

    The original means of recording X ray images was a photographic plate. Nowadays, all medical imaging modalities provide for digital acquisition, though globally, the use of radiographic film is still widespread. Many modalities are fundamentally digital in that they require image reconstruction from quantified digital signals, such as computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

  9. Analysis of the nebulosities near T Tauri using digital computer image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lorre, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    Direct plates of T Tauri taken with the 120-inch (3 m) and 36-inch (91 cm) Lick reflectors were digitized and analyzed using digital computer image processing techniques. Luminous emission protrusions extending to as far as 13'' from T Tauri in position angles 170degree, 210degree, and 330degree are shown. These features are variable and may contain layered structure. The complex reflection nebula west of T Tauri (NGC 1555) appears to be an illuminated portion of a much larger dark nebula whose variability is due to obscuring material near the star

  10. Measurements of oil spill spreading in a wave tank using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores, H.; Saavedra, I.; Andreatta, A.; Llona, G.

    1998-01-01

    In this work, an experimental study of spreading of crude oil is carried out in a wave tank. The tests are performed by spilling different volumes and types of crude oil on the water surface. An experimental measurement technique was developed based on digital processing of video images. The acquisition and processing of such images is carried out by using a video camera and inexpensive microcomputer hardware and software. Processing is carried out by first performing a digital image filter, then edge detection is performed on the filtered image data. The final result is a file that contains the coordinates of a polygon that encloses the observed slick for each time step. Different types of filters are actually used in order to adequately separate the color intensifies corresponding to each of the elements in the image. Postprocessing of the vectorized images provides accurate measurements of the slick edge, thus obtaining a complete geometric representation, which is significantly different from simplified considerations of radially symmetric spreading. The spreading of the oil slick was recorded for each of the tests. Results of the experimental study are presented for each spreading regime, and analyzed in terms of the wave parameters such as period and wave height. (author)

  11. A new approach to pre-processing digital image for wavelet-based watermark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreste, Santa; Andaloro, Guido

    2008-11-01

    The growth of the Internet has increased the phenomenon of digital piracy, in multimedia objects, like software, image, video, audio and text. Therefore it is strategic to individualize and to develop methods and numerical algorithms, which are stable and have low computational cost, that will allow us to find a solution to these problems. We describe a digital watermarking algorithm for color image protection and authenticity: robust, not blind, and wavelet-based. The use of Discrete Wavelet Transform is motivated by good time-frequency features and a good match with Human Visual System directives. These two combined elements are important for building an invisible and robust watermark. Moreover our algorithm can work with any image, thanks to the step of pre-processing of the image that includes resize techniques that adapt to the size of the original image for Wavelet transform. The watermark signal is calculated in correlation with the image features and statistic properties. In the detection step we apply a re-synchronization between the original and watermarked image according to the Neyman-Pearson statistic criterion. Experimentation on a large set of different images has been shown to be resistant against geometric, filtering, and StirMark attacks with a low rate of false alarm.

  12. PREFACE: I International Scientific School Methods of Digital Image Processing in Optics and Photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurov, I. P.; Kozlov, S. A.

    2014-09-01

    The first international scientific school "Methods of Digital Image Processing in Optics and Photonics" was held with a view to develop cooperation between world-class experts, young scientists, students and post-graduate students, and to exchange information on the current status and directions of research in the field of digital image processing in optics and photonics. The International Scientific School was managed by: Saint Petersburg National Research University of Information Technologies, Mechanics and Optics (ITMO University) - Saint Petersburg (Russia) Chernyshevsky Saratov State University - Saratov (Russia) National research nuclear University "MEPHI" (NRNU MEPhI) - Moscow (Russia) The school was held with the participation of the local chapters of Optical Society of America (OSA), the Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE) and IEEE Photonics Society. Further details, including topics, committees and conference photos are available in the PDF

  13. A software to digital image processing to be used in the voxel phantom development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, J W; Lima, F R A

    2009-11-15

    Anthropomorphic models used in computational dosimetry, also denominated phantoms, are based on digital images recorded from scanning of real people by Computed Tomography (CT) or Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). The voxel phantom construction requests computational processing for transformations of image formats, to compact two-dimensional (2-D) images forming of three-dimensional (3-D) matrices, image sampling and quantization, image enhancement, restoration and segmentation, among others. Hardly the researcher of computational dosimetry will find all these available abilities in single software, and almost always this difficulty presents as a result the decrease of the rhythm of his researches or the use, sometimes inadequate, of alternative tools. The need to integrate the several tasks mentioned above to obtain an image that can be used in an exposure computational model motivated the development of the Digital Image Processing (DIP) software, mainly to solve particular problems in Dissertations and Thesis developed by members of the Grupo de Pesquisa em Dosimetria Numérica (GDN/CNPq). Because of this particular objective, the software uses the Portuguese idiom in their implementations and interfaces. This paper presents the second version of the DIP, whose main changes are the more formal organization on menus and menu items, and menu for digital image segmentation. Currently, the DIP contains the menus Fundamentos, Visualizações, Domínio Espacial, Domínio de Frequências, Segmentações and Estudos. Each menu contains items and sub-items with functionalities that, usually, request an image as input and produce an image or an attribute in the output. The DIP reads edits and writes binary files containing the 3-D matrix corresponding to a stack of axial images from a given geometry that can be a human body or other volume of interest. It also can read any type of computational image and to make conversions. When the task involves only an output image

  14. A digital pixel cell for address event representation image convolution processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camunas-Mesa, Luis; Acosta-Jimenez, Antonio; Serrano-Gotarredona, Teresa; Linares-Barranco, Bernabe

    2005-06-01

    Address Event Representation (AER) is an emergent neuromorphic interchip communication protocol that allows for real-time virtual massive connectivity between huge number of neurons located on different chips. By exploiting high speed digital communication circuits (with nano-seconds timings), synaptic neural connections can be time multiplexed, while neural activity signals (with mili-seconds timings) are sampled at low frequencies. Also, neurons generate events according to their information levels. Neurons with more information (activity, derivative of activities, contrast, motion, edges,...) generate more events per unit time, and access the interchip communication channel more frequently, while neurons with low activity consume less communication bandwidth. AER technology has been used and reported for the implementation of various type of image sensors or retinae: luminance with local agc, contrast retinae, motion retinae,... Also, there has been a proposal for realizing programmable kernel image convolution chips. Such convolution chips would contain an array of pixels that perform weighted addition of events. Once a pixel has added sufficient event contributions to reach a fixed threshold, the pixel fires an event, which is then routed out of the chip for further processing. Such convolution chips have been proposed to be implemented using pulsed current mode mixed analog and digital circuit techniques. In this paper we present a fully digital pixel implementation to perform the weighted additions and fire the events. This way, for a given technology, there is a fully digital implementation reference against which compare the mixed signal implementations. We have designed, implemented and tested a fully digital AER convolution pixel. This pixel will be used to implement a full AER convolution chip for programmable kernel image convolution processing.

  15. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan [Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Department of Automation, Tsinghua University, Beijing, 100084 (China); Yan Yong, E-mail: lihuipeng@tsinghua.edu.c [University of Kent, Canterbury, Kent CT2 7NT (United Kingdom)

    2009-02-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  16. Digital image processing based mass flow rate measurement of gas/solid two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song Ding; Peng Lihui; Lu Geng; Yang Shiyuan; Yan Yong

    2009-01-01

    With the rapid growth of the process industry, pneumatic conveying as a tool for the transportation of a wide variety of pulverized and granular materials has become widespread. In order to improve plant control and operational efficiency, it is essential to know the parameters of the particle flow. This paper presents a digital imaging based method which is capable of measuring multiple flow parameters, including volumetric concentration, velocity and mass flow rate of particles in the gas/solid two phase flow. The measurement system consists of a solid state laser for illumination, a low-cost CCD camera for particle image acquisition and a microcomputer with bespoke software for particle image processing. The measurements of particle velocity and volumetric concentration share the same sensing hardware but use different exposure time and different image processing methods. By controlling the exposure time of the camera a clear image and a motion blurred image are obtained respectively. The clear image is thresholded by OTSU method to identify the particles from the dark background so that the volumetric concentration is determined by calculating the ratio between the particle area and the total area. Particle velocity is derived from the motion blur length, which is estimated from the motion blurred images by using the travelling wave equation method. The mass flow rate of particles is calculated by combining the particle velocity and volumetric concentration. Simulation and experiment results indicate that the proposed method is promising for the measurement of multiple parameters of gas/solid two-phase flow.

  17. Searching early bone metastasis on plain radiography by using digital imaging processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaramillo-Nunez, A.; Perez-Meza, M. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Apdo. Postal 51 y 216, Pue. (Mexico); Universidad de la Sierra Sur, C. P. 70800, Miahuatlan, Oax. (Mexico)

    2012-10-23

    Some authors mention that it is not possible to detect early bone metastasis on plain radiography. In this work we use digital imaging processing to analyze three radiographs taken from a patient with bone metastasis discomfort on the right shoulder. The time period among the first and second radiography was approximately one month and between the first and the third one year. This procedure is a first approach in order to know if in this particular case it was possible to detect an early bone metastasis. The obtained results suggest that by carrying out a digital processing is possible to detect the metastasis since the radiography contains the information although visually it is not possible to observe it.

  18. Comparison of plastic strains on AA5052 by single point incremental forming process using digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mugendiran, V.; Gnanavelbabu, A. [Anna University, Chennai, Tamilnadu (India)

    2017-06-15

    In this study, a surface based strain measurement was used to determine the formability of the sheet metal. A strain measurement may employ manual calculation of plastic strains based on the reference circle and the deformed circle. The manual calculation method has a greater margin of error in the practical applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the formability by implementing three different theoretical approaches: Namely conventional method, least square method and digital based strain measurements. As the sheet metal was formed by a single point incremental process the etched circles get deformed into elliptical shapes approximately, image acquisition has been done before and after forming. The plastic strains of the deformed circle grids are calculated based on the non- deformed reference. The coordinates of the deformed circles are measured by various image processing steps. Finally the strains obtained from the deformed circle are used to plot the forming limit diagram. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, the conventional, least square and digital based method of prediction of the forming limit diagram was compared. Conventional method and least square method have marginal error when compared with digital based processing method. Measurement of strain based on image processing agrees well and can be used to improve the accuracy and to reduce the measurement error in prediction of forming limit diagram.

  19. Comparison of plastic strains on AA5052 by single point incremental forming process using digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mugendiran, V.; Gnanavelbabu, A.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a surface based strain measurement was used to determine the formability of the sheet metal. A strain measurement may employ manual calculation of plastic strains based on the reference circle and the deformed circle. The manual calculation method has a greater margin of error in the practical applications. In this paper, an attempt has been made to compare the formability by implementing three different theoretical approaches: Namely conventional method, least square method and digital based strain measurements. As the sheet metal was formed by a single point incremental process the etched circles get deformed into elliptical shapes approximately, image acquisition has been done before and after forming. The plastic strains of the deformed circle grids are calculated based on the non- deformed reference. The coordinates of the deformed circles are measured by various image processing steps. Finally the strains obtained from the deformed circle are used to plot the forming limit diagram. To evaluate the accuracy of the system, the conventional, least square and digital based method of prediction of the forming limit diagram was compared. Conventional method and least square method have marginal error when compared with digital based processing method. Measurement of strain based on image processing agrees well and can be used to improve the accuracy and to reduce the measurement error in prediction of forming limit diagram.

  20. Digital cine-imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Kazuhiro

    1992-01-01

    Digitization of fluoroscopic images has been developed for the digital cine imaging system as a result of the computer technology, television technology, and popularization of interventional radiology. Present digital cine imaging system is able to offer images similar to cine film because of the higher operatability and better image quality with the development of interventional radiology. As a result, its higher usefulness for catheter diagnosis examination except for interventional radiology was reported, and the possibility of having filmless cine is close to becoming a reality. However several problems have been pointed out, such as spatial resolution, time resolution, storage and exchangeability of data, disconsolidated viewing functions, etc. Anyhow, digital cine imaging system has some unresolved points and lots the needs to be discussed. The tendency of digitization is the passage of the time and we have to promote a study for more useful digital cine imaging system in team medical treatment which centers on the patients. (author)

  1. Development of automatic radiographic inspection system using digital image processing and artificial intelligence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoga, Kouyu; Sugimoto, Koji; Michiba, Koji; Kato, Yuhei; Sugita, Yuji; Onda, Katsuhiro.

    1991-01-01

    The application of computers to welding inspection is expanding rapidly. The classification of the application is the collection, analysis and processing of data, the graphic display of results, the distinction of the kinds of defects and the evaluation of the harmufulness of defects and the judgement of acceptance or rejection. The application of computer techniques to the automation of data collection was realized at the relatively early stage. Data processing and the graphic display of results are the techniques in progress now, and the application of artificial intelligence to the distinction of the kinds of defects and the evaluation of harmfulness is expected to expand rapidly. In order to computerize radiographic inspection, the abilities of image processing technology and knowledge engineering must be given to computers. The object of this system is the butt joints by arc welding of the steel materials of up to 30 mm thickness. The digitizing transformation of radiographs, the distinction and evaluation of transmissivity and gradation by image processing, and only as for those, of which the picture quality satisfies the standard, the extraction of defect images, their display, the distinction of the kinds and the final judgement are carried out. The techniques of image processing, the knowledge for distinguishing the kinds of defects and the concept of the practical system are reported. (K.I.)

  2. Digital image processing in the nuclear field with ImaWin 5.0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marajofsky, A.; Trafelati, A.A.; Lavagnino, C.E.

    2000-01-01

    ImaWin is a software project designed to cover a broad set of applications of Digital Image Processing in the Nuclear Field. Since 1994 the system has evolved in a complete tool that helped to face problems like densitometry calculus, quality control in pellets, deposit administration and surveillance. Neural network kernel and ImaScript scripting language are included within the package. The open and incremental development of ImaWin software has been allowing easy expansion upon a common re-engineering framework. (author)

  3. Application of digital image processing for the generation of voxels phantoms for Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boia, L.S.; Menezes, A.F.; Cardoso, M.A.C. [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE (Brazil); Rosa, L.A.R. da [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria-IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CP 37760, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Batista, D.V.S. [Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria-IRD, Av. Salvador Allende, s/no Recreio dos Bandeirantes, CP 37760, CEP 22780-160 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Instituto Nacional de Cancer-Secao de Fisica Medica, Praca Cruz Vermelha, 23-Centro, 20230-130 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Cardoso, S.C. [Departamento de Fisica Nuclear, Instituto de Fisica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Bloco A-Sala 307, CP 68528, CEP 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Silva, A.X., E-mail: ademir@con.ufrj.br [Programa de Engenharia Nuclear/COPPE (Brazil); Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear/Escola Politecnica, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ilha do Fundao, Caixa Postal 68509, 21945-970 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Facure, A. [Comissao Nacional de Energia Nuclear, R. Gal. Severiano 90, sala 409, 22294-900 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2012-01-15

    This paper presents the application of a computational methodology for optimizing the conversion of medical tomographic images in voxel anthropomorphic models for simulation of radiation transport using the MCNP code. A computational system was developed for digital image processing that compresses the information from the DICOM medical image before it is converted to the Scan2MCNP software input file for optimization of the image data. In order to validate the computational methodology, a radiosurgery treatment simulation was performed using the Alderson Rando phantom and the acquisition of DICOM images was performed. The simulation results were compared with data obtained with the BrainLab planning system. The comparison showed good agreement for three orthogonal treatment beams of {sup 60}Co gamma radiation. The percentage differences were 3.07%, 0.77% and 6.15% for axial, coronal and sagital projections, respectively. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We use a method to optimize the CT image conversion in voxel model for MCNP simulation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We present a methodology to compress a DICOM image before conversion to input file. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer To validate this study an idealized radiosurgery applied to the Alderson phantom was used.

  4. Image processing. Volumetric analysis with a digital image processing system. [GAMMA]. Bildverarbeitung. Volumetrie mittels eines digitalen Bildverarbeitungssystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindler, M; Radtke, F; Demel, G

    1986-01-01

    The book is arranged in seven sections, describing various applications of volumetric analysis using image processing systems, and various methods of diagnostic evaluation of images obtained by gamma scintigraphy, cardic catheterisation, and echocardiography. A dynamic ventricular phantom is explained that has been developed for checking and calibration for safe examination of patient, the phantom allowing extensive simulation of volumetric and hemodynamic conditions of the human heart: One section discusses the program development for image processing, referring to a number of different computer systems. The equipment described includes a small non-expensive PC system, as well as a standardized nuclear medical diagnostic system, and a computer system especially suited to image processing.

  5. Semi-automated Digital Imaging and Processing System for Measuring Lake Ice Thickness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Preetpal

    to detect equipment failure and identify defective products at the assembly line. The research work in this thesis combines machine vision and image processing technology to build a digital imaging and processing system for monitoring and measuring lake ice thickness in real time. An ultra-compact USB camera is programmed to acquire and transmit high resolution imagery for processing with MATLAB Image Processing toolbox. The image acquisition and transmission process is fully automated; image analysis is semi-automated and requires limited user input. Potential design changes to the prototype and ideas on fully automating the imaging and processing procedure are presented to conclude this research work.

  6. Image processing can cause some malignant soft-tissue lesions to be missed in digital mammography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, L M; Halling-Brown, M D; Looney, P T; Dance, D R; Wallis, M G; Given-Wilson, R M; Wilkinson, L; McAvinchey, R; Young, K C

    2017-09-01

    To investigate the effect of image processing on cancer detection in mammography. An observer study was performed using 349 digital mammography images of women with normal breasts, calcification clusters, or soft-tissue lesions including 191 subtle cancers. Images underwent two types of processing: FlavourA (standard) and FlavourB (added enhancement). Six observers located features in the breast they suspected to be cancerous (4,188 observations). Data were analysed using jackknife alternative free-response receiver operating characteristic (JAFROC) analysis. Characteristics of the cancers detected with each image processing type were investigated. For calcifications, the JAFROC figure of merit (FOM) was equal to 0.86 for both types of image processing. For soft-tissue lesions, the JAFROC FOM were better for FlavourA (0.81) than FlavourB (0.78); this difference was significant (p=0.001). Using FlavourA a greater number of cancers of all grades and sizes were detected than with FlavourB. FlavourA improved soft-tissue lesion detection in denser breasts (p=0.04 when volumetric density was over 7.5%) CONCLUSIONS: The detection of malignant soft-tissue lesions (which were primarily invasive) was significantly better with FlavourA than FlavourB image processing. This is despite FlavourB having a higher contrast appearance often preferred by radiologists. It is important that clinical choice of image processing is based on objective measures. Copyright © 2017 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Evaluation of pulsed laser holograms of flashing sprays by digital image processing and holographic particle image velocimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feldmann, O.; Gebhard, P.; Mayinger, F.

    1998-01-01

    This study deals with the application of the pulsed laser holography and the digital image processing in the analysis of flashing sprays. Both the information about the macroscopic structures of a spray, such as the breakup-length and the spray-angle, and about its microscopic structures, such as the number, the size, and the location of the generated droplets is stored three-dimensionally on a single pulsed hologram. In addition to that, the velocity of the droplets can be obtained from double pulsed holograms. In every experiment, two holograms are taken, resulting in two three-dimensional reconstructions of the test section, seen from different directions. These reconstructions are scanned by video-cameras with a small depth of field and subdivided into several two-dimensional images. These images are digitized and binarized, and the information about the droplets depicted sharply on each image is saved. In case of a double pulsed hologram, a Fourier-analysis based algorithm creates a search volume to determine the droplets' second position and thus their velocity in each view. A stereo matching modulus correlates both views and determines the position and/or the velocity of each droplet highly accurate. The applicability of the employed holographic technique and the filtering and correlating moduli is proven by the presented results. (author)

  8. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, M C; Lewis, T E; Kinsey, T V

    1999-05-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new Department of Defense (DoD) contract vehicle called digital imaging networks (DIN)-PACS. The JITPO reengineered this process incorporating multiple organizations and politics. The reengineered PACS process administered through the JITPO transformed the decision process and accountability from a single office to a consultative method that increased end-user knowledge, responsibility, and ownership in PACS. The JITPO continues to provide information and services that assist multiple groups and users in rendering PACS planning and implementation decisions. Local site project managers are involved from the outset and this end-user collaboration has made the sometimes difficult transition to PACS an easier and more acceptable process for all involved. Corporately, this process saved DoD sites millions by having PACS plans developed within the government and proposed to vendors second, and then having vendors respond specifically to those plans. The integrity and efficiency of the process have reduced the opportunity for implementing nonstandard systems while sharing resources and reducing wasted government dollars. This presentation will describe the chronology of changes, encountered obstacles, and lessons learned within the reengineering of the PACS process for DIN-PACS.

  9. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2017-02-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  10. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-01-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  11. Model-based estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full-field digital mammography images from image-acquisition physics and patient-image characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-03-01

    Breast percent density (PD%), as measured mammographically, is one of the strongest known risk factors for breast cancer. While the majority of studies to date have focused on PD% assessment from digitized film mammograms, digital mammography (DM) is becoming increasingly common, and allows for direct PD% assessment at the time of imaging. This work investigates the accuracy of a generalized linear model-based (GLM) estimation of PD% from raw and postprocessed digital mammograms, utilizing image acquisition physics, patient characteristics and gray-level intensity features of the specific image. The model is trained in a leave-one-woman-out fashion on a series of 81 cases for which bilateral, mediolateral-oblique DM images were available in both raw and post-processed format. Baseline continuous and categorical density estimates were provided by a trained breast-imaging radiologist. Regression analysis is performed and Pearson's correlation, r, and Cohen's kappa, κ, are computed. The GLM PD% estimation model performed well on both processed (r=0.89, p<0.001) and raw (r=0.75, p<0.001) images. Model agreement with radiologist assigned density categories was also high for processed (κ=0.79, p<0.001) and raw (κ=0.76, p<0.001) images. Model-based prediction of breast PD% could allow for a reproducible estimation of breast density, providing a rapid risk assessment tool for clinical practice.

  12. Digital image processing of periapical radiographs with low dose of radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerbauy, Warley David; Moraes, Luiz Cesar de

    1996-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate whether digitized images obtained from peri apical radiographs taken with low dose of radiation could be improved with the aid of a computer software (Photo Styler) for digital treatment. Serial and standardized radiographs of molar and pre molar areas were studied. A total of 57 images equivalent to the radiographs taken with reduced exposure time (60 and 80% of the time considered normal), digitized and treated, were submitted to the evaluation of seven examiners which compared them with those images without treatment. It was verified that about 80% of the images equivalent to the radiographs taken with 60% reduction of ordinary exposure time were considered to having quality for supporting diagnosis. As for the images taken with 80% reduction of ordinary exposure time, about 50% of them were considered suitable for the same purpose. (author)

  13. Separated reconstruction of images from ultrasonic holograms with tridimensional object by digital processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, J.H.

    1979-01-01

    Because of much attractiveness, digital reconstruction of image from ultrasonic hologram by computer has been widely studied in recent years. But the method of digital reconstruction of image is displayed in the plain only, so study is done mainly of the hologram obtained from bidimensional objects. Many applications of the ultrasonic holography such as the non-distructive testing and the ultrasonic diagnosis are mostly of the tridimensional object. In the ordinary digital reconstruction of the image from the hologram obtained from tridimensional object, a question of hidden-image problem arises, and the separated reconstruction of the image for the considered part of the object is required. In this paper, multi-diffraction by tridimensional object is assumed to have linearity, ie. superposition property by each diffraction of bidimensional objects. And a new algorithm is proposed here, namely reconstructed image for considered one of bidimensional objects in tridimensional object obtained by means of operation from the two holograms tilted in unequal angles. Such tilted holograms are obtained from the tilted linear array receivers by scanning method. That images can be reconstructed by the operation from two holograms means that the new algorithm is verified. And another new method of the transformation of hologram, that is, transformation of a hologram to arbitrarily tilted hologram, has been proved valid. The reconstructed images obtained with the method of transformation and the method of operation, are the images reconstructed from one hologram by the tridimensional object and more distinctly separated that any images mentioned above. (author)

  14. Basic digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Lockhart, Gordon B

    1985-01-01

    Basic Digital Signal Processing describes the principles of digital signal processing and experiments with BASIC programs involving the fast Fourier theorem (FFT). The book reviews the fundamentals of the BASIC program, continuous and discrete time signals including analog signals, Fourier analysis, discrete Fourier transform, signal energy, power. The text also explains digital signal processing involving digital filters, linear time-variant systems, discrete time unit impulse, discrete-time convolution, and the alternative structure for second order infinite impulse response (IIR) sections.

  15. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-01

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  16. Digital medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeringer, F.; Mun, S.K.; Kerlin, B.D.

    1989-01-01

    In formulating an implementation strategy for digital medical imaging, three interrelated thrusts have emerged for the defense medical establishment. These thrusts: totally filmless medical imaging on the battlefield, teleradiology, and DIN/PACS for peacetime military health care are discussed. They have implications in their fully developed form as resource savers and quality improvers for the unique aspects of military health care

  17. Digital vascular imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludwig, J.W.; Engels, B.C.H.

    1981-01-01

    Digitalizing videosignals from an image intensifying TV-chain, followed by subtraction, contrast intensifying, and reformation to analogous signal deliver angiography pictures of high quality after intravenous injection of the contrast medium. As the examination is only little invasive it can be carried out on outdoor patients or in the polyclinics. The possibilities of the digital vessel imagination (DVI) are shown at vessel images of different parts of the body; a 36 cm image intensifyer which can be switched to 3 different sorts of operation and has a plumbicon-TV recording tube is used as receiver. (orig.) [de

  18. Fast processing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) metadata using multiseries DICOM format.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, Mahmoud; Philbin, James

    2015-04-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) information model combines pixel data and its metadata in a single object. There are user scenarios that only need metadata manipulation, such as deidentification and study migration. Most picture archiving and communication system use a database to store and update the metadata rather than updating the raw DICOM files themselves. The multiseries DICOM (MSD) format separates metadata from pixel data and eliminates duplicate attributes. This work promotes storing DICOM studies in MSD format to reduce the metadata processing time. A set of experiments are performed that update the metadata of a set of DICOM studies for deidentification and migration. The studies are stored in both the traditional single frame DICOM (SFD) format and the MSD format. The results show that it is faster to update studies' metadata in MSD format than in SFD format because the bulk data is separated in MSD and is not retrieved from the storage system. In addition, it is space efficient to store the deidentified studies in MSD format as it shares the same bulk data object with the original study. In summary, separation of metadata from pixel data using the MSD format provides fast metadata access and speeds up applications that process only the metadata.

  19. Digital image transformation and rectification of spacecraft and radar images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, S. S. C.

    1985-01-01

    The application of digital processing techniques to spacecraft television pictures and radar images is discussed. The use of digital rectification to produce contour maps from spacecraft pictures is described; images with azimuth and elevation angles are converted into point-perspective frame pictures. The digital correction of the slant angle of radar images to ground scale is examined. The development of orthophoto and stereoscopic shaded relief maps from digital terrain and digital image data is analyzed. Digital image transformations and rectifications are utilized on Viking Orbiter and Lander pictures of Mars.

  20. Energy-dependent imaging in digital radiography: a review on acquisition, processing and display technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppini, G.; Maltinti, G.; Valli, G.; Baroni, M.; Buchignan, M.; Valli, G.

    1986-01-01

    The capabilities of energy-dependent imaging in digital radiography are analyzed paying particular attention to digital video systems. The main techniques developed in recent years for selective energy imaging are reviewed following a unified approach. Discussion about advantages and limits of energy methods is carried out by a comparative analysis of computer simulated data and experimental results as obtained by standard x-ray equipments coupled to a digital video unit. Geometric phantoms are used as test object, as also images of a chest phantom are produced. Since signal-to-noise ratio degradation is one of the major problems when dealing with selective imaging, a particular effort is made to investigate noise effects. In this perspective, an original colour encoding display of energy sequences is presented. By mapping the various energy measurements on different colour bands (typically those of an RGB TV-monitor), an increased image conspicuity is obtained without a significant noise degradation: this is ensured by the energy dependence of attenuation coefficients and by the integrating characteristics of the display device

  1. Testing strategies for digital picture processing of industrial X-ray images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filbert, D.; Klatte, R.

    1986-01-01

    Digital picture processing for difficult inspection work in general involves long and complex processing and much computer time. An adequate testing strategy can considerably reduce the testing time, which is shown by the example of a strategy for automated radiographic testing of castings. (orig./HP) [de

  2. Fractal and digital image processing to determine the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, Xiao-ning; Li, Wei

    2016-01-01

    The degree of dispersion is an important parameter to quantitatively study properties of carbon nanotube composites. Among the many methods for studying dispersion, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy are the most commonly used, intuitive, and convincing methods. However, they have the disadvantage of not being quantitative. To overcome this disadvantage, the fractal theory and digital image processing method can be used to provide a quantitative analysis of the morphology and properties of carbon nanotube composites. In this paper, the dispersion degree of carbon nanotubes was investigated using two fractal methods, namely, the box-counting method and the differential box-counting method. On the basis of the results, we propose a new method for the quantitative characterization of the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes. This hierarchical grid method can be used as a supplementary method, and can be combined with the fractal calculation method. Thus, the accuracy and effectiveness of the quantitative characterization of the dispersion degree of carbon nanotubes can be improved. (The outer diameter of the carbon nanotubes is about 50 nm; the length of the carbon nanotubes is 10–20 μm.)

  3. Fractal and digital image processing to determine the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Xiao-ning, E-mail: xnliang0506@163.com; Li, Wei, E-mail: 1099006@mail.dhu.edu.cn, E-mail: liwei@dhu.edu.cn, E-mail: waiwentougao@outlook.com [Donghua University, College of Textiles (China)

    2016-05-15

    The degree of dispersion is an important parameter to quantitatively study properties of carbon nanotube composites. Among the many methods for studying dispersion, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy are the most commonly used, intuitive, and convincing methods. However, they have the disadvantage of not being quantitative. To overcome this disadvantage, the fractal theory and digital image processing method can be used to provide a quantitative analysis of the morphology and properties of carbon nanotube composites. In this paper, the dispersion degree of carbon nanotubes was investigated using two fractal methods, namely, the box-counting method and the differential box-counting method. On the basis of the results, we propose a new method for the quantitative characterization of the degree of dispersion of carbon nanotubes. This hierarchical grid method can be used as a supplementary method, and can be combined with the fractal calculation method. Thus, the accuracy and effectiveness of the quantitative characterization of the dispersion degree of carbon nanotubes can be improved. (The outer diameter of the carbon nanotubes is about 50 nm; the length of the carbon nanotubes is 10–20 μm.)

  4. Digital radiology and digitally formatted image management systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cox, G.G.; Dwyer, S.J. III; Templeton, A.W.

    1987-01-01

    The number of diagnostic examinations performed with digitally formatted imaging equipment is increasing. Digital general-purpose and fluoroscopic radiology systems are being clinically evaluated. Digitizing conventional x-ray films, such as mammograms, frequently improves the diagnostic quality of the images. The digitizing process with laser has also afforded the opportunity to document required spatial resolution for digital imaging and network systems. The use of digitally formatted image instrumentation imposes new requirements on the acquisition, display and manipulation, transmission, hard copy image recording, and archiving of diagnostic data. Networking of digitally formatted image data offers many advantages for managing digital information. This paper identifies and describes digital radiographic systems. Parameters required for designing and implementing a digital image management system are outlined. Spatial and contrast resolution requirements are identified. The key parameters include the amount of image data generated each working day, the retrieval rate of the generated data, the display hardware and software needed for interactive diagnosis display stations, the requirements for analog hard copy generation, and on-line and long-term archiving requirements. These image management systems are often called PACS (Picture Archiving and Communication Systems)

  5. Digital image processing of arterial thrombi images, recorded by light transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyssen, M.; Blockeel, E.; Bourgain, R.

    1985-01-01

    For several years, the formation and evolution of thrombi in small arteries of rats has been quantitatively studied at the Laboratory of Physiology and Physiopathology at the V.U.B. Global size parameters can be determined by projecting the image of a small arterial segment onto photosensitive cells. The transmitted light intensity is a measure for the thrombotic phenomenon. This unique method permitted extensive in vivo study of the platelet vessel wall interaction and local thrombosis. A development has emerged with the aim to improve the resolution of these measurements in order to get information on texture and form of the thrombotic mass at any stage of its evolution. In the particular situation studied, the dispersive properties of the flowing blood were found to be highly anisotropic. An explanation for this phenomenon could be given by considering the alignment of red blood cells in the blood flow. In order to explain the measured intensity profiles, the authors postulated alignment in the plane perpendicular to the flow as well. The theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the experimental values if we assume almost perfect alignment of the erythrocytes such that their short axes are pointing in the direction of the center of the artery. Conclusive evidence of the interaction between local flow properties and light transmission could be found by observing arteries with perturbated flow

  6. Fast processing of digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) metadata using multiseries DICOM format

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, Mahmoud; Philbin, James

    2015-01-01

    The digital imaging and communications in medicine (DICOM) information model combines pixel data and its metadata in a single object. There are user scenarios that only need metadata manipulation, such as deidentification and study migration. Most picture archiving and communication system use a database to store and update the metadata rather than updating the raw DICOM files themselves. The multiseries DICOM (MSD) format separates metadata from pixel data and eliminates duplicate attributes...

  7. Digital image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber-Hansen, Rikke; Vainer, Ben; Steiniche, Torben

    2012-01-01

    Digital image analysis (DIA) is increasingly implemented in histopathological research to facilitate truly quantitative measurements, decrease inter-observer variation and reduce hands-on time. Originally, efforts were made to enable DIA to reproduce manually obtained results on histological slides...... reproducibility, application of stereology-based quantitative measurements, time consumption, optimization of histological slides, regions of interest selection and recent developments in staining and imaging techniques....

  8. Methods in Astronomical Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jörsäter, S.

    A Brief Introductory Note History of Astronomical Imaging Astronomical Image Data Images in Various Formats Digitized Image Data Digital Image Data Philosophy of Astronomical Image Processing Properties of Digital Astronomical Images Human Image Processing Astronomical vs. Computer Science Image Processing Basic Tools of Astronomical Image Processing Display Applications Calibration of Intensity Scales Calibration of Length Scales Image Re-shaping Feature Enhancement Noise Suppression Noise and Error Analysis Image Processing Packages: Design of AIPS and MIDAS AIPS MIDAS Reduction of CCD Data Bias Subtraction Clipping Preflash Subtraction Dark Subtraction Flat Fielding Sky Subtraction Extinction Correction Deconvolution Methods Rebinning/Combining Summary and Prospects for the Future

  9. Visual grading analysis of digital neonatal chest phantom X-ray images: Impact of detector type, dose and image processing on image quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smet, M H; Breysem, L; Mussen, E; Bosmans, H; Marshall, N W; Cockmartin, L

    2018-07-01

    To evaluate the impact of digital detector, dose level and post-processing on neonatal chest phantom X-ray image quality (IQ). A neonatal phantom was imaged using four different detectors: a CR powder phosphor (PIP), a CR needle phosphor (NIP) and two wireless CsI DR detectors (DXD and DRX). Five different dose levels were studied for each detector and two post-processing algorithms evaluated for each vendor. Three paediatric radiologists scored the images using European quality criteria plus additional questions on vascular lines, noise and disease simulation. Visual grading characteristics and ordinal regression statistics were used to evaluate the effect of detector type, post-processing and dose on VGA score (VGAS). No significant differences were found between the NIP, DXD and CRX detectors (p>0.05) whereas the PIP detector had significantly lower VGAS (pProcessing did not influence VGAS (p=0.819). Increasing dose resulted in significantly higher VGAS (plevels but not image post-processing changes. VGA showed a DAK/image value above which perceived IQ did not improve, potentially useful for commissioning. • A VGA study detects IQ differences between detectors and dose levels. • The NIP detector matched the VGAS of the CsI DR detectors. • VGA data are useful in setting initial detector air kerma level. • Differences in NNPS were consistent with changes in VGAS.

  10. Efficacy study of the digital image processing with varying pixel size at A/D conversion of the chest radiograph

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inamoto, Kazuo; Tanaka, Shinichi; Miura, Takashi; Takahashi, Akira; Iwata, Tetsuya

    1984-12-01

    In the study for development of medical image archiving system, we made experiments in the field of conversion of a X-ray picture to a digital form. Three sets of chest radiograph were selected for the study of digitalization by reading different pixel size (150-300 m) in the method of A/D conversion using a drum scanner and again reconstructed to an analog form after D/A conversion. These copy films of different pixel size were shown and evaluated by 48 volunteer doctors to choose a favorite picture. It did not always follow that the most favorite picture was the finest one using the smallest pixel size. This discrepancy was further analyzed by measurement of a density histogram. By comparison studies of density curves in the same ROI of different pixel size pictures, it was concluded that their choices were dependent on not only fineness but also contrast of an output image after D/A conversion. Often better contrast picture was a key to the selection more than the pixel size. This indicates that digital storing radiographs will be possibly regenerated to the real image by the skillful operation of pixel size and contrast of a radiograph. The results will contribute to the process of recording analog X-ray picture by a digital form in the medical image archiving system.

  11. Digital image analysis of NDT radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graeme, W.A. Jr.; Eizember, A.C.; Douglass, J.

    1989-01-01

    Prior to the introduction of Charge Coupled Device (CCD) detectors the majority of image analysis performed on NDT radiographic images was done visually in the analog domain. While some film digitization was being performed, the process was often unable to capture all the usable information on the radiograph or was too time consuming. CCD technology now provides a method to digitize radiographic film images without losing the useful information captured in the original radiograph in a timely process. Incorporating that technology into a complete digital radiographic workstation allows analog radiographic information to be processed, providing additional information to the radiographer. Once in the digital domain, that data can be stored, and fused with radioscopic and other forms of digital data. The result is more productive analysis and management of radiographic inspection data. The principal function of the NDT Scan IV digital radiography system is the digitization, enhancement and storage of radiographic images

  12. Digital stereoscopic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, A. Ravishankar; Jaimes, Alejandro

    1999-05-01

    The convergence of inexpensive digital cameras and cheap hardware for displaying stereoscopic images has created the right conditions for the proliferation of stereoscopic imagin applications. One application, which is of growing importance to museums and cultural institutions, consists of capturing and displaying 3D images of objects at multiple orientations. In this paper, we present our stereoscopic imaging system and methodology for semi-automatically capturing multiple orientation stereo views of objects in a studio setting, and demonstrate the superiority of using a high resolution, high fidelity digital color camera for stereoscopic object photography. We show the superior performance achieved with the IBM TDI-Pro 3000 digital camera developed at IBM Research. We examine various choices related to the camera parameters, image capture geometry, and suggest a range of optimum values that work well in practice. We also examine the effect of scene composition and background selection on the quality of the stereoscopic image display. We will demonstrate our technique with turntable views of objects from the IBM Corporate Archive.

  13. Should processed or raw image data be used in mammographic image quality analyses? A comparative study of three full-field digital mammography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borg, Mark; Badr, Ishmail; Royle, Gary

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare a number of measured image quality parameters using processed and unprocessed or raw images in two full-field direct digital units and one computed radiography mammography system. This study shows that the difference between raw and processed image data is system specific. The results have shown that there are no significant differences between raw and processed data in the mean threshold contrast values using the contrast-detail mammography phantom in all the systems investigated; however, these results cannot be generalised to all available systems. Notable differences were noted in contrast-to-noise ratios and in other tests including: response function, modulation transfer function, noise equivalent quanta, normalised noise power spectra and detective quantum efficiency as specified in IEC 62220-1-2. Consequently, the authors strongly recommend the use of raw data for all image quality analyses in digital mammography. (authors)

  14. Lipase Production in Solid-State Fermentation Monitoring Biomass Growth of Aspergillus niger Using Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Julio C. V.; da Terzi, Selma C.; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C. T.; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A. P.; Senna, Lilian F.

    The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

  15. Lipase production in solid-state fermentation monitoring biomass growth of aspergillus niger using digital image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutra, Júlio C V; da C Terzi, Selma; Bevilaqua, Juliana Vaz; Damaso, Mônica C T; Couri, Sônia; Langone, Marta A P; Senna, Lilian F

    2008-03-01

    The aim of this study was to monitor the biomass growth of Aspergillus niger in solid-state fermentation (SSF) for lipase production using digital image processing technique. The strain A. niger 11T53A14 was cultivated in SSF using wheat bran as support, which was enriched with 0.91% (m/v) of ammonium sulfate. The addition of several vegetable oils (castor, soybean, olive, corn, and palm oils) was investigated to enhance lipase production. The maximum lipase activity was obtained using 2% (m/m) castor oil. In these conditions, the growth was evaluated each 24 h for 5 days by the glycosamine content analysis and digital image processing. Lipase activity was also determined. The results indicated that the digital image process technique can be used to monitor biomass growth in a SSF process and to correlate biomass growth and enzyme activity. In addition, the immobilized esterification lipase activity was determined for the butyl oleate synthesis, with and without 50% v/v hexane, resulting in 650 and 120 U/g, respectively. The enzyme was also used for transesterification of soybean oil and ethanol with maximum yield of 2.4%, after 30 min of reaction.

  16. Digital imaging in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essen, S Donovan

    2011-01-01

    Information technology is vital to operations, marketing, accounting, finance and administration. One of the most exciting and quickly evolving technologies in the modern dental office is digital applications. The dentist is often the business manager, information technology officer and strategic planning chief for his small business. The information systems triangle applies directly to this critical manager supported by properly trained ancillary staff and good equipment. With emerging technology driving all medical disciplines and the rapid pace at which it emerges, it is vital for the contemporary practitioner to keep abreast of the newest information technology developments. This article compares the strategic and operational advantages of digital applications, specifically imaging. The focus of this paper will be on digital radiography (DR), 3D computerized tomography, digital photography and digitally-driven CAD/CAM to what are now considered obsolescing modalities and contemplates what may arrive in the future. It is the purpose of this essay to succinctly evaluate the decisions involved in the role, application and implications of employing this tool in the dental environment

  17. PROCESSING OF DIGITAL IMAGES OF INDUSTRIAL OBJECT SURFACES DURING NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Hundzin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents modern approaches to processing of images obtained with the help of industrial equipment. Usage of pixel modification in small neighborhoods, application of uniform image processing while changing brightness level, possibilities for combination of several images, threshold image processing have been described in the paper. While processing a number of images on a metal structure containing micro-cracks and being under strain difference between two such images have been determined in the paper. The metal structure represents a contour specifying the difference in images. An analysis of the contour makes it possible to determine initial direction of crack propagation in the metal. A threshold binarization value has been determined while processing the image having a field of medium intensity which are disappearing in the process of simple binarization and merging with the background due to rather small drop between the edges. In this regard an algorithm of a balanced threshold histogram clipping has been selected and it is based on the following approach: two different histogram fractions are “weighed” and if one of the fractions “outweighs” then last column of the histogram fraction is removed and the procedure is repeated again. When there is rather high threshold value a contour break (disappearance of informative pixels may occur, and when there is a low threshold value – a noise (non-informative pixels may appear. The paper shows implementation of an algorithm for location of contact pads on image of semiconductor crystal. Algorithms for morphological processing of production prototype images have been obtained in the paper and these algorithms permit to detect defects on the surface of semiconductors, to carry out filtration, threshold binarization that presupposes application of an algorithm of a balanced threshold histogram clipping. The developed approaches can be used to highlight contours on the surface

  18. Processing of medical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Restrepo, A.

    1998-01-01

    Thanks to the innovations in the technology for the processing of medical images, to the high development of better and cheaper computers, and, additionally, to the advances in the systems of communications of medical images, the acquisition, storage and handling of digital images has acquired great importance in all the branches of the medicine. It is sought in this article to introduce some fundamental ideas of prosecution of digital images that include such aspects as their representation, storage, improvement, visualization and understanding

  19. High-Speed Data Acquisition and Digital Signal Processing System for PET Imaging Techniques Applied to Mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, J. D.; Benlloch, J. M.; Cerda, J.; Lerche, Ch. W.; Pavon, N.; Sebastia, A.

    2004-06-01

    This paper is framed into the Positron Emission Mammography (PEM) project, whose aim is to develop an innovative gamma ray sensor for early breast cancer diagnosis. Currently, breast cancer is detected using low-energy X-ray screening. However, functional imaging techniques such as PET/FDG could be employed to detect breast cancer and track disease changes with greater sensitivity. Furthermore, a small and less expensive PET camera can be utilized minimizing main problems of whole body PET. To accomplish these objectives, we are developing a new gamma ray sensor based on a newly released photodetector. However, a dedicated PEM detector requires an adequate data acquisition (DAQ) and processing system. The characterization of gamma events needs a free-running analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with sampling rates of more than 50 Ms/s and must achieve event count rates up to 10 MHz. Moreover, comprehensive data processing must be carried out to obtain event parameters necessary for performing the image reconstruction. A new generation digital signal processor (DSP) has been used to comply with these requirements. This device enables us to manage the DAQ system at up to 80 Ms/s and to execute intensive calculi over the detector signals. This paper describes our designed DAQ and processing architecture whose main features are: very high-speed data conversion, multichannel synchronized acquisition with zero dead time, a digital triggering scheme, and high throughput of data with an extensive optimization of the signal processing algorithms.

  20. Digital imaging - future visions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanford, L.

    1993-01-01

    The reality of a filmless future in medicine is closer in the UK than in the US. The initiative with digital data processing, however, is not. Despite the glowing promises in the literature of such visionware', there is as yet no filmless system anywhere in the World. This article examines research in this field. (Author)

  1. Digital image analyser for autoradiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muth, R.A.; Plotnick, J.

    1985-01-01

    The most critical parameter in quantitative autoradiography for assay of tissue concentrations of tracers is the ability to obtain precise and accurate measurements of optical density of the images. Existing high precision systems for image analysis, rotating drum densitometers, are expensive, suffer from mechanical problems and are slow. More moderately priced and reliable video camera based systems are available, but their outputs generally do not have the uniformity and stability necessary for high resolution quantitative autoradiography. The authors have designed and constructed an image analyser optimized for quantitative single and multiple tracer autoradiography which the authors refer to as a memory-mapped charged-coupled device scanner (MM-CCD). The input is from a linear array of CCD's which is used to optically scan the autoradiograph. Images are digitized into 512 x 512 picture elements with 256 gray levels and the data is stored in buffer video memory in less than two seconds. Images can then be transferred to RAM memory by direct memory-mapping for further processing. Arterial blood curve data and optical density-calibrated standards data can be entered and the optical density images can be converted automatically to tracer concentration or functional images. In double tracer studies, images produced from both exposures can be stored and processed in RAM to yield ''pure'' individual tracer concentration or functional images. Any processed image can be transmitted back to the buffer memory to be viewed on a monitor and processed for region of interest analysis

  2. apART: system for the acquisition, processing, archiving, and retrieval of digital images in an open, distributed imaging environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Uwe; Strack, Ruediger

    1992-04-01

    apART reflects the structure of an open, distributed environment. According to the general trend in the area of imaging, network-capable, general purpose workstations with capabilities of open system image communication and image input are used. Several heterogeneous components like CCD cameras, slide scanners, and image archives can be accessed. The system is driven by an object-oriented user interface where devices (image sources and destinations), operators (derived from a commercial image processing library), and images (of different data types) are managed and presented uniformly to the user. Browsing mechanisms are used to traverse devices, operators, and images. An audit trail mechanism is offered to record interactive operations on low-resolution image derivatives. These operations are processed off-line on the original image. Thus, the processing of extremely high-resolution raster images is possible, and the performance of resolution dependent operations is enhanced significantly during interaction. An object-oriented database system (APRIL), which can be browsed, is integrated into the system. Attribute retrieval is supported by the user interface. Other essential features of the system include: implementation on top of the X Window System (X11R4) and the OSF/Motif widget set; a SUN4 general purpose workstation, inclusive ethernet, magneto optical disc, etc., as the hardware platform for the user interface; complete graphical-interactive parametrization of all operators; support of different image interchange formats (GIF, TIFF, IIF, etc.); consideration of current IPI standard activities within ISO/IEC for further refinement and extensions.

  3. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Eun Kyung

    1999-01-01

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  4. Digital X-ray Imaging in Dentistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, College of Dentistry, Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-08-15

    In dentistry, Radio Visio Graphy was introduced as a first electronic dental x-ray imaging modality in 1989. Thereafter, many types of direct digital radiographic systems have been produced in the last decade. They are based either on charge-coupled device (CCD) or on storage phosphor technology. In addition, new types of digital radiographic system using amorphous selenium, image intensifier etc. are under development. Advantages of digital radiographic system are elimination of chemical processing, reduction in radiation dose, image processing, computer storage, electronic transfer of images and so on. Image processing includes image enhancement, image reconstruction, digital subtraction, etc. Especially digital subtraction and reconstruction can be applied in many aspects of clinical practice and research. Electronic transfer of images enables filmless dental hospital and teleradiology/teledentistry system. Since the first image management and communications system (IMACS) for dentomaxillofacial radiology was reported in 1992, IMACS in dental hospital has been increasing. Meanwhile, researches about computer-assisted diagnosis, such as structural analysis of bone trabecular patterns of mandible, feature extraction, automated identification of normal landmarks on cephalometric radiograph and automated image analysis for caries or periodontitis, have been performed actively in the last decade. Further developments in digital radiographic imaging modalities, image transmission system, imaging processing and automated analysis software will change the traditional clinical dental practice in the 21st century.

  5. Reengineering the picture archiving and communication system (PACS) process for digital imaging networks PACS

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, Maria C.; Lewis, Thomas E.; Kinsey, Thomas V.

    1999-01-01

    Prior to June 1997, military picture archiving and communications systems (PACS) were planned, procured, and installed with key decisions on the system, equipment, and even funding sources made through a research and development office called Medical Diagnostic Imaging Systems (MDIS). Beginning in June 1997, the Joint Imaging Technology Project Office (JITPO) initiated a collaborative and consultative process for planning and implementing PACS into military treatment facilities through a new ...

  6. Low-cost digital image processing at the University of Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrington, J. A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Computer assisted instruction in remote sensing at the University of Oklahoma involves two separate approaches and is dependent upon initial preprocessing of a LANDSAT computer compatible tape using software developed for an IBM 370/158 computer. In-house generated preprocessing algorithms permits students or researchers to select a subset of a LANDSAT scene for subsequent analysis using either general purpose statistical packages or color graphic image processing software developed for Apple II microcomputers. Procedures for preprocessing the data and image analysis using either of the two approaches for low-cost LANDSAT data processing are described.

  7. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newell, J.D. Jr.; Kelsey, C.A.

    1990-01-01

    This monograph on digital imaging provides a basic overview of this field at the present time. This paper covers clinical application, including subtraction angiography; chest radiology; genitourinary, gastrointestinal, and breast radiology; and teleradiology. The chest section also includes an explanation of multiple beam equalization radiography. The remaining chapters discuss some of the technical aspects of digital radiology. It includes the basic technology of digital radiography, image compression, and reconstruction information on the economics of digital radiography

  8. Digital imaging in cardiovascular radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heintzen, P.H.; Brennecke, R.

    1983-01-01

    The present book contains 27 papers presented at an international symposium on digital imaging in cardiovascular radiology held in Kiel in 1982. The main themes were as follows. Introductory reviews, digital systems for X-ray video imaging, quantitative X-ray image analysis, and clinical applications. (MG)

  9. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  10. Digital image processing techniques for the analysis of fuel sprays global pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rami; Bryanston-Cross, Peter; Timmerman, Brenda

    2017-12-01

    We studied the fuel atomization process of two fuel injectors to be fitted in a new small rotary engine design. The aim was to improve the efficiency of the engine by optimizing the fuel injection system. Fuel sprays were visualised by an optical diagnostic system. Images of fuel sprays were produced under various testing conditions, by changing the line pressure, nozzle size, injection frequency, etc. The atomisers were a high-frequency microfluidic dispensing system and a standard low flow-rate fuel injector. A series of image processing procedures were developed in order to acquire information from the laser-scattering images. This paper presents the macroscopic characterisation of Jet fuel (JP8) sprays. We observed the droplet density distribution, tip velocity, and spray-cone angle against line-pressure and nozzle-size. The analysis was performed for low line-pressure (up to 10 bar) and short injection period (1-2 ms). Local velocity components were measured by applying particle image velocimetry (PIV) on double-exposure images. The discharge velocity was lower in the micro dispensing nozzle sprays and the tip penetration slowed down at higher rates compared to the gasoline injector. The PIV test confirmed that the gasoline injector produced sprays with higher velocity elements at the centre and the tip regions.

  11. 3D digital image processing for biofilm quantification from confocal laser scanning microscopy: Multidimensional statistical analysis of biofilm modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Jerzy S.

    The dramatic increase in number and volume of digital images produced in medical diagnostics, and the escalating demand for rapid access to these relevant medical data, along with the need for interpretation and retrieval has become of paramount importance to a modern healthcare system. Therefore, there is an ever growing need for processed, interpreted and saved images of various types. Due to the high cost and unreliability of human-dependent image analysis, it is necessary to develop an automated method for feature extraction, using sophisticated mathematical algorithms and reasoning. This work is focused on digital image signal processing of biological and biomedical data in one- two- and three-dimensional space. Methods and algorithms presented in this work were used to acquire data from genomic sequences, breast cancer, and biofilm images. One-dimensional analysis was applied to DNA sequences which were presented as a non-stationary sequence and modeled by a time-dependent autoregressive moving average (TD-ARMA) model. Two-dimensional analyses used 2D-ARMA model and applied it to detect breast cancer from x-ray mammograms or ultrasound images. Three-dimensional detection and classification techniques were applied to biofilm images acquired using confocal laser scanning microscopy. Modern medical images are geometrically arranged arrays of data. The broadening scope of imaging as a way to organize our observations of the biophysical world has led to a dramatic increase in our ability to apply new processing techniques and to combine multiple channels of data into sophisticated and complex mathematical models of physiological function and dysfunction. With explosion of the amount of data produced in a field of biomedicine, it is crucial to be able to construct accurate mathematical models of the data at hand. Two main purposes of signal modeling are: data size conservation and parameter extraction. Specifically, in biomedical imaging we have four key problems

  12. Exploring the possibility of using digital image processing technique to detect diseases of rice leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H Peyman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Rice is a very important staple food crop provides more than half of the world caloric supply. Rice diseases lead to significant annual crop losses, have negative impacts on quality of the final product and destroy plant variety. Rice Blast is one of the most widespread and most destructive fungal diseases in tropical and subtropical humid areas, which causes significant decrease in the amount of paddy yield and quality of milled rice. Brown spot disease is another important fungal disease in rice which infects the plant during the rice growing season from the nursery period up to farm growth stage and productivity phase. The later the disease is diagnosed the higher the amount of chemicals is needed for treatment. Due to high costs and harmful environmental impacts of chemical toxins, the accurate early detection and treatment of plant disease is seemed to be necessary. In general, observation with the naked eye is used for disease detection. However, the results are indeed depend on the intelligence of the person performing the operation. So usually the accurate determination of the severity and progression of the disease can’t be achieved. On the other side, the use of experts for continuous monitoring of large farms might be prohibitively expensive and time consuming. Thus, investigating the new approaches for rapid, automated, inexpensive and accurate plant disease diagnosis is very important. Machine vision and image processing is a new technique which can capture images from a scene of interest, analyze the images and accurately extract the desired information. Studies show that image processing techniques have been successfully used for plant disease detection. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of image processing techniques for diagnosing the rice blast and rice brown spot. Materials and Methods: The samples of rice leaf infected by brown spot and rice blast diseases were collected from rice fields and

  13. The clinical application of Photoshop in image post-processing of no-gap-lower-limb digital photography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Ziqi; Wang Longhua; Feng Min; Gu Jianping; Lu Lingquan; Gui Jianchao; Wang Liming

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To explore the value of Photoshop in image post-processing of digital total lower-limb X-ray photography, so as to obtain a more reasonable and accurate photography. Methods: Digital total lower-limb X-ray photography was performed in 34 patients, and the films were printed. Then the digital imaging were converted to a total no-gap-tower-limb photography by Adobe Photoshop CS software and were printed in A4 sheets. The Q angles ( the angle between the line of femoral axis and the line of central points of femoral head, knee joint and ankle joint) were measured by radiologists and orthopedists. The films and pages were evaluated separately by radiologists and orthopedists. The Q angles were compared. Results: There were 25 cases retrograde osteoarthritis of knee joints inl9 patients (6 patients were involved two sides), 15 cases of rheumatoid osteoarthritis in 12 patients, 1 case of malformation, 1 case of traumatic osteoarthritis, and 1 case of TB. Twenty-six of these patients were performed the knee joint replacement operations. The Q angle in films were (6.3±0.8) degree, and (6.1±0.3) degree in sheets. There was no significant difference between the two methods (paired-t-test, t=0.022, P>0.5). Conclusion: Photoshop software could be used readily to obtain a optional total no-gap-lower limb photography satisfying diagnostic and operational needs of orthopedics. (authors)

  14. Surface defect detection in tiling Industries using digital image processing methods: analysis and evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Mohammad H; Asemani, Davud

    2014-05-01

    Ceramic and tile industries should indispensably include a grading stage to quantify the quality of products. Actually, human control systems are often used for grading purposes. An automatic grading system is essential to enhance the quality control and marketing of the products. Since there generally exist six different types of defects originating from various stages of tile manufacturing lines with distinct textures and morphologies, many image processing techniques have been proposed for defect detection. In this paper, a survey has been made on the pattern recognition and image processing algorithms which have been used to detect surface defects. Each method appears to be limited for detecting some subgroup of defects. The detection techniques may be divided into three main groups: statistical pattern recognition, feature vector extraction and texture/image classification. The methods such as wavelet transform, filtering, morphology and contourlet transform are more effective for pre-processing tasks. Others including statistical methods, neural networks and model-based algorithms can be applied to extract the surface defects. Although, statistical methods are often appropriate for identification of large defects such as Spots, but techniques such as wavelet processing provide an acceptable response for detection of small defects such as Pinhole. A thorough survey is made in this paper on the existing algorithms in each subgroup. Also, the evaluation parameters are discussed including supervised and unsupervised parameters. Using various performance parameters, different defect detection algorithms are compared and evaluated. Copyright © 2013 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Digital fluoroscopy: a new development in medical imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, K.P.; Malone, J.F.; Dublin Inst. of Technology

    1986-01-01

    Medical fluoroscopy is briefly reviewed and video-image digitization is described. Image processing requirements and image processors available for digital fluoroscopy are discussed in detail. Specific reference is made to an application of digital fluoroscopy in the imaging of blood-vessels. This application involves an image substraction technique which is referred to as digital subtraction angiography (DSA). A number of DSA images of relevance to the discussion are included. (author)

  16. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  17. Decorative design of ceramic tiles adapted to inkjet printing employing digital image processing; Diseno decorativo de pavimentos ceramicos adaptado a inyeccion de tinta mediante tratamiento digital de imagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Defez, B.; Santiago-Praderas, V.; Lluna, E.; Peris-Fajarnes, G.; Dunai, E.

    2013-09-01

    The ceramic tile sector is a very competitive industry. The designer's proficiency to offer new models of the decorated surface, adapted to the production means, plays a very important role in the competitiveness. In the present work, we analyze the evolution of the design process in the ceramic sector, as much as the changes experimented in parallel by the printing equipment. Afterwards, we present a new concept of ceramic design, based on digital image processing. This technique allows the generation of homogeneous and non-repetitive designs for large surfaces, especially thought for inkjet printing. With the programmed algorithms we have compiled a prototype software for the assistance of the ceramic design. This tool allows creating continuous designs for large surfaces saving developing time. (Author)

  18. Quantitative spray analysis of diesel fuel and its emulsions using digital image processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faik Ahmad Muneer El-Deen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation of spray atomization of different liquids has been carried out. An air-assist atomizer operating at low injection pressures valued (4 and 6 bar has been used to generate sprays of (diesel fuel, 5, 10, and 15% water-emulsified-diesel, respectively. A Photron-SA4 high speed camera has been used for spray imaging at 2000 fps. 20 time intervals (from 5 to 100 ms with 5 ms time difference are selected for analysis and comparison. Spray macroscopic characteristics (spray penetration, dispersion, cone angle, axial and dispersion velocities have been extracted by a proposed technique based on image processing using Matlab, where the maximum and minimum (horizontal and vertical boundaries of the spray are detected, from which the macroscopic spray characteristics are evaluated. The maximum error of this technique is (1.5% for diesel spray and a little bit higher for its emulsions.

  19. Image quality in digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuhn, H.

    1986-01-01

    The contribution deals with the potentials of digital radiography and critically evaluates the advantages of drawbacks of the image intensifier-tv-digital system; digitalisation of the X-ray film and scanning of luminescent storage foils. The evaluation is done in comparison with the image quality of the traditional, large-size X-ray picture. (orig.) [de

  20. Compression and archiving of digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, H.K.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the application of a full-frame bit-allocation image compression technique to a hierarchical digital image archiving system consisting of magnetic disks, optical disks and an optical disk library. The digital archiving system without the compression has been in clinical operation in the Pediatric Radiology for more than half a year. The database in the system consists of all pediatric inpatients including all images from computed radiography, digitized x-ray films, CT, MR, and US. The rate of image accumulation is approximately 1,900 megabytes per week. The hardware design of the compression module is based on a Motorola 68020 microprocessor, A VME bus, a 16 megabyte image buffer memory board, and three Motorola digital signal processing 56001 chips on a VME board for performing the two-dimensional cosine transform and the quantization. The clinical evaluation of the compression module with the image archiving system is expected to be in February 1988

  1. Two designs for image digital processing applications in the nuclear area using ImaWin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavagnino, Carlos E.; Marajofsky, Adolfo

    1999-01-01

    In this work two designs of image processing systems of low cost for the nuclear area are presented. They have the advantage of the adaptability given by the ImaWin software and the connection with Internet, applied to digitalisation in research and development fields. The first design is the development of a digitalisation system for inspection and study of fuel plate radiographs for test reactors, while the second one describes the specification and design of an intelligent system of intrusion signals continuous inspection and administrative control of fissile material deposits. (author)

  2. The influence of the microscope lamp filament colour temperature on the process of digital images of histological slides acquisition standardization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzynska, Anna; Roszkowiak, Lukasz; Pijanowska, Dorota; Kozlowski, Wojciech; Markiewicz, Tomasz

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to compare the digital images of the tissue biopsy captured with optical microscope using bright field technique under various light conditions. The range of colour's variation in immunohistochemically stained with 3,3'-Diaminobenzidine and Haematoxylin tissue samples is immense and coming from various sources. One of them is inadequate setting of camera's white balance to microscope's light colour temperature. Although this type of error can be easily handled during the stage of image acquisition, it can be eliminated with use of colour adjustment algorithms. The examination of the dependence of colour variation from microscope's light temperature and settings of the camera is done as an introductory research to the process of automatic colour standardization. Six fields of view with empty space among the tissue samples have been selected for analysis. Each field of view has been acquired 225 times with various microscope light temperature and camera white balance settings. The fourteen randomly chosen images have been corrected and compared, with the reference image, by the following methods: Mean Square Error, Structural SIMilarity and visual assessment of viewer. For two types of backgrounds and two types of objects, the statistical image descriptors: range, median, mean and its standard deviation of chromaticity on a and b channels from CIELab colour space, and luminance L, and local colour variability for objects' specific area have been calculated. The results have been averaged for 6 images acquired in the same light conditions and camera settings for each sample. The analysis of the results leads to the following conclusions: (1) the images collected with white balance setting adjusted to light colour temperature clusters in certain area of chromatic space, (2) the process of white balance correction for images collected with white balance camera settings not matched to the light temperature moves image descriptors into proper

  3. Photography/Digital Imaging: Parallel & Paradoxical Histories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witte, Mary Stieglitz

    With the introduction of photography and photomechanical printing processes in the 19th century, the first age of machine pictures and reproductions emerged. The 20th century introduced computer image processing systems, creating a digital imaging revolution. Rather than concentrating on the adversarial aspects of the computer's influence on…

  4. Computer processing techniques in digital radiography research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, D.R.; Kugel, J.A.; Waddill, W.B.; Smith, G.D.; Martin, V.N.; Price, R.R.; James, A.E. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    In the Department of Radiology and Radiological Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, and the Center for Medical Imaging Research, Nashville, TN, there are several activities which are designed to increase the information available from film-screen acquisition as well as from direct digital acquisition of radiographic information. Two of the projects involve altering the display of images after acquisition, either to remove artifacts present as a result of the acquisition process or to change the manner in which the image is displayed to improve the perception of details in the image. These two projects use methods which can be applied to any type of digital image, but are being implemented with images digitized from conventional x-ray film. One of these research endeavors involves mathematical alteration of the image to correct for motion artifacts or registration errors between images that will be subtracted. Another applies well-known image processing methods to digital radiographic images to improve the image contrast and enhance subtle details in the image. A third project involves the use of dual energy imaging with a digital radiography system to reconstruct images which demonstrate either soft tissue details or the osseous structures. These projects are discussed in greater detail in the following sections of this communication

  5. Two-dimensional intraventricular flow mapping by digital processing conventional color-Doppler echocardiography images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Damien; Del Alamo, Juan C; Tanne, David; Yotti, Raquel; Cortina, Cristina; Bertrand, Eric; Antoranz, José Carlos; Perez-David, Esther; Rieu, Régis; Fernandez-Aviles, Francisco; Bermejo, Javier

    2010-10-01

    high-throughput processing conventional color-Doppler images.

  6. Application of digital image processing to a β-gauge for determining mass concentration of suspending particulate matter in atmosphere

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gotoh, Takao

    1992-01-01

    A two-dimensional image of the mass concentration of suspending particulate matter (SPM) collected on Millipore filter paper was photographed with Ultrofilm- 3 H. The printed paper image was transformed into a digital image (256 x 256 pixels) with 256 gray levels. Two results were obtained. The averaged values of gray level over all pixels of the digital image was found to correlate with the mass value measured by a β-gauge. The characteristic range of the digital image which was transformed to frequency by two-dimensional fast fourier transformation was found in the low frequency. It was presumed to relate to SPM from anthropogenic sources because the SPMs usually show higher density and smaller particle size than SPMs from natural sources. (author)

  7. The use of a sky camera for solar radiation estimation based on digital image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso-Montesinos, J.; Batlles, F.J.

    2015-01-01

    The necessary search for a more sustainable global future means using renewable energy sources to generate pollutant-free electricity. CSP (Concentrated solar power) and PV (photovoltaic) plants are the systems most in demand for electricity production using solar radiation as the energy source. The main factors affecting final electricity generation in these plants are, among others, atmospheric conditions; therefore, knowing whether there will be any change in the solar radiation hitting the plant's solar field is of fundamental importance to CSP and PV plant operators in adapting the plant's operation mode to these fluctuations. Consequently, the most useful technology must involve the study of atmospheric conditions. This is the case for sky cameras, an emerging technology that allows one to gather sky information with optimal spatial and temporal resolution. Hence, in this work, a solar radiation estimation using sky camera images is presented for all sky conditions, where beam, diffuse and global solar radiation components are estimated in real-time as a novel way to evaluate the solar resource from a terrestrial viewpoint. - Highlights: • Using a sky camera, the solar resource has been estimated for one minute periods. • The sky images have been processed to estimate the solar radiation at pixel level. • The three radiation components have been estimated under all sky conditions. • Results have been presented for cloudless, partially-cloudy and overcast conditions. • For beam and global radiation, the nRMSE value is of about 11% under overcast skies.

  8. Perceptual digital imaging methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Lukac, Rastislav

    2012-01-01

    Visual perception is a complex process requiring interaction between the receptors in the eye that sense the stimulus and the neural system and the brain that are responsible for communicating and interpreting the sensed visual information. This process involves several physical, neural, and cognitive phenomena whose understanding is essential to design effective and computationally efficient imaging solutions. Building on advances in computer vision, image and video processing, neuroscience, and information engineering, perceptual digital imaging greatly enhances the capabilities of tradition

  9. A study of transient jet and spray using a Schlieren method and digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsen, H.

    1995-12-31

    This thesis discusses visualization and image-based data acquisition and analyses on transient gas jet, evaporating spray and burning jet in an attempt to find a method of measuring the transient behaviour of these phenomena, which influence the combustion process in diesel engines. The experimental approach is based on visualization of the injection process inside a constant volume air chamber. The influence of different experimental conditions such as fuel type, injection conditions, temperature and pressure of the chamber is investigated. To control the dynamics of the injection, a constant pressure injection system is used. The dynamics of the fuel injection system itself is not discussed. A full-field classical Schlieren technique is used, and the data recorded by means of a CCD camera and frame-grabber combination. The method has the unusual property of being particularly useful for measurements on a dynamic system, since the gradients in the light refraction index used by the Schlieren method are enhanced by the dynamics. The method was used to measure local gas concentration inside a room temperature methane gas jet, and vapour phase concentration evaporating propane spray. The system was also used to measure the local temperature of burning methane jet based on calculated density distribution. 47 refs., 92 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Processing Of Binary Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, H. S.

    1985-07-01

    An overview of the recent progress in the area of digital processing of binary images in the context of document processing is presented here. The topics covered include input scan, adaptive thresholding, halftoning, scaling and resolution conversion, data compression, character recognition, electronic mail, digital typography, and output scan. Emphasis has been placed on illustrating the basic principles rather than descriptions of a particular system. Recent technology advances and research in this field are also mentioned.

  11. Using digital photography and image processing for the creation of notes from the blackboard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruun, Erik

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes a teaching experiment involving the use of a combination of traditional chalkboard and digital photography in order to produce lecture notes from the blackboard. During lecturing the blackboard is used instead of transparencies or PowerPoint presentations. This reduces...

  12. Digital Images and Globalized Conflict

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blaagaard, Bolette; Mortensen, Mette; Neumayer, Christina

    2017-01-01

    As the number of digital images of globalized conflicts online grow, critical examination of their impact and consequence is timely. This editorial provides an overview of digital images and globalized conflict as a field of study by discussing regimes of visibility and invisibility, proximity...... and distance, and the multiplicity of images. It engages critically with these interlinking themes as they are addressed in the contributing articles to the Special Issue as well as beyond, asking how genres and tropes are reproduced, how power plays a role in access to images, and how the sheer quantity...... of conflict-related images raise issues of knowledge production and research....

  13. Digital signal processing for NDT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgel, B.

    1994-01-01

    NDT begins to adapt and use the most recent developments of digital signal and image processing. We briefly sum up the main characteristics of NDT situations (particularly noise and inverse problem formulation) and comment on techniques already used or just emerging (SAFT, split spectrum, adaptive learning network, noise reference filtering, stochastic models, neural networks). This survey is focused on ultrasonics, eddy currents and X-ray radiography. The final objective of end users (availability of automatic diagnosis systems) cannot be achieved only by signal processing algorithms. A close cooperation with other techniques such as artificial intelligence has therefore to be implemented. (author). 20 refs

  14. Assessment of hydrocephalus in children based on digital image processing and analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabijańska Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrocephalus is a pathological condition of the central nervous system which often affects neonates and young children. It manifests itself as an abnormal accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid within the ventricular system of the brain with its subsequent progression. One of the most important diagnostic methods of identifying hydrocephalus is Computer Tomography (CT. The enlarged ventricular system is clearly visible on CT scans. However, the assessment of the disease progress usually relies on the radiologist’s judgment and manual measurements, which are subjective, cumbersome and have limited accuracy. Therefore, this paper regards the problem of semi-automatic assessment of hydrocephalus using image processing and analysis algorithms. In particular, automated determination of popular indices of the disease progress is considered. Algorithms for the detection, semi-automatic segmentation and numerical description of the lesion are proposed. Specifically, the disease progress is determined using shape analysis algorithms. Numerical results provided by the introduced methods are presented and compared with those calculated manually by a radiologist and a trained operator. The comparison proves the correctness of the introduced approach.

  15. Structure of the medical digital image

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baltadzhiev, D.

    1997-01-01

    In up-to-date medical practice diagnostic imaging techniques are the most powerful tools available to clinicians. The modern medical equipment is entirely based on digital technology. In this article the principle of generating medical images is presented. The concept for gray scale where medical images are commonly presented is described. The patterns of gray images transformation into colour scale are likewise outlined. Basic notions from medical imaging terminology such as image matrix, pixel, spatial and contrast resolution power, bit, byte and the like are explained. Also an example is given of how the binary system treats images. On the basis of digital technology the obtained medical images lend themselves readily to additional processing, reconstruction (including 3D) and storage for subsequent utilization. The ceaseless progress of computerized communications promote easy and prompt access for clinicians to the diagnostic images needed as well as realization of expert consultations by teleconference contact (author)

  16. Digital processing of SEM images for the assessment of evaluation indexes of cleaning interventions on Pentelic marble surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moropoulou, A.; Delegou, E.T.; Vlahakis, V.; Karaviti, E.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, digital processing of scanning-electron-microscopy images utilized to assess cleaning interventions applied on the Pentelic marble surfaces of the National Archaeological Museum and National Library in Athens, Greece. Beside mineralogical and chemical characterization that took place by scanning-electron-microscopy with Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy, the image-analysis program EDGE was applied for estimating three evaluation indexes of the marble micro-structure. The EDGE program was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey for the evaluation of cleaning interventions applied on Philadelphia City Hall. This computer program analyzes scanning-electron-microscopy images of stone specimens cut in cross-section for measuring the fractal dimension of the exposed surfaces, the stone near-surface fracture density, the shape factor (a surface roughness factor) and the friability index which represents the physico-chemical and physico-mechanical stability of the stone surface. The results indicated that the evaluation of the marble surface micro-structure before and after cleaning is achieved by the suggested indexes, while the performance of cleaning interventions on the marble surfaces can be assessed

  17. Introduction to computer image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moik, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    Theoretical backgrounds and digital techniques for a class of image processing problems are presented. Image formation in the context of linear system theory, image evaluation, noise characteristics, mathematical operations on image and their implementation are discussed. Various techniques for image restoration and image enhancement are presented. Methods for object extraction and the problem of pictorial pattern recognition and classification are discussed.

  18. Imagers for digital still photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosiers, Jan; Dillen, Bart; Draijer, Cees; Manoury, Erik-Jan; Meessen, Louis; Peters, Inge

    2006-04-01

    This paper gives an overview of the requirements for, and current state-of-the-art of, CCD and CMOS imagers for use in digital still photography. Four market segments will be reviewed: mobile imaging, consumer "point-and-shoot cameras", consumer digital SLR cameras and high-end professional camera systems. The paper will also present some challenges and innovations with respect to packaging, testing, and system integration.

  19. Evaluation of breast cancer through mammographies and image digital processing; Avaliacao do cancer de mama atraves de mamografias e processamento digital de imagens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crestana, Rita H.S.

    1996-12-31

    The state of art of image processing has provided important advances to many scientific investigation areas particularly to medical own. This work exploits the potentiality of using image processing techniques for analyzing breast phantoms and mammographies. 36 refs., 62 figs.

  20. Image digitizer system for bubble chamber laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haggerty, H.

    1986-01-01

    An IBM PC-based image digitizer system has been assembled to monitor the laser flash used for holography at the 15 foot bubble chamber. The hardware and the operating software are outlined. For an operational test of the system, an array of LEDs was flashed with a 10 microsecond pulse and the image was grabbed by one of the operating programs and processed

  1. Development of Stand Alone Application Tool for Processing and Quality Measurement of Weld Imperfection Image Captured by μ-Focused Digital Radiography Using MATLAB- Based Graphical User Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PZ Nadila

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital radiography incresingly is being applied in the fabrication industry. Compared to film- based radiography, digitally radiographed images can be acquired with less time and fewer exposures. However, noises can simply occur on the digital image resulting in a low-quality result. Due to this and the system’s complexity, parameters’ sensitivity, and environmental effects, the results can be difficult to interpret, even for a radiographer. Therefore, the need of an application tool to improve and evaluate the image is becoming urgent. In this research, a user-friendly tool for image processing and image quality measurement was developed. The resulting tool contains important components needed by radiograph inspectors in analyzing defects and recording the results. This tool was written by using image processing and the graphical user interface development environment and compiler (GUIDE toolbox available in Matrix Laboratory (MATLAB R2008a. In image processing methods, contrast adjustment, and noise removal, edge detection was applied. In image quality measurement methods, mean square error (MSE, peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR, modulation transfer function (MTF, normalized signal-to-noise ratio (SNRnorm, sensitivity and unsharpness were used to measure the image quality. The graphical user interface (GUI wass then compiled to build a Windows, stand-alone application that enables this tool to be executed independently without the installation of MATLAB.

  2. A kind of video image digitizing circuit based on computer parallel port

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yi; Tang Le; Cheng Jianping; Li Yuanjing; Zhang Binquan

    2003-01-01

    A kind of video images digitizing circuit based on parallel port was developed to digitize the flash x ray images in our Multi-Channel Digital Flash X ray Imaging System. The circuit can digitize the video images and store in static memory. The digital images can be transferred to computer through parallel port and can be displayed, processed and stored. (authors)

  3. The newest digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Uk

    2002-08-01

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  4. Digital X-ray imager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying source voltage and filtering (predicting the required dynamic range for the detector); evaluating CsI:Tl, CdWO4 and scintillating glass as image converters; recommending image enhancement algorithms. The LLNL modeling results guided the design and experimental elements of the project. The Laboratory's unique array of sources and detectors was employed to resolve specific technical questions. Our image processing expertise was applied to the selection of enhancement tools for image display

  5. Markov Processes in Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, E. P.; Kharina, N. L.

    2018-05-01

    Digital images are used as an information carrier in different sciences and technologies. The aspiration to increase the number of bits in the image pixels for the purpose of obtaining more information is observed. In the paper, some methods of compression and contour detection on the basis of two-dimensional Markov chain are offered. Increasing the number of bits on the image pixels will allow one to allocate fine object details more precisely, but it significantly complicates image processing. The methods of image processing do not concede by the efficiency to well-known analogues, but surpass them in processing speed. An image is separated into binary images, and processing is carried out in parallel with each without an increase in speed, when increasing the number of bits on the image pixels. One more advantage of methods is the low consumption of energy resources. Only logical procedures are used and there are no computing operations. The methods can be useful in processing images of any class and assignment in processing systems with a limited time and energy resources.

  6. Digital image envelope: method and evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, H. K.; Cao, Fei; Zhou, Michael Z.; Mogel, Greg T.; Liu, Brent J.; Zhou, Xiaoqiang

    2003-05-01

    Health data security, characterized in terms of data privacy, authenticity, and integrity, is a vital issue when digital images and other patient information are transmitted through public networks in telehealth applications such as teleradiology. Mandates for ensuring health data security have been extensively discussed (for example The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act, HIPAA) and health informatics guidelines (such as the DICOM standard) are beginning to focus on issues of data continue to be published by organizing bodies in healthcare; however, there has not been a systematic method developed to ensure data security in medical imaging Because data privacy and authenticity are often managed primarily with firewall and password protection, we have focused our research and development on data integrity. We have developed a systematic method of ensuring medical image data integrity across public networks using the concept of the digital envelope. When a medical image is generated regardless of the modality, three processes are performed: the image signature is obtained, the DICOM image header is encrypted, and a digital envelope is formed by combining the signature and the encrypted header. The envelope is encrypted and embedded in the original image. This assures the security of both the image and the patient ID. The embedded image is encrypted again and transmitted across the network. The reverse process is performed at the receiving site. The result is two digital signatures, one from the original image before transmission, and second from the image after transmission. If the signatures are identical, there has been no alteration of the image. This paper concentrates in the method and evaluation of the digital image envelope.

  7. Digital image processing: Cylindrical surface plane development of CAREM fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caccavelli, J; Cativa Tolosa, S; Gommes, C

    2012-01-01

    As part of the development of fuel pellets (FPs) for nuclear reactor CAREM-25, is necessary to systematize the analysis of the mechanical integrity of the FPs that is now done manually by a human operator. Following specifications and standards of reference for this purpose, the FPs should be inspected visually for detecting material discontinuities in the FPs surfaces to minimize any deterioration, loss of material and excessive breakage during operation and load of fuel bars. The material discontinuities are classified into two defects: surface cracks and chips. For each of these surface defects exist acceptance criteria that determine if the fuel pellet (FP) as a whole is accepted or rejected. One criteria for surface cracks is that they do not exceed one third (1/3) of the circumferential surface of the FP. The FP has cylindrical shape, so some of these acceptance criteria make difficult to analyze the FP in a single photographic image. Depending on the axial rotation of the FP, the crack could not be entirely visualized on the picture frame. Even a single crack that appears in different parts of the FP rotated images may appear to be different cracks in the FP when it is actually one. For this reason it is necessary, for the automatic detection and measurement of surface defects, obtain the circumferential surface of the FP into a single image in order to decide the acceptance or reject of the FP. As the FP shape is cylindrical, it is possible to obtain the flat development of the cylindrical surface (surface unrolling) of the FPs into a single image combining the image set of the axial rotation of the FP. In this work, we expose the procedure to implement the flat development of the cylindrical surface (surface unrolling). Starting from a photographic image of the FP surface, which represents the projection of a cylinder in the plane, we obtain three-dimensional information of each point on the cylindrical surface of the FP (3D-mapping). Then, we can

  8. [Digitalization of histological images as a method of quantifying the demyelinating process].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stojiljković, G; Tasić, M; Budakov, B

    1996-01-01

    The basic aim of this paper was to check the hypothesis whether after head trauma the brain tissue looses myelinic membrane which surrounds the axon, and if this possibly established loss can be quantified, that is if it is possible to determine the degree of disintegration. One of the aims was to examine this method itself. The gathered results show that both the hypothesis and the aims were justified. It has been established that the diffuse axonal lesion in the examined samples reflects in a loss of axon's myelinic membrane. The loss was 50% greater in the test group in regard to the control group. To digitalize histologic pictures we have used Laser Scanner Densitometry Station and software by Biomed. In regard to medical jurisprudence, the laser scanner densitometry offers more relevant data in cases apparently unclear and in sudden deaths after head injuries. Application of this method and further investigations will be directed to further attempts to clear up connections between the mechanism of injury and degree of biologic response of the brain tissue.

  9. Principles of digital image synthesis

    CERN Document Server

    Glassner, Andrew S

    1995-01-01

    Image synthesis, or rendering, is a field of transformation: it changesgeometry and physics into meaningful images. Because the most popularalgorithms frequently change, it is increasingly important for researchersand implementors to have a basic understanding of the principles of imagesynthesis. Focusing on theory, Andrew Glassner provides a comprehensiveexplanation of the three core fields of study that come together to formdigital image synthesis: the human visual system, digital signalprocessing, and the interaction of matter and light. Assuming no more thana basic background in calculus,

  10. Three-dimensional facial digitization using advanced digital image correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hieu; Kieu, Hien; Wang, Zhaoyang; Le, Hanh N D

    2018-03-20

    Presented in this paper is an effective technique to acquire the three-dimensional (3D) digital images of the human face without the use of active lighting and artificial patterns. The technique is based on binocular stereo imaging and digital image correlation, and it includes two key steps: camera calibration and image matching. The camera calibration involves a pinhole model and a bundle-adjustment approach, and the governing equations of the 3D digitization process are described. For reliable pixel-to-pixel image matching, the skin pores and freckles or lentigines on the human face serve as the required pattern features to facilitate the process. It employs feature-matching-based initial guess, multiple subsets, iterative optimization algorithm, and reliability-guided computation path to achieve fast and accurate image matching. Experiments have been conducted to demonstrate the validity of the proposed technique. The simplicity of the approach and the affordable cost of the implementation show its practicability in scientific and engineering applications.

  11. Research of the X-ray spectrum in the digital image acquisition and processing for internal disturbs detection in mangoes (Mangifera indica l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, Rubemar S.; Freire Junior, Murillo; Botrel, Neide; Jesus, Edgar de

    2002-01-01

    In this work, digital image processing was associated to X-ray beam relevant to watching internal injuries, such as breakdown, soft nose and other physiological disturbs in mangoes CV Tommy Atkins. The X-ray source was a high frequency generator operating to a high tension between 14 to 35 kV on a molybdenum target tube, which generate X-ray characteristic near from 18,5 keV and 20 keV (k an l shell) plus a continuous spectrum, thought to be proper to get radiological images from mangoes in different maturation stages. Different filtrations and pseudo-colors technique were used to process the digital images produced. Results, from a group of comparative images, show the feasibility to detect several classes of internal disorders as well as others produced in packing houses and transport of mangoes. (author)

  12. Application of digital image processing techniques and information systems to water quality monitoring of Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A. Y.; Blackwell, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    The Tahoe basin occupies over 500 square miles of territory located in a graben straddling the boundary between California and Nevada. Lake Tahoe contains 126 million acre-feet of water. Since the 1950's the basin has experienced an ever increasing demand for land development at the expense of the natural watershed. Discharge of sediment to the lake has greatly increased owing to accelerated human interference, and alterations to the natural drainage patterns are evident in some areas. In connection with an investigation of the utility of a comprehensive system that takes into account the causes as well as the effects of lake eutrophication, it has been attempted to construct an integrated and workable data base, comprised of currently available data sources for the Lake Tahoe region. Attention is given to the image based information system (IBIS), the construction of the Lake Tahoe basin data base, and the application of the IBIS concept to the Lake Tahoe basin.

  13. How to Implement an E-Learning Curriculum to Streamline Teaching Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Király, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    In the field of teaching, one of the interesting subjects is the research of the fact which didactic methods are good for learning the current curriculum for the students who show a wide range of age, interest, chosen courses, previous studies and motivation. This article introduces the facilities that support the learning process: the…

  14. Pediatric digital chest imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarver, R D; Cohen, M; Broderick, N J; Conces, D J

    1990-01-01

    The Philips Computed Radiography system performs well with pediatric portable chest radiographs, handling the throughout of a busy intensive care service 24 hours a day. Images are excellent and routinely provide a conventional (unenhanced) image and an edge-enhanced image. Radiation dose is decreased by the lowered frequency of repeat examinations and the ability of the plates to respond to a much lower dose and still provide an adequate image. The high quality and uniform density of serial PCR portable radiographs greatly enhances diagnostic content of the films. Decreased resolution has not been a problem clinically. Image manipulation and electronic transfer to remote viewing stations appear to be helpful and are currently being evaluated further. The PCR system provides a marked improvement in pediatric portable chest radiology.

  15. Pediatric digital chest imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarver, R.D.; Cohen, M.; Broderick, N.J.; Conces, D.J. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    The Philips Computed Radiography system performs well with pediatric portable chest radiographs, handling the throughout of a busy intensive care service 24 hours a day. Images are excellent and routinely provide a conventional (unenhanced) image and an edge-enhanced image. Radiation dose is decreased by the lowered frequency of repeat examinations and the ability of the plates to respond to a much lower dose and still provide an adequate image. The high quality and uniform density of serial PCR portable radiographs greatly enhances diagnostic content of the films. Decreased resolution has not been a problem clinically. Image manipulation and electronic transfer to remote viewing stations appear to be helpful and are currently being evaluated further. The PCR system provides a marked improvement in pediatric portable chest radiology

  16. Features of digital photogrammetry methods application and image processing in small and medium-sized enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsonova N. V.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available the paper discusses the methods of survey enterprises employees effective training to use modern measurement systems and the need for further photogrammetric processing of the results obtained. Attention is also paid to integrated learning, based primarily on web content, the introduction of a social component in the development and familiarization with new photogrammetric equipment and technologies in order to increase the competitiveness of engineering and research small and medium-sized enterprises.

  17. Image quality analysis of digital mammographic equipments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayo, P.; Pascual, A.; Verdu, G. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Chemical and Nuclear Engineering Dept. (Spain); Rodenas, F. [Valencia Univ. Politecnica, Applied Mathematical Dept. (Spain); Campayo, J.M. [Valencia Univ. Hospital Clinico, Servicio de Radiofisica y Proteccion Radiologica (Spain); Villaescusa, J.I. [Hospital Clinico La Fe, Servicio de Proteccion Radiologica, Valencia (Spain)

    2006-07-01

    The image quality assessment of a radiographic phantom image is one of the fundamental points in a complete quality control programme. The good functioning result of all the process must be an image with an appropriate quality to carry out a suitable diagnostic. Nowadays, the digital radiographic equipments are replacing the traditional film-screen equipments and it is necessary to update the parameters to guarantee the quality of the process. Contrast-detail phantoms are applied to digital radiography to study the threshold contrast detail sensitivity at operation conditions of the equipment. The phantom that is studied in this work is C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, which facilitates the evaluation of image contrast and detail resolution. One of the most extended indexes to measure the image quality in an objective way is the Image Quality Figure (I.Q.F.). This parameter is useful to calculate the image quality taking into account the contrast and detail resolution of the image analysed. The contrast-detail curve is useful as a measure of the image quality too, because it is a graphical representation in which the hole thickness and diameter are plotted for each contrast-detail combination detected in the radiographic image of the phantom. It is useful for the comparison of the functioning of different radiographic image systems, for phantom images under the same exposition conditions. The aim of this work is to study the image quality of different images contrast-detail phantom C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, carrying out the automatic detection of the contrast-detail combination and to establish a parameter which characterize in an objective way the mammographic image quality. This is useful to compare images obtained at different digital mammographic equipments to study the functioning of the equipments. (authors)

  18. Image quality analysis of digital mammographic equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayo, P.; Pascual, A.; Verdu, G.; Rodenas, F.; Campayo, J.M.; Villaescusa, J.I.

    2006-01-01

    The image quality assessment of a radiographic phantom image is one of the fundamental points in a complete quality control programme. The good functioning result of all the process must be an image with an appropriate quality to carry out a suitable diagnostic. Nowadays, the digital radiographic equipments are replacing the traditional film-screen equipments and it is necessary to update the parameters to guarantee the quality of the process. Contrast-detail phantoms are applied to digital radiography to study the threshold contrast detail sensitivity at operation conditions of the equipment. The phantom that is studied in this work is C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, which facilitates the evaluation of image contrast and detail resolution. One of the most extended indexes to measure the image quality in an objective way is the Image Quality Figure (I.Q.F.). This parameter is useful to calculate the image quality taking into account the contrast and detail resolution of the image analysed. The contrast-detail curve is useful as a measure of the image quality too, because it is a graphical representation in which the hole thickness and diameter are plotted for each contrast-detail combination detected in the radiographic image of the phantom. It is useful for the comparison of the functioning of different radiographic image systems, for phantom images under the same exposition conditions. The aim of this work is to study the image quality of different images contrast-detail phantom C.D.M.A.M. 3.4, carrying out the automatic detection of the contrast-detail combination and to establish a parameter which characterize in an objective way the mammographic image quality. This is useful to compare images obtained at different digital mammographic equipments to study the functioning of the equipments. (authors)

  19. Web platform using digital image processing and geographic information system tools: a Brazilian case study on dengue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasil, Lourdes M; Gomes, Marília M F; Miosso, Cristiano J; da Silva, Marlete M; Amvame-Nze, Georges D

    2015-07-16

    Dengue fever is endemic in Asia, the Americas, the East of the Mediterranean and the Western Pacific. According to the World Health Organization, it is one of the diseases of greatest impact on health, affecting millions of people each year worldwide. A fast detection of increases in populations of the transmitting vector, the Aedes aegypti mosquito, is essential to avoid dengue outbreaks. Unfortunately, in several countries, such as Brazil, the current methods for detecting populations changes and disseminating this information are too slow to allow efficient allocation of resources to fight outbreaks. To reduce the delay in providing the information regarding A. aegypti population changes, we propose, develop, and evaluate a system for counting the eggs found in special traps and to provide the collected data using a web structure with geographical location resources. One of the most useful tools for the detection and surveillance of arthropods is the ovitrap, a special trap built to collect the mosquito eggs. This allows for an egg counting process, which is still usually performed manually, in countries such as Brazil. We implement and evaluate a novel system for automatically counting the eggs found in the ovitraps' cardboards. The system we propose is based on digital image processing (DIP) techniques, as well as a Web based Semi-Automatic Counting System (SCSA-WEB). All data collected are geographically referenced in a geographic information system (GIS) and made available on a Web platform. The work was developed in Gama's administrative region, in Brasília/Brazil, with the aid of the Environmental Surveillance Directory (DIVAL-Gama) and Brasília's Board of Health (SSDF), in partnership with the University of Brasília (UnB). The system was built based on a field survey carried out during three months and provided by health professionals. These professionals provided 84 cardboards from 84 ovitraps, sized 15 × 5 cm. In developing the system, we conducted

  20. Digital speech processing using Matlab

    CERN Document Server

    Gopi, E S

    2014-01-01

    Digital Speech Processing Using Matlab deals with digital speech pattern recognition, speech production model, speech feature extraction, and speech compression. The book is written in a manner that is suitable for beginners pursuing basic research in digital speech processing. Matlab illustrations are provided for most topics to enable better understanding of concepts. This book also deals with the basic pattern recognition techniques (illustrated with speech signals using Matlab) such as PCA, LDA, ICA, SVM, HMM, GMM, BPN, and KSOM.

  1. Measurement of the energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission fragments using nuclear track detectors and digital image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espinosa, G.; Golzarri, J. I. [UNAM, Instituto de Fisica, Circuito Exterior, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico); Castano, V. M. [UNAM, Centro de Fisica Aplicada y Tecnologia Avanzada, Boulevard Juriquilla 3001, Santiago de Queretaro, 76230 Queretaro (Mexico); Gaso, I. [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, Ocoyoacac 52750, Estado de Mexico (Mexico); Mena, M.; Segovia, N. [UNAM, Instituto de Geofisica, Circuito de la Investigacion Cientifica, Ciudad Universitaria, 04510 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2010-02-15

    The energy spectrum of {sup 252}Cf fission fragments was measured using nuclear track detectors and digital image analysis system. The detection material was fused silica glass. The detectors were chemically etched in an 8% HF solution. After experimenting with various etching time, it was found that the best resolution of the track diameter distribution was obtained after 30 minutes of etching. Both Gaussian and Lorentzian curves were fit to the track diameter distribution histograms and used to determine the basic parameters of the distribution of the light (N{sub L}) and heavy (N{sub H}) formed peaks and the minimum of the central valley (N{sub V}). Advantages of the method presented here include the fully-automated analysis process, the low cost of the nuclear track detectors and the simplicity of the nuclear track method. The distribution resolution obtained by this method is comparable with the resolution obtained by electronic analysis devices. The descriptive variables calculated were very close to those obtained by other methods based on the use of semiconductor detectors. (Author)

  2. Detection of Degradation Effects in Field-Aged c-Si Solar Cells through IR Thermography and Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kaplani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the vast expansion of photovoltaic (PV module production nowadays, a great interest is shown in factors affecting PV performance and efficiency under real conditions. Particular attention is being given to degradation effects of PV cells and modules, which during the last decade are seen to be responsible for significant power losses observed in PV systems. This paper presents and analyses degradation effects observed in severely EVA discoloured PV cells from field-aged modules operating already for 18–22 years. Temperature degradation effects are identified through IR thermography in bus bars, contact solder bonds, blisters, hot spots, and hot areas. I-V curve analysis results showed an agreement between the source of electrical performance degradation and the degradation effects in the defected cell identified by the IR thermography. Finally, an algorithm was developed to automatically detect EVA discoloration in PV cells through processing of the digital image alone in a way closely imitating human perception of color. This nondestructive and noncostly solution could be applied in the detection of EVA discoloration in existing PV installations and the automatic monitoring and remote inspection of PV systems.

  3. Medical image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Dougherty, Geoff

    2011-01-01

    This book is designed for end users in the field of digital imaging, who wish to update their skills and understanding with the latest techniques in image analysis. This book emphasizes the conceptual framework of image analysis and the effective use of image processing tools. It uses applications in a variety of fields to demonstrate and consolidate both specific and general concepts, and to build intuition, insight and understanding. Although the chapters are essentially self-contained they reference other chapters to form an integrated whole. Each chapter employs a pedagogical approach to e

  4. Utility of Digital Stereo Images for Optic Disc Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, Gui-shuang; Pearson, Denise J.; Bansal, Mayank; Puri, Manika; Miller, Eydie; Alexander, Judith; Piltz-Seymour, Jody; Nyberg, William; Maguire, Maureen G.; Eledath, Jayan; Sawhney, Harpreet

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. To assess the suitability of digital stereo images for optic disc evaluations in glaucoma. Methods. Stereo color optic disc images in both digital and 35-mm slide film formats were acquired contemporaneously from 29 subjects with various cup-to-disc ratios (range, 0.26–0.76; median, 0.475). Using a grading scale designed to assess image quality, the ease of visualizing optic disc features important for glaucoma diagnosis, and the comparative diameters of the optic disc cup, experienced observers separately compared the primary digital stereo images to each subject's 35-mm slides, to scanned images of the same 35-mm slides, and to grayscale conversions of the digital images. Statistical analysis accounted for multiple gradings and comparisons and also assessed image formats under monoscopic viewing. Results. Overall, the quality of primary digital color images was judged superior to that of 35-mm slides (P digital color images were mostly equivalent to the scanned digitized images of the same slides. Color seemingly added little to grayscale optic disc images, except that peripapillary atrophy was best seen in color (P digital over film images was maintained under monoscopic viewing conditions. Conclusions. Digital stereo optic disc images are useful for evaluating the optic disc in glaucoma and allow the application of advanced image processing applications. Grayscale images, by providing luminance distinct from color, may be informative for assessing certain features. PMID:20505199

  5. Biomedical Image Processing

    CERN Document Server

    Deserno, Thomas Martin

    2011-01-01

    In modern medicine, imaging is the most effective tool for diagnostics, treatment planning and therapy. Almost all modalities have went to directly digital acquisition techniques and processing of this image data have become an important option for health care in future. This book is written by a team of internationally recognized experts from all over the world. It provides a brief but complete overview on medical image processing and analysis highlighting recent advances that have been made in academics. Color figures are used extensively to illustrate the methods and help the reader to understand the complex topics.

  6. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina [Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Applied Mathematics and Computational Science, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States); Department of Radiology, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19104 (United States)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., 'FOR PROCESSING') and vendor postprocessed (i.e., 'FOR PRESENTATION'), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely

  7. Biomedical signal and image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Najarian, Kayvan

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION TO DIGITAL SIGNAL AND IMAGE PROCESSINGSignals and Biomedical Signal ProcessingIntroduction and OverviewWhat is a ""Signal""?Analog, Discrete, and Digital SignalsProcessing and Transformation of SignalsSignal Processing for Feature ExtractionSome Characteristics of Digital ImagesSummaryProblemsFourier TransformIntroduction and OverviewOne-Dimensional Continuous Fourier TransformSampling and NYQUIST RateOne-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformTwo-Dimensional Discrete Fourier TransformFilter DesignSummaryProblemsImage Filtering, Enhancement, and RestorationIntroduction and Overview

  8. Digital Radiology Image Learning Library

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arenson, R.L.; Greenes, R.; Allman, R.; Swett, H.

    1989-01-01

    The Digital Radiology Image Learning Library (DRILL) is designed as an interactive teaching tool targeted to the radiologic community. The DRILL pilot comprises a comprehensive mammographic information base consisting of factual data in a relational database, an extensive knowledge base in semantic nets and high-resolution images. A flexible query module permits the user to browse and retrieve examination data, case discussions, and related images. Other applications, including expert systems, instructional programs, and skill building exercises, can be accessed through well-defined software constructs

  9. X-ray images in the digital mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmann, F.; Balter, S.

    1981-01-01

    In addition to computed tomography which presents actually the most important processing and transfer procedure of digital X-ray images, application of real time addition and substraction of X-ray images in a digital mode has found considerable interest. An estimation of the information contents of both digital and analog images is made in close relation to applications. As example of an image processing system on digital base a recently developed system for intravenous arteriography is described: the Philips-DVI. (orig.) [de

  10. Digital pulse processor for ion beam microprobe imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bogovac, M.; Jaksic, M.; Wegrzynek, D.; Markowicz, A.

    2009-01-01

    Capabilities of spectroscopic ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques that are available in ion microprobe facilities can be greatly improved by the use of digital pulse processing. We report here development of a digital multi parameter data acquisition system suitable for IBA imaging applications. Input signals from charge sensitive preamplifier are conditioned by using a simple circuit and digitized with fast ADCs. The digitally converted signals are processed in real time using FPGA. Implementation of several components of the system is presented.

  11. Higuchi dimension of digital images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Ahammer

    Full Text Available There exist several methods for calculating the fractal dimension of objects represented as 2D digital images. For example, Box counting, Minkowski dilation or Fourier analysis can be employed. However, there appear to be some limitations. It is not possible to calculate only the fractal dimension of an irregular region of interest in an image or to perform the calculations in a particular direction along a line on an arbitrary angle through the image. The calculations must be made for the whole image. In this paper, a new method to overcome these limitations is proposed. 2D images are appropriately prepared in order to apply 1D signal analyses, originally developed to investigate nonlinear time series. The Higuchi dimension of these 1D signals is calculated using Higuchi's algorithm, and it is shown that both regions of interests and directional dependencies can be evaluated independently of the whole picture. A thorough validation of the proposed technique and a comparison of the new method to the Fourier dimension, a common two dimensional method for digital images, are given. The main result is that Higuchi's algorithm allows a direction dependent as well as direction independent analysis. Actual values for the fractal dimensions are reliable and an effective treatment of regions of interests is possible. Moreover, the proposed method is not restricted to Higuchi's algorithm, as any 1D method of analysis, can be applied.

  12. Digital Data Processing of Stilbene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AMIRI, Moslem; MATEJ, Zdenek; MRAVEC, Filip; PRENOSIL, Vaclav; CVACHOVEC, Frantisek

    2013-06-01

    Stilbene is a proven spectrometric detector for mixed fields of neutrons and gamma rays. By digital processing of shape output pulses from the detector it is possible to obtain information about the energy of the interacting neutron / photon and distinguish which of these two particles interacts in the detector. Another numerical processing of digital data can finalize the energy spectrum of both components of the mixed field. The quality of the digitized data is highly dependent on the parameters of the hardware used for digitization and on the quality of software processing. Our results also show how the quality of the particle type identification depends on the sampling rate and as well as the method of processing of the sampled data. (authors)

  13. Estimation of breast percent density in raw and processed full field digital mammography images via adaptive fuzzy c-means clustering and support vector machine segmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Brad M.; Nathan, Diane L.; Wang Yan; Zheng Yuanjie; Gee, James C.; Conant, Emily F.; Kontos, Despina

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The amount of fibroglandular tissue content in the breast as estimated mammographically, commonly referred to as breast percent density (PD%), is one of the most significant risk factors for developing breast cancer. Approaches to quantify breast density commonly focus on either semiautomated methods or visual assessment, both of which are highly subjective. Furthermore, most studies published to date investigating computer-aided assessment of breast PD% have been performed using digitized screen-film mammograms, while digital mammography is increasingly replacing screen-film mammography in breast cancer screening protocols. Digital mammography imaging generates two types of images for analysis, raw (i.e., “FOR PROCESSING”) and vendor postprocessed (i.e., “FOR PRESENTATION”), of which postprocessed images are commonly used in clinical practice. Development of an algorithm which effectively estimates breast PD% in both raw and postprocessed digital mammography images would be beneficial in terms of direct clinical application and retrospective analysis. Methods: This work proposes a new algorithm for fully automated quantification of breast PD% based on adaptive multiclass fuzzy c-means (FCM) clustering and support vector machine (SVM) classification, optimized for the imaging characteristics of both raw and processed digital mammography images as well as for individual patient and image characteristics. Our algorithm first delineates the breast region within the mammogram via an automated thresholding scheme to identify background air followed by a straight line Hough transform to extract the pectoral muscle region. The algorithm then applies adaptive FCM clustering based on an optimal number of clusters derived from image properties of the specific mammogram to subdivide the breast into regions of similar gray-level intensity. Finally, a SVM classifier is trained to identify which clusters within the breast tissue are likely fibroglandular, which

  14. Sequential processing of quantitative phase images for the study of cell behaviour in real-time digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikmund, T; Kvasnica, L; Týč, M; Křížová, A; Colláková, J; Chmelík, R

    2014-11-01

    Transmitted light holographic microscopy is particularly used for quantitative phase imaging of transparent microscopic objects such as living cells. The study of the cell is based on extraction of the dynamic data on cell behaviour from the time-lapse sequence of the phase images. However, the phase images are affected by the phase aberrations that make the analysis particularly difficult. This is because the phase deformation is prone to change during long-term experiments. Here, we present a novel algorithm for sequential processing of living cells phase images in a time-lapse sequence. The algorithm compensates for the deformation of a phase image using weighted least-squares surface fitting. Moreover, it identifies and segments the individual cells in the phase image. All these procedures are performed automatically and applied immediately after obtaining every single phase image. This property of the algorithm is important for real-time cell quantitative phase imaging and instantaneous control of the course of the experiment by playback of the recorded sequence up to actual time. Such operator's intervention is a forerunner of process automation derived from image analysis. The efficiency of the propounded algorithm is demonstrated on images of rat fibrosarcoma cells using an off-axis holographic microscope. © 2014 The Authors Journal of Microscopy © 2014 Royal Microscopical Society.

  15. Process simulation in digital camera system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toadere, Florin

    2012-06-01

    The goal of this paper is to simulate the functionality of a digital camera system. The simulations cover the conversion from light to numerical signal and the color processing and rendering. We consider the image acquisition system to be linear shift invariant and axial. The light propagation is orthogonal to the system. We use a spectral image processing algorithm in order to simulate the radiometric properties of a digital camera. In the algorithm we take into consideration the transmittances of the: light source, lenses, filters and the quantum efficiency of a CMOS (complementary metal oxide semiconductor) sensor. The optical part is characterized by a multiple convolution between the different points spread functions of the optical components. We use a Cooke triplet, the aperture, the light fall off and the optical part of the CMOS sensor. The electrical part consists of the: Bayer sampling, interpolation, signal to noise ratio, dynamic range, analog to digital conversion and JPG compression. We reconstruct the noisy blurred image by blending different light exposed images in order to reduce the photon shot noise, also we filter the fixed pattern noise and we sharpen the image. Then we have the color processing blocks: white balancing, color correction, gamma correction, and conversion from XYZ color space to RGB color space. For the reproduction of color we use an OLED (organic light emitting diode) monitor. The analysis can be useful to assist students and engineers in image quality evaluation and imaging system design. Many other configurations of blocks can be used in our analysis.

  16. Edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to aid in the use of the digital images by edge-detect interpolation for direct digital periapical images using edge-deted interpolation. This study was performed by image processing of 20 digital periapical images; pixel replication, linear non-interpolation, linear interpolation, and edge-sensitive interpolation. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. Pixel replication showed blocking artifact and serious image distortion. 2. Linear interpolation showed smoothing effect on the edge. 3. Edge-sensitive interpolation overcame the smoothing effect on the edge and showed better image.

  17. Radiation dose reduction in digital breast tomosynthesis (DBT) by means of deep-learning-based supervised image processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junchi; Zarshenas, Amin; Qadir, Ammar; Wei, Zheng; Yang, Limin; Fajardo, Laurie; Suzuki, Kenji

    2018-03-01

    To reduce cumulative radiation exposure and lifetime risks for radiation-induced cancer from breast cancer screening, we developed a deep-learning-based supervised image-processing technique called neural network convolution (NNC) for radiation dose reduction in DBT. NNC employed patched-based neural network regression in a convolutional manner to convert lower-dose (LD) to higher-dose (HD) tomosynthesis images. We trained our NNC with quarter-dose (25% of the standard dose: 12 mAs at 32 kVp) raw projection images and corresponding "teaching" higher-dose (HD) images (200% of the standard dose: 99 mAs at 32 kVp) of a breast cadaver phantom acquired with a DBT system (Selenia Dimensions, Hologic, CA). Once trained, NNC no longer requires HD images. It converts new LD images to images that look like HD images; thus the term "virtual" HD (VHD) images. We reconstructed tomosynthesis slices on a research DBT system. To determine a dose reduction rate, we acquired 4 studies of another test phantom at 4 different radiation doses (1.35, 2.7, 4.04, and 5.39 mGy entrance dose). Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) index was used to evaluate the image quality. For testing, we collected half-dose (50% of the standard dose: 32+/-14 mAs at 33+/-5 kVp) and full-dose (standard dose: 68+/-23 mAs at 33+/-5 kvp) images of 10 clinical cases with the DBT system at University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics. NNC converted half-dose DBT images of 10 clinical cases to VHD DBT images that were equivalent to full dose DBT images. Our cadaver phantom experiment demonstrated 79% dose reduction.

  18. Digital Image Watermarking in Transform Domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shazly, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of internet and availability of huge digital content make it easy to create, modify and copy digital media such as audio, video and images. This causes a problem for owners of that content and hence a need to copy right protection tool was essential. First, encryption was proposed but it ensures protection during transmission only and once decryption occurred any one can modify the data. at that point watermarking was introduced as a solution to such problem. Watermarking is a process of inserting a low energy signal in to a high energy one so that it doesn't affect the main signal features. A good digital image watermarking technique should satisfy four requirements: 1) Embedding of a watermark should not degrade the host image visual quality (imperceptibility). 2) The embedded watermark should stick to the host image so that it couldn’t be removed by common image processing operation and could be extracted from the attacked watermarked image (robustness). 3) Knowing the embedding and extraction procedures is sufficient but not enough to extract the watermark; extra keys should be needed (security). 4) The watermarking technique should allow embedding and extraction of more than one watermark each independent of the other (capacity). This thesis presents a watermarking scheme that full fill the mentioned four requirements by jointing transform domains with Fractional Fourier Transform Domain (FracFT). More work on cascaded Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT with FracFT was done to develop a joint transform simply called Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT). The proposed schemes were tested with different image processing attacks to verify its robustness. Finally, the watermarked image is transmitted over simulated MC CDMA channel to prove robustness in real transmission conditions case.

  19. New directions in pediatric digital imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, B.D.; Adams, R.B.; Blackham, W.C.

    1985-01-01

    In this chapter the authors describe several simple experiments performed utilizing digital equipment which apply to clinical situations in pediatrics and which suggest future directions for research in digital imaging. They also discuss experimental systems which they believe will overcome certain limitations of current equipment and might be applicable to pediatric digital imaging in the future

  20. SU-F-P-48: The Quantitative Evaluation and Comparison of Image Distortion and Loss of X-Ray Images Between Anti-Scattered Grid and Moire Compensation Processing in Digital Radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, W; Jung, J; Kang, Y; Chung, W

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively analyze the influence image processing for Moire elimination has in digital radiography by comparing the image acquired from optimized anti-scattered grid only and the image acquired from software processing paired with misaligned low-frequency grid. Methods: Special phantom, which does not create scattered radiation, was used to acquire non-grid reference images and they were acquired without any grids. A set of images was acquired with optimized grid, aligned to pixel of a detector and other set of images was acquired with misaligned low-frequency grid paired with Moire elimination processing algorithm. X-ray technique used was based on consideration to Bucky factor derived from non-grid reference images. For evaluation, we analyze by comparing pixel intensity of acquired images with grids to that of reference images. Results: When compared to image acquired with optimized grid, images acquired with Moire elimination processing algorithm showed 10 to 50% lower mean contrast value of ROI. Severe distortion of images was found with when the object’s thickness was measured at 7 or less pixels. In this case, contrast value measured from images acquired with Moire elimination processing algorithm was under 30% of that taken from reference image. Conclusion: This study shows the potential risk of Moire compensation images in diagnosis. Images acquired with misaligned low-frequency grid results in Moire noise and Moire compensation processing algorithm used to remove this Moire noise actually caused an image distortion. As a result, fractures and/or calcifications which are presented in few pixels only may not be diagnosed properly. In future work, we plan to evaluate the images acquired without grid but based on 100% image processing and the potential risks it possesses.

  1. Development of a prototype chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) R/F system with fast image reconstruction using graphics processing unit (GPU) programming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sunghoon, E-mail: choi.sh@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Seungwan [Department of Radiological Science, College of Medical Science, Konyang University, 158 Gwanjeodong-ro, Daejeon, 308-812 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Haenghwa [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Donghoon; Choi, Seungyeon [Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, Jungwook [LISTEM Corporation, 94 Donghwagongdan-ro, Munmak-eup, Wonju (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Chang-Woo [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hee-Joung, E-mail: hjk1@yonsei.ac.kr [Department of Radiological Science, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiation Convergence Engineering, College of Health Science, Yonsei University, 1 Yonseidae-gil, Wonju, Gangwon-do 220-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-11

    Digital tomosynthesis offers the advantage of low radiation doses compared to conventional computed tomography (CT) by utilizing small numbers of projections (~80) acquired over a limited angular range. It produces 3D volumetric data, although there are artifacts due to incomplete sampling. Based upon these characteristics, we developed a prototype digital tomosynthesis R/F system for applications in chest imaging. Our prototype chest digital tomosynthesis (CDT) R/F system contains an X-ray tube with high power R/F pulse generator, flat-panel detector, R/F table, electromechanical radiographic subsystems including a precise motor controller, and a reconstruction server. For image reconstruction, users select between analytic and iterative reconstruction methods. Our reconstructed images of Catphan700 and LUNGMAN phantoms clearly and rapidly described the internal structures of phantoms using graphics processing unit (GPU) programming. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) values of the CTP682 module of Catphan700 were higher in images using a simultaneous algebraic reconstruction technique (SART) than in those using filtered back-projection (FBP) for all materials by factors of 2.60, 3.78, 5.50, 2.30, 3.70, and 2.52 for air, lung foam, low density polyethylene (LDPE), Delrin{sup ®} (acetal homopolymer resin), bone 50% (hydroxyapatite), and Teflon, respectively. Total elapsed times for producing 3D volume were 2.92 s and 86.29 s on average for FBP and SART (20 iterations), respectively. The times required for reconstruction were clinically feasible. Moreover, the total radiation dose from our system (5.68 mGy) was lower than that of conventional chest CT scan. Consequently, our prototype tomosynthesis R/F system represents an important advance in digital tomosynthesis applications.

  2. Image Acquisition and Quality in Digital Radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Shannon

    2016-09-01

    Medical imaging has undergone dramatic changes and technological breakthroughs since the introduction of digital radiography. This article presents information on the development of digital radiography and types of digital radiography systems. Aspects of image quality and radiation exposure control are highlighted as well. In addition, the article includes related workplace changes and medicolegal considerations in the digital radiography environment. ©2016 American Society of Radiologic Technologists.

  3. Storage and retrieval of large digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, J.N.

    1998-01-20

    Image compression and viewing are implemented with (1) a method for performing DWT-based compression on a large digital image with a computer system possessing a two-level system of memory and (2) a method for selectively viewing areas of the image from its compressed representation at multiple resolutions and, if desired, in a client-server environment. The compression of a large digital image I(x,y) is accomplished by first defining a plurality of discrete tile image data subsets T{sub ij}(x,y) that, upon superposition, form the complete set of image data I(x,y). A seamless wavelet-based compression process is effected on I(x,y) that is comprised of successively inputting the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) in a selected sequence to a DWT routine, and storing the resulting DWT coefficients in a first primary memory. These coefficients are periodically compressed and transferred to a secondary memory to maintain sufficient memory in the primary memory for data processing. The sequence of DWT operations on the tiles T{sub ij}(x,y) effectively calculates a seamless DWT of I(x,y). Data retrieval consists of specifying a resolution and a region of I(x,y) for display. The subset of stored DWT coefficients corresponding to each requested scene is determined and then decompressed for input to an inverse DWT, the output of which forms the image display. The repeated process whereby image views are specified may take the form an interaction with a computer pointing device on an image display from a previous retrieval. 6 figs.

  4. PSpice for digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Tobin, Paul

    2007-01-01

    PSpice for Digital Signal Processing is the last in a series of five books using Cadence Orcad PSpice version 10.5 and introduces a very novel approach to learning digital signal processing (DSP). DSP is traditionally taught using Matlab/Simulink software but has some inherent weaknesses for students particularly at the introductory level. The 'plug in variables and play' nature of these software packages can lure the student into thinking they possess an understanding they don't actually have because these systems produce results quicklywithout revealing what is going on. However, it must be

  5. Application of digital image processing to determine the causes of failures in SAE 1018 carbon steel; Aplicacion del procesamiento digital de imagenes para la determinacion de las causas que provocan fallas en el acero al carbono SAE 1018

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolanos-Rodriguez, E [Escuela Superior de Tizayuca, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Tizayuca, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: bola7112@yahoo.com.mx; Gonzalez-Islas, J.C. [Universidad Tecnologica de Tulancingo, Tulancingo, Hidalgo (Mexico)]. E-mail: juanc.gonzalez@utec-tgo.edu.mx; Felipe-Riveron, E.M. [Centro de Investigacion en Computacion, Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: edgardo@cic.ipn.mx

    2013-03-15

    The research is focused on determining the causes of failures in the SAE 1018 carbon steel that is used in pipes carrying drinking water. Digital processing of images captured by photomicrographs by scanning electron microscopy coupled with the technique of X-ray microanalysis. The results demonstrate that the low quality of the raw materials and the manufacturing process of steel are the reasons for the occurrence of cracks observed in the material. [Spanish] La investigacion se centra en determinar las causas que provocan fallas en el acero al carbono SAE 1018 que es utilizado en tuberias que transportan agua potable. Se emplea el procesamiento digital de imagenes de las microfotografias captadas por medio de microscopia electronica de barrido, unido a la tecnica de microanalisis de rayos X. Los resultados obtenidos demuestran que la baja calidad de las materias primas y el proceso de manufactura del acero son las razones de la ocurrencia de fisuras observadas en el material.

  6. Determinación de la microestructuracerámica mediante procesamientoóptico–digital de imágenes MEB Determination of ceramic microstructure by using optical–digital image processing of SEM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oscar García Palencia

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se reporta el diseño e implementación de un software para análisis ceramográfico y control de calidad en ciencia de materiales, mediante el estudio de imágenes obtenidas por microscopia electrónica de barrido (MEB de la superficie pulida de muestras de diferentes sistemas cerámicos. El sistema se apoya en el procesamiento óptico digital de imágenes para determinar: el tamaño de cada grano y poro, su factor de redondez y excentricidad como factor de forma. Este trabajo destaca el uso de las técnicas más eficientes de filtrado adaptativo y de detección de bordes, para la realización del cálculo de tamaño de partícula con alta precisión, en comparación con los métodos tradicionales encapsulados en las normas ASTM E112 y E1382. Los resultados más destacados de este análisis, como la posible aplicación de este sistema en otros campos de la investigación tales como la granulometría, la exploración petrolífera, la ingeniería de suelos y las películas delgadas, se presentan en este trabajo, con efectividad superior con otros software comerciales.This paper reports the design and implementation of software to ceramographic analysis and quality control in materials science, through image study obtained by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM, of samples polished surface of different ceramics systems. The system is supported on optics-digital image processing to determine: the size of each grain and pore, it roundness and eccentricity as shape factor. This work stands out the use of more efficient techniques of adaptive filtering and edge detection, to the calculus realization for the particle size with high precision, compared with traditional methods encapsulated inside the norms ASTM E112 and E1382. The most outstanding results of this analysis, as the possible application of this system in other investigation areas such as granulometry, oil exploration, geotechnical engineering and thin films are presented in

  7. Three-dimensional digital breast histopathology imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, G. M.; Peressotti, C.; Mawdsley, G. E.; Eidt, S.; Ge, M.; Morgan, T.; Zubovits, J. T.; Yaffe, M. J.

    2005-04-01

    We have developed a digital histology imaging system that has the potential to improve the accuracy of surgical margin assessment in the treatment of breast cancer by providing finer sampling and 3D visualization. The system is capable of producing a 3D representation of histopathology from an entire lumpectomy specimen. We acquire digital photomicrographs of a stack of large (120 x 170 mm) histology slides cut serially through the entire specimen. The images are then registered and displayed in 2D and 3D. This approach dramatically improves sampling and can improve visualization of tissue structures compared to current, small-format histology. The system consists of a brightfield microscope, adapted with a freeze-frame digital video camera and a large, motorized translation stage. The image of each slide is acquired as a mosaic of adjacent tiles, each tile representing one field-of-view of the microscope, and the mosaic is assembled into a seamless composite image. The assembly is done by a program developed to build image sets at six different levels within a multiresolution pyramid. A database-linked viewing program has been created to efficiently register and display the animated stack of images, which occupies about 80 GB of disk space per lumpectomy at full resolution, on a high-resolution (3840 x 2400 pixels) colour monitor. The scanning or tiling approach to digitization is inherently susceptible to two artefacts which disrupt the composite image, and which impose more stringent requirements on system performance. Although non-uniform illumination across any one isolated tile may not be discernible, the eye readily detects this non-uniformity when the entire assembly of tiles is viewed. The pattern is caused by deficiencies in optical alignment, spectrum of the light source, or camera corrections. The imaging task requires that features as small as 3.2 &mum in extent be seamlessly preserved. However, inadequate accuracy in positioning of the translation

  8. [Digital imaging and robotics in endoscopic surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Go, P M

    1998-05-23

    The introduction of endoscopical surgery has among other things influenced technical developments in surgery. Owing to digitalisation, major progress will be made in imaging and in the sophisticated technology sometimes called robotics. Digital storage makes the results of imaging diagnostics (e.g. the results of radiological examination) suitable for transmission via video conference systems for telediagnostic purposes. The availability of digital video technique renders possible the processing, storage and retrieval of moving images as well. During endoscopical operations use may be made of a robot arm which replaces the camera man. The arm does not grow tired and provides a stable image. The surgeon himself can operate or address the arm and it can remember fixed image positions to which it can return if ordered to do so. The next step is to carry out surgical manipulations via a robot arm. This may make operations more patient-friendly. A robot arm can also have remote control: telerobotics. At the Internet site of this journal a number of supplements to this article can be found, for instance three-dimensional (3D) illustrations (which is the purpose of the 3D spectacles enclosed with this issue) and a quiz (http:@appendix.niwi. knaw.nl).

  9. Digital imaging in conventional diagnostic radiology: status and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pfeiler, M.; Marhoff, P.; Schipper, P.

    1984-01-01

    Digital techniques, i.e. techniques using microcomputers of minicomputers, are getting increasingly common in so-called conventional radiography. These nonreconstructive techniques are referred to here as 'digital, direct-imaging radiography' in order to contrast them with the reconstructive techniques of computerized tomography. Digitalisation of imaging and image processing operation and control will change the jobs of the radiologist and radiological assistants in such manner that only X-ray units with film-foil systems or with X-ray image intensification should be classified as conventional systems. Digital and conventional systems differ in that digital techniques imply the possibility of establishing data pools which may eventually be developed into a digital image interconnection and archiving system. The authors first describe the general system in which the digital imaging systems must be integrated on a medium-term and long-term basis and then proceed to discuss digital imaging and image processing in some more detail. (orig./WU) [de

  10. AVSynDEx: A Rapid Prototyping Process Dedicated to the Implementation of Digital Image Processing Applications on Multi-DSP and FPGA Architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fresse Virginie

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available We present AVSynDEx (concatenation of AVS SynDEx, a rapid prototyping process aiming to the implementation of digital signal processing applications on mixed architectures (multi-DSP FPGA. This process is based on the use of widely available and efficient CAD tools established along the design process so that most of the implementation tasks become automatic. These tools and architectures are judiciously selected and integrated during the implementation process to help a signal processing specialist without relevant hardware experience. We have automated the translation between the different levels of the process to increase and secure it. One main advantage is that only a signal processing designer is needed, all the other specialized manual tasks being transparent in this prototyping methodology, hereby reducing the implementation time.

  11. Digital image analysis of X-ray television with an image digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Yasuo; Akaike, Hisahiko; Ogawa, Hitoshi; Kyuma, Yukishige

    1995-01-01

    When video signals of X-ray fluoroscopy were transformed from analog-to-digital ones with an image digitizer, their digital characteristic curves, pre-sampling MTF's and digital Wiener spectral could be measured. This method was advant ageous in that it was able to carry out data sampling because the pixel values inputted could be verified on a CRT. The system of image analysis by this method is inexpensive and effective in evaluating the image quality of digital system. Also, it is expected that this method can be used as a tool for learning the measurement techniques and physical characteristics of digital image quality effectively. (author)

  12. System for objective assessment of image differences in digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fliegel, Karel; Krasula, Lukáš; Páta, Petr; Myslík, Jiří; Pecák, Josef; Jícha, Marek

    2014-09-01

    There is high demand for quick digitization and subsequent image restoration of archived film records. Digitization is very urgent in many cases because various invaluable pieces of cultural heritage are stored on aging media. Only selected records can be reconstructed perfectly using painstaking manual or semi-automatic procedures. This paper aims to answer the question what are the quality requirements on the restoration process in order to obtain acceptably close visual perception of the digitally restored film in comparison to the original analog film copy. This knowledge is very important to preserve the original artistic intention of the movie producers. Subjective experiment with artificially distorted images has been conducted in order to answer the question what is the visual impact of common image distortions in digital cinema. Typical color and contrast distortions were introduced and test images were presented to viewers using digital projector. Based on the outcome of this subjective evaluation a system for objective assessment of image distortions has been developed and its performance tested. The system utilizes calibrated digital single-lens reflex camera and subsequent analysis of suitable features of images captured from the projection screen. The evaluation of captured image data has been optimized in order to obtain predicted differences between the reference and distorted images while achieving high correlation with the results of subjective assessment. The system can be used to objectively determine the difference between analog film and digital cinema images on the projection screen.

  13. Investigation of the spray characteristics for a secondary fuel injection nozzle using a digital image processing method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Haeyoung; Lee, Kihyung; Ikeda, Yuji

    2007-05-01

    There are many ways to reduce diesel engine exhaust emissions. However, NOx emission is difficult to reduce because the hydrocarbon (HC) concentration in a diesel engine is not sufficient for NOx conversion. Therefore, in order to create stoichiometric conditions in the De-NOx catalyst, a secondary injection system is designed to inject liquid HC into the exhaust pipe. The atomization and distribution characteristics of the HC injected from a secondary injector are key technologies to obtain a high NOx conversion because inhomogeneous droplets of injected HC cause not only high fuel consumption but also deterioration of NOx emission. This paper describes the spray characteristics of a secondary injector including the spray angle, penetration length and breakup behaviour of the spray to optimize the reduction rate of the NOx catalyst. In this study, various optical diagnostics were applied to investigate these spray characteristics, the atomization mechanism and spray developing process. The visualization and image processing method for the spray pulsation were developed by high speed photography. The influence of the fuel supply pressure on the spray behaviour and a more detailed spray developing process have been analysed experimentally using image processing. Finally, the experimental results were used to correlate the spray structure to the injection system performance and to provide a design guide for a secondary injector nozzle.

  14. Managing digitally formatted diagnostic image data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Templeton, A.W.; Dwyer, S.J.

    1985-01-01

    Diagnostic radiologists are very comfortable using analog radiographic film and interpreting its recorded images. To improve patient care, the radiologist has sought the finest quality radiographic film for use with the best radiographic imaging systems. The proper choice and use of x-ray tubes, generators, film-screen combinations, and contrast media has occupied the professional attention of the radiologist since the inception of radiology. Image quality can be significantly improved with digitally formatted diagnostic imaging systems by providing dynamic ranges in excess of those possible with analog x-ray films. In a CT scanner, the digital acquisition and reconstruction system can obtain a dynamic range (contrast resolution) of 10,000 to 1. Digital subtraction angiography systems achieve 10-bit dynamic ranges for each of the acquired television frames. Increases in the dynamic ranges of the various imaging modalities have been coupled with improved spatial resolution. A digitally formatted image is a two-dimensional, numerical array of discrete image elements. Each picture element is called a pixel. Each pixel has a discrete size. Figure 15.1 illustrates a digitally formatted image depicting the spatial resolution, array size, and quantization or numerical range of the pixel values. Currently, 512 x 512 image arrays are standard. Development of 1024 x 1024 digital arrays are underway. Significant improvements have also been achieved in the rates at which digital diagnostic imaging data can be acquired, manipulated, and archived

  15. Ethical Implications of Digital Imaging in Photojournalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Danal; Lasorsa, Dominic L.

    Arguing that the news media are about to adopt digital imaging systems that will have far-reaching implications for the practice of journalism, this paper discusses how the news media is expected to adopt the new technology and explains why the marriage of journalism and digital imaging will create ethical issues with respect to photo manipulation…

  16. Computing Hypercrossed Complex Pairings in Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simge Öztunç

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider an additive group structure in digital images and introduce the commutator in digital images. Then we calculate the hypercrossed complex pairings which generates a normal subgroup in dimension 2 and in dimension 3 by using 8-adjacency and 26-adjacency.

  17. Digital Imaging: An Adobe Photoshop Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobb, Kristine

    2007-01-01

    This article introduces digital imaging, an Adobe Photoshop course at Shrewsbury High School in Shrewsbury, Massachusetts. Students are able to earn art credits to graduate by successfully completing the course. Digital imaging must cover art criteria as well as technical skills. The course begins with tutorials created by the instructor and other…

  18. Application of digital image processing methods on the cluster structure at the wall of a circulating fluidized bed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-guang; Zhao, Zeng-wu; Li, Bao-wei; Wu, Wen-fei [Inner Mongolia Univ. of Science and Technology, Baotou (China). School of Environment and Energy

    2013-07-01

    This paper describes experiments to investigate the cluster structure of gas-particle flow at the wall region of a circulating fluidized bed (CFB). The setup is in a cold scale-model circulating fluidized bed with a riser that has a 0.30 m 0.28 m cross-section and is 2.9 m tall. A video camera was utilized to visualize the cluster structure through a transparent Plexiglas wall. An image processing system was used to analyze images, which were obtained under different superficial gas velocities and solid circulating rates. The results show that distinctly different cluster structures exist in the different operating conditions, which the number, shape and size of the clusters are affected by main air flow.

  19. Problems with Permatrace: a note on digital image publication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Hopkinson

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology presented here developed out of work required to convert the hard-copy illustrations submitted to Internet Archaeology for publication of the 1975 excavations at Cricklade. The publication (and digital image preparatory work was funded by English Heritage and was, in part, an experiment designed to explore some of the possibilities presented by digital image publication. Various challenges in how to transform the drawings on permatrace to a digital format were encountered. While a full exploration of the potential of all areas of digital image preparation and publication was not possible, some interesting technical options were evaluated. This short article explains the processes applied in creating the images that were finally incorporated within the publication. It also examines some other avenues regarding the presentation of archaeological drawings that could be explored in both future Internet Archaeology content and other digital publications.

  20. Imaging sunlight using a digital spectroheliograph

    CERN Document Server

    Harrison, Ken M

    2016-01-01

    Ken M. Harrison's latest book is a complete guide for amateur astronomers who want to obtain detailed narrowband images of the Sun using a digital spectroheliograph (SHG). The SHG allows the safe imaging of the Sun without the expense of commercial ‘etalon’ solar filters. As the supporting software continues to be refined, the use of the digital spectroheliograph will become more and more mainstream and has the potential to replace the expensive solar filters currently in use. The early chapters briefly explain the concept of the SHG and how it can produce an image from the solar spectrum. A comparison of the currently available narrow band solar filters is followed by a detailed analysis of the critical design, construction and assembly features of the SHG. The design and optimum layout of the instrument is discussed to allow evaluation of performance. This information explains how to assemble a fully functional SHG using readily available components. The software required to process the images is exp...

  1. Digital image information systems in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greinacher, C.F.C.; Luetke, B.; Seufert, G.

    1987-01-01

    About 25% of all patient examinations are performed digitally in a today's radiological department. A computerized system is described that supports generation, transport, interpretation and archiving of digital radiological images (Picture Archiving and Communication System PACS). The technical features concerning image communication via local area networks, image storage on magnetic and optical media and digital workstations for image display and manipulation are described. A structured system architecture is introduced. It allows flexible adaption to individual organizations and minimizes the requirements of the communication network. (orig.) [de

  2. Advanced techniques in digital mammographic images recognition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, R. Azir

    2011-01-01

    Computer Aided Detection and Diagnosis is used in digital radiography as a second thought in the process of determining diagnoses, which reduces the percentage of wrong diagnoses of the established interpretation of mammographic images. The issues that are discussed in the dissertation are the analyses and improvement of advanced technologies in the field of artificial intelligence, more specifically in the field of machine learning for solving diagnostic problems and automatic detection of speculated lesions in digital mammograms. The developed of SVM-based ICAD system with cascade architecture for analyses and comparison mammographic images in both projections (CC and MLO) gives excellent result for detection and masses and microcalcifications. In order to develop a system with optimal performances of sensitivity, specificity and time complexity, a set of relevant characteristics need to be created which will show all the pathological regions that might be present in the mammographic image. The structure of the mammographic image, size and the large number of pathological structures in this area are the reason why the creation of a set of these features is necessary for the presentation of good indicators. These pathological structures are a real challenge today and the world of science is working in that direction. The doctoral dissertation showed that the system has optimal results, which are confirmed by experts, and institutions, which are dealing with these same issues. Also, the thesis presents a new approach for automatic identification of regions of interest in the mammographic image where regions of interest are automatically selected for further processing mammography in cases when the number of examined patients is higher. Out of 480 mammographic images downloaded from MIAS database and tested with ICAD system the author shows that, after separation and selection of relevant features of ICAD system the accuracy is 89.7% (96.4% for microcalcifications

  3. Standard digital reference images for titanium castings

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 The digital reference images provided in the adjunct to this standard illustrate various types and degrees of discontinuities occurring in titanium castings. Use of this standard for the specification or grading of castings requires procurement of the adjunct digital reference images, which illustrate the discontinuity types and severity levels. They are intended to provide the following: 1.1.1 A guide enabling recognition of titanium casting discontinuities and their differentiation both as to type and degree through digital radiographic examination. 1.1.2 Example digital radiographic illustrations of discontinuities and a nomenclature for reference in acceptance standards, specifications and drawings. 1.2 The digital reference images consist of seventeen digital files each illustrating eight grades of increasing severity. The files illustrate seven common discontinuity types representing casting sections up to 1-in. (25.4-mm). 1.3 The reference radiographs were developed for casting sections up to 1...

  4. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-01-01

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality

  5. Image rejects in general direct digital radiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Bjørn; Rosanowsky, Tine Blomberg; Jensen, Camilla; Wah, Kenneth Hong Ching

    2015-10-01

    The number of rejected images is an indicator of image quality and unnecessary imaging at a radiology department. Image reject analysis was frequent in the film era, but comparably few and small studies have been published after converting to digital radiography. One reason may be a belief that rejects have been eliminated with digitalization. To measure the extension of deleted images in direct digital radiography (DR), in order to assess the rates of rejects and unnecessary imaging and to analyze reasons for deletions, in order to improve the radiological services. All exposed images at two direct digital laboratories at a hospital in Norway were reviewed in January 2014. Type of examination, number of exposed images, and number of deleted images were registered. Each deleted image was analyzed separately and the reason for deleting the image was recorded. Out of 5417 exposed images, 596 were deleted, giving a deletion rate of 11%. A total of 51.3% were deleted due to positioning errors and 31.0% due to error in centering. The examinations with the highest percentage of deleted images were the knee, hip, and ankle, 20.6%, 18.5%, and 13.8% respectively. The reject rate is at least as high as the deletion rate and is comparable with previous film-based imaging systems. The reasons for rejection are quite different in digital systems. This falsifies the hypothesis that digitalization would eliminates rejects. A deleted image does not contribute to diagnostics, and therefore is an unnecessary image. Hence, the high rates of deleted images have implications for management, training, education, as well as for quality.

  6. Potential application of digital image-processing method and fitted logistic model to the control of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Z G; Rong, E H; Li, S C; Zhang, L J; Zhang, Z W; Guo, Y Q; Ma, R Y

    2016-08-01

    Monitoring of oriental fruit moths (Grapholita molesta Busck) is a prerequisite for its control. This study introduced a digital image-processing method and logistic model for the control of oriental fruit moths. First, five triangular sex pheromone traps were installed separately within each area of 667 m2 in a peach orchard to monitor oriental fruit moths consecutively for 3 years. Next, full view images of oriental fruit moths were collected via a digital camera and then subjected to graying, separation and morphological analysis for automatic counting using MATLAB software. Afterwards, the results of automatic counting were used for fitting a logistic model to forecast the control threshold and key control period. There was a high consistency between automatic counting and manual counting (0.99, P model, oriental fruit moths had four occurrence peaks during a year, with a time-lag of 15-18 days between adult occurrence peak and the larval damage peak. Additionally, the key control period was from 28 June to 3 July each year, when the wormy fruit rate reached up to 5% and the trapping volume was approximately 10.2 per day per trap. Additionally, the key control period for the overwintering generation was 25 April. This study provides an automatic counting method and fitted logistic model with a great potential for application to the control of oriental fruit moths.

  7. Functions of the digital image in Education: A methodological proposal for reading and writing the digital image on instructional screens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Milagros Azzato

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available This research goes through the instructional possibilities that reading and writing the digital image have in Education. Along these lines, we are presenting this research that looks for, on one hand, to develop a methodological proposal for reading and writing the digital image, and on the other, to implement these methodologies in a course used as a study case and whose objective was to evaluate students' performance when writing screens for a learning object using the methodologies for reading and writing the digital image. The process for compiling date was based on the questionnaire technique, individual interviews and the analysis of course proposed activities. The application of the first questionnaire allowed us to determine students' knowledge level about the digital image before starting the course. The individual interview allowed us to determine the students' reading criteria gained after using the reading methodology for the digital image to analyse educational materials (Galavis, 2008; Azzato, 2009. The proposed activities for the course permitted us to value students' performance when reading and writing the digital image of a learning object. Finally, after course completion, the second questionnaire was applied in order to determine the students' acquired knowledge level about reading and writing an image on digital screens. The results obtained in each of the analysis allowed us to establish that the proposed methodologies were highly useful to write the educational image for the screens of each one of the learning objects created in the course.

  8. Could digital imaging be an alternative for digital colorimeters?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caglar, Alper; Yamanel, Kivanc; Gulsahi, Kamran; Bagis, Bora; Ozcan, Mutlu

    2010-12-01

    This study evaluated the colour parameters of composite and ceramic shade guides determined using a colorimeter and digital imaging method with illuminants at different colour temperatures. Two different resin composite shade guides, namely Charisma (Heraeus Kulzer) and Premise (Kerr Corporation), and two different ceramic shade guides, Vita Lumin Vacuum (VITA Zahnfabrik) and Noritake (Noritake Co.), were evaluated at three different colour temperatures (2,700 K, 2,700-6,500 K, and 6500 K) of illuminants. Ten shade tabs were selected (A1, A2, A3, A3,5, A4, B1, B2, B3, C2 and C3) from each shade guide. CIE Lab values were obtained using digital imaging and a colorimeter (ShadeEye NCC Dental Chroma Meter, Shofu Inc.). The data were analysed using two-way ANOVA, and Pearson's correlation. While mean L* values of both composite and ceramic shade guides were not affected from the colour temperature, L* values obtained with the colorimeter showed significantly lower values than those of the digital imaging (p colorimeter and digital imaging did not show significant differences (p > 0.05). For both composite and ceramic shade guides, L* and b* values obtained from colorimeter and digital imaging method presented a high level of correlation. High-level correlations were also acquired for a* values in all shade guides except for the Charisma composite shade guide. Digital imaging method could be an alternative for the colorimeters unless the proper object-camera distance, digital camera settings and suitable illumination conditions could be supplied. However, variations in shade guides, especially for composites, may affect the correlation.

  9. Finite element formulation for a digital image correlation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yaofeng; Pang, John H. L.; Wong, Chee Khuen; Su Fei

    2005-01-01

    A finite element formulation for a digital image correlation method is presented that will determine directly the complete, two-dimensional displacement field during the image correlation process on digital images. The entire interested image area is discretized into finite elements that are involved in the common image correlation process by use of our algorithms. This image correlation method with finite element formulation has an advantage over subset-based image correlation methods because it satisfies the requirements of displacement continuity and derivative continuity among elements on images. Numerical studies and a real experiment are used to verify the proposed formulation. Results have shown that the image correlation with the finite element formulation is computationally efficient, accurate, and robust

  10. Reliability-guided digital image correlation for image deformation measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Bing

    2009-01-01

    A universally applicable reliability-guided digital image correlation (DIC) method is proposed for reliable image deformation measurement. The zero-mean normalized cross correlation (ZNCC) coefficient is used to identify the reliability of the point computed. The correlation calculation begins with a seed point and is then guided by the ZNCC coefficient. That means the neighbors of the point with the highest ZNCC coefficient in a queue for computed points will be processed first. Thus the calculation path is always along the most reliable direction, and possible error propagation of the conventional DIC method can be avoided. The proposed novel DIC method is universally applicable to the images with shadows, discontinuous areas, and deformation discontinuity. Two image pairs were used to evaluate the performance of the proposed technique, and the successful results clearly demonstrate its robustness and effectiveness

  11. Panning artifacts in digital pathology images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avanaki, Ali R. N.; Lanciault, Christian; Espig, Kathryn S.; Xthona, Albert; Kimpe, Tom R. L.

    2017-03-01

    In making a pathologic diagnosis, a pathologist uses cognitive processes: perception, attention, memory, and search (Pena and Andrade-Filho, 2009). Typically, this involves focus while panning from one region of a slide to another, using either a microscope in a traditional workflow or software program and display in a digital pathology workflow (DICOM Standard Committee, 2010). We theorize that during panning operation, the pathologist receives information important to diagnosis efficiency and/or correctness. As compared to an optical microscope, panning in a digital pathology image involves some visual artifacts due to the following: (i) the frame rate is finite; (ii) time varying visual signals are reconstructed using imperfect zero-order hold. Specifically, after pixel's digital drive is changed, it takes time for a pixel to emit the expected amount of light. Previous work suggests that 49% of navigation is conducted in low-power/overview with digital pathology (Molin et al., 2015), but the influence of display factors has not been measured. We conducted a reader study to establish a relationship between display frame rate, panel response time, and threshold panning speed (above which the artifacts become noticeable). Our results suggest visual tasks that involve tissue structure are more impacted by the simulated panning artifacts than those that only involve color (e.g., staining intensity estimation), and that the panning artifacts versus normalized panning speed has a peak behavior which is surprising and may change for a diagnostic task. This is work in progress and our final findings should be considered in designing future digital pathology systems.

  12. DHM (Digital Holography Microscope) for imaging cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Yves; Cuche, Etienne; Colomb, Tristan; Depeursinge, Christian; Rappaz, Benjamin; Marquet, Pierre; Magistretti, Pierre

    2007-01-01

    Light interaction with a sample modifies both intensity and phase of the illuminating wave. Any available supports for image recording are only sensitive to intensity, but Denis Gabor [P. Marquet, B. Rappaz, P. Magistretti, et. al. Digital Holography for quantitative phase-contrast imaging, Optics Letters, 30, 5, pp 291-93 (2005)] invented in 1948 a way to encode the phase as an intensity variation: the h ologram . Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) [D. Gabor, A new microscopic principle, Nature, 1948] implements digitally this powerful hologram. Characterization of various pollen grains and of morphology changes of neurones associated with hypotonic shock demonstrates the potential of DHM for imaging cells

  13. Camac interface for digitally recording infrared camera images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dyer, G.R.

    1986-01-01

    An instrument has been built to store the digital signals from a modified imaging infrared scanner directly in a digital memory. This procedure avoids the signal-to-noise degradation and dynamic range limitations associated with successive analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog conversions and the analog recording method normally used to store data from the scanner. This technique also allows digital data processing methods to be applied directly to recorded data and permits processing and image reconstruction to be done using either a mainframe or a microcomputer. If a suitable computer and CAMAC-based data collection system are already available, digital storage of up to 12 scanner images can be implemented for less than $1750 in materials cost. Each image is stored as a frame of 60 x 80 eight-bit pixels, with an acquisition rate of one frame every 16.7 ms. The number of frames stored is limited only by the available memory. Initially, data processing for this equipment was done on a VAX 11-780, but images may also be displayed on the screen of a microcomputer. Software for setting the displayed gray scale, generating contour plots and false-color displays, and subtracting one image from another (e.g., background suppression) has been developed for IBM-compatible personal computers

  14. Digital image display system for emergency room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murry, R.C.; Lane, T.J.; Miax, L.S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reports on a digital image display system for the emergency room (ER) in a major trauma hospital. Its objective is to reduce radiographic image delivery time to a busy ER while simultaneously providing a multimodality capability. Image storage, retrieval, and display will also be facilitated with this system. The system's backbone is a token-ring network of RISC and personal computers. The display terminals are higher- function RISC computers with 1,024 2 color or gray-scale monitors. The PCs serve as administrative terminals. Nuclear medicine, CT, MR, and digitized film images are transferred to the image display system

  15. The use of digital images in pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furness, P N

    1997-11-01

    Digital images are routinely used by the publishing industry, but most diagnostic pathologists are unfamiliar with the technology and its possibilities. This review aims to explain the basic principles of digital image acquisition, storage, manipulation and use, and the possibilities provided not only in research, but also in teaching and in routine diagnostic pathology. Images of natural objects are usually expressed digitally as 'bitmaps'--rectilinear arrays of small dots. The size of each dot can vary, but so can its information content in terms, for example, of colour, greyscale or opacity. Various file formats and compression algorithms are available. Video cameras connected to microscopes are familiar to most pathologists; video images can be converted directly to a digital form by a suitably equipped computer. Digital cameras and scanners are alternative acquisition tools of relevance to pathologists. Once acquired, a digital image can easily be subjected to the digital equivalent of any conventional darkroom manipulation and modern software allows much more flexibility, to such an extent that a new tool for scientific fraud has been created. For research, image enhancement and analysis is an increasingly powerful and affordable tool. Morphometric measurements are, after many predictions, at last beginning to be part of the toolkit of the diagnostic pathologist. In teaching, the potential to create dramatic yet informative presentations is demonstrated daily by the publishing industry; such methods are readily applicable to the classroom. The combination of digital images and the Internet raises many possibilities; for example, instead of seeking one expert diagnostic opinion, one could simultaneously seek the opinion of many, all around the globe. It is inevitable that in the coming years the use of digital images will spread from the laboratory to the medical curriculum and to the whole of diagnostic pathology.

  16. Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis An Introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Richards, John A

    2013-01-01

    Remote Sensing Digital Image Analysis provides the non-specialist with a treatment of the quantitative analysis of satellite and aircraft derived remotely sensed data. Since the first edition of the book there have been significant developments in the algorithms used for the processing and analysis of remote sensing imagery; nevertheless many of the fundamentals have substantially remained the same.  This new edition presents material that has retained value since those early days, along with new techniques that can be incorporated into an operational framework for the analysis of remote sensing data. The book is designed as a teaching text for the senior undergraduate and postgraduate student, and as a fundamental treatment for those engaged in research using digital image processing in remote sensing.  The presentation level is for the mathematical non-specialist.  Since the very great number of operational users of remote sensing come from the earth sciences communities, the text is pitched at a leve...

  17. Semiautomatic digital imaging system for cytogenetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaubey, R.C.; Chauhan, P.C.; Bannur, S.V.; Kulgod, S.V.; Chadda, V.K.; Nigam, R.K.

    1999-08-01

    The paper describes a digital image processing system, developed indigenously at BARC for size measurement of microscopic biological objects such as cell, nucleus and micronucleus in mouse bone marrow; cytochalasin-B blocked human lymphocytes in-vitro; numerical counting and karyotyping of metaphase chromosomes of human lymphocytes. Errors in karyotyping of chromosomes by the imaging system may creep in due to lack of well-defined position of centromere or extensive bending of chromosomes, which may result due to poor quality of preparation. Good metaphase preparations are mandatory for precise and accurate analysis by the system. Additional new morphological parameters about each chromosome have to be incorporated to improve the accuracy of karyotyping. Though the experienced cytogenetisist is the final judge; however, the system assists him/her to carryout analysis much faster as compared to manual scoring. Further, experimental studies are in progress to validate different software packages developed for various cytogenetic applications. (author)

  18. Fractal Image Coding with Digital Watermarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klenovicova

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some results of implementation of digitalwatermarking methods into image coding based on fractal principles. Thepaper focuses on two possible approaches of embedding digitalwatermarks into fractal code of images - embedding digital watermarksinto parameters for position of similar blocks and coefficients ofblock similarity. Both algorithms were analyzed and verified on grayscale static images.

  19. Thinning an object boundary on digital image using pipelined algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewanto, S.; Aliyanta, B.

    1997-01-01

    In digital image processing, the thinning process to an object boundary is required to analyze the image structure with a measurement of parameter such as area, circumference of the image object. The process needs a sufficient large memory and time consuming if all the image pixels stored in the memory and the following process is done after all the pixels has ben transformed. pipelined algorithm can reduce the time used in the process. This algorithm uses buffer memory where its size can be adjusted. the next thinning process doesn't need to wait all the transformation of pixels. This paper described pipelined algorithm with some result on the use of the algorithm to digital image

  20. Better imaging: the advantages of digital radiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stelt, P.F.

    2008-01-01

    Background. Digital radiography has been available in dentistry for more than 25 years, but it has not replaced conventional film-based radiography completely. This could be because of the costs involved in replacing conventional radiographic equipment with a digital imaging system, or because

  1. Linear Algebra and Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allali, Mohamed

    2010-01-01

    We use the computing technology digital image processing (DIP) to enhance the teaching of linear algebra so as to make the course more visual and interesting. Certainly, this visual approach by using technology to link linear algebra to DIP is interesting and unexpected to both students as well as many faculty. (Contains 2 tables and 11 figures.)

  2. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology, Dankook University College of Dentistry, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  3. Image enhancement of digital periapical radiographs according to diagnostic tasks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Han, Won Jeong; Kim, Eun Kyung

    2014-01-01

    his study was performed to investigate the effect of image enhancement of periapical radiographs according to the diagnostic task. Eighty digital intraoral radiographs were obtained from patients and classified into four groups according to the diagnostic tasks of dental caries, periodontal diseases, periapical lesions, and endodontic files. All images were enhanced differently by using five processing techniques. Three radiologists blindly compared the subjective image quality of the original images and the processed images using a 5-point scale. There were significant differences between the image quality of the processed images and that of the original images (P<0.01) in all the diagnostic task groups. Processing techniques showed significantly different efficacy according to the diagnostic task (P<0.01). Image enhancement affects the image quality differently depending on the diagnostic task. And the use of optimal parameters is important for each diagnostic task.

  4. Study of the temporal evolution of Whitening Teeth immersed in Peroxide of hydrogen (H2O2) Using Digital Image Processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, L; Morales, Y; Torres, C

    2015-01-01

    The esthetic dentistry reference in our society is determined by several factors, including one that produces more dissatisfaction is abnormal tooth color or that does not meet the patient's expectations. For this reason it has been designed and implemented an algorithm in MATLAB that captures, digitizes, pre-processing and analyzed dental imaging by allowing to evaluate the degree of bleaching caused by the use of peroxide of hidrogen. The samples analyzed were human teeth extracted, which were subjected to different concentrations of peroxide of hidrogen and see if they can teeth whitening when using these products, was used different concentrations and intervals of time to analysis or study of the whitening of the teeth with the hydrogen peroxide

  5. Steganography and Steganalysis in Digital Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    REPORT Steganography and Steganalysis in Digital Images 14. ABSTRACT 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: Steganography (from the Greek for "covered writing...12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 15. SUBJECT TERMS Least Significant Bit ( LSB ), steganography , steganalysis, stegogramme. Dr. Jeff Duffany...Z39.18 - Steganography and Steganalysis in Digital Images Report Title ABSTRACT Steganography (from the Greek for "covered writing") is the secret

  6. The influence of software filtering in digital mammography image quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michail, C.; Spyropoulou, V.; Kalyvas, N.; Valais, I.; Dimitropoulos, N.; Fountos, G.; Kandarakis, I.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2009-05-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. Several techniques have been developed to help in the early detection of breast cancer such as conventional and digital x-ray mammography, positron and single-photon emission mammography, etc. A key advantage in digital mammography is that images can be manipulated as simple computer image files. Thus non-dedicated commercially available image manipulation software can be employed to process and store the images. The image processing tools of the Photoshop (CS 2) software usually incorporate digital filters which may be used to reduce image noise, enhance contrast and increase spatial resolution. However, improving an image quality parameter may result in degradation of another. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three sharpening filters, named hereafter sharpen, sharpen more and sharpen edges on image resolution and noise. Image resolution was assessed by means of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF).In conclusion it was found that the correct use of commercial non-dedicated software on digital mammograms may improve some aspects of image quality.

  7. The influence of software filtering in digital mammography image quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Michail, C; Spyropoulou, V; Valais, I; Panayiotakis, G; Kalyvas, N; Fountos, G; Kandarakis, I; Dimitropoulos, N

    2009-01-01

    Breast cancer is one of the most frequently diagnosed cancers among women. Several techniques have been developed to help in the early detection of breast cancer such as conventional and digital x-ray mammography, positron and single-photon emission mammography, etc. A key advantage in digital mammography is that images can be manipulated as simple computer image files. Thus non-dedicated commercially available image manipulation software can be employed to process and store the images. The image processing tools of the Photoshop (CS 2) software usually incorporate digital filters which may be used to reduce image noise, enhance contrast and increase spatial resolution. However, improving an image quality parameter may result in degradation of another. The aim of this work was to investigate the influence of three sharpening filters, named hereafter sharpen, sharpen more and sharpen edges on image resolution and noise. Image resolution was assessed by means of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF).In conclusion it was found that the correct use of commercial non-dedicated software on digital mammograms may improve some aspects of image quality.

  8. New modified map for digital image encryption and its performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi, MT; Yus Trinity Irsan, Maria; Satria, Yudi

    2017-10-01

    Protection to classified digital data becomes so important in avoiding data manipulation and alteration. The focus of this paper is in data and information protection of digital images form. Protection is provided in the form of encrypted digital image. The encryption process uses a new map, {x}n+1=\\frac{rλ {x}n}{1+λ {(1-{x}n)}2}\\quad ({mod} 1), which is called MS map. This paper will show: the results of digital image encryption using MS map and how the performance is regarding the average time needed for encryption/decryption process; randomness of key stream sequence with NIST test, histogram analysis and goodness of fit test, quality of the decrypted image by PSNR, initial value sensitivity level, and key space. The results show that the average time of the encryption process is relatively same as the decryption process and it depends to types and sizes of the image. Cipherimage (encrypted image) is uniformly distributed since: it passes the goodness of fit test and also the histogram of the cipherimage is flat; key stream, that are generated by MS map, passes frequency (monobit) test, and runs test, which means the key stream is a random sequence; the decrypted image has same quality as the original image; and initial value sensitivity reaches 10-17, and key space reaches 3.24 × 10634. So, that encryption algorithm generated by MS map is more resistant to brute-force attack and known plaintext attack.

  9. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  10. Radiography and digital image processing for detection of internal breakdown in fruits of mango tree (Mangifera indica L.); Radiografia e processamento de imagens na deteccao de disturbios fisiologicos internos em frutos da mangueira (Mangifera indica L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Rubemar de Souza

    2004-01-15

    This work proposes a methodology aimed to be an adviser system for detection of internal breakdown in mangoes during the post-harvest phase to packinghouses. It was arranged a set-up to product digital images from X-ray spectrum in the range of 18 and 20 keV, where the primary images acquired were tested by a digital image processing routine for differentiation of seed, pulp, peel and injured zones. The analysis ROC applied to a only cut on a sample of 114 primary images generated, showed that digital image processing routine was able to identify 88% of true-positive injuries and 7% of false-negatives. When tested against the absence of injuries, the DIP routine had identified 22 % of false-positives and 88% of true-negatives. Besides, a cognitive analysis was applied to a sample of 76 digital images of mangoes. Results showed that the images offer enough information for dichotomic interpretation about the main injuries in the fruit, including those of difficult diagnosis under destructive assay. Measurements of observer agreement, performed on the same group of readers showed themselves in the range of fair and substantial strength of agreement. (author)

  11. Lossless Compression of Digital Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Bo

    Presently, tree coders are the best bi-level image coders. The currentISO standard, JBIG, is a good example.By organising code length calculations properly a vast number of possible models (trees) can be investigated within reasonable time prior to generating code.A number of general-purpose coders...... version that is substantially faster than its precursorsand brings it close to the multi-pass coders in compression performance.Handprinted characters are of unequal complexity; recent work by Singer and Tishby demonstrates that utilizing the physiological process of writing one can synthesize cursive.......The feature vector of a bitmap initially constitutes a lossy representation of the contour(s) of the bitmap. The initial feature space is usually too large but can be reduced automatically by use ofa predictive code length or predictive error criterion....

  12. Digital signal processing using MATLAB

    CERN Document Server

    Schilling, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the development, implementation, and application of modern DSP techniques with DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING USING MATLAB(R), 3E. Written in an engaging, informal style, this edition immediately captures your attention and encourages you to explore each critical topic. Every chapter starts with a motivational section that highlights practical examples and challenges that you can solve using techniques covered in the chapter. Each chapter concludes with a detailed case study example, a chapter summary with learning outcomes, and practical homework problems cross-referenced to specific chapter sections for your convenience. DSP Companion software accompanies each book to enable further investigation. The DSP Companion software operates with MATLAB(R) and provides intriguing demonstrations as well as interactive explorations of analysis and design concepts.

  13. Controlling the digital transfer process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Felix

    1997-02-01

    The accuracy of today's color management systems fails to satisfy the requirements of the graphic arts market. A first explanation for this is that color calibration charts on which these systems rely, because of print technical reasons, are subject to color deviations and inconsistencies. A second reason is that colorimetry describes the human visual perception of color differences and has no direct relation to the rendering technology itself of a proofing or printing device. The author explains that only firm process control of the many parameters in offset printing by means of a system as for example EUROSTANDARD System Brunner, can lead to accurate and consistent calibration of scanner, display, proof and print. The same principles hold for the quality management of digital presses.

  14. TECHNOLOGIES OF BRAIN IMAGES PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.M. Klyuchko

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present research was to analyze modern methods of processing biological images implemented before storage in databases for biotechnological purposes. The databases further were incorporated into web-based digital systems. Examples of such information systems were described in the work for two levels of biological material organization; databases for storing data of histological analysis and of whole brain were described. Methods of neuroimaging processing for electronic brain atlas were considered. It was shown that certain pathological features can be revealed in histological image processing. Several medical diagnostic techniques (for certain brain pathologies, etc. as well as a few biotechnological methods are based on such effects. Algorithms of image processing were suggested. Electronic brain atlas was conveniently for professionals in different fields described in details. Approaches of brain atlas elaboration, “composite” scheme for large deformations as well as several methods of mathematic images processing were described as well.

  15. Panoramic images of conventional radiographs: digital panoramic dynamic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultze, M.

    2001-01-01

    The benefits of digital technic s to od ontology are evident. Instant images, the possibility to handle them, the reduction of exposition time to radiations, better quality image, better quality information, Stocking them in a compact disc, occupying very little space, allows an easy transport and duplication, as well as the possibility to transfer and save it in an electronica l support.This kind of communication allows the transmission of digital images and every other type of data, instantaneously and no matter distances or geographical borders. Anyway, we should point out that conventional and digital technic s reveal the same information contents

  16. Existential space understanding through digital image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Iñarra Abad

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The logical way to learn from the architectural space and then be able to design and represent it is, undoubtedly, that of experiencing it through all the sensitive channels that the space wakes up us.  But since the last 30 years, much of our learning about space comes from images of architecture and not from the space itself. The art of architecture is drifting towards a visual art and moving away from its existential side. In digital images that have flooded the architectural media, digital photographs of existing spaces intermingle with non-existent space renderings (photographs with a virtual camera. The first ones represent existing places but can be altered to change the perception that  the observer of the image will have, the second ones speak to us about places that do not exist yet but they present reality portions through extracts from digital photography (textures, trees, people... that compose the image.

  17. Computer assisted visualization of digital mammography images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, M.; Breiter, N.; Grabbe, E.; Netsch, T.; Biehl, M.; Peitgen, H.O.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: In a clinical study, the feasibility of using a mammography workstation for the display and interpretation of digital mammography images was evaluated and the results were compared with the corresponding laser film hard copies. Materials and Methods: Digital phosphorous plate radiographs of the entire breast were obtained in 30 patients using a direct magnification mammography system. The images were displayed for interpretation on the computer monitor of a dedicated mammography workstation and also presented as laser film hard copies on a film view box for comparison. The images were evaluted with respect to the image handling, the image quality and the visualization of relevant structures by 3 readers. Results: Handling and contrast of the monitor displayed images were found to be superior compared with the film hard copies. Image noise was found in some cases but did not compromise the interpretation of the monitor images. The visualization of relevant structures was equal with both modalities. Altogether, image interpretation with the mammography workstation was considered to be easy, quick and confident. Conclusions: Computer-assisted visualization and interpretation of digital mammography images using a dedicated workstation can be performed with sufficiently high diagnostic accuracy. (orig.) [de

  18. eCTG: an automatic procedure to extract digital cardiotocographic signals from digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbrollini, Agnese; Agostinelli, Angela; Marcantoni, Ilaria; Morettini, Micaela; Burattini, Luca; Di Nardo, Francesco; Fioretti, Sandro; Burattini, Laura

    2018-03-01

    Cardiotocography (CTG), consisting in the simultaneous recording of fetal heart rate (FHR) and maternal uterine contractions (UC), is a popular clinical test to assess fetal health status. Typically, CTG machines provide paper reports that are visually interpreted by clinicians. Consequently, visual CTG interpretation depends on clinician's experience and has a poor reproducibility. The lack of databases containing digital CTG signals has limited number and importance of retrospective studies finalized to set up procedures for automatic CTG analysis that could contrast visual CTG interpretation subjectivity. In order to help overcoming this problem, this study proposes an electronic procedure, termed eCTG, to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images, possibly obtainable by scanning paper CTG reports. eCTG was specifically designed to extract digital CTG signals from digital CTG images. It includes four main steps: pre-processing, Otsu's global thresholding, signal extraction and signal calibration. Its validation was performed by means of the "CTU-UHB Intrapartum Cardiotocography Database" by Physionet, that contains digital signals of 552 CTG recordings. Using MATLAB, each signal was plotted and saved as a digital image that was then submitted to eCTG. Digital CTG signals extracted by eCTG were eventually compared to corresponding signals directly available in the database. Comparison occurred in terms of signal similarity (evaluated by the correlation coefficient ρ, and the mean signal error MSE) and clinical features (including FHR baseline and variability; number, amplitude and duration of tachycardia, bradycardia, acceleration and deceleration episodes; number of early, variable, late and prolonged decelerations; and UC number, amplitude, duration and period). The value of ρ between eCTG and reference signals was 0.85 (P digital FHR and UC signals from digital CTG images. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. A digital library of radiology images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, Charles E

    2006-01-01

    A web-based virtual library of peer-reviewed radiological images was created for use in education and clinical decision support. Images were obtained from open-access content of five online radiology journals and one e-learning web site. Figure captions were indexed by Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) codes, imaging modality, and patient age and sex. This digital library provides a new, valuable online resource.

  20. Digital processing data communication systems (bus systems)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, K.

    1980-01-01

    After an introduction to the technology of digital processing data communication systems there are the following chapters: digital communication of processing data in automation technology, the technology of biserial communication, the implementaiton of a bus system, the data transmission of the TDC-2000 system of Honeywell's and the process bus CS 275 in the automation system TELEPERM M of Siemens AG. (WB) [de

  1. Image perception and image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author develops theoretical and practical models of image perception and image processing, based on phenomenology and structuralism and leading to original perception: fundamental for a positivistic approach of research work for the development of artificial intelligence that will be able in an automated system fo 'reading' X-ray pictures.

  2. Image perception and image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wackenheim, A.

    1987-01-01

    The author develops theoretical and practical models of image perception and image processing, based on phenomenology and structuralism and leading to original perception: fundamental for a positivistic approach of research work for the development of artificial intelligence that will be able in an automated system fo 'reading' X-ray pictures. (orig.) [de

  3. The FBI compression standard for digitized fingerprint images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brislawn, C.M.; Bradley, J.N. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Onyshczak, R.J. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Hopper, T. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The FBI has formulated national standards for digitization and compression of gray-scale fingerprint images. The compression algorithm for the digitized images is based on adaptive uniform scalar quantization of a discrete wavelet transform subband decomposition, a technique referred to as the wavelet/scalar quantization method. The algorithm produces archival-quality images at compression ratios of around 15 to 1 and will allow the current database of paper fingerprint cards to be replaced by digital imagery. A compliance testing program is also being implemented to ensure high standards of image quality and interchangeability of data between different implementations. We will review the current status of the FBI standard, including the compliance testing process and the details of the first-generation encoder.

  4. Image quality of digital mammography images produced using wet and dry laser imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Khalifah, K.; Brindhaban, A.; AlArfaj, R.; Jassim, O.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: A study was carried out to compare the quality of digital mammographic images printed or processed by a wet laser imaging system and a dedicated mammographic dry laser imaging system. Material and methods: Digital images of a tissue equivalent breast phantom were obtained using a GE Senographe 2000D digital mammography system and different target/filter combinations of the X-ray tube. These images were printed on films using the Fuji FL-IM D wet laser imaging system and the Kodak DryView 8600 dry laser imaging system. The quality of images was assessed in terms of detectability of microcalcifications and simulated tumour masses by five radiologists. In addition, the contrast index and speed index of the two systems were measured using the step wedge in the phantom. The unpaired, unequal variance t-test was used to test any statistically significant differences. Results: There were no significant (p < 0.05) differences between the images printed using the two systems in terms of microcalcification and tumour mass detectability. The wet system resulted in slightly higher contrast index while the dry system showed significantly higher speed index. Conclusion: Both wet and dry laser imaging systems can produce mammography images of good quality on which 0.2 mm microcalcifications and 2 mm tumour masses can be detected. Dry systems are preferable due to the absence of wet chemical processing and solid or liquid chemical waste. The wet laser imaging systems, however, still represent a useful alternative to dry laser imaging systems for mammography studies

  5. An Archive of Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantini, M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Describes the architecture of the prototype of an image management system that has been used to develop an application concerning images of frescoes in the Sistina Chapel in the Vatican. Hardware and software design are described, the use of local area networks (LANs) is discussed, and data organization is explained. (15 references) (LRW)

  6. Fast digitizing and digital signal processing of detector signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannaske, Roland

    2008-01-01

    A fast-digitizer data acquisition system recently installed at the neutron time-of-flight experiment nELBE, which is located at the superconducting electron accelerator ELBE of Forschungszentrum Dresden-Rossendorf, is tested with two different detector types. Preamplifier signals from a high-purity germanium detector are digitized, stored and finally processed. For a precise determination of the energy of the detected radiation, the moving-window deconvolution algorithm is used to compensate the ballistic deficit and different shaping algorithms are applied. The energy resolution is determined in an experiment with γ-rays from a 22 Na source and is compared to the energy resolution achieved with analogously processed signals. On the other hand, signals from the photomultipliers of barium fluoride and plastic scintillation detectors are digitized. These signals have risetimes of a few nanoseconds only. The moment of interaction of the radiation with the detector is determined by methods of digital signal processing. Therefore, different timing algorithms are implemented and tested with data from an experiment at nELBE. The time resolutions achieved with these algorithms are compared to each other as well as to reference values coming from analog signal processing. In addition to these experiments, some properties of the digitizing hardware are measured and a program for the analysis of stored, digitized data is developed. The analysis of the signals shows that the energy resolution achieved with the 10-bit digitizer system used here is not competitive to a 14-bit peak-sensing ADC, although the ballistic deficit can be fully corrected. However, digital methods give better result in sub-ns timing than analog signal processing. (orig.)

  7. Digital memory for TV image information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paretti, C.

    1975-01-01

    A system employing closed circuit TV camera and MOS memory is presented to take image information and store it. The apparatus is made in two sections: analog filters and digital memory. Filters have been used to select low amplitude signals from high frequency and low frequency noise components. The memory is arranged to make nondestroying overlap of digit array: this facility is useful for microscope image prejection to overcome depth of field limits, as in automatic nuclear emulsion scanners for personnel radiation monitoring. (author)

  8. Digital networks for the image management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomez del Campo L, A.

    1999-01-01

    The digital networks designed specifically for the X-ray departments in the hospitals already were found in open development at beginning the 80's decade. Actually the digital network will be present include the image generation without the necessity to use film in direct form and in its case to print it through a laser ray printers network, an electronic image file, the possibility to integrate the hospitable information system to the electronic expedient which will allow communicate radiograph electronic files and consult by satellite via the problem cases. (Author)

  9. Comparison of the automated evaluation of phantom mama in digital and digitalized images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santana, Priscila do Carmo

    2011-01-01

    Mammography is an essential tool for diagnosis and early detection of breast cancer if it is provided as a very good quality service. The process of evaluating the quality of radiographic images in general, and mammography in particular, can be much more accurate, practical and fast with the help of computer analysis tools. This work compare the automated methodology for the evaluation of scanned digital images the phantom mama. By applied the DIP method techniques was possible determine geometrical and radiometric images evaluated. The evaluated parameters include circular details of low contrast, contrast ratio, spatial resolution, tumor masses, optical density and background in Phantom Mama scanned and digitized images. The both results of images were evaluated. Through this comparison was possible to demonstrate that this automated methodology is presented as a promising alternative for the reduction or elimination of subjectivity in both types of images, but the Phantom Mama present insufficient parameters for spatial resolution evaluation. (author)

  10. Digital signal processing - growth of a technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peek, J.B.H.

    1985-01-01

    The rapid development of microelectronics has led to an increasing extent in circuits and systems for digital signal processing. This happened first in professional applications, e.g. geophysics, astronomy and space flight, and now, with the Compact Disc player, these techniques have entered the consumer field. In the near future digital TV applications will undoubtedly follow. This article outlines a number of the developments behind the advancing 'digitization' of modern technology. The article also considers the main advantages and disadvantages of digital signal processing the main modules now used and some common applications. Particular attention is paid to medical applications. (Auth.)

  11. Digital subtraction imaging in cardiac investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Partridge, J.B.; Dickinson, D.F.

    1984-01-01

    The role of digital subtraction imaging (DSI) in the investigation of heart disease in patients of all ages, including neonates, was evaluated by the addition of a continuous fluoroscopy system to an existing, single-plane catheterisation laboratory. In some situations, DSI provided diagnostic images where conventional radiography could not and, in general, provided images of comparable quality to cineangiography. The total dose of contrast medium was usually less than that which would have been required for biplane cineangiography and the dose of radiation was always less. Digital subtraction imaging can make a significant contribution to the investigation of congenital heart disease and has some useful features in the study of acquired heart disease. (author)

  12. Digital X-ray imager

    CERN Document Server

    LLNL &MedOptics Corporation

    1998-01-01

    The global objective of this cooperation was to lower the cost and improve the quality of breast health care in the United States. We planned to achieve it by designing a very high performance digital radiography unit for breast surgical specimen radiography in the operating room. These technical goals needed to be achieved at reasonable manufacturing costs to enable MedOptics to achieve high market penetration at a profit. Responsibility for overall project execution rested with MedOptics. MedOptics fabricated and demonstrated hardware, and selected components and handled the overall integration. After completion of this CRADA, MedOptics worked with collaborators to demonstrate clinical performance and utility. Finally, the company marketed the device. LLNL convened a multi-directorate expert panel for an intensive review of MedOptics point design. A written brief of panel conclusions and recommendations was prepared. In addition, LLNL was responsible for: computationally simulating the effects of varying so...

  13. Crack detection using image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moustafa, M.A.A

    2010-01-01

    care using Wiener filter. An integrated methodology for the detection and removal of cracks on digitized images is presented in this thesis. The cracks are detected by steepest descent algorithm (SDA) the output of the piping image as cracks are removed using either a gradient Function (GRF) and processed data or a semi-automatic procedure based on region growing. Finally, crack filling using the steepest descent algorithm. The methodology has been shown to perform very well on digitized images suffering from cracks, using Matlab, and Visual Fortran programming. The thesis presents an application of the wavelet transform for damage detection or crack detection based on digital image processing measurements.

  14. COMPARISON OF DIGITAL IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Seyyedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Steganography is a method of hiding information in other information of different format (container. There are many steganography techniques with various types of container. In the Internet, digital images are the most popular and frequently used containers. We consider main image steganography techniques and their advantages and disadvantages. We also identify the requirements of a good steganography algorithm and compare various such algorithms.

  15. Latin American image quality survey in digital mammography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mora, Patricia; Khoury, Helen; Bitelli, Regina; Quintero, Ana Rosa; Garay, Fernando; Garcia Aguilar, Juan; Gamarra, Mirtha; Ubeda, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Under International Atomic Energy Agency regional programme TSA3 Radiological Protection of Patients in Medical Exposures, Latin American countries evaluated the image quality and glandular doses for digital mammography equipment with the purpose of seeing the performance and compliance with international recommendations. Totally, 24 institutions participated from Brazil, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Mexico, Paraguay and Venezuela. Signal difference noise ratio results showed for CR poor compliance with tolerances; better results were obtained for full-field digital mammography equipment. Mean glandular dose results showed that the majority of units have values below the acceptable dose levels. This joint Latin American project identified common problems: difficulty in working with digital images and lack of specific training by medical physicists from the region. Image quality is a main issue not being satisfied in accordance with international recommendations; optimisation processes in which the doses are increased should be very carefully done in order to improve early detection of any cancer signs. (authors)

  16. Bone age assessment by digital images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Ana Maria Marques da

    1996-01-01

    An algorithm which allows bone age assessment by digital radiological images was developed. For geometric parameters extraction, the phalangeal and metacarpal regions of interest are enhanced and segmented, through spatial and morphological filtering. This study is based on perimeter, length and area, from distal to proximal portions. The quantification of these parameters make possible comparison between chronological and skeletal age, using growth standard tables

  17. Cherenkov ring imaging using a television digitizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charpak, G.; Peisert, A.; Sauli, F.; Cavestro, A.; Vascon, M.; Zanella, G.

    1981-01-01

    A Cherenkov ring imaging device using as photon detector a multistep spark chamber coupled to a television digitizer is described. Results of a test run using triethylamine as photo-ionizing vapour are presented, as well as preliminary results obtained with a new vapour having an extremely low ionization potential. (orig.)

  18. Advantages of digital imaging for radiological diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trapero, M. A.; Gonzalez, S.; Albillos, J. C.; Martel, J.; Rebollo, M.

    2006-01-01

    The advantages and limitations of radiological digital images in comparison with analogic ones are analyzed. We discuss three main topics: acquisition, post-procedure manipulation, and visualization, archive and communication. Digital acquisition with computed radiology systems present a global sensitivity very close to conventional film for diagnostic purposes. However, flat panel digital systems seems to achieve some advantages in particular clinical situations. A critical issue is the radiation dose-reduction that can be accomplished without reducing image quality nor diagnostic exactitude. The post-procedure manipulation allows, particularly in multiplanar modalities like CT or MR, to extract all implicit diagnostic information in the images: Main procedures are multiplanar and three-dimensional reformations, dynamic acquisitions, functional studies and image fusion. The use of PACS for visualization, archive and communication of images, improves the effectiveness and the efficiency of the workflow, allows a more comfortable diagnosis for the radiologist and gives way to improvements in the communication of images, allowing tele consulting and the tele radiology. (Author) 6 refs

  19. Hyperspectral image processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperspectral image processing refers to the use of computer algorithms to extract, store and manipulate both spatial and spectral information contained in hyperspectral images across the visible and near-infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. A typical hyperspectral image processing work...

  20. Multichannel deblurring of digital images

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šorel, Michal; Šroubek, Filip; Flusser, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 3 (2011), s. 439-454 ISSN 0023-5954 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0572 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image restoration * blind deconvolution * deblurring Subject RIV: JD - Computer Applications, Robotics Impact factor: 0.454, year: 2011 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2011/ZOI/sorel-0360217.pdf

  1. A Versatile Image Processor For Digital Diagnostic Imaging And Its Application In Computed Radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blume, H.; Alexandru, R.; Applegate, R.; Giordano, T.; Kamiya, K.; Kresina, R.

    1986-06-01

    In a digital diagnostic imaging department, the majority of operations for handling and processing of images can be grouped into a small set of basic operations, such as image data buffering and storage, image processing and analysis, image display, image data transmission and image data compression. These operations occur in almost all nodes of the diagnostic imaging communications network of the department. An image processor architecture was developed in which each of these functions has been mapped into hardware and software modules. The modular approach has advantages in terms of economics, service, expandability and upgradeability. The architectural design is based on the principles of hierarchical functionality, distributed and parallel processing and aims at real time response. Parallel processing and real time response is facilitated in part by a dual bus system: a VME control bus and a high speed image data bus, consisting of 8 independent parallel 16-bit busses, capable of handling combined up to 144 MBytes/sec. The presented image processor is versatile enough to meet the video rate processing needs of digital subtraction angiography, the large pixel matrix processing requirements of static projection radiography, or the broad range of manipulation and display needs of a multi-modality diagnostic work station. Several hardware modules are described in detail. For illustrating the capabilities of the image processor, processed 2000 x 2000 pixel computed radiographs are shown and estimated computation times for executing the processing opera-tions are presented.

  2. The impact of digital imaging in the field of cytopathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantanowitz, Liron; Hornish, Maryanne; Goulart, Robert A

    2009-03-06

    With the introduction of digital imaging, pathology is undergoing a digital transformation. In the field of cytology, digital images are being used for telecytology, automated screening of Pap test slides, training and education (e.g. online digital atlases), and proficiency testing. To date, there has been no systematic review on the impact of digital imaging on the practice of cytopathology. This article critically addresses the emerging role of computer-assisted screening and the application of digital imaging to the field of cytology, including telecytology, virtual microscopy, and the impact of online cytology resources. The role of novel diagnostic techniques like image cytometry is also reviewed.

  3. Nuclear medicine imaging and data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, P.R.; Dillon, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The Oak Ridge Imaging System (ORIS) is a software operating system structure around the Digital Equipment Corporation's PDP-8 minicomputer which provides a complete range of image manipulation procedures. Through its modular design it remains open-ended for easy expansion to meet future needs. Already included in the system are image access routines for use with the rectilinear scanner or gamma camera (both static and flow studies); display hardware design and corresponding software; archival storage provisions; and, most important, many image processing techniques. The image processing capabilities include image defect removal, smoothing, nonlinear bounding, preparation of functional images, and transaxial emission tomography reconstruction from a limited number of views

  4. Diagnostic image quality of video-digitized chest images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winter, L.H.; Butler, R.B.; Becking, W.B.; Warnars, G.A.O.; Haar Romeny, B. ter; Ottes, F.P.; Valk, J.-P.J. de

    1989-01-01

    The diagnostic accuracy obtained with the Philips picture archiving and communications subsystem was investigated by means of an observer performance study using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The image qualities of conventional films and video digitized images were compared. The scanner had a 1024 x 1024 x 8 bit memory. The digitized images were displayed on a 60 Hz interlaced display monitor 1024 lines. Posteroanterior (AP) roetgenograms of a chest phantom with superimposed simulated interstitial pattern disease (IPD) were produced; there were 28 normal and 40 abnormal films. Normal films were produced by the chest phantom alone. Abnormal films were taken of the chest phantom with varying degrees of superimposed simulated intersitial disease (PND) for an observer performance study, because the results of a simulated interstitial pattern disease study are less likely to be influenced by perceptual capabilities. The conventional films and the video digitized images were viewed by five experienced observers during four separate sessions. Conventional films were presented on a viewing box, the digital images were displayed on the monitor described above. The presence of simulated intersitial disease was indicated on a 5-point ROC certainty scale by each observer. We analyzed the differences between ROC curves derived from correlated data statistically. The mean time required to evaluate 68 digitized images is approximately four times the mean time needed to read the convential films. The diagnostic quality of the video digitized images was significantly lower (at the 5% level) than that of the conventional films (median area under the curve (AUC) of 0.71 and 0.94, respectively). (author). 25 refs.; 2 figs.; 4 tabs

  5. Applications in Digital Image Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverman, Jason; Rosen, Gail L.; Essinger, Steve

    2013-01-01

    Students are immersed in a mathematically intensive, technological world. They engage daily with iPods, HDTVs, and smartphones--technological devices that rely on sophisticated but accessible mathematical ideas. In this article, the authors provide an overview of four lab-type activities that have been used successfully in high school mathematics…

  6. Automatic registration of fused lidar/digital imagery (texel images) for three-dimensional image creation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budge, Scott E.; Badamikar, Neeraj S.; Xie, Xuan

    2015-03-01

    Several photogrammetry-based methods have been proposed that the derive three-dimensional (3-D) information from digital images from different perspectives, and lidar-based methods have been proposed that merge lidar point clouds and texture the merged point clouds with digital imagery. Image registration alone has difficulty with smooth regions with low contrast, whereas point cloud merging alone has difficulty with outliers and a lack of proper convergence in the merging process. This paper presents a method to create 3-D images that uses the unique properties of texel images (pixel-fused lidar and digital imagery) to improve the quality and robustness of fused 3-D images. The proposed method uses both image processing and point-cloud merging to combine texel images in an iterative technique. Since the digital image pixels and the lidar 3-D points are fused at the sensor level, more accurate 3-D images are generated because registration of image data automatically improves the merging of the point clouds, and vice versa. Examples illustrate the value of this method over other methods. The proposed method also includes modifications for the situation where an estimate of position and attitude of the sensor is known, when obtained from low-cost global positioning systems and inertial measurement units sensors.

  7. Image quality in digital radiographic systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Almeida Solange Maria de

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the image quality of four direct digital radiographic systems. Radiographs were made of the maxillary central incisor and mandibular left molar regions of a dry skull, and an aluminum step-wedge. The X-ray generator operated at 10 mA, 60 and 70 kVp, and images were acquired with 3, 5, 8, 12, 24 and 48 exposure pulses. Six well-trained observers classified the images by means of scores from 1 to 3. Collected data were submitted to nonparametric statistical analysis using Fisher's exact test. Statistical analysis showed significant differences (p<0.01 in image quality with the four systems. Based on the results, it was possible to conclude that: 1 all of the digital systems presented good performance in producing acceptable images for diagnosis, if the exposures of the step-wedge and the maxillary central incisor region were made at 5 pulses, as well as at 8 pulses for the mandibular left molar region, selecting 60 or 70kVp; 2 higher percentages of acceptable images were obtained with the administration of lower radiation doses in CCD-sensors (charge-coupled device; 3 the Storage Phosphor systems produced acceptable images at a large range of exposure settings, that included low, intermediate and high radiation doses.

  8. ASTM reference radiologic digital image standards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysnewski, R.; Wysnewski, D.

    1996-01-01

    ASTM Reference Radiographs have been essential in defining industry's material defect grade levels for many years. ASTM Reference Radiographs are used extensively as even the American Society for Metals Nondestructive Inspection and Quality Control Metals Handbook, Volume 11, eighth edition refers to ASTM Standard Reference Radiographs. The recently published E 1648 Standard Reference Radiographs for Examination of Aluminum Fusion Welds is a prime example of the on-going need for these references. To date, 14 Standard Reference Radiographs have been published to characterize material defects. Standard Reference Radiographs do not adequately address film-less radiologic methods. There are differences in mediums to content with. On a computer CRT defect indications appear differently when compared to indications viewed in a radiograph on a view box. Industry that uses non-film radiologic methods of inspection can be burdened with additional time and money developing internal standard reference radiologic images. These references may be deemed necessary for grading levels of product defects. Because there are no ASTM Standard Reference Radiologic data files for addressing this need in the industry, the authors of this paper suggested implementing a method for their creation under ASTM supervision. ASTM can assure continuity to those users making the transition from analog radiographic images to digital image data by swiftly addressing the requirements for reference digital image standards. The current status and possible future activities regarding a method to create digital data files is presented in this paper summary

  9. Digital Shaded-Relief Image of Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riehle, J.R.; Fleming, Michael D.; Molnia, B.F.; Dover, J.H.; Kelley, J.S.; Miller, M.L.; Nokleberg, W.J.; Plafker, George; Till, A.B.

    1997-01-01

    Introduction One of the most spectacular physiographic images of the conterminous United States, and the first to have been produced digitally, is that by Thelin and Pike (USGS I-2206, 1991). The image is remarkable for its crispness of detail and for the natural appearance of the artificial land surface. Our goal has been to produce a shaded-relief image of Alaska that has the same look and feel as the Thelin and Pike image. The Alaskan image could have been produced at the same scale as its lower 48 counterpart (1:3,500,000). But by insetting the Aleutian Islands into the Gulf of Alaska, we were able to print the Alaska map at a larger scale (1:2,500,000) and about the same physical size as the Thelin and Pike image. Benefits of the 1:2,500,000 scale are (1) greater resolution of topographic features and (2) ease of reference to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) (1987) Alaska Map E and the statewide geologic map (Beikman, 1980), which are both 1:2,500,000 scale. Manually drawn, shaded-relief images of Alaska's land surface have long been available (for example, Department of the Interior, 1909; Raisz, 1948). The topography depicted on these early maps is mainly schematic. Maps showing topographic contours were first available for the entire State in 1953 (USGS, 1:250,000) (J.H. Wittmann, USGS, written commun., 1996). The Alaska Map E was initially released in 1954 in both planimetric (revised in 1973 and 1987) and shaded-relief versions (revised in 1973, 1987, and 1996); topography depicted on the shaded-relief version is based on the 1:250,000-scale USGS topographic maps. Alaska Map E was later modified to include hypsometric tinting by Raven Maps and Images (1989, revised 1993) as copyrighted versions. Other shaded-relief images were produced for The National Geographic Magazine (LaGorce, 1956; 1:3,000,000) or drawn by Harrison (1970; 1:7,500,000) for The National Atlas of the United States. Recently, the State of Alaska digitally produced a shaded-relief image

  10. Advanced digital signal processing and noise reduction

    CERN Document Server

    Vaseghi, Saeed V

    2008-01-01

    Digital signal processing plays a central role in the development of modern communication and information processing systems. The theory and application of signal processing is concerned with the identification, modelling and utilisation of patterns and structures in a signal process. The observation signals are often distorted, incomplete and noisy and therefore noise reduction, the removal of channel distortion, and replacement of lost samples are important parts of a signal processing system. The fourth edition of Advanced Digital Signal Processing and Noise Reduction updates an

  11. Digital Image Correlation for Performance Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palaviccini, Miguel; Turner, Dan; Herzberg, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Evaluating the health of a mechanism requires more than just a binary evaluation of whether an operation was completed. It requires analyzing more comprehensive, full-field data. Health monitoring is a process of non-destructively identifying characteristics that indicate the fitness of an engineered component. In order to monitor unit health in a production setting, an automated test system must be created to capture the motion of mechanism parts in a real-time and non-intrusive manner. One way to accomplish this is by using high-speed video and Digital Image Correlation (DIC). In this approach, individual frames of the video are analyzed to track the motion of mechanism components. The derived performance metrics allow for state-of-health monitoring and improved fidelity of mechanism modeling. The results are in-situ state-of-health identification and performance prediction. This paper introduces basic concepts of this test method, and discusses two main themes: the use of laser marking to add fiducial patterns to mechanism components, and new software developed to track objects with complex shapes, even as they move behind obstructions. Finally, the implementation of these tests into an automated tester is discussed.

  12. A survey of passive technology for digital image forensics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Weiqi; QU Zhenhua; PAN Feng; HUANG Jiwu

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years,digital images have been widely used in the Internet and other applications.Whilst image processing techniques are developing at a rapid speed,tampering with digital images without leaving any obvious traces becomes easier and easier.This may give rise to some problems such as image authentication.A new passive technology for image forensics has evolved quickly during the last few years.Unlike the signature-based or watermark-based methods,the new technology does not need any signature generated or watermark embedded in advance,it assumes that different imaging devices or processing would introduce different inherent patterns into the output images.These underlying patterns are consistent in the original untampered images and would be altered after some kind of manipulations.Thus,they can be used as evidence for image source identification and alteration detection.In this paper,we will discuss this new forensics technology and give an overview of the prior literatures.Some concluding remarks are made about the state of the art and the challenges in this novel technology.

  13. Remote sensing image fusion in the context of Digital Earth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pohl, C

    2014-01-01

    The increase in the number of operational Earth observation satellites gives remote sensing image fusion a new boost. As a powerful tool to integrate images from different sensors it enables multi-scale, multi-temporal and multi-source information extraction. Image fusion aims at providing results that cannot be obtained from a single data source alone. Instead it enables feature and information mining of higher reliability and availability. The process required to prepare remote sensing images for image fusion comprises most of the necessary steps to feed the database of Digital Earth. The virtual representation of the planet uses data and information that is referenced and corrected to suit interpretation and decision-making. The same pre-requisite is valid for image fusion, the outcome of which can directly flow into a geographical information system. The assessment and description of the quality of the results remains critical. Depending on the application and information to be extracted from multi-source images different approaches are necessary. This paper describes the process of image fusion based on a fusion and classification experiment, explains the necessary quality measures involved and shows with this example which criteria have to be considered if the results of image fusion are going to be used in Digital Earth

  14. Digital Light Processing update: status and future applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornbeck, Larry J.

    1999-05-01

    Digital Light Processing (DLP) projection displays based on the Digital Micromirror Device (DMD) were introduced to the market in 1996. Less than 3 years later, DLP-based projectors are found in such diverse applications as mobile, conference room, video wall, home theater, and large-venue. They provide high-quality, seamless, all-digital images that have exceptional stability as well as freedom from both flicker and image lag. Marked improvements have been made in the image quality of DLP-based projection display, including brightness, resolution, contrast ratio, and border image. DLP-based mobile projectors that weighted about 27 pounds in 1996 now weight only about 7 pounds. This weight reduction has been responsible for the definition of an entirely new projector class, the ultraportable. New applications are being developed for this important new projection display technology; these include digital photofinishing for high process speed minilab and maxilab applications and DLP Cinema for the digital delivery of films to audiences around the world. This paper describes the status of DLP-based projection display technology, including its manufacturing, performance improvements, and new applications, with emphasis on DLP Cinema.

  15. Digital training platform for interpreting radiographic images of the chest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, L; Woznitza, N; Cairns, A; McFadden, S L; Bond, R; Hughes, C M; Elsayed, A; Finlay, D; McConnell, J

    2018-05-01

    Time delays and errors exist which lead to delays in patient care and misdiagnosis. Reporting clinicians follow guidance to form their own search strategy. However, little research has tested these training guides. With the use of eye tracking technology and expert input we developed a digital training platform to be used in chest image interpretation learning. Two sections of a digital training platform were planned and developed; A) a search strategy training tool to assist reporters during their interpretation of images, and B) an educational tool to communicate the search strategies of expert viewers to trainees by using eye tracking technology. A digital training platform for use in chest image interpretation was created based on evidence within the literature, expert input and two search strategies previously used in clinical practice. Images and diagrams, aiding translation of the platform content, were incorporated where possible. The platform is structured to allow the chest image interpretation process to be clear, concise and methodical. A search strategy was incorporated within the tool to investigate its use, with the possibility that it could be recommended as an evidence based approach for use by reporting clinicians. Eye tracking, a checklist and voice recordings have been combined to form a multi-dimensional learning tool, which has never been used in chest image interpretation learning before. The training platform for use in chest image interpretation learning has been designed, created and digitised. Future work will establish the efficacy of the developed approaches. Crown Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Quantitative image processing in fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Helman, James; Ning, Paul

    1992-01-01

    The current status of digital image processing in fluid flow research is reviewed. In particular, attention is given to a comprehensive approach to the extraction of quantitative data from multivariate databases and examples of recent developments. The discussion covers numerical simulations and experiments, data processing, generation and dissemination of knowledge, traditional image processing, hybrid processing, fluid flow vector field topology, and isosurface analysis using Marching Cubes.

  17. Image processing techniques for remote sensing data

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    interpretation and for processing of scene data for autonomous machine perception. The technique of digital image processing are used for' automatic character/pattern recognition, industrial robots for product assembly and inspection, military recognizance... and spatial co-ordinates into discrete components. The mathematical concepts involved are the sampling and transform theory. Two dimensional transforms are used for image enhancement, restoration, encoding and description too. The main objective of the image...

  18. The iconic image in a digital age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Mette; Allan, Stuart; Peters, Chris

    2017-01-01

    This article investigates selected newspapers’ editorial mediations over contrasting perceptions regarding the significance of a controversial set of “iconic” news photographs, namely images of Alan Kurdi, a three-year-old Syrian refugee, whose drowned corpse washed ashore in September, 2015. Spe......-reflexivity within a convergent digital media ecology, this article offers original insights into how and why the epistemic values governing visual communication are being reconsidered and redrawn under pressure from institutional imperatives....

  19. Digital image intensifier radiography: first experiences with the DSI (Digital Spot Imaging)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rueckforth, J.; Wein, B.; Stargardt, A.; Guenther, R.W.

    1995-01-01

    We performed a comparative study of digitally and conventionally acquired images in gastrointestinal examinations. Radiation dose and spatial resolution were determined in a water phantom. In 676 examinations with either conventional or digital imaging (system: Diagnost 76, DSI) the number of images and the duration of the fluoroscopy time were compared. 101 examinations with digital as well as conventional documentation were evaluated by using 5 criteria describing the diagnostic performance. The entrance dose of the DSI is 12% to 36% of the film/screen system and the spatial resolution of the DSI may be better than that of a film/screen system with a speed of 200. The fluoroscopy time shows no significant difference between DSI and the film/screen technique. In 2 of 4 examination modes significantly more images were produced by the DSI. With exception of the criterion of edge sharpness, DSI yields a significantly inferior assessment compared with the film/screen technique. (orig./MG) [de

  20. Processing Digital Imagery to Enhance Perceptions of Realism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodell, Glenn A.; Jobson, Daniel J.; Rahman, Zia-ur

    2003-01-01

    Multi-scale retinex with color restoration (MSRCR) is a method of processing digital image data based on Edwin Land s retinex (retina + cortex) theory of human color vision. An outgrowth of basic scientific research and its application to NASA s remote-sensing mission, MSRCR is embodied in a general-purpose algorithm that greatly improves the perception of visual realism and the quantity and quality of perceived information in a digitized image. In addition, the MSRCR algorithm includes provisions for automatic corrections to accelerate and facilitate what could otherwise be a tedious image-editing process. The MSRCR algorithm has been, and is expected to continue to be, the basis for development of commercial image-enhancement software designed to extend and refine its capabilities for diverse applications.

  1. Monuments deterioration evaluation, using digited images. A methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ángel, María C.

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work a methodology is proposed for data processing, integrating the techniques of digital images processing and the analytical capacity of graphical referencing systems and relational databases, in relation with the monuments. The images are generated using the digital image processing and they are included into a graphical data processing systems associated with a database containing the characteristics of the ashars or constituent elements. By combination of the images with the database induced properties the information is processed. The results are thematic maps that we save such as images. These maps are layers of new information (deduced levels. The elaboration of these maps allows attacking the problems of the restoration, renovation or treatment of the different monumental spaces on a global way, paying special attention on the most gravely affected areas.

    En este trabajo se propone una metodología para el tratamiento de la información, integrando las técnicas de proceso digital de imágenes, la capacidad de análisis de los sistemas de referenciación gráfica y las bases de datos relacionales, referidas a monumentos. Para ello se elaboran las imágenes base por algoritmos propios del proceso digital, incluyendo aquellas en una aplicación especifica que asocia cada capa a una base de datos con las propiedades petrofísicas, hídricas, etc., o bien entre si, dando lugar a mapas temáticos. La generación de estos mapas permite abordar los problemas de restauración, rehabilitación o tratamiento de los diferentes espacios monumentales de forma global, con incidencia especial en las zonas más afectadas.

  2. Digital signal processing with kernel methods

    CERN Document Server

    Rojo-Alvarez, José Luis; Muñoz-Marí, Jordi; Camps-Valls, Gustavo

    2018-01-01

    A realistic and comprehensive review of joint approaches to machine learning and signal processing algorithms, with application to communications, multimedia, and biomedical engineering systems Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods reviews the milestones in the mixing of classical digital signal processing models and advanced kernel machines statistical learning tools. It explains the fundamental concepts from both fields of machine learning and signal processing so that readers can quickly get up to speed in order to begin developing the concepts and application software in their own research. Digital Signal Processing with Kernel Methods provides a comprehensive overview of kernel methods in signal processing, without restriction to any application field. It also offers example applications and detailed benchmarking experiments with real and synthetic datasets throughout. Readers can find further worked examples with Matlab source code on a website developed by the authors. * Presents the necess...

  3. Image processing technology for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong Min; Lee, Yong Beom; Kim, Woong Ki; Park, Soon Young

    1993-05-01

    Digital image processing technique is being actively studied since microprocessors and semiconductor memory devices have been developed in 1960's. Now image processing board for personal computer as well as image processing system for workstation is developed and widely applied to medical science, military, remote inspection, and nuclear industry. Image processing technology which provides computer system with vision ability not only recognizes nonobvious information but processes large information and therefore this technique is applied to various fields like remote measurement, object recognition and decision in adverse environment, and analysis of X-ray penetration image in nuclear facilities. In this report, various applications of image processing to nuclear facilities are examined, and image processing techniques are also analysed with the view of proposing the ideas for future applications. (Author)

  4. Contribution to the study of integrated system design in digital imaging. Application to digital radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boy, M.

    1987-02-01

    In the first part of this work, we describe the hardware and software used to design integrated systems able to acquire, memorize, process and visualize 1024 x 1024 x 8 bits images. In the second part, we present and analyse the first realised prototype system which is a digital radiology one. After a technical and economical digital radiology study, we present the angiographic and tomographic results. In the third part, we indicate possible evolution of this system and we show how the adopted structure and developed hardware allow applications in various fields [fr

  5. Applications of digital image analysis capability in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of digital image analysis of LANDSAT imagery in water resource assessment is discussed. The data processing systems employed are described. The determination of urban land use conversion of agricultural land in two southwestern Idaho counties involving estimation and mapping of crop types and of irrigated land is described. The system was also applied to an inventory of irrigated cropland in the Snake River basin and establishment of a digital irrigation water source/service area data base for the basin. Application of the system to a determination of irrigation development in the Big Lost River basin as part of a hydrologic survey of the basin is also described.

  6. RF applications in digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Schilcher, T

    2008-01-01

    Ever higher demands for stability, accuracy, reproducibility, and monitoring capability are being placed on Low-Level Radio Frequency (LLRF) systems of particle accelerators. Meanwhile, continuing rapid advances in digital signal processing technology are being exploited to meet these demands, thus leading to development of digital LLRF systems. The rst part of this course will begin by focusing on some of the important building-blocks of RF signal processing including mixer theory and down-conversion, I/Q (amplitude and phase) detection, digital down-conversion (DDC) and decimation, concluding with a survey of I/Q modulators. The second part of the course will introduce basic concepts of feedback systems, including examples of digital cavity eld and phase control, followed by radial loop architectures. Adaptive feed-forward systems used for the suppression of repetitive beam disturbances will be examined. Finally, applications and principles of system identi cation approaches will be summarized.

  7. Three-dimensional image signals: processing methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiopu, Paul; Manea, Adrian; Craciun, Anca-Ileana; Craciun, Alexandru

    2010-11-01

    Over the years extensive studies have been carried out to apply coherent optics methods in real-time processing, communications and transmission image. This is especially true when a large amount of information needs to be processed, e.g., in high-resolution imaging. The recent progress in data-processing networks and communication systems has considerably increased the capacity of information exchange. We describe the results of literature investigation research of processing methods for the signals of the three-dimensional images. All commercially available 3D technologies today are based on stereoscopic viewing. 3D technology was once the exclusive domain of skilled computer-graphics developers with high-end machines and software. The images capture from the advanced 3D digital camera can be displayed onto screen of the 3D digital viewer with/ without special glasses. For this is needed considerable processing power and memory to create and render the complex mix of colors, textures, and virtual lighting and perspective necessary to make figures appear three-dimensional. Also, using a standard digital camera and a technique called phase-shift interferometry we can capture "digital holograms." These are holograms that can be stored on computer and transmitted over conventional networks. We present some research methods to process "digital holograms" for the Internet transmission and results.

  8. Chest imaging with dual-energy substraction digital tomosynthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sone, S.; Kasuga, T.; Sakai, F.; Hirano, H.; Kubo, K.; Morimoto, M.; Takemura, K.; Hosoba, M.

    1993-01-01

    Dual-energy subtraction digital tomosynthesis with pulsed X-ray and rapid kV switching was used to examine calcifications in pulmonary lesions. The digital tomosynthesis system used included a conventional fluororadiographic TV unit with linear tomographic capabilities, a high resolution videocamera, and an image processing unit. Low-voltage, high voltage, and soft tissue subtracted or bone subtracted tomograms of any desired layer height were reconstructed from the image data acquired during a single tomographic swing. Calcifications, as well as their characteristics and distribution in pulmonary lesions, were clearly shown. The images also permitted discrimination of calcifications from dense fibrotic lesions. This technique was effective in demonstrating calcifications together with a solitary mass or disseminated nodules. (orig.)

  9. Longitudinal and transverse digital image reconstruction with a tomographic scanner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickens, D.R.; Price, R.R.; Erickson, J.J.; Patton, J.A.; Partain, C.L.; Rollo, F.D.

    1981-01-01

    A Siemens Gammasonics PHO/CON-192 Multiplane Imager is interfaced to a digital computer for the purpose of performing tomographic reconstructions from the data collected during a single scan. Data from the two moving gamma cameras as well as camera position information are sent to the computer by an interface designed in the authors' laboratory. Backprojection reconstruction is implemented by the computer. Longitudinal images in whole-body format as well as smaller formats are reconstructed for up to six planes simultaneously from the list mode data. Transverse reconstructions are demonstrated for 201 T1 myocardial scans. Post-reconstruction deconvolution processing to remove the blur artifact (characteristic of focal plane tomography) is applied to a multiplane phantom. Digital data acquisition of data and reconstruction of images are practical, and can extend the usefulness of the machine when compared with the film output (author)

  10. An image adaptive, wavelet-based watermarking of digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreste, Santa; Andaloro, Guido; Prestipino, Daniela; Puccio, Luigia

    2007-12-01

    In digital management, multimedia content and data can easily be used in an illegal way--being copied, modified and distributed again. Copyright protection, intellectual and material rights protection for authors, owners, buyers, distributors and the authenticity of content are crucial factors in solving an urgent and real problem. In such scenario digital watermark techniques are emerging as a valid solution. In this paper, we describe an algorithm--called WM2.0--for an invisible watermark: private, strong, wavelet-based and developed for digital images protection and authenticity. Using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is motivated by good time-frequency features and well-matching with human visual system directives. These two combined elements are important in building an invisible and robust watermark. WM2.0 works on a dual scheme: watermark embedding and watermark detection. The watermark is embedded into high frequency DWT components of a specific sub-image and it is calculated in correlation with the image features and statistic properties. Watermark detection applies a re-synchronization between the original and watermarked image. The correlation between the watermarked DWT coefficients and the watermark signal is calculated according to the Neyman-Pearson statistic criterion. Experimentation on a large set of different images has shown to be resistant against geometric, filtering and StirMark attacks with a low rate of false alarm.

  11. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C. [National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); Jarvis Breast Screening and Diagnostic Centre, Guildford GU1 1LJ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, St. George' s Healthcare NHS Trust, Tooting, London SW17 0QT (United Kingdom); Cambridge Breast Unit, Cambridge University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Cambridge CB2 0QQ, United Kingdom and NIHR Cambridge Biomedical Research Centre, Cambridge CB2 0QQ (United Kingdom); Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania 15210 (United States); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom); University Hospitals Leuven, Herestraat 49, 3000 Leuven (Belgium); National Co-ordinating Centre for the Physics of Mammography, Royal Surrey County Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Guildford GU2 7XX, United Kingdom and Department of Physics, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, University of Surrey, Guildford GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2012-06-15

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  12. Endless everyday images: links and excesses in digital image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cláudia do Amaral Leão

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The research analyzed the relationships and communication links between overproduced images on digital media and their carriers. I start from the hypothesis that the way we look, record, save and access images have been deeply modified with the advent of digital cameras and ‘phone cameras’ – encouraging an addictive behavior for pictures. The method was based on interviews with ten informers – the images’ carriers, who let us conclude that we are overproducing pictures as information. In this context arise the producers of endless everyday pictures, here named ‘photomaniacs’, who give birth two kinds of images: the circulatory infoimages and the everyday infoimages. Overproduced digital images transform devices in our magnifiers of memory and oblivion, undoing the way we compile, save or file – and operating in cumulative, disordered, small and private stock of images. Thus, we try to saturate our most superficial memory, that generates schizophrenic pictures when operates on excess. However, even if the way is only technological, we must remember that the body is the living organism suitable to pictures, the place where we hold deep bonding relations. Over this body surface, images survive impregnated of meanings, links, belonging and healing. The research was based on the theories of communication links of Boris Cyrulnik, Jose Ângelo Gaiarsa and Ashley Montagu, besides the works on images and schizophrenia of Nise da Silveira and Leo Navratil. The research also activated the central European stream of Cultural Semiotics, specially the theories of images proposed by Aby Warburg, Walter Benjamin, Dietmar Kamper, Norval Baitello Junior, Hans Belting and Vilém Flusser.

  13. Losing Images in Digital Radiology: More than You Think

    OpenAIRE

    Oglevee, Catherine; Pianykh, Oleg

    2014-01-01

    It is a common belief that the shift to digital imaging some 20 years ago helped medical image exchange and got rid of any potential image loss that was happening with printed image films. Unfortunately, this is not the case: despite the most recent advances in digital imaging, most hospitals still keep losing their imaging data, with these losses going completely unnoticed. As a result, not only does image loss affect the faith in digital imaging but it also affects patient diagnosis and dai...

  14. Use of digital images to estimate soil moisture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João F. C. dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to analyze the relation between the moisture and the spectral response of the soil to generate prediction models. Samples with different moisture contents were prepared and photographed. The photographs were taken under homogeneous light condition and with previous correction for the white balance of the digital photograph camera. The images were processed for extraction of the median values in the Red, Green and Blue bands of the RGB color space; Hue, Saturation and Value of the HSV color space; and values of the digital numbers of a panchromatic image obtained from the RGB bands. The moisture of the samples was determined with the thermogravimetric method. Regression models were evaluated for each image type: RGB, HSV and panchromatic. It was observed the darkening of the soil with the increase of moisture. For each type of soil, a model with best fit was observed and to use these models for prediction purposes, it is necessary to choose the model with best fit in advance, according to the soil characteristics. Soil moisture estimation as a function of its spectral response by digital image processing proves promising.

  15. Watermarking Techniques Using Least Significant Bit Algorithm for Digital Image Security Standard Solution- Based Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Muzakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing. 

  16. Kopernik : modeling business processes for digital customers

    OpenAIRE

    Estañol Lamarca, Montserrat; Castro, Manuel; Díaz-Montenegro, Sylvia; Teniente López, Ernest

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the Kopernik methodology for modeling business processes for digital customers. These processes require a high degree of flexibility in the execution of their tasks or actions. We achieve this by using the artifact-centric approach to process modeling and the use of condition-action rules. The processes modeled following Kopernik can then be implemented in an existing commercial tool, Balandra.

  17. Digital signal processing application in nuclear spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Zeynalova

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Digital signal processing algorithms for nuclear particle spectroscopy are described along with a digital pile-up elimination method applicable to equidistantly sampled detector signals pre-processed by a charge-sensitive preamplifier. The signal processing algorithms provided as recursive one- or multi-step procedures which can be easily programmed using modern computer programming languages. The influence of the number of bits of the sampling analogue-to-digital converter to the final signal-to-noise ratio of the spectrometer considered. Algorithms for a digital shaping-filter amplifier, for a digital pile-up elimination scheme and for ballistic deficit correction were investigated using a high purity germanium detector. The pile-up elimination method was originally developed for fission fragment spectroscopy using a Frisch-grid back-to-back double ionisation chamber and was mainly intended for pile-up elimination in case of high alpha-radioactivity of the fissile target. The developed pile-up elimination method affects only the electronic noise generated by the preamplifier. Therefore, the influence of the pile-up elimination scheme on the final resolution of the spectrometer investigated in terms of the distance between piled-up pulses. The efficiency of developed algorithms compared with other signal processing schemes published in literature.

  18. Patient doses in digital cardiac imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huda, W.; Ogden, K.M.; Roskopf, M.L.; Phadke, K.

    2001-01-01

    In this pilot study, we obtained estimates of entrance skin doses and the corresponding effective doses to patients undergoing digital cardiac imaging procedures on a GE Advantx LC/LP Plus system. Data were obtained for six patients undergoing diagnostic examinations and six patients who had interventional procedures. For each patient examination, radiographic techniques for fluoroscopic and digital cine imaging were recorded, together with the irradiation geometry. The projection with the highest exposure resulted in an average skin dose of 0.64 ± 0.41 Gy (maximum of 1.6 Gy). The average patient skin doses taking into account overlapping projections was 1.1 ± 0.8 Gy (maximum of 3.0 Gy). The exposure area product (EAP) incident on the patient was converted into the energy imparted to the patient and the corresponding effective dose. The average patient effective dose was 28 ± 14 mSv (maximum 62 mSv), with the resultant average fatal cancer risk estimated to be of the order of 8x10 -3 . Average doses for interventional procedures in cardiac imaging are higher than those associated with diagnostic examinations by approximately 50%. (author)

  19. Morphology and probability in image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabbri, A.G.

    1985-01-01

    The author presents an analysis of some concepts which relate morphological attributes of digital objects to statistically meaningful measures. Some elementary transformations of binary images are described and examples of applications are drawn from the geological and image analysis domains. Some of the morphological models applicablle in astronomy are discussed. It is shown that the development of new spatially oriented computers leads to more extensive applications of image processing in the geosciences

  20. Creating a panorama of the heart with digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebrock, L

    2000-01-01

    Digital imaging offers new opportunities still being discovered by users. This article describes a technique that was created using a digital camera to photograph the entire surface of a rat heart. The technique may have other applications as well.

  1. An introduction to digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    Karl, John H

    1989-01-01

    An Introduction to Digital Signal Processing is written for those who need to understand and use digital signal processing and yet do not wish to wade through a multi-semester course sequence. Using only calculus-level mathematics, this book progresses rapidly through the fundamentals to advanced topics such as iterative least squares design of IIR filters, inverse filters, power spectral estimation, and multidimensional applications--all in one concise volume.This book emphasizes both the fundamental principles and their modern computer implementation. It presents and demonstrates how si

  2. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Lucy M; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M; Wallis, Matthew G; Chakraborty, Dev P; Dance, David R; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C

    2012-06-01

    This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC (AFROC) area decreased from

  3. Effect of image quality on calcification detection in digital mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warren, Lucy M.; Mackenzie, Alistair; Cooke, Julie; Given-Wilson, Rosalind M.; Wallis, Matthew G.; Chakraborty, Dev P.; Dance, David R.; Bosmans, Hilde; Young, Kenneth C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This study aims to investigate if microcalcification detection varies significantly when mammographic images are acquired using different image qualities, including: different detectors, dose levels, and different image processing algorithms. An additional aim was to determine how the standard European method of measuring image quality using threshold gold thickness measured with a CDMAM phantom and the associated limits in current EU guidelines relate to calcification detection. Methods: One hundred and sixty two normal breast images were acquired on an amorphous selenium direct digital (DR) system. Microcalcification clusters extracted from magnified images of slices of mastectomies were electronically inserted into half of the images. The calcification clusters had a subtle appearance. All images were adjusted using a validated mathematical method to simulate the appearance of images from a computed radiography (CR) imaging system at the same dose, from both systems at half this dose, and from the DR system at quarter this dose. The original 162 images were processed with both Hologic and Agfa (Musica-2) image processing. All other image qualities were processed with Agfa (Musica-2) image processing only. Seven experienced observers marked and rated any identified suspicious regions. Free response operating characteristic (FROC) and ROC analyses were performed on the data. The lesion sensitivity at a nonlesion localization fraction (NLF) of 0.1 was also calculated. Images of the CDMAM mammographic test phantom were acquired using the automatic setting on the DR system. These images were modified to the additional image qualities used in the observer study. The images were analyzed using automated software. In order to assess the relationship between threshold gold thickness and calcification detection a power law was fitted to the data. Results: There was a significant reduction in calcification detection using CR compared with DR: the alternative FROC

  4. Digital signal processing at GEND's data center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.E.

    1977-01-01

    The conversion and recording of analog signals in digital form has been an active element in the manufacturing operations of the General Electric Neutron Devices Department (GEND) since 1966. The first computerized data system for these digitized waveforms was implemented at GEND's data center approximately two years later during 1968. The evolution and integration of these two activities at GEND are addressed in this paper. Beginning with the tester--data center interface, emphasis is placed on previous approaches, current capabilities, near-term trends, and future requirements. The digitizing process has developed into a firmly established set of hardware and associated software techniques which has proven itself as an accurate, reliable procedure for capturing waveform characteristics. The most important aspect of this process is the recent trend toward increased sampling rates and a greater number of digitized parameters per operation. The combined effect is a tremendous increase in output data volumes. Since digital signal processing carries the potential for significant contributions to manufacturing quality and reliability, as well as engineering design and development, increased activity in this area appears extremely desirable. 11 figures

  5. Orthoscopic real-image display of digital holograms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowski, P L; Kozacki, T; Zaperty, W

    2017-10-01

    We present a practical solution for the long-standing problem of depth inversion in real-image holographic display of digital holograms. It relies on a field lens inserted in front of the spatial light modulator device addressed by a properly processed hologram. The processing algorithm accounts for pixel size and wavelength mismatch between capture and display devices in a way that prevents image deformation. Complete images of large dimensions are observable from one position with a naked eye. We demonstrate the method experimentally on a 10-cm-long 3D object using a single full-HD spatial light modulator, but it can supplement most holographic displays designed to form a real image, including circular wide angle configurations.

  6. REMOTE SENSING IMAGE QUALITY ASSESSMENT EXPERIMENT WITH POST-PROCESSING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Jiang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the post-processing influence assessment experiment, the experiment includes three steps: the physical simulation, image processing, and image quality assessment. The physical simulation models sampled imaging system in laboratory, the imaging system parameters are tested, the digital image serving as image processing input are produced by this imaging system with the same imaging system parameters. The gathered optical sampled images with the tested imaging parameters are processed by 3 digital image processes, including calibration pre-processing, lossy compression with different compression ratio and image post-processing with different core. Image quality assessment method used is just noticeable difference (JND subject assessment based on ISO20462, through subject assessment of the gathered and processing images, the influence of different imaging parameters and post-processing to image quality can be found. The six JND subject assessment experimental data can be validated each other. Main conclusions include: image post-processing can improve image quality; image post-processing can improve image quality even with lossy compression, image quality with higher compression ratio improves less than lower ratio; with our image post-processing method, image quality is better, when camera MTF being within a small range.

  7. Digital Airborne Photogrammetry—A New Tool for Quantitative Remote Sensing?—A State-of-the-Art Review On Radiometric Aspects of Digital Photogrammetric Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolaj Veje

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available The transition from film imaging to digital imaging in photogrammetric data capture is opening interesting possibilities for photogrammetric processes. A great advantage of digital sensors is their radiometric potential. This article presents a state-of-the-art review on the radiometric aspects of digital photogrammetric images. The analysis is based on a literature research and a questionnaire submitted to various interest groups related to the photogrammetric process. An important contribution to this paper is a characterization of the photogrammetric image acquisition and image product generation systems. The questionnaire revealed many weaknesses in current processes, but the future prospects of radiometrically quantitative photogrammetry are promising.

  8. Low power digital signal processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paker, Ozgun

    2003-01-01

    hardwired ASICs and more than 6 21 times lower than current state of the art low-power DSP processors. An orthogonal but practical contribution of this thesis is the test bench implementation. A PCI-based FPGA board has been used to equip a standard desktop PC with tester facilities. The test bench proved...... to be a viable alternative to conventional expensive test equipment. Finally, the work presented in this thesis has been published at several IEEE workshops and conferences, and in the Journal of VLSI Signal Processing....

  9. The Neuro-Image: Alain Resnais's Digital Cinema without the Digits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes to read cinema in the digital age as a new type of image, the neuroimage. Going back to Gilles Deleuze's cinema books and it is argued that the neuro-image is based in the future. The cinema of Alain Resnais is analyzed as a neuro-image and digital cinema .

  10. From Digital Imaging to Computer Image Analysis of Fine Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stork, David G.

    An expanding range of techniques from computer vision, pattern recognition, image analysis, and computer graphics are being applied to problems in the history of art. The success of these efforts is enabled by the growing corpus of high-resolution multi-spectral digital images of art (primarily paintings and drawings), sophisticated computer vision methods, and most importantly the engagement of some art scholars who bring questions that may be addressed through computer methods. This paper outlines some general problem areas and opportunities in this new inter-disciplinary research program.

  11. Digital imaging in diagnostic radiology. Image quality - radiation exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, T.; Stieve, F.E.

    1996-01-01

    The publication contains the 37 lectures of the symposium on digital imaging in diagnostic radiology, held in November 1995 at Kloster Seeon, as well as contributions enhancing the information presented in the lectures. The publication reflects the state of the art in this subject field, discusses future trends and gives recommendations and information relating to current practice in radiology. In-depth information is given about R and D activities for the digitalisation of X-ray pictures and the image quality required to meet the purposes of modern diagnostics. Further aspects encompass radiological protection and dose optimization as well as optimization of examination methods. (vhe) [de

  12. Advanced digital image archival system using MPEG technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Wo

    2009-08-01

    Digital information and records are vital to the human race regardless of the nationalities and eras in which they were produced. Digital image contents are produced at a rapid pace from cultural heritages via digitalization, scientific and experimental data via high speed imaging sensors, national defense satellite images from governments, medical and healthcare imaging records from hospitals, personal collection of photos from digital cameras. With these mass amounts of precious and irreplaceable data and knowledge, what standards technologies can be applied to preserve and yet provide an interoperable framework for accessing the data across varieties of systems and devices? This paper presents an advanced digital image archival system by applying the international standard of MPEG technologies to preserve digital image content.

  13. THE CONCEPT OF «DIGITAL EARTH» IN EDUCATIONAL PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. T. Dmitrieva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the phenomenon of «Digital Earth» as a concept that can be used in teaching, and, on the other hand, as a fundamentally new phenomenon that needs special education to work with them. The article analyzes the experience of using «Digital Earth» in education. It considers the need for specialized training to work with raster images, collaborative creation of data, training in the use of diverse data sets and analysis of the dynamics of processes in time to ensure sustainable development.

  14. Integrating Digital Images into the Art and Art History Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitt, Sharon P.; Updike, Christina B.; Guthrie, Miriam E.

    2002-01-01

    Describes an Internet-based image database system connected to a flexible, in-class teaching and learning tool (the Madison Digital Image Database) developed at James Madison University to bring digital images to the arts and humanities classroom. Discusses content, copyright issues, ensuring system effectiveness, instructional impact, sharing the…

  15. Desktop publishing and medical imaging: paper as hardcopy medium for digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denslow, S

    1994-08-01

    Desktop-publishing software and hardware has progressed to the point that many widely used word-processing programs are capable of printing high-quality digital images with many shades of gray from black to white. Accordingly, it should be relatively easy to print digital medical images on paper for reports, instructional materials, and in research notes. Components were assembled that were necessary for extracting image data from medical imaging devices and converting the data to a form usable by word-processing software. A system incorporating these components was implemented in a medical setting and has been operating for 18 months. The use of this system by medical staff has been monitored.

  16. Computer Aided Teaching of Digital Signal Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Ian P.

    1990-01-01

    Describes a microcomputer-based software package developed at the University of Surrey for teaching digital signal processing to undergraduate science and engineering students. Menu-driven software capabilities are explained, including demonstration of qualitative concepts and experimentation with quantitative data, and examples are given of…

  17. Image processing on the image with pixel noise bits removed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Keh-Shih; Wu, Christine

    1992-06-01

    Our previous studies used statistical methods to assess the noise level in digital images of various radiological modalities. We separated the pixel data into signal bits and noise bits and demonstrated visually that the removal of the noise bits does not affect the image quality. In this paper we apply image enhancement techniques on noise-bits-removed images and demonstrate that the removal of noise bits has no effect on the image property. The image processing techniques used are gray-level look up table transformation, Sobel edge detector, and 3-D surface display. Preliminary results show no noticeable difference between original image and noise bits removed image using look up table operation and Sobel edge enhancement. There is a slight enhancement of the slicing artifact in the 3-D surface display of the noise bits removed image.

  18. Exploratory survey of image quality on CR digital mammography imaging systems in Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaona, E.; Rivera, T.; Arreola, M.; Franco, J.; Molina, N.; Alvarez, B.; Azorín, C.G.; Casian, G.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the current status of image quality and dose in computed radiographic digital mammography (CRDM) systems. Studies included CRDM systems of various models and manufacturers which dose and image quality comparisons were performed. Due to the recent rise in the use of digital radiographic systems in Mexico, CRDM systems are rapidly replacing conventional film-screen systems without any regard to quality control or image quality standards. Study was conducted in 65 mammography facilities which use CRDM systems in the Mexico City and surrounding States. The systems were tested as used clinically. This means that the dose and beam qualities were selected using the automatic beam selection and photo-timed features. All systems surveyed generate laser film hardcopies for the radiologist to read on a scope or mammographic high luminance light box. It was found that 51 of CRDM systems presented a variety of image artefacts and non-uniformities arising from inadequate acquisition and processing, as well as from the laser printer itself. Undisciplined alteration of image processing settings by the technologist was found to be a serious prevalent problem in 42 facilities. Only four of them showed an image QC program which is periodically monitored by a medical physicist. The Average Glandular Dose (AGD) in the surveyed systems was estimated to have a mean value of 2.4 mGy. To improve image quality in mammography and make more efficient screening mammographic in early detection of breast cancer is required new legislation. - Highlights: • Radiation dose in CR digital mammography (CRDM) systems was determined. • Image quality related with dose in CR digital mammography (CRDM) systems was analysed. • Image processing artefacts were observed and correlated with dose. • Measured entrance dose by TL phosphors could be good parameter for radiation protection optimization in patient

  19. Integrated optical 3D digital imaging based on DSP scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaodong; Peng, Xiang; Gao, Bruce Z.

    2008-03-01

    We present a scheme of integrated optical 3-D digital imaging (IO3DI) based on digital signal processor (DSP), which can acquire range images independently without PC support. This scheme is based on a parallel hardware structure with aid of DSP and field programmable gate array (FPGA) to realize 3-D imaging. In this integrated scheme of 3-D imaging, the phase measurement profilometry is adopted. To realize the pipeline processing of the fringe projection, image acquisition and fringe pattern analysis, we present a multi-threads application program that is developed under the environment of DSP/BIOS RTOS (real-time operating system). Since RTOS provides a preemptive kernel and powerful configuration tool, with which we are able to achieve a real-time scheduling and synchronization. To accelerate automatic fringe analysis and phase unwrapping, we make use of the technique of software optimization. The proposed scheme can reach a performance of 39.5 f/s (frames per second), so it may well fit into real-time fringe-pattern analysis and can implement fast 3-D imaging. Experiment results are also presented to show the validity of proposed scheme.

  20. Digital filtering and reconstruction of coded aperture images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tobin, K.W. Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The real-time neutron radiography facility at the University of Virginia has been used for both transmission radiography and computed tomography. Recently, a coded aperture system has been developed to permit the extraction of three dimensional information from a low intensity field of radiation scattered by an extended object. Short wave-length radiations (e.g. neutrons) are not easily image because of the difficulties in achieving diffraction and refraction with a conventional lens imaging system. By using a coded aperture approach, an imaging system has been developed that records and reconstructs an object from an intensity distribution. This system has a signal-to-noise ratio that is proportional to the total open area of the aperture making it ideal for imaging with a limiting intensity radiation field. The main goal of this research was to develope and implement the digital methods and theory necessary for the reconstruction process. Several real-time video systems, attached to an Intellect-100 image processor, a DEC PDP-11 micro-computer, and a Convex-1 parallel processing mainframe were employed. This system, coupled with theoretical extensions and improvements, allowed for retrieval of information previously unobtainable by earlier optical methods. The effect of thermal noise, shot noise, and aperture related artifacts were examined so that new digital filtering techniques could be constructed and implemented. Results of image data filtering prior to and following the reconstruction process are reported. Improvements related to the different signal processing methods are emphasized. The application and advantages of this imaging technique to the field of non-destructive testing are also discussed

  1. Making the Case for Embedded Metadata in Digital Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kari R.; Saunders, Sarah; Kejser, U.B.

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the standards, methods, use cases, and opportunities for using embedded metadata in digital images. In this paper we explain the past and current work engaged with developing specifications, standards for embedding metadata of different types, and the practicalities of data...... exchange in heritage institutions and the culture sector. Our examples and findings support the case for embedded metadata in digital images and the opportunities for such use more broadly in non-heritage sectors as well. We encourage the adoption of embedded metadata by digital image content creators...... and curators as well as those developing software and hardware that support the creation or re-use of digital images. We conclude that the usability of born digital images as well as physical objects that are digitized can be extended and the files preserved more readily with embedded metadata....

  2. Making the Case for Embedded Metadata in Digital Images

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Kari R.; Saunders, Sarah; Kejser, U.B.

    2014-01-01

    exchange in heritage institutions and the culture sector. Our examples and findings support the case for embedded metadata in digital images and the opportunities for such use more broadly in non-heritage sectors as well. We encourage the adoption of embedded metadata by digital image content creators......This paper discusses the standards, methods, use cases, and opportunities for using embedded metadata in digital images. In this paper we explain the past and current work engaged with developing specifications, standards for embedding metadata of different types, and the practicalities of data...... and curators as well as those developing software and hardware that support the creation or re-use of digital images. We conclude that the usability of born digital images as well as physical objects that are digitized can be extended and the files preserved more readily with embedded metadata....

  3. Image processing in radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dammann, F.

    2002-01-01

    Medical imaging processing and analysis methods have significantly improved during recent years and are now being increasingly used in clinical applications. Preprocessing algorithms are used to influence image contrast and noise. Three-dimensional visualization techniques including volume rendering and virtual endoscopy are increasingly available to evaluate sectional imaging data sets. Registration techniques have been developed to merge different examination modalities. Structures of interest can be extracted from the image data sets by various segmentation methods. Segmented structures are used for automated quantification analysis as well as for three-dimensional therapy planning, simulation and intervention guidance, including medical modelling, virtual reality environments, surgical robots and navigation systems. These newly developed methods require specialized skills for the production and postprocessing of radiological imaging data as well as new definitions of the roles of the traditional specialities. The aim of this article is to give an overview of the state-of-the-art of medical imaging processing methods, practical implications for the ragiologist's daily work and future aspects. (orig.) [de

  4. Twin-image reduction in inline digital holography using an object segmentation heuristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McElhinney, Conor P; Hennelly, Bryan M; Naughton, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    We present a digital image processing heuristic for the removal of the twin-image in inline digital holograms. Typically, the unwanted twin manifests itself as visible corruptive noise in the reconstruction plane. We reconstruct the unwanted twin-image at its in-focus plane and suppress it by first finding the boundary of the object, and then removing the optical energy within this boundary. In this plane, the wanted twin-image optical energy is largely dispersed outside this boundary and so it is retained. The heuristic's effectiveness is demonstrated using a digital hologram of a real-world object.

  5. Twin-image reduction in inline digital holography using an object segmentation heuristic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McElhinney, Conor P; Hennelly, Bryan M [Department of Computer Science, National University of Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare (Ireland); Naughton, Thomas J [University of Oulu, RFMedia Laboratory, Oulu Southern Institute, Vierimaantie 5, 84100 Ylivieska (Finland)], E-mail: conormce@cs.nuim.ie, E-mail: tomn@cs.nuim.ie

    2008-11-01

    We present a digital image processing heuristic for the removal of the twin-image in inline digital holograms. Typically, the unwanted twin manifests itself as visible corruptive noise in the reconstruction plane. We reconstruct the unwanted twin-image at its in-focus plane and suppress it by first finding the boundary of the object, and then removing the optical energy within this boundary. In this plane, the wanted twin-image optical energy is largely dispersed outside this boundary and so it is retained. The heuristic's effectiveness is demonstrated using a digital hologram of a real-world object.

  6. Digital Particle Image Velocimetry: Partial Image Error (PIE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anandarajah, K; Hargrave, G K; Halliwell, N A

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies the errors due to partial imaging of seeding particles which occur at the edges of interrogation regions in Digital Particle Image Velocimetry (DPIV). Hitherto, in the scientific literature the effect of these partial images has been assumed to be negligible. The results show that the error is significant even at a commonly used interrogation region size of 32 x 32 pixels. If correlation of interrogation region sizes of 16 x 16 pixels and smaller is attempted, the error which occurs can preclude meaningful results being obtained. In order to reduce the error normalisation of the correlation peak values is necessary. The paper introduces Normalisation by Signal Strength (NSS) as the preferred means of normalisation for optimum accuracy. In addition, it is shown that NSS increases the dynamic range of DPIV

  7. Digital image archiving: challenges and choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumery, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    In the last five years, imaging exam volume has grown rapidly. In addition to increased image acquisition, there is more patient information per study. RIS-PACS integration and information-rich DICOM headers now provide us with more patient information relative to each study. The volume of archived digital images is increasing and will continue to rise at a steeper incline than film-based storage of the past. Many filmless facilities have been caught off guard by this increase, which has been stimulated by many factors. The most significant factor is investment in new digital and DICOM-compliant modalities. A huge volume driver is the increase in images per study from multi-slice technology. Storage requirements also are affected by disaster recovery initiatives and state retention mandates. This burgeoning rate of imaging data volume presents many challenges: cost of ownership, data accessibility, storage media obsolescence, database considerations, physical limitations, reliability and redundancy. There are two basic approaches to archiving--single tier and multi-tier. Each has benefits. With a single-tier approach, all the data is stored on a single media that can be accessed very quickly. A redundant copy of the data is then stored onto another less expensive media. This is usually a removable media. In this approach, the on-line storage is increased incrementally as volume grows. In a multi-tier approach, storage levels are set up based on access speed and cost. In other words, all images are stored at the deepest archiving level, which is also the least expensive. Images are stored on or moved back to the intermediate and on-line levels if they will need to be accessed more quickly. It can be difficult to decide what the best approach is for your organization. The options include RAIDs (redundant array of independent disks), direct attached RAID storage (DAS), network storage using RAIDs (NAS and SAN), removable media such as different types of tape, compact

  8. A Low Power Digital Accumulation Technique for Digital-Domain CMOS TDI Image Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changwei; Nie, Kaiming; Xu, Jiangtao; Gao, Jing

    2016-09-23

    In this paper, an accumulation technique suitable for digital domain CMOS time delay integration (TDI) image sensors is proposed to reduce power consumption without degrading the rate of imaging. In terms of the slight variations of quantization codes among different pixel exposures towards the same object, the pixel array is divided into two groups: one is for coarse quantization of high bits only, and the other one is for fine quantization of low bits. Then, the complete quantization codes are composed of both results from the coarse-and-fine quantization. The equivalent operation comparably reduces the total required bit numbers of the quantization. In the 0.18 µm CMOS process, two versions of 16-stage digital domain CMOS TDI image sensor chains based on a 10-bit successive approximate register (SAR) analog-to-digital converter (ADC), with and without the proposed technique, are designed. The simulation results show that the average power consumption of slices of the two versions are 6 . 47 × 10 - 8 J/line and 7 . 4 × 10 - 8 J/line, respectively. Meanwhile, the linearity of the two versions are 99.74% and 99.99%, respectively.

  9. GrinLine identification using digital imaging and Adobe Photoshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollinger, Susan A; Brumit, Paula C; Schrader, Bruce A; Senn, David R

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to outline a method by which an antemortem photograph of a victim can be critically compared with a postmortem photograph in an effort to facilitate the identification process. Ten subjects, between 27 and 55 years old provided historical pictures of themselves exhibiting a broad smile showing anterior teeth to some extent (a grin). These photos were termed "antemortem" for the purpose of the study. A digital camera was used to take a current photo of each subject's grin. These photos represented the "postmortem" images. A single subject's "postmortem" photo set was randomly selected to be the "unknown victim." These combined data of the unknown and the 10 antemortem subjects were digitally stored and, using Adobe Photoshop software, the images were sized and oriented for comparative analysis. The goal was to devise a technique that could facilitate the accurate determination of which "antemortem" subject was the "unknown." The generation of antemortem digital overlays of the teeth visible in a grin and the comparison of those overlays to the images of the postmortem dentition is the foundation of the technique. The comparisons made using the GrinLine Identification Technique may assist medical examiners and coroners in making identifications or exclusions.

  10. Digital signal processing theory and practice

    CERN Document Server

    Rao, K Deergha

    2018-01-01

    The book provides a comprehensive exposition of all major topics in digital signal processing (DSP). With numerous illustrative examples for easy understanding of the topics, it also includes MATLAB-based examples with codes in order to encourage the readers to become more confident of the fundamentals and to gain insights into DSP. Further, it presents real-world signal processing design problems using MATLAB and programmable DSP processors. In addition to problems that require analytical solutions, it discusses problems that require solutions using MATLAB at the end of each chapter. Divided into 13 chapters, it addresses many emerging topics, which are not typically found in advanced texts on DSP. It includes a chapter on adaptive digital filters used in the signal processing problems for faster acceptable results in the presence of changing environments and changing system requirements. Moreover, it offers an overview of wavelets, enabling readers to easily understand the basics and applications of this po...

  11. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, R.L.; Eddy, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    The Environmental Sciences Section (ESS) of the Savannah River Laboratory has recently acquired the computer hardware (Silicon Graphics Personal Iris Workstations) and software (Dynamic Graphics, Interactive Surface and Volume Modeling) to perform three dimensional analysis of hydrogeologic data. Three dimensional digital imaging of environmental data is a powerful technique that can be used to incorporate field, analytical, and modeling results from geologic, hydrologic, ecologic, and chemical studies into a comprehensive model for visualization and interpretation. This report covers the contamination of four different sites of the Savannah River Plant. Each section of this report has a computer graphic display of the concentration of contamination in the groundwater and/or sediments of each site

  12. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  13. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  14. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  15. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  16. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  17. Feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials : part 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-06

    This study demonstrated the feasibility of digital imaging to characterize earth materials. Two rapid, relatively low cost image-based methods were developed for determining the grain size distribution of soils and aggregates. The first method, calle...

  18. Securing Digital Images Integrity using Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajji, Tarik; Itahriouan, Zakaria; Ouazzani Jamil, Mohammed

    2018-05-01

    Digital image signature is a technique used to protect the image integrity. The application of this technique can serve several areas of imaging applied to smart cities. The objective of this work is to propose two methods to protect digital image integrity. We present a description of two approaches using artificial neural networks (ANN) to digitally sign an image. The first one is “Direct Signature without learning” and the second is “Direct Signature with learning”. This paper presents the theory of proposed approaches and an experimental study to test their effectiveness.

  19. X-ray imaging using digital cameras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winch, Nicola M.; Edgar, Andrew

    2012-03-01

    The possibility of using the combination of a computed radiography (storage phosphor) cassette and a semiprofessional grade digital camera for medical or dental radiography is investigated. We compare the performance of (i) a Canon 5D Mk II single lens reflex camera with f1.4 lens and full-frame CMOS array sensor and (ii) a cooled CCD-based camera with a 1/3 frame sensor and the same lens system. Both systems are tested with 240 x 180 mm cassettes which are based on either powdered europium-doped barium fluoride bromide or needle structure europium-doped cesium bromide. The modulation transfer function for both systems has been determined and falls to a value of 0.2 at around 2 lp/mm, and is limited by light scattering of the emitted light from the storage phosphor rather than the optics or sensor pixelation. The modulation transfer function for the CsBr:Eu2+ plate is bimodal, with a high frequency wing which is attributed to the light-guiding behaviour of the needle structure. The detective quantum efficiency has been determined using a radioisotope source and is comparatively low at 0.017 for the CMOS camera and 0.006 for the CCD camera, attributed to the poor light harvesting by the lens. The primary advantages of the method are portability, robustness, digital imaging and low cost; the limitations are the low detective quantum efficiency and hence signal-to-noise ratio for medical doses, and restricted range of plate sizes. Representative images taken with medical doses are shown and illustrate the potential use for portable basic radiography.

  20. Digital Density as the Driving Force of Digital Transformation Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Bush, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Digital technologies have increased the influence of technology in business, even changing business models and strategies of organisations. This influence, called Digital Transformation of Business (DT), happens when there is an increase of the number of digital connections, information and interactions. This phenom-ena has been defined as Digital Density (DD) and aims to provide an assessment of the digitalization status of an organization. With the concept of DD we pro-pose the DD Framework, t...

  1. Hyperspectral image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Liguo

    2016-01-01

    Based on the authors’ research, this book introduces the main processing techniques in hyperspectral imaging. In this context, SVM-based classification, distance comparison-based endmember extraction, SVM-based spectral unmixing, spatial attraction model-based sub-pixel mapping, and MAP/POCS-based super-resolution reconstruction are discussed in depth. Readers will gain a comprehensive understanding of these cutting-edge hyperspectral imaging techniques. Researchers and graduate students in fields such as remote sensing, surveying and mapping, geosciences and information systems will benefit from this valuable resource.

  2. Automated quadrilateral mesh generation for digital image structures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    With the development of advanced imaging technology, digital images are widely used. This paper proposes an automatic quadrilateral mesh generation algorithm for multi-colour imaged structures. It takes an original arbitrary digital image as an input for automatic quadrilateral mesh generation, this includes removing the noise, extracting and smoothing the boundary geometries between different colours, and automatic all-quad mesh generation with the above boundaries as constraints. An application example is...

  3. Image processing in 60Co container inspection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Zhifang; Zhou Liye; Wang Liqiang; Liu Ximing

    1999-01-01

    The authors analyzes the features of 60 Co container inspection image, the design of several special processing methods for container image and some normal processing methods for two-dimensional digital image, including gray enhancement, pseudo-enhancement, space filter, edge enhancement, geometry process, etc. It gives out the way to carry out the above mentioned process in Windows 95 or Win NT. It discusses some ways to improve the image processing speed on microcomputer and good results were obtained

  4. Textured digital elevation model formation from low-cost UAV LADAR/digital image data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bybee, Taylor C.; Budge, Scott E.

    2015-05-01

    Textured digital elevation models (TDEMs) have valuable use in precision agriculture, situational awareness, and disaster response. However, scientific-quality models are expensive to obtain using conventional aircraft-based methods. The cost of creating an accurate textured terrain model can be reduced by using a low-cost (processing step and enables both 2D- and 3D-image registration techniques to be used. This paper describes formation of TDEMs using simulated data from a small UAV gathering swaths of texel images of the terrain below. Being a low-cost UAV, only a coarse knowledge of position and attitude is known, and thus both 2D- and 3D-image registration techniques must be used to register adjacent swaths of texel imagery to create a TDEM. The process of creating an aggregate texel image (a TDEM) from many smaller texel image swaths is described. The algorithm is seeded with the rough estimate of position and attitude of each capture. Details such as the required amount of texel image overlap, registration models, simulated flight patterns (level and turbulent), and texture image formation are presented. In addition, examples of such TDEMs are shown and analyzed for accuracy.

  5. Comparison of different phantoms used in digital diagnostic imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bor, Dogan, E-mail: bor@eng.ankara.edu.tr [Ankara University, Faculty of Engineering, Department of Engineering Physics. Tandogan, 06100 Ankara (Turkey); Unal, Elif, E-mail: elf.unall@gmail.com [Radat Dosimetry Laboratory Services, 06830, Golbasi, Ankara (Turkey); Uslu, Anil, E-mail: m.aniluslu@gmail.com [Radat Dosimetry Laboratory Services, 06830, Golbasi, Ankara (Turkey)

    2015-09-21

    The organs of extremity, chest, skull and lumbar were physically simulated using uniform PMMA slabs with different thicknesses alone and using these slabs together with aluminum plates and air gaps (ANSI Phantoms). The variation of entrance surface air kerma and scatter fraction with X-ray beam qualities was investigated for these phantoms and the results were compared with those measured from anthropomorphic phantoms. A flat panel digital radiographic system was used for all the experiments. Considerable variations of entrance surface air kermas were found for the same organs of different designs, and highest doses were measured for the PMMA slabs. A low contrast test tool and a contrast detail test object (CDRAD) were used together with each organ simulation of PMMA slabs and ANSI phantoms in order to test the clinical image qualities. Digital images of these phantom combinations and anthropomorphic phantoms were acquired in raw and clinically processed formats. Variation of image quality with kVp and post processing was evaluated using the numerical metrics of these test tools and measured contrast values from the anthropomorphic phantoms. Our results indicated that design of some phantoms may not be efficient enough to reveal the expected performance of the post processing algorithms.

  6. Mechanical shape correlation : a novel integrated digital image correlation approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinendorst, S.M.; Hoefnagels, J.P.M.; Geers, M.G.D.; Lamberti, L.; Lin, M.-T.; Furlong, C.; Sciammarella, C.

    2018-01-01

    Mechanical Shape Correlation (MSC) is a novel integrated digital image correlation technique, used to determine the optimal set of constitutive parameters to describe the experimentally observed mechanical behavior of a test specimen, based on digital images taken during the experiment. In contrast

  7. Improving digital image watermarking by means of optimal channel selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh-The, Thien; Banos Legran, Oresti; Lee, Sungyoung; Yoon, Yongik; Le-Tien, Thuong

    2016-01-01

    Supporting safe and resilient authentication and integrity of digital images is of critical importance in a time of enormous creation and sharing of these contents. This paper presents an improved digital image watermarking model based on a coefficient quantization technique that intelligently

  8. Digital image technology and a measurement tool in physical models

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phelp, David

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Advances in digital image technology has allowed us to use accurate, but relatively cost effective technology to measure a number of varied activities in physical models. The capturing and manipulation of high resolution digital images can be used...

  9. Losing images in digital radiology: more than you think.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oglevee, Catherine; Pianykh, Oleg

    2015-06-01

    It is a common belief that the shift to digital imaging some 20 years ago helped medical image exchange and got rid of any potential image loss that was happening with printed image films. Unfortunately, this is not the case: despite the most recent advances in digital imaging, most hospitals still keep losing their imaging data, with these losses going completely unnoticed. As a result, not only does image loss affect the faith in digital imaging but it also affects patient diagnosis and daily quality of clinical work. This paper identifies the origins of invisible image losses, provides methods and procedures to detect image loss, and demonstrates modes of action that can be taken to stop the problem from happening.

  10. Digital processing of ionospheric electron content data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, P. A.

    1979-01-01

    Ionospheric electron content data contain periodicities that are produced by a diversity of sources including hydromagnetic waves, gravity waves, and lunar tides. Often these periodicities are masked by the strong daily variation in the data. Digital filtering can be used to isolate the weaker components. The filtered data can then be further processed to provide estimates of the source properties. In addition, homomorphic filtering may be used to identify nonlinear interactions in the ionosphere.

  11. Fingerprint image enhancement by differential hysteresis processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotta, Eduardo; Moler, Emilce

    2004-05-10

    A new method to enhance defective fingerprints images through image digital processing tools is presented in this work. When the fingerprints have been taken without any care, blurred and in some cases mostly illegible, as in the case presented here, their classification and comparison becomes nearly impossible. A combination of spatial domain filters, including a technique called differential hysteresis processing (DHP), is applied to improve these kind of images. This set of filtering methods proved to be satisfactory in a wide range of cases by uncovering hidden details that helped to identify persons. Dactyloscopy experts from Policia Federal Argentina and the EAAF have validated these results.

  12. Digital signal processing the Tevatron BPM signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancelo, G.; James, E.; Wolbers, S.

    2005-01-01

    The Beam Position Monitor (TeV BPM) readout system at Fermilab's Tevatron has been updated and is currently being commissioned. The new BPMs use new analog and digital hardware to achieve better beam position measurement resolution. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton measurements. The signals provided by the two ends of the BPM pickups are processed by analog band-pass filters and sampled by 14-bit ADCs at 74.3MHz. A crucial part of this work has been the design of digital filters that process the signal. This paper describes the digital processing and estimation techniques used to optimize the beam position measurement. The BPM electronics must operate in narrow-band and wide-band modes to enable measurements of closed-orbit and turn-by-turn positions. The filtering and timing conditions of the signals are tuned accordingly for the operational modes. The analysis and the optimized result for each mode are presented

  13. Synthesis method from low-coherence digital holograms for improvement of image quality in holographic display.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Yutaka; Nomura, Takanori

    2013-06-01

    In holographic displays, it is undesirable to observe the speckle noises with the reconstructed images. A method for improvement of reconstructed image quality by synthesizing low-coherence digital holograms is proposed. It is possible to obtain speckleless reconstruction of holograms due to low-coherence digital holography. An image sensor records low-coherence digital holograms, and the holograms are synthesized by computational calculation. Two approaches, the threshold-processing and the picking-a-peak methods, are proposed in order to reduce random noise of low-coherence digital holograms. The reconstructed image quality by the proposed methods is compared with the case of high-coherence digital holography. Quantitative evaluation is given to confirm the proposed methods. In addition, the visual evaluation by 15 people is also shown.

  14. Enhancement of image contrast in linacgram through image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Hyun Suk; Shin, Hyun Kyo; Lee, Re Na

    2000-01-01

    Conventional radiation therapy portal images gives low contrast images. The purpose of this study was to enhance image contrast of a linacgram by developing a low--cost image processing method. Chest linacgram was obtained by irradiating humanoid phantom and scanned using Diagnostic-Pro scanner for image processing. Several types of scan method were used in scanning. These include optical density scan, histogram equalized scan, linear histogram based scan, linear histogram independent scan, linear optical density scan, logarithmic scan, and power square root scan. The histogram distribution of the scanned images were plotted and the ranges of the gray scale were compared among various scan types. The scanned images were then transformed to the gray window by pallette fitting method and the contrast of the reprocessed portal images were evaluated for image improvement. Portal images of patients were also taken at various anatomic sites and the images were processed by Gray Scale Expansion (GSE) method. The patient images were analyzed to examine the feasibility of using the GSE technique in clinic. The histogram distribution showed that minimum and maximum gray scale ranges of 3192 and 21940 were obtained when the image was scanned using logarithmic method and square root method, respectively. Out of 256 gray scale, only 7 to 30% of the steps were used. After expanding the gray scale to full range, contrast of the portal images were improved. Experiment performed with patient image showed that improved identification of organs were achieved by GSE in portal images of knee joint, head and neck, lung, and pelvis. Phantom study demonstrated that the GSE technique improved image contrast of a linacgram. This indicates that the decrease in image quality resulting from the dual exposure, could be improved by expanding the gray scale. As a result, the improved technique will make it possible to compare the digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRR) and simulation image for

  15. A digital fluoroscopic imaging system for verification during external beam radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takai, Michikatsu

    1990-01-01

    A digital fluoroscopic (DF) imaging system has been constructed to obtain portal images for verification during external beam radiotherapy. The imaging device consists of a fluorescent screen viewed by a highly sensitive video camera through a mirror. The video signal is digitized and processed by an image processor which is linked on-line with a host microcomputer. The image quality of the DF system was compared with that of film for portal images of the Burger phantom and the Alderson anthropomorphic phantom using 10 MV X-rays. Contrast resolution of the DF image integrated for 8.5 sec. was superior to the film resolution, while spatial resolution was slightly inferior. The DF image of the Alderson phantom processed by the adaptive histogram equalization was better in showing anatomical landmarks than the film portal image. The DF image integrated for 1 sec. which is used for movie mode can show patient movement during treatment. (author)

  16. Application of image processing technology in yarn hairiness detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guohong ZHANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Digital image processing technology is one of the new methods for yarn detection, which can realize the digital characterization and objective evaluation of yarn appearance. This paper overviews the current status of development and application of digital image processing technology used for yarn hairiness evaluation, and analyzes and compares the traditional detection methods and this new developed method. Compared with the traditional methods, the image processing technology based method is more objective, fast and accurate, which is the vital development trend of the yarn appearance evaluation.

  17. Application of digital techniques to the restoration of radiographic images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, S.F.

    1980-09-01

    The methods of constrained least squares and maximum entropy have been used to restore digital X and γ-ray radiographs. Both methods require the blurring of the image to be a linear, spatially invariant process. Although the blurring processes in radiography can be complex, situations have been identified where these simplifying assumptions are valid. Algorithms for deriving the point-spread function of each image are discussed. These include a pinhole method for X-ray radiographs, and reconstruction from edge profiles for γ-ray radiographs. The results from the restoration of geometrically blurred radiographs of sparking plugs are given. Maximum entropy gives results superior to those obtained by constrained least squares. The resolution is improved by a factor of about three when maximum entropy is used, and by a factor of about two for constrained least squares. (author)

  18. Investigation of physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Hoi Woun [Dept. of Radiological Science, Baekseok Culture University, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Min, Jung Hwan [Dept. of Radiological technology, Shingu University, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Yong Su [Dept. of Health Sciences, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kyushu University, Kyushu (Japan); Kim, Jung Min [Dept. of Health and Environmental Science, College of Health Science, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the physical imaging properties in various digital radiography systems with charged coupled device (CCD), computed radiography (CR), and indirect flat panel detector (FPD). The imaging properties measured in this study were modulation transfer function (MTF) wiener spectrum (WS), and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) to compare the performance of each digital radiography system. The system response of CCD were in a linear relationship with exposure and that of CR and FPD were proportional to the logarithm of exposure. The MTF of both CR and FPD indicated a similar tendency but in case of CCD, it showed lower MTF than that of CR and FPD. FPD showed the lowest WS and also indicated the highest DQE among three systems. According to the results, digital radiography system with different type of image receptor had its own image characteristics. Therefore, it is important to know the physical imaging characteristics of the digital radiography system accurately to obtain proper image quality.

  19. Quantifying biodiversity using digital cameras and automated image analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roadknight, C. M.; Rose, R. J.; Barber, M. L.; Price, M. C.; Marshall, I. W.

    2009-04-01

    Monitoring the effects on biodiversity of extensive grazing in complex semi-natural habitats is labour intensive. There are also concerns about the standardization of semi-quantitative data collection. We have chosen to focus initially on automating the most time consuming aspect - the image analysis. The advent of cheaper and more sophisticated digital camera technology has lead to a sudden increase in the number of habitat monitoring images and information that is being collected. We report on the use of automated trail cameras (designed for the game hunting market) to continuously capture images of grazer activity in a variety of habitats at Moor House National Nature Reserve, which is situated in the North of England at an average altitude of over 600m. Rainfall is high, and in most areas the soil consists of deep peat (1m to 3m), populated by a mix of heather, mosses and sedges. The cameras have been continuously in operation over a 6 month period, daylight images are in full colour and night images (IR flash) are black and white. We have developed artificial intelligence based methods to assist in the analysis of the large number of images collected, generating alert states for new or unusual image conditions. This paper describes the data collection techniques, outlines the quantitative and qualitative data collected and proposes online and offline systems that can reduce the manpower overheads and increase focus on important subsets in the collected data. By converting digital image data into statistical composite data it can be handled in a similar way to other biodiversity statistics thus improving the scalability of monitoring experiments. Unsupervised feature detection methods and supervised neural methods were tested and offered solutions to simplifying the process. Accurate (85 to 95%) categorization of faunal content can be obtained, requiring human intervention for only those images containing rare animals or unusual (undecidable) conditions, and

  20. Diagnostic imaging, a 'parallel' discipline. Can current technology provide a reliable digital diagnostic radiology department

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, C.J.; Eddleston, B.

    1985-01-01

    Only recently has any detailed criticism been voiced about the practicalities of the introduction of generalised, digital, imaging complexes in diagnostic radiology. Although attendant technological problems are highlighted the authors argue that the fundamental causes of current difficulties are not in the generation but in the processing, filing and subsequent retrieval for display of digital image records. In the real world, looking at images is a parallel process of some complexity and so it is perhaps untimely to expect versatile handling of vast image data bases by existing computer hardware and software which, by their current nature, perform tasks serially. (author)

  1. scikit-image: image processing in Python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Walt, Stéfan; Schönberger, Johannes L; Nunez-Iglesias, Juan; Boulogne, François; Warner, Joshua D; Yager, Neil; Gouillart, Emmanuelle; Yu, Tony

    2014-01-01

    scikit-image is an image processing library that implements algorithms and utilities for use in research, education and industry applications. It is released under the liberal Modified BSD open source license, provides a well-documented API in the Python programming language, and is developed by an active, international team of collaborators. In this paper we highlight the advantages of open source to achieve the goals of the scikit-image library, and we showcase several real-world image processing applications that use scikit-image. More information can be found on the project homepage, http://scikit-image.org.

  2. scikit-image: image processing in Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stéfan van der Walt

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available scikit-image is an image processing library that implements algorithms and utilities for use in research, education and industry applications. It is released under the liberal Modified BSD open source license, provides a well-documented API in the Python programming language, and is developed by an active, international team of collaborators. In this paper we highlight the advantages of open source to achieve the goals of the scikit-image library, and we showcase several real-world image processing applications that use scikit-image. More information can be found on the project homepage, http://scikit-image.org.

  3. Implementation of a dedicated digital projectional radiographic system in thoracic imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aberle, D.R.; Batra, P.; Hayrapetian, A.S.; Brown, K.; Morioka, C.A.; Steckel, R.J.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated digital radiographic system was evaluated with respect to image quality and impact on diagnosis relative to conventional chest radiographs for a variety of focal and diffuse lung processes. Digital images were acquired with a stimulable phosphor plate detector that was scanned by a semiconductor laser for immediate digitalization to a 2,048 X 2,464 X 10-bit image. Digital images were displayed on a 2,048-line monitor and printed on 14 X 17-inch film with use of a laser film printer (Kodak). Preliminary results with this system, including the effects of user interaction with the display monitor, inverse intensity display, and regional magnification techniques, indicate that it may be successfully implemented for thoracic imaging

  4. Digitalization and networking of analog simulators and portal images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pesznyak, C.; Zarand, P.; Mayer, A. [Uzsoki Hospital, Budapest (Hungary). Inst. of Oncoradiology

    2007-03-15

    Background: Many departments have analog simulators and irradiation facilities (especially cobalt units) without electronic portal imaging. Import of the images into the R and V (Record and Verify) system is required. Material and Methods: Simulator images are grabbed while portal films scanned by using a laser scanner and both converted into DICOM RT (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Radiotherapy) images. Results: Image intensifier output of a simulator and portal films are converted to DICOM RT images and used in clinical practice. The simulator software was developed in cooperation at the authors' hospital. Conclusion: The digitalization of analog simulators is a valuable updating in clinical use replacing screen-film technique. Film scanning and digitalization permit the electronic archiving of films. Conversion into DICOM RT images is a precondition of importing to the R and V system. (orig.)

  5. Digitalization and networking of analog simulators and portal images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesznyák, Csilla; Zaránd, Pál; Mayer, Arpád

    2007-03-01

    Many departments have analog simulators and irradiation facilities (especially cobalt units) without electronic portal imaging. Import of the images into the R&V (Record & Verify) system is required. Simulator images are grabbed while portal films scanned by using a laser scanner and both converted into DICOM RT (Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine Radiotherapy) images. Image intensifier output of a simulator and portal films are converted to DICOM RT images and used in clinical practice. The simulator software was developed in cooperation at the authors' hospital. The digitalization of analog simulators is a valuable updating in clinical use replacing screen-film technique. Film scanning and digitalization permit the electronic archiving of films. Conversion into DICOM RT images is a precondition of importing to the R&V system.

  6. The application of digital image plane holography technology to identify Chinese herbal medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Huaying; Guo, Zhongjia; Liao, Wei; Zhang, Zhihui

    2012-03-01

    In this paper, the imaging technology of digital image plane holography to identify the Chinese herbal medicine is studied. The optical experiment system of digital image plane holography which is the special case of pre-magnification digital holography was built. In the record system, one is an object light by using plane waves which illuminates the object, and the other one is recording hologram by using spherical light wave as reference light. There is a Micro objective lens behind the object. The second phase factor which caus ed by the Micro objective lens can be eliminated by choosing the proper position of the reference point source when digital image plane holography is recorded by spherical light. In this experiment, we use the Lygodium cells and Onion cells as the object. The experiment results with Lygodium cells and Onion cells show that digital image plane holography avoid the process of finding recording distance by using auto-focusing approach, and the phase information of the object can be reconstructed more accurately. The digital image plane holography is applied to the microscopic imaging of cells more effectively, and it is suit to apply for the identify of Chinese Herbal Medicine. And it promotes the application of digital holographic in practice.

  7. Topology of digital images visual pattern discovery in proximity spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, James F

    2014-01-01

    This book carries forward recent work on visual patterns and structures in digital images and introduces a near set-based a topology of digital images. Visual patterns arise naturally in digital images viewed as sets of non-abstract points endowed with some form of proximity (nearness) relation. Proximity relations make it possible to construct uniform topolo- gies on the sets of points that constitute a digital image. In keeping with an interest in gaining an understanding of digital images themselves as a rich source of patterns, this book introduces the basics of digital images from a computer vision perspective. In parallel with a computer vision perspective on digital images, this book also introduces the basics of prox- imity spaces. Not only the traditional view of spatial proximity relations but also the more recent descriptive proximity relations are considered. The beauty of the descriptive proximity approach is that it is possible to discover visual set patterns among sets that are non-overlapping ...

  8. Myocardial perfusion imaging by digital subtraction angiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadowaki, Hiroyuki; Ishikawa, Kinji; Ogai, Toshihiro; Katori, Ryo

    1986-01-01

    Several methods of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were compared to determine which could better visualize regional myocardial perfusion using coronary angiography in seven patients with myocardial infarction, two with angina pectoris and five with normal coronary arteries. Satisfactory DSA was judged to be achieved if the shape of the heart on the mask film was identical to that on the live film and if both films were exactly superimposed. To obtain an identical mask film in the shape of each live film, both films were selected from the following three phases of the cardiac cycle; 1) at the R wave of the electrocardiogram, 2) 100 msec before the R wave, and 3) 200 msec before the R wave. The last two were superior for obtaining mask and live films which were similar in shape, because the cardiac motion in these phases was relatively small. Using these mask and live films, DSA was performed either with the continuous image mode (CI mode) or the time interval difference mode (TID mode). The overall perfusion of contrast medium through the artery to the vein was adequately visualized using the CI mode. Passage of contrast medium through the artery, capillary and vein was visualized at each phase using TID mode. Subtracted images were displayed and photographed, and the density of the contrast medium was adequate to display contour lines as in a relief map. Using this DSA, it was found that regional perfusion of the contrast medium was not always uniform in normal subjects, depending on the typography of the coronary artery. In all patients with anterior myocardial infarction, low perfusion was observed at the infarcted portion compared to the non-infarcted myocardium. In patients with inferior myocardial infarction, this low perfusion area was not observed because right coronary angiography was not subjected to DSA in this study. (J.P.N.)

  9. [Myocardial perfusion imaging by digital subtraction angiography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadowaki, H; Ishikawa, K; Ogai, T; Katori, R

    1986-03-01

    Several methods of digital subtraction angiography (DSA) were compared to determine which could better visualize regional myocardial perfusion using coronary angiography in seven patients with myocardial infarction, two with angina pectoris and five with normal coronary arteries. Satisfactory DSA was judged to be achieved if the shape of the heart on the mask film was identical to that on the live film and if both films were exactly superimposed. To obtain an identical mask film in the shape of each live film, both films were selected from the following three phases of the cardiac cycle; at the R wave of the electrocardiogram, 100 msec before the R wave, and 200 msec before the R wave. The last two were superior for obtaining mask and live films which were similar in shape, because the cardiac motion in these phases was relatively small. Using these mask and live films, DSA was performed either with the continuous image mode (CI mode) or the time interval difference mode (TID mode). The overall perfusion of contrast medium through the artery to the vein was adequately visualized using the CI mode. Passage of contrast medium through the artery, capillary and vein was visualized at each phase using TID mode. Subtracted images were displayed and photographed, and the density of the contrast medium was adequate to display contour lines as in a relief map. Using this DSA, it was found that regional perfusion of the contrast medium was not always uniform in normal subjects, depending on the typography of the coronary artery.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Quality assurance in digital dental imaging: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metsälä, Eija; Henner, Anja; Ekholm, Marja

    2014-07-01

    Doses induced by individual dental examinations are low. However, dental radiography accounts for nearly one third of the total number of radiological examinations in the European Union. Therefore, special attention is needed with regard to radiation protection. In order to lower patient doses, the staff performing dental examinations must have competence in imaging as well as in radiation protection issues. This paper presents a systematic review about the core competencies needed by the healthcare staff in performing digital dental radiological imaging quality assurance. The following databases were searched: Pubmed, Cinahl, Pro Quest and IEEXplore digital library. Also volumes of some dental imaging journals and doctoral theses of the Finnish universities educating dentists were searched. The search was performed using both MeSH terms and keywords using the option 'search all text'. The original keywords were: dental imaging, digital, x-ray, panoramic, quality, assurance, competence, competency, skills, knowledge, radiographer, radiologist technician, dentist, oral hygienist, radiation protection and their Finnish synonyms. Core competencies needed by the healthcare staff performing digital dental radiological imaging quality assurance described in the selected studies were: management of dental imaging equipment, competence in image quality and factors associated with it, dose optimization and quality assurance. In the future there will be higher doses in dental imaging due to increasing use of CBCT and digital imaging. The staff performing dental imaging must have competence in dental imaging quality assurance issues found in this review. They also have to practice ethical radiation safety culture in clinical practice.

  11. A comparison of periapical radiographs and their digital images for the detection of dental caries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Byung Cheol

    1994-01-01

    In summary, it has been demonstrated by this study that the detection rate of definite large proximal surface caries (C2) on the digital images was good and the detection rate of the first stage caries (C1) was somewhat inferior to film based images. It has been demonstrated by this study and others that the detection of proximal surface caries by present clinical methodologies is still poor. Every effort should be made to develop new means to improve digitizing process.

  12. Acquired image quality in digital industrial radiographic equipments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Cristiane de Queiroz; Lopes, Ricardo Tadeu; Oliveira, Davi F.

    2008-01-01

    The computerized radiographic application in the industrial area is a recent event. The imaging plate is the equipment used as imaging receiver during the exposition radiographic technique, which consists of a flexible photostimulable phosphor screen, capable of storing the photons energy of the incident X and γ rays and of a reading unit which uses a laser device to stimulate a visible light. As two types of phosphor screen are manufactured, one for general use (General Plate - GP) and another one for specific using (High Resolution-HR), one of the objectives of this study was to evaluate the spatial resolution capability in both plates using the Kodak equipment. Furthermore, equipment from different makers, Kodak and General Electric Company - GE, were compared. Two phosphor screen HR were used as the main objective of this study. Imaging Quality Indicators - IQI were used to evaluate the spatial resolution of the images in accordance with ASME and DIN standard. The results show that after evaluating the GP and HR Kodak plates, the HR plate was capable of showing a larger resolution of details. However, after evaluating the performance of the HR Kodak plate and GE plate, over the same acquisition condition and with the same size of the laser focal set of 87 μm, the results show a superiority in the GE equipment used for industrial radiographic, mainly for processed images in each specific ambient of digital processing and its performance in meeting satisfactorily the ASME code and the DIN standard. (author)

  13. Epistemic Function and Ontology of Analog and Digital Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Łukaszewicz Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The important epistemic function of photographic images is their active role in construction and reconstruction of our beliefs concerning the world and human identity, since we often consider photographs as presenting reality or even the Real itself. Because photography can convince people of how different social and ethnic groups and even they themselves look, documentary projects and the dissemination of photographic practices supported the transition from disciplinary society to the present-day society of control. While both analog and digital images are formed from the same basic materia, the ways in which this matter appears are distinctive. In the case of analog photography, we deal with physical and chemical matter, whereas with digital images we face electronic matter. Because digital photography allows endless modification of the image, we can no longer believe in the truthfulness of digital images.

  14. [Managing digital medical imaging projects in healthcare services: lessons learned].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas de la Escalera, D

    2013-01-01

    Medical imaging is one of the most important diagnostic instruments in clinical practice. The technological development of digital medical imaging has enabled healthcare services to undertake large scale projects that require the participation and collaboration of many professionals of varied backgrounds and interests as well as substantial investments in infrastructures. Rather than focusing on systems for dealing with digital medical images, this article deals with the management of projects for implementing these systems, reviewing various organizational, technological, and human factors that are critical to ensure the success of these projects and to guarantee the compatibility and integration of digital medical imaging systems with other health information systems. To this end, the author relates several lessons learned from a review of the literature and the author's own experience in the technical coordination of digital medical imaging projects. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  15. HD Photo: a new image coding technology for digital photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Sridhar; Tu, Chengjie; Regunathan, Shankar L.; Sullivan, Gary J.

    2007-09-01

    This paper introduces the HD Photo coding technology developed by Microsoft Corporation. The storage format for this technology is now under consideration in the ITU-T/ISO/IEC JPEG committee as a candidate for standardization under the name JPEG XR. The technology was developed to address end-to-end digital imaging application requirements, particularly including the needs of digital photography. HD Photo includes features such as good compression capability, high dynamic range support, high image quality capability, lossless coding support, full-format 4:4:4 color sampling, simple thumbnail extraction, embedded bitstream scalability of resolution and fidelity, and degradation-free compressed domain support of key manipulations such as cropping, flipping and rotation. HD Photo has been designed to optimize image quality and compression efficiency while also enabling low-complexity encoding and decoding implementations. To ensure low complexity for implementations, the design features have been incorporated in a way that not only minimizes the computational requirements of the individual components (including consideration of such aspects as memory footprint, cache effects, and parallelization opportunities) but results in a self-consistent design that maximizes the commonality of functional processing components.

  16. JIP: Java image processing on the Internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dongyan; Lin, Bo; Zhang, Jun

    1998-12-01

    In this paper, we present JIP - Java Image Processing on the Internet, a new Internet based application for remote education and software presentation. JIP offers an integrate learning environment on the Internet where remote users not only can share static HTML documents and lectures notes, but also can run and reuse dynamic distributed software components, without having the source code or any extra work of software compilation, installation and configuration. By implementing a platform-independent distributed computational model, local computational resources are consumed instead of the resources on a central server. As an extended Java applet, JIP allows users to selected local image files on their computers or specify any image on the Internet using an URL as input. Multimedia lectures such as streaming video/audio and digital images are integrated into JIP and intelligently associated with specific image processing functions. Watching demonstrations an practicing the functions with user-selected input data dramatically encourages leaning interest, while promoting the understanding of image processing theory. The JIP framework can be easily applied to other subjects in education or software presentation, such as digital signal processing, business, mathematics, physics, or other areas such as employee training and charged software consumption.

  17. SlideJ: An ImageJ plugin for automated processing of whole slide images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Mea, Vincenzo; Baroni, Giulia L; Pilutti, David; Di Loreto, Carla

    2017-01-01

    The digital slide, or Whole Slide Image, is a digital image, acquired with specific scanners, that represents a complete tissue sample or cytological specimen at microscopic level. While Whole Slide image analysis is recognized among the most interesting opportunities, the typical size of such images-up to Gpixels- can be very demanding in terms of memory requirements. Thus, while algorithms and tools for processing and analysis of single microscopic field images are available, Whole Slide images size makes the direct use of such tools prohibitive or impossible. In this work a plugin for ImageJ, named SlideJ, is proposed with the objective to seamlessly extend the application of image analysis algorithms implemented in ImageJ for single microscopic field images to a whole digital slide analysis. The plugin has been complemented by examples of macro in the ImageJ scripting language to demonstrate its use in concrete situations.

  18. SlideJ: An ImageJ plugin for automated processing of whole slide images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Della Mea

    Full Text Available The digital slide, or Whole Slide Image, is a digital image, acquired with specific scanners, that represents a complete tissue sample or cytological specimen at microscopic level. While Whole Slide image analysis is recognized among the most interesting opportunities, the typical size of such images-up to Gpixels- can be very demanding in terms of memory requirements. Thus, while algorithms and tools for processing and analysis of single microscopic field images are available, Whole Slide images size makes the direct use of such tools prohibitive or impossible. In this work a plugin for ImageJ, named SlideJ, is proposed with the objective to seamlessly extend the application of image analysis algorithms implemented in ImageJ for single microscopic field images to a whole digital slide analysis. The plugin has been complemented by examples of macro in the ImageJ scripting language to demonstrate its use in concrete situations.

  19. Digital Signal Processing applied to Physical Signals

    CERN Document Server

    Alberto, Diego; Musa, L

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that many of the scientific and technological discoveries of the XXI century will depend on the capability of processing and understanding a huge quantity of data. With the advent of the digital era, a fully digital and automated treatment can be designed and performed. From data mining to data compression, from signal elaboration to noise reduction, a processing is essential to manage and enhance features of interest after every data acquisition (DAQ) session. In the near future, science will go towards interdisciplinary research. In this work there will be given an example of the application of signal processing to different fields of Physics from nuclear particle detectors to biomedical examinations. In Chapter 1 a brief description of the collaborations that allowed this thesis is given, together with a list of the publications co-produced by the author in these three years. The most important notations, definitions and acronyms used in the work are also provided. In Chapter 2, the last r...

  20. A radiographic image archive system on digital optical disks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankovich, N.J.; Taira, R.K.; Cho, P.S.; Wong, W.K.; Stewart, B.K.; Huang, H.K.

    1986-01-01

    The recent introduction of projection computed radiography (CR) systems allows radiology departments to consider digital operation in over 90% of performed procedures. Ideally, current patient procedures from CT, CT, and MR along with laser-digitized historical films should be centrally stored at their full digital resolution. Magnetic disks, because of their limited storage capacity and expense, can only retain these data on a limited basis. The author devised an optical disk archive system which automatically stores images directly onto 2.6-gigabyte optical cartridges without recourse to film. This system is in full clinical operation in the UCLA Pediatric Radiology Section of the authors' department. From this experience they present (a) an analysis of the digital archiving requirements of the Pediatric Radiology Section based on CR, CT, MR, and laser digitized films; (b) the archive and retrieval methods along with performance statistics; and (c) the procedure for assuring digital image integrity

  1. Generalizing on best practices in image processing: a model for promoting research integrity: Commentary on: Avoiding twisted pixels: ethical guidelines for the appropriate use and manipulation of scientific digital images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benos, Dale J; Vollmer, Sara H

    2010-12-01

    Modifying images for scientific publication is now quick and easy due to changes in technology. This has created a need for new image processing guidelines and attitudes, such as those offered to the research community by Doug Cromey (Cromey 2010). We suggest that related changes in technology have simplified the task of detecting misconduct for journal editors as well as researchers, and that this simplification has caused a shift in the responsibility for reporting misconduct. We also argue that the concept of best practices in image processing can serve as a general model for education in best practices in research.

  2. Dynamic imaging through turbid media based on digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shiping; Zhong, Jingang

    2014-03-01

    Imaging through turbid media using visible or IR light instead of harmful x ray is still a challenging problem, especially in dynamic imaging. A method of dynamic imaging through turbid media using digital holography is presented. In order to match the coherence length between the dynamic object wave and the reference wave, a cw laser is used. To solve the problem of difficult focusing in imaging through turbid media, an autofocus technology is applied. To further enhance the image contrast, a spatial filtering technique is used. A description of digital holography and experiments of imaging the objects hidden in turbid media are presented. The experimental result shows that dynamic images of the objects can be achieved by the use of digital holography.

  3. Digital Correlation based on Wavelet Transform for Image Detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barba, L; Vargas, L; Torres, C; Mattos, L

    2011-01-01

    In this work is presented a method for the optimization of digital correlators to improve the characteristic detection on images using wavelet transform as well as subband filtering. It is proposed an approach of wavelet-based image contrast enhancement in order to increase the performance of digital correlators. The multiresolution representation is employed to improve the high frequency content of images taken into account the input contrast measured for the original image. The energy of correlation peaks and discrimination level of several objects are improved with this technique. To demonstrate the potentiality in extracting characteristics using the wavelet transform, small objects inside reference images are detected successfully.

  4. Image processing and recognition for biological images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Seiichi

    2013-05-01

    This paper reviews image processing and pattern recognition techniques, which will be useful to analyze bioimages. Although this paper does not provide their technical details, it will be possible to grasp their main tasks and typical tools to handle the tasks. Image processing is a large research area to improve the visibility of an input image and acquire some valuable information from it. As the main tasks of image processing, this paper introduces gray-level transformation, binarization, image filtering, image segmentation, visual object tracking, optical flow and image registration. Image pattern recognition is the technique to classify an input image into one of the predefined classes and also has a large research area. This paper overviews its two main modules, that is, feature extraction module and classification module. Throughout the paper, it will be emphasized that bioimage is a very difficult target for even state-of-the-art image processing and pattern recognition techniques due to noises, deformations, etc. This paper is expected to be one tutorial guide to bridge biology and image processing researchers for their further collaboration to tackle such a difficult target. © 2013 The Author Development, Growth & Differentiation © 2013 Japanese Society of Developmental Biologists.

  5. SNAPSHOT SPECTRAL AND COLOR IMAGING USING A REGULAR DIGITAL CAMERA WITH A MONOCHROMATIC IMAGE SENSOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Hauser

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Spectral imaging (SI refers to the acquisition of the three-dimensional (3D spectral cube of spatial and spectral data of a source object at a limited number of wavelengths in a given wavelength range. Snapshot spectral imaging (SSI refers to the instantaneous acquisition (in a single shot of the spectral cube, a process suitable for fast changing objects. Known SSI devices exhibit large total track length (TTL, weight and production costs and relatively low optical throughput. We present a simple SSI camera based on a regular digital camera with (i an added diffusing and dispersing phase-only static optical element at the entrance pupil (diffuser and (ii tailored compressed sensing (CS methods for digital processing of the diffused and dispersed (DD image recorded on the image sensor. The diffuser is designed to mix the spectral cube data spectrally and spatially and thus to enable convergence in its reconstruction by CS-based algorithms. In addition to performing SSI, this SSI camera is capable to perform color imaging using a monochromatic or gray-scale image sensor without color filter arrays.

  6. The clinical application of the digital imaging in urography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yuelong; Xie Sumin; Zhang Li; Li Huayu

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application of the digital imaging in the urography. Methods: In total 112 patients underwent digital urography, including intravenous pyelography (IVP) in 38 cases and retrograde pyelography in 74 cases. Results: the entire urinary tract was better shown on digital imaging, which was accurate in locating the obstruction of urinary tract and helped the qualitative diagnosis. Digital urography was especially valuable in detecting urinary calculus. In 38 cases of IVP, the results were normal in 5 patients, renal stone in 12, ureteral stone in 13, ureteral stenosis in 6 and nephroblastom in 2. In the 74 cases of retrograde pyelography, benign ureteral stenosis was found in 31 patients, ureteral stone in 27, ureteral polyp in 2, urethral stone in 8 and benign urethral stenosis in 6. Conclusion: Digital imaging technique is of big value in the diagnosis of urinary tract lesions

  7. Improving image quality of parallel phase-shifting digital holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Awatsuji, Yasuhiro; Tahara, Tatsuki; Kaneko, Atsushi; Koyama, Takamasa; Nishio, Kenzo; Ura, Shogo; Kubota, Toshihiro; Matoba, Osamu

    2008-01-01

    The authors propose parallel two-step phase-shifting digital holography to improve the image quality of parallel phase-shifting digital holography. The proposed technique can increase the effective number of pixels of hologram twice in comparison to the conventional parallel four-step technique. The increase of the number of pixels makes it possible to improve the image quality of the reconstructed image of the parallel phase-shifting digital holography. Numerical simulation and preliminary experiment of the proposed technique were conducted and the effectiveness of the technique was confirmed. The proposed technique is more practical than the conventional parallel phase-shifting digital holography, because the composition of the digital holographic system based on the proposed technique is simpler.

  8. Image processing system for flow pattern measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushijima, Satoru; Miyanaga, Yoichi; Takeda, Hirofumi

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes the development and application of an image processing system for measurements of flow patterns occuring in natural circulation water flows. In this method, the motions of particles scattered in the flow are visualized by a laser light slit and they are recorded on normal video tapes. These image data are converted to digital data with an image processor and then transfered to a large computer. The center points and pathlines of the particle images are numerically analized, and velocity vectors are obtained with these results. In this image processing system, velocity vectors in a vertical plane are measured simultaneously, so that the two dimensional behaviors of various eddies, with low velocity and complicated flow patterns usually observed in natural circulation flows, can be determined almost quantitatively. The measured flow patterns, which were obtained from natural circulation flow experiments, agreed with photographs of the particle movements, and the validity of this measuring system was confirmed in this study. (author)

  9. Combination of single image super resolution and digital Inpainting algorithms based on GANS for robust image completion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hayrapetyan Sparik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Image inpainting, a technique of completing missing or corrupted image regions in undetected form, is an open problem in digital image processing. Inpainting of large regions using Deep Convolutional Generative Adversarial Nets (DCGAN is a new and powerful approach. In described approaches the size of generated image and size of input image should be the same. In this paper we propose a new method where the size of input image with corrupted region can be up to 4 times larger than generated image.

  10. Digitalization of the radiological image. A new philosophy of the radiological imagery: the high resolution of the contrasts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, R.

    1983-01-01

    Three cases of digitalization are to be considered: static digitalization of the conventional radiographic image; static digitalization of the calculated image, like tomodensitometric images; dynamic digitalization of television images [fr

  11. CERN Technical Training 2003: Learning for the LHC ! DISP-2003 - Digital Signal Processing

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    DISP-2003 - Digital Signal Processing DISP-2003 is a two-term course given by CERN and University of Lausanne (UNIL) experts within the framework of the Technical Training Programme. The course will review the current techniques dealing with Digital Signal Processing, and it is intended for an audience who work or will work on digital signal processing aspects, and who need an introductory or refresher/update course. The course will be in English, with question and answers also in French. Spring 2 Term: DISP-2003: Advanced Digital Signal Processing 30 April 2003 - 21 May 2003, 4 lectures, Wednesdays afternoon (attendance cost: 40.- CHF, registration required) Lecturers: Léonard Studer, UNIL; Laurent Deniau, AT-MTM; Elena Wildner, AT-MAS Programme: Intelligent signal processing (ISP). Non-linear time series analysis. Image processing. Wavelets. (Basic concepts and definitions have been introduced during the previous Spring 1 Term: DISP-2003: Introduction to Digital Signal Processing). DISP-2003 is open...

  12. Brain's tumor image processing using shearlet transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadena, Luis; Espinosa, Nikolai; Cadena, Franklin; Korneeva, Anna; Kruglyakov, Alexey; Legalov, Alexander; Romanenko, Alexey; Zotin, Alexander

    2017-09-01

    Brain tumor detection is well known research area for medical and computer scientists. In last decades there has been much research done on tumor detection, segmentation, and classification. Medical imaging plays a central role in the diagnosis of brain tumors and nowadays uses methods non-invasive, high-resolution techniques, especially magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography scans. Edge detection is a fundamental tool in image processing, particularly in the areas of feature detection and feature extraction, which aim at identifying points in a digital image at which the image has discontinuities. Shearlets is the most successful frameworks for the efficient representation of multidimensional data, capturing edges and other anisotropic features which frequently dominate multidimensional phenomena. The paper proposes an improved brain tumor detection method by automatically detecting tumor location in MR images, its features are extracted by new shearlet transform.

  13. The establishment of Digital Image Capture System(DICS) using conventional simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Tae Sung; Park, Jong Il; Byun, Young Sik; Shin, Hyun Kyoh

    2004-01-01

    The simulator is used to determine patient field and ensure the treatment field, which encompasses the required anatomy during patient normal movement such as during breathing. The latest simulator provide real time display of still, fluoroscopic and digitalized image, but conventional simulator is not yet. The purpose of this study is to introduce digital image capture system(DICS) using conventional simulator and clinical case using digital captured still and fluoroscopic image. We connect the video signal cable to the video terminal in the back up of simulator monitor, and connect the video jack to the A/D converter. After connection between the converter jack and computer, We can acquire still image and record fluoroscopic image with operating image capture program. The data created with this system can be used in patient treatment, and modified for verification by using image processing software. (j.e. photoshop, paintshop) DICS was able to establish easy and economical procedure. DCIS image was helpful for simulation. DICS imaging was powerful tool in the evaluation of the department specific patient positioning. Because the commercialized simulator based of digital capture is very expensive, it is not easily to establish DICS simulator in the most hospital. DICS using conventional simulator enable to utilize the practical use of image equal to high cost digitalized simulator and to research many clinical cases in case of using other software program.

  14. Why Process is Extrinsic to the Digital Domain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    In this series of notes from 2014, first published on the Empyre list after being asked, "What is a digital process?" and edited down for this posting, it is argued that the digital is moved by exterior forces, that process is not inherent to it, and that the bits, pixels and voxels of the digital...

  15. Simple and robust image-based autofocusing for digital microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdanfar, Siavash; Kenny, Kevin B; Tasimi, Krenar; Corwin, Alex D; Dixon, Elizabeth L; Filkins, Robert J

    2008-06-09

    A simple image-based autofocusing scheme for digital microscopy is demonstrated that uses as few as two intermediate images to bring the sample into focus. The algorithm is adapted to a commercial inverted microscope and used to automate brightfield and fluorescence imaging of histopathology tissue sections.

  16. Factors to consider in the transition to digital radiological imaging.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    MacDonald, David

    2009-02-01

    The dentist considering adopting digital radiological technology should consider more than the type of detector with which to capture the image. He\\/she should also consider the mode of display, image enhancement, radiation dose reduction, how the image can be stored long term, and infection control.

  17. Image processing with ImageJ

    CERN Document Server

    Pascau, Javier

    2013-01-01

    The book will help readers discover the various facilities of ImageJ through a tutorial-based approach.This book is targeted at scientists, engineers, technicians, and managers, and anyone who wishes to master ImageJ for image viewing, processing, and analysis. If you are a developer, you will be able to code your own routines after you have finished reading this book. No prior knowledge of ImageJ is expected.

  18. Self-adaptive isogeometric global digital image correlation and digital height correlation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagels, J. P M; Kleinendorst, S. M.; Ruybalid, A. P.; Verhoosel, C. V.; Geers, M. G D; Yoshida, S.; Lamberti, L.; Sciammarella, C.

    2017-01-01

    This work explores the full potential of isogeometric shape functions for global digital image correlation. To this end, a novel DIC and DHC (digital height correlation) methodology have been developed based on adaptive refinement of isogeometric shape functions. Non-Uniform Rational B-Spline

  19. Affordable, Accessible, Immediate: Capture Stunning Images with Digital Infrared Photography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Mark

    2011-01-01

    Technology educators who teach digital photography should consider incorporating an infrared (IR) photography component into their program. This is an area where digital photography offers significant benefits. Either type of IR imaging is very interesting to explore, but traditional film-based IR photography is difficult and expensive. In…

  20. Information Seeking Behavior in Digital Image Collections: A Cognitive Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matusiak, Krystyna K.

    2006-01-01

    Presents the results of a qualitative study that focuses on search patterns of college students and community users interacting with a digital image collection. The study finds a distinct difference between the two groups of users and examines the role of mental models in information seeking behavior in digital libraries.

  1. A Multiresolution Image Completion Algorithm for Compressing Digital Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Gomathi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces a new framework for image coding that uses image inpainting method. In the proposed algorithm, the input image is subjected to image analysis to remove some of the portions purposefully. At the same time, edges are extracted from the input image and they are passed to the decoder in the compressed manner. The edges which are transmitted to decoder act as assistant information and they help inpainting process fill the missing regions at the decoder. Textural synthesis and a new shearlet inpainting scheme based on the theory of p-Laplacian operator are proposed for image restoration at the decoder. Shearlets have been mathematically proven to represent distributed discontinuities such as edges better than traditional wavelets and are a suitable tool for edge characterization. This novel shearlet p-Laplacian inpainting model can effectively reduce the staircase effect in Total Variation (TV inpainting model whereas it can still keep edges as well as TV model. In the proposed scheme, neural network is employed to enhance the value of compression ratio for image coding. Test results are compared with JPEG 2000 and H.264 Intracoding algorithms. The results show that the proposed algorithm works well.

  2. Digital Image Forensics There is More to a Picture than Meets the Eye

    CERN Document Server

    Memon, Nasir

    2013-01-01

    Photographic imagery has come a long way from the pinhole cameras of the nineteenth century. Digital imagery, and its applications, develops in tandem with contemporary society’s sophisticated literacy of this subtle medium. This book examines the ways in which digital images have become ever more ubiquitous as legal and medical evidence, just as they have become our primary source of news and have replaced paper-based financial documentation. Crucially, the contributions also analyze the very profound problems which have arisen alongside the digital image, issues of veracity and progeny that demand systematic and detailed response: It looks real, but is it? What camera captured it? Has it been doctored or subtly altered? Attempting to provide answers to these slippery issues, the book covers how digital images are created, processed and stored before moving on to set out the latest techniques for forensically examining images, and finally addressing practical issues such as courtroom admissibility. In an e...

  3. Effects of image enhancement on reliability of landmark identification in digital cephalometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Oshagh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Although digital cephalometric radiography is gaining popularity in orthodontic practice, the most important source of error in its tracing is uncertainty in landmark identification. Therefore, efforts to improve accuracy in landmark identification were directed primarily toward the improvement in image quality. One of the more useful techniques of this process involves digital image enhancement which can increase overall visual quality of image, but this does not necessarily mean a better identification of landmarks. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of digital image enhancements on reliability of landmark identification. Materials and Methods: Fifteen common landmarks including 10 skeletal and 5 soft tissues were selected on the cephalograms of 20 randomly selected patients, prepared in Natural Head Position (NHP. Two observers (orthodontists identified landmarks on the 20 original photostimulable phosphor (PSP digital cephalogram images and 20 enhanced digital images twice with an intervening time interval of at least 4 weeks. The x and y coordinates were further analyzed to evaluate the pattern of recording differences in horizontal and vertical directions. Reliability of landmarks identification was analyzed by paired t test. Results: There was a significant difference between original and enhanced digital images in terms of reliability of points Ar and N in vertical and horizontal dimensions, and enhanced images were significantly more reliable than original images. Identification of A point, Pogonion and Pronasal points, in vertical dimension of enhanced images was significantly more reliable than original ones. Reliability of Menton point identification in horizontal dimension was significantly more in enhanced images than original ones. Conclusion: Direct digital image enhancement by altering brightness and contrast can increase reliability of some landmark identification and this may lead to more

  4. Integrated global digital image correlation for interface delamination characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Hoefnagels, Johan P.M.; Blaysat, Benoî t; Lubineau, Gilles; Geers, Marc G D

    2013-01-01

    , but require accurate interface models to capture (irreversible) crack initiation and propagation behavior observed in experiments. Therefore, an Integrated Global Digital Image Correlation (I-GDIC) strategy is developed for accurate determination of mechanical

  5. Development of digital image correlation method to analyse crack ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    samples were performed to verify the performance of the digital image correlation method. ... development cannot be measured accurately. ..... Mendelson A 1983 Plasticity: Theory and application (USA: Krieger Publishing company Malabar,.

  6. Digital Imaging of Pipeline Mechanical Damage and Residual Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-19

    The purpose of this program was to enhance characterization of mechanical damage in pipelines through application of digital eddy current imaging. Lift-off maps can be used to develop quantitative representations of mechanical damage and magnetic per...

  7. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin; Zhang Qi; Zheng Futang

    2000-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images are presented. The software for object separating, mass calculating, 3D positioning, speed determining and cavity reconstruction are described

  8. Network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jingjin; Yuan Jie; Liu Yaqiang; Lin Yong; Song Zheng; Liu Keyin

    2003-01-01

    A network based multi-channel digital flash X-ray imaging system has been developed. It can be used to acquire and digitize orthogonal flash X-ray images in multi-interval, and to distribute the images on the network. There is no need of films and chemical process, no anxiety of waiting and no trouble of film archiving. This system is useful for testing ballistics, jet, explode, armour-piercing and fast running machines. The system composing and acquired images of terminal ballistics are presented. The software for object separating, profile calculating and 3D cavity reconstruction are described

  9. Microscopy imaging and quantitative phase contrast mapping in turbid microfluidic channels by digital holography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paturzo, Melania; Finizio, Andrea; Memmolo, Pasquale; Puglisi, Roberto; Balduzzi, Donatella; Galli, Andrea; Ferraro, Pietro

    2012-09-07

    We show that sharp imaging and quantitative phase-contrast microcopy is possible in microfluidics in flowing turbid media by digital holography. In fact, in flowing liquids with suspended colloidal particles, clear vision is hindered and cannot be recovered by any other microscopic imaging technique. On the contrary, using digital holography, clear imaging is possible thanks to the Doppler frequency shift experienced by the photons scattered by the flowing colloidal particles, which do not contribute to the interference process, i.e. the recorded hologram. The method is illustrated and imaging results are demonstrated for pure phase objects, i.e. biological cells in microfluidic channels.

  10. Automatic analysis of quality of images from X-ray digital flat detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le Meur, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Since last decade, medical imaging has grown up with the development of new digital imaging techniques. In the field of X-ray radiography, new detectors replace progressively older techniques, based on film or x-ray intensifiers. These digital detectors offer a higher sensibility and reduced overall dimensions. This work has been prepared with Trixell, the world leading company in flat detectors for medical radiography. It deals with quality control on digital images stemming from these detectors. High quality standards of medical imaging impose a close analysis of the defects that can appear on the images. This work describes a complete process for quality analysis of such images. A particular focus is given on the detection task of the defects, thanks to methods well adapted to our context of spatially correlated defects in noise background. (author)

  11. Applying and extending ISO/TC42 digital camera resolution standards to mobile imaging products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Don; Burns, Peter D.

    2007-01-01

    There are no fundamental differences between today's mobile telephone cameras and consumer digital still cameras that suggest many existing ISO imaging performance standards do not apply. To the extent that they have lenses, color filter arrays, detectors, apertures, image processing, and are hand held, there really are no operational or architectural differences. Despite this, there are currently differences in the levels of imaging performance. These are driven by physical and economic constraints, and image-capture conditions. Several ISO standards for resolution, well established for digital consumer digital cameras, require care when applied to the current generation of cell phone cameras. In particular, accommodation of optical flare, shading non-uniformity and distortion are recommended. We offer proposals for the application of existing ISO imaging resolution performance standards to mobile imaging products, and suggestions for extending performance standards to the characteristic behavior of camera phones.

  12. Processing Visual Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litke, Alan

    2006-01-01

    The back of the eye is lined by an extraordinary biological pixel detector, the retina. This neural network is able to extract vital information about the external visual world, and transmit this information in a timely manner to the brain. In this talk, Professor Litke will describe a system that has been implemented to study how the retina processes and encodes dynamic visual images. Based on techniques and expertise acquired in the development of silicon microstrip detectors for high energy physics experiments, this system can simultaneously record the extracellular electrical activity of hundreds of retinal output neurons. After presenting first results obtained with this system, Professor Litke will describe additional applications of this incredible technology.

  13. Multiframe digitization of x-ray (TV) images (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpenko, V. A.; Khil'chenko, A. D.; Lysenko, A. P.; Panchenko, V. E.

    1989-07-01

    The work in progress deals with the experimental search for a technique of digitizing x-ray TV images. The small volume of the buffer memory of the analog-to-digital (A/D) converter (ADC) we have previously used to detect TV signals made it necessary to digitize only one line at a time of the television raster and also to make use of gating to gain the video information contained in the whole frame. This paper is devoted to multiframe digitizing. The recorder of video signals comprises a broadband 8-bit A/D converter, a buffer memory having 128K words and a control circuit which forms a necessary sequence of advance pulses for the A/D converter and the memory relative to the input frame and line sync pulses (FSP and LSP). The device provides recording of video signals corresponding to one or a few frames following one after another, or to their fragments. The control circuit is responsible for the separation of the required fragment of the TV image. When loading the limit registers, the following input parameters of the control circuit are set: the skipping of a definite number of lines after the next FSP, the number of the lines of recording inside a fragment, the frequency of the information lines inside a fragment, the delay in the start of the ADC conversion relative to the arrival of the LSP, the length of the information section of a line, and the frequency of taking the readouts in a line. In addition, among the instructions given are the number of frames of recording and the frequency of their sequence. Thus, the A/D converter operates only inside a given fragment of the TV image. The information is introduced into the memory in sequence, fragment by fragment, without skipping and is then extracted as samples according to the addresses needed for representation in the required form, and processing. The video signal recorder governs the shortest time of the ADC conversion per point of 250 ns. As before, among the apparatus used were an image vidicon with

  14. Micro-Structure Measurement and Imaging Based on Digital Holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Kyeong Suk; Jung, Hyun Chul; Chang, Ho Seob; Akhter, Naseem [Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Kee, Chang Doo [Chonnam National University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Advancements in the imaging and computing technology have opened the path to digital holography for non-destructive investigations of technical samples, material property measurement, vibration analysis, flow visualization and stress analysis in aerospace industry which has widened the application of digital holography in the above fields. In this paper, we demonstrate the non-destructive investigation and micro-structure measurement application of digital holography to the small particles and a biological sample. This paper gives a brief description of the digital holograms recorded with this system and illustratively demonstrated

  15. Micro-Structure Measurement and Imaging Based on Digital Holography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyeong Suk; Jung, Hyun Chul; Chang, Ho Seob; Akhter, Naseem; Kee, Chang Doo

    2010-01-01

    Advancements in the imaging and computing technology have opened the path to digital holography for non-destructive investigations of technical samples, material property measurement, vibration analysis, flow visualization and stress analysis in aerospace industry which has widened the application of digital holography in the above fields. In this paper, we demonstrate the non-destructive investigation and micro-structure measurement application of digital holography to the small particles and a biological sample. This paper gives a brief description of the digital holograms recorded with this system and illustratively demonstrated

  16. Characterization of viscous biofuel sprays using digital imaging in the near field region

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sallevelt, J.L.H.P.; Pozarlik, Artur Krzysztof; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    The atomization of biodiesel, vegetable oil and glycerin has been studied in an atmospheric spray rig by using digital imaging (PDIA). Images of the spray were captured in the near field, just 18 mm downstream of the atomizer, and processed to automatically determine the size of both ligaments and

  17. Technological innovations in digital data management and changing roles of imaging specialists in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehara, Shigeru

    2010-11-28

    Technical innovations in digital data management pose a threat to radiologists in that can we remain in the process of clinical decision making or be assigned to a secondary role in future clinical practice. The value added to the imaging studies by diagnostic radiologists, or imaging specialists, has never been questioned more seriously.

  18. Topology-Preserving Rigid Transformation of 2D Digital Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngo, Phuc; Passat, Nicolas; Kenmochi, Yukiko; Talbot, Hugues

    2014-02-01

    We provide conditions under which 2D digital images preserve their topological properties under rigid transformations. We consider the two most common digital topology models, namely dual adjacency and well-composedness. This paper leads to the proposal of optimal preprocessing strategies that ensure the topological invariance of images under arbitrary rigid transformations. These results and methods are proved to be valid for various kinds of images (binary, gray-level, label), thus providing generic and efficient tools, which can be used in particular in the context of image registration and warping.

  19. Fundamentals of electronic image processing

    CERN Document Server

    Weeks, Arthur R

    1996-01-01

    This book is directed to practicing engineers and scientists who need to understand the fundamentals of image processing theory and algorithms to perform their technical tasks. It is intended to fill the gap between existing high-level texts dedicated to specialists in the field and the need for a more practical, fundamental text on image processing. A variety of example images are used to enhance reader understanding of how particular image processing algorithms work.

  20. Robust digital image inpainting algorithm in the wireless environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karapetyan, G.; Sarukhanyan, H. G.; Agaian, S. S.

    2014-05-01

    Image or video inpainting is the process/art of retrieving missing portions of an image without introducing undesirable artifacts that are undetectable by an ordinary observer. An image/video can be damaged due to a variety of factors, such as deterioration due to scratches, laser dazzling effects, wear and tear, dust spots, loss of data when transmitted through a channel, etc. Applications of inpainting include image restoration (removing laser dazzling effects, dust spots, date, text, time, etc.), image synthesis (texture synthesis), completing panoramas, image coding, wireless transmission (recovery of the missing blocks), digital culture protection, image de-noising, fingerprint recognition, and film special effects and production. Most inpainting methods can be classified in two key groups: global and local methods. Global methods are used for generating large image regions from samples while local methods are used for filling in small image gaps. Each method has its own advantages and limitations. For example, the global inpainting methods perform well on textured image retrieval, whereas the classical local methods perform poorly. In addition, some of the techniques are computationally intensive; exceeding the capabilities of most currently used mobile devices. In general, the inpainting algorithms are not suitable for the wireless environment. This paper presents a new and efficient scheme that combines the advantages of both local and global methods into a single algorithm. Particularly, it introduces a blind inpainting model to solve the above problems by adaptively selecting support area for the inpainting scheme. The proposed method is applied to various challenging image restoration tasks, including recovering old photos, recovering missing data on real and synthetic images, and recovering the specular reflections in endoscopic images. A number of computer simulations demonstrate the effectiveness of our scheme and also illustrate the main properties

  1. NAIP Digital Ortho Photo Image 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — This data set contains imagery from the National Agriculture Imagery Program (NAIP). NAIP acquires digital ortho imagery during the agricultural growing seasons in...

  2. Effect of a television digital noise reduction device on fluoroscopic image quality and dose rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaffe, C.C.; Orphanoudakis, S.C.; Ablow, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    In conventional fluoroscopy, the current, and therefore the dose rate, is usually determined by the level at which the radiologist visualizes a just tolerable amount of photon ''mottle'' on the video monitor. In this study, digital processing of the analogue video image reduced noise and generated a television image at half the usual exposure rate. The technique uses frame delay to compare an incoming frame with the preceding output frame. A first-order recursive filter implemented under a motion-detection scheme operates on the image of a point-by-point basis. This effective motion detection algorithm permits noise suppression without creating noticeable lag in moving structures. Eight radiologists evaluated images of vesicoureteral reflux in the pig for noise, contrast, resolution, and general image quality on a five-point preferential scale. They rated the digitally processed fluoroscopy images equivalent in diagnostic value to unprocessed images

  3. Digital Image Quantitative Evaluations for Low Cost Film Digitizers Height Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairul Anuar Mohd Salleh; Arshad Yassin; Ahmad Nasir Yusof; Noorhazleena Azaman

    2016-01-01

    Non Destructive Testing (NDT) technology contributes significant improvement to the quality of industrial products, and the integrity of equipment and plants. Introduction of powerful computers and reliable imaging technology has had significant impact on the traditional nuclear based NDT technology. Demand for faster, reliable, low cost, and flexible technology is rapidly increased. With the growing demand for more efficient digital archiving, digital image analysis, and reporting results with a low cost technology, one cannot deny the importance of having another cheaper solution. This project will apply fundamental principle of image digitization to be used in building up a low cost film digitization solution. The height of the film digitization was carefully determined by examining each digital images produced. Three (3) repetitive quantitative evaluations (Modulation Transfer Function [MTF], Characteristic Transfer Curve [CTC], and Contrast to Noise Ratio [CNR]) were performed at different condition to assist with the determination of the low cost film digitizers height. All 3 evaluations were successfully applied and the most appropriate height was successfully determined. (author)

  4. Numerical methods in image processing for applications in jewellery industry

    OpenAIRE

    Petrla, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Presented thesis deals with a problem from the field of image processing for application in multiple scanning of jewelery stones. The aim is to develop a method for preprocessing and subsequent mathematical registration of images in order to increase the effectivity and reliability of the output quality control. For these purposes the thesis summerizes mathematical definition of digital image as well as theoretical base of image registration. It proposes a method adjusting every single image ...

  5. Document Examination: Applications of Image Processing Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopainsky, B

    1989-12-01

    Dealing with images is a familiar business for an expert in questioned documents: microscopic, photographic, infrared, and other optical techniques generate images containing the information he or she is looking for. A recent method for extracting most of this information is digital image processing, ranging from the simple contrast and contour enhancement to the advanced restoration of blurred texts. When combined with a sophisticated physical imaging system, an image pricessing system has proven to be a powerful and fast tool for routine non-destructive scanning of suspect documents. This article reviews frequent applications, comprising techniques to increase legibility, two-dimensional spectroscopy (ink discrimination, alterations, erased entries, etc.), comparison techniques (stamps, typescript letters, photo substitution), and densitometry. Computerized comparison of handwriting is not included. Copyright © 1989 Central Police University.

  6. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    More, Chandramani B; Asrani, Mukesh K

    2010-01-01

    The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 – 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin

  7. Evaluation of the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    More Chandramani

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The styloid process is an anatomical structure, whose clinical importance is not well understood. Proper clinical and radiographic evaluation can detect an elongated styloid process and calcification of the stylohyoid ligament. It has been reported that 2 - 28% of the general population show radiographic evidence of mineralization of a portion of the stylohyoid chain. The elongated styloid process may be symptomatic in many cases. Panoramic radiography is the best imaging modality to view the styloid process bilaterally. Aim: To assess the styloid process on digital panoramic radiographs. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 500 digital panoramic radiographs available in the archives of our department as soft copies. These radiographs were taken using a digital panoramic system. The radiographic length of the styloid process was measured on both sides using the measurement toolbars on the accompanying analysis software. For statistical analysis we used the unpaired t test, Chi-square test, and one-way ANOVA test, as necessary. Results: The average length of the left styloid was 25.41 ± 6.32 mm and that of the right styloid was 25.53 ± 6.62 mm. The length of both styloids increased with age and males had longer styloids than females. Elongated styloids were present in 19.4% of the panoramic radiographs. Langlais type I elongated styloids and a partial calcification pattern were more common than others. Conclusion: Panoramic radiography is useful for detection of an elongated styloid process and / or ossification of the stylohyoid ligament in patients with or without symptoms, and helps avoid a misdiagnosis of tonsillar pain or pain of dental, pharyngeal, or muscular origin.

  8. ANALYSIS OF THE EFFECTS OF IMAGE QUALITY ON DIGITAL MAP GENERATION FROM SATELLITE IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Kim

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available High resolution satellite images are widely used to produce and update a digital map since they became widely available. It is well known that the accuracy of digital map produced from satellite images is decided largely by the accuracy of geometric modelling. However digital maps are made by a series of photogrammetric workflow. Therefore the accuracy of digital maps are also affected by the quality of satellite images, such as image interpretability. For satellite images, parameters such as Modulation Transfer Function(MTF, Signal to Noise Ratio(SNR and Ground Sampling Distance(GSD are used to present images quality. Our previous research stressed that such quality parameters may not represent the quality of image products such as digital maps and that parameters for image interpretability such as Ground Resolved Distance(GRD and National Imagery Interpretability Rating Scale(NIIRS need to be considered. In this study, we analyzed the effects of the image quality on accuracy of digital maps produced by satellite images. QuickBird, IKONOS and KOMPSAT-2 imagery were used to analyze as they have similar GSDs. We measured various image quality parameters mentioned above from these images. Then we produced digital maps from the images using a digital photogrammetric workstation. We analyzed the accuracy of the digital maps in terms of their location accuracy and their level of details. Then we compared the correlation between various image quality parameters and the accuracy of digital maps. The results of this study showed that GRD and NIIRS were more critical for map production then GSD, MTF or SNR.

  9. Development of Pulse-Burst Laser Source and Digital Image Processing for Measurements of High-Speed, Time-Evolving Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miles, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ... Ti:Sapphire Laser and the demonstration of UV filtered Rayleigh scattering imaging in a supersonic jet, the fabrication/characterization of a narrow passband transmission filter, and the development of a new concept for a line imaging Raman spectrometer for flow field, combustion, and plasma diagnostics.

  10. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  11. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  12. Measurements of granular flow dynamics with high speed digital images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jingeol [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-01-01

    The flow of granular materials is common to many industrial processes. This dissertation suggests and validates image processing algorithms applied to high speed digital images to measure the dynamics (velocity, temperature and volume fraction) of dry granular solids flowing down an inclined chute under the action of gravity. Glass and acrylic particles have been used as granular solids in the experiment. One technique utilizes block matching for spatially averaged velocity measurements of the glass particles. This technique is compared with the velocity measurement using an optic probe which is a conventional granular flow velocity measurement device. The other technique for measuring the velocities of individual acrylic particles is developed with correspondence using a Hopfield network. This technique first locates the positions of particles with pattern recognition techniques, followed by a clustering technique, which produces point patterns. Also, several techniques are compared for particle recognition: synthetic discriminant function (SDF), minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter, modified minimum average correlation energy (MMACE) filter and variance normalized correlation. The author proposes an MMACE filter which improves generalization of the MACE filter by adjusting the amount of averaged spectrum of training images in the spectrum whitening stages of the MACE filter. Variance normalized correlation is applied to measure the velocity and temperature of flowing glass particles down the inclined chute. The measurements are taken for the steady and wavy flow and qualitatively compared with a theoretical model of granular flow.

  13. Trends in medical image processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robilotta, C.C.

    1987-01-01

    The function of medical image processing is analysed, mentioning the developments, the physical agents, and the main categories, as conection of distortion in image formation, detectability increase, parameters quantification, etc. (C.G.C.) [pt

  14. Wavelet processing techniques for digital mammography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laine, Andrew F.; Song, Shuwu

    1992-09-01

    This paper introduces a novel approach for accomplishing mammographic feature analysis through multiresolution representations. We show that efficient (nonredundant) representations may be identified from digital mammography and used to enhance specific mammographic features within a continuum of scale space. The multiresolution decomposition of wavelet transforms provides a natural hierarchy in which to embed an interactive paradigm for accomplishing scale space feature analysis. Similar to traditional coarse to fine matching strategies, the radiologist may first choose to look for coarse features (e.g., dominant mass) within low frequency levels of a wavelet transform and later examine finer features (e.g., microcalcifications) at higher frequency levels. In addition, features may be extracted by applying geometric constraints within each level of the transform. Choosing wavelets (or analyzing functions) that are simultaneously localized in both space and frequency, results in a powerful methodology for image analysis. Multiresolution and orientation selectivity, known biological mechanisms in primate vision, are ingrained in wavelet representations and inspire the techniques presented in this paper. Our approach includes local analysis of complete multiscale representations. Mammograms are reconstructed from wavelet representations, enhanced by linear, exponential and constant weight functions through scale space. By improving the visualization of breast pathology we can improve the chances of early detection of breast cancers (improve quality) while requiring less time to evaluate mammograms for most patients (lower costs).

  15. A Harmonized Process Model for Digital Forensic Investigation Readiness

    OpenAIRE

    Valjarevic , Aleksandar; Venter , Hein

    2013-01-01

    Part 2: FORENSIC MODELS; International audience; Digital forensic readiness enables an organization to prepare itself to perform digital forensic investigations in an efficient and effective manner. The benefits include enhancing the admissibility of digital evidence, better utilization of resources and greater incident awareness. However, a harmonized process model for digital forensic readiness does not currently exist and, thus, there is a lack of effective and standardized implementations...

  16. A Study on the Improvement of Digital Periapical Images using Image Interpolation Methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Nam Kyu; Koh, Kwang Joon

    1998-01-01

    Image resampling is of particular interest in digital radiology. When resampling an image to a new set of coordinate, there appears blocking artifacts and image changes. To enhance image quality, interpolation algorithms have been used. Resampling is used to increase the number of points in an image to improve its appearance for display. The process of interpolation is fitting a continuous function to the discrete points in the digital image. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the seven interpolation functions when image resampling in digital periapical images. The images were obtained by Digora, CDR and scanning of Ektaspeed plus periapical radiograms on the dry skull and human subject. The subjects were exposed to intraoral X-ray machine at 60 kVp and 70 kVp with exposure time varying between 0.01 and 0.50 second. To determine which interpolation method would provide the better image, seven functions were compared ; (1) nearest neighbor (2) linear (3) non-linear (4) facet model (5) cubic convolution (6) cubic spline (7) gray segment expansion. And resampled images were compared in terms of SNR (Signal to Noise Ratio) and MTF (Modulation Transfer Function) coefficient value. The obtained results were as follows ; 1. The highest SNR value (75.96 dB) was obtained with cubic convolution method and the lowest SNR value (72.44 dB) was obtained with facet model method among seven interpolation methods. 2. There were significant differences of SNR values among CDR, Digora and film scan (P 0.05). 4. There were significant differences of MTF coefficient values between linear interpolation method and the other six interpolation methods (P<0.05). 5. The speed of computation time was the fastest with nearest neighbor method and the slowest with non-linear method. 6. The better image was obtained with cubic convolution, cubic spline and gray segment method in ROC analysis. 7. The better sharpness of edge was obtained with gray segment expansion method

  17. AASERT: Development of Pulse-Burst Laser Source and Digital Image Processing for Measurements of High-Speed, Time-Evolving Flow

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miles, Richard

    2000-01-01

    ... Ti:Sapphire Laser and the demonstration of UV filtered Rayleigh scattering imaging in a supersonic jet, the fabrication/ characterization of a narrow passband transmission filter, and the development...

  18. Design and testing of a 750MHz CW-EPR digital console for small animal imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Emoto, Miho C; Hirata, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hirotada G

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a digital console for three-dimensional (3D) continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging of a small animal to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and lower the cost of the EPR imaging system. A RF generation board, an RF acquisition board and a digital signal processing (DSP) & control board were built for the digital EPR detection. Direct sampling of the reflected RF signal from a resonator (approximately 750MHz), which contains the EPR signal, was carried out using a band-pass subsampling method. A direct automatic control system to reduce the reflection from the resonator was proposed and implemented in the digital EPR detection scheme. All DSP tasks were carried out in field programmable gate array ICs. In vivo 3D imaging of nitroxyl radicals in a mouse's head was successfully performed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Design and testing of a 750 MHz CW-EPR digital console for small animal imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato-Akaba, Hideo; Emoto, Miho C.; Hirata, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hirotada G.

    2017-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a digital console for three-dimensional (3D) continuous wave electron paramagnetic resonance (CW-EPR) imaging of a small animal to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and lower the cost of the EPR imaging system. A RF generation board, an RF acquisition board and a digital signal processing (DSP) & control board were built for the digital EPR detection. Direct sampling of the reflected RF signal from a resonator (approximately 750 MHz), which contains the EPR signal, was carried out using a band-pass subsampling method. A direct automatic control system to reduce the reflection from the resonator was proposed and implemented in the digital EPR detection scheme. All DSP tasks were carried out in field programmable gate array ICs. In vivo 3D imaging of nitroxyl radicals in a mouse's head was successfully performed.

  20. Study on the Image Quality Comparison between in Digital RT and Film RT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sang Ki; Ahn, Yean Shik; Gil, Doo Song

    2011-01-01

    Conventional film radiographic test has been generally and widely used in the inspection on the weldment for quality assurance. On the other hand, since the analog RT is well known for typical time and cost consuming method with complex process of inspection, the industry has researched various ways how to improve radiographic test technology. In this study, we verified the fact that digital RT provides a lot more benefit in effectively detecting defects, ever film details, through digital processing of image enhancement, compared to film RT. As a result, we reached conclusion that digital RT is positively able to replace the film RT in industry in part or in whole