WorldWideScience

Sample records for digital divide political

  1. The digital divide: philosophical reflection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedyulina Marina Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The problem of digital divide itself is interesting for philosophical reflection as it lies at the crossroads of interests of social and political philosophy, philosophy of technology and epistemology, and these are just some of them. Due to the constant development of information technologies and the introduction of new technologies the digital divide is a dynamic problem. The main aim of this work is to analyse the conceptual and descriptive aspects of the problem of the digital divide, to get a more complete picture of the phenomenon. The digital divide is a complex problem that has social, political, cultural and ethical aspects.

  2. Social Welfare Implications of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunjin; Lee, Byungtae; Menon, Nirup M.

    2009-01-01

    The Internet plays a critical role in informing individuals about society, politics, business, and the environment. So much so that it has been said that the digital divide makes the segment of society on the ''right side'' of the divide (the digitally endowed group) better off and that on the ''wrong side'' (the digitally challenged group) worse…

  3. Monitoring the digital divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canessa, E.; Cerdeira, H.A.; Matthews, W.; Cottrell, R.L.

    2003-05-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low-bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste - a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent 'Recommendations of Trieste' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work. (author)

  4. Monitoring the Digital Divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cottrell, Les

    2003-01-01

    It is increasingly important to support the large numbers of scientists working in remote areas and having low bandwidth access to the Internet. This will continue to be the case for years to come since there is evidence from PingER performance measurements that the, so-called, digital divide is not decreasing. In this work, we review the collaborative work of The Abdus Salam International Center for Theoretical Physics (ICTP) in Trieste, a leading organization promoting science dissemination in the developing world- and SLAC in Stanford, to monitor by PingER, Universities and Research Institutions all over the developing world following the recent ''Recommendations of Trieste'' to help bridge the digital divide. As a result, PingER's deployment now covers the real-time monitoring of worldwide Internet performance and, in particular, West and Central Africa for the first time. We report on the results from the ICTP sites and quantitatively identify regions with poor performance, identify trends, discuss experiences and future work

  5. Bridging the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth

    2002-01-01

    The article concerns the digital divide, meaning the social inequity in the access and the opportunities for gaining competencies with ICT (information and communication technologies). Problematic issues are highlighted in relation to experiences during visits to several Computer Clubhouses......, a network of multimedia workshops for youth in the USA. There are references to the learning philosophy Constructionism, which originates from MIT Media Lab and is the basis for the Computer Clubhouse project. Abstract : The consortium for Math and Science at Learning Lab Denmark and the Ministry...... of Education have published the white book 'Life of Science - White Book on Educational Initiatives in the Natural Sciences and Technology', inconnection with a conference for EIST (Initiatives in Science and Technology). The purpose of the EIST project is to make a qualitative overview of a number...

  6. Essays on the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelfattah, Belal M. T.

    2013-01-01

    The digital divide is a phenomenon that is globally persistent, despite rapidly decreasing costs in technology. While much of the variance in the adoption and use of information communication technology (ICT) that defines the digital divide can be explained by socioeconomic and demographic variables, there is still significant unaccounted variance…

  7. The Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Hannah Trierweiler

    2011-01-01

    Megan is a 14-year-old from Nebraska who just started ninth grade. She has her own digital camera, cell phone, Nintendo DS, and laptop, and one or more of these devices is usually by her side. Compared to the interactions and exploration she's engaged in at home, Megan finds the technology in her classroom falls a little flat. Most of the…

  8. Digital divide research, achievements and shortcomings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2006-01-01

    From the end of the 1990s onwards the digital divide, commonly defined as the gap between those who have and do not have access to computers and the Internet, has been a central issue on the scholarly and political agenda of new media development. This article makes an inventory of 5 years of

  9. Getting Past the "Digital Divide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Sean

    2011-01-01

    In the last decade, "digital divide" has become a catchphrase for the stubborn disparity in IT resources between communities, especially in regard to education. Low-income, rural and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots." This article presents success stories of educators who can work around obstacles…

  10. Digital Natives and Digital Divide: Analysing Perspective for Emerging Pedagogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onye, Uriel U.; Du, Yunfei

    2016-01-01

    This paper addresses the concepts of digital natives and digital divide from the perspective of the digital outsiders (part of digital natives). It takes a critical look at the implications of available ICT in both developed and underdeveloped countries in the fight against digital divide. The major contribution to literature is by drawing…

  11. The Digital Divide Revisited: What Is Next?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Stephanie

    2018-01-01

    As soon as the Internet came into existence and the World Wide Web was introduced to make Internet utilization much easier, leaders have been worried about the "digital divide." The digital divide refers to the inequality of access to information services. There has been marked improvements over the last 20 years, however the poorest…

  12. New Media and the Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Wright, James D.

    2015-01-01

    During the 1990s, researchers and policy makers began discussing the presence of a so-called ‘digital divide,’ a distinction of people who do and do not have access to information and communication technologies. The concept of the digital divide stems from a comparative perspective of social and

  13. Analog and digital dividers for mass spectrometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osipov, A.K.

    1980-01-01

    Errors of four different types of stress dividers used in statical mass-spectrometers for determination of mass number by accelerating stress are analyzed. The simplest flowsheet of the analog divider comprises operation amplifier, in the chain of the negative feedback of which a multiplication device on differential cascade is switched- in. This analog divider has high sensitivity to temperature and high error approximately 5%. Application of the multiplier on differential cascade with normalization permits to increase temperature stability and decrease the error up to 1%. Another type of the analog divider is a logarithmic divider the error of which is constant within the whole operation range and it constitutes 1-5%. The digital divider with a digital-analog transformer (DAT) has the error of +-0.015% which is determined by the error of detectors and resistance of keys in the locked state. Considered is the design of a divider based on transformation of the inlet stress into the time period. The error of the divider is determined in this case mainly by stress of the zero shift of the operation amplifier (it should be compensated) and relative threshold stability of the comparator triggering which equals (2-3)x10 -4 . It is noted that the divider with DAT application and the divider with the use of stress transformation within the time period are most perspective ones for statical mass-spectrometers [ru

  14. Google and the digital divide the bias of online knowledge

    CERN Document Server

    Segev, Elad

    2010-01-01

    Beneficial to scholars and students in the fields of media and communication, politics and technology, this book outlines the significant role of search engines in general and Google in particular in widening the digital divide between individuals, organisations and states. It uses innovative methods and research approaches to assess and illustrate the digital divide by comparing the popular search queries in Google and Yahoo in different countries as well as analysing the various biases in Google News and Google Earth. The different studies developed and presented in this book provide various

  15. The politics of digits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Asmus Leth

    2013-01-01

    -endings data. Second, nine-ending and other higher-end decimals are found to be over-represented which echoes odd pricing research. It suggests that incumbents take voters’ biases into account and apply odd taxes to minimize the political costs of taxation while maximizing revenue. Attention should be given......From the concept of odd pricing, i.e., setting rightmost price digits below a whole number, this paper advances the political counterpart of odd taxation using a panel of Danish municipal taxes. First, the distribution of tax decimals is non-uniform and resembles the distribution of price...

  16. The electronic health record: a digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, John

    2007-10-01

    The gap between EHR adoption among larger providers versus adoption by smaller or rural providers has caused a "digital divide" that could threaten smaller providers' survival in the years ahead. Closing this gap will require the collective action of providers, payers, and government.

  17. Bridging the digital divide with mobile services

    CERN Document Server

    Yelton, Andromeda

    2013-01-01

    In this issue of Library Technology Reports, Andromeda Yelton shows how libraries can build on the breadth of this population to help bridge the digital divide and provide even greater access to information. Yelton breaks down the demographics of mobile internet users, provides examples of how different libraries are reaching out to these populations, and suggests what the future may hold for this trend.

  18. The New Digital Divide For Digital BioMarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torous, John; Rodriguez, Jorge; Powell, Adam

    2017-09-01

    As smartphone and sensors continue to become more ubiquitous across the world, digital biomarkers have emerged as a scalable and practical tool to explore disease states and advance health. But as the digital divide of access and ownership begins to fade, a new digital divide is emerging. Who are the types of people that own smartphones or smart watches, who are the types of people that download health apps or partake in digital biomarker studies, and who are the types of people that are actually active with digital biomarkers apps and sensors - the people providing the high quality and longitudinal data that this field is being founded upon? Understanding the people behind digital biomarkers, the very people this emerging field aims to help, may actually be the real challenge as well as opportunity for digital biomarkers.

  19. Conquering the digital divide: Botswana and South Korea digital divide status and interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nonofo C. Sedimo

    2011-11-01

    Objectives: Bridging the digital divide and narrowing the intra-national divide brings about global information and communication technology (ICT usage that translates into changing work patterns and eventually transformed economies. This article outlines the different interventions implemented in Botswana to bridge the divide. The South Korean experience in bridging the divide is discussed so as to serve as lessons on how to effectively bridge the divide to Botswana’s initiatives. Method: Using a mix of exploratory and empirical study, this article presents the findings on the status of ICT uptake in Botswana and investigates the level of the digital divide in the country. Results: The results of the study show that the digital divide is much more evident in Botswana than in South Korea. South Korea has put in place robust strategic initiatives towards reducing the digital divide and this has largely transcended into its transformation into a full-fledged knowledge society. Conclusion: This article is timely as it unearths the different pointers that may be utilised in policy formation and what interventions need to be taken at both the individual and national level to bridge the digital divide.

  20. The Digital Divide: A Global View

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntoko, Alexander

    2011-04-01

    Huge progress was made in bridging the digital divide in first decade of 21^st century. This was largely due to the explosive growth of mobile, which saw numbers rise from under 500 million to over five billion mobile cellular subscriptions in just ten years. With household mobile penetration rates of over 50% even in rural areas of developing countries, we have achieved the dream of bringing all the world's people within reach of communications technology. We must now, however, replicate the mobile miracle for the Internet, and especially broadband, if we are to avoid creating a new broadband breach to replace the digital divide. Three things need to happen for this to be achieved: firstly, broadband needs to be brought to the top of the development agenda; secondly, broadband needs to become much more affordable and thirdly, security needs to be part of the strategy.

  1. Older people and digital disengagement: a fourth digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olphert, Wendy; Damodaran, Leela

    2013-01-01

    Digital technologies are becoming more pervasive in all areas of society. Enabling everyone to have access and capability to use the Internet and associated digital technologies, summed up in the term 'digital inclusion', is seen to have wide-ranging benefits to the individual, to the economy and to society. For older people, being digitally included can help them to maintain their independence, social connectedness and sense of worth in the face of declining health or limited capabilities, as well as also offering new opportunities to improve their quality of life. At present however, access to the technology and to the benefits is not equally distributed either between or within nations, and older people tend to be on the 'wrong' side of what is termed the 'digital divide'. Governments globally are developing strategies to promote digital inclusion and indeed Internet uptake is increasing steadily, including amongst older people. However, such strategies have focussed on getting people online, and there appears to be an assumption that once someone is online they will remain 'digitally engaged'. In fact statistics show that some users give up using the Internet, and there is emerging evidence that older people are more vulnerable to the factors which can lead to this outcome. The authors see this phenomenon as a potential but largely unrecognised 'fourth digital divide' which has serious implications for social inclusion. The objectives of this article are (a) to raise awareness of the phenomenon of digital disengagement by considering some of the emerging evidence, (b) to explore some of the potential implications of not recognising and therefore not addressing the needs of the digitally disengaged older population, and (c) to reveal the prevailing gap in knowledge which future research should address. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. The Gender Digital Divide in Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy Antonio

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Empirical studies clearly show that women in the developing world have significantly lower technology participation rates than men; a result of entrenched socio-cultural attitudes about the role of women in society. However, as studies are beginning to show, when those women are able to engage with Internet technology, a wide range of personal, family and community benefits become possible. The key to these benefits is on-line education, the access to which sets up a positive feedback loop. This review gives an overview of the digital divide, before focusing specifically on the challenges women in developing countries face in accessing the Internet. Current gender disparities in Internet use will be outlined and the barriers that potentially hinder women’s access and participation in the online world will be considered. We will then look at the potential opportunities for women’s participation in a global digital society along with a consideration of current initiatives that have been developed to mitigate gender inequity in developing countries. We will also consider a promising avenue for future research.

  3. Bridging the digital divide: with special reference to Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper describes the digital divide in Africa with special reference to Nigeria. It presents the causes of digital divided such as; the general poor economic conditions in Africa; local content; telecommunications constraints; lack of investment in ICT infrastructure, etc. Benefits derivable from bridging the digital divide such ...

  4. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Smith

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  5. The Digital Divide and urban older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Yarandi, Hossein N; Morrell, Roger W

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults opportunities and resources for independent living. However, many urban older adults do not use computers. This study examined the demographic, health, and social activities of urban older adults to determine variables that might predict the use and nonuse of computers in this population. A secondary data analysis was performed using the 2001 Detroit City-Wide Needs Assessment of Older Adults (n = 1410) data set. Logistic regression was used to explore potential differences in predictor variables between computer users and nonusers. Overall, computer users were younger (27%), had a higher level of education, were more likely to be employed, had an annual income greater than $20,000, and were healthier and more active than nonusers. They also were more likely to have memberships in community organizations and do volunteer work. Preferred computer activities included conducting Internet searches, playing games, writing, and communicating with family members and friends. The results suggest significant differences in demographic and health-related characteristics between computer users and nonusers among urban older adults. Although about a quarter of participants in this study used computers, the Digital Divide continues to exist in urban settings for scores of others.

  6. Black Men and the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conceição, Simone C. O.; Martin, Larry G.

    2016-01-01

    This chapter focuses on the role adult educators can play in assisting Black men to overcome the challenges faced in accessing and using digital technology and acquiring appropriate skills in a digital society.

  7. Confronting the Digital Divide: Debunking Brave New World Discourses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowsell, Jennifer; Morrell, Ernest; Alvermann, Donna E.

    2017-01-01

    There is far more to the digital divide than meets the eye. In this article, the authors consolidate existing research on the digital divide to offer some tangible ways for educators to bridge the gap between the haves and have-nots, or the cans and cannots. Drawing on Aldous Huxley's notion of a "brave new world," some digital divide…

  8. The Politics of Mass Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    Mass-digitization of cultural-heritage archives has become increasingly pervasive. From Google Books to Europeana, bounded material is converted into ephemeral data on an unprecedented scale, promising to provide mankind with readily accessible and enduring reservoirs of knowledge. Interrogating...... this phenomenon, this dissertation asks how mass digitization affects the politics of cultural heritage. Its central argument is that mass digitization of cultural heritage is neither a neutral technical process, nor a transposition of the politics of analog cultural heritage to the digital realm on a 1:1 scale....... Rather, it should be understood as distinct subpolitical processes that bring together a multiplicity of interests and actors hitherto foreign to the field of cultural heritage archives. Mass digitization is thus upheaving the disciplinary enclosures of cultural heritage and gives rise to new territorial...

  9. The New Frontier of Digital Inequality. The Participatory Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Robles Morales

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the relationship between digital participation and the digital participation divide. The first concept refers to the use of the Internet to produce cultural goods that are subsequently shared on a global scale; the latter, refers to the inequalities generated by the uneven distribution of these creative uses of the Internet in a given population. Empirically, our work focuses on the role of digital skills and sociopolitical attitudes toward the Internet in explaining the digital participation divide, as they are considered precursors of digital participation. Results suggest that the same mechanisms that previously sustained digital divide are now fostering digital participation divide; however, we argue that the negative social consequences of this divide exceed those of its predecessor.

  10. Digital Divide between Teachers and Students in Urban Bangladesh

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khalid, Md. Saifuddin

    2011-01-01

    Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly a...... into digital divide and associated reasons in four different educations systems in Bangladesh.......Telecom boom since 2000 and ‘Digital Bangladesh’ campaign since late 2008 created significant nationwide hype, resulting rapid increase in the use of digital devices. While studies are being conducted to use the ability of “power users of technology” for reducing digital divide, there is hardly any...... data available on them in Bangladesh context. A study was conducted to study the digital divide and ICT usage pattern among the urban students and teachers of schools and colleges in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh. About 75 students enrolled in probability and statistics course of Independent...

  11. Geneva summit aims to bridge 'digital divide'

    CERN Multimedia

    Williams, F

    2003-01-01

    "With almost all the political hurdles swept aside in negotiations last weekend, the huge World Summit on the Information Society that opens in Geneva today will be clearly focused on its initial objective - boosting the use of information and communication technologies in the developing world" (1 page).

  12. Digital Divide in India: Measurement, Determinants and Policy for Addressing the Challenges in Bridging the Digital Divide

    OpenAIRE

    Sumanjeet Singh

    2010-01-01

    Existing studies of the digital divide reveals the gap that exists between those who have access to ICTs and those who do not create exclusion, endanger social integration and hamper economic growth. The digital divide has many dimensions and can be categorized as global, regional and national. At national level, there is no single divide, but multiple divides: for instance, within countries, between men and women, young and elderly, rich and poor and most importantly rural and urban. The pre...

  13. The Digital Divide and Health Outcomes: A Teleretinal Imaging Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to understand, explore and describe the digital divide and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes. Diabetes and diabetic eye disease was used as the real-life context for understanding change and exploring the digital divide. As an investigational framework, a telemedicine…

  14. The Digital Divide in Health Education: Myth or Reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stellefson, Michael; Chaney, Beth; Chaney, Don

    2008-01-01

    Although e-health interventions provide new opportunities for health education, there has been cause for concern regarding the purported information technology gap between those who have access to digital applications and those who do not--termed the "digital divide." The literature suggests, however, that this divide may now be illusory, driven…

  15. Bridging the Digital Divide--An Australian Story

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadbent, Robyn; Papadopoulos, Theo

    2013-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that the lack of access to information and communication technology (ICT) or the "digital divide" severely limits education, employment and economic prospects. This paper reports on the evaluation of a project that aims to bridge the digital divide. In particular, the case study data has been used to bring to…

  16. Evaluation of Fatih Project in the Frame of Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabacak, Kerim

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research realized at the general survey model is to evaluate "FATIH Project" in the frame of digital divide by determining the effects of the distributed tablets to the students being educated at K-12 schools on digital divide. Sample is taking from the 9th grade students in Sakarya city in the 2013-2014 academic session.…

  17. Negotiating Digital Divides: Perspectives from the New Zealand Schooling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Louise; Sylvester, Allan; Johnstone, David

    2017-01-01

    This article explores digital divides identified in research literature and considers educational policy directions that may mitigate or enhance future inequities. A review of literature identified three categories of digital divides in society; access, capability, and participation. To explore the strategic focus in schooling, data were gathered…

  18. Connecting across Many Divides: Digital, Racial, and Socio-Economic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinson, Janice; Daniel, Cathy

    As Internet usage increases nationally, it becomes more apparent that the Digital Divide (the gap between those who have information access and those who do not) is related to demographics. Although the number of low income and ethnic households that have Internet access is increasing, the Digital Divide is expected to widen because access…

  19. Digital Divide in Post-Primary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Quinn, Ann; McGarr, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    This research study developed curricular specific open educational resources (OERs) for the teaching of poetry at Junior Certificate level in Irish post-primary schools. It aimed to capture the collaborative design and development process used in the development of the digital resources and describe and evaluate the implementation of the resources…

  20. Afterword. Internet Freedom, Nuanced Digital Divide, and the Internet Craftsman

    OpenAIRE

    Meinrath, Sascha D; Losey, James; Lennett, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This book provides an in-depth comparative analysis of inequality and the stratification of the digital sphere. Grounded in classical sociological theories of inequality, as well as empirical evidence, this book defines 'the digital divide' as the unequal access and utility of internet communications technologies and explores how it has the potential to replicate existing social inequalities, as well as create new forms of stratification. The Digital Divide examines how various demographic an...

  1. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among

  2. Digital divide and digital opportunity: Comparison, analysis and strategies for sustainable development in developing nations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhunia, C.T.; Onime, C.

    2007-07-01

    The world is witnessing a new digital economic order which may be quantified by the diffusion of information technology and globalization process. The current information technology gap (digital divide) between developed countries and developing countries is huge. Improvements in information technology (measured by the digital opportunity index) usually open up an opportunity for national/regional growth and development. There is a need for scientific investigation on the digital divide, digital opportunity index and their consequences. This paper presents a critical analysis of existing digital divide and its trends, it also investigates the relationship between the digital divide and the digital opportunity index. A mathematical model based on analysis of the growing digital divide is presented as a possible tool for combating and eradicate the digital divide gap which is only possible if developing and poor nations take advantage of the digital opportunities that can transform them into global competitive partners in digital knowledge economy. (author)

  3. New Frontiers in the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Birgit

    qualitative study of senior citizens’ usage of ICT (Jæger, 2005). For the analysis of the policy I draw on a literature study of policy papers (Jæger & Löfgren 2010) as well as six qualitative interviews with key politicians – including the Minister of Science and Technology – and key civil servant....... the question is: How to form a policy for digital inclusion where nobody is left behind? In continuation of the EU policy it seems reasonable to argue that the public authorities now has an obligation to ‘dress up’ the citizens to serve themselves through the public e-services. Hence, policies and actions...... for digital inclusion becomes a central theme for the implementation of the new e-government strategy. Until now it has been voluntary whether or not citizens want to use ICT and a lot of especially senior citizens have chosen not to use the technology. However, senior citizens are not the only group affected...

  4. Splicing the Divide: A Review of Research on the Evolving Digital Divide among K-12 Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolan, Jennifer E.

    2016-01-01

    The digital divide has narrowed with regard to one definition of access to technology--the binary view of the "haves" and "have-nots." However, use of technology at home and in school is not equitable for all students. According to recent literature, a broader and more nuanced definition of the technological divide is necessary…

  5. Digital divide and e-education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marko Radovan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs in widening access to adult learning in many directions. ICT, especially the Internet, is changing all aspects of life and functioning of the modern society. Online learning is expanding in the developed world and becoming an increasingly important way of teaching and learning. Nevertheless, the use of ICT in the learning processes is mostly still partial and incoherent. Qualitative changes in this domain (integration of the ICT-based forms of communication and interaction, and information sources outside the traditional educational environment have not yet been made. E-learning outside formal settings is mostly aimed at improving adult literacy and basic education. The new technology can make many learning programs accessible to the adults without direct access to education and can also become an important basis for provision of information guidance and counseling. Here, adult educators are still faced with several challenges, for instance, how to widen access to ICT in rural and less developed areas, how to improve digital skills and how to make e-learning more accessible to all learners.

  6. Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Measuring and Bridging the Gender Digital Divide in Rural Pakistan ... to critically examining the gender-specific aspects of ICT use and its impact on development in ... In partnership with UNESCO's Organization for Women in Science for the ...

  7. Digital Divide Measurement in Lembata Regency Using SIBIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriel, Cecilia Dai Payon Binti; Setyohadi, Djoko Budiyanto; Suyoto

    2018-02-01

    Along with technological development in Indonesia, digital divide occurs in various regions, which were behind in terms of information on how to use, access and utilize ICT in collecting information from internet. One of the regions is Lembata Regency in East Nusa Tenggara, where digital divide among the people should be measured. The purpose of this study was to determine the level of digital divide among the people of Lembata Regency. To determine the level of digital divide, we used SIBIS GPS (General Population Survey) method, which consisted of several indicators or aspect, i.e. internet usage behavior, internet utilization, and e-government. We also performed two tests, i.e. validity test and reliability test to obtain value of index of digital divide measurement among the people of Lembata Regency. The results of validity test which is processed using SPSS program are categorized valid for each variable indicator and the reliability test results show reliable status. According to the test results on digital discrepancy in Lembata people, the internet usage attitude indicator is categorized low which is 63.1%, the internet usage function indicator is categorized low which is 64%, and the digital discrepancy of e-government indicator is categorized medium which is 40.4%. Therefore, the result of this study because consideration for the government of Lembata Regency in improving ICT services in e-government and in distributing ICT access and ability equally to the people.

  8. The Digital Divide: The Special Case of Gender

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper examines the evidence for the digital divide based on gender. An overview of research published in the last 20 years draws to the conclusion that females are at a disadvantage relative to men when learning about computers or learning other material with the aid of computer-assisted software. The evidence shows that the digital divide…

  9. Romania's Digital Divide and the Failures of E-Government

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sorin Dan ŞANDOR

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper tries to measure the level of the digital divide existing in Romania and also to verify its relationship with e-government. At the country level, Romania is one of the least digitally developed countries in Europe, but it has shown a sharp increase in recent years. At the social level, based on data from public opinion surveys, digital divide is analyzed at two levels: lack of access and lack of knowledge. The results are similar to those in other countries: digital divide appears along the same dimensions: rural/urban, age, education, wealth and, to a lesser extent, gender. E-government services, while presumed to be at an adequate level, are used only by a very small number of citizens, thus having no impact upon the digital divide. Confronted with a serious divide, and with great possibility of its increasing, Romania needs to promote policies designed to increase access and knowledge. Also, e-government is not possible, unless administrative culture and procedures change.

  10. Bridging the Digital Divide for urban seniors: community partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cresci, M Kay; Jarosz, Patricia A

    2010-01-01

    Computers and the Internet offer older adults resources for improving health. For many older adults, the "Digital Divide" (the social, economic, and demographic factors that exist between individuals who use computers and those who do not) is a barrier to taking advantage of these resources. Bridging the Digital Divide by making computers and the Internet more accessible and making online health information more usable for older adults has the potential to improve health of older adults. This article describes a strategy for closing the Digital Divide for urban seniors through the formation of a community- university partnership with the goal of improving health and well-being through the use of online health information. Copyright © 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Promoting nursing competitiveness: introduction to the digital divide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Hsu; Lee, Ting-Ting

    2010-02-01

    Increasingly sophisticated information technology (IT) has widened the gap (the so-called "digital divide") between those with effective access to IT resources and those without. Problems related to the digital divide exist in every country. In addition to level of familiarity with technology, the divide can also be influenced by factors of race, gender, age, education, economic status and area of residence. The digital divide may be ameliorated through technology innovations in terms of access to information, information application and information literacy. As IT is an increasingly significant component of modern healthcare, it may be expected that the "width" of the potential gap widens as IT applications increase in sophistication. Nursing professionals must keep abreast of advancing technologies in order to narrow the digital divide. To cope with this challenge, nursing professionals should enhance their understanding of new technologies beyond what is taught in formal education curricula. This knowledge enhancement may be attained through self learning or on-the-job training in nursing informatics. Content could cover hospital information system (IS) usage, security, applications and web access. This will improve the ability of nursing staff to face the current IT challenge.

  12. The divided Electorate: Media Use and Political Involvement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, Kees; Semetko, Holli A.; Semetko, H.

    2003-01-01

    Research examining media effects on political attitudes has put forth broadly conflicting explanations: media use diminishes knowledge and involvement and contributes to political cynicism and declining turnout; media use contributes to learning, political involvement, trust, efficacy, and

  13. Is the digital divide between young and elderly people increasing?

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Gerd; Stegbauer, Christian

    2005-01-01

    Elderly people still play a minor role in research on information needs and usage patterns of Internet users. Online research and advocacy groups look optimistically at the (economic and social) potential of the active and technology–skilled elderly; other approaches dealing with the social appropriation of technology see obstacles and stress the dangers of an increasing digital divide between generations. Our objective is to refer to taken for granted normative assumptions of the digital div...

  14. The digital divide as a complex and dynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; Hacker, Kenneth

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to propose a fruitful analytical framework for data supposedly related to the concept of the socalled “digital divide.” The extent and the nature of this divide depend on the kind of access defined. Considering the possession of hardware, growing divides among different categories of income, employment, education, age, and ethnicity can be proved to have existed in the 1980s and 1990s according to official American and Dutch statistics. If only by effects of sat...

  15. From Fundamentalists to Structuralists: Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kok, Ayse

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to provide information about several ICT initiatives undertaken in education on a global basis in order to overcome the digital divide and summarise the findings of these initiatives. Due to the limited scope of the study, the bulk of the review mainly concerns initiatives undertaken in secondary schools,…

  16. Digital Divide among Youth: Socio-Cultural Factors and Implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parycek, Peter; Sachs, Michael; Schossbock, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to examine socio-cultural differences in internet use (Digital Divide) among 14-year-old Austrian pupils, in particular usage scenarios and research competences. It is based on a paper presented at the International Association for the Development of the Information Society e-Society conference, 10-13 March 2011, Spain…

  17. Impact of usability on efforts to bridge the digital divide

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Adebesin, F

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available in these types of development projects, the dream of the providing effective access may remain just that – a dream. This paper highlights the important role that usability plays in the drive towards narrowing the digital divide. We report on the outcome of a...

  18. Peculiarities of the Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutula, Stephen M.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: Seeks to argue that the peculiarities of sub-Saharan Africa, in terms of its socio-cultural diversity, low economic development, linguistic factors, HIV/AIDS pandemic, gender discrimination, low ICT awareness and so on, demand a new model of addressing the digital divide. Design/methodology/approach: Paper largely based on literature…

  19. Measuring the Digital Divide with PingER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, L.

    2003-10-01

    We introduce the PingER project/toolkit and show its relevance to monitoring sites in developing countries. We then show results from PingER that illustrate the extent of the Digital Divide in terms of Internet performance between developed and developing regions, which developing regions are catching up, keeping up, or falling behind and the magnitude of the differences in performance between developed regions and developing regions.

  20. Divided politics and economic growth in the Philippines

    OpenAIRE

    Batalla, Eric Vincent C.

    2016-01-01

    As the 2016 elections drew near and the prospects of a Rodrigo Duterte presidency became stronger, there were concerns that the economy might be adversely affected by the expected political volatility under the new regime. Since the start of the campaign season, Duterte had been rocking the establishment through controversial pronouncements and outbursts, attracting the enmity of leaders of the Catholic Church, the United States, and the United Nations. Based on a review of recent political a...

  1. The NCI Digital Divide Pilot Projects: implications for cancer education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L; Gustafson, David; Salovey, Peter; Perocchia, Rosemarie Slevin; Wilbright, Wayne; Bright, Mary Anne; Muha, Cathy

    2007-01-01

    The National Cancer Institute (NCI) supported four innovative demonstration research projects, "The Digital Divide Pilot Projects," to test new strategies for disseminating health information via computer to vulnerable consumers. These projects involved active research collaborations between the NCI's Cancer Information Service (CIS) and regional cancer control researchers to field test new approaches for enhancing cancer communication in vulnerable communities. The projects were able to use computers to successfully disseminate relevant cancer information to vulnerable populations. These demonstration research projects suggested effective new strategies for using communication technologies to educate underserved populations about cancer prevention, control, and care.

  2. Bridging the Digital Divide Creating Digital Dividend - The Investigation in Guizhou Province and the Analysis of GZNW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linbo Jing

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article begins with attention to the digital divide. It gives a brief overview of the digital divide on a global basis and analyzes specific aspects of the digital divide in our country. It also introduces the informationization construction of Guizhou Province and points out problems with the digital divide in that province. Then it focuses on the practice of Guizhou Province to bridge the digital divide ---- the practice and experience of GZNW. The final section gives a series of policy recommendations on how to bridge the digital divide, realize digital dividends, and how to build a new socialist countryside.

  3. The Physical-Digital Divide: Exploring the Social Gap Between Digital Natives and Physical Natives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Christopher; Francis, Jessica; Huang, Kuo-Ting; Kadylak, Travis; Cotten, Shelia R; Rikard, R V

    2017-09-01

    Older adults are the most digitally divided demographic group. The present study explores how older adults perceive the physical use of information and communication technologies (ICTs), particularly across generations and contexts. Data for the present study come from nine focus groups. Seniors acknowledge that ICTs help them connect with geographically distant social ties, but that they lead to feelings of disconnection with geographically close social ties. We label this phenomenon the "physical-digital divide," which exists when a group feels ostracized or offended when those around them engage with ICTs while they themselves are not or cannot engage with ICTs. Younger generations are often referred to as "digital natives" and older generations as "digital immigrants." A more apt label for older adults may be "physical natives," as their preferred method of communication involves physical face-to-face interactions and traditional codes of etiquette. Suggestions are made for reducing the physical-digital divide.

  4. Digital divide across borders : A cross-national study of adolescents’ use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents’ access and use of

  5. Universal Service in a Broader Perspective: The European Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Concepcion GARCIA-JIMENEZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Ensuring universal service is a top objective in many countries in order that all the citizens can have access basic communications services. Although the ICT equipment in households and its usage by individuals are essential prerequisites for benefiting from ICTs, the situation in the European Union is far from uniform. This article provides a description of the European information society development scenario using the values reached by the member states in a set of indicators selected for measuring said progress in households. Two tools are used for providing a broader perspective of the digital divide: a composite index and the cluster analysis. Below, a study is provided on what variables are relevant for interpreting the situation that is presented.

  6. Digital Politics: Mobilization, Engagement, and Participation

    OpenAIRE

    Koc-Michalska, K.; Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    The article provides insights into the driving forces that underpin new forms of political participation. Digital technologies offer opportunities for engaging in a wide range of civicallyoriented activities, each of which can contribute to deeper democratic engagement. Conventional acts of political participation are argued to be driven primarily by intrinsic motivations relating to self-efficacy and empowerment with participants feeling they can have influence over decision makers. Little r...

  7. Digital divide and body size disparities among Chinese adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Chien Huang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The rapid development of information and communication technology (ICT in China has increased people's sedentary behavior and raised a number of related issues. ICT screen-viewing activities are increasingly considered to contribute to obesity, and sociodemographic characteristics such as gender, income, age, education, and geographical location seem to magnify the digital divide. Objective: This study first examines dissimilar stages of ICT transition, and then establishes how ICT screen-viewing activities relate to the Chinese obesity epidemic. Finally, this study assesses whether unequal access to digital resources and technology by geographic location and gender reinforces existing obesity disparities in China. Methods: This study uses longitudinal data drawn from 10,616 households and 17,377 person-years of those aged 18-55 who participated in the 2006, 2009, and 2011 China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS. Fixed effect linear regression models capture the link between ICT screen-viewing activities and body mass index (BMI. Results: The results show that while between 91.37Š and 96.70Š of individuals had access to televisions during 2006-2011, there is a significant disparity in terms of Internet activity by gender and geographical location. The results show that Internet use could decrease a rural women's BMI by .87 kg/m2, while playing computer games could increase a rural man's BMI by .42 kg/m2. Contribution: This study highlights that unequal access to digital resources and technology might reinforce existing obesity disparities in China.

  8. The Political Nature of Digital Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quincy McCrary

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Collecting organizations such as libraries and museums are vehicles for shifting paradigms of knowledge and power. Digital technologies are also implicated with historical transformations in language, society, and culture. To discuss the digital is to engage simultaneously with an impressive array of simulacra, instantaneous communication, ubiquitous media, and global interconnectedness (Cameron & Kenderdine, 2007. Digital cultural heritage can be viewed as a political concept and practice, the relations between communities and heritage institutions as mediated through technologies, the reshaping of social, cultural, and political power in relation to cultural organizations made possible through communication technologies, and the representation and interpretation of digital cultural heritage. The following paper will address each of these concerns, outlining current scholarship on the topic and critically engaging with the content.

  9. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilka, Gila Cohen

    2016-01-01

    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  10. Informaticiens Sans Frontieres: Helping to bridge the Digital Divide

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2009-01-01

    ISF was formed as a CERN club during the World Summit for the Information Society, in Geneva, in 2003. Today we are involved in a number of international projects aimed to helping Africa bridge the Digital Divide, as well as using computing power (BOINCs) in the research against Malaria, or creating GRIDs that could allow African universities to join us in scientific research projects such as the LHC. Our latest project, named MANGO Net, is aimed at capacity building, by creating a network of computer assembly schools across the continent, which would form hardware and software technicians, create assembly centres, and lay the foundation for a future IT industry. ISF est né comme un club du CERN, en 2003, pendant le Sommet Mondiale de la Société de l'information à Genève. Aujourd'hui nous participons à plusieurs projets avec le but d'aider l'Afrique à reduire la Fracture Numérique, ou de fournir de la puissance de calcul (BOINC) à la recherche contre le Paludisme, ou en créant des GRIDs qui pourra...

  11. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2018-05-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  12. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2017-06-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  13. Digital divide, biometeorological data infrastructures and human vulnerability definition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fdez-Arroyabe, Pablo; Lecha Estela, Luis; Schimt, Falko

    2018-05-01

    The design and implementation of any climate-related health service, nowadays, imply avoiding the digital divide as it means having access and being able to use complex technological devices, massive meteorological data, user's geographic location and biophysical information. This article presents the co-creation, in detail, of a biometeorological data infrastructure, which is a complex platform formed by multiple components: a mainframe, a biometeorological model called Pronbiomet, a relational database management system, data procedures, communication protocols, different software packages, users, datasets and a mobile application. The system produces four daily world maps of the partial density of the atmospheric oxygen and collects user feedback on their health condition. The infrastructure is shown to be a useful tool to delineate individual vulnerability to meteorological changes as one key factor in the definition of any biometeorological risk. This technological approach to study weather-related health impacts is the initial seed for the definition of biometeorological profiles of persons, and for the future development of customized climate services for users in the near future.

  14. A Nation under Joint Custody: How Conflicting Family Models Divide US Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehling, Eva Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    Across the globe and throughout history, politics are regularly divided into "left-leaning" and "right-leaning" camps. Explaining the sources of this conservative-liberal divide has become a major quest in the cognitive and social sciences. Early attempts have focused on self-interest as a possible explanation. However, as the…

  15. A digital divider with extension bits for position-sensitive detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Masaki; Hasegawa, Ken-ichi

    1988-01-01

    Digitizing errors produced in a digital divider for position-sensitive detectors have been reduced by adding extension bits to data bits. A relation between the extension bits and the data bits to obtain perfect position uniformity is also given. A digital divider employing 10 bit ADCs and 6 bit extension circuits has been constructed. (orig.)

  16. Computer and Video Games in Family Life: The Digital Divide as a Resource in Intergenerational Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarsand, Pal Andre

    2007-01-01

    In this ethnographic study of family life, intergenerational video and computer game activities were videotaped and analysed. Both children and adults invoked the notion of a digital divide, i.e. a generation gap between those who master and do not master digital technology. It is argued that the digital divide was exploited by the children to…

  17. Analysing the role of ICT in bridging the digital divide amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This digital divide can be seen as an educational divide and thus we examine how ICT is influencing education. We also investigate the nature of this digital divide while focusing on the local perspective. A short pilot study was done at four schools and one adult education centre in South Africa regarding their access to ICT.

  18. Health literacy and the digital divide among older Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Helen; Janke, Alexander T; Langa, Kenneth M

    2015-03-01

    digital divide.

  19. Student Women’s Internet Skills and its Relation with the Digital Inclusion: New Digital Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío JIMÉNEZ CORTÉS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this research are to know the women´s internet skills, and form different groups of skills of women related with the digital inclusion. To do this, we surveyed 215 Spanish student women aged 20 to 34 using two escales measuring their internet skills and digital inclusion. The findings show four profiles of student women depending on the types of Internet skills and their developmental level (“beginner”, “average”, “advanced” and specialized in e-administration. The skill to create and share content on social networks and skills for e-administration, along with skills to ensure privacy and security on the Internet are associated with a high degree of digital inclusion for student women. The findings showed that the skills for e-administration and the skills to ensure the security and privacy are the most influential in the digital trust. These results suggest the skills to create and share content in social networks sites makes the basic difference between the “advanced” group and the “specialized in e-administration” group. These results raise educational proposals that prioritize skill’s types to improve digital inclusion in other profiles of women and overcoming new digital divides.

  20. Applying Blooms Digital Taxonomy to Address Creativity and Second Order Digital Divide in Internet Skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna

    2016-01-01

    Internet technologies play a significant role to enhance creativity of the students in learning environments. Internet literacy is vital to effectively use the Internet tools to enhance creative learning environments. In the developing countries Internet literacy is still an unfulfilled dream...... for students coming from underprivileged backgrounds thus bringing a digital divide in skills. The chapter draws upon an empirical study done in India on how an intervention comprised of Internet training designed on Bloom’s Digital Taxonomy and action research workshops based on the learning domains...... of the digital taxonomy was an effective approach for empowering women students through learning to use the Internet. The chapter puts forward the argument that an intervention for learning to use the Internet can be effective where focus is on the reflective and conceptual skills in using the Internet than...

  1. BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    those who have the skills, knowledge and abilities to use the technologies and those who do not .... initiative of the World Bank which aims at linking systems and organizations in .... and Knowledge Management in the Digital Age. Mutume, L.

  2. The political (and physiological) divide: Political orientation, performance monitoring, and the anterior cingulate response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissflog, Meghan; Choma, Becky L; Dywan, Jane; van Noordt, Stefon J R; Segalowitz, Sidney J

    2013-01-01

    Our goal was to test a model of sociopolitical attitudes that posits a relationship between individual differences in liberal versus conservative political orientation and differential levels of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) responsivity. We recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) while participants who varied along a unidimensional liberal-conservative continuum engaged in a standard Go/NoGo task. We also measured component attitudes of political orientation in the form of traditionalism (degree of openness to social change) and egalitarianism (a preference for social equality). Generally, participants who reported a more liberal political orientation made fewer errors and produced larger ACC-generated ERPs (the error-related negativity, or ERN and the NoGo N2). This ACC activation, especially as indicated by a larger NoGo N2, was most strongly associated with greater preference for social equality. Performance accuracy, however, was most strongly associated with greater openness to social change. These data are consistent with a social neuroscience view that sociopolitical attitudes are related to aspects of neurophysiological responsivity. They also indicate that a bidimensional model of political orientation can enhance our interpretation of the nature of these associations.

  3. Determinants of Internet skills, use and outcomes : A systematic review of the second- and third-level digital divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheerder, Anique; van Deursen, Alexander; van Dijk, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Recently, several digital divide scholars suggested that a shift is needed from a focus on binary Internet access (first-level digital divide) and Internet skills and use (second-level digital divide) to a third-level digital divide in which the tangible outcomes of Internet use are highlighted. A

  4. The Role of IT Literacy in Defining Digital Divide Policy Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Enrico; Helbig, Natalie C.; Gil-Garcia, J. Ramon

    2011-01-01

    This article expands our current understanding of the digital divide by examining differences in individuals' IT skills acquisition. In the last two decades scholars have gradually refined the conceptualization of the digital divide, moving from a dichotomous model mainly based on access, to a multidimensional model accounting for differences in…

  5. The ICT development index and the digital divide : How are they related?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital preparedness and the digital divide are two ways of measuring ICT performance across countries. Recently, the ITU has proposed that a new index of preparedness be used to measure the divide. My goal is to investigate the validity of this suggestion. I have argued that the ICT Development

  6. Understanding the Complex Dimensions of the Digital Divide: Lessons Learned in the Alaskan Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2007-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of Inupiat Eskimo in the Alaskan Arctic has provided insights into the complex nature of the sociological issues surrounding equitable access to technology tools and skills, which are referred to as the digital divide. These people can overcome the digital divide if they get the basic ready access to hardware and…

  7. Poverty, Literacy, and Social Transformation: An Interdisciplinary Exploration of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Amy J.; Wolfson, Todd; Crowell, Jessica K.

    2018-01-01

    Harnessing scholarship focused on literacy and poverty, in this article we aim to complicate the common understanding of the digital divide. First, we argue that the dominant literature on the digital divide misses broader connections between technological exclusion and broader forms of economic and social exclusion. Accordingly, and following…

  8. Broadband adoption, digital divide, and the global economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrović Đorđe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The existing variation in economic performance between countries is significantly affected by the level, diffusion, and use of different types of information and communication technology. In the last several years economic competitiveness increasingly depends on broadband availability and the adoption, use, and speed of this technology. Broadband access to the internet fosters economic growth and development and increases a country’s global competitiveness. This technology could have a big impact on the competitive advantage of Western Balkan countries because they currently experience a large digital divide, both within countries (between regions, urban and rural areas, different vulnerable groups, etc. and with EU countries. The purpose of the paper is to analyse the current level and dynamics of the digital divide in Western Balkan countries using the Broadband Achievement Index (BAI, the Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA-based model, the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI, the Corruption Perception Index (CPI, and cross-country methodology. This paper measures and compares Western Balkan countries’ current level of broadband adoption and their position on the evolutionary path towards closing the existing economic and digital gap with EU countries. Comparative analysis of calculated BAI data values, GCI, and CPI shows that Western Balkan countries belong to the ‘laggard’ group regarding their broadband achievement and global economic competitiveness. The values of the calculated BAI sub-indexes in this paper indicate the strong and weak sides of the corresponding aspects of broadband technology implementation and give directions for setting further priorities for political intervention, not only in the building of information society but also in the improvement of the economic competitiveness of Western Balkan countries.

  9. A moral house divided: How idealized family models impact political cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Wehling, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    People's political attitudes tend to fall into two groups: progressive and conservative. Moral Politics Theory asserts that this ideological divide is the product of two contrasting moral worldviews, which are conceptually anchored in individuals' cognitive models about ideal parenting and family life. These models, here labeled the strict and nurturant models, serve as conceptual templates for how society should function, and dictate whether one will endorse more conservative or progressive positions. According to Moral Politics Theory, individuals map their parenting ideals onto the societal domain by engaging the nation-as-family metaphor, which facilitates reasoning about the abstract social world (the nation) in terms of more concrete world experience (family life). In the present research, we conduct an empirical examination of these core assertions of Moral Politics Theory. In Studies 1-3, we experimentally test whether family ideals directly map onto political attitudes while ruling out alternative explanations. In Studies 4-5, we use both correlational and experimental methods to examine the nation-as-family metaphor's role in facilitating the translation of family beliefs into societal beliefs and, ultimately, political attitudes. Overall, we found consistent support for Moral Politics Theory's assertions that family ideals directly impact political judgment, and that the nation-as-family metaphor serves a mediating role in this phenomenon.

  10. A moral house divided: How idealized family models impact political cognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Matthew; Wehling, Elisabeth

    2018-01-01

    People’s political attitudes tend to fall into two groups: progressive and conservative. Moral Politics Theory asserts that this ideological divide is the product of two contrasting moral worldviews, which are conceptually anchored in individuals’ cognitive models about ideal parenting and family life. These models, here labeled the strict and nurturant models, serve as conceptual templates for how society should function, and dictate whether one will endorse more conservative or progressive positions. According to Moral Politics Theory, individuals map their parenting ideals onto the societal domain by engaging the nation-as-family metaphor, which facilitates reasoning about the abstract social world (the nation) in terms of more concrete world experience (family life). In the present research, we conduct an empirical examination of these core assertions of Moral Politics Theory. In Studies 1–3, we experimentally test whether family ideals directly map onto political attitudes while ruling out alternative explanations. In Studies 4–5, we use both correlational and experimental methods to examine the nation-as-family metaphor’s role in facilitating the translation of family beliefs into societal beliefs and, ultimately, political attitudes. Overall, we found consistent support for Moral Politics Theory’s assertions that family ideals directly impact political judgment, and that the nation-as-family metaphor serves a mediating role in this phenomenon. PMID:29641618

  11. Digit-Recurrence Dividers with Reduced Logical Depth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Antelo, Elisardo; Lang, Tomas; Montuschi, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a class of division algorithms with the aim of reducing the delay of the selection of the quotient digit by introducing more concurrency and flexibility in its computation. From the proposed class of algorithms, we select one that moves part of the selection function out...

  12. Bridging Divides through Technology Use: Transnationalism and Digital Literacy Socialization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueron, Silvia Cecilia

    2011-01-01

    In this study, I investigate the digital literacy practices of adult immigrants, and their relationship with transnational processes and practices. Specifically, I focus on their conditions of access to information and communication technologies (ICTs) in their life trajectories, their conditions of learning in a community center, and their…

  13. Communication Satellite: Nigeria's Efforts at Bridging Digital Divide ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Communication Satellite in the wireless age has the potentials of bridging the digital gulf that exists between civilized and developing nation. If well used, communication Satellite is a potent infrastructure of addressing technology convergence for holistic national development. This paper examines Nigeria's technological ...

  14. Using Early Childhood Education to Bridge the Digital Divide. Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugherty, Lindsay; Dossani, Rafiq; Johnson, Erin-Elizabeth; Oguz, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    Technology literacy plays an important role in a child's ability to succeed in school and later life. Yet, despite rapid growth in society's use of digital technology, many children in low-income families in the United States are not able to access and use technology in the same ways as their more-advantaged peers. This means they have fewer…

  15. Are changes in the digital divide consistent with global equality or inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    James, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    To answer the question in the title, the author divides a sample of developing countries according to whether they have experienced a rise or fall of the (absolute) digital divide in the Internet. He suggests that in countries where the divide is falling, incomes will tend to be relatively high, and

  16. Public political thought: bridging the sociological-philosophical divide in the study of legitimacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulof, Uriel

    2016-06-01

    The study of political legitimacy is divided between prescriptive and descriptive approaches. Political philosophy regards legitimacy as principled justification, sociology regards legitimacy as public support. However, all people can, and occasionally do engage in morally reasoning their political life. This paper thus submits that in studying socio-political legitimation - the legitimacy-making process - the philosophical ought and the sociological is can be bridged. I call this construct 'public political thought' (PPT), signifying the public's principled moral reasoning of politics, which need not be democratic or liberal. The paper lays PPT's foundations and identifies its 'builders' and 'building blocks'. I propose that the edifice of PPT is built by moral agents constructing and construing socio-moral order (nomization). PPT's building blocks are justificatory common beliefs (doxa) and the deliberative language of legitimation. I illustrate the merits of this groundwork through two empirical puzzles: the end of apartheid and the emergence of Québécois identity. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  17. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. Method: The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. Results: The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. Implications: The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations. PMID:16239960

  18. Disseminating relevant health information to underserved audiences: implications of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreps, Gary L

    2005-10-01

    This paper examines the influence of the digital divide on disparities in health outcomes for vulnerable populations, identifying implications for medical and public libraries. The paper describes the results of the Digital Divide Pilot Projects demonstration research programs funded by the National Cancer Institute to test new strategies for disseminating relevant health information to underserved and at-risk audiences. The Digital Divide Pilot Projects field-tested innovative systemic strategies for helping underserved populations access and utilize relevant health information to make informed health-related decisions about seeking appropriate health care and support, resisting avoidable and significant health risks, and promoting their own health. The paper builds on the Digital Divide Pilot Projects by identifying implications for developing health communication strategies that libraries can adopt to provide digital health information to vulnerable populations.

  19. Original people – Mapuche - Cultural identity - Social media - Digital divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    López-Vicent, Patricia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reflects on the value of the implementation of ICT in indigenous communities in southern Chile, related to the appreciation of cultural identity. Assuming the presence of ICT in all indigenous communities in the world, and specially in the Mapuche communities, we present a training-oriented approach from the concept of digital literacy, and introduce social media as tools available to any member of these communities, in order to access, create and disseminate information, and to communicate and collaborate with their community and other communities, geographically close or distant. The results presented in this article draw from an international cooperation project that started in 2010 between the University of La Frontera (Temuco, Chile and the University of Murcia (Murcia, Spain. This article in written in Spanish

  20. Exploring Privilege in the Digital Divide: Implications for Theory, Policy, and Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Mei Lan; Canham, Sarah L; Battersby, Lupin; Sixsmith, Judith; Wada, Mineko; Sixsmith, Andrew

    2018-05-10

    The digital revolution has resulted in innovative solutions and technologies that can support the well-being, independence, and health of seniors. Yet, the notion of the "digital divide" presents significant inequities in terms of who accesses and benefits from the digital landscape. To better understand the social and structural inequities of the digital divide, a realist synthesis was conducted to inform theoretical understandings of information and communication technologies (ICTs); to understand the practicalities of access and use inequities; to uncover practices that facilitate digital literacy and participation; and to recommend policies to mitigate the digital divide. A systematic search yielded 55 articles published between 2006 and 2016. Synthesis of existing knowledge, combined with user-experience elicited through a deliberative dialogue session with community stakeholders (n = 35), made visible a pattern of privilege that determined individual agency in ICT access and use. Though age is consistently centralized as the key determinant of the digital divide, our analyses, which encompassed both van Dijk's resources and appropriation theory and intersectionality, appraised this notion and revealed that age is not the sole determinant. Findings highlight the role of other factors that contribute to digital inequity among community-dwelling middle-aged (45-64) and older (65+) adults, including education, income, gender, and generational status. Informed by results of a realist synthesis that was guided by intersectional perspectives, a conceptual framework was developed outlining implications for theory, policy, and practice to address the wicked problem that is the digital divide.

  1. Poor need knowledge not only technology to bridge digital divide: experts

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    "Developing countries need to gain knowledge rather than technology to latch onto the booming information society, experts said Monday ahead of a major conference on bridging the digital divide between rich and poor" (1/2 page).

  2. Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Data from a National Longitudinal Survey of CHARLS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya

    2017-01-01

    The China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS, 2013) data was used to investigate internet use and mobile phone ownership in older Chinese adults and examine digital divide and social economic status and mobile technology adoption and health outcomes associations. Results suggest a significant digital divide associated with not only individual characteristics, but also neighborhood resources. Future eHealth programs should consider the accessibility of mobile tools and develop culturally appropriate programs for different social groups.

  3. The Double Edged Sword: A Brief Comparison of IT and Internet Development in Malaysia and Some Few Neighboring Countries in the Context of Digital Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samad, Ramli Abdul

    This paper shows that, although a digital divide exists between developed and developing countries, the development of information technology (IT) and the Internet has had a profound political, social, and economic impact on developing countries. IT and the Internet revolution are shaping the world into new polarized entities due to the uneven…

  4. Revisiting the Digital Divide in the Context of a "Flattening" World

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramony, Deepak Prem

    2014-01-01

    This article employs a variety of theoretical lenses to describe the nature and ramifications of the Digital Divide, which, the author states, continues to remain one of the biggest social challenges to confront the human race in modern times--even as technological advances, globalization, and other socioeconomic shifts are rendering digital media…

  5. Internet on the outstation : the digital divide and remote aboriginal communities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rennie, E.; Hogan, E.; Gregory, R.; Crouch, A.; Wright, A.; Thomas, J.; Rasch, M.D.

    2016-01-01

    Internet on the Outstation provides a new take on the digital divide. Why do whole communities choose to go without the internet when the infrastructure for access is in place? Through an in-depth exploration of the digital practices occurring in Aboriginal households in remote central Australia,

  6. Digital Divide in Sub Saharan Africa: Implications for E-governance ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Among the digital dividends envisaged is e-governance that would enhance citizens' engagement with their governments, service delivery, transparency, accountability, prudent management of public resources, and overall good governance. It is also expected that by bridging the digital divide, e-government will flourish to ...

  7. The third level digital divide: who benefits most from being online?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Helsper, Ellen J.; Robinson, Laura; Cotten, Shelia R.; Schulz, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Research into the explanations of digital inclusion has moved from investigations of skills and usage to tangible outcomes, what we label here as the third-level digital divide. There is a lack of theoretical development about which types of people are most likely to benefit. Understanding

  8. Essays on the Digital Divide--Explorations through Global, National and Individual Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaletsky, Maria

    2013-01-01

    The Digital Divide has emerged as an important research and policy issue during the past thirty years. The divide exists at different levels, such as global, regional and individual levels. While extensive research already exists on this subject, the complexity of the issue presents opportunities for further research. In particular, there is ample…

  9. Research note: Digital divide across borders: A cross-national study of adolescents' use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.J.W.R.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.L.M.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents access and use of

  10. Research note: digital divide across borders: a cross-national study of adolescents’ use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Notten, N.; Peter, J.; Kraaykamp, G.; Valkenburg, P.M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we analyse digital divides in terms of social inequality in digital access and use patterns from a hierarchical perspective. Using data from the Programme for International Student Assessment (PISA) 2003 in 30 nations, we focus on social cleavages in mid-adolescents’ access and use of

  11. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gila Cohen Zilka

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  12. The Political Divide Over Same-Sex Marriage: Mating Strategies in Conflict?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsof, David; Haselton, Martie

    2016-04-01

    Although support for same-sex marriage has grown dramatically over the past decade, public opinion remains markedly divided. Here, we propose that the political divide over same-sex marriage represents a deeper divide between conflicting mating strategies. Specifically, we propose that opposition to same-sex marriage can be explained in terms of (a) individual differences in short-term mating orientation and (b) mental associations between homosexuality and sexual promiscuity. We created a novel Implicit Association Test to measure mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity. We found that mental associations between homosexuality and promiscuity, at both the implicit and the explicit levels, interacted with short-term mating orientation to predict opposition to same-sex marriage. Our model accounted for 42.3% of the variation in attitudes toward same-sex marriage, and all predictors remained robust when we controlled for potential confounds. Our results reveal the centrality of mating psychology in attitudes toward same-sex marriage. © The Author(s) 2016.

  13. Impact of the digital divide on information literacy training in a higher education context

    OpenAIRE

    Segarani Naidoo; Jaya Raju

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on a master’s study undertaken to investigate the impact of the digital divide on information literacy(IL) training of Extended Curriculum Programme (ECP) students at the Durban University of Technology (DUT). Since1994 the demographics of higher education institutions in South Africa have changed. Today these institutions compriseheterogeneous groups of students, by race, economic background, digital background, etc. and consequently with differentlevels of literacy, infor...

  14. The digital divide among young people in Brussels: Social and cultural influences on ownership and use of digital technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Mertens, Stefan; d'Haenens, Leen

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of youth in Brussels (N = 1,005) and their ownership and use of digital technologies, focusing specifically on the social and cultural diversity within this group. Socio-cultural diversity includes differences regarding ethnicity and gender, language and educational attainment, as well as social and economic status. The relationship of these socio-cultural differences with the digital divide in terms of ownership and use is investigated. The data show a persis...

  15. Divided Spirits. Tequila, Mezcal, and The Politics of Production, de Sarah Bowen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga I. Mancha Caceres

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sarah Bowen, profesora asociada del Departamento de Sociologia y Antropologia de la Universidad Estatal de Carolina del Norte, presenta en Divided Spirits. Tequila, Mezcal, and The Politics of Production, el resultado de algo mas de una década de trabajo sobre las denominaciones de origen (DO en México, Francia y Estados Unidos, en el que nos presenta un profundo analisis del complejo mundo de la producción y comercialización del tequila y el mezcal ¿dos productos identitarios de México?, las dinamicas sociales, económicas y politicas que promueven y el papel de sus multiples y desiguales actores involucrados.

  16. Energy conundrum, digital revolution and politics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ersun, Oe.

    2007-01-01

    The 21st Century will be fundamentally different from the previous one in all aspects of the human life. The world is now facing unprecedented challenges that will determine the fate of the human race as a whole. Our tiny planet is too small to shoulder the weight of six and a half billion energy-needy people and it is too vulnerable to afford violent and confrontational approaches as was the case in the past 20th century. It is also a fact that science opened new horizons before us. Digital Revolution inaugurated a new era in human history. Technology offers tremendous opportunities to overcome new and inherited problems. Sadly, the family of nations is ill-equipped for handling these challenges because the organizational structure of the world society is archaic and inoperative. Or, we live in a geo strategic environment pregnant with dangerous crisis of global significance. Furthermore, the good old days when scientists were heeded respectfully as reliable guides and when scientific facts were accepted as 'veritas' are over. Solid scientific arguments are perceived as cover up stories to defend financial interests of multinational companies. Similarly, confidence in politicians is at its lowest level in several countries. At the center of this puzzle lies a frenetic quest for cleaner, cheaper and more secure energy sources. In such circumstances, the best remedies which may be created by the brightest minds of the world will be tributary to the 'goodwill' of politicians. Or, politicians are under the overwhelming pressure of their respective public opinions who may act according to emotional factors or advices from religion, gossip or ideology. Consequently, 'Societal Issues' will be 'the decisive' factor in shaping the future of 'Emerging Nuclear Energy Systems' as well as nonnuclear technologies. This paper will attempt to identify major elements of this global equation from a political standpoint. One also has to take into account a group of new and powerful

  17. The role of digital marketing in political campaigns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Chester

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Computational politics—the application of digital targeted-marketing technologies to election campaigns in the US and elsewhere—are now raising the same concerns for democratic discourse and governance that they have long raised for consumer privacy and welfare in the commercial marketplace. This paper examines the digital strategies and technologies of today’s political operations, explaining how they were employed during the most recent US election cycle, and exploring the implications of their continued use in the civic context. The paper concludes with a discussion of recent policy proposals designed to increase transparency and accountability in digital politics.

  18. An Analysis of the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service's Role in Bridging the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alston, Antoine J.; Hilton, Lashawn; English, Chastity Warren; Elbert, Chanda; Wakefield, Dexter

    2011-01-01

    The study reported here sought to determine the perception of North Carolina County Cooperative Extension directors in regard to the North Carolina Cooperative Extension Service's role in bridging the digital divide. It was perceived by respondents that variables such as income, education, gender, disability status, race/ethnicity, age, and…

  19. Overcoming the Digital Divide: The Story of an Urban Middle School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banister, Savilla; Fischer, John

    2010-01-01

    Access to appropriate technological resources in schools has become an issue, commonly labeled the "digital divide." While the debate ensues in regards to an explicit definition for this phenomenon, research overwhelmingly demonstrates that students of marginalized populations remain on the lower end of access to and innovative use of current…

  20. Crossing the Digital Divide Safely and Trustingly: How Ecologies of Learning Scaffold the Journey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Elizabeth; Van der Westhuizen, Duan

    2004-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of "learning to elearn" in borderless programs in a globalised learning landscape and the associated problems of scaffolding the journey across the digital divide. The authors argue that the assumption underlying such courses is that cross-cultural programs are viable because they are conceived and…

  1. Digital divide: a national security argumentative analysis within a South African context

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Phahlamohlaka, J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Since it was coined in the early eighties following the Maitland commission for worldwide telecommunications development, much has been written about the concept of digital divide. Everything to date in the literature about the subject point to its...

  2. Toward a Multifaceted Model of Internet Access for Understanding Digital Divides: An Empirical Investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2015-01-01

    In this investigation, a multifaceted model of Internet appropriation that encompasses four types of access—motivational, material, skills, and usage—is tested with a representative sample of the Dutch population. The analysis indicates that while the digital divide policies' focus has moved to

  3. Quantifying and Mapping the Digital Divide from an Internet Point of View

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cottrell, R.Les; /SLAC; Khan, Shahryar; /NUST, Rawalpindi; Williams, Jerrod; /SLAC; Mehdi, Akbar; Kalim, Umar; Ali, Arshad; /NUST, Rawalpindi

    2008-09-18

    Quantitative knowledge of the magnitude, extent and trends of the Digital Divide are critical to understand and identify the regions most in need of help, to make rational decisions on how to address the problems and to make cases for executives, funding agencies and politicians. We report on a project (PingER) to measure the Digital Divide from the point of view of Internet performance. The PingER project has been measuring Internet performance since 1995 and with the increased emphasis on measuring and tracking the Digital Divide, it now covers over 700 hosts in over 150 countries that between them contain over 99% of the world's Internet connected population. In this paper we will describe the how PingER works, it deployment, the data analysis, and presentation. We also introduce a new PingER visualization tool (ViPER) that provides a more appealing interactive visualization of the PingER data and also works on mobile PDAs. We will also show results from PingER that illustrate the magnitude, extent and trends for the Digital Divide, and also compare PingER results with some human development and technology indices.

  4. From Digital Divide to Digital Equity: Learners' ICT Competence in Four Primary Schools in Cape Town, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudmundsdottir, G. B.

    2010-01-01

    This study explores factors influencing the digital divide in four schools in Cape Town, South Africa. Three of the schools are for disadvantaged learners whereas the fourth was previously for whites only. All the schools use ICT in their curriculum delivery and thereby support the emphasis of provincial educational authorities on ICT access for…

  5. Internet use and the digital divide in the English longitudinal study of ageing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilleard, Chris; Higgs, Paul

    2008-09-01

    This paper examines the digital divide in Internet use in later life. We hypothesise that the differential diffusion of domestic information and communication technologies between pre- and post-Second World War cohorts is primarily responsible for this divide rather than either age-associated structural inequalities or age-related intrinsic features of mental and/or physical infirmity. Using data from the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing we show that age/cohort differences in Internet use persist after income, education, employment and health status are controlled for. However, when engagement with domestic information and communication technology and cultural activities are taken into account, age/cohort influences on Internet use decline. These contingent 'age/cohort' effects suggest that 'generational' rather than 'structural' or 'stage of life' influences may be more salient explanations of the (age-based) digital divide.

  6. The digital melting pot: Bridging the digital native-immigrant divide

    OpenAIRE

    Stoerger, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    Educational technology advocates claim today’s students are technologically savvy content creators and consumers whose mindset differs from previous generations. The digital native-digital immigrant metaphor has been used to make a distinction between those with technology skills and those without. Metaphors such as this one are useful when having initial conversations about an emerging phenomenon, but over time, they become inaccurate and dangerous. Thus, this paper proposes a new metaphor, ...

  7. Bridging the Digital Divide in Sri Lanka: Some Challenges and Opportunities in using Sinhala in ICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Nandasara

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The "digital divide" is the gap in technology usage and access. The digital divide has been investigated by scholars [1] and policy makers [2] mainly as an economy-specific issue that permeates the population across all demographic profiles, such as income, gender, age, education, race, and region, but not specific to the languages of different communities. The lack of native language driven ICT is a major conducive factor in digital divide. Sinhala writing system used in Sri Lanka is a syllabic writing system derived from Brahmi which consist of vowels, consonants, diacritical marks and special symbols constructs. Several of these constructs are combined to form complex ligatures. The total number of different glyphs is almost close to 2300 in Sinhala language. Thus, all computer equipments that support Sinhala language needs to support a greater degree of complexity in both display and printing with near minimal changes to the keyboard or the input systems. In this paper we discuss (1 historical background of the Sinhala writing system, (2 Sinhala scripts’ characteristics and complexities and illustrate (3 how Sinhala computing technology has evolved over the last quarter century. Major steps are marked by the design of character code standards as a corner stone of whole architecture for text processing. A case described in this article of “Digital Inclusion” shows how small communities of non-Roman script users can connect to the Romanized system dominated cyberspace.

  8. Impact of the digital divide on information literacy training in a higher education context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Segarani Naidoo

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports on a master’s study undertaken to investigate the impact of the digital divide on information literacy(IL training of Extended Curriculum Programme (ECP students at the Durban University of Technology (DUT. Since1994 the demographics of higher education institutions in South Africa have changed. Today these institutions compriseheterogeneous groups of students, by race, economic background, digital background, etc. and consequently with differentlevels of literacy, information and otherwise. The problem that this study addressed was the impact of having both digitallyadvantaged and digitally disadvantaged students in the same information literacy classroom, expecting them to reachlearning outcomes without frustrating students from either group. The objective of the study was to investigate the impactof the digital divide on IL training of ECP students at the DUT and to recommend guidelines for teaching and learning of ILthat would accommodate both digitally advantaged and digitally disadvantaged students. The study employed a mixedmethod approach in its research design. Data was collected from ECP students (of 2010 by means of a questionnaire; aninterview schedule was used to collect data from Subject Librarians involved in teaching the IL module to ECP students; aseparate interview schedule was used to collect data from the ECP Coordinator. Qualitative and quantitative datacollected were prepared for analysis by means of content analysis and numerical coding, respectively and then subjectedto statistical analysis via SPSS, which produced percentage and frequency distributions to ascertain findings. The findingsof the study revealed that the digital divide does impact on IL training in ways such as: slowing down the progress of ILlessons; basic computer skills need to be taught in the IL classroom; and that digitally disadvantaged students find itdifficult to follow online lessons while advantaged students already have the

  9. Towards Rethinking the Digital Divide : Recognizing Shades of Grey in Older Adults’ Digital Inclusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lameijer, Charlotte S.; Mueller, Benjamin; Hage, Eveline

    2017-01-01

    The ‘digital divide’ is one of the key concepts related to IT’s role in social inclusion. However, and despite its prominence, the IS literature related to the concept currently provides a rather diverse set of definitions. This results in a fragmented nomological network, which leads to conceptual

  10. Digital divides in the era of widespread Internet access : Migrant youth negotiating hierarchies in digital culture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, K.H.A.

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter I analyse the digital practices of migrant youth as situated, power-laden, pleasurable and sometimes painful everyday experiences. I develop Walter Benjamin’s theorisations of the nineteenth century “arcade” or commercial passageway (Benjamin W (1999) The Arcades project. Harvard

  11. Digital Media Shapes Youth Participation in Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph; Middaugh, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Will those who Tweet vote? Social media clearly create new opportunities for voice, for agency, and potentially for influence. But they create risks as well, because there is no reason to assume that engagement with participatory politics will inevitably or organically develop in positive ways. That's where schools come into the picture, playing…

  12. Health Digital Divide in the Era of Precision Healthcare: Taking Yunnan Province as an Example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yan; Yan, Li; Kuanghua, Liuwang; Tang, Guozheng

    2017-01-01

    With healthcare coming into the era of Precision Healthcare, it will facilitate the development of health informatics from information processing, integration, analysis, application and other uses. If we ignore the e-health development of developing areas, it will bring a health digital divide. This study takes Yunnan province as an example, and analyzes the problems of e-health development in a developing area, hoping to get more attention from researchers and regulators.

  13. The role of digital marketing in political campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Chester (Jeff); Montgomery (Kathryn C.)

    2017-01-01

    Computational politics—the application of digital targeted-marketing technologies to election campaigns in the US and elsewhere—are now raising the same concerns for democratic discourse and governance that they have long raised for consumer privacy and welfare in the commercial marketplace. This paper examines the digital strategies and technologies of today’s political operations, explaining how they were employed during the most recent US election cycle, and exploring the implications of t...

  14. The Digital Divide and Health Disparities in China: Evidence From a National Survey and Policy Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Zhou, Zi; Fang, Ya; Shi, Leiyu

    2017-09-11

    The digital divide persists despite broad accessibility of mobile tools. The relationship between the digital divide and health disparities reflects social status in terms of access to resources and health outcomes; however, data on this relationship are limited from developing countries such as China. The aim of this study was to examine the current rates of access to mobile tools (Internet use and mobile phone ownership) among older Chinese individuals (aged ≥45 years), the predictors of access at individual and community levels, and the relationship between access to mobile tools and health outcomes. We drew cross-sectional data from a national representative survey, the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS), which focused on the older population (aged ≥45 years). We used two-level mixed logistic regression models, controlling for unobserved heterogeneity at the community and individual levels for data analysis. In addition to individual-level socioeconomic status (SES), we included community-level resources such as neighborhood amenities, health care facilities, and community organizations. Health outcomes were measured by self-reported health and absence of disability based on validated scales. Among the 18,215 participants, 6.51% had used the Internet in the past month, and 83% owned a mobile phone. In the multivariate models, Internet use was strongly associated with SES, rural or urban residence, neighborhood amenities, community resources, and geographic region. Mobile phone ownership was strongly associated with SES and rural/urban residence but not so much with neighborhood amenities and community resources. Internet use was a significant predictor of self-reported health status, and mobile phone ownership was significantly associated with having disability even after controlling for potential confounders at the individual and community levels. This study is one of the first to examine digital divide and its relationship with health

  15. Summary of issues and decisions: Workshopon the politics of digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Summary of issues and decisions: Workshopon the politics of digital initiatives concerning africa, 4-5 August 2006, University of Illinois at Urbana-champaign. DK Easterbrook. Abstract. No Abstract. Innovation Vol.34 () 2007: pp. 1-3. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  16. Overview and observations: Workshop on the politics of digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Overview and observations: Workshop on the politics of digital initiatives concerning africa,August 4-5,2006. A Kagan. Abstract. No Abstract. Innovation Vol.34 () 2007: pp. 4-11. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Article Metrics. Metrics Loading ... Metrics ...

  17. Digital Spring? New Media and New Politics on the Campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessant, Judith

    2014-01-01

    Whilst the dynamics informing processes have taken time to become clear, civic resistance initiated by young people using new media began in Egypt in 2010 against the Mubarak regime, soon widened to Tunisia, Yemen and Libya. Known as the "Arab Spring", this phenomenon re-ignited discussion about the political role of digital space and…

  18. Parental health information seeking and re-exploration of the 'digital divide'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Mary; While, Alison; Roberts, Julia

    2014-04-01

    To describe patterns of 'online' and 'offline' health information seeking in families with children under five years of age and living in five socially, economically and culturally disparate local authority (LA) wards in one inner-city area. Earlier work analysed data from the five LA wards merged as one data set. A 'digital divide' in health information seeking was identified between parents who actively sought information from both internet websites and from 14 other health information sources (online health information seekers), and those who acquired information from a more limited range of sources excluding the internet. Of the two groups, the online health information seekers had higher levels of computer ownership and, therefore, internet access within the home. Re-analysis of data (questionnaires n = 224; five focus groups; two interviews with service providers; two opportunistic conversations with service providers). Additional data were retrieved after the original data analysis and between 2005 and 2007. These data were from service user-led discussions (n = 30) held with parents in child health clinics, informal interviews (n = 11) with health visitors and semi-structured interviews (n = 2) with health visitors. Information was also retrieved from the Office for National Statistics data set. In the re-analysis, data were disaggregated at LA ward level in order to explore local influences on patterns of health information seeking. Multiple layers of influence upon parental health information seeking emerged and revealed a non-digital second divide, which was independent of computer ownership and home internet access. This divide was based on preference for use of certain health information sources, which might be either 'online' or 'offline'. A spatial patterning of both digital and preferential divides was identified with an association between each of these and features of the physical, social, cultural and psychosocial environment, one of which was

  19. Global digital divide: determinants of cross-country ICT development with special reference to Southeast Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debbra Toria Nipo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Information and communication technology (ICT tools are regarded as imperative not only for enabling the economy to grow at a healthy rate, but also for elevating the socioeconomic conditions and standards of the society. In concurrence with the widespread diffusion of ICT, lies the phenomenon called digital divide – a complex issue pertaining to unequal access, use and applications of ICT among countries and peoples. This paper attempts to measure the contribution of conventional factors such as affordability, infrastructure, trade openness and urbanization, with added emphasis on the role of financial development in explaining cross-country development of ICT among Southeast Asian countries. Using panel data for 4 countries for the period 1994 – 2011, findings of this study revealed that GDP is the most significant determinant in explaining digital divide – consistent with findings from previous research efforts. Financial development also appear significant in most models adopted in all three ICT tools, implying the need for these countries to improve their financial markets to avoid falling further behind in promoting a digitally inclusive society.

  20. Bridging the digital divide: mobile access to personal health records among patients with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ilana; Huang, Jie; Brand, Richard J; Hsu, John; Yamin, Cyrus K; Reed, Mary E

    2018-01-01

    Some patients lack regular computer access and experience a digital divide that causes them to miss internet-based health innovations. The diffusion of smartphones has increased internet access across the socioeconomic spectrum, and increasing the channels through which patients can access their personal health records (PHRs) could help bridge the divide in PHR use. We examined PHR use through a computer-based Web browser or mobile device. Cross-sectional historical cohort analysis. Among adult patients in the diabetes registry of an integrated healthcare delivery system, we studied the devices used to access their PHR during 2016. Among 267,208 patients with diabetes, 68.1% used the PHR in 2016; 60.6% of all log-ins were via computer and 39.4% were via mobile device. Overall, 63.9% used it from both a computer and mobile device, 29.6% used only a computer, and 6.5% used only a mobile device. After adjustment, patients who were black, Hispanic, or Asian; lived in lower socioeconomic status (SES) neighborhoods; or had lower engagement were all significantly more likely to use the PHR only from a mobile device (P digital divide in computer use, disproportionately reaching racial/ethnic minorities and lower SES patients. Nonetheless, even with a mobile-optimized and app-accessible PHR, differences in PHR use by race/ethnicity and SES remain. Continued efforts are needed to increase equitable access to PHRs among patients with chronic conditions.

  1. The digital health divide: evaluating online health information access and use among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K; Bernhardt, Jay M; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W

    2015-04-01

    Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide debate. This study evaluated the potential digital health divide in relation to characteristic and belief differences between older adult users and nonusers of online health information sources. A cross-sectional survey design was conducted using a random sample of older adults. A total of 225 older adults (age range = 50-92 years, M = 68.9 years, SD = 10.4) participated in the study. Seventy-six percent of all respondents had Internet access. Users and nonusers of online health information differed significantly on age (M = 66.29 vs. M = 71.13), education, and previous experience with the health care system. Users and nonusers of online health information also differed significantly on Internet and technology access, however, a large percentage of nonusers had Internet access (56.3%), desktop computers (55.9%), and laptop computers or netbooks (43.2%). Users of online health information had higher mean scores on the Computer Self-Efficacy Measure than nonusers, t(159) = -7.29, p information. Findings suggest strategies for reducing this divide and implications for health education programs to promote HIT use among older adults. © 2014 Society for Public Health Education.

  2. ODL and the Impact of Digital Divide on Information Access in Botswana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olugbade Oladokun

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Open and distance learning (ODL has created room for the emergence of virtual education. Not only are students found everywhere and anywhere undertaking their studies and earning their degrees, but geographical boundaries between nations no longer appear to have much relevance. As the new education paradigm irretrievably alters the way teaching and learning is conducted, the application of modern educational ICTs has a major role to play.With students of transnational or cross-border education dispersed into various nooks and crannies of Botswana, many others enlist for the “home-baked” distance learning programmes from their diverse locations. Like the face-to-face conventional students, distance learners also have information needs which have to be met. But blocking the distance learners’ realization of their information needs is the digital divide, which further marginalizes the underclass of “info-poor.”The survey method was used, and a questionnaire administered to 519 students of four tertiary level distance teaching institutions that met the criteria set for the study yielded a 70.1% response rate. The results showed that while the Government of Botswana has made considerable effort to ensure country-wide access to ICT, which now constitutes an effective instrument for meeting information needs, a number of problems still exist. The factors impeding easy access are unearthed. The findings of an empirical study portraying some learners as information-rich and others as information-poor, and the consequence of distance learners studying on both sides of the digital divide, are discussed. Suggestions on bridging the digital divide are offered.

  3. The digital divide: Trends in global mobile and broadband Internet access from 2000-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide is described as the gap between those who do and do not have access to digital information and communications technologies (ICT). ICTs are viewed as an indicator of infrastructure and potential for development, and are a growing platform for health information and services delivery. This study compares the penetration of mobile and broadband Internet technologies by global region from 2000 to 2010. Results illustrate the rapid growth of mobile cellular telephone subscriptions in all global regions with trends suggesting a continued increase. Little to modest gains were made in fixed broadband Internet subscriptions globally. There is a growing popularity of mobile subscriptions with use of data communications, exceeding the numbers of fixed Internet subscriptions. This comparison reveals current strengths that can be built on and highlights the importance of awareness of global trends and using such knowledge to inform design and delivery of ICT-based health services.

  4. The digital divide: Trends in global mobile and broadband Internet access from 2000–2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronquillo, Charlene; Currie, Leanne

    2012-01-01

    The digital divide is described as the gap between those who do and do not have access to digital information and communications technologies (ICT). ICTs are viewed as an indicator of infrastructure and potential for development, and are a growing platform for health information and services delivery. This study compares the penetration of mobile and broadband Internet technologies by global region from 2000 to 2010. Results illustrate the rapid growth of mobile cellular telephone subscriptions in all global regions with trends suggesting a continued increase. Little to modest gains were made in fixed broadband Internet subscriptions globally. There is a growing popularity of mobile subscriptions with use of data communications, exceeding the numbers of fixed Internet subscriptions. This comparison reveals current strengths that can be built on and highlights the importance of awareness of global trends and using such knowledge to inform design and delivery of ICT-based health services. PMID:24199118

  5. Evidence of an emerging digital divide among hospitals that care for the poor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jha, Ashish K; DesRoches, Catherine M; Shields, Alexandra E; Miralles, Paola D; Zheng, Jie; Rosenbaum, Sara; Campbell, Eric G

    2009-01-01

    Some hospitals that disproportionately care for poor patients are falling behind in adopting electronic health records (EHRs). Data from a national survey indicate early evidence of an emerging digital divide: U.S. hospitals that provide care to large numbers of poor patients also had minimal use of EHRs. These same hospitals lagged others in quality performance as well, but those with EHR systems seemed to have eliminated the quality gap. These findings suggest that adopting EHRs should be a major policy goal of health reform measures targeting hospitals that serve large populations of poor patients.

  6. eGY-Africa: addressing the digital divide for science in Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baki, Paul; Nguno, Anna; Barton, Charles; Amaeshi, Larry; Tenthani, Chifundo; Petitdidier, Monique; Cottrell, Les

    2013-04-01

    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in the development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is still a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this digital divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the digital divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the digital divide - either as a direct policy objective, or indirectly

  7. Mobile Phones Bridging the Digital Divide for Teens in the US?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brown, Katie; Campbell, Scott; Ling, Richard

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, just 27% of American teens with mobile phones reported using their devices to access the internet. However, teens from lower income families and minority teens were significantly more likely to use their phones to go online. Together, these surprising trends suggest a potential narrowing...... of the digital divide, offering internet access to those without other means of going online. This is an important move, as, in today’s society, internet access is central to active citizenship in general and teen citizenship in particular. Yet the cost of this move toward equal access is absorbed by those who...... as non-use) of the internet through mobile phones....

  8. eGY-Africa: Addressing the Digital Divide for Science in Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barton, C.E.; /Australian Natl. U., Canberra; Amory-Mazaudier, C.; /Lab.Phys.Plasmas, Saint Maur des Fosses; Barry, B.; /Assoc.African Univ., Accra; Chukwuma; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Cottrell, R.L.; /SLAC; Kalim, U.; /Pakistan Natl. U.; Mebrahtu, A.; /Mekelle U.; Petitdidier, M.; /Lab. d' Atmos., Velizy; Rabiu, B.; /Federal Tech. U., Akure; Reeves, C.; /Earthworks bv, Delft

    2010-06-16

    Adoption of information and communication technologies and access to the Internet is expanding in Africa, but because of the rapid growth elsewhere, a Digital Divide between Africa and the rest of the world exists, and the gap is growing. In many sub-Saharan African countries, education and research sector suffers some of the worst deficiencies in access to the Internet, despite progress in development of NRENs - National Research and Education (cyber) Networks. By contrast, it is widely acknowledged in policy statements from the African Union, the UN, and others that strength in this very sector provides the key to meeting and sustaining Millennium Development Goals. Developed countries with effective cyber-capabilities proclaim the benefits to rich and poor alike arising from the Information Revolution. This is but a dream for many scientists in African institutions. As the world of science becomes increasingly Internet-dependent, so they become increasingly isolated. eGY-Africa is a bottom-up initiative by African scientists and their collaborators to try to reduce this Digital Divide by a campaign of advocacy for better institutional facilities. Four approaches are being taken. The present status of Internet services, problems, and plans are being mapped via a combination of direct measurement of Internet performance (the PingER Project) and a questionnaire-based survey. Information is being gathered on policy statements and initiatives aimed at reducing the Digital Divide, which can be used for arguing the case for better Internet facilities. Groups of concerned scientists are being formed at the national, regional levels in Africa, building on existing networks as much as possible. Opinion in the international science community is being mobilized. Finally, and perhaps most important of all, eGY-Africa is seeking to engage with the many other programs, initiatives, and bodies that share the goal of reducing the Digital Divide - either as a direct policy

  9. Human rights for more than one voice: rethinking political space beyond the global/local divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Adami

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper considers political agency and space as found in Cavarero's For More Than One Voice: Toward a Philosophy of Vocal Expression in order to take a critical philosophical approach to human rights education (HRE and the political implications of its increasingly legal discourse. Like Arendt, Cavarero is concerned with a radical rethinking of political space, as not limited to place or legal borders, but bound by our human condition of plurality and relationality. Both Arendt and Cavarero want politics to be coupled with justice, nevertheless, Cavarero provides a notion of politics that lets us think beyond territorial terms of a polis, which opens for exploring an expanded conceptualization of human rights politics, as not bound by national legislative measures, but as concerning political action in-between human beings. In contrast to the dominant discourse on ‘human rights experts’ who frame the content for HRE, the notion of ‘absolute local space’ questions the dichotomy of universal/particular in raising the importance of a plurality of unique voices who create a spectrum for the universality of rights.

  10. Divided we stand : the politics of the atheist movement in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Kettell, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The United States is one of the most religious countries in the Western world. Yet a notable feature of the past decade has been the growth of a self-conscious, politically active atheist movement. Academic analysis of this topic, however, remains limited. This article addresses this lacuna by examining the political dimension of the US atheist movement across a number of themes, including its organisational structure and composition, as well as its goals, strategies, and direction. Deploying...

  11. eHealth literacy: extending the digital divide to the realm of health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neter, Efrat; Brainin, Esther

    2012-01-27

    eHealth literacy is defined as the ability of people to use emerging information and communications technologies to improve or enable health and health care. The goal of this study was to explore whether literacy disparities are diminished or enhanced in the search for health information on the Internet. The study focused on (1) traditional digital divide variables, such as sociodemographic characteristics, digital access, and digital literacy, (2) information search processes, and (3) the outcomes of Internet use for health information purposes. We used a countrywide representative random-digital-dial telephone household survey of the Israeli adult population (18 years and older, N = 4286). We measured eHealth literacy; Internet access; digital literacy; sociodemographic factors; perceived health; presence of chronic diseases; as well as health information sources, content, search strategies, and evaluation criteria used by consumers. Respondents who were highly eHealth literate tended to be younger and more educated than their less eHealth-literate counterparts. They were also more active consumers of all types of information on the Internet, used more search strategies, and scrutinized information more carefully than did the less eHealth-literate respondents. Finally, respondents who were highly eHealth literate gained more positive outcomes from the information search in terms of cognitive, instrumental (self-management of health care needs, health behaviors, and better use of health insurance), and interpersonal (interacting with their physician) gains. The present study documented differences between respondents high and low in eHealth literacy in terms of background attributes, information consumption, and outcomes of the information search. The association of eHealth literacy with background attributes indicates that the Internet reinforces existing social differences. The more comprehensive and sophisticated use of the Internet and the subsequent increased

  12. Digital Divide: How Do Home Internet Access and Parental Support Affect Student Outcomes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Lei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the relationship between home Internet access/parental support and student outcomes. Survey data were collected from 1,576 middle school students in China. Data were analyzed using descriptive analysis, independent-samples T-test, and regression analysis. Results indicate that students who had home Internet access reported higher scores than those without home Internet on all three dimensions: Computer and Internet self-efficacy, Attitudes towards technology and Developmental outcomes. Home Internet access and parental support were significantly positively associated with technology self-efficacy, interest in technology, perceived importance of the Internet, and perceived impact of the Internet on learning. Findings from this study have significant implications for research and practice on how to narrow down the digital divide.

  13. Older Adults' Internet Use for Health Information: Digital Divide by Race/Ethnicity and Socioeconomic Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hyunwoo; Jang, Yuri; Vaughan, Phillip W; Garcia, Michael

    2018-04-01

    Building upon literature suggesting low Internet use among racial/ethnic minorities and socioeconomically disadvantaged groups, this study examined how race/ethnicity and socioeconomic status (SES) influence the Internet use for health information, addressing both independent and interactive effects. Using data from 17,704 older adults in the California Health Interview Survey, logistic regression models were estimated with race/ethnicity (Whites, African Americans, Latinos, and Asians), SES index, and the interaction between race/ethnicity and SES index. Overall, approximately 40% of participants were Internet-users for health information. Direct effects of race/ethnicity and SES-and their interactions-were all found to be significant. Minority status combined with the lowest levels of SES substantially reduced the odds of using Internet for health information. Findings suggest the combination of racial/ethnic minority status and low SES as a source of digital divide, and provide implications for Internet technology training for the target population.

  14. Resilient development and environmental justice in divided territory: political ecology in the San Diego-Tijuana bioregion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Haines

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores issues in the expansion of environmental justice rhetoric to the developing world, and propose insights from resilience theory, political ecology, and bioregionalism as supplements. I do this from the frame of the San Diego-Tijuana region, where regional inequalities are stark and global processes have a heavy local footprint. Sharing a broadly-defined natural region, the growing evidence of ecological crisis increasingly calls for collaboration between two communities which often perceive themselves as relatively disconnected. Understanding challenges to social-ecological resilience and environmental justice in the San Diego-Tijuana region, however, also requires understanding it as an inflection point for global economic, military, and human migration flows occurring at many scales. It is in the context of building effective regional collaboration that environmental justice must engage the analyses of scale and political economy contained in political ecology as a challenge. I suggest, however, that any environmental justice discourse informed by political ecology cannot remain abstract from the local context. A “bioregional” community forged around shared ecological systems may serve as an important resource for creating social-ecological resilience in politically divided territory.

  15. Racial disparities in health information access: resilience of the Digital Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorence, Daniel P; Park, Heeyoung; Fox, Susannah

    2006-08-01

    Policy initiatives of the late 1990s were believed to have largely eliminated the information "Digital Divide." For healthcare consumers, access to information is an essential part of the consumer-centric framework outlined in the recently proposed national health information initiative. This study sought to examine how racial/ethnic characteristics are associated with Internet use and online health information. Using a cross-sectional nationwide study of reported Internet use and information search in 2000 and 2002, we studied a stratified sample of computer users from the Pew Internet and American Life Project surveys. Adjusted estimates of race/ethnicity and income effects on Internet use and search behaviors were derived from generalized estimating equations. Results show wide gaps in the use of computers between Hispanics and Whites (OR = 0.593 [0.440, 0.798]) and between African-Americans and Whites (OR = 0.554 [0.427, 0.720]) in 2000 significantly narrowed in 2002 (OR of Hispanic to white = 1.250 [0.874, 1.789]; OR of African-American to Whites = (0.793 [0.551, 1.141]). Gaps in access to the Internet, however, remained consistent between 2000-2002. Differences in health information seeking between Hispanics and Whites existed in both 2000 and 2002. 56% of White Internet users at some time searched for online health information, whereas 42% of Hispanic Internet users did so in 2000. By 2002, these percentages had increased to 13.4 and 15.8%, respectively. Data highlight the persistence of "Digitally Underserved Groups," despite recent Divide reduction strategies.

  16. Electronic health record adoption in US hospitals: the emergence of a digital "advanced use" divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler-Milstein, Julia; Holmgren, A Jay; Kralovec, Peter; Worzala, Chantal; Searcy, Talisha; Patel, Vaishali

    2017-11-01

    While most hospitals have adopted electronic health records (EHRs), we know little about whether hospitals use EHRs in advanced ways that are critical to improving outcomes, and whether hospitals with fewer resources - small, rural, safety-net - are keeping up. Using 2008-2015 American Hospital Association Information Technology Supplement survey data, we measured "basic" and "comprehensive" EHR adoption among hospitals to provide the latest national numbers. We then used new supplement questions to assess advanced use of EHRs and EHR data for performance measurement and patient engagement functions. To assess a digital "advanced use" divide, we ran logistic regression models to identify hospital characteristics associated with high adoption in each advanced use domain. We found that 80.5% of hospitals adopted at least a basic EHR system, a 5.3 percentage point increase from 2014. Only 37.5% of hospitals adopted at least 8 (of 10) EHR data for performance measurement functions, and 41.7% of hospitals adopted at least 8 (of 10) patient engagement functions. Critical access hospitals were less likely to have adopted at least 8 performance measurement functions (odds ratio [OR] = 0.58; P functions (OR = 0.68; P = 0.02). While the Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health Act resulted in widespread hospital EHR adoption, use of advanced EHR functions lags and a digital divide appears to be emerging, with critical-access hospitals in particular lagging behind. This is concerning, because EHR-enabled performance measurement and patient engagement are key contributors to improving hospital performance. Hospital EHR adoption is widespread and many hospitals are using EHRs to support performance measurement and patient engagement. However, this is not happening across all hospitals. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the American Medical Informatics Association. All rights reserved. For Permissions

  17. Matrix analysis of the digital divide in eHealth services using awareness, want, and adoption gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Te-Hsin

    2012-02-13

    The digital divide usually refers to access or usage, but some studies have identified two other divides: awareness and demand (want). Given that the hierarchical stages of the innovation adoption process of a customer are interrelated, it is necessary and meaningful to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services through three main stages, namely, awareness, want, and adoption. By following the three main integrated stages of the innovation diffusion theory, from the customer segment viewpoint, this study aimed to propose a new matrix analysis of the digital divide using the awareness, want, and adoption gap ratio (AWAG). I compared the digital divide among different groups. Furthermore, I conducted an empirical study on eHealth services to present the practicability of the proposed methodology. Through a review and discussion of the literature, I proposed hypotheses and a new matrix analysis. To test the proposed method, 3074 Taiwanese respondents, aged 15 years and older, were surveyed by telephone. I used the stratified simple random sampling method, with sample size allocation proportioned by the population distribution of 23 cities and counties (strata). This study proposed the AWAG segment matrix to analyze the digital divide in eHealth services. First, awareness and want rates were divided into two levels at the middle point of 50%, and then the 2-dimensional cross of the awareness and want segment matrix was divided into four categories: opened group, desire-deficiency group, perception-deficiency group, and closed group. Second, according to the degrees of awareness and want, each category was further divided into four subcategories. I also defined four possible strategies, namely, hold, improve, evaluate, and leave, for different regions in the proposed matrix. An empirical test on two recently promoted eHealth services, the digital medical service (DMS) and the digital home care service (DHCS), was conducted. Results showed that for both e

  18. Parental education and children's online health information seeking: beyond the digital divide debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Shanyang

    2009-11-01

    Research has shown that increasing numbers of teenagers are going online to find health information, but it is unclear whether there are disparities in the prevalence of online health seeking among young Internet users associated with social and economic conditions. Existing literature on Internet uses by adults indicates that low income, less educated, and minority individuals are less likely to be online health seekers. Based on the analysis of data from the Pew Internet and American Life Project for the US, this study finds that teens of low education parents are either as likely as or even more likely than teens of high education parents to seek online health information. Multiple regression analysis shows that the higher engagement in health seeking by teens of low education parents is related to a lower prevalence of parental Internet use, suggesting that some of these teens may be seeking online health information on behalf of their low education parents. Implications of these findings are discussed in relation to the issues of the digital divide and digital empowerment.

  19. Is there a digital divide among school students? an exploratory study from Puducherry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramalingam, Archana; Kar, Sitanshu Sekhar

    2014-01-01

    The advent of internet has triggered a growth in provision of more interactive health promotion messages, which are likely to enhance the potential for behavior change especially among children. We intended to find out the determinants and prevalence of use of internet among school students of Puducherry. An exploratory study was carried out among all the students belonging to the standards VI to IX (n = 421) in three schools from urban areas and two schools from rural areas of Puducherry. A pretested, self-administered questionnaire which sought information on sociodemographic details (age, gender, standard of education, occupation of father, and type of school), use of internet, and place of accessing internet, hours of use, and reasons for use was utilized. The statistical significance between the categorical variables was done using chi-square test. All significance tests were two-tailed and statistical significance was defined as a value of P divide observed among the school children in the use of internet. Taking the steps to bridging the digital divide will help utilize internet as a media for health promotion.

  20. The future, the foreign and the public–private divide: Socio-political discourses around Skolkovo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elana Wilson Rowe

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This article takes an in-depth look at the establishment of a technology and educational complex outside of Moscow dedicated to promoting innovation. The set of interrelated initiatives, which are referred to in this article as the ‘Skolkovo project’, were centerpieces of Medvedev's much touted efforts to ‘modernize’ the Russian economy during his presidential period. While others have examined the Skolkovo project with a macroeconomic perspective and an eye towards predicting whether it (and Russia's innovation policy more generally can succeed, a different approach is taken here. Rather than evaluating Skolkovo's viability, the aim is to identify elite socio-political discourses surrounding the construction of Skolkovo. How particular moments are navigated – for example, securing a balance between government and private actors in the Skolkovo project or seeking networks internationally – can be seen as illustrative of how broader challenges in Russian governance are being (or failing to be addressed. The case study is based in a content analysis of 310 Skolkovo-related texts (interviews, political speeches, articles published in the state-owned newspaper Rossikaya Gazeta.

  1. Redesigning Civic Education for the Digital Age: Participatory Politics and the Pursuit of Democratic Engagement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahne, Joseph; Hodgin, Erica; Eidman-Aadahl, Elyse

    2016-01-01

    The digital revolution has enabled important changes in political life. Opportunities to engage in "participatory politics" have expanded significantly. Participatory politics differ from institutional politics in that they are peer-based, interactive, and not guided by deference to traditional elites and institutions. These changes…

  2. Household computer and Internet access: The digital divide in a pediatric clinic population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Aaron E.; Rivara, Frederick P.; Ebel, Beth; Zimmerman, Frederick J.; Christakis, Dimitri A.

    2005-01-01

    Past studies have noted a digital divide, or inequality in computer and Internet access related to socioeconomic class. This study sought to measure how many households in a pediatric primary care outpatient clinic had household access to computers and the Internet, and whether this access differed by socio-economic status or other demographic information. We conducted a phone survey of a population-based sample of parents with children ages 0 to 11 years old. Analyses assessed predictors of having home access to a computer, the Internet, and high-speed Internet service. Overall, 88.9% of all households owned a personal computer, and 81.4% of all households had Internet access. Among households with Internet access, 48.3% had high speed Internet at home. There were statistically significant associations between parental income or education and home computer ownership and Internet access. However, the impact of this difference was lessened by the fact that over 60% of families with annual household income of $10,000–$25,000, and nearly 70% of families with only a high-school education had Internet access at home. While income and education remain significant predictors of household computer and internet access, many patients and families at all economic levels have access, and might benefit from health promotion interventions using these modalities. PMID:16779012

  3. Can't surf, won't surf: the digital divide in mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennis, Liam; Rose, Diana; Denis, Mike; Pandit, Ninjeri; Wykes, Til

    2012-08-01

    New health information technology (HIT) increasingly plays a role in health care as technology becomes cheaper and more widespread. However, there is a danger that those who do not use or have access to technology will not benefit from HIT innovations, thus creating a "digital divide". To assess the extent to which mental health service users have access to, skills in using and appetite for various technologies. A cross-sectional survey was used to assess technology use and access patterns of 121 people from community mental health services. Data were analysed using logistic regression. Technology use and access were very similar to that of the general population with older individuals reporting less familiarity, access and confidence across a range of technologies. Black, minority and ethnic (BME) groups were more likely to access computers outside of their own homes than white individuals. Older participants experiencing psychosis indicated a desire to increase their computer use. The findings reported here contrast with recent evidence suggesting that those who do not engage with technology are "self-excluders". Furthermore, BME groups may need extra support regarding provision of technology in order to engage with HIT.

  4. Race-Based Health Disparities and the Digital Divide: Implications for Nursing Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Zula

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the sources of race-based health disparities could improve nursing practice and education in minority underserved communities. This purpose of this paper was to consider if Black-nonBlack health disparities were at least in part explained by Black-nonBlack disparities in access to Internet-based health information. With data on the U.S. adult population from the 2012 General Social Survey, the parameters of a health production function in which computer usage as an input was estimated. It was found that while there are Black-nonBlack disparities in health, once computer usage was accounted for, Black-nonBlack health disparities disappeared. This suggests nursing and health interventions that improve Internet access for Black patients in underserved communities could improve the health of Black Americans and close the racial health disparities gap. These findings complement recent nursing researchfindings that suggest closing Black-nonBlack disparities in computer access, the "digital divide," can render nursing practice more effective in providing care to minority and underserved communities.

  5. Mobile Phones Bridging the Digital Divide for Teens in the US?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie Brown

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2009, just 27% of American teens with mobile phones reported using their devices to access the internet. However, teens from lower income families and minority teens were significantly more likely to use their phones to go online. Together, these surprising trends suggest a potential narrowing of the digital divide, offering internet access to those without other means of going online. This is an important move, as, in today’s society, internet access is central to active citizenship in general and teen citizenship in particular. Yet the cost of this move toward equal access is absorbed by those who can least afford it: Teenagers from low income households. Using survey and focus group data from a national study of “Teens and Mobile Phone Use” (released by Pew and the University of Michigan in 2010, this article helps identify and explain this and other emergent trends for teen use (as well as non-use of the internet through mobile phones.

  6. Digital Divides and the 'First Mile': Framing First Nations Broadband Development in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob McMahon

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Across Canada, rural and remote First Nations face a significant 'digital divide'. As self-determining autonomous nations in Canada, these communities are building broadband systems to deliver public services to their members and residents. To address this challenge, First Nations are working towards a variety of innovative, locally driven broadband development initiatives. This paper contributes a theoretical discussion that frames our understanding of these initiatives by drawing on the paradigm of the 'First Mile' (Paisley & Richardson, 1998. We argue that broadband development policy in Canada must be re-framed to address the specific needs of First Nations. The First Mile position foregrounds community-based involvement, control, and ownership: a consideration we suggest has particular resonance for First Nations. This is because it holds potential to move beyond the historical context of paternalistic, colonial-derived development policies, in the context of broadband systems development. We argue First Nations broadband projects offer on-the-ground examples of a First Mile approach, and call for more research in this area.

  7. Digital Divide in Sub-Saharan African Universities: Recommendations and Monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barry, Boubakar; /Assoc. Afr. Univ.; Chukwuma, Victor; /Olabisi Onabanjo U.; Petitdidier, Monique; /CEPT, Velizy; Cottrell, Les; /SLAC; Bartons, Charles; /Australian Natl. U., RSES

    2009-12-17

    The Digital Divide prevents Africa from taking advantages of new information technologies. One of the most urgent priorities is to bring the Internet in African Universities, Research, and Learning Centers to the level of other regions of the world. eGY-Africa, and the Sharing Knowledge Foundation are two bottom-up initiatives by scientists to secure better cyber-infrastructure and Internet facilities in Africa. Recommendations by the present scientific communities are being formulated at national, regional and international levels. The Internet capabilities are well documented at country level overall, but this is not the case at the University level. The snapshot of the Internet status in universities in 17 African countries, obtained by a questionnaire survey, is consistent with measures of Internet penetration in the corresponding country. The monitoring of Internet performance has been proposed to those African universities to provide an information base for arguing the need to improve the coverage for Africa. A pilot program is recommended that will start scientific collaboration with Europe in western Africa using ICT. The program will lay the foundations for the arrival of new technologies like Grids.

  8. Digital Trace Data in the Study of Public Opinion : An Indicator of Attention Toward Politics Rather Than Political Support

    OpenAIRE

    Jungherr, Andreas; Schoen, Harald; Posegga, Oliver; Jürgens, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    In this article, we examine the relationship between metrics documenting politics-related Twitter activity with election results and trends in opinion polls. Various studies have proposed the possibility of inferring public opinion based on digital trace data collected on Twitter and even the possibility to predict election results based on aggregates of mentions of political actors. Yet, a systematic attempt at a validation of Twitter as an indicator for political support is lacking. In this...

  9. A Socially-Just Internet: The Digital Divide, Cybercultural Agency, and Human Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toews

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that while modes of scholarship stressing structural insights into the digital divide and ethnographic insights into online communities each give us important information about current uses of the internet, for the sake of a unified social justice principle it is necessary to interpret these forms of knowledge in terms of what could be. Marx’s formula ‘the development of each as a condition for the development of all’ is put forward as the principle of a socially-just internet actualized from the ground up. It is argued that the most rapidly emerging and important form of constraint upon ‘the development of each’ is the for profit online social media industry in which moments of human communicative creativity become packaged as commodities for commercial purposes. Creative, cultural agency becomes an imposition rather than a liberation as represented in the industry ideology. It is argued therefore that groups that use the internet for serious play – the use of avatars in virtual worlds is discussed as an example – present us with a form of online subjectivity that is rising in importance as a form of cultural agency inasmuch as the play component is premised upon the rejection of pre-packaged forms of agency. Support for a socially-just internet would thus mean supporting the online communities formed in this process. Thus the argument is put forward that the importance of serious online play groups is not due to their potential for forming communities per se but is rather due to their potential for resisting the imposition of agency. Inasmuch as online communities in the midst of such groups can bolster that goal, they can represent the development of human capabilities in a way that expands the theme of social justice.

  10. Subdividing the digital divide: differences in internet access and use among rural residents with medical limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jong-Yi; Bennett, Kevin; Probst, Janice

    2011-03-03

    Access to health care is often contingent upon an individual's ability to travel for services. Certain groups, such as those with physical limitations and rural residents, have more travel barriers than other groups, reducing their access to services. The use of the Internet may be a way for these groups to seek care or information to support their health care needs. The purpose of this study was to examine Internet use among those whose are, for medical reasons, limited in their ability to travel. We also examined disparities in Internet use by race/ethnicity and rural residence, particularly among persons with medical conditions. We used data from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey (NHTS), a nationally representative sample of US households, to examine Internet use among individuals with medical conditions, rural residents, and minority populations. Internet use was defined as any use within the past 6 months; among users, frequency of use and location of use were explored. Control variables included sociodemographics, family life cycle, employment status, region, and job density in the community. All analyses were weighted to reflect the complex NHTS sampling frame. Individuals with medical conditions were far less likely to report Internet use than those without medical conditions (32.6% vs 70.3%, P digital divide between urban and rural residents. Internet use and frequency was also lower among those reporting a medical condition than among those without a condition. After we controlled for many factors, however, African Americans and Hispanics were still less likely to use the Internet, and to use it less often, than whites. Policy makers should look for ways to improve the access to, and use of, the Internet among these populations.

  11. The digital divide in adoption and use of a personal health record.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamin, Cyrus K; Emani, Srinivas; Williams, Deborah H; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Karson, Andrew S; Wald, Jonathan S; Bates, David W

    2011-03-28

    Personal health records (PHRs) offer the potential to improve the patient experience and the quality of patient care. However, the "digital divide," the population-level gap in Internet and computer access, may prevent certain groups from accessing the PHR. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of a PHR within a northeastern health system. We compared adopters (ie, those activating a PHR account online) with nonadopters (ie, those who see a physician offering the PHR but do not activate an account). We further categorized adopters by intensity of PHR use, measured by number of log-ins and number of messages sent to physicians' practices. As of September 30, 2009, among 75,056 patients, 43% had adopted the PHR since 2002. Blacks and Hispanics were less likely to adopt the PHR compared with whites (odds ratio [OR], 0.50; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.45-0.55; and 0.64; 0.57-0.73, respectively), and those with lower annual income were less likely to adopt the PHR than were those with higher income. Compared with nonadopters, adopters were more likely to have more than 2 comorbidities (OR, 1.27; 95% CI, 1.17-1.30). Use of an aggressive marketing strategy for PHR enrollment increased adoption nearly 3-fold (OR, 2.92; 95% CI, 1.58-5.40). Intensity of use was best predicted by increasing number of comorbidities, followed by race/ethnicity (whites more than blacks and Hispanics) and insurance status. We found no association between income and log-in frequency or secure messages sent. Despite increasing Internet availability, racial/ethnic minority patients adopted a PHR less frequently than white patients, and patients with the lowest annual income adopted a PHR less often than those with higher incomes. Among adopters, however, income did not have an effect on PHR use.

  12. A Socially-Just Internet: The Digital Divide, Cybercultural Agency, and Human Capabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Toews

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that while modes of scholarship stressing structural insights into the digital divide and ethnographic insights into online communities each give us important information about current uses of the internet, for the sake of a unified social justice principle it is necessary to interpret these forms of knowledge in terms of what could be. Marx’s formula ‘the development of each as a condition for the development of all’ is put forward as the principle of a socially-just internet actualized from the ground up. It is argued that the most rapidly emerging and important form of constraint upon ‘the development of each’ is the for profit online social media industry in which moments of human communicative creativity become packaged as commodities for commercial purposes. Creative, cultural agency becomes an imposition rather than a liberation as represented in the industry ideology. It is argued therefore that groups that use the internet for serious play – the use of avatars in virtual worlds is discussed as an example – present us with a form of online subjectivity that is rising in importance as a form of cultural agency inasmuch as the play component is premised upon the rejection of pre-packaged forms of agency. Support for a socially-just internet would thus mean supporting the online communities formed in this process. Thus the argument is put forward that the importance of serious online play groups is not due to their potential for forming communities per se but is rather due to their potential for resisting the imposition of agency. Inasmuch as online communities in the midst of such groups can bolster that goal, they can represent the development of human capabilities in a way that expands the theme of social justice.

  13. Student and Faculty Inter-Generational Digital Divide: Fact or Fiction?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salajan, Florin D.; Schonwetter, Dieter J.; Cleghorn, Blaine M.

    2010-01-01

    This article analyzes the digital native-digital immigrant dichotomy based on the results of a small-scale study conducted at the University of Toronto, Faculty of Dentistry, regarding students' and faculty members' perceptions toward the implementation of digital learning technologies in the curriculum. The first element chosen for measurement…

  14. "Let the "Orientales" Be as Enlightened as They Are Brave": The Digital Divide in the Context of Uruguay's Public Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capurro, Rafael; Rodríguez Fleitas, Maximiliano

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present two recent information literacy and access initiatives in Uruguay and their necessary historical antecedents, and analyze them from a phenomenological perspective to provide commentary on current philosophical discussions about information and the digital divide. To provide historical context we present a brief history of…

  15. Testing the Digital Divide: Does Access to High-Quality Use of Technology in Schools Affect Student Achievement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Gregory Keith

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between access, use of technology and student achievement in public middle schools in Maryland. The objective of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in access and utilization of technology based on student characteristics of race, socioeconomic status, and gender) exists among…

  16. Digital Divide in the Utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Counsellor Education in Nigerian Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyo, Mfon

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated digital divide in the utilization of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in counsellor education in Nigerian universities. It had two research questions and two hypotheses tested at 0.05 level of significance. It adopted a survey design and used ICT Utilization Questionnaire (IUQ) in gathering data from the…

  17. Has the Digital Health Divide Widened? Trends of Health-Related Internet Use Among Older Adults From 2003 to 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Y Alicia; Cho, Jinmyoung

    2017-09-01

    To examine the trend of health-related Internet use (HRIU) among older adults. We analyzed data from the 2003, 2005, and 2011-2012 iterations of the National Cancer Institute (NCI)-sponsored Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS). HRIU was measured by 4 online behaviors: seeking health information, buying medicine, connecting with people with similar health problems, and communicating with doctors. Internet use and HRIU among older adults increased substantially from 2003 to 2011 with more significant increases in seeking health information and communicating with doctors online. Overall, the digital health divide between different demographic groups has narrowed, especially in terms of gender, racial/ethnic group, rural/urban residence, and various health statuses; however, age, education, and household income remain persistent predictors of the digital divide. Those in the oldest group (75 or older), those with less than a high school education, and those with very low income (<$25,000/year) continuously lagged behind their counterparts in all aspects of HRIU. Despite an overall increase in HRIU and a narrowed digital divide, significant variations in HRIU in different demographic groups persisted; therefore, we call for more senior-friendly online resources and culturally appropriate interventions to bridge the digital health divide for vulnerable older adults. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. A low-power digital frequency divider for system-on-a-chip applications

    KAUST Repository

    Omran, Hesham

    2011-08-01

    In this paper, an idea for a new frequency divider architecture is proposed. The divider is based on a coarse-fine architecture. The coarse block operates at a low frequency to save power consumption and it selectively enables the fine block which operates at the high input frequency. The proposed divider has the advantages of synchronous divider, but with lower power consumption and higher operation speed. The design can achieve a wide division range with a minor effect on power consumption and speed. The architecture was implemented on a complex programmable logic device (CPLD) to verify its operation. Experimental measurements validate system operation with power reduction greater than 40%. © 2011 IEEE.

  19. Bridging the digital divide through the integration of computer and information technology in science education: An action research study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Gail Laverne

    The presence of a digital divide, computer and information technology integration effectiveness, and barriers to continued usage of computer and information technology were investigated. Thirty-four African American and Caucasian American students (17 males and 17 females) in grades 9--11 from 2 Georgia high school science classes were exposed to 30 hours of hands-on computer and information technology skills. The purpose of the exposure was to improve students' computer and information technology skills. Pre-study and post-study skills surveys, and structured interviews were used to compare race, gender, income, grade-level, and age differences with respect to computer usage. A paired t-test and McNemar test determined mean differences between student pre-study and post-study perceived skills levels. The results were consistent with findings of the National Telecommunications and Information Administration (2000) that indicated the presence of a digital divide and digital inclusion. Caucasian American participants were found to have more at-home computer and Internet access than African American participants, indicating that there is a digital divide by ethnicity. Caucasian American females were found to have more computer and Internet access which was an indication of digital inclusion. Sophomores had more at-home computer access and Internet access than other levels indicating digital inclusion. Students receiving regular meals had more computer and Internet access than students receiving free/reduced meals. Older students had more computer and Internet access than younger students. African American males had been using computer and information technology the longest which is an indication of inclusion. The paired t-test and McNemar test revealed significant perceived student increases in all skills levels. Interviews did not reveal any barriers to continued usage of the computer and information technology skills.

  20. Wi-fi: a new bridge for the digital divide? | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-07-13

    Jul 13, 2011 ... The Jakarta-based expert on information and communication technologies ... as the Indonesian Digital Library Network (IndonesiaDLN), adds Purbo. ... largest free source of information, shape our understanding of the world.

  1. Supporting Self-Determined Indigenous Innovations: Rethinking the Digital Divide in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmin Winter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to revisit dominant narratives of digital technological development in Indigenous communities in Canada. By prioritizing Indigenous voices and drawing from concepts of self-determination and sovereignty, this analysis reorients discourse surrounding the “digital divide” towards a strength-based approach that positions Indigenous peoples as innovators and creators, not just consumers, of digital technologies. This article begins with a discussion of how dominant media has used technology and technological imagery to misrepresent Indigenous cultures and perpetuate colonial biases, and emphasizes the importance of making space for Indigenous future imagery. Following this is a discussion of digital storytelling and virtual landscapes, showcasing a small sample of Indigenous initiatives online, in video game and app development, and in augmented and virtual reality. Finally, this article considers the potential of “makerspaces” as a framework for future action to bridge theory and practice.

  2. Young users and the digital divide: readers, participants or creators on Internet?

    OpenAIRE

    Ballano, S. (Sonia); Uribe, A.C. (Ana-Cynthia); Munté-Ramos, R.A. (Rosa-Àuria)

    2014-01-01

    This article analyses how young people, parents and teachers perceive the uses of digital tools and environments made by those known as digital natives. The research combines analysis of an extensive bibliography on the subject with the results of field research based on 30 focus groups, involving 120 youngsters and 60 adults in five Spanish cities, within the framework of a national study. The results show that while adults consider that young people use technological tools in complex ways d...

  3. Investigating digital divide in travel distribution: The use of Internet and new media technologies in travel agencies of Bihor, Romania

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Olimpia; Popa, Adela-Laura

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, traditional travel agencies face a number of threats, as a result of the development of the virtual distribution market, by multiplying virtual intermediaries and the direct connection of the suppliers to the customers. Minghetti and Buhalis (2010) argue that the technological gap, skills in using information and communication technologies, attitude towards innovation create a digital divide and an exclusion of the organizations that are unable to attend the entire distribution netw...

  4. Is the digital divide an obstacle to e-health? An analysis of the situation in Europe and in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romano, Maria Francesca; Sardella, Maria Vittoria; Alboni, Fabrizio; Russo, Luana; Mariotti, Rita; Nicastro, Irene; Barletta, Valentina; Di Bello, Vitantonio

    2015-01-01

    The digital divide affecting elderly patients may compromise the diffusion of telemedicine systems for this age segment. It might be that the difficulties in the passage from trials to the effective distribution of telemedicine systems are also due to the awareness of a personal digital divide in the target population. The analysis aims to estimate the number of people over the age of 50 years with potential cardiovascular problems able to access the Web. It made use of data from several sources (the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe and the Istituto Nazionale di Statistica Multiscopo Survey). Furthermore, with regard to Italy, the estimates obtained from official data were compared with those obtained in a survey investigating heart failure patients in Tuscany. In 2011, the percentage of people suffering from cardiovascular diseases and with Web access was 24% in Europe, with significant differences by country (ranging from 53% in Switzerland to below 20% in Italy, Spain, and Portugal). In Italy, however, the proportion of people with Web access increased from 2007 to 2011, and the survey in Tuscany showed that elderly people with limited information and communications technology skills overcame challenges and learned how to connect to the Web because they started to appreciate new technologies. The opportunity to use the Internet to monitor patients with chronic disease can serve as a challenge to reduce the digital divide gap and, furthermore, to increase their social and technological inclusion.

  5. Dividing Discipline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Peter Marcus

    2012-01-01

    the periphery of the network—security studies and international political economy in particular—but communication is also divided along the lines of geography and policy/theory. The article concludes that divisions notwithstanding, IR communication remains centered around American, general, and theoretical IR...

  6. Laggards No More: Understanding Effective Use of Information and Communication Technologies by West Virginian Women at the Lower End of the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Debbie

    2010-01-01

    Despite efforts to introduce information and communication technologies to women, internet access rates for women and the benefits they can draw from using ICTs still are not on par with men. This dissertation examines why the gender digital divide persists in America, who are the women at the lower end of the digital divide, and why they are…

  7. When the Divide Isn't Just Digital: How Technology-Enriched Afterschool Programs Help Immigrant Youth Find a Voice, a Place, and a Future

    Science.gov (United States)

    London, Rebecca A.; Pastor, Manuel, Jr.; Rosner, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The so-called "digital divide"--unequal access to information technology--is one of many social inequalities faced by individuals who are low-income, ethnic minorities, or immigrants. Surprisingly, the digital divide is even larger for young people than it is for adults, with African-American and Latino young people, as well as…

  8. Bridging the digital divide: the potential role of the National Library of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the digital age, the ability to effectively use information and communication technology is seen as one of the basic skills required to live a meaningful, ... infrastructural barriers, literacy skills barriers, economic barriers and content barriers, state of ICT infrastructure and lack of adequate investment in the society that support ...

  9. The Digital Health Divide: Evaluating Online Health Information Access and Use among Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Amanda K.; Bernhardt, Jay M.; Dodd, Virginia; Vollrath, Morgan W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Innovations in health information technology (HIT) provide opportunities to reduce health care spending, improve quality of care, and improve health outcomes for older adults. However, concerns relating to older adults' limited access and use of HIT, including use of the Internet for health information, fuel the digital health divide…

  10. The digital divide among young people in Brussels: Social and cultural influences on ownership and use of digital technologies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mertens, S.; d'Haenens, L.S.J.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on a survey of youth in Brussels (N = 1,005) and their ownership and use of digital technologies, focusing specifically on the social and cultural diversity within this group. Socio-cultural diversity includes differences regarding ethnicity and gender, language and educational

  11. Orientations in adolescent use of information and communication technology: a digital divide by sociodemographic background, educational career, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusilta, Leena K; Lintonen, Tomi P; Rimpelä, Arja H

    2007-01-01

    The role of information and communication technology (ICT) in adolescents' lives was studied, with emphasis on whether there exists a digital divide based on sociodemographic background, educational career, and health. The assumption was that some groups of adolescents use ICT more so that their information utilization skills improve (computer use), while others use it primarily for entertainment (digital gaming, contacting friends by mobile phone). Data were collected by mailed survey from a nationally representative sample of 12- to 18-year-olds (n=7,292; response 70%) in 2001 and analysed using ANOVA. Computer use was most frequent among adolescents whose fathers had higher education or socioeconomic status, who came from nuclear families, and who continued studies after compulsory education. Digital gaming was associated with poor school achievement and attending vocational rather than upper secondary school. Mobile phone use was frequent among adolescents whose fathers had lower education or socioeconomic status, who came from non-nuclear families, and whose educational prospects were poor. Intensive use of each ICT form, especially of mobile phones, was associated with health problems. High social position, nuclear family, and a successful educational career signified good health in general, independently of the diverse usage of ICT. There exists a digital divide among adolescents: orientation to computer use is more common in educated well-off families while digital gaming and mobile phone use accumulate at the opposite end of the spectrum. Poorest health was reported by mobile phone users. High social background and success at school signify better health, independently of the ways of using ICT.

  12. Free Software Beyond Radical Politics: Negotiations of Creative and Craft Autonomy in Digital Visual Media Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Velkova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Free software development and the technological practices of hackers have been broadly recognised as fundamental for the formation of political cultures that foster democracy in the digital mediascape. This article explores the role of free software in the practices of digital artists, animators and technicians who work in various roles for the contemporary digital visual media industries. Rather than discussing it as a model of organising work, the study conceives free software as a production tool and shows how it becomes a locus of politics about finding material security in flexible capitalism. This politics is ultimately contradictory in that it extends creative and craft autonomy of digital artists but does not mobilise a critical project. Instead, it nurtures further precarious labour. Empirically, the article draws on ethnographically collected material from the media practices of digital artists and programmers who engage with two popular free software production tools, Blender and Synfig.

  13. Networks of power in digital copyright law and policy political salience, expertise and the legislative process

    CERN Document Server

    Farrand, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    In this book, Benjamin Farrand employs an interdisciplinary approach that combines legal analysis with political theory to explore the development of copyright law in the EU. Farrand utilises Foucault's concept of Networks of Power and Culpepper's Quiet Politics to assess the adoption and enforcement of copyright law in the EU, including the role of industry representative, cross-border licensing, and judicial approaches to territorial restrictions. Focusing in particular on legislative initiatives concerning copyright, digital music and the internet, Networks of Power in Digital Copyright Law and Policy: Political Salience, Expertise and the Legislative Process demonstrates the connection between copyright law and complex network relationships. This book presents an original socio-political theoretical framework for assessing developments in copyright law that will interest researchers and post-graduate students of law and politics, as well as those more particularly concerned with political theory, EU and c...

  14. Kiosks are breaking through the digital divide in Africa: first among equals

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Cambridge, GJ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available results. User age ranged from primary school children to young and older adults. Familiarity promoted spontaneity, longer visits and increased user confidence. The most spontaneous participants were younger children in larger groups of 12 and more... sp o ns e ca rd S P E C I A L F E AT U R E Accessible to All The Digital Doorway housing was designed according to the following principles: international ergonomic best practices to ensure use by the widest group of potential users...

  15. Trapped in the Digital Divide? Old People in the Informations Society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jæger, Birgit

    2004-01-01

    to fulfil the needs of old people. This article will present some of the results of the program. First, I will present the Danish ICT-policy, which shapes the political background for the program. Second, I will present the program. Third, I will give a brief presentation of the methodology......Senior citizens have not been amongst the first to start utilising Information and Communication Technology (ICT). Thus there is a danger that they will be excluded from the growing Information Society. In a Danish program, six local experiments are trying out the possibilities of utilising ICT...... and the theoretical framework the study is based on. Through an analysis of two of the local ecperiments I will show how ICT becomes a part of old people's everyday life. Finally, I will conclude as to whether or not old people in Denmark are becoming part of the Informations Society through these local development...

  16. Perceiving political polarization in the United States: party identity strength and attitude extremity exacerbate the perceived partisan divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westfall, Jacob; Van Boven, Leaf; Chambers, John R; Judd, Charles M

    2015-03-01

    An important component of political polarization in the United States is the degree to which ordinary people perceive political polarization. We used over 30 years of national survey data from the American National Election Study to examine how the public perceives political polarization between the Democratic and Republican parties and between Democratic and Republican presidential candidates. People in the United States consistently overestimate polarization between the attitudes of Democrats and Republicans. People who perceive the greatest political polarization are most likely to report having been politically active, including voting, trying to sway others' political beliefs, and making campaign contributions. We present a 3-factor framework to understand ordinary people's perceptions of political polarization. We suggest that people perceive greater political polarization when they (a) estimate the attitudes of those categorized as being in the "opposing group"; (b) identify strongly as either Democrat or Republican; and (c) hold relatively extreme partisan attitudes-particularly when those partisan attitudes align with their own partisan political identity. These patterns of polarization perception occur among both Democrats and Republicans. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Bridging the digital divide in diabetes: family support and implications for health literacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayberry, Lindsay S; Kripalani, Sunil; Rothman, Russell L; Osborn, Chandra Y

    2011-10-01

    Abstract Background: Patient web portals (PWPs) offer patients remote access to their medical record and communication with providers. Adults with health literacy limitations are less likely to access and use health information technology (HIT), including PWPs. In diabetes, PWP use has been associated with patient satisfaction, patient-provider communication, and glycemic control. Using mixed methods, we explored the relationships between health literacy, numeracy, and computer literacy and the usage of a PWP and HIT. Participants (N=61 adults with type 2 diabetes) attended focus groups and completed surveys, including measures of health literacy, numeracy, and computer anxiety (an indicator of computer literacy) and frequency of PWP and HIT use. Computer literacy was positively associated with health literacy (r=0.41, Pdigital divide" in diabetes by helping adults access a PWP or HIT for diabetes management.

  18. A socioeconomic related 'digital divide' exists in how, not if, young people use computers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Courtenay Harris

    Full Text Available Government initiatives have tried to ensure uniform computer access for young people; however a divide related to socioeconomic status (SES may still exist in the nature of information technology (IT use. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in 1,351 Western Australian children between 6 and 17 years of age. All participants had computer access at school and 98.9% at home. Neighbourhood SES was related to computer use, IT activities, playing musical instruments, and participating in vigorous physical activity. Participants from higher SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to school computers, reading, playing musical instruments, and vigorous physical activity. Participants from lower SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to TV, electronic games, mobile phones, and non-academic computer activities at home. These patterns may impact future economic, academic, and health outcomes. Better insight into neighbourhood SES influences will assist in understanding and managing the impact of computer use on young people's health and development.

  19. A socioeconomic related 'digital divide' exists in how, not if, young people use computers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Courtenay; Straker, Leon; Pollock, Clare

    2017-01-01

    Government initiatives have tried to ensure uniform computer access for young people; however a divide related to socioeconomic status (SES) may still exist in the nature of information technology (IT) use. This study aimed to investigate this relationship in 1,351 Western Australian children between 6 and 17 years of age. All participants had computer access at school and 98.9% at home. Neighbourhood SES was related to computer use, IT activities, playing musical instruments, and participating in vigorous physical activity. Participants from higher SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to school computers, reading, playing musical instruments, and vigorous physical activity. Participants from lower SES neighbourhoods were more exposed to TV, electronic games, mobile phones, and non-academic computer activities at home. These patterns may impact future economic, academic, and health outcomes. Better insight into neighbourhood SES influences will assist in understanding and managing the impact of computer use on young people's health and development.

  20. Digital Humanities and Political Innovation: The SOWIT Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liston, Vanessa; Harris, Clodagh; O'Toole, Mark; Liston, Margaret

    2013-01-01

    In this chapter we show how a new type of political knowledge can be harnessed from everyday communication flows between citizens to support community and policy development processes. The emergence of this new knowledge will be enabled by an e-supported deliberation process (SOWIT) that aims to improve political communication and deliberation…

  1. Elder people and ICT. A commitment to bridging the digital divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Rosa Pino Juste

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available With increasing life expectancy and growth of knowledge and information, ICT enable elderly people to increase and improve their individual and social development and optimize their quality of life from a technical, economic, political and cultural viewpoint.The present study aims to analyze the use that elderly people make of ICT. The method used for the study is descriptive using the questionnaire technique to verify the knowledge that elderly people have on ICT, interest, tools and difficulties of access.Results show that elderly people consider poor their ICT skills, using them primarily to communicate with friends and family. Most of them can use the e-mail, can open, print and attach a file and use Internet search engines to find information, the lowest values are associated with spreadsheets, databases and statistical packages. They consider ICT as being useful to help building communication, developing integration, generating information among people and improving intergenerational relationship, gathering information not readily accessible by other means and learning new skills. They have no fear when using them, consider attainable their learning and see many possibilities in its use and therefore worth spending time and effort but feel that society is too dependent on computers. In conclusion, we consider essential to improve access for elderly people to ICT as an important tool for improving their quality of life and there are no major difficulties for effective management.

  2. Is the Digital Divide for Orthopaedic Trauma Patients a Myth? Prospective Cohort Study on Use of a Custom Internet Site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Paul E; Costales, Timothy; Zerhusen, Timothy; Coale, Max; Mehta, Samir; Pollak, Andrew N; OʼToole, Robert V

    2016-07-01

    Some have proposed that a so-called digital divide exists for orthopaedic trauma patients and that the clinical usefulness of the Internet for these patients is limited. No studies to date have confirmed this or whether patients would use a provided web resource. The hypotheses of this study were (1) a larger than expected percentage of trauma patients have access to the Internet and (2) if given access to a custom site, patients will use it. Prospective cohort. Level 1 regional trauma center. Patients who were 18 years or older with acute operative fractures participated in this study. Enrollment was initiated either before discharge or at initial outpatient follow-up. We conducted a survey of demographics, Internet usage, device type, eHealth Literacy, and intent to use the web site. Participants received a keychain containing the web address and a unique access code to our custom orthopaedic trauma web site. Percentage of patients with Internet access and percentage of patients who visited the web site. One hundred twelve patients were enrolled. Ninety-three percent (104/112) reported having Internet access (P digital divide is a myth in orthopaedic trauma. Despite widespread access and enthusiasm for our web site, few patients visited. This cautions against the allocation of resources for patient-specific web sites for orthopaedic trauma until a rationale for use can be better delineated. Therapeutic Level IV. See Instructions for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence.

  3. The Digital Divide in Developing Countries: A Case for Distance Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth E. Paprock

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Although distance education is catching up in almost all countries in the world, it is still little known and less studied in many of the developing countries. Given such a lack of coverage even in the Western educational literature, the possibilities of finding in-depth exchanges concerning distance education in developing countries are very limited. This presentation presents the existing 'digital gap' in the world, and focuses on three important barriers to distance education or learning are: 1 the lack of resources 2 lack of infrastructures, and 3 lack of recurrent funding necessary to acquire or develop appropriate software and courseware on a continuous basis, and maintain, service and replace the equipment. Technologists and educators need to enter the developing world, study the market and then modify their wares according to local needs with the help of local industry and labor-force. This is one important way of building meaningful collaborations and partnerships between the developed and developing countries.

  4. HUMAN CAPITAL, THE DIGITAL DIVIDE, AND THE POSSIBLE CONNECTION TO THE FLOW-FUND ANALYSIS OF SOCIOECONOMIC METABOLISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RALUCA I. IORGULESCU

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Poverty and economic growth are interconnected research fields via the standard concept ‘human capital’ and in modern societies their analysis is intertwined. In the past decades, more and more research has considered modern economies as complex systems embedded in the biosystem. Under this assumption, scenario analysis based on the concept of socioeconomic metabolism is used to complement more traditional forecasting methods. Multi-Scale Integrated Analysis of Societal and Ecosystem Metabolism (MuSIASEM is developed on the framework of Georgescu-Roegen’s 'flow-fund' model of production and it characterizes socioeconomic systems as metabolic systems. In the context of this novel approach, concepts like bio-economic pressure enable scenario analysis for the evolution of the whole or partial socioeconomic system. The Human Activity Fund is a concept central to the socioeconomic metabolic flow-fund framework and it is related, besides human capital, to one of the newest sources of inequality, namely the ‘digital divide’. The digital divide is a result of the IT Revolution and recent research has associated it with the ‘rewiring of the human brain’. This paper introduces the concept of human capital and presents some of the measures employed in the literature. It also investigates the possible change, due to the digital divide, in the metabolic pattern of a society associated with ‘quality’ changes of the Human Activity Fund through demographic structure or poverty pattern alterations. The ‘internet illiteracy’ indicator is used as a first step to investigate the connection between the MuSIASEM concept Human Activity Fund and the standard concept Human Capital.

  5. Rethinking Political Legitimacy: Citizen Inclusion and Social Digital ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    documenting the practices that users of social media develop to influence the public sphere; ... political parties, and mass communication media) perceive and respond to citizen-based actions generated by social media. ... Related content ...

  6. Brecha digital de género: Una revisión y una propuesta Gender digital divide: a review and a proposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana GIL-JUAREZ

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available En este artículo ofrecemos una revisión de los estudios sobre la brecha digital de género a nivel nacional e internacional, centrándonos concretamente en las investigaciones sobre la infrarrepresentación de las mujeres en el ámbito formativo y profesional de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación (TIC. Asimismo, caracterizamos brevemente las intervenciones e iniciativas desarrolladas en ese ámbito cuyo objetivo ha sido contrarrestar esta situación. Después, evaluamos críticamente los supuestos teóricos de esas investigaciones e intervenciones, demasiado centradas en considerar la cuestión un problema "de las mujeres", para, finalmente, ofrecer recomendaciones que vayan en la dirección de articular una perspectiva de género que nos permita avanzar en el conocimiento de las causas concretas y las posibles soluciones de la brecha digital de género sin esencializar ni el género ni la tecnología.In this article we offer a review of national and international studies of the gender digital divide, centering specifically in the research on women underrepresentation in the educational and professional field of new information and communication technologies (ICT. We also briefly characterize the interventions and actions developed in this field whose aim has been to counter this situation. Afterwards, we evaluate critically the theoretical assumptions of the reviewed investigations and undertaken actions, too centered in considering this question "a women's problem". Finally, we offer some recommendations to articulate a gendered perspective, which would allow us to progress in the knowledge of the concrete causes and the possible solutions of the gender digital divide without essentializing neither gender nor technology.

  7. Educational and Social Correlates of the Digital Divide for Rural and Urban Children: A Study on Primary School Students in a Provincial City of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Ranieri, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Over the last decades, the issue of digital divide has received particular attention from international bodies and researchers in Western countries. One of the main reasons for this growing interest is related to the implications that digital inequalities have for social development and particularly for education. Despite the relevance of the…

  8. Utilization of information technology in eastern North Carolina physician practices: determining the existence of a digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, David A; Layman, Elizabeth J

    2008-02-13

    The United States Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) has emphasized the importance of utilizing health information technologies, thus making the availability of electronic resources critical for physicians across the country. However, few empirical assessments exist regarding the current status of computerization and utilization of electronic resources in physician offices and physicians' perceptions of the advantages and disadvantages of computerization. Through a survey of physicians' utilization and perceptions of health information technology, this study found that a "digital divide" existed for eastern North Carolina physicians in smaller physician practices. The physicians in smaller practices were less likely to utilize or be interested in utilizing electronic health records, word processing applications, and the Internet.

  9. Examining e-Health literacy and the digital divide in an underserved population in Hawai'i.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Kathleen Kihmm; Crosby, Martha E

    2014-02-01

    Seeking health information is one of the leading uses for the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Research has found the amount one benefits from e-Health information (health information from electronic sources) is directly related to the level of e-Health literacy. e-Health literacy is defined as "the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem." In order to gain a further understanding of the effects and use of technology, the digital divide, and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes, focus group interviews were conducted with participants diagnosed with diabetes and currently residing in a Medically Underserved Area. Overall, 25 volunteers participated in the four focus group meetings. Based on the focus group discussions, a general low e-Health literacy rate was identified. This was demonstrated by the lack of access to the Internet and the skills needed to retrieve health information. Of the 25 participants, 64% reported having Internet access at some level, but, only one reported going on the Internet every day. When the barriers to using the Internet were discussed, many participants expressed a lack of knowledge in how to retrieve information. Results of this study further show that having access to technology is not necessarily associated with usage. This dynamic is evolving into a new form of digital divide, gap in information retrieval and usage, versus gap in access. This is the first known study to examine e-Health literacy in an underserved population in Hawai'i. With the proliferation of information and communication technology and the transformation of information retrieval to be mobile and "on demand", a multi-pronged communication and education strategy is needed to explore how technology can improve e-Health literacy and health outcomes among underserved populations.

  10. Examining e-Health Literacy and the Digital Divide in an Underserved Population in Hawai‘i

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosby, Martha E

    2014-01-01

    Seeking health information is one of the leading uses for the Internet and World Wide Web (WWW). Research has found the amount one benefits from e-Health information (health information from electronic sources) is directly related to the level of e-Health literacy. e-Health literacy is defined as “the ability to seek, find, understand, and appraise health information from electronic sources and apply the knowledge gained to addressing or solving a health problem.” In order to gain a further understanding of the effects and use of technology, the digital divide, and the relationship between technology utilization and health outcomes, focus group interviews were conducted with participants diagnosed with diabetes and currently residing in a Medically Underserved Area. Overall, 25 volunteers participated in the four focus group meetings. Based on the focus group discussions, a general low e-Health literacy rate was identified. This was demonstrated by the lack of access to the Internet and the skills needed to retrieve health information. Of the 25 participants, 64% reported having Internet access at some level, but, only one reported going on the Internet every day. When the barriers to using the Internet were discussed, many participants expressed a lack of knowledge in how to retrieve information. Results of this study further show that having access to technology is not necessarily associated with usage. This dynamic is evolving into a new form of digital divide, gap in information retrieval and usage, versus gap in access. This is the first known study to examine e-Health literacy in an underserved population in Hawai‘i. With the proliferation of information and communication technology and the transformation of information retrieval to be mobile and “on demand”, a multi-pronged communication and education strategy is needed to explore how technology can improve e-Health literacy and health outcomes among underserved populations. PMID:24567867

  11. Peaceful atoms in agriculture and food: how the politics of the Cold War shaped agricultural research using isotopes and radiation in post war divided Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zachmann, Karin

    2015-01-01

    During the Cold War, the super powers advanced nuclear literacy and access to nuclear resources and technology to a first-class power factor. Both national governments and international organizations developed nuclear programs in a variety of areas and promoted the development of nuclear applications in new environments. Research into the use of isotopes and radiation in agriculture, food production, and storage gained major importance as governments tried to promote the possibility of a peaceful use of atomic energy. This study is situated in divided Germany as the intersection of the competing socio-political systems and focuses on the period of the late 1940s and 1950s. It is argued that political interests and international power relations decisively shaped the development of "nuclear agriculture". The aim is to explore whether and how politicians in both parts of the divided country fostered the new field and exerted authority over the scientists. Finally, it examines the ways in which researchers adapted to the altered political conditions and expectations within the two political structures, by now fundamentally different.

  12. Democracy in the Digital Communication Environment: A Typology Proposal of Political Monitoring Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Feenstra, Ramón A.; Casero Ripollés, Andreu

    2014-01-01

    The digital environment creates new opportunities for citizen political participation. Among these, the monitoring of political and economic power centers stands out. This includes public scrutiny of the management of public funds and the activities of the public and economic systems, thus denouncing dysfunctional features. This article aims to describe, differentiate, and classify the various forms that monitoring can take in current democracies. The results indicate that three major monitor...

  13. Social Movements and Political Agency in the Digital Age: A Communication Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Kavada

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Digital media pose a dual challenge to conventional understandings of political agency. First, digital media destabilize long-held assumptions about the nature of collective action, about social movements and their capacity to effect change. This is because digital media are thought to facilitate more decentralized, dispersed, temporary and individualized forms of political action that subvert the notion of the collective as singular, unified, homogeneous, coherent, and mass. One way of resolving this challenge is to view the collective in looser terms, as a process rather than as a finished product, a conceptualization that can be influence our understanding not only of social movements, but also of other political actors and of society as a whole. Second, digital media highlight the need to take communication seriously in how we conceptualize both collective action and political agency. Placing communication at the centre allows us to develop this looser and more processual understanding of the collective by studying it as a process that is constituted in and through communication. Inspired by organizational communication and particularly the work of Taylor and van Every (2000, this essay proposes a conception of collective action as emerging in conversations and solidified in texts. This conceptualization allows for a more multiplex and variegated view of political agency that takes into account the specific context where agency is exercised and the power that different actors can exert in a communicative process of negotiation, persuasion and claim-making.

  14. Tackling Africa's digital divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavery, Martin P. J.; Abadi, Mojtaba Mansour; Bauer, Ralf; Brambilla, Gilberto; Cheng, Ling; Cox, Mitchell A.; Dudley, Angela; Ellis, Andrew D.; Fontaine, Nicolas K.; Kelly, Anthony E.; Marquardt, Christoph; Matlhane, Selaelo; Ndagano, Bienvenu; Petruccione, Francesco; Slavík, Radan; Romanato, Filippo; Rosales-Guzmán, Carmelo; Roux, Filippus S.; Roux, Kobus; Wang, Jian; Forbes, Andrew

    2018-05-01

    Innovations in `sustainable' photonics technologies such as free-space optical links and solar-powered equipment provide developing countries with new cost-effective opportunities for deploying future-proof telecommunication networks.

  15. Bridging the Digital Divide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    The book has been endorsed by three leading thinkers in the area of national innovation systems: Christopher Freeman, Emeritus Professor and Founding Director of the Science Policy Research Unit (SPRU), University of Sussex, Brighton, UK; Richard R. Nelson, George Blumenthal Professor (Emeritus...

  16. Bridging the digital divide

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    broadening horizons. Information and communication technologies ... number of Internet applications. “Mongo- ... and the work goes on, Batchuluun says. “There is still work to do with e-governance, with ... for Occupational Health and Safety.

  17. The Digital Political Communication of South Korean Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heike Hermanns

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet and social media have been credited with the potential to reinvigorate democracy by offering new avenues of political participation and communication between citi-zens and politicians. The results of empirical studies, however, call for caution, as many politi-cians refrain from fully exploring the interactive potential of new media. This case study focus-es on the web presence of Korean parliamentarians, using basic statistical analyses to explore the use of ICT as a means of political communication. It finds that Korean parliamentarians are less active online, treating ICT mainly as another channel for information distribution. It is thus concluded that ICT is not revolutionizing politics but reinforcing existing patterns of communi-cation that leave a gap between citizens and representatives. This paper was previously submit-ted to CeDem Asia 2016. The literature review and the methodology section have been expand-ed, and additional statistical data as well as further findings on Twitter were added.

  18. Resilient development and environmental justice in divided territory: political ecology in the San Diego-Tijuana bioregion.

    OpenAIRE

    K. Haines

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores issues in the expansion of environmental justice rhetoric to the developing world, and propose insights from resilience theory, political ecology, and bioregionalism as supplements. I do this from the frame of the San Diego-Tijuana region, where regional inequalities are stark and global processes have a heavy local footprint. Sharing a broadly-defined natural region, the growing evidence of ecological crisis increasingly calls for collaboration between two communities whi...

  19. Digital Media, Participatory Politics, and Positive Youth Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middaugh, Ellen; Clark, Lynn Schofield; Ballard, Parissa J

    2017-11-01

    Research on the social implications of adolescent technology use often focuses on identifying and preventing risk. However, adolescence is also a time of rapidly expanding capacities, expectations of autonomy, and identity exploration. In this article, we highlight findings from research in the field of youth civic development, which point to the importance of youth civic engagement during adolescence for later adult civic engagement as well as for promoting positive developmental outcomes. Researchers suggest that certain forms of Internet use (such as information seeking, social network site use, media production, and participation in online communities) promote civic engagement and that digital tools play an important role in youth empowerment efforts. In this article, we suggest a need for greater attention to efforts to promote digital media competencies among adolescents and for greater coordination of research on adolescent risk and adolescent autonomy and empowerment related to Internet use. Copyright © 2017 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  20. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ya-Huei; Damnée, Souad; Kerhervé, Hélène; Ware, Caitlin; Rigaud, Anne-Sophie

    2015-01-01

    In a society where technology progresses at an exponential rate, older adults are often unaware of the existence of different kinds of information and communication technologies (ICTs). To bridge the gap, we launched a 2-year project, during which we conducted focus groups (FGs) with demonstrations of ICTs, allowing older adults to try them out and to share their opinions. This study aimed at investigating how participants perceived this kind of initiative and how they reacted to different kinds of ICTs. In total, 14 FGs were conducted with community-dwelling older adults, with a frequency of two FGs on the same topic once per trimester. Twenty-three older adults (four men and 19 women) attended at least one FG but only nearly half of them were regular attendants (ten participating in at least five sessions). Age of participants ranged from 63 years to 88 years, with a mean of 77.1 years. All of them had completed secondary education. The analyses of the data were performed according to inductive thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the analysis. The first concerned participants' motivation for and assessment of the project. The second theme identified the underlying factors of the "digital divide" between the younger and the older generations. The third theme concerned the factors of technology adoption among older adults. The fourth one identified participants' attitudes toward assistive ICTs, designed specifically for older adults ("gerontechnologies"). This project encouraging older adults to be informed about different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness

  1. Updating citizenship? The effects of digital media use on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob

    2018-01-01

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how the use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n = 1322), including data from two...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....

  2. Understanding Citizenship, Understanding Social Media? The effects of digital media on citizenship understanding and political participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; Albæk, Erik

    Is there a connection between increased use of digital media and changing patterns of political participation? This study tests how use of online media for different purposes (social interaction, creative expression, online news use, social media news use) is related to three types of political...... participation. It examines whether mobilizing effects are partly indirect due to different understandings of citizenship (dutiful, optional, individual, collective) that may be fostered by digital media use. The study is based on a survey of a sample of the Danish population (n=1322), including data from two...... online survey waves and a smartphone-based media diary that documents respondents’ social media use. Results indicate support for a new pathway to participation, but the relationship depends on whether citizens are socialized in a digital media environment....

  3. The digital divide: a comparison of online consumer health information for African-American and general audiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kind, Terry; Wallace, Jasmine; Moon, Rachel Y

    2008-11-01

    We sought to assess the quality of health information on internet sites with missions to serve African Americans and to compare the quality to that of sites targeting a general audience. Sites were identified by entering "black Health," "African American health," and "health" into 2 search engines. Websites were assessed for quality and usability by 2 independent readers using published criteria. Disease-specific information was found on 64.7% of African-American sites and 86.2% of general sites. Among these sites, 73% of African-American sites listed authors' qualifications, compared to 96% of general sites (p=0.04). Sixty-four percent of African-American sites provided date last updated, compared with 100% of general sites (p=0.001). The mean literacy level for both types of sites was approximately 10th grade. The literacy level of African-American sites at governmental and educational domains was lower (NS). This is the first study to examine critically the quality of health information on Internet sites serving African-American audiences. Our study suggests methods to guide healthcare providers and health educators in counseling patients regarding internet-based health information. The "digital divide" is about quality as well as access.

  4. Determinants of frequent Internet use in an urban kidney transplant population in the United States: characterizing the digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockwood, Mark; Saunders, Milda; Josephson, Michelle A; Becker, Yolanda T; Lee, Christopher

    2015-03-01

    The Internet is a staple of electronic communication and is essential to the emerging telemonitoring and health information technology interventions for adults with chronic diseases. To identify determinants of frequent Internet use in an urban kidney transplant population in the United States. A single center, cross-sectional survey study. An urban Midwestern transplant center. 78 pretransplant and 177 posttransplant patients. Frequent Internet use, defined as using the Internet more than 5 hours per week. Only 38% of participants reported being frequent Internet users. Non-Hispanic blacks and participants who reported their race/ethnicity as "other" were significantly less likely than whites to report being frequent Internet users. Women were 59% less likely than men to be frequent users of the Internet. Those who reported having kidney disease for more than 3 years were more likely to report being frequent Internet users. As education increased, Internet use increased. As age increased, Internet use decreased. Alternatives to electronic information sources and/or additional resources should be considered for those who may fall in the so-called digital divide.

  5. Introducing a telemonitoring platform for diabetic patients in primary care: will it increase the socio-digital divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buysse, Heidi E C; de Moor, Georges J E; de Maeseneer, Jan

    2013-07-01

    This study investigates whether diabetes patients visiting a primary care setting are interested in using a telemonitoring platform and if so, whether characteristics of interested users could be distinguished. Three questionnaires were administered by 92 diabetes persons recruited between May and September 2011. Descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis were performed. Special attention was drawn to include patients with low educational levels. Patients with middle or high educational levels show quite some interest in the use of a telemonitoring platform, especially for the transmission of glycaemic data or for asking questions. Patients with low educational levels only show a minor interest in using such a platform. It is possibly worthwhile to implement a telemonitoring platform in a primary care setting; however this study did not show immediate profit for implementation in a CHC that organises diabetes clinics on regular basis. In primary care settings where it will be implemented, even if there is a social-digital divide today, the use of a telemonitoring platform could possibly reduce inequity in health care as time could become available for those most in need for face-to-face contact with their physician. Copyright © 2012 Primary Care Diabetes Europe. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Bridging the digital divide in older adults: a study from an initiative to inform older adults about new technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu YH

    2015-01-01

    different kinds of ICTs was positively rated. With regard to ICTs, participants perceived a digital divide. The underlying factors are generation/cohort effects, cognitive and physical decline related to aging, and negative attitudes toward technologies. However, more and more older adults adopt different kinds of ICTs in order to fit in with the society. Concerning assistive ICTs, they manifested a lack of perceived need and usefulness. Also, there was a negative image of end users of this kind of technologies. The so-called gerontechnologies specifically targeting older adults contain stigmatizing symbolism that might prevent them from adopting them. Keywords: assistive technologies, attitude, digital divide, gerontechnology, technology adoption, technology acceptance

  7. Simposi Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Borge

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available

    Participació en el Simposi Internacional "Changing politics through digital networks: the role of ICTs in the formation of new social and political actors and actions", que va tenir lloc a la Universitat de Florència els dies 5 i 6 d'octubre de 2007.

  8. Study and achievement of a digital-analog-divider; Etude et realisation d'un diviseur-analogique-numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petin, A [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    This apparatus is designed to give directly, in digital form, the value of the ratio Vt1/V2 two analog voltages. It consists essentially of an analog-digital coder operating by successive weighing; the comparison voltage is made proportional to the divider V2 in the coder. The input dynamics are such that the voltages Vi and V2 are all in the range -50 mV to -5 V. Each of the circuits has an input impedance of about 10 K{omega}. As for the quotient, it is a binary number given in series and parallel form; it is made up of 8 bits, this giving a change of 1/16 to 16 per jump of 1/16 in the zone where the accuracy is highest (V2 {>=} 800 mV). The time required for a division is, at best, 15 {mu}sec. During the time of calculation, the voltages V{sub 1} and V{sub 2} should not vary by more than 1 per cent and 0.5 per cent respectively. The theory of the system and the investigation of a synoptic diagram, the study of the circuits and the actual construction are presented. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a fournir directement sous forme numerique la valeur du rapport V1/V2 de deux tensions analogiques. Il est constitue essentiellement d'un codeur analogique-numerique fonctionnant par pesees successives dans lequel la tension de reference est rendue proportionnelle au diviseur V2. La dynamique d'entree est telle que les tensions V1 et V2 peuvent etre comprises dans l'intervalle -50 mV a -5 V. Chacune des voies presente une impedance d'entree d'environ 10 K{omega}. En ce qui concerne le quotient, c'est un nombre binaire delivre sous les formes serie et parallele ; il est compose de 8 bits, ce qui donne une variation de 1/16 a 16 par bond de 1/16 dans la zone de meilleure precision (V2 {>=} 800 mV). Le temps necessaire pour effectuer la division est au mieux de 15 {mu}s. Durant le temps de calcul les tensions V{sub 1} et V{sub 2} ne doivent pas varier respectivement de plus de 1 pour cent et 0.5 pour cent. Apres avoir etabli la theorie du systeme, les

  9. Study and achievement of a digital-analog-divider; Etude et realisation d'un diviseur-analogique-numerique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petin, A. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Cadarache (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-04-01

    This apparatus is designed to give directly, in digital form, the value of the ratio Vt1/V2 two analog voltages. It consists essentially of an analog-digital coder operating by successive weighing; the comparison voltage is made proportional to the divider V2 in the coder. The input dynamics are such that the voltages Vi and V2 are all in the range -50 mV to -5 V. Each of the circuits has an input impedance of about 10 K{omega}. As for the quotient, it is a binary number given in series and parallel form; it is made up of 8 bits, this giving a change of 1/16 to 16 per jump of 1/16 in the zone where the accuracy is highest (V2 {>=} 800 mV). The time required for a division is, at best, 15 {mu}sec. During the time of calculation, the voltages V{sub 1} and V{sub 2} should not vary by more than 1 per cent and 0.5 per cent respectively. The theory of the system and the investigation of a synoptic diagram, the study of the circuits and the actual construction are presented. (author) [French] Cet appareil est destine a fournir directement sous forme numerique la valeur du rapport V1/V2 de deux tensions analogiques. Il est constitue essentiellement d'un codeur analogique-numerique fonctionnant par pesees successives dans lequel la tension de reference est rendue proportionnelle au diviseur V2. La dynamique d'entree est telle que les tensions V1 et V2 peuvent etre comprises dans l'intervalle -50 mV a -5 V. Chacune des voies presente une impedance d'entree d'environ 10 K{omega}. En ce qui concerne le quotient, c'est un nombre binaire delivre sous les formes serie et parallele ; il est compose de 8 bits, ce qui donne une variation de 1/16 a 16 par bond de 1/16 dans la zone de meilleure precision (V2 {>=} 800 mV). Le temps necessaire pour effectuer la division est au mieux de 15 {mu}s. Durant le temps de calcul les tensions V{sub 1} et V{sub 2} ne doivent pas varier respectivement de plus de 1 pour cent et 0.5 pour cent. Apres avoir etabli la

  10. Media Use, Political Participation and the Level of Digitization. A Comparative Analysis of EU Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Splendore

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses six rounds of the European Social Surveys (from 2000 to 2012 to explore how 1 media uses, 2 unconventional and 3 conventional (i.e. voting forms of political participation have changed in sixteen European countries. Additionally, the research considers one of the latest surveys to investigate the relation between media use and participation in the contemporary period characterized by open data and e-government. The level of digitization in each country is assessed according to its infrastructure, the legal framework (namely the Freedom of Information Act, the quality of the data available from the public administration, and e-government development in terms of online services. The research question is whether use of the Internet and the level of national digitization affect unconventional forms of political participation. The results demonstrate that both the country’s level of digitization at the macro level and the use of the Web at the individual level are co-determinants of the forms of political participation considered. However, the level of digitization does not affect voting.

  11. Bridging the digital divide in health care: the role of health information technology in addressing racial and ethnic disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Lenny; Green, Alexander R; Tan-McGrory, Aswita; King, Roderick; Betancourt, Joseph R

    2011-10-01

    Racial and ethnic disparities in health care have been consistently documented in the diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes of many common clinical conditions. There has been an acceleration of health information technology (HIT) implementation in the United States, with health care reform legislation including multiple provisions for collecting and using health information to improve and monitor quality and efficiency in health care. Despite an uneven and generally low level of implementation, research has demonstrated that HIT has the potential to improve quality of care and patient safety. If carefully designed and implemented, HIT also has the potential to eliminate disparities. Several root causes for disparities are amenable to interventions using HIT, particularly innovations in electronic health records, as well as strategies for chronic disease management. Recommendations regardinghealth care system, provider, and patient factors can help health care organizations address disparities as they adopt, expand, and tailor their HIT systems. In terms of health care system factors, organizations should (1) automate and standardize the collection of race/ethnicity and language data, (2) prioritize the use of the data for identifying disparities and tailoring improvement efforts, (3) focus HIT efforts to address fragmented care delivery for racial/ethnic minorities and limited-English-proficiency patients, (4) develop focused computerized clinical decision support systems for clinical areas with significant disparities, and (5) include input from racial/ethnic minorities and those with limited English proficiency in developing patient HIT tools to address the digital divide. As investments are made in HIT, consideration must be given to the impact that these innovations have on the quality and cost of health care for all patients, including those who experience disparities.

  12. Digital Divides and Socio-Demographic Factors: A Longitudinal Quantitative Study of Internet Users in U.S. from 2000 to 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Peter H.

    2013-01-01

    This research attempted to reveal the existence of digital divides, their relationships to users' socio-demographics, and the Internet adoption and usage patterns. It was a longitudinal investigation targeted to the adults eighteen years or older in the household setting from the nation-wide surveys conducted in the United States between 2000…

  13. Journalism and Mass Communication Students at Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Predominantly White Institutions: Saying Goodbye to the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Jerry, II

    2013-01-01

    The digital divide has been described as the distance or gap in access to information based on race, ethnicity, income, education and geographical location. This study examined how freshmen and first-semester journalism and mass communications students at five Historically Black Colleges and Universities [HBCUs] have been able to bridge the…

  14. The Path of New Information Technology Affecting Educational Equality in the New Digital Divide--Based on Information System Success Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qian; Liang, Chang-Yong

    2017-01-01

    New information technology (new IT) plays an increasingly important role in the field of education, which greatly enriches the teaching means and promotes the sharing of education resources. However, because of the New Digital Divide existing, the impact of new IT on educational equality has yet to be discussed. Based on Information System Success…

  15. Digital-Networked Images as Personal Acts of Political Expression: New Categories for Meaning Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Kasra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the growing use of digital-networked images, specifically online self-portraits or “selfies”, as deliberate and personal acts of political expression and the ways in which meaning evolves and expands from their presence on the Internet. To understand the role of digital-networked images as a site for engaging in a personal and connective “visual” action that leads to formation of transient communities, the author analyzes the nude self-portrait of the young Egyptian woman Aliaa Magda Elmahdy, which during the Egyptian uprisings in 2011 drew attention across social media. As an object of analysis this image is a prime example of the use of digital-networked images in temporally intentional distribution, and as an instance of political enactment unique to this era. This article also explains the concept of participatory narratives as an ongoing process of meaning formation in the digital-networked image, shaped by the fluidity of the multiple and immediate textual narratives, visual derivatives, re-appropriation, and remixes contributed by other interested viewers. The online circulation of digital-networked images in fact culminates in a flow of ever-changing and overarching narratives, broadening the contextual scope around which images are traditionally viewed.

  16. How digital design shapes political participation: A natural experiment with social information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Scott A; John, Peter; Margetts, Helen; Yasseri, Taha

    2018-01-01

    Political behaviour increasingly takes place on digital platforms, where people are presented with a range of social information-real-time feedback about the behaviour of peers and reference groups-which can stimulate (or depress) participation. This social information is hypothesized to impact the distribution of political activity, stimulating participation in mobilizations that are increasing in popularity, and depressing participation in those that appear to be less popular, leading to a non-normal distribution. Changes to these platforms can generate natural experiments allowing for an estimate of the impact of different kinds of social information on participation. This paper tests the hypothesis that social information shapes the distribution of political mobilizations by examining the introduction of trending information to the homepage of the UK government petition platform. The introduction of the trending feature did not increase the overall number of signatures per day, but the distribution of signatures across petitions changed significantly-the most popular petitions gained more signatures at the expense of those with fewer signatories. We further find significant differences between petitions trending at different ranks on the homepage. This evidence suggests that the ubiquity of trending information on digital platforms is introducing instability into political markets, as has been shown for cultural markets. As well as highlighting the importance of digital design in shaping political behaviour, the findings suggest that a non-negligible group of individuals visit the homepage of the site looking for petitions to sign, without having decided the issues they wish to support in advance. These 'aimless petitioners' are particularly susceptible to changes in social information.

  17. Toward a Political Economy of ‘Audience Labour’ in the Digital Era

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brice Nixon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article contributes to a political economic theory centred on the concept of “audience labour”. First, the previous use of the concept of audience labour is briefly traced and the process of rethinking the concept as the basis of a political economic theory is begun. Second, a theory of the audience labour process is developed, drawing on previous theories of audience activities of cultural consumption as productive activities of signification and adapting Marx’s theory of the human labour process to the audience labour process. Third, a political economy of audience labour is outlined. As a theory of the basic processes through which communicative capital can control and extract value from audience labour, it describes the exploitation of audience labour and accumulation of communicative capital through distribution relationships of rent and interest. Finally, the continuing centrality of audience labour exploitation in the digital era is discussed.

  18. Political participation, digital democracy and e-citizenship for the protagonism of adolescents and young people

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Bautista Martínez Rodríguez

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the political, legal and educational for the participation of adolescents and youth in public and political, for it deals with digital citizenship: how adolescents and youth policy reconstruct inhabiting public spaces. We present the e‐Participation and the production of social gaps, cultural and political under the idea that the public is no longer common. Are some suggestions from the theory of communication and power in order to identify those who have power and where to find them. It is suggested to know the mindset of teens and their modes of interpretation that structure and give meaning to the messages circulating on the networks to increase capacity to produce their own messages. The article proposes deliberative policy for media education and the use of social networks.

  19. Predictors of eHealth usage: insights on the digital divide from the Health Information National Trends Survey 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontos, Emily; Blake, Kelly D; Chou, Wen-Ying Sylvia; Prestin, Abby

    2014-07-16

    Recent eHealth developments have elevated the importance of assessing the extent to which technology has empowered patients and improved health, particularly among the most vulnerable populations. With noted disparities across racial and social groups in chronic health outcomes, such as cancer, obesity, and diabetes, it is essential that researchers examine any differences in the implementation, uptake, and impact of eHealth strategies across groups that bear a disproportionate burden of disease. The goal was to examine eHealth use by sociodemographic factors, such as race/ethnicity, socioeconomic status (SES), age, and sex. We drew data from National Cancer Institute's 2012 Health Information National Trends Survey (HINTS) (N=3959) which is publicly available online. We estimated multivariable logistic regression models to assess sociodemographic predictors of eHealth use among adult Internet users (N=2358) across 3 health communication domains (health care, health information-seeking, and user-generated content/sharing). Among online adults, we saw no evidence of a digital use divide by race/ethnicity. However, there were significant differences in use by SES, particularly for health care and health information-seeking items. Patients with lower levels of education had significantly lower odds of going online to look for a health care provider (high school or less: OR 0.50, 95% CI 0.33-0.76) using email or the Internet to communicate with a doctor (high school or less: OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.29-0.72), tracking their personal health information online (high school or less: OR 0.53, 95% CI 0.32-0.84), using a website to help track diet, weight, and physical activity (high school or less: OR 0.64, 95% CI 0.42-0.98; some college: OR 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.93), or downloading health information to a mobile device (some college: OR 0.54, 95% CI 0.33-0.89). Being female was a consistent predictor of eHealth use across health care and user-generated content/sharing domains

  20. CONTRIBUYENDO AL CIERRE DE LA BRECHA DIGITAL POR RAZONES DE GÉNERO: (MEMORIA DE UN PROYECTO BRIDGING DIGITAL DIVIDE DUE TO GENDER INEQUALITY: A PROJECT MEMORY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordóñez Laclé Camila

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Resumen:En este ensayo se exponen los principales resultados de un proyecto que pretendió contribuir con el cierre de la brecha digital que existe entre hombres y mujeres, y entre las mujeres de distintos sectores socioeconómicos en Costa Rica. En ese sentido, se destaca el potencial de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y la comunicación para mejorar la condición y la posición de las mujeres, principalmente en las trabajadoras domésticas migrantes nicaragüenses. Esto, siempre y cuando se superen las barreras de acceso que se les imponen en este plano, y se fomente un uso consciente y responsable de este recurso tecnológico. Para finalizar, se discute sobre la necesidad de que tanto las acciones, como las buenas prácticas identificadas, se amalgamen en un marco político y de desarrollo que permitan trasladar los logros educativos de las mujeres en una mejora para su calidad de vida y en el progreso de los países que habitan.Abstract:This essay presents the main results of a project that aims to contribute to bridging the digital divide between men and women, and between women of different socioeconomic sectors in Costa Rica. It highlights the potential that the new information and communication technologies have in improving the condition and the position of women, including the special case of Nicaraguan domestic workers. This could be so if the access barriers imposed on them in this context are overcome, and that a conscientious and responsible use and development of these technological resources is encouraged. Finally, it is discussed the need that actions and good practices in this regard, should be inserted into a policy development framework that encourages the translation of educational attainment of women into an improvement of their quality of life and the progress of the countries where they live.

  1. Do We Still Have a Digital Divide in Mental Health? A Five-Year Survey Follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robotham, Dan; Satkunanathan, Safarina; Doughty, Lisa; Wykes, Til

    2016-11-22

    Nearly everyone in society uses the Internet in one form or another. The Internet is heralded as an efficient way of providing mental health treatments and services. However, some people are still excluded from using Internet-enabled technology through lack of resources, skills, and confidence. Five years ago, we showed that people with severe mental illness were at risk of digital exclusion, especially middle-aged patients with psychosis and/or people from black or minority ethnic groups with psychosis. An understanding of the breadth of potential digital exclusion is vital for the implementation of digital health services. The aim of this study is to understand the context of digital exclusion for people who experience mental illness. We conducted a survey involving people with a primary diagnosis of psychosis or depression in London, United Kingdom. A total of 241 participants were recruited: 121 with psychosis and 120 with depression. The majority of surveys were collected face-to-face (psychosis: n=109; depression: n=71). Participants answered questions regarding familiarity, access, use, motivation, and confidence with Internet-enabled technologies (ie, computers and mobile phones). Variables predicting digital exclusion were identified in regression analyses. The results were compared with the survey conducted in 2011. Digital exclusion has declined since 2011. Online survey collection introduced biases into the sample, masking those who were likely to be excluded. Only 18.3% (20/109) of people with psychosis in our sample were digitally excluded, compared with 30% (28/93) in 2011 (χ 2 1 =3.8, P=.04). People with psychosis had less confidence in using the Internet than people with depression (χ 2 1 =7.4, P=.004). Only 9.9% (24/241) of participants in the total sample were digitally excluded, but the majority of these people had psychosis (n=20). Those with psychosis who were digitally excluded were significantly older than their included peers (t 30 =3

  2. Reference to Self and Other in the Digital Public Sphere: The Case of Political Blogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Cock, Barbara; González Arias, Cristian

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we analyze how a political blog author (Spanish Alejo Vidal-Quadras) establishes the reference to self and other in his blog entries. We furthermore look into how the commentators to this blog react and establish reference to self and other in the digital public sphere. More concretely, we show that they not only take up the references established by the main blog author but also create new references. These allow, on the one hand, for profiling themselves as part of a group and, on the other hand, identifying their interlocutor among the variety of possible interlocutors in the digital public sphere. By addressing different interlocutors, the commentators turn the comments section into a dialogic space, a dimension that is lacking in the main blog entries. However, the fact that they almost invariably identify interlocutors other than Vidal-Quadras but address Vidal-Quadras without explicitly identifying him, shows that Vidal-Quadras remains the main ratified interlocutor in view of his ownership of the blog. This paper shows then how participants in the digital public sphere create a complex relationship of self and other reference in political blogs.

  3. Dallas Smythe Today - The Audience Commodity, the Digital Labour Debate, Marxist Political Economy and Critical Theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the global capitalist crisis, neoliberalism and the logic of commodification of everything have suffered cracks, fissures and holes. There is a return of the interest in Marx, which requires us to think about the role of Marxism in Media and Communication Studies. This paper contributes to this task by discussing some foundations of contemporary Marxist media and communication studies, including a focus on the renewed interest in Dallas Smythe’s audience commodity category as part of the digital labour debate. Dallas Smythe reminds us of the importance of engagement with Marx’s works for studying the media in capitalism critically. Both Critical Theory and Critical Political Economy of the Media and Communication have been criticized for being one-sided. Such interpretations are mainly based on selective readings. They ignore that in both approaches there has been with different weightings a focus on aspects of media commodification, audiences, ideology and alternatives. Critical Theory and Critical Political Economy are complementary and should be combined in Critical Media and Communication Studies today. Dallas Smythe’s notion of the audience commodity has gained new relevance in the debate about corporate Internet services’ exploitation of digital labour. The exploitation of digital labour involves processes of coercion, alienation and appropriation.

  4. Activism and radical politics in the digital age: Towards a typology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neumayer, Christina; Jakob, Svensson

    2014-01-01

    This article aims to develop a typology for evaluating different types of activism in the digital age, based on the ideal of radical democracy. Departing from this ideal, activism is approached in terms of processes of identification by establishing conflictual frontiers to outside others as either...... in radical democracy concerning developing frontiers. The second axis, about readiness to engage in civil disobedience, is derived from a review of studies of different forms of online activism. The article concludes by suggesting that the different forms of political engagement online have to be taken...

  5. Exploring the Divides among Students, Educators, and Practitioners in the Use of Digital Media as a Pedagogical Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Katherine; Ney, Jillian

    2015-01-01

    Digital technologies pervade the higher education landscape as a way to build student engagement and enhance student learning and teaching. In practice, however, the ways in which these tools are implemented in marketing education appear to be ad hoc, rather than using a systematic approach to build engagement and provide students with the skill…

  6. Power and participatory politics in the digital age : probing the use of new media technologies in railroading political changes in Zimbabwe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutsvairo, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    The Zimbabwean issue has often divided opinion. President Robert Mugabe's domination of the country’s political and media landscapes has attracted scrutiny and criticism from the West. The "oppressed" people of Zimbabwe are said to have not had an alternative to state-sponsored TV or daily media

  7. Predicted effects on ground water of construction of Divide Cut section, Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, northeastern Mississippi, using a digital model

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride, Mark S.

    1981-01-01

    The Tennessee-Tombigbee Waterway, connecting the Tennessee River in northeastern Mississippi with the Gulf of Mexico, is currently (1980) under construction. The Divide Section, the northernmost 39 miles of the Waterway, will consist, from north to south, of (1) a dredged channel, (2) the Divide Cut, and (3) an artifical lake impounded by the Bay Springs Dam. In all three , water will be at Tennessee River level. A three-dimensional digital model covering 3,273 square miles was constructed to simulate ground-water flow in the Gordo and Eutaw Formations and the Coffee Sand in the vicinity of the Divide Section. The model was calibrated to preconstruction water levels, then used to simulate the effects of stresses imposed by the construction of the Divide Section. The model indicates that the system stabilizes after major changes in conditions within a few months. The Divide Cut acts as a drain, lowering water levels as much as 55 feet. Drawdowns of 5 feet occur as much as 8 miles from the Cut. The 80-foot-high Bay Springs Dam raises ground-water levels by 5 feet as far as 6 miles from its impoundment. Drawdown is not likely to affect public water supplies significantly, but probably will adversely affect a relatively small number of private wells. (USGS)

  8. The Application of the SCT and the ANP Model to Refine the Most Critical ICT Determinants in Minimizing the Digital Divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Hsieh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This research cross-employed the social cognition theory (SCT and the analytical network process (ANP model in qualitative analyses and the multiple criteria decision making (MCDM methodology in quantitative measurements to comprehensively re-identify the most critical information communication technology (ICT determinants in minimizing the digital divide (DD. After measuring the complete importance of related priority weight w (eigenvector from the survey results given to various experts, the complete synthetically comparative index numbers (SCIN from the evaluation model used conveyed two distinct consequences. First, the highest SCIN scores for the ANP, F-ANP, and G-ANP models are 0.5516, 0.3771, and 0.4791, respectively, and are located in the “ICT can positively minimize the level of DD” (ICTCPMDD column in the summarized results table. Secondly, the highest evaluated weighted score of assessed criteria of 0.5801 is located in the Diversified Mobile Applications (DMAPP column. From these results, there are two contributive findings that can be deduced. First, ICT indeed proved the determinative influences and interplays in the level of DD which means that the undeveloped, developing, and emerging regions are apparently able to minimize the level of DD by means of the ICT development. Second, the Diversified Mobile Applications (DMAPP is the most critical determinant of ICT in minimizing the level of digital divide.

  9. The Noisy Counter-Revolution: Understanding the Cultural Conditions and Dynamics of Populist Politics in Europe in the Digital Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lars Rensmann

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article argues for a cultural turn in the study of populist politics in Europe. Integrating insights from three fields—political sociology, political psychology, and media studies—a new, multi-disciplinary framework is proposed to theorize particular cultural conditions favorable to the electoral success of populist parties. Through this lens, the fourth wave of populism should be viewed as a “noisy”, anti-cosmopolitan counter-revolution in defense of traditional cultural identity. Reflective of a deep-seated, value-based great divide in European democracies that largely trumps economic cleavages, populist parties first and foremost politically mobilize long lingering cultural discontent and successfully express a backlash against cultural change. While the populist counter-revolution is engendered by profoundly transformed communicative conditions in the age of social media, its emotional force can best be theorized with the political psychology of authoritarianism: as a new type of authoritarian cultural revolt.

  10. Media and Cultural Consumption by Young Students in the City of São Paulo, Brazil: Evidences of Digital Divide, Possibilities of Cosmopolitanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Roberto Bekesas

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the initial findings of a Brazilian project, which is part of an international research group, studying youth cultures in the age of globalization. It aims to develop a comparative study from the cultural perspective of globalization on the construction of aesthetic cosmopolitanism among young people from France, Canada, Australia, and Brazil. Our aim here specifically is to understand the cultural consumption of young students from São Paulo and their uses of different media for this matter, in hybrid forms (mainly digital. The analysis of empirical data presented is built upon 52 exploratory questionnaires and 40 interviews conducted with young students (from 18 to 24 year old living in São Paulo, Brazil. In order to understand the Brazilian context in this analysis, we performed a triangulation with secondary data from “Brazilian digital youth” by IBOPE (2012 and “Connected youth” by Telefonica Foundation/USP (2014. Based on the analysis, we reflect on two central topics: 1 evidence of a digital divide, according to their socio-economic profile and their access to information/entertainment, and 2 possibilities of cosmopolitan encounters, through the consumption of international cultural products and the search of information regarding other countries and cultures.

  11. The representation of politics and social movements on the new digital media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María García-Arranz

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, representation is presented as an area of controversy in political and symbolic battles. The absence of any dialogue and the unbridgeable distance between representatives and represented has resulted in the revolutionary activation of social movements that have managed to coordinate the overall question with  the compelling individuality of today’s society. In this context, the media create and determine, with its speech, the social representations and the evaluation of the behavior of political and social leaders in a time when the ways in which public discourse is created is qualitatively transformed. This research note outlines the situation of politics and its social representation in the published opinion in the spanish digital newspapers, delving into the changes that put us in a significantly different public sphere of that we have known so far. Normal 0 21 false false false ES X-NONE X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Tabla normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;}

  12. Internet search patterns of human immunodeficiency virus and the digital divide in the Russian Federation: infoveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheluk, Andrey; Quinn, Casey; Hercz, Daniel; Gillespie, James A

    2013-11-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a serious health problem in the Russian Federation. However, the true scale of HIV in Russia has long been the subject of considerable debate. Using digital surveillance to monitor diseases has become increasingly popular in high income countries. But Internet users may not be representative of overall populations, and the characteristics of the Internet-using population cannot be directly ascertained from search pattern data. This exploratory infoveillance study examined if Internet search patterns can be used for disease surveillance in a large middle-income country with a dispersed population. This study had two main objectives: (1) to validate Internet search patterns against national HIV prevalence data, and (2) to investigate the relationship between search patterns and the determinants of Internet access. We first assessed whether online surveillance is a valid and reliable method for monitoring HIV in the Russian Federation. Yandex and Google both provided tools to study search patterns in the Russian Federation. We evaluated the relationship between both Yandex and Google aggregated search patterns and HIV prevalence in 2011 at national and regional tiers. Second, we analyzed the determinants of Internet access to determine the extent to which they explained regional variations in searches for the Russian terms for "HIV" and "AIDS". We sought to extend understanding of the characteristics of Internet searching populations by data matching the determinants of Internet access (age, education, income, broadband access price, and urbanization ratios) and searches for the term "HIV" using principal component analysis (PCA). We found generally strong correlations between HIV prevalence and searches for the terms "HIV" and "AIDS". National correlations for Yandex searches for "HIV" were very strongly correlated with HIV prevalence (Spearman rank-order coefficient [rs]=.881, P ≤ .001) and strongly correlated for "AIDS" (rs

  13. The challenge of the digital divide and elderly in Spanish rural areas. The case of Castilla y León.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noelia MORALES ROMO

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article includes some reflections about the tandem between new technologies, particularly the Internet, and elderly people living in rural areas. This article combines a qualitative (personal interviews and focus groups andquantitative methodology (analysis of demographic data, aiming to deep about the relationship between relationshipbetween the digital divide and geographical gap for elderly people living in rural areas in Castilla y León. Results obtained from this research show the existence of structural elements in these rural areas but also symbolic aspects often overlooked, which must take into account when implementing intervention projects. This study confirms theneed to attend to the territory as a variable but also the characteristics of those who have greater difficulties in useand access to ICT, and progress towards equal opportunities.

  14. Digital divide among people with disabilities: Analysis of data from a nationwide study for determinants of Internet use and activities performed online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplaga, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    The Internet is both an opportunity as well as a challenge for people with disabilities. However, this segment of the population is usually indicated among social groups experiencing digital divide. The study is focused on the analysis of factors determining Internet usage and undertaking specific activities online among people with disabilities based on a nationwide study performed in 2013 in Poland. Secondary analysis was performed on the data of persons who declared disability status in 2013 "Social Diagnosis" study. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed for the use of the Internet and performing three types of activities online. Among 3,556 respondents with disability 51.02% were females, 25.19% 65 years of age and over and 33.05% were Internet users. The predictors of Internet usage included the degree of disability, place of residence, level of education, marital status, occupational status, net income, use of health care service and the use of mobile phone. The odds ratio that a person with disability belonging to the oldest category will use the Internet was only 0.04 (95% CI 0.02-0.09), when compared to the youngest category. The odds that a person with disability from the highest category of education will use the Internet were 18 times higher than in the case of persons with only basic education (OR 18.17, 95% CI 11.70-28.21). Common predictors of online activities (accessing websites of public institutions, checking and sending emails, publishing own content on the Internet) included age category and net income. People with disabilities in Poland are facing a significant digital divide. The factors determining the use of the Internet in this group are similar to those of the general population. On the other hand, people with disabilities who are active online, access diversified types of services including presentation of their own content online.

  15. Digital divide among people with disabilities: Analysis of data from a nationwide study for determinants of Internet use and activities performed online.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariusz Duplaga

    Full Text Available The Internet is both an opportunity as well as a challenge for people with disabilities. However, this segment of the population is usually indicated among social groups experiencing digital divide. The study is focused on the analysis of factors determining Internet usage and undertaking specific activities online among people with disabilities based on a nationwide study performed in 2013 in Poland.Secondary analysis was performed on the data of persons who declared disability status in 2013 "Social Diagnosis" study. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed for the use of the Internet and performing three types of activities online.Among 3,556 respondents with disability 51.02% were females, 25.19% 65 years of age and over and 33.05% were Internet users. The predictors of Internet usage included the degree of disability, place of residence, level of education, marital status, occupational status, net income, use of health care service and the use of mobile phone. The odds ratio that a person with disability belonging to the oldest category will use the Internet was only 0.04 (95% CI 0.02-0.09, when compared to the youngest category. The odds that a person with disability from the highest category of education will use the Internet were 18 times higher than in the case of persons with only basic education (OR 18.17, 95% CI 11.70-28.21. Common predictors of online activities (accessing websites of public institutions, checking and sending emails, publishing own content on the Internet included age category and net income.People with disabilities in Poland are facing a significant digital divide. The factors determining the use of the Internet in this group are similar to those of the general population. On the other hand, people with disabilities who are active online, access diversified types of services including presentation of their own content online.

  16. Predictors of Online Cancer Prevention Information Seeking Among Patients and Caregivers Across the Digital Divide: A Cross-Sectional, Correlational Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginossar, Tamar

    2016-03-09

    The digital divide is a recognized public health problem caused by social determinants that exacerbate health disparities. Despite the "tectonic shift" in how most of the public obtains cancer information, underserved communities are at increased risk of being digitally marginalized. However, research that examines factors underlying eHealth information seeking in diverse health contexts is lacking. The aim of this paper is to explore preferences and use of eHealth cancer prevention information (CPI) among patients and caregivers attending a minority-serving oncology clinic using the comprehensive model of information seeking as a theoretical framework. Specifically, the study examined the role of social determinants and prevention orientation in differences in preference and use of the Internet for CPI seeking among this diverse sample. Survey methodology was used to identify social determinants and behavioral factors, including prevention orientation as correlates and predictors of respondents' (n=252) preferences and use of eHealth for CPI seeking. Less than half (112/252, 44.4%) of respondents said that if faced with the need to seek CPI, they would seek this information online. In the final logistic regression model, education, ethnicity, age, and prevention orientation made significant contributions to the model (Pdigitally underserved racial/ethnic group. Finally, additional factors underlying these differences should be explored to better tailor CPI eHealth information to diverse communities' information needs. ©Tamar Ginossar. Originally published in JMIR Cancer (http://cancer.jmir.org), 09.03.2016.

  17. Self-rated health assessed by web versus mail modes in a mixed mode survey: the digital divide effect and the genuine survey mode effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, Jae-Mahn; Shin, Eunjung; Johnson, Timothy P

    2013-09-01

    To investigate differences in self-rated health (SRH) between web and mail questionnaires in a mixed mode survey and to provide a model that explains those differences. A total of 15,200 mail respondents and 17,829 web respondents from the 2008 US National Health Survey conducted by the Gallup Panel. Respondents were recruited using random digit dialing and assigned to one of the two survey modes (web or mail). Respondents with household Internet connection and frequent Internet usage were invited to complete the survey through the web mode. Respondents who had no Internet connection or who used the Internet infrequently were invited to the mail mode. Thus, respondents with better Internet access used the web mode. Respondents completed a questionnaire that asked about SRH status, objective health conditions, health behaviors, and other socioeconomic variables. Statistical associations were analyzed with ordered Logit and negative binomial models. Web respondents reported better SRH than mail respondents. This difference is in part reflective of variability in objective health status between these two groups, and in part attributable to the effects of survey mode. These results maintained with age controlled. The alignment between survey mode selection, Internet access, and health disparities, as well as genuine survey mode characteristics, leads to web-mail differences in SRH. Unless the digital divide and its influences on survey mode selection are resolved and differential genuine mode effects are fully comprehended, we recommend that both modes be simultaneously used on a complementary basis.

  18. Persistent digital divide in access to and use of the Internet as a resource for health information: Results from a California population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Amy; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Almario, Christopher V

    2017-07-01

    Access to the Internet has grown dramatically over the past two decades. Using data from a population-based survey, we aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of (i) access to the Internet, and (ii) use of the Internet to search for health information. We analyzed data from the 2011-12 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS) and included all individuals 18 years of age and older. Our outcomes were (i) prior use of the Internet, and (ii) use of the Internet to find health or medical information within the past year. We performed survey-weighted logistic regression models on our outcomes to adjust for potentially confounding demographic and socioeconomic factors. Our study included an unweighted and survey-weighted sample of 42,935 and 27,796,484 individuals, respectively. We found that 81.5% of the weighted sample reported having previously used the Internet. Among Internet users, 64.5% stated that they used the Internet within the past year to find health or medical information. Racial/ethnic minorities, older individuals, and those who lived in lower income households and rural areas were less likely to have access to and use the Internet to search for health information. Conversely, English-proficiency and increasing levels of education were positively associated with online health information-seeking. We found that most Californians have access to and use the Internet to search for health information, but still noted a persistent digital divide. Interventions to narrow the divide are needed, otherwise this may lead to a continued widening of existing healthcare disparities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. The Digital Divide and Patient Portals: Internet Access Explained Differences in Patient Portal Use for Secure Messaging by Age, Race, and Income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Ilana; Gordon, Nancy; Fung, Vick; Hamity, Courtnee; Reed, Mary E

    2016-08-01

    Online access to health records and the ability to exchange secure messages with physicians can improve patient engagement and outcomes; however, the digital divide could limit access to web-based portals among disadvantaged groups. To understand whether sociodemographic differences in patient portal use for secure messaging can be explained by differences in internet access and care preferences. Cross-sectional survey to examine the association between patient sociodemographic characteristics and internet access and care preferences; then, the association between sociodemographic characteristics and secure message use with and without adjusting for internet access and care preference. One thousand forty-one patients with chronic conditions in a large integrated health care delivery system (76% response rate). Internet access, portal use for secure messaging, preference for in-person or online care, and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Internet access and preference mediated some of the differences in secure message use by age, race, and income. For example, using own computer to access the internet explained 52% of the association between race and secure message use and 60% of the association between income and use (Sobel-Goodman mediation test, Pdifferences in portal use remained statistically significant when controlling for internet access and preference. As the availability and use of patient portals increase, it is important to understand which patients have limited access and the barriers they may face. Improving internet access and making portals available across multiple platforms, including mobile, may reduce some disparities in secure message use.

  20. Understanding the digital divide in the clinical setting: the technology knowledge gap experienced by US safety net patients during teleretinal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Sheba; Moran, Erin; Fish, Allison; Ogunyemi, Lola

    2013-01-01

    Differential access to everyday technology and healthcare amongst safety net patients is associated with low technological and health literacies, respectively. These low rates of literacy produce a complex patient "knowledge gap" that influences the effectiveness of telehealth technologies. To understand this "knowledge gap", six focus groups (2 African-American and 4 Latino) were conducted with patients who received teleretinal screenings in U.S. urban safety-net settings. Findings indicate that patients' "knowledge gap" is primarily produced at three points: (1) when patients' preexisting personal barriers to care became exacerbated in the clinical setting; (2) through encounters with technology during screening; and (3) in doctor-patient follow-up. This "knowledge gap" can produce confusion and fear, potentially affecting patients' confidence in quality of care and limiting their disease management ability. In rethinking the digital divide to include the consequences of this knowledge gap faced by patients in the clinical setting, we suggest that patient education focus on both their disease and specific telehealth technologies deployed in care delivery.

  1. The Digital Dimension of European Cultural Politics: Index, Intellectual Property and Internet Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanna Thylstrup

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The Internet and the World Wide Web (WWW have become dominant fields for European Union (EU politics. What used to be at the outer fringes of the EU policies has now taken centre stage. The transnational and dialogical structure of the Internet has hardwired it for international cultural politics, yet the very same structure also works to erode the very territorial foundation of traditional cultural politics. Given the delicate and complex terrain cultural politics traverse in international politics, and the trailblazing progression of the Internet, it seems on-line cultural politics is not just the application of existing cultural politics to cyberspace but a new field to be explored, analyzed and taught. The present article maps a constituent European cultural boundary on the WWW as the EU has circumscribed it and places this cultural node within a wider array of Europeanization and globalization processes.

  2. Continental divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quinn, F.J.

    1991-01-01

    The historical precedents to the idea of continent-wide diversion of water in North America are reviewed, starting from early perceptions of continental drainage and the era of canal building that reached its peak in the mid-1800s. The attitude that natural landscapes can be rearranged to suit human needs has persisted from that era with the proposal for continent-wide water diversion megaprojects, many involving the movement of water from Canada to the southwestern USA. Over 50 water diversions exist in Canada, with a total diverted flow of 4,400 m 3 /s. The density of interconnected and almost-connected lakes and rivers has favored such diversions. Of these diversions, 95% of their storage capacity and 96% of their flow is for hydroelectric power generation. The number of diversions in the USA is similar but water volumes are only a sixth of those in Canada, and the water is mainly used for irrigation or water supply. Experience in both countries shows that diversions are contained by political boundaries. No large-scale diversion of fresh water across the international boundary has received any government support, and no significant change in this policy is anticipated. In the water-short areas of the USA, conservation and reallocation of water resources are receiving priority. 19 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs

  3. A ‘Reference Culture’ That Divides. America and the Politics of Change in the West From Nietzsche to Soft Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Ellwood

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article seeks to demonstrate that America’s unique ability to invent models of ‘modernity’ lies at the heart of its continuing role as a ‘reference culture’. However, this forceful and dynamic reality has a profoundly dividing effect on every society with which it comes into contact. The consequent cleavages, I suggest, are an enduring outcome of any engagement with America’s power as a reference culture of modernity.

  4. Facebook's gender divide

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia, David; Kassa, Yonas Mitike; Cuevas, Angel; Cebrian, Manuel; Moro, Esteban; Rahwan, Iyad; Cuevas, Ruben

    2017-01-01

    Online social media are information resources that can have a transformative power in society. While the Web was envisioned as an equalizing force that allows everyone to access information, the digital divide prevents large amounts of people from being present online. Online social media in particular are prone to gender inequality, an important issue given the link between social media use and employment. Understanding gender inequality in social media is a challenging task due to the neces...

  5. New digital communication strategies: the effects of personalized and interactive political communication

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Noort, G.; Kruikemeier, S.; Vliegenthart, R.

    2012-01-01

    In communication research, it has been claimed that two important characteristics of online political communication, personalized and interactive two-way communication, can mobilize citizens to become more politically involved. In a survey-embedded experiment, we examine whether levels of

  6. Conference RSIS - Bridging the Digital Divide, with Mr Santiago Borrero, former chair of the Global Spatial Data Infrastructure(GSDI) and current Secretary General of the Pan-Americain Institute for Geography and History (PAIGH)

    CERN Multimedia

    maximilien brice

    2003-01-01

    Mr Santiago Borrero talk about priorities in developing affordable means to overcome and minimize the digital divide in spatial information. Some transition economies are developing rapidly, but others - the majority - may continue to have little or no access to information needed for development.

  7. The Digital Architectures of Social Media: Comparing Political Campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 U.S. Election

    OpenAIRE

    Bossetta, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The present study argues that political communication on social media is mediated by a platform’s digital architecture – the technical protocols that enable, constrain, and shape user behavior in a virtual space. A framework for understanding digital architectures is introduced, and four platforms (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat) are compared along the typology. Using the 2016 U.S. elections as a case, interviews with three Republican digital strategists are complimented with soci...

  8. Tech, Teachers & Teens: Bridging the Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuht, Amy Colcord; Colcord, Cean

    2011-01-01

    In past decades, the "digital divide" referred to the gap between those who could afford access to technology and those who could not. The divide has shifted in recent years to reflect the growing technological chasm between teachers and their students: today's schools and teenagers' worlds. The digital divide is widening and deepening…

  9. Build a Catastrophe: Using Digital World and Policy Models to Engage Political Science Students with Climate Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horodyskyj, L.; Lennon, T.; Mead, C.; Anbar, A. D.

    2017-12-01

    Climate change is a problem that involves science, economics, and politics. Particularly in the United States, political resistance to addressing climate change has been exacerbated by a concerted misinformation campaign against the basic science, a negative response to how the proposed solutions to climate change intersect with values. Scientists often propose more climate science education as a solution to the problem, but preliminary studies indicate that more science education does not necessarily reduce polarization on the topic (Kahan et al. 2012). Is there a way that we can better engage non-science students in topics related to climate change that improve their comprehension of the problem and its implications, overcoming polarization? In an existing political science course, "Do You Want to Build a Nation?", we are testing a new digital world-building model based on resource development and consequent environmental and societal impacts. Students spend half the class building their nations based on their assigned ideology (i.e., socialist, absolute monarchy, libertarian) and the second half of the class negotiating with other nations to resolve global issues while remaining true to their ideologies. The course instructor, co-author Lennon, and ASU's Center for Education Through eXploration have collaborated to design a digital world model based on resources linked to an adaptive decision-making environment that translates student policies into modifications to the digital world. The model tracks students' exploration and justification of their nation's policy choices. In the Fall 2017 offering of the course, we will investigate how this digital world model and scenarios built around it affect student learning outcomes. Specifically, we anticipate improved understanding of the policy trade-offs related to energy development, better understanding of the ways that different ideologies approach solutions to climate change, and that both will result in more

  10. The Digital Divide Among Low-Income Homebound Older Adults: Internet Use Patterns, eHealth Literacy, and Attitudes Toward Computer/Internet Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiNitto, Diana M

    2013-01-01

    primary language. Although ATC/IQ interest among older adults was also inversely associated with age, it was not associated with Hispanic ethnicity and Spanish as the primary language. Conclusions This study is the first to describe in detail low-income disabled and homebound adults’ and older adults’ Internet use. It shows very low rates of Internet use compared to the US population, either due to lack of exposure to computer/Internet technology; lack of financial resources to obtain computers and technology; or medical conditions, disabilities, and associated pain that restrict use. Recommendations to reduce the digital divide among these individuals are provided. PMID:23639979

  11. The digital divide among low-income homebound older adults: Internet use patterns, eHealth literacy, and attitudes toward computer/Internet use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Namkee G; Dinitto, Diana M

    2013-05-02

    conditions and inversely associated with age, Hispanic ethnicity, and Spanish as the primary language. Although ATC/IQ interest among older adults was also inversely associated with age, it was not associated with Hispanic ethnicity and Spanish as the primary language. This study is the first to describe in detail low-income disabled and homebound adults' and older adults' Internet use. It shows very low rates of Internet use compared to the US population, either due to lack of exposure to computer/Internet technology; lack of financial resources to obtain computers and technology; or medical conditions, disabilities, and associated pain that restrict use. Recommendations to reduce the digital divide among these individuals are provided.

  12. Digitizing dissent: cyborg politics and fluid networks in contemporary Cuban activism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Kellogg

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Communication technologies shape how political activist networks are produced and maintain themselves. In Cuba, despite ideologically and physically oppressive practices by the state, a severe lack of Internet access, and extensive government surveillance, a small network of bloggers and cyberactivists has achieved international visibility and recognition for its critiques of the Cuban government. This qualitative study examines the blogger collective known as Voces Cubanas in Havana, Cuba in 2012, advancing a new approach to the study of transnational activism and the role of technology in the construction of political narrative. Voces Cubanas is analyzed as a network of connections between human and non-human actors that produces and sustains powerful political alliances. Voces Cubanas and its allies work collectively to co-produce contentious political discourses, confronting the dominant ideologies and knowledges produced by the Cuban state. Transnational alliances, the act of translation, and a host of unexpected and improvised technologies play central roles in the production of these narratives, indicating new breed of cyborg sociopolitical action reliant upon fluid and flexible networks and the act of writing. 

  13. E-LEARNING AND THE GLOBAL DIVIDE: The Challenges Facing Distance Education in Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamidele A. OJO

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the question of distance education and its pivotal role in promoting social change and development in Africa. It also discussed within the context of the global digital divide and the ongoing need for collaborative effort at global education, the limitation imposed by the socio-economic and political environment on the continent. The paper in its findings conclude that the crisis within African societies constitutes a serious challenge to the implementation of and the effectiveness of distance education in Africa and therefore contributes to the widening of the digital divide rather than reducing it.

  14. Digital Lifestyles Between Solidarity, Discipline and Neoliberalism: On the Historical Transformations of the Danish IT Political Field from 1994 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morten Hjelholt

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Governments have increasingly turned to digital technologies as a means of rebuilding their public sectors, allowing them to heighten efficiency, cut expenditure, and deliver new services to citizens. However, rather than merely a technical upgrading of governmental institutions, digital reforms and IT policymaking are deeply political practices concerned with producing and imposing certain normative and ideological visions of the social world. Denmark is often labelled as a leading nation in terms of implementing digital governance, but the political and normative dimensions of digital reforms within the Danish welfare state are yet to be systematically investigated. This paper provides a historical study of Danish IT policies from 1994 to 2016. Relying on archival research of national policies and drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s work on the state, we explore how the IT political field has emerged through symbolic struggles over time and how these struggles have produced particular forms of “digital lifestyles”. We find that two overall logics have dominated within the Danish IT political field. In 1994-2001, solidarity, equality and local Danish values were highlighting as core components of a digital life, but from 2002, however, economic efficiency, competitiveness and self-governance become the main ideals. In this way, the IT political field has increasingly come to converge with neoliberal discourses concerned with imposing market-like dynamics on the public sector and population. The paper concludes with a reflection on how the concept of digital lifestyles may help us understand these changes, and argues that the current dominant discourse should be challenged.

  15. The mindful gamer: Diagrammatical strategies on the bio-political plane of digital gaming culture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolonias, N.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores the historical development of digital gaming in the post-Fordist condition of cognitive capitalism. By utilising concepts from the fields of neurology, media philosophy and the Buddhist epistemology of the mind it studies the biopoilitcal aspects of gaming culture by looking at

  16. Activating the past in the Ferguson protests : Memory work, digital activism and the politics of platforms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Pieter Hendrik; Heinrich, Ansgard; Broersma, Marcel

    2017-01-01

    This article analyzes the Facebook page Justice for Mike Brown—set up during the 2014 Ferguson protests—in order to rethink the role of memory work within contemporary digital activism. We argue that, as a particular type of discursive practice, memory work on the page bridged personal and

  17. Patrimônio digital e informação: política, cultura e diversidadeDigital heritage and information: politics, culture and diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lídia Eugenia Cavalcanti

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Este texto, que é parte da pesquisa de pós-doutorado em Ciências da Informação, realizada na École de Bibliothéconomie et des Sciences de l'Information (EBSI, da Université de Montréal – Canadá, versa sobre Informação, Memória Social, Cultura e Patrimônio Digital. Tem o objetivo de apresentar algumas reflexões sobre os desafios de salvaguarda e acesso ao patrimônio, em meio eletrônico, com ênfase nas questões culturais, econômicas e políticas que envolvem a temática. Toma como elemento inicial de reflexão o documento: “Carta da UNESCO sobre a Preservação do Patrimônio Digital” e sobre a “Memória do Mundo”, amplamente divulgado na Internet, e que tem estimulado os diferentes países membros e instituições ao estabelecimento de políticas, estratégias, ações, programas, padrões, diretrizes e metodologias que assegurem a preservação e o acesso à memória e ao patrimônio mundial em ambiente virtual.This text is part of the post-doctoral research in Information Science, performed at the École de Bibliothéconomie et des Sciences de l'Information (EBSI, at Université de Montréal – Canada. The following areas are discussed: Information, Social Memory,Culture and Digital Heritage. Some reflections are presented concerning the challenges of heritage safeguard and access, with emphasis on the related cultural, economical and political questions. The following document is taken as an initial element for reflection: “UNESCO Charter on the Preservation of the Digital Heritage” and on the “World Memory”. This document, widely disseminated on the Internet, has stimulated the different member countries and institutions in the establishment of politics, strategies, action, programs, patterns, directives and methodologies to ensure the preservation and access to the world memory and heritage in the virtual environment.

  18. The digital divide: Examining socio-demographic factors associated with health literacy, access and use of internet to seek health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estacio, Emee Vida; Whittle, Rebecca; Protheroe, Joanne

    2017-02-01

    This article aims to examine the socio-demographic characteristics associated with access and use of Internet for health-related purposes and its relationship with health literacy. Data were drawn from a health literacy survey ( N = 1046) and analysed using logistic regression. Results show a strong association between health literacy, internet access and use. Socio-demographic characteristics particularly age, education, income, perceived health and social isolation also predict internet access. Thus, in addition to widening access, the movement towards digitisation of health information and services should also consider digital skills development to enable people to utilise digital technology more effectively, especially among traditionally hard-to-reach communities.

  19. Romper la brecha digital de género. Factores implicados en la opción por una carrera tecnológica Breaking the gender digital divide. Involved factors in the choice of a technological career

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naira Sánchez Vadillo

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available

    En España, solo el 17% de estudiantes de informática son mujeres, una tasa dramáticamente similar a la del resto de países occidentales. El presente estudio analizamos cómo algunas chicas superan la brecha digital de género y se adentran activamente en un mundo particularmente masculinizado. Analizamos las historias de vida tecnológica de tres chicas estudiantes de informática, y se identifican las prácticas sociales que rodean sus trayectorias vitales con la tecnología. Se observa que estas chicas poseen un alto sentimiento de competencia tecnológica; utilizan estrategias de autoaprendizaje, desdeñando la educación formal en TIC; y presentan un acentuado gusto por las matemáticas y los procesos lógicos. Estos factores podrían proceder de un entorno familiar favorable a las tecnologías, en el que destaca la ausencia de hermanos varones que competirían por el uso de ordenadores y consolas; y de su afición a los videojuegos, que constituyen una puerta de entrada a las TIC, y que incrementa sus oportunidades educativas y profesionales. Además, se evidencia que si existe un entorno familiar pro-tecnológico, los procesos de educación formal pueden generar efectos contraproducentes en comparación con la capacidad del aprendizaje informal en desarrollar vocaciones.

    In Spain, only 17% of computer science students are women, a dramatically low tax, yet similar to the ones in the other western countries. This research analyses how some girls manage to overcome the gender digital divide, participating actively in a strongly masculinized world. To understand this process three young computer students girls technological life stories are analyzed. This research method allowed identifying the social practices surrounding the exceptional technological trajectories of these women. The results indicate that these girls have a high sense of technological competence; use self-learning strategies, scorning ICT formal education; and

  20. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  1. 發展中國家數位落差消弭之法-電子資料庫的建置與使用 Developing Nations, the Digital Divide and Research Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sam Brooks

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available 「數位落差影響著許多發展中國家」,此言意味著經費不足、電腦與網路技能的缺乏與英語能力的欠缺,以致使發展中國家數位資訊資源之擴展與使用受到阻礙。具有遠見之個人或組織可投入協助滿足發展中國家資訊需求之行列,匯集性全文資料庫可作為一種消弭數位落差的絕佳工具,參與此任務之組織必須對使用者展現資源的價值並提供必要的訓練,以確保計畫之成功。The digital divide affects many nations of the developing world. The term encompasses inadequate funding, a lack of necessary computer and Internet skills, a lack of English-language proficiency that hinder expansion and use of digital information resources. Visionary individuals and organizations can assist these countries with their information needs. Aggregated full-text databases serve as a prominent tool in closing the digital divide because they provide important research resources. Participating organizations must demonstrate the value of these resources to users and supply essential training to ensure success with electronic resource initiatives.

  2. The uncertain first-time voter: Effects of political media exposure on young citizens’ formation of vote choice in a digital media environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohme, Jakob; de Vreese, Claes Holger; Albæk, Erik

    2018-01-01

    The digital media environment changes the way citizens receive political information, also during an election campaign. Particularly first-time voters increasingly use social media platforms as news sources. Yet, it is less clear how accessing political information in such a unique social setting...... exposure and certainty can be mediated by active campaign participation. An 11-wave national panel study was conducted, using a smartphone-based assessment of citizens’ (n = 1108) media exposure and vote choice certainty across the campaign period. Results suggest that first-time voters’ social media...... affects these cohorts’ decision-making processes during an election campaign, compared to experienced voters. We compare effects of these two groups’ political information exposure on their vote choice certainty during the 2015 Danish national election. We furthermore test how the relation between...

  3. Políticas de informação: digitalizando a inclusão social Politics for the web: how to digitize the social inclusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othon Jambeiro

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo analisa a política de inclusão de uma organização do terceiro setor, o Liceu de Artes e Ofícios da Bahia (Laob, que recebe recursos de empresas e de organizações filantrópicas nacionais e internacionais para ações de inclusão social e digital. Além da análise das ações decorrentes de sua política de inclusão, com o objetivo de verificar se houve mudanças efetivas em suas vidas. A hipótese central é a de que as ações adotadas como forma de inclusão, apesar de fornecerem algum ferramental para lidar com a questão da exclusão digital, não são suficientes, por si mesmas, para a efetividade de programas de inclusão digital que não estejam articulados com ações mais amplas de inclusão social. Palavras-chave: Inclusão. Inclusão digital. Políticas e informação. This paper analyses the politics of inclusion of a third sector organization, the Liceu de Artes e Ofícios da Bahia (Laob, which is sponsored by a number of national and international philanthropical organizations and companies, in order to organize actions of social and digital inclusion. Keywords: Inclusion. Digital inclusion. Politics and information.

  4. Continental Divide Trail

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — This shapefile was created to show the proximity of the Continental Divide to the Continental Divide National Scenic Trail in New Mexico. This work was done as part...

  5. Timing divided attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogendoorn, Hinze; Carlson, Thomas A; VanRullen, Rufin; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2010-11-01

    Visual attention can be divided over multiple objects or locations. However, there is no single theoretical framework within which the effects of dividing attention can be interpreted. In order to develop such a model, here we manipulated the stage of visual processing at which attention was divided, while simultaneously probing the costs of dividing attention on two dimensions. We show that dividing attention incurs dissociable time and precision costs, which depend on whether attention is divided during monitoring or during access. Dividing attention during monitoring resulted in progressively delayed access to attended locations as additional locations were monitored, as well as a one-off precision cost. When dividing attention during access, time costs were systematically lower at one of the accessed locations than at the other, indicating that divided attention during access, in fact, involves rapid sequential allocation of undivided attention. We propose a model in which divided attention is understood as the simultaneous parallel preparation and subsequent sequential execution of multiple shifts of undivided attention. This interpretation has the potential to bring together diverse findings from both the divided-attention and saccade preparation literature and provides a framework within which to integrate the broad spectrum of divided-attention methodologies.

  6. Language Teaching across the Digital Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eamer, Allyson

    This paper is an exploration of the reflexive relationships between language teaching, social justice and online networking. The overlapping objectives among these three pursuits are considered in the argument for the use of videoconferencing technology in virtual language classrooms for the purpose of revitalizing fossilized languages (in diasporic communities) and endangered languages (in aboriginal communities). The virtual classroom allows for a levelling of the playing field in that the absence of a shared physical space can potentially reduce the weight of cultural and linguistic hegemony. The capacity of the internet to overcome challenges of time and distance means that language speakers and learners in disparate locations can meet in real time to ensure a language's survival.

  7. The Digital Divide among University Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricoy, Carmen; Feliz, Tiberio; Couto, Maria Joao

    2013-01-01

    Use of new technologies in university training is an ongoing reality today. However, the inequalities that exist among university students are the source of an important problem. Such inequalities need to be detected and analyzed and therefore a study of college freshmen can be very valuable. This qualitative study intends to analyze the digital…

  8. Physician executives straddle the digital divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coile, R C

    2001-01-01

    e-Health is here to stay and experts predict that the Internet will become the hub of health care. Rapid advancements in biotechnology and medical research, increasingly curious patients who surf the Internet for medical information, and pressures from managed care companies to contain costs and speed treatments are the central components driving e-health. Despite physician reluctance to embrace the e-revolution, many hospitals and medical groups are employing the Internet and information technology to improve their customer interface, as well as to reduce business costs. This article offers seven e-strategies for health care performance improvement: (1) Supply chain management; (2) e-transactions; (3) care management; (4) improving quality; (5) boosting revenues; (6) outsourcing; and (7) provider networks (Intranets). By helping to incorporate these key e-solutions, physician executives can position their organizations for success in the new millennium.

  9. Much ado about unicorns and digital divides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prof. Dr. Jan Steyaert

    2002-01-01

    Deze tekst beschrijft de globale digitale kloof. Daarbij wordt opgemerkt dat we ons niet mogen laten verleiden door de simpliciteit van het meetbare, t.w. het al dan niet hebben van een computer met internettoegang. De digitale kloof kent immers meerdere dimensies, waarvan bezit maar een is. Zo moet

  10. Social Media en Provinciale Statenverkiezingen : Digital Divide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Effing, R. (Robin); Huibers, T. (Theo); Krosse, de L. (Luc)

    2011-01-01

    Social Media lijken, bij uitstek, media om te inspireren en te innoveren. Echter, in de eerste plaats zijn Social Media als Facebook, Twitter, Youtube, Hyves en LinkedIn geschikt voor het onderhouden van relaties. De conversatie staat centraal. Politici kunnen zich open stellen voor dialoog met de

  11. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  12. International Divider Walls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruis, A.; Sneller, Lineke

    2013-01-01

    The subject of this teaching case is the Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) system implementation at International Divider Walls, the world market leader in design, production, and sales of divider walls. The implementation in one of the divisions of this multinational company had been successful,

  13. Divide and Pacify

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vanhuysse, Pieter

    policy." - Kenneth Shepsle, Professor, Harvard University and Fellow, American Academy of Sciences "In post-communist Europe, international advice—for example from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank—to reforming governments focused heavily on economic policy. The political imperative......, in contrast, was a set of policies generous enough to maintain continuing support for the overall reforms. The great value of this book is that it addresses both strategic policy directions simultaneously. Specifically, it analyzes how policies that are sub-optimal in economic terms (work in the grey economy......, easy access to unemployment benefits, fiscally expensive early retirement) can be argued to be optimal (or at least roughly so) when considering economics and politics together. As such, the book offers a rich political economy perspective on post-communist reforms." – Nicholas Barr, Professor...

  14. Digital Communication and Politics in Aragon. A two-way communication formula for the interaction between politicians and citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ruiz-Carreras

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This research presents blogs as an innovative and rich tool for political communication. Blogs can facilitate two-way communication and true interaction between citizens and politicians. The article analyses in depth the content, uses, and characteristics of five weblogs written by Aragonese politicians. Although the study detects some weaknesses in the current political use of blogs, it encourages political parties to use blogs and other online resources, not only during electoral campaigns to improve the reputation of political leaders but also continuously and particularly in situations of special interest for the citizenship. The study shows that the use of blogs by Aragonese politicians is no longer just a transitory phenomenon and has become a reality. The article also demonstrates that politicians use blogs mostly as a pre-electoral tooland to a much lesser extent as an element of communication to promote democracy. It has been observed that politicians’ blogs are used as a tool to overcome situations of crisis and to compensate negative opinions caused by questionable acts.

  15. Divided Korea: United Future?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumings, Bruce

    1995-01-01

    Korea's recorded history extends back before the birth of Christ. Through their long history, the Koreans have endured a variety of social, political, and economical crises. Confucianism has long been one of the most popular religions by which the Korean people have lived. However, Koreans also have embraced Buddhism and Christianity while…

  16. Digital Learning Aids for Nynorsk Pupils in School: - A Politically Sensitive Area or a Question of a Deeper Scientific Understanding of Learning?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rune Johan Krumsvik

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This position paper focuses on Nynorsk in the digital era and the need for research-based knowledge about it in school settings in Norway. The Norwegian language situation is exceptional because Norway has two written standards, Bokmål (majority variety and Nynorsk (minority variety, and both the Education Act and the Norwegian Directorate of Education require that publishers provide parallel editions of all paper-based and digital learning aids for pupils. However, a national report by Skjær,Eiksund, Fretland, Holen & Netteland(2008 revealed that few publishers have developed and offered digital learning aids in Nynorsk. In 2015 the situation appears to be largely unchanged, even though the authorities, language organisations and “leadings lights” have taken several initiatives to encourage compliance with the Education Act; however, what is needed is further research into the situation of parallel editions of digital learning aids. This is of particular interest today since the pupils in the county with the highest rate (97% of Nynorsk-pupils has consistently been at the top of the list as one of the best performing counties in Norway in national tests since 2006 (Directorate of Education 2015. In addition, Vangsnes, Söderlund & Blekesaune (2015 find that municipalities in Norway with more than 50% Nynorsk-pupils achieve better in National tests when compared to Bokmål municipalities. The main message in our position paper is that the digital revolution might have changed some underlying premises for how we understand and use language and dialects, and the need for parallel editions of digital learning aids in Bokmål and Nynorsk is no longer a question of economics or of political statements for or against Nynorsk, etc., but is instead a question of a more nuanced scientific understanding of learning and achievement in today’s digitized school. The achievements of Nynorsk pupils in national tests is one indicator of school

  17. The Great Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2005-01-01

    Steps away from where a concrete wall once divided this city east from west, a group of Muslim 1st graders at E.O. Plauen Elementary School sing a phrase that is unfamiliar to most German ears. Though the Roman Catholic and Protestant churches have long provided voluntary religion classes in Berlin schools, only recently have the courts allowed an…

  18. A Town Divided

    OpenAIRE

    Waldron, Lucas H

    2018-01-01

    Residents of rural Patagonia, AZ are bitterly divided over mining. Half of the town supports Arizona Mining Inc., a Canadian mining company that bought up land near town for vast exploratory drilling. The other half of the town is fighting the mining company at every turn, seeking to preserve the region's unique wildlife and steer the economy toward environmental restoration.

  19. 數位落差與數位機會對幼兒資訊教學活動的影響 The Impact of the Digital Divide and Digital Opportunity on the Integration of Information Technology into Instructional Activities for Young Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    陳儒晰 Ru-Si Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available 幼兒教育(下稱幼教)場域的資訊教學活動,不只受到社會結構性限制與數位落差的影響,亦連結數位機會的提供對行動主體的資訊科技近用與使用作為之賦權。研究者藉由觀察與訪談蒐集幼兒、幼教人員和家長對此議題所呈現的資料,描繪數位落差與數位機會對幼兒資訊教學活動的形塑和影響。研究結果指出,幼兒再現家長社經背景與社會群體身分的差異,在近用、使用和參與資訊科技輔助學習表現顯現數位學習落差;但透過幼教人員與幼兒園提供數位學習機會,可協助弱勢群體幼兒有更多機會近用資訊科技,並應用資訊科技轉化其學習參與和成就表現。最後,研究者針對研究結果進行討論並提出建議,以為相關單位從事幼教資訊專業發展革新與行動實踐作為之參照。 The integration of information technology into instructional activities in early childhood education is not only affected by social-structural limitations and the digital divide, but also related to the provision of digital opportunities, and the empowerment of agents to access and use information. Based on data collected through interviews with parents and educators, and observation of situations in which information technology is integrated into instruction, the researcher describes how the application of information technology in young children’s pedagogy is influenced and shaped by the digital divide and digital opportunity. According to the results, differences in parents’ socio-economic backgrounds and membership of social groups are reproduced through the digital divide in children’s access to, use of, and engagement with information technology. However, if young children from minority or disadvantaged groups are able to access information technology, through the provision of equal digital opportunities in kindergartens, their engagement and

  20. The political economy of death in the age of information: a critical approach to the Digital Afterlife Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Öhman, C; Floridi, L

    2017-01-01

    Online technologies enable vast amounts of data to outlive their producers online, thereby giving rise to a new, digital form of afterlife presence. Although researchers have begun investigating the nature of such presence, academic literature has until now failed to acknowledge the role of commercial interests in shaping it. The goal of this paper is to analyse what those interests are and what ethical consequences they may have. This goal is pursued in three steps. First, we introduce the c...

  1. Patrimônio digital e informação: política, cultura e diversidade

    Digital heritage and information: politics, culture and diversity

    OpenAIRE

    Lídia Eugenia Cavalcanti

    2007-01-01

    Este texto, que é parte da pesquisa de pós-doutorado em Ciências da Informação, realizada na École de Bibliothéconomie et des Sciences de l'Information (EBSI), da Université de Montréal – Canadá, versa sobre Informação, Memória Social, Cultura e Patrimônio Digital. Tem o objetivo de apresentar algumas reflexões sobre os desafios de salvaguarda e acesso ao patrimônio, em meio eletrônico, com ênfase nas questões culturais, econômicas e políticas que envolvem a temática. Toma como elemento inici...

  2. “Use Your Skills to Solve This Challenge!”: The Platform Affordances and Politics of Digital Microvolunteering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Ilten

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available How does the rise of managed online platforms for civic engagement change the relationships between activists and organizations? While much has been written about Twitter- and Facebook-enabled mobilization, the emergence of platforms that organize “microaction” in contained ways is a phenomenon understudied by social movement and media scholars. This study draws on both literatures to analyze the hybrid case of Sparked, a microvolunteering platform created by web designers, not activists, that efficiently organizes volunteering through a microaction design. The case exhibits characteristics that social movement scholars understand as resource mobilization through leveraging of affordances by activists, but it also features the structural characteristics of platforms that media scholars identify as both enabling and constraining. To conceptualize the “digitally enabled activism” that takes place within the confines of a managed platform, this study investigates its microaction affordances and their implications. My analysis finds that high leveraging of online affordances can coincide with a shifted logic of engagement in the case of microaction platforms: Sparked’s microaction system affords high performance, but targets only a specialized niche of volunteering. I describe this model as “specialized supersizing” that addresses nonprofits’ needs for increasing organizational overhead services in the context of a professionalizing third sector. Sparked’s microvolunteering design has helped define a platform-centric constitution for microaction that is geared toward rationalization, professionalization, and productivity. Its platform “politics” promote depoliticization, where tactics, not causes, determine exchanges. This emergence of a market for mobilization tactics may have important implications for nonprofits, volunteers, and social movements.

  3. Why do bacteria divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Vic

    2015-01-01

    The problem of not only how but also why cells divide can be tackled using recent ideas. One idea from the origins of life – Life as independent of its constituents – is that a living entity like a cell is a particular pattern of connectivity between its constituents. This means that if the growing cell were just to get bigger the average connectivity between its constituents per unit mass – its cellular connectivity – would decrease and the cell would lose its identity. The solution is division which restores connectivity. The corollary is that the cell senses decreasing cellular connectivity and uses this information to trigger division. A second idea from phenotypic diversity – Life on the Scales of Equilibria – is that a bacterium must find strategies that allow it to both survive and grow. This means that it has learnt to reconcile the opposing constraints that these strategies impose. The solution is that the cell cycle generates daughter cells with different phenotypes based on sufficiently complex equilibrium (E) and non-equilibrium (NE) cellular compounds and structures appropriate for survival and growth, respectively, alias ‘hyperstructures.’ The corollary is that the cell senses both the quantity of E material and the intensity of use of NE material and then uses this information to trigger the cell cycle. A third idea from artificial intelligence – Competitive Coherence – is that a cell selects the active subset of elements that actively determine its phenotype from a much larger set of available elements. This means that the selection of an active subset of a specific size and composition must be done so as to generate both a coherent cell state, in which the cell’s contents work together harmoniously, and a coherent sequence of cell states, each coherent with respect to itself and to an unpredictable environment. The solution is the use of a range of mechanisms ranging from hyperstructure dynamics to the cell cycle itself. PMID

  4. A pulse amplitude dividing circuit for nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ediss, C.; McQuarrie, S.A.

    1981-01-01

    A pulse dividing circuit has been developed to provide analogue and digital outputs proportional to the ratio of the amplitudes of two nuclear pulses. Input pulses ranging from 200 mV to 10 V may be processed by the device. The pulse dividing circuit has been successfully incorporated as part of a small gamma camera. (orig.)

  5. The Apply of Frequency Divider Circuit in Nuclear Electronics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LIU Hefan; Zeng Bing; Zhang Ziliang; Ge Liangquan

    2009-01-01

    Different components in a digital system often need different working frequencies, the way we often used is clock division from the system clock. Through the analysis of frequency divider principle, a applied integer frequency dividing circuit with SE120A is proposed. It can divide the frequency multiple from 2 to 64. It's usually used in nuclear electronics. It's testing and analysis is displayed that it has no noise, good frequency division effect and stability. (authors)

  6. Digital Snaps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandbye, Mette; Larsen, Jonas

    . Distance as the New Punctum / Mikko Villi -- pt. II. FAMILY ALBUMS IN TRANSITION -- ch. 4. How Digital Technologies Do Family Snaps, Only Better / Gillian Rose -- ch. 5. Friendship Photography: Memory, Mobility and Social Networking / Joanne Garde-Hansen -- ch. 6. Play, Process and Materiality in Japanese...... -- ch. 9. Retouch Yourself: The Pleasures and Politics of Digital Cosmetic Surgery / Tanya Sheehan -- ch. 10. Virtual Selves: Art and Digital Autobiography / Louise Wolthers -- ch. 11. Mobile-Media Photography: New Modes of Engagement / Michael Shanks and Connie Svabo....

  7. Gentilly 2 divider plate replacement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forest, J.; Klisel, E.; McClellan, G.; Schnelder, W.

    1995-01-01

    The steam generators at the Gentilly 2 Nuclear Plant in operation since 1983 were built with primary divider plates of a bolted panel configuration. During a routine outage inspection, it was noted that two bolts had dislodged from the divider and were located lying in the primary head. Subsequent inspections revealed erosion damage to a substantial number of divider plate bolts and to a lesser extent, to the divider plate itself. After further inspection and repair the units were returned to operation, however, it was determined that a permanent replacement of the primary divider plates was going to be necessary. After evaluation of various options, it was decided that the panel type dividers would be replaced with a single piece floating design. The divider itself was to be of a one piece all-welded arrangement to be constructed from individual panels to be brought in through the manways. In view of the strength limitations of the bolted attachment of the upper seat bar to the tubesheet, a new welded seat bar was provided. To counteract erosion concerns, the new divider is fitted with erosion resistant inserts or weld buildup and with improved sealing features in order to minimize leakage and erosion. At an advanced stage in the design and manufacture of the components, the issue of divider strength during LOCA conditions came into focus. Analysis was performed to determine the strength and/or failure characteristics of the divider to a variety of small and large LOCA conditions. The paper describes the diagnosis of the original divider plates and the design, manufacture, field mobilization, installation and subsequent operation of the replacement divider plates. (author)

  8. First unitary, then divided: the temporal dynamics of dividing attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jefferies, Lisa N; Witt, Joseph B

    2018-04-24

    Whether focused visual attention can be divided has been the topic of much investigation, and there is a compelling body of evidence showing that, at least under certain conditions, attention can be divided and deployed as two independent foci. Three experiments were conducted to examine whether attention can be deployed in divided form from the outset, or whether it is first deployed as a unitary focus before being divided. To test this, we adapted the methodology of Jefferies, Enns, and Di Lollo (Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 40: 465, 2014), who used a dual-stream Attentional Blink paradigm and two letter-pair targets. One aspect of the AB, Lag-1 sparing, has been shown to occur only if the second target pair appears within the focus of attention. By presenting the second target pair at various spatial locations and assessing the magnitude of Lag-1 sparing, we probed the spatial distribution of attention. By systematically manipulating the stimulus-onset-asynchrony between the targets, we also tracked changes to the spatial distribution of attention over time. The results showed that even under conditions which encourage the division of attention, the attentional focus is first deployed in unitary form before being divided. It is then maintained in divided form only briefly before settling on a single location.

  9. Is there a second level divide in students Internet skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Purushothaman, Aparna

    2015-01-01

    The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses on the insu......The concept of digital divide have moved beyond physical disparities in usage and also encompasses issues impending access like human (skills) social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies apart from ownership. This paper focuses...... on the insufficient level of skills which students have in making the best use of available Internet technology. Varying online skills of the students in higher education from two countrywide scenarios - Denmark and India are discussed. The paper emphasizes on the reflective and conceptual issues which the students...... face to take information from the Internet that brings a second level of divide. Through a cross-national comparison the paper hopes to contribute to the literature to learn from each other´s experiences and giving insights to researchers on digital divide. The digital divide in Internet skills...

  10. Digital Language Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kornai, András

    2013-01-01

    Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide. PMID:24167559

  11. Digital language death.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    András Kornai

    Full Text Available Of the approximately 7,000 languages spoken today, some 2,500 are generally considered endangered. Here we argue that this consensus figure vastly underestimates the danger of digital language death, in that less than 5% of all languages can still ascend to the digital realm. We present evidence of a massive die-off caused by the digital divide.

  12. Digital Lifestyles Between Solidarity, Discipline and Neoliberalism: On the Historical Transformations of the Danish IT Political Field from 1994 to 2016

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelholt, Morten; Schou, Jannick

    2017-01-01

    the Danish welfare state are yet to be systematically investigated. This paper provides a historical study of Danish IT policies from 1994 to 2016. Relying on archival research of national policies and drawing on Pierre Bourdieu’s work on the state, we explore how the IT political field has emerged through......, but from 2002, however, economic efficiency, competitiveness and self-governance become the main ideals. In this way, the IT political field has increasingly come to converge with neoliberal discourses concerned with imposing market-like dynamics on the public sector and population. The paper concludes...

  13. Dividing Attention Increases Operational Momentum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koleen McCrink

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available When adding or subtracting two quantities, adults often compute an estimated outcome that is larger or smaller, respectively, than the actual outcome, a bias referred to as “operational momentum”. The effects of attention on operational momentum were investigated. Participants viewed a display in which two arrays of objects were added, or one array was subtracted from another array, and judged whether a subsequent outcome (probe array contained the correct or incorrect number of objects. In a baseline condition, only the arrays to be added or subtracted were viewed. In divided attention conditions, participants simultaneously viewed a sequence of colors or shapes, and judged which color (a non-spatial judgment or shape (a spatial judgment was repeated. Operational momentum occurred in all conditions, but was higher in divided attention conditions than in the baseline condition, primarily for addition problems. This pattern suggests that dividing attention, rather than decreasing operational momentum by decreasing attentional shifts, actually increased operational momentum. These results are consistent with a heightened use of arithmetic heuristics under conditions of divided attention.

  14. Dividing Fractions: A Pedagogical Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Robert

    2016-01-01

    When dividing one fraction by a second fraction, invert, that is, flip the second fraction, then multiply it by the first fraction. To multiply fractions, simply multiply across the denominators, and multiply across the numerators to get the resultant fraction. So by inverting the division of fractions it is turned into an easy multiplication of…

  15. Prospective memory: effects of divided attention on spontaneous retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Tyler L; Mullet, Hillary G; Whiffen, Katie N; Ousterhout, Hunter; Einstein, Gilles O

    2014-02-01

    We examined the effects of divided attention on the spontaneous retrieval of a prospective memory intention. Participants performed an ongoing lexical decision task with an embedded prospective memory demand, and also performed a divided-attention task during some segments of lexical decision trials. In all experiments, monitoring was highly discouraged, and we observed no evidence that participants engaged monitoring processes. In Experiment 1, performing a moderately demanding divided-attention task (a digit detection task) did not affect prospective memory performance. In Experiment 2, performing a more challenging divided-attention task (random number generation) impaired prospective memory. Experiment 3 showed that this impairment was eliminated when the prospective memory cue was perceptually salient. Taken together, the results indicate that spontaneous retrieval is not automatic and that challenging divided-attention tasks interfere with spontaneous retrieval and not with the execution of a retrieved intention.

  16. The information divide: publishing and access issues | Baker ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some global and local developments in information access and the Open Access movement are highlighted, and the National Library of South Africa\\'s interim strategies to bridge the information and digital divide are identified. However, it becomes evident that unless librarians, information consumers, publishers, ...

  17. Political innovations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eva

    2017-01-01

    are mainly interested in assessing and promoting innovations in public service delivery, but have paid little or no attention to the need for innovations in polity, politics and policy. This article develops a research agenda for studying innovations in political institutions, in the political process...... and in policy outputs. It proposes a number of research themes related to political innovations that call for scholarly attention, and identifies push and pull factors influencing the likelihood that these themes will be addressed in future research....

  18. Economy and energy politic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    This book, divided into four parts, describes, first, energy consumption and national economy growth. In a second part, the irresistible ascent of coal, natural gas and petroleum international markets is studied. In the third part, energy politic is investigated: exchanges releasing, prices deregulation, contestation of power industry monopoly, energy national market and common energetic politic, single market concept. In the last part, global risks and world-wide regulations are given: demand, energy resources, technical changes, comparative evaluations between fossil, nuclear and renewable energies, environment, investments financing and international cooperation. 23 refs., 14 figs., 16 tabs

  19. Moral politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rapp, Carolin; Traunmüller, Richard; Freitag, Markus

    2014-01-01

    This article combines the research strands of moral politics and political behavior by focusing on the effect of individual and contextual religiosity on individual vote decisions in popular initiatives and public referenda concerning morally charged issues. We rely on a total of 13 surveys with 1...... American research on moral politics, direct democracies, and the public role of religion....

  20. Office Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storm, Paula; Kelly, Robert; deVries, Susann

    2008-01-01

    People and organizations are inherently political. Library workplace environments have zones of tension and dynamics just like any corporation, often leading to the formation of political camps. These different cliques influence productivity and work-related issues and, at worst, give meetings the feel of the Camp David negotiations. Politics are…

  1. Selectively Distracted: Divided Attention and Memory for Important Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlebrooks, Catherine D; Kerr, Tyson; Castel, Alan D

    2017-08-01

    Distractions and multitasking are generally detrimental to learning and memory. Nevertheless, people often study while listening to music, sitting in noisy coffee shops, or intermittently checking their e-mail. The current experiments examined how distractions and divided attention influence one's ability to selectively remember valuable information. Participants studied lists of words that ranged in value from 1 to 10 points while completing a digit-detection task, while listening to music, or without distractions. Though participants recalled fewer words following digit detection than in the other conditions, there were no significant differences between conditions in terms of selectively remembering the most valuable words. Similar results were obtained across a variety of divided-attention tasks that stressed attention and working memory to different degrees, which suggests that people may compensate for divided-attention costs by selectively attending to the most valuable items and that factors that worsen memory do not necessarily impair the ability to selectively remember important information.

  2. A digital divide: Kiswahili holds the key | Kamau | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Language, Technology & Entrepreneurship in Africa. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 1, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  3. The digital divide in Internet-based patient education materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Gordon H

    2012-11-01

    The ubiquity of the Internet has led to the widespread availability of health-related information to the public, and the subsequent empowerment of patients has fundamentally altered the patient-physician relationship. Among several concerns of physicians is the possibility that patients may be misinformed by information obtained from the Internet. One opportunity for health care providers to address this problem exists within Internet-based patient education materials (IPEMs). According to recent research in Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, IPEMs found within professional otolaryngology websites are written at the 8th- to 18th-grade reading comprehension level, essentially unchanged over the past 3 years. This greatly exceeds the fourth- to sixth-grade reading level recommended by the National Institutes of Health. Benefits, strategies, and challenges to improving the readability of IPEMs are discussed.

  4. EGEE helping bridge digital divide EGEE'06 Conference preview

    CERN Multimedia

    2006-01-01

    "In this GRIDtoday Q&A, EGEE project director Bob Jones discusses where EGEEE began and where it is now as the project enters the EGEE II era. In addition, Jones previews the EGEE'06 conference, which kicks off Sept. 25 in Geneva, Switzerland, and features for the first time a prominent businee track." (2 pages)

  5. Community Informatics: Challenges in Bridging the Digital Divide

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Songan, Peter; Hamid, Khairuddin A; Yeo, Alvin; Gnaniah, Jayapragas; Zen, Hushairi

    2004-01-01

    ...) provides a context to demonstrate how information and communication technologies (ICTs) can provide opportunities for remote and rural communities to develop socially, culturally, and economically...

  6. Visiting the Digital Divide: Women Entrepreneurs in Central America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, Helena

    2006-01-01

    Micro and small enterprises comprise approximately 60-70% of enterprises in South and Central America. Most of these enterprises, particularly micro enterprises, are managed and owned by women. These women for the most part lack both skills and training in the use of computers and the Internet, and access to the use of information and…

  7. BRIDGING THE DIGITAL DIVIDE Information is key to success in ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-10-25

    Oct 25, 2010 ... Information and communication technologies can increase productivity, ... role in bringing much-needed services such as education and health care to remote areas. ... Using technology to deliver quality education in Asia.

  8. THE DIGITAL DIVIDE: ICT DEVELOPMENT INDICES IN MEXICO

    OpenAIRE

    Edgar TELLO-LEAL; Claudia M. SOSA-REYNA; Diego A. TELLO-LEAL

    2012-01-01

    The integration of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) to the manufacturing sector enables to reduce production, management and marketing costs, allowing achieve higher levels of competitiveness. In the social area, ICTs are tools of inclusion improving the provision of education, health and government services, as well as expanding its coverage area of these services. To achieve these benefits it is required a proper incorporation and adaptation of ICTs in the social area, as w...

  9. Gender Digital Divide and Challenges in Undergraduate Computer Science Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoilescu, Dorian; McDougall, Douglas

    2011-01-01

    Previous research revealed a reduced number of female students registered in computer science studies. In addition, the female students feel isolated, have reduced confidence, and underperform. This article explores differences between female and male students in undergraduate computer science programs in a mid-size university in Ontario. Based on…

  10. The digital divide shifts to differences in usage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.

    2014-01-01

    In a representative survey of the Dutch population we found that people with low levels of education and disabled people are using the Internet for more hours a day in their spare time than higher educated and employed populations. To explain this finding, we investigated what these people are doing

  11. CILT2000: Ubiquitous Computing--Spanning the Digital Divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinker, Robert; Vahey, Philip

    2002-01-01

    Discusses the role of ubiquitous and handheld computers in education. Summarizes the contributions of the Center for Innovative Learning Technologies (CILT) and describes the ubiquitous computing sessions at the CILT2000 Conference. (Author/YDS)

  12. Çeviri: İslam Ekonomisinin Arzuları ve Gerçekleri Arasındaki Uzaklaşma:Farklılığı Azaltmaya Yönelik Bir Politik Ekonomi Yaklaşımı (Divergence between aspirations and realities of Islamic economics: A political economy approach to bridging the divide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uğur Uyğun

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orjinal Metin: Nazim Zaman and Mehmet Asutay (2009, "Divergence between aspirations and realities of Islamic economics: A political economy approach to bridging the divide", IIUM Journal of Economics and Management 17, no. 1 (2009: 73-96 © 2009 by The International Islamic University Malaysia.İslam ekonomisi modern anlamda 1960’larda ortaya çıkmasına rağmen, şimdilerde ana akım neoklasik gelişmeye karşı İslami bir alternatif olarak temsil edilen tek tezahürün İslami banka ve finans endüstrisi (İBF olduğunu görüyoruz. İBF endüstrisindeki gelişmeler gösteriyor ki bu endüstri geleneksel finansa doğru yaklaşmıştır. Sonuçta, bu endüstri İslami ekonomik sistemin kurumsal ve politik arzularını yerine getirmekte başarısız olmuştur. Bu makale İslami ekonomik sistemin arzuları ile İBF endüstrisi arasındaki farklılaşmanın nasıl meydana geldiğini açıklamaya çalışmaktadır ve salt ekonomi ve fıkıh düşüncesinin ötesinde olan İslam’ın kavramsal bir gelişme modelini sunmaktadır. Bu makale temel aksiyomların aslında tamamen temel kurumsal uygulamalara dayandığını göstermek için politik ekonomi yaklaşımını önermektedir. Ayrıca bu amacı gerçekleştirmek için politik vizyon, istek ve liderliği de içeren ön koşulları açıklamaktadır.

  13. Divided by the Market, Divided by the State

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wulfgramm, Melike; Starke, Peter

    2017-01-01

    of the individual differences, the analysis also shows, for the first time, that both high inequality and strongly redistributive policies divide public opinion along the lines of socioeconomic position. Put differently, while market inequality may be associated with less cohesive attitudes, a highly redistributive...... welfare state does not seem to foster agreement among the public, either. These findings have important policy implications for advanced welfare states, including a renewed emphasis on ‘predistribution’ (i.e., policies that influence the primary distribution of income) in order to avoid the scenario...

  14. Space, politics, and the political

    OpenAIRE

    dikec , mustafa

    1987-01-01

    International audience; Introduction Geography and politics'', Gottmann wrote in 1980, ``have long been in search of each other'' (page 11). Debates in the literature suggest not only that they have found each other, but also that the encounter has instigated, notably in the last decade or so, a body of literature seeking to think space politically, and to think politics spatially. This is not to suggest that previous work on space was apolitical, nor to suggest that previous work on politics...

  15. Performing Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Troy R. E. Paddock

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Walter Benjamin’s observation that fascism turns politics into aesthetics is, by now, a well-worn idea. This article argues that Benjamin’s critique of politics can apply just as much to the modern democratic politics of the United States. Borrowing from Benjamin, Jürgen Habermas, and Carl Schmitt, this article suggests that modern political discourse in the United States does not follow the classical liberal ideal of rational discourse in the marketplace of ideas within the public sphere. Instead, contemporary politics has become spectacle where images and slogans replace thought and debate in a 24/7 news cycle and political infotainment programs. The result is that progressives and conservatives have their own political “ecospheres” which enable them to have their own perspective reinforced, and debate is replaced by straw man arguments and personal attacks.

  16. The Digital Architectures of Social Media: Comparing Political Campaigning on Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat in the 2016 U.S. Election

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bossetta, Michael

    2018-01-01

    (Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, and Snapchat) are compared along the typology. Using the 2016 U.S. elections as a case, interviews with three Republican digital strategists are complimented with social media data to qualify the study’s theoretical claim that a platform’s network structure, functionality...

  17. Beyond Digital Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Lynn

    2016-01-01

    Conversations in middle school about digital citizenship tend to focus on the responsibilities of citizenship and the issues of surveillance, safety, cyberbullying, and internet etiquette. While these are important and essential conversations, digital citizenship education needs to consider youth political identity and democratic participation in…

  18. [Political psychology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resch, Mária; Bella, Tamás

    2013-04-21

    In Hungary one can mostly find references to the psychological processes of politics in the writings of publicists, public opinion pollsters, philosophers, social psychologists, and political analysts. It would be still important if not only legal scientists focusing on political institutions or sociologist-politologists concentrating on social structures could analyse the psychological aspects of political processes; but one could also do so through the application of the methods of political psychology. The authors review the history of political psychology, its position vis-à-vis other fields of science and the essential interfaces through which this field of science, which is still to be discovered in Hungary, connects to other social sciences. As far as its methodology comprising psycho-biographical analyses, questionnaire-based queries, cognitive mapping of interviews and statements are concerned, it is identical with the psychiatric tools of medical sciences. In the next part of this paper, the focus is shifted to the essence and contents of political psychology. Group dynamics properties, voters' attitudes, leaders' personalities and the behavioural patterns demonstrated by them in different political situations, authoritativeness, games, and charisma are all essential components of political psychology, which mostly analyses psychological-psychiatric processes and also involves medical sciences by relying on cognitive and behavioural sciences. This paper describes political psychology, which is basically part of social sciences, still, being an interdisciplinary science, has several ties to medical sciences through psychological and psychiatric aspects.

  19. Finding effective responses against cyber attacks for divided nations

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Ji Min

    2015-01-01

    Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited There can be hostile relations between nations that are divided politically or ideologically, and there are threats in cyberspace as well as physical space. Although every cyber threat, like a physical threat, has countermeasures, this can be hard because of the complexity of cyberspace and the ethics in cyberspace. This study tries to find effective countermeasures for South Korea in cyberspace against North Korea’s continuing cyber a...

  20. Digital citizenship and neoliberalization: governing digital citizens in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jannick; Hjelholt, Morten

    2018-01-01

    Digital citizenship is becoming increasingly normalized within advanced democratic states. As society and governmental institutions become reliant on digital technologies, citizens are expected to be and act digitally. This article examines the governance of digital citizens through a case study...... this case study, the article contributes to current critical perspectives on the digital citizen as a new political figure. It adds new insights into digital citizenship by connecting this figure to wider processes of neoliberalization and state restructuring, pushing for a more pronounced focus...... of digitalization efforts in Denmark. Drawing on multiple forms of data, the article showcases how digital citizens are governed through a combination of discursive, legal and institutional means. The article highlights the political, but also institutional work that goes into making citizens digital. Providing...

  1. Spaces of Open-source Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Husted, Emil; Plesner, Ursula

    2017-01-01

    . Inspired by the literature on organizational space, the analysis explores how different organizational spaces configure the party’s process of policy development, thereby adding to our understanding of the relationship between organizational space and political organization. We analyze three different....... Curiously, it seems that physical spaces open up the political process, while digital spaces close it down by fixing meaning. Accordingly, we argue that open-source politics should not be equated with online politics but may be highly dependent on physical spaces. Furthermore, digital spaces may provide......The recent proliferation of Web 2.0 applications and their role in contemporary political life have inspired the coining of the term ‘open-source politics’. This article analyzes how open-source politics is organized in the case of a radical political party in Denmark called The Alternative...

  2. Political Campaigns

    OpenAIRE

    Lilleker, Darren

    2017-01-01

    Political campaigns are orchestrated attempts by political organizations to garner public support through persuasive communication in order to influence public policy in their favor. This broad definition encapsulates all forms of campaigns from those of neighborhood organizations seeking to influence local politicians to the campaigns of political parties and candidates who seek election to office in order to shape policy themselves. In pluralist democracies, campaigns are crucial for repres...

  3. Political CSR

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeppesen, Søren; Morsing, Mette

    We engage a discussion of political CSR in SMEs in an African context. Based on critical observations on Western MNC CSR action in emerging economies that holds counterproductive implications for social development, political economists have argued that business profit far more than society...... development in local African communities. Our findings extend political CSR research by directing attention to how the corporate influence in developing economies does not only emerge from MNCs but is also established and retained by SMEs CSR work....

  4. Environment, information divide and design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwata, Shuichi

    2007-01-01

    Design of human environment is to be made with understanding human-human and human-environment relations and environmental behaviors of human beings, artifacts and natural things and overcoming their differences and contradictions. Information divide exists naturally due to various differences of human beings. Many problems in the area of nuclear energy seem to be derived from various differences and contradictions in central-local interests, between the particles concerned and unconcerned and also in human being-artifacts relations. In order to harmonize nuclear energy with the society, it is necessary to vanish differences and solve contradictions with redesigning environments of those problems in their context. Case studies are highly recommended with continuous efforts to develop more universal design methodology. Open access to information and data in science and technology is encouraged in the area of nuclear energy. (T. Tanaka)

  5. Pirate political parties: New democracy or political utopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karanović Bojana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern society is changing under the influence of IT technologies, more and more we talk about 'digital revolution', and political and economic developments are shaped by computer networks. Undeniably, the Internet has opened new possibilities for socio-political expansion, networking and mobilization. Besides the political establishment, many social movements found their chance in cyberspace recognizing the IT technology as a platform for the development and improvement of their internal and external communication. In this article we will focus on the Pirate Party, movement that has been seriously growing on the European political stage for last several years. Following the example of German Pirate Party we will try to explain the characteristics of the movement, its goals and communication strategies, and political dilemmas which it brings.

  6. Political psychology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Susanna; Johnson, Kate M; Beall, Erica; Meindl, Peter; Smith, Benjamin; Graham, Jesse

    2014-07-01

    Political psychology is a dynamic field of research that offers a unique blend of approaches and methods in the social and cognitive sciences. Political psychologists explore the interactions between macrolevel political structures and microlevel factors such as decision-making processes, motivations, and perceptions. In this article, we provide a broad overview of the field, beginning with a brief history of political psychology research and a summary of the primary methodological approaches in the field. We then give a more detailed account of research on ideology and social justice, two topics experiencing a resurgence of interest in current political psychology. Finally, we cover research on political persuasion and voting behavior. By summarizing these major areas of political psychology research, we hope to highlight the wide variety of theoretical and methodological approaches of cognitive scientists working at the intersection of psychology and political science. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:373-385. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1293 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. The authors have declared no conflicts of interest for this article. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Great Divides: The Cultural, Cognitive, and Social Bases of the Global Subordination of Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Cynthia Fuchs

    2007-01-01

    Categorization based on sex is the most basic social divide. It is the organizational basis of most major institutions, including the division of labor in the home, the workforce, politics, and religion. Globally, women's gendered roles are regarded as subordinate to men's. The gender divide enforces women's roles in reproduction and support…

  8. 'Grounded' Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Garbi

    2012-01-01

    play within one particular neighbourhood: Nørrebro in the Danish capital, Copenhagen. The article introduces the concept of grounded politics to analyse how groups of Muslim immigrants in Nørrebro use the space, relationships and history of the neighbourhood for identity political statements....... The article further describes how national political debates over the Muslim presence in Denmark affect identity political manifestations within Nørrebro. By using Duncan Bell’s concept of mythscape (Bell, 2003), the article shows how some political actors idealize Nørrebro’s past to contest the present...... ethnic and religious diversity of the neighbourhood and, further, to frame what they see as the deterioration of genuine Danish identity....

  9. Political News and Political Consciousness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schertges, Claudia

    2007-01-01

    This article deals with mass media in modern democratic societies, using the example of Israeli news reports in German television (TV) news. Central to this interest are processes of mediating politics: political socialisation and education; that is to say, empowering citizens via TV news to participate in democratic processes. The article…

  10. Digital information culture the individual and society in the digital age

    CERN Document Server

    Tredinnick, Luke

    2008-01-01

    Digital Information Culture is an introduction to the cultural, social and political impact of digital information and digital resources. The book is organised around themes, rather than theories and is arranged into three sections: culture, society and the individual. Each explores key elements of the social, cultural and political impact of digital information. The culture section outlines the origins of cyber culture in fifties pulp-fiction through to the modern day. It explores the issues of information overload, the threat of a digital dark age, and the criminal underbelly of digital culture. Section two, society, explores the economic and social impact of digital information, outlining key theories of the Information Age. Section three explores the impact of digital information and digital resources on the individual, exploring the changing nature of identity in a digital world. Written by a leading author in the field Focuses on digital information and its social, cultural and political impact is uniqu...

  11. The Southern Ocean biogeochemical divide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinov, I; Gnanadesikan, A; Toggweiler, J R; Sarmiento, J L

    2006-06-22

    Modelling studies have demonstrated that the nutrient and carbon cycles in the Southern Ocean play a central role in setting the air-sea balance of CO(2) and global biological production. Box model studies first pointed out that an increase in nutrient utilization in the high latitudes results in a strong decrease in the atmospheric carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2). This early research led to two important ideas: high latitude regions are more important in determining atmospheric pCO2 than low latitudes, despite their much smaller area, and nutrient utilization and atmospheric pCO2 are tightly linked. Subsequent general circulation model simulations show that the Southern Ocean is the most important high latitude region in controlling pre-industrial atmospheric CO(2) because it serves as a lid to a larger volume of the deep ocean. Other studies point out the crucial role of the Southern Ocean in the uptake and storage of anthropogenic carbon dioxide and in controlling global biological production. Here we probe the system to determine whether certain regions of the Southern Ocean are more critical than others for air-sea CO(2) balance and the biological export production, by increasing surface nutrient drawdown in an ocean general circulation model. We demonstrate that atmospheric CO(2) and global biological export production are controlled by different regions of the Southern Ocean. The air-sea balance of carbon dioxide is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Antarctic deep-water formation region, whereas global export production is controlled mainly by the biological pump and circulation in the Subantarctic intermediate and mode water formation region. The existence of this biogeochemical divide separating the Antarctic from the Subantarctic suggests that it may be possible for climate change or human intervention to modify one of these without greatly altering the other.

  12. Digitalization and Public Sector Transformations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jannick; Hjelholt, Morten

    This book provides a study of governmental digitalization, an increasingly important area of policymaking within advanced capitalist states. It dives into a case study of digitalization efforts in Denmark, fusing a national policy study with local institutional analysis. Denmark is often framed....... Digitalization and Public Sector Transformations pushes for a renewed approach to governmental digitalization and will be of interest to scholars working in the intersections of critical political economy, state theory and policy studies....... as an international forerunner in terms of digitalizing its public sector and thus provides a particularly instructive setting for understanding this new political instrument. Advancing a cultural political economic approach, Schou and Hjelholt argue that digitalization is far from a quick technological fix. Instead...

  13. The Fourth Age of Political Communication: Democratic decay or the rise of phronetic political communication?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Aagaard

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The ‘fourth age’ of political communication is emerging. In the fourth age the logics of media and digitization shapes the public sphere, because algorithms and polarized drama increasingly determine what we become aware of in digital and mass media. The result may very well be a less informed public sphere. The emerging class of policy professionals has the opportunity to mix the logics of mediatization and digitization. While such a mix may very well lead to democratic decay, based on elitism, it may also hold fruitful potentials for a more democratic and ethical type of political communication, called phronetic political communication.

  14. Spiritual Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Rambeau

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available According to Foucault, the uprising of the Iranian people in the seventies reveals how much the political force of Islam is due precisely to the fact that it is not principally located in the field of politics, but in that of ethics. Religion (Shiite Islam appears as the guarantee of real change in the very mode of existence. This spiritual politics is marginalized by Marxism, where it is understood as a discontinuity in relation to proper politics, given that the latter is necessarily linked to a strategic rationalization. By indicating, at this juncture of what is intolerable, the living source and the critical impulse of the Foucauldian ethics, this spiritual politics also leads to recognize in the concept of “subjectivation” a dimension that might escape the circle of freedom as determined by a total immanence to power. This conceptual possibility is highly present in the aporias of the Foucauldian concept of the “relation to oneself”, both as a first condition of governmentality and the ultimate point of resistance against any governmentality. It thus reveals the difficulties in relating political to ethical subjectivation.

  15. Political symbols and political transitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herrero de Miñón, Miguel

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Politics, Law and Psychology are fields that come together in the symbolic. This text takes evidence from those three areas to develop an analysis of political symbols and political transitions. The development of the analysis goes through three stages. The first succinctly describes the concept of transition and its meaning. The second closely examines the notion of the symbol, in terms of its definition, to explain aspects that allow us to understand it, characterise it and make its functions clear. Finally, from the author's experience as a witness and as an actor, I suggest three ways of understanding symbols in the processes of political transition: as symbols of change, as symbols of acknowledgment, and as symbols of support.

  16. Education and Political Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massialas, Byron G.

    1977-01-01

    Considers how education is related to politics with the focus on political socialization, political recruitment, i.e., the selection and training of political elites, and political integration or nation building of groups of people. (Author/RK)

  17. The effect of divided attention on false memory depends on how memory is tested.

    OpenAIRE

    Dewhurst, Stephen A.; Barry, Christopher; Swannell, Ellen R.; Holmes, Selina J.; Bathurst, Gemma J.

    2007-01-01

    In three experiments, we investigated the effects of divided attention on false memory, using the Deese/Roediger-McDermott (DRM) paradigm. In Experiments 1 and 2, participants studied six DRM lists with full attention and six in one of two divided-attention conditions (random number generation or digit monitoring). Both divided-attention conditions increased false recall of related words (Experiment 1) but reduced false recognition (Experiment 2). These results were confirmed in Experiment 3,...

  18. Power Divider for Waveforms Rich in Harmonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, William Herbert, III

    2005-01-01

    A method for dividing the power of an electronic signal rich in harmonics involves the use of an improved divider topology. A divider designed with this topology could be used, for example, to propagate a square-wave signal in an amplifier designed with a push-pull configuration to enable the generation of more power than could be generated in another configuration.

  19. Political ecology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strohm, H.

    1979-01-01

    Using facts and examples, this didactically structures textbook gives an insight into the extent and consequences of the damage to the environment, with the subjects - fundamentals of ecology; - population and food problems; - the energy problem; - economic growth; scarcity of resources, recycling; - ground, water, and air pollution, - city and traffic problems; - work protection and medical care; - political alternatives and 'soft technologies'. The analysis of the political and economic reasons is combined with social and technical alternatives from which demands to be made and measures to be taken can be derived for individuals, citizens' interest groups, political groups and trade unions. Teaching models intend to help teachers to work on specific problems of ecology. (orig.) [de

  20. Political priorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ren, Jingzheng

    2016-01-01

    …THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant for a pr......…THE POLITICAL LEADERS of the local government of Chongqing, China, vigorously promote a low-carbon economy and sustainable development to mitigate environmental pollution. Accordingly, research grants focused on this issue were supported by the government, and our group obtained a grant...... for a project about industrial park planning and design.…In my view, political priorities based on correct decision-making and market requirements are beneficial for researchers....

  1. Predator Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Louisa Cappelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer urges readers to see coyotes as crucial members of the natural community whose predation is essential for the maintenance of biodiversity and ecological stability. Their cultural production provides a human story of ecocritical engagement for understanding the cascading effects of removing top predators from their ecosystems. By envisioning biocentric possibilities within place-based and scientific contexts, Edward Abbey and Barbara Kingsolver share a common theme of political ecology: political processes shape ecological conditions. A close reading of Edward Abbey’s Desert Solitaire and Barbara Kingsolver’s Prodigal Summer provides a literary entryway to connect research, arguments, and discourse across disciplines tasking readers to engage in political discussions of environmental sustainability and to consider viable solutions to preserve the ecological diversity of our predator populations and ecosystems.

  2. How Internal Political Efficacy Translates Political Knowledge Into Political Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, Frank

    2016-01-01

    This study presents evidence for the mediation effect of political knowledge through political self-efficacy (i.e. internal political efficacy) in the prediction of political participation. It employs an action theoretic approach—by and large grounded on the Theory of Planned Behaviour—and uses data from the German Longitudinal Election Study to examine whether political knowledge has distinct direct effects on voting, conventional, and/or unconventional political participation. It argues that political knowledge raises internal political efficacy and thereby indirectly increases the chance that a citizen will participate in politics. The results of mediated multiple regression analyses yield evidence that political knowledge indeed translates into internal political efficacy, thus it affects political participation of various kinds indirectly. However, internal political efficacy and intentions to participate politically yield simultaneous direct effects only on conventional political participation. Sequentially mediated effects appear for voting and conventional political participation, with political knowledge being mediated by internal political efficacy and subsequently also by behavioural intentions. The mediation patterns for unconventional political participation are less clear though. The discussion accounts for restrictions of this study and points to questions for answer by future research. PMID:27298633

  3. An InGaAs/InP 40 GHz CML static frequency divider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Su Yongbo; Jin Zhi; Cheng Wei; Ge Ji; Wang Xiantai; Chen Gaopeng; Liu Xinyu; Xu Anhuai; Qi Ming

    2011-01-01

    Static frequency dividers are widely used as a circuit performance benchmark or figure-of-merit indicator to gauge a particular device technology's ability to implement high speed digital and integrated high performance mixed-signal circuits. We report a 2 : 1 static frequency divider in InGaAs/InP heterojunction bipolar transistor technology. This is the first InP based digital integrated circuit ever reported on the mainland of China. The divider is implemented in differential current mode logic (CML) with 30 transistors. The circuit operated at a peak clock frequency of 40 GHz and dissipated 650 mW from a single -5 V supply. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  4. Divided Wisconsin: Partisan Spatial Electoral Realignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaniewski, Kazimierz J.; Simmons, James R.

    2016-01-01

    When the Republican and Democratic presidential candidates head into the general election this fall, they will be courting votes from a statewide electorate that has dramatically shifted over time, mirroring the political polarization that is happening across the country. Over the last three decades, Wisconsin's political geography has evolved…

  5. Digital/Commercial (In)visibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leander, Anna

    2017-01-01

    an argument demonstrating specifically how digital and commercial logics characterize the aesthetic, circulatory, and infrastructuring practices re-producing the regime of (in)visibility. It shows that digital/commercial logics are at the heart of the combinatorial marketing of multiple, contradictory images......This article explores one aspect of digital politics, the politics of videos and more spe- cifically of DAESH recruitment videos. It proposes a practice theoretical approach to the politics of DAESH recruitment videos focused on the re-production of regimes of (in)visibility. The article develops...... on the internet. The theoretical and political cost of overlooking these digital and commercial characteristics of DAESH visibility practices are high. It perpetuates misconceptions of how the videos work and what their politics are and it reinforces the digital Orientalism/Occidentalism in which...

  6. Political Socialization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Himmelweit, Hilde T.

    1983-01-01

    Described are two longitudinal studies, one British, the other American, which examined the influences of varied socializing agents--e.g., family, school, peer groups--on voting behavior. The studies emphasized the hitherto unappreciated importance of the political, social, and economic climate of society and its changes on socialization. (CS)

  7. Politics 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Abraham

    1977-01-01

    This article expresses some last thoughts from Abraham Maslow on his vision of humanistic psychology. He suggests that the two main problems of creating the good person and the good society are interwoven inextricably. He gives some social and political mechanisms which would enhance desirable personal growth and considers the main tasks of…

  8. Implementation Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hegland, Troels Jacob; Raakjær, Jesper

    2008-01-01

    level are supplemented or even replaced by national priorities. The chapter concludes that in order to capture the domestic politics associated with CFP implementation in Denmark, it is important to understand the policy process as a synergistic interaction between dominant interests, policy alliances...

  9. Political Rationality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    The very idea about democracies is public participation in elections, decision-making and/or public engagement. The democratic participation distributes power among ordinary people and serve to legitimize decisions in public affairs and is a vital characteristic of a political culture.”The term...

  10. Framing politics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lecheler, S.K.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation supplies a number of research findings that add to a theory of news framing effects, and also to the understanding of the role media effects play in political communication. We show that researchers must think more about what actually constitutes a framing effect, and that a

  11. Os novos letramentos digitais como lugares de construção de ativismo político sobre sexualidade e gênero The new digital literacies as sites for the construction of political activism about sexuality and gender

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo da Moita Lopes

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Compreendendo os chamados novos letramentos digitais como práticas socioculturais, argumenta-se como tais espaços se tornaram, na contemporaneidade, lugares de ativismo político e de construção de significados transgressores sobre a vida pública e privada, por meio dos quais sub-políticas são construídas. A seguir, teoriza-se a vida social em tais letramentos como típica da Web 2.0 no sentido de que envolve modos de ação e de pensar específicos, que questionam a autoria, já que são coloborativos e participativos, ao passo que nos colocam em meio a Multidão e seus discursos inovadores, desestruturadores e inesperados. Tais discursos são cruciais, pois podem colaborar na reinvenção social, ensaiando o futuro. Para finalizar, analisam-se dois espaços de afinidades na Web 2.0, centrados no ativismo político sobre sexualidade e gênero, caracterizando os movimentos interacionais em desenvolvimento em tais práticas sociais de letramentos e o modo como nos expõem a futuros alternativos: uma demanda crucial em nossos tempos.Theorizing the so-called new digital literacies as socio-cultural practices, it is argued that such sites have contemporarily become spaces for political activism and for the construction of transgressive meanings about public and private life, through which sub-political actions are constructed. Next, social life in such literacies is theorized as typical of Web 2.0 in the sense that it involves specific modes of action and of thinking, which question authorship, since they are collaborative and participative, at the same time that they position us amidst the Multitude and their innovative, de-structured and unexpected discourses. Such discourses are crucial because they may collaborate with the re-invention of social life, rehearsing the future. Finally, two spaces of affinity in Web 2.0, centered on sexuality and gender, are analyzed through the characterization of the interactional moves in such social

  12. Digital broadcasting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Ji Hyeong

    1999-06-01

    This book contains twelve chapters, which deals with digitization of broadcast signal such as digital open, digitization of video signal and sound signal digitization of broadcasting equipment like DTPP and digital VTR, digitization of equipment to transmit such as digital STL, digital FPU and digital SNG, digitization of transmit about digital TV transmit and radio transmit, digital broadcasting system on necessity and advantage, digital broadcasting system abroad and Korea, digital broadcasting of outline, advantage of digital TV, ripple effect of digital broadcasting and consideration of digital broadcasting, ground wave digital broadcasting of DVB-T in Europe DTV in U.S.A and ISDB-T in Japan, HDTV broadcasting, satellite broadcasting, digital TV broadcasting in Korea, digital radio broadcasting and new broadcasting service.

  13. Compact Unequal Power Divider with Filtering Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Qiang Pan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel unequal power divider with bandpass responses. The proposed power divider consists of five resonators and a resistor. The power division ratio is controlled by altering the coupling strength among the resonators. The output ports have the characteristic impedance of 50 Ω and impedance transformers in classical Wilkinson power dividers are not required in this design. Use of resonators enables the filtering function of the power divider. Two transmission zeros are generated near the passband edges, resulting in quasielliptic bandpass responses. For validation, a 2 : 1 filtering power divider is implemented. The fabricated circuit size is 0.22 λg × 0.08 λg, featuring compact size for unequal filtering power dividers, which is suitable for the feeding networks of antenna arrays.

  14. Fast frequency divider circuit using combinational logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helinski, Ryan

    2017-05-30

    The various technologies presented herein relate to performing on-chip frequency division of an operating frequency of a ring oscillator (RO). Per the various embodiments herein, a conflict between RO size versus operational frequency can be addressed by dividing the output frequency of the RO to a frequency that can be measured on-chip. A frequency divider circuit (comprising NOR gates and latches, for example) can be utilized in conjunction with the RO on the chip. In an embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include a pair of latches coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 2. In another embodiment, the frequency divider circuit can include four latches (operating in pairs) coupled to the RO to facilitate dividing the oscillating frequency of the RO by 4. A plurality of ROs can be MUXed to the plurality of ROs by a single oscillation-counting circuit.

  15. Replacement divider plate performance under LOCA loading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huynk, H.M.; MClellan, G.H.; Schneider, W.G.

    1997-01-01

    A primary divider plate in a nuclear steam generator is required to perform its partitioning function with a minimum of cross leakage, without degradation in operating performance and without loss of structural integrity resulting from normal and accident loading. The design of the replacement divider plate for normal operating conditions is discussed in some detail in reference 1 and 2. This paper describes the structural response of the replacement divider plate to the severe loading resulting from a burst primary pipe. The loads for which the divider plate structural performance must be evaluated are mild to severe differential pressure transients resulting from several postulated sizes and types of pipe break scenarios. In the unlikely event of a severe Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) the divider plate or parts thereof must not exit the steam generator nor completely block the outlet nozzle. For the milder LOCA loads, the integrity of the divider plate and seat bars must be maintained. Analysis for the milder LOCA loads was carried out employing a conservative approach which ignores the actual interaction between the structure and the primary fluid. For these load cases it was shown that the divider plate does not become disengaged from the seat bars. For the more severe pipe breaks, the thermal-hydraulic analysis was coupled iteratively with the structural analysis, thereby taking into account divider plate deformation, in order to obtain a better prediction of the behaviour of the divider plate. In this manner substantial reduction in divider plate response to the more severe LOCA loading was achieved. It has been shown that, for the case of a postulated large LOCA (100% reactor inlet header), the disengagement of the divider plate from the seat bars resulted in an opening smaller than 1% of the divider plate area. (author)

  16. ``Political'' Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berzak Hopkins, Laura

    2013-03-01

    Politics and policy affect all of us, both as scientists and as citizens, and issues ranging from laboratory budgets to arms control treaties clearly require research problem-solving skills and technical expertise. There is a critical role for scientists in each aspect of the political system, and in fact, we as a society need more scientists to take part in politics. Furthermore, the research we pursue has important societal applications and is fascinating! We have a right and a responsibility to share our scientific knowledge not only with each other, but with the general public as well. So, why are we as a community of scientists reticent in the public arena, hesitant to enter politics, and even at times unsupportive of our peers who transition into governmental roles? In this time of fiscal constraint, when difficult research funding (and de-funding) choices are regularly being made, we as scientists must step up to the plate, reach across the aisle, and explain why what we do is fascinating, inspiring, and important, not just to us, but to society as a whole. A range of policy-relevant roles exists inside and outside the laboratory, such as Congressional Fellowships. Each year the Congressional Fellowships program brings together approximately thirty scientists at all stages of their careers to serve as scientific advisors in a variety of offices in the U.S. Senate and House of Representatives. Although the jump from lab to lobbying meetings can be frustrating, the transition can also be intriguing. Firsthand experience with the ``how'' and ``why'' (or lack thereof) of politics and policy is invaluable and provides a unique opportunity to expand and broaden one's background. The opportunity to work on Capitol Hill is unparalleled, particularly because our nation has a definite need for scientists with the inclination and interest to inform and develop policy. But, whatever role you decide to take, from contributing scientific news to local publications to

  17. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender ... First, researchers will explore women's political leadership and the extent to ... Sign up now for IDRC news and views sent directly to your inbox each month.

  18. Code as Code: Speculations on Diversity, Inequity, and Digital Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharon L. Comstock

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available All technologies are social. Taking this socio-technological position becomes less a political stance as a necessity when considering the lived experience of digital inequity, divides, and –isms as they are encountered in every-day library work spheres. Personal experience as women and women of color in our respective technological and leadership communities provides both fore- and background to explore the private-public lines delineating definitions of “diversity”, “inequity”, and digital literacies in library practice. We suggest that by not probing these definitions at the most personal level of lived experience, we in the LIS and technology professions will remain well-intentioned, but ineffective, in genuine inclusion.

  19. Underground Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galis, Vasilis; Summerton, Jane

    Public spaces are often contested sites involving the political use of sociomaterial arrangements to check, control and filter the flow of people (see Virilio 1977, 1996). Such arrangements can include configurations of state-of-the-art policing technologies for delineating and demarcating borders...... status updates on identity checks at the metro stations in Stockholm and reports on locations and time of ticket controls for warning travelers. Thus the attempts by authorities to exert control over the (spatial) arena of the underground is circumvented by the effective developing of an alternative...... infrastructural "underground" consisting of assemblages of technologies, activists, immigrants without papers, texts and emails, homes, smart phones and computers. Investigating the embedded politics of contested spatial arrangements as characteristic of specific societies one can discover not only the uses...

  20. Political Epistemology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, David Budtz

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation is intended to establish a framework for a revised picture of the loci of epistemic preferences in our complex knowledge-based society. In what ways do institutions, policies and regulations determine the conditions under which knowledge is produced and justified? This dissertat......? This dissertation argues that we can identify multiple epistemic preferences in the institutional and political settings that govern the production and distribution of knowledge....

  1. Fourth Generation Warfare and the Cultural Divide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-04-01

    her own socio-political agenda. While the West exports its brand of democracy, Islamists concurrently export their incompatible ideology to the West...who espouse “progressive” ideas feel that America is a victim of her own socio-political agenda. While the West exports its brand of democracy...culture relationships. In newspapers and on television around the globe, an emotionally explosive war rages: the underdog status quo of civility, mutual

  2. Exploring the Digital Divide: The Use of Digital Technologies in Ontario Public Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bodong Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Combining data from a school principal survey with student demographics and achievement data, the present study aimed to develop a much needed understanding of ICT usage in Ontario’s K-12 public schools. Results indicated equitable first-order access to technology for schools, early integration of ICT from the earliest grades, frequent application of ICT in teaching, and an enabling effect of ICT on additional access to learning resources and distance learning. However, challenges were also uncovered in building technology infrastructure for a small fraction of schools; ensuring home access for schools with lower family incomes, smaller size or from remote regions; and providing teachers with professional development for choosing online materials and adopting emerging ICT-enabled teaching practice. Furthermore, this study highlighted the importance of parent involvement in ICT usage and the potential beneficial linkage between ICT usage and student learning achievement.

  3. Political Warfare and Contentious Politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-01

    the DC and PSLI Overt, Indirect • US forming a coalition with France and Britain to return Trieste to Italy control • US Urged French and British...efforts to alter Chile’s social construct by calling for the end to the Allende government, pointing out the failures of Marxism , encouraging a...political or social change. Frances Piven and Richard Cloward describe three attributes associated with group consciousness and cognitive

  4. Restoring Politics to Political History

    OpenAIRE

    Kousser, J. Morgan

    1982-01-01

    If history ever was simply the study of past politics, it is no longer. Dissatisfied with narratives of Great Men, more interested in analyzing the impact of larger forces and in tracing out patterns of the lives of the masses of people, skeptical that a recounting of election campaigns and a counting of votes reveals much about social thought or action, strongly affected by currents of opinion which have long run deep in France, American historians have turned increas...

  5. The Fourth Age of Political Communication: Democratic decay or the rise of phronetic political communication?

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Aagaard

    2016-01-01

    The ‘fourth age’ of political communication is emerging. In the fourth age the logics of media and digitization shapes the public sphere, because algorithms and polarized drama increasingly determine what we become aware of in digital and mass media. The result may very well be a less informed public sphere. The emerging class of policy professionals has the opportunity to mix the logics of mediatization and digitization. While such a mix may very well lead to democratic decay, based on eliti...

  6. The Conceptualization of Digitally Networked Participation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannis Theocharis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The conceptualization and measurement of political participation has been an issue vibrantly debated for more than 50 years. The arrival of digital media came to add important parameters to the debate complicating matters further. Digital media have added inexhaustive creative and nonpolitical ways to engage in social and political life that not only often appear to form the basis of political participation but also, in a plethora of everyday contexts, seem to become embedded into what eventually evolves to become a politically meaningful act. This article argues that digitally networked participation—and its manifestations—is a form of political participation and should be conceptualized, identified, and measured as one. Relying on recent conceptual and empirical work, it shows how various common manifestations of digitally networked participation conform to minimalist, targeted, and motivational definitions of political participation. Finally, tackling common misconceptions about the value of such acts, this article argues that nonpolitical forms of digitally networked participation can occasionally be far more impactful than forms of participation commonly accepted as political. This article concludes by recommending the systematic development of measures for digitally networked participation and its formal integration in the study of political participation.

  7. Political electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, Terence.

    1990-01-01

    This book is a non-technical exploration of the political and policy issues that have influenced the development of nuclear power. Part One describes the successes, failures, horse-trading, and infighting that make up nuclear power's history, taking nine counties as examples. Part Two reviews the main problems that now confront us, as seen in mid-June 1990; like all contemporary accounts, the book is unavoidably incomplete. However, by then it was possible to make provisional judgements about two very important recent influences: the political consequences of Chernobyl, and concerns about the greenhouse effect. The story that emerges is of a nuclear industry that has rarely been guilty of dereliction of duty, though it was undeniably complacent in not addressing sooner the causes of the public's entirely reasonable anxieties. The anti-nuclear lobby has been skilled in debate, and sometimes extraordinarily percipient; but less than fair in failing to acknowledge the industry's achievements and its willingness to learn from past mistakes. As for the politicians, the book contains many examples that show how the flames of controversy can be deliberately fanned when there are votes to be gained. The story has few heroes, but within the industry fewer villains than the public has been led to believe. (author)

  8. Street Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Shapiro

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available I write from Prague, where, unlike in most urban formations, the main city street plays an iconic role; it references a history of political protest. However, before elaborating on the protest iconography of the Prague street, Vaclavske nam, I want to locate the ways in which the design of urban space is actualized in everyday life in the cities of the world. Three functions stand out; the first involves dwelling, the second seeing, and the third moving. With respect to the first function – dwelling – the design partitions and coordinates residential, commercial and leisure functions. At times these are organized to segregate different classes (Robert Moses’ redesign of much of New York stands out with respect to the segregation function. With respect to the second function – seeing – the design of urban space is allegiance-inspiring; it involves sight lines that afford urban dwellers and visitors views of iconic buildings and statues, which reference key founding moments in the past and/or authoritative political functions in the present (Here, L’Enfants design for Washington DC stands out as exemplary. Its manifest intention was to make the buildings housing executive, legislative and judicial functions visible from many vantage points. Rarely are the streets themselves iconic. Their dominant role is involved with the effectuation of movement. As for this third function: As Lewis Mumford famously points out, streets were once part of an asterisk design, radiating out from an exemplary, often spiritual center...

  9. Social Justice Leadership in Multicultural Schools: The Case of an Ethnically Divided Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zembylas, Michalinos; Iasonos, Sotiroula

    2017-01-01

    This paper reports on the results of an exploratory study focusing on the perceptions of elementary school principals who espouse a critical multicultural approach and show signs of a social justice leadership style. The study has taken place in an ethnically divided society (Cyprus) in which the political situation seems to influence the ways in…

  10. "Is There a Second Level Divide in Student’s Internet Skills?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Purushothaman, Aparna; Dau, Susanne

    2015-01-01

    The concept of a digital divide has moved beyond only physical disparities in technology usage and now also encompasses issues impeding access such as human social, cultural, and psychological barriers that affect the usage of existing available technologies. This paper focuses on students......’ insufficient skill levels in making the best use of available Internet technology, discussing students in higher education in scenarios in Denmark and India. The paper emphasizes the reflective and conceptual issues which the students face in retrieving information from the Internet, which result in a second......-level divide. Through a cross-national comparison, the paper hopes to contribute to the literature through experiences of students in the two countries, providing researchers with insights into the digital divide. This divide in Internet skills is illuminated from different perspectives in the context of two...

  11. Towards a taxonomy of digital work

    OpenAIRE

    Mrass, Volkmar; Li, Mahei Manhai; Peters, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    Despite the increasing importance of digitization for economy and society, there is few structuring of the very heterogenous kinds of digital work. Representatives from business, politics and science need a basis for the development of strategies to encounter the challenges that result from this digitization. We aim at delivering a contribution to that basis by systematically investigating what different types of digital work exist and by developing a taxonomy. As a first important step towar...

  12. Smoking improves divided attention in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlers, Eike; Hahn, Eric; Ta, Thi Minh Tam; Goudarzi, Elnaz; Dettling, Michael; Neuhaus, Andres H

    2014-10-01

    Smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia, and there is evidence for beneficial effects on neurocognition. Smoking is therefore hypothesized a self-medication in schizophrenia. Although much effort is devoted to characterize those cognitive domains that potentially benefit from smoking, divided attention has not yet been investigated. The aim of this study was to analyze the interactional effects of diagnosis of schizophrenia and smoking history on divided attention. We investigated behavioral measures of divided attention in a sample of 48 schizophrenic patients and 48 controls (24 current smokers and non-smokers each) carefully matched for age, sex, education, verbal IQ, and smoking status with general linear models. Most important within the scope of this study, significant interactions were found for valid reactions and errors of omission: Performance substantially increased in smoking schizophrenic patients, but not in controls. Further, these interactions were modified by sex, driven by female schizophrenic patients who showed a significant behavioral advantage of smokers over non-smokers, other than male schizophrenic patients or healthy controls who did not express this sex-specific pattern. Results suggest a positive effect of smoking history on divided attention in schizophrenic patients. This study provides first evidence that the complex attention domain of divided attention is improved by smoking, which further substantiates the self-medication hypothesis of smoking in schizophrenia, although this has been shown mainly for sustained and selective attention. Gender-specific effects on cognition need to be further investigated.

  13. Temporal dynamics of divided spatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itthipuripat, Sirawaj; Garcia, Javier O; Serences, John T

    2013-05-01

    In naturalistic settings, observers often have to monitor multiple objects dispersed throughout the visual scene. However, the degree to which spatial attention can be divided across spatially noncontiguous objects has long been debated, particularly when those objects are in close proximity. Moreover, the temporal dynamics of divided attention are unclear: is the process of dividing spatial attention gradual and continuous, or does it onset in a discrete manner? To address these issues, we recorded steady-state visual evoked potentials (SSVEPs) as subjects covertly monitored two flickering targets while ignoring an intervening distractor that flickered at a different frequency. All three stimuli were clustered within either the lower left or the lower right quadrant, and our dependent measure was SSVEP power at the target and distractor frequencies measured over time. In two experiments, we observed a temporally discrete increase in power for target- vs. distractor-evoked SSVEPs extending from ∼350 to 150 ms prior to correct (but not incorrect) responses. The divergence in SSVEP power immediately prior to a correct response suggests that spatial attention can be divided across noncontiguous locations, even when the targets are closely spaced within a single quadrant. In addition, the division of spatial attention appears to be relatively discrete, as opposed to slow and continuous. Finally, the predictive relationship between SSVEP power and behavior demonstrates that these neurophysiological measures of divided attention are meaningfully related to cognitive function.

  14. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    OpenAIRE

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2010-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernovae data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state $w$ crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in the gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. So...

  15. Political Crowdfunding as concept of political technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria GOLKA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Political crowdfunding is analyzed as a new concept of political science. The justification of use of crowdfunding technologies not only in business but also in the political sphere is argued. The efficiency, availability, low cost of the new forms of political investment through the development of information and communication technologies are noted. The typology of political crowdfunding is proposed. Political projects promoting domestic crowdfunding platforms are analyzed. Attention is drawn to the problem of legal gaps in the regulation of crowdfunding is studied. The foreign experience of organizing public support (mikroinvestment political projects. It is emphasized that in terms of political theory crowdfunding is based on solidarity. The crowdfunding properties of transforming social capital accumulated by social networks into financial capital are mentioned.

  16. Political Awakenings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Franziska Brühwiler

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Le Complot contre l’Amérique de Philip Roth décrit l’initiation politique de ses deux protagonistes, le narrateur Philip et son frère aîné, Sanford. Tandis que ce dernier passe par un processus initiatique quasi classique — il se déroule conformément au schéma tripartite de van Gennep — l’apogée de l’initiation de Philip est marquée par douleur et blessure. Toutefois, tous les deux connaissent seulement une initiation partielle, car le premier doit d’abord admettre ses erreurs tandis que le second va devoir apprendre, non seulement à remettre en cause l’autorité, mais également à développer ses idées de façon indépendante.Philip Roth’s The Plot Against America traces the political awakening of its two child protagonists, the narrator Philip and his elder brother Sanford. While the latter undergoes an initiation process nearly in accordance with the classical tripartite scheme as coined by van Gennep, the height of Philip’s initiation process is marked by physical pain and injury. However, both experience only a partial initiation, since the elder brother will have to recognize his errors and the younger one will first have to learn how to go beyond the mere questioning of authority.

  17. The Testing Effect under Divided Attention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchin, Zachary L.; Mulligan, Neil W.

    2017-01-01

    Memory retrieval often enhances later memory compared with restudying (i.e., the testing effect), indicating that retrieval does not simply reveal but also modifies memory representations. Dividing attention (DA) during encoding greatly disrupts later memory performance while DA during retrieval typically has modest effects--but what of the…

  18. Effects of Political Knowledge on Political Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, John Powell

    2018-01-01

    Sexual orientation continues to be an explosive issue in American classrooms. Increasing the political knowledge of students can reduce the volatility of this explosive issue by increasing tolerance toward the lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender community. This relationship between political knowledge and political tolerance has been…

  19. About green political parties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlović Slobodan P.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the author refers to some legal and political questions in connection with green political parties. Those questions cover: the ideology of green political parties, their number and influence, both in general and in Serbia. The first part of work is generally speaking about political parties - their definition, ideology, role and action. Main thesis in this work is that green political parties, by their appearance, were something new on the political scene. But quickly, because of objective and subjective reasons, they were changing original ideas and were beginning to resemble to all other political parties. In this way, they lost their vanguard and political alternativeness.

  20. Across the Great Divide: The Effects of Technology in Secondary Biology Classrooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Johnny Howard, II

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between technology use and student achievement in public high school across North Carolina. The purpose of this study was to determine whether a digital divide (differences in technology utilization based on student demographics of race/ethnicity, gender, socioeconomic status, and municipality) exists among…

  1. Gender Divide and Acceptance of Collaborative Web 2.0 Applications for Learning in Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Hao David; Hood, Denice Ward; Yoo, Sun Joo

    2013-01-01

    Situated in the gender digital divide framework, this survey study investigated the role of computer anxiety in influencing female college students' perceptions toward Web 2.0 applications for learning. Based on 432 college students' "Web 2.0 for learning" perception ratings collected by relevant categories of "Unified Theory of Acceptance and Use…

  2. The Filmmaker as Metallurgist: Political Cinema and World Memory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pisters, P.

    2016-01-01

    Compared to earlier waves of political cinema, such as the Russian revolution films of the 1920s and the militant Third Cinema movement in the 1960s, in today's globalized and digital media world filmmakers have adopted different strategies to express a commitment to politics. Rather than directly

  3. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together with the more pervasive "live" coverage of politics and politicians, this expands media coverage to both the backstage of political processes and the private and personal backstage of politicians, changing the form of democracy and public debate.

  4. Defining Political Marketing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.

    ’ and ‘narrow’ interpretations of political marketing, the nature of the political marketing exchange, political relationship marketing and how one can integrate the stakeholder concept into an understanding of political marketing. Finally, we propose a definition of political marketing that differs from......The aim of this working paper is to develop a definition of political marketing that builds on the political rather than commercial marketing literature. This aim is motivated by the need to make explicit our understanding of what political marketing is, a necessary exercise when discussing theory......, concepts and empirical methods in political marketing. We first present five existing definitions of political marketing that have been selected to represent advances in research from the origins of academic research into political marketing in the mid-1970’s to the present day. After this we discuss ‘wide...

  5. Visual Linguistic Analysis of Political Discussions : Measuring Deliberative Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Gold, Valentin; El-Assady, Mennatallah; Hautli-Janisz, Annette; Bögel, Tina; Rohrdantz, Christian; Butt, Miriam; Holzinger, Katharina; Keim, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    This article reports on a Digital Humanities research project which is concerned with the automated linguistic and visual analysis of political discourses with a particular focus on the concept of deliberative communication. According to the theory of deliberative communication as discussed within political science, political debates should be inclusive and stakeholders participating in these debates are required to justify their positions rationally and respectfully and should eventually def...

  6. Digitalizing the welfare state: citizenship discourses in Danish digitalization strategies from 2002 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jannick; Hjelholt, Morten

    2017-01-01

    As governments worldwide become increasingly reliant on digital technologies and e-government, ‘digital citizenship’ has become an important topic for research and policy-makers alike. While often described as the contemporary ‘ideal’ of citizenship, research has tended to downplay the normative...... dimensions of digital citizenship. Counter to such depoliticized approaches, this article argues that the digital citizen is a deeply political figure. Through a discourse-theoretical analysis of Danish governmental digitalization strategies from 2002 to 2015, the article shows how these have relied...... and digital citizenship, the article challenges current views on digitalization. The article foregrounds how digitalization serves to reproduce and recast already-existing political rationalities and must be considered in relation to neoliberal hegemony....

  7. Political and judicial checks on corruption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alt, James E.; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2008-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of checks and balances on corruption. Within a presidential system, effective separation of powers is achieved under a divided government, with the executive and legislative branches being controlled by different political parties. When government is unified...

  8. Comprehension of digital media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ju Hwan

    2008-11-01

    This book is divided four parts. The first part describes media and mark on sign and media, what is the sign?, interpretation of sign and semiotics. The second part is for production sign theory and origin of digital revolution such as the problem of origin of digital revolution, homogeneity of producing goods and sign : triple triangle model for production sign theory, triple triangle model for producing goods, triple triangle model of producing sign and triple triangle model of art works. The third parts deals with development of the media and meaning of digital revolution with four changes : invention of letter, appearance of printed media and establishment modernity, appearance electronic media and mess media and appearance of digital media. The last part mentions ontology of world wide web.

  9. Comprehension of digital media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Hwan

    2008-11-15

    This book is divided four parts. The first part describes media and mark on sign and media, what is the sign?, interpretation of sign and semiotics. The second part is for production sign theory and origin of digital revolution such as the problem of origin of digital revolution, homogeneity of producing goods and sign : triple triangle model for production sign theory, triple triangle model for producing goods, triple triangle model of producing sign and triple triangle model of art works. The third parts deals with development of the media and meaning of digital revolution with four changes : invention of letter, appearance of printed media and establishment modernity, appearance electronic media and mess media and appearance of digital media. The last part mentions ontology of world wide web.

  10. REGENERATIVE GAS TURBINES WITH DIVIDED EXPANSION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, Brian; Qvale, Einar Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    Recuperated gas turbines are currently drawing an increased attention due to the recent commercialization of micro gas turbines with recuperation. This system may reach a high efficiency even for the small units of less than 100 kW. In order to improve the economics of the plants, ways to improve...... their efficiency are always of interest. Recently, two independent studies have proposed recuperated gas turbines to be configured with the turbine expansion divided, in order to obtain higher efficiency. The idea is to operate the system with a gas generator and a power turbine, and use the gas from the gas...... divided expansion can be advantageous under certain circumstances. But, in order for todays micro gas turbines to be competitive, the thermodynamic efficiencies will have to be rather high. This requires that all component efficiencies including the recuperator effectiveness will have to be high...

  11. Analyzing Broadband Divide in the Farming Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Michael; Gutierrez Lopez, Jose Manuel; Pedersen, Jens Myrup

    2013-01-01

    , upstream and downstream connection. The main constraint is that farms are naturally located in rural areas where the required access broadband data rates are not available. This paper studies the broadband divide in relation to the Danish agricultural sector. Results show how there is an important......Agriculture industry has been evolving for centuries. Currently, the technological development of Internet oriented farming tools allows to increase the productivity and efficiency of this sector. Many of the already available tools and applications require high bandwidth in both directions...... difference between the broadband availability for farms and the rest of the households/buildings the country. This divide may be slowing down the potential technological development of the farming industry, in order to keep their competitiveness in the market. Therefore, broadband development in rural areas...

  12. New mechanism to cross the phantom divide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du, Yunshuang; Zhang, Hongsheng; Li, Xin-Zhou

    2011-01-01

    Recently, type Ia supernova data appear to support a dark energy whose equation of state w crosses -1, which is a much more amazing problem than the acceleration of the universe. We show that it is possible for the equation of state to cross the phantom divide by a scalar field in gravity with an additional inverse power-law term of the Ricci scalar in the Lagrangian. The necessary and sufficient condition for a universe in which the dark energy can cross the phantom divide is obtained. Some analytical solutions with w -1 are obtained. A minimally coupled scalar with different potentials, including quadratic, cubic, quantic, exponential and logarithmic potentials are investigated via numerical methods, respectively. All these potentials lead to the crossing behavior. We show that it is a robust result which is hardly dependent on the concrete form of the potential of the scalar. (orig.)

  13. Can Attention be Divided Between Perceptual Groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Robert S.; Foyle, David C.; Johnston, James C.; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Previous work using Head-Up Displays (HUDs) suggests that the visual system parses the HUD and the outside world into distinct perceptual groups, with attention deployed sequentially to first one group and then the other. New experiments show that both groups can be processed in parallel in a divided attention search task, even though subjects have just processed a stimulus in one perceptual group or the other. Implications for models of visual attention will be discussed.

  14. Russian-Saudian Political Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. G. Kosach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction after the restoration (at that time of Soviet-Saudi relations of bilateral relations in September 1990. The article focuses on the role of the Russian Muslim community in shaping the Russian politics towards Riyadh in the 1990-2000s. The authors state there are both periods of “crises” and detente in the development of Russian-Saudi political interaction that were marked by events in Chechnya and former Yugoslavia in 1994-2000, “Arab Spring” 2011, the post-September 2015 era, the Russian anti-terrorist campaign in Syria. The alternation of these periods is the constant of Russian-Saudi political contacts, despite the similarity in the approaches of both sides to the ways and methods of solving crisis situations in the Middle East region, as well as the Saudi’s pro-Russian position regarding the change in the status of the Crimea and the situation in the east of Ukraine. The general attitude of both sides towards ISIS and Jabha al-Nusra as a source of terrorism, regional instability and the challenge of international security does not remove the two main contradictions that divide Moscow and Riyadh – attitude toward the official Syrian regime and the Iran’s regional policy. The study comes to the conclusion that Russia and Saudi Arabia are interested (albeit for various reasons in diversifying their foreign policy and foreign economic relations.

  15. Cluster randomization and political philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chwang, Eric

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, I will argue that, while the ethical issues raised by cluster randomization can be challenging, they are not new. My thesis divides neatly into two parts. In the first, easier part I argue that many of the ethical challenges posed by cluster randomized human subjects research are clearly present in other types of human subjects research, and so are not novel. In the second, more difficult part I discuss the thorniest ethical challenge for cluster randomized research--cases where consent is genuinely impractical to obtain. I argue that once again these cases require no new analytic insight; instead, we should look to political philosophy for guidance. In other words, the most serious ethical problem that arises in cluster randomized research also arises in political philosophy. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  16. Digitalizing the welfare state: citizenship discourses in Danish digitalization strategies from 2002 to 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Schou, Jannick; Hjelholt, Morten

    2017-01-01

    As governments worldwide become increasingly reliant on digital technologies and e-government, ‘digital citizenship’ has become an important topic for research and policy-makers alike. While often described as the contemporary ‘ideal’ of citizenship, research has tended to downplay the normative dimensions of digital citizenship. Counter to such depoliticized approaches, this article argues that the digital citizen is a deeply political figure. Through a discourse-theoretical analysis of Dani...

  17. Exploring Political Alternatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denhardt, Robert B.

    1975-01-01

    The author distinguishes between the concepts of political socialization and political education. He argues that political socialization has come to dominate both our thinking and our teaching in the area of civic education. Suggestions for promoting political education are included. (DE)

  18. Language and Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chimombo, Moira

    1999-01-01

    Surveys the interrelationship between language and politics. Touches on the context of political discourse, or political culture and ideology in new and old democracies and the reemerging manifestations of totalitarianism, censorship, and linguistic imperialism; then examines selected linguistic features of political discourse and their…

  19. The Net Generation, the Internet, and Political Communication and Participation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velicki, Damir; Dumancic, Mario; Topolovcan, Tomislav

    2017-01-01

    The Net Generation, a generation which grew up with digital media, differs from older generations which entered the world of digital media and the Internet afterwards. The Internet itself opened new possibilities of communication and participation in the sphere of politics as well. Research was conducted among students at the Faculty of Teacher…

  20. The Internet, Political Communications Research and the Search for a New Information Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, William Franklin

    2013-01-01

    The Internet, as a digital record of human discourse, provides an opportunity to directly analyze political communicative behavior. The rapid emergence of social online networks augurs a transformation in the quality and quantity of information people have to evaluate their political system. Digital formats instantiate new categories of actors and…

  1. The Unit of Analysis in Mathematics Education: Bridging the Political-Technical Divide?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernest, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mathematics education is a complex, multi-disciplinary field of study which treats a wide range of diverse but interrelated areas. These include the nature of mathematics, the learning of mathematics, its teaching, and the social context surrounding both the discipline and applications of mathematics itself, as well as its teaching and learning.…

  2. The Political Ecology of Environmental and Sustainability Education Policy across Global-National Divides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahelin, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    This research is a qualitative case study of global and national (Brazilian) Environmental and Sustainability Education (ESE) policies in historical perspectives. My overall objectives are two-fold: First, to understand how global ESE policy frameworks have evolved ideologically over time--a concept I refer to as ESE policy trajectories; and…

  3. Digital Learning in the Wild: Re-Imagining New Ruralism, Digital Equity, and Deficit Discourses through the Thirdspace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirell, Anna Montana

    2017-01-01

    Digital media is becoming increasingly important to learning in today's changing times. At the same time, digital technologies and related digital skills are unevenly distributed. Further, deficit-based notions of this digital divide define the public's educational paradigm. Against this backdrop, I forayed into the social reality of one rural…

  4. Strategic political postures and political market orientation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormrod, Robert P.; Henneberg, Stephan C.

    2010-01-01

    by developing an integrated concept of political marketing strategy using two complementary frameworks, namely Strategic Political Postures (SPP) and Political Market Orientation (PMO). We introduce the two main concepts and derive for each of the strategic posture-specific PMO profiles as well as inter......Recently, the areas of strategic political marketing and political market orientation have been the subject of several conceptual articles which have provided the theoretical foundations for further empirical work. However, despite the close conceptual relatedness of the proposed concepts......, these have yet to be integrated to provide a more nuanced framework which both researchers and political marketing practitioners can utilise in the development of strategies and offerings with which to achieve their organizational goals. The aim of this conceptual paper is to address this deficit...

  5. Microwave power divider with arbitrary distribution ratio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gu Pengda; Geng Zheqiao; Cui Yanyan; Syratchev, I.

    2004-01-01

    As is well known, the EM field of TE11 mode at the wall of the circular waveguide changes as sine (or cosine) function azimuthally. So when we attach two perpendicular waveguides to the wall of the circular waveguide and rotate them around the axis of the waveguide, authors can distribute the input power between the two waveguides with arbitrary distribution proportion. The authors have designed a new power divider following this idea. The 3D electromagnetic simulation software HFSS is used in the design. And a new type circular TE11 mode launcher is developed. (author)

  6. Politics Backstage - Television Documentaries, Politics and Politicians

    OpenAIRE

    Ib Bondebjerg

    2006-01-01

    This article deals with "the transformation of visibility" in political discourse on and representation of politics and politicians in resent Dansih television documentaries. Drawing on the theories of Habermas, Meyrowitz and John B. Thompson, it is argued that the political persona on television is moved closer to the individual citizen, creating a sort "mediated quasi-inter- action" giving mediated communication a stronger element of face-to-face interaction. Together...

  7. Political entrepreneurship and bidding for political monopoly

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Wohlgemuth

    2000-01-01

    An analytical framework for dealing with political entrepreneurship and reform is proposed which is based on some new combinations of Schumpeterian political economy, an extended version of Tullock's model of democracy as franchise-bidding for natural monopoly and some basic elements of New Institutional Economics. It is shown that problems of insufficient award criteria and incomplete contracts which may arise in economic bidding schemes, also - and even more so - characterise political comp...

  8. Resource Windfalls, Political Regimes, and Political Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Francesco Caselli; Andrea Tesei

    2011-01-01

    We study theoretically and empirically whether natural resource windfalls affect political regimes. We document the following regularities. Natural resource windfalls have no effect on the political system when they occur in democracies. However, windfalls have significant political consequences in autocracies. In particular, when an autocratic country receives a positive shock to its flow of resource rents it responds by becoming even more autocratic. Furthermore, there is heterogeneity in t...

  9. Computational and Simulation Modeling of Political Attitudes: The 'Tiger' Area of Political Culture Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voinea, Camelia Florela

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In almost one century long history, political attitudes modeling research has accumulated a critical mass of theory and method. Its characteristics and particularities have often suggested that political attitude approach to political persuasion modeling reveals a strong theoretical autonomy of concept which entitles it to become a new separate discipline of research. Though this did not actually happen, political attitudes modeling research has remained the most challenging area – the “tiger” – of political culture modeling research. This paper reviews the research literature on the conceptual, computational and simulation modeling of political attitudes developed starting with the beginning of the 20th century until the present times. Several computational and simulation modeling paradigms have provided support to political attitudes modeling research. These paradigms and the shift from one to another are briefly presented for a period of time of almost one century. The dominant paradigmatic views are those inspired by the Newtonian mechanics, and those based on the principle of methodological individualism and the emergence of macro phenomena from the individual interactions at the micro level of a society. This period of time is divided in eight ages covering the history of ideas in a wide range of political domains, going from political attitudes to polity modeling. Internal and external pressures for paradigmatic change are briefly explained.

  10. Disrupting Educational Inequalities through Youth Digital Activism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stornaiuolo, Amy; Thomas, Ebony Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews scholarship on youth and young adult activism in digital spaces, as young users of participatory media sites are engaging in political, civic, social, or cultural action and advocacy online to create social change. The authors argue that youth's digital activism serves as a central mechanism to disrupt inequality, and that…

  11. Political party affiliation, political ideology and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pabayo, Roman; Kawachi, Ichiro; Muennig, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Ecological and cross-sectional studies have indicated that conservative political ideology is associated with better health. Longitudinal analyses of mortality are needed because subjective assessments of ideology may confound subjective assessments of health, particularly in cross-sectional analyses. Data were derived from the 2008 General Social Survey-National Death Index data set. Cox proportional analysis models were used to determine whether political party affiliation or political ideology was associated with time to death. Also, we attempted to identify whether self-reported happiness and self-rated health acted as mediators between political beliefs and time to death. In this analysis of 32,830 participants and a total follow-up time of 498,845 person-years, we find that political party affiliation and political ideology are associated with mortality. However, with the exception of independents (adjusted HR (AHR)=0.93, 95% CI 0.90 to 0.97), political party differences are explained by the participants' underlying sociodemographic characteristics. With respect to ideology, conservatives (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.12) and moderates (AHR=1.06, 95% CI 1.01 to 1.11) are at greater risk for mortality during follow-up than liberals. Political party affiliation and political ideology appear to be different predictors of mortality. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  12. Technology Retreats and the Politics of Social Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Fish

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay examines weeklong technology retreats in Silicon Valley. These retreats embody digital healthism, which I define as the discourse that promotes the self-regulation of digital consumption for personal health. I argue that the self-regulation advanced by digital healthism insufficiently addresses the politics of media refusal. Technology retreats channel frustrations about social media use into opportunities for personal and corporate growth instead of political activism. I consider how technology retreats might participate in a dialogue about the regulation of social media platforms and companies by states. Evidence for these claims come from ethnographic research with the founders of a technology retreat in Silicon Valley.

  13. Media Literacy in Times of Media Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaja Žuran

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We live in a post-modern society, an information society, a society based around knowledge and participation, and above all in a media society. In a media culture where media holds a dominant position, we cannot overlook the emerging idea of a ‘media divide’ within the frame of media education, media literate individuals and the expansion of the traditional concept of media literacy. Firstly, we are in an era of technological revolution, and it is time to consider the meaning and function of media and how we experience it in our everyday life. Secondly, as a society we are subject to intense media invasion and we all need to learn how to use it to our benefit and apply a critical and autonomous perspective towards selecting media content. Otherwise the media divide between the media literate and illiterate will widen; but is there even a chance to overcome the supposed divide between those who are formally media educated and those who are not?

  14. Preferential solvation: dividing surface vs excess numbers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Seishi; Matubayasi, Nobuyuki

    2014-04-10

    How do osmolytes affect the conformation and configuration of supramolecular assembly, such as ion channel opening and actin polymerization? The key to the answer lies in the excess solvation numbers of water and osmolyte molecules; these numbers are determinable solely from experimental data, as guaranteed by the phase rule, as we show through the exact solution theory of Kirkwood and Buff (KB). The osmotic stress technique (OST), in contrast, purposes to yield alternative hydration numbers through the use of the dividing surface borrowed from the adsorption theory. However, we show (i) OST is equivalent, when it becomes exact, to the crowding effect in which the osmolyte exclusion dominates over hydration; (ii) crowding is not the universal driving force of the osmolyte effect (e.g., actin polymerization); (iii) the dividing surface for solvation is useful only for crowding, unlike in the adsorption theory which necessitates its use due to the phase rule. KB thus clarifies the true meaning and limitations of the older perspectives on preferential solvation (such as solvent binding models, crowding, and OST), and enables excess number determination without any further assumptions.

  15. Digital Citizenship within Global Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Searson, Michael; Hancock, Marsali; Soheil, Nusrat; Shepherd, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    EduSummIT 2013 featured a working group that examined digital citizenship within a global context. Group members recognized that, given today's international, regional, political, and social dynamics, the notion of "global" might be more aspirational than practical. The development of informed policies and practices serving and involving…

  16. The Philippines 2014-2015 : Domestic Politics and Foreign Relations, A Critical Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regilme, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    This article analyses some of the key issues in Philippine domestic politics and foreign policy during the years 2014 to 2015. The analysis is divided into two main parts. First, the article examines domestic politics from the lens of political corruption, President Aquino’s good governance

  17. Team Teaching Political Communication: The 2000 Campus U.S. Presidential Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardeman, Keith T.; Jefferson, Kurt W.

    The closeness of the 2000 presidential election clearly demonstrated that the country was divided philosophically and politically. The authors of this paper, a speech communication professor and a political science professor at Westminster College in Missouri, capitalized on that division based upon their diametrically opposed political views by…

  18. A Longitudinal Journey with BYOD Classrooms: Issues of Access, Capability and Outcome Divides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janak Adhikari

    2017-11-01

    Therefore, we have conducted a longitudinal study to investigate a BYOD initiative by a New Zealand School.  This study shares rich insights in the context of technology-mediated pedagogies and specifically BYOD classroom, as to how digital divides moved beyond access and skills to ensure inclusive learning outcomes. As a part of the five-year study of the technology-mediated teaching and learning initiative, we have been able to explain some of the unanswered questions around the issue of digital divides in the learning process. We investigated issues pertaining to digital divide in the context of BYOD classrooms to make the following revelations. First, the BYOD classroom initiative did not end up accentuating existing gaps in access to digital tools and technologies, despite earlier studies indicating towards increase in gaps. Second, our analysis strongly indicated the changing nature of digital divides with the presence of gaps in terms of information literacy and critical thinking ability, as the BYOD classroom progressed to mature stage. This was eventually bridged in the later stage, as students slowly adjusted to the classroom curricular structures in the BYOD classroom. Third, learner self-efficacy has been identified as a determinant of learning outcomes. In the earlier phase of ICT adoption, learner self-efficacy is influenced by a combination of information literacy, critical thinking ability, and positive motivation; however subsequently, self-efficacy influences affordances in various aspects of social cognitive abilities related to individual’s learning activities affecting how learners engage and apply technology to achieve learning outcomes.

  19. In search of the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of political partisanship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitor Geraldi Haase

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1 Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction. The moral motifs characterizing political partisanship are epigenetically set across different cultures; 2 Political partisanship is linked to personality traits, whose neural foundations are associated with moral feelings and judgement; 3 Self-deception is a major characteristic of political partisanship that probably evolved as an evolutionary adaptive strategy to deal with the intragroup-extragroup dynamics of human evolution. CAS neuroscience evidence may not resolve the political divide, but can contribute to a better understanding of its biological foundations.

  20. Political learning among youth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solhaug, Trond; Kristensen, Niels Nørgaard

    2014-01-01

    This article focuses on students’ first political learning and explores the research question, what dynamic patterns of political learning can be explored among a selection of young, diverse Danish students’ first political interests? The authors use theories of learning in their analytical......, but are active constructors of their political life. Their emotions and social environment are highly important for their political orientation. It is recommended that further research focus on dynamic learning and on arenas for political learning rather than on “single agent studies.” Recommendations...

  1. Bridging the transatlantic divide in privacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Kift

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the context of the US National Security Agency surveillance scandal, the transatlantic privacy divide has come back to the fore. In the United States, the right to privacy is primarily understood as a right to physical privacy, thus the protection from unwarranted government searches and seizures. In Germany on the other hand, it is also understood as a right to spiritual privacy, thus the right of citizens to develop into autonomous moral agents. The following article will discuss the different constitutional assumptions that underlie American and German attitudes towards privacy, namely privacy as an aspect of liberty or as an aspect of dignity. As data flows defy jurisdictional boundaries, however, policymakers across the Atlantic are faced with a conundrum: how can German and American privacy cultures be reconciled?

  2. Perceived Organisational Politics, Political Behaviour and Employee ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    facing both private and public sector organisations (Nidhi & Prerna, 2015;. Gotsis & Kortezi ... These studies suggest that organisational politics often interfere with normal ..... Rawls's (1971) theory of justice provides a theoretical foundation for the relationship between ..... Ethical considerations in organisational politics: ...

  3. Celebrity politics: the politics of late modernity?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marsh, D.; t Hart, P.; Tindall, K.

    2010-01-01

    The academic literature on celebrity politics is rarely systematic; more often it is superficial and anecdotal. In addition, most of the literature focuses either upon classifying different types/categories of celebrity politicians and their roles in politics, or upon the question of whether the

  4. Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    Exploring Women's Understanding of Politics, Political Contestation and Gender Transformation in the Caribbean. IDRC's Democratic Governance, Women's Rights and Gender Equality initiative is supporting a body of comparative research on whether and how democratic processes and institutions are responding to ...

  5. Political Values or the Value of Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simoska, Emilija

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This essay was motivated by the gap between proclaimed democratic principles and the perceptions of politics which are exhibited by the citizens in transitional countries -more specifically in the Republic of Macedonia. It is based on research data collected in the past few decades, which illustrate that, in their political actions, the citizens are highly motivated by personal benefits and profits, rather than by their internalized values and ideologies. Non-democratic, authoritarian values prevail, while politics is perceived as a value itself, in the most materialistic meaning of the word. It creates a suitable milieu for growth of corruption, nepotism and clientelism. The authors conclude that such a circulus vitsiosus is a corner stone of the Macedonian political regime, and an enormous obstacle for the advancement of the participative, democratic political culture in reality, in spite of its formal acceptance.

  6. Digital radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brody, W.R.

    1984-01-01

    Digital Radiography begins with an orderly introduction to the fundamental concepts of digital imaging. The entire X-ray digital imagining system is described, from an overall characterization of image quality to specific components required for a digital radiographic system. Because subtraction is central to digital radiographic systems, the author details the use of various subtraction methods for image enhancement. Complex concepts are illustrated with numerous examples and presented in terms that can readily be understood by physicians without an advanced mathematics background. The second part of the book discusses implementations and applications of digital imagining systems based on area and scanned detector technologies. This section includes thorough coverage of digital fluoroscopy, scanned projection radiography, and film-based digital imaging systems, and features a state-of-the-art synopsis of the applications of digital subtraction angiography. The book concludes with a timely assessment of anticipated technological advances

  7. Divided Attention and Processes Underlying Sense of Agency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen eWen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Sense of agency refers to the subjective feeling of controlling events through one’s behavior or will. Sense of agency results from matching predictions of one’s own actions with actual feedback regarding the action. Furthermore, when an action involves a cued goal, performance-based inference contributes to sense of agency. That is, if people achieve their goal, they would believe themselves to be in control. Previous studies have shown that both action-effect comparison and performance-based inference contribute to sense of agency; however, the dominance of one process over the other may shift based on task conditions such as the presence or absence of specific goals. In this study, we examined the influence of divided attention on these two processes underlying sense of agency in two conditions. In the experimental task, participants continuously controlled a moving dot for 10 s while maintaining a string of three or seven digits in working memory. We found that when there was no cued goal (no-cued-goal condition, sense of agency was impaired by high cognitive load. Contrastingly, when participants controlled the dot based on a cued goal (cued-goal-directed condition, their sense of agency was lower than in the no-cued-goal condition and was not affected by cognitive load. The results suggest that the action-effect comparison process underlying sense of agency requires attention. On the other hand, the weaker influence of divided attention in the cued-goal-directed condition could be attributed to the dominance of performance-based inference, which is probably automatic.

  8. Digital Technology, Schools and Teachers' Workplace Learning: Policy, Practice and Identity. Digital Education and Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book advances an alternative reading of the social, political and cultural issues surrounding schools and technology and develops a comprehensive overview of the interplay between policy, practice and identity in school workplaces. It explores how digital technologies have become an integral element of the politics and socially negotiated…

  9. Sustainability : Politics and governance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinrichs, Harald; Biermann, Frank

    2016-01-01

    he article gives an overview of global sustainability policy and politics. It is shown how international policy making on sustainable development has progressed from environmental policy toward recent approaches of Earth system governance. Key challenges of international sustainability politics are

  10. Political Economy of Finance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perotti, E.

    2013-01-01

    This survey reviews how a recent political economy literature helps explaining variation in governance, competition, funding composition and access to credit. Evolution in political institutions can account for financial evolution, and appear critical to explain rapid changes in financial structure,

  11. Politics, Security, Theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wæver, Ole

    2011-01-01

    theory is found to ‘act politically’ through three structural features that systematically shape the political effects of using the theory. The article further discusses – on the basis of the preceding articles in the special issue – three emerging debates around securitization theory: ethics......This article outlines three ways of analysing the ‘politics of securitization’, emphasizing an often-overlooked form of politics practised through theory design. The structure and nature of a theory can have systematic political implications. Analysis of this ‘politics of securitization......’ is distinct from both the study of political practices of securitization and explorations of competing concepts of politics among security theories. It means tracking what kinds of analysis the theory can produce and whether such analysis systematically impacts real-life political struggles. Securitization...

  12. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...... system.   Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: E2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...

  13. Digital Communication and Modulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    2011-01-01

    system. Having passed the course, the student will be able to accomplish the following, within the areas shown below: Model for Communication System. Prepare and explain the functional block in a digital communication system, corresponding to the specific course contents. Model for Communication Channel...... system. Sessions in class with active participation by the students. The time will be divided between lectures and the students solving problems, including simulating digital communication building blocks in Matlab. Combines lectures and hands-on work. Semester: F2011 Extent: 7.5 ects......, the fundamental principles for modulation and detection in Gaussian noise is treated. This includes the principles for the determination of the bit-error rate for a digital communication system. During the course, a selection of small Matlab exercises are prepared, for simulation of parts of a communication...

  14. Digital Culture and Digital Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study; digital culture and digital library which have a vital connection with each other are examined together. The content of the research consists of the interaction of culture, information, digital culture, intellectual technologies, and digital library concepts. The study is an entry work to integrity of digital culture and digital library theories and aims to expand the symmetry. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the relation between the digital culture and digital library theories acting intersection of the subjects that are examined. Also the perspective of the study is based on examining the literature and analytical evaluation in both studies (digital culture and digital library. Within this context, the methodology of the study is essentially descriptive and has an attribute for the transmission and synthesis of distributed findings produced in the field of the research. According to the findings of the study results, digital culture is an inclusive term that describes the effects of intellectual technologies in the field of information and communication. Information becomes energy and the spectrum of the information is expanding in the vertical rise through the digital culture. In this context, the digital library appears as a new living space of a new environment. In essence, the digital library is information-oriented; has intellectual technology support and digital platform; is in a digital format; combines information resources and tools in relationship/communication/cooperation by connectedness, and also it is the dynamic face of the digital culture in time and space independence. Resolved with the study is that the digital libraries are active and effective in the formation of global knowing and/or mass wisdom in the process of digital culture.

  15. Comparing Political Communication

    OpenAIRE

    Pfetsch, Barbara; Esser, Frank

    2012-01-01

    This chapter describes the maturation of comparative political communications as a sub-discipline and defines its conceptual core. It then lays out the concept of “political communication system”. At the macro-level, this model captures the patterns of interaction between media and politics as social systems; at the micro-level it captures the interactions between media and political actors as individuals or organizations. Comparative research in this tradition focuses on the structure of pol...

  16. Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia

    OpenAIRE

    Bērziņa, Ieva

    2012-01-01

    Western Political Consulting Techniques and Post-Soviet Political Technology in Political Campaigns in Latvia Ieva Dmitričenko Keywords: political campaignsm political consulting, political technology, parties, marketing, media Political campaigning is an international phenomenon, because there is a free flow of information, knowledge and human resource among practitioners of political campaigning in various countries. As a result political campaigning techniques that have proven to ...

  17. Analyzing Political Television Advertisements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burson, George

    1992-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan to help students understand that political advertisements often mislead, lie, or appeal to emotion. Suggests that the lesson will enable students to examine political advertisements analytically. Includes a worksheet to be used by students to analyze individual political advertisements. (DK)

  18. Political institutions since 1820

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foldvari, Peter; Buzasi, Katalin

    2014-01-01

    Political institutions determine the degree of freedom people enjoy and their capacity to influence their social and political environment. This chapter provides historical evidence on the evolution of political institutions drawing upon two major research projects: the PolityIV dataset and the

  19. Political Education in School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dag, Nilgun; Sozer, Mehmet Akif; Sel, Burcu

    2015-01-01

    Political education is a term with negative associations and triggering prejudiced approaches and discourses--maybe some paranoid thoughts--like "keep politics away from education!" in the minds of several people. This article deals with "political education" phenomenon almost never discussed and made subject to scientific…

  20. What is Political Psychology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Morton

    1983-01-01

    Political psychology is the study of the bidirectional interaction of political and psychological processes. This academic discipline was founded after the First World War by Harold D. Lasswell. The content of political psychology is discussed and illustrative studies of the field are briefly summarized. (CS)

  1. Tracking Politics with POWER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Silvio; Batista, David S.; Carvalho, Paula; Couto, Francisco M.; Silva, Mario J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: POWER is an ontology of political processes and entities. It is designed for tracking politicians, political organizations and elections, both in mainstream and social media. The aim of this paper is to propose a data model to describe political agents and their relations over time. Design/methodology/approach: The authors propose a data…

  2. Kentucky physicians and politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    VonderHaar, W P; Monnig, W B

    1998-09-01

    Approximately 19% of Kentucky Physicians are KEMPAC members or contribute to state legislative and Gubernatorial candidates. This limited study of political activity indicates that a small percentage of physicians participate in the political process. Despite the small number of contributors to state legislative candidates, KMA's legislative and lobbying effort is highly effective and members receive high quality service and representation in the political arena.

  3. Politically Active Home Economists: Their Socialization to Politics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ley, Connie J.

    1980-01-01

    A nationwide study identified a pattern of political socialization for home economists who were politically active. The most outstanding feature of the politically active subjects was their perception that political activity is a professional role. (SK)

  4. Bridging the divide between science and journalism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Eperen, Laura; Marincola, Francesco M; Strohm, Jennifer

    2010-03-10

    There are countless reasons nearly every scientist should learn how to communicate effectively with the media, including increased understanding of critical research findings to attract or sustain funding and build new professional partnerships that will further propel forward research. But where do scientists begin? Bridging the Divide between Science and Journalism offers practical tips for any scientist looking to work with the media.Given the traditional and internet-based sources for medical research and healthcare-related news now available, it is imperative that scientists know how to communicate their latest findings through the appropriate channels. The credible media channels are managed by working journalists, so learning how to package vast, technical research in a form that is appetizing and "bite-sized" in order to get their attention, is an art. Reducing years of research into a headline can be extremely difficult and certainly doesn't come naturally to every scientist, so this article provides suggestions on how to work with the media to communicate your findings.

  5. Digital mammography; Mamografia digital

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, M.; Torres, R.

    2010-07-01

    Mammography represents one of the most demanding radiographic applications, simultaneously requiring excellent contrast sensitivity, high spatial resolution, and wide dynamic range. Film/screen is the most widely extended image receptor in mammography due to both its high spatial resolution and contrast. The film/screen limitations are related with its narrow latitude, structural noise and that is at the same time the medium for the image acquisition, storage and presentation. Several digital detector made with different technologies can overcome these difficulties. Here, these technologies as well as their main advantages and disadvantages are analyzed. Also it is discussed its impact on the mammography examinations, mainly on the breast screening programs. (Author).

  6. Innovations In Greek Political Communication And Consequences: Significant changes from 1981-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastasia Deligiaouri

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The introduction of new communicative ethics in politics has imposed new procedures and values in politics. The close inter-relation of media and politics has many facets and effects on the way politics is exercised and on how it is perceived by the citizens. This article investigates how new methods of political communication have been internalized into Greek media democracy, dividing the period from 1981 to the present into five periods of media democracy based on significant events that signaled the transition towards new communicative and political ethics. A study of articles from two newspapers provides useful insights into the role of the media, especially during electoral campaigns and in politics in general. Our research also reflects how the specific socio-political context of the country interferes and affects the adoption of "imported" methods in political communication and how these methods affect citizens’ political behavior.

  7. Digital Tectonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2014-01-01

    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  8. Digital squares

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forchhammer, Søren; Kim, Chul E

    1988-01-01

    Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages....... The analysis involves transforming the boundary of a digital region into parameter space of slope and y-intercept...

  9. Digital skrivedidaktik

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Digital skrivedidaktik består af to dele. Første del præsenterer teori om skrivekompetence og digital skrivning. Digital skrivning er karakteriseret ved at tekster skrives på computer og med digitale værktøjer, hvilket ændrer skrivningens traditionelle praksis, produkt og processer. Hvad er digital...... om elevens skriveproces) og Blogskrivning (der styrker eleverne i at bruge blogs i undervisningen)....

  10. Political Science and Political Geography: Neglected Areas, Areas for Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laponce, J. A.

    1983-01-01

    Since at least the 1950s, political scientists have tended to ignore the possible contributions of political geography to political science because of a move away from considering spatial factors on political structure. Political scientists need to use more information from geography to enhance their understanding of political power and conflict.…

  11. Left-Wing Media Politics and the Advertising Tax. Reflections on Astra Taylor’s Book “The People’s Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Fuchs

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article is a reflection on Astra Taylor’s book “The People’s Platform: Taking Back Power and Culture in the Digital Age”. It especially focuses on the media reform suggestions the book makes and provides further thoughts and data that go beyond Taylor’s book on the question of how feasible an advertising tax and a participatory media fee are.

  12. Digital Citizenship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem

    2014-01-01

    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  13. International Contexts for Political Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harber, Clive

    1991-01-01

    Uses international examples of the ways in which political learning takes place--indoctrination, political socialization, and political education--to suggest that open and democratic political education is not common, even in democracies. (SK)

  14. Digital signal processing an experimental approach

    CERN Document Server

    Engelberg, Shlomo

    2008-01-01

    Digital Signal Processing is a mathematically rigorous but accessible treatment of digital signal processing that intertwines basic theoretical techniques with hands-on laboratory instruction. Divided into three parts, the book covers various aspects of the digital signal processing (DSP) ""problem."" It begins with the analysis of discrete-time signals and explains sampling and the use of the discrete and fast Fourier transforms. The second part of the book???covering digital to analog and analog to digital conversion???provides a practical interlude in the mathematical content before Part II

  15. Putting politics first.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jacob S

    2008-01-01

    The greatest lesson of the failure of comprehensive health reform in the early 1990s is that politics comes first. Even the best-laid policy plans are worthless if they lack the political support to pass. Putting politics first means avoiding the overarching mistake of the Clinton reformers: envisioning a grand policy compromise rather than hammering out a real political compromise. It also means addressing the inevitable fears of those who believe that they are well protected by our eroding employment-based system. And it means formulating political strategies that are premised on the contemporary realities of the hyperpolarized U.S. political environment, rather than wistfully recalled images of the bipartisan politics of old.

  16. Religion and Politics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandak, Andreas

    2018-01-01

    Religion and politics provide an interesting juxtaposition. On the one hand, both may initially come across as rather self-evident categories, with religion dealing with human perceptions and what people hold as sacred, and politics addressing the control and governance of fellow human beings....... Nonetheless, such a simple opposition should only work as a starting point for an interrogation of both terms and how they have come to look and function as empirical and analytical categories. Focusing on the ways that religion is played out in relation to politics reveals different historical and cultural...... constellations and positions, which can be highlighted as variations of religion as politics, religion in politics, religion out of politics, and religion not politics....

  17. Political Budget Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaskoven, Lasse; Lassen, David Dreyer

    2017-01-01

    The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances of reelec......The political budget cycle—how elections affect government fiscal policy—is one of the most studied subjects in political economy and political science. The key theoretical question is whether incumbent governments can time or structure public finances in ways that improve their chances...... on political budget cycles have recently focused on conditions under which such cycles are likely to obtain. Much recent research focuses on subnational settings, allowing comparisons of governments in similar institutional environments, and a consensus on the presences of cycles in public finances...

  18. The politics of researching global health politics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, Simon

    2015-01-01

    In this comment, I build on Shiffman’s call for the global health community to more deeply investigate structural and productive power. I highlight two challenges we must grapple with as social scientists carrying out the types of investigation that Shiffman proposes: the politics of challenging the powerful; and the need to investigate types of expertise that have traditionally been thought of as ‘outside’ global health. In doing so, I argue that moving forward with the agenda Shiffman sets out requires social scientists interested in the global politics of health to be reflexive about our own exercise of structural and productive power and the fact that researching global health politics is itself a political undertaking. PMID:25905482

  19. Redistributive Politics in a Political Union

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citi, Manuele; Justesen, Mogens Kamp

    One of the main functions of centralized budgets in federal and political unions is to act as an equalizing mechanism to support economic cohesion. This is also the case with the European Union’s budget, which operates as a redistributive mechanism that counteracts the cross-national and cross...... remarkably over the last decades. In this paper, we investigate how and why the net fiscal position of each member state towards the rest of the EU changes over time. Using a novel panel dataset (1979-2014), we study how some key national and EU-level political and economic variables affect the EU...... find that the political orientation of national governments does not per se influence redistributive politics with in the EU. However, when the unemployment rate is rising, right-wing governments are able to extract significantly larger budgetary benefits....

  20. Persuasive territories in European cultural politics:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thelle, Mikkel; Thylstrup, Nanna Bonde

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This paper aims to view the concept of persuasive technology as a framework for discussing cultural politics on the internet. Taking digital collections as a point of departure, the cases of Europeana and Google Books are to be discussed as promoting different assemblies of information......, practice and identity politics. Through this discussion the study aims to show how the internet becomes territorialized through persuasive mechanisms. Design/methodology/approach – The study applies different concepts on the cases, derived from different fields of social theory, such as “soft power......”, “assembly” and “folksonomy” in order to question the traditional view of persuasive technology as a concept instrumental to, for example, marketing agendas. Targeting the relation between policy and everyday practice, the paper aims to open a discussion of persuasive technology deeply embedded in digital...

  1. Digital skills: unlocking the information society

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Johannes A.G.M.; van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria

    2014-01-01

    Digital Skills systematically discusses the skills or literacies needed in the use of digital media, primarily computers and the Internet. Following the work of van Dijk's The Deepening Divide: Inequality in the Information Society, it uses conceptual analysis and empirical observations to show what

  2. Compassionate liberals and polite conservatives: associations of agreeableness with political ideology and moral values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsh, Jacob B; DeYoung, Colin G; Xiaowen Xu; Peterson, Jordan B

    2010-05-01

    Political conservatism has been characterized by resistance to change and acceptance of inequality, with liberalism characterized by the polar opposite of these values. Political attitudes are heritable and may be influenced by basic personality traits. In previous research, conservatism (vs. liberalism) has been associated positively with Conscientiousness and negatively with Openness-Intellect, consistent with the association of conservatism with resistance to change. Less clear, however, are the personality traits relating to egalitarianism. In two studies, using a personality model that divides each of the Big Five into two aspects, the present research found that one aspect of Agreeableness (Compassion) was associated with liberalism and egalitarianism, whereas the other (Politeness) was associated with conservatism and traditionalism. In addition, conservatism and moral traditionalism were positively associated with the Orderliness aspect of Conscientiousness and negatively with Openness-Intellect. These findings contribute to a more nuanced understanding of personality's relation to political attitudes and values.

  3. Digital subtraktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mussmann, Bo Redder

    2004-01-01

    Digital subtraktion er en metode til at fjerne uønskede oplysninger i et røntgenbillede. Subtraktionsteknikken bruges primært i forbindelse med angiografi hvor man kun er interesseret i at se selve karret. Derfor er digital subtraktion i daglig tale synonymt med DSA eller DVI – hhv. Digital...... Subtraction Angiography eller Digital Vascular Imaging. Benævnelserne er to røntgenfirmaers navn for den samme teknik. Digital subtraktion kræver speciel software, samt at apparaturet kan eksponere i serier....

  4. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn

    2013-01-01

    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  5. "Enlivening and - Dividing": An Aporia of Illumination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans Christian Hönes

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US JA X-NONE /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:Verdana;} In 1798, Karl August Böttiger paid a nocturnal visit to the Gallery of Antiques in Dresden, illuminating the statues with a torch. At first glance, this seems to be yet another example of a popular practice for visiting galleries c.1800. Illuminating the sculptures by torchlight was a popular means of enlivening the objects, set in motion by the light flickering on their surfaces. The collections were thus meant to become a place where cold, white stone comes to life, and where the beholder becomes part of a revived antiquity.This was precisely what Böttiger intended, too. But to him, the effect of the torchlight appeared to be, as he wrote, “enlivening and – dividing!” The torchlight highlighted not only the beauty of the sculptures but also their modern restorations. Böttiger apparently failed to experience the living presence of the antique celebrated by many of his contemporaries (e.g. Goethe, Moritz.This essay focuses on the consequence of such a perception of sculptures as historically multi-layered objects. Böttiger’s experience resulted in a problematic situation. In trying to view the sculptures as contemporaries, he hoped to become ancient himself. But this operation failed in the moment when the sculptures themselves appeared to be anachronistic, impure palimpsests. In consequence, galleries may not only be the place were art history as chronological Stilgeschichte was born. They may also be the site where this perception changed into the experience of a more chaotic shape of time.

  6. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Ian Robert

    2013-01-01

    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  7. In search of the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of political partisanship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Vitor Geraldi; Starling-Alves, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    In many countries, a radical political divide brings several socially relevant decisions to a standstill. Could cognitive, affective and social (CAS) neuroscience help better understand these questions? The present article reviews the moral-psychological and neuroevolutionary basis of the political partisanship divide. A non-systematic literature review and a conceptual analysis were conducted. Three main points are identified and discussed: 1) Political partisan behavior rests upon deep moral emotions. It is automatically processed and impervious to contradiction. The moral motifs characterizing political partisanship are epigenetically set across different cultures; 2) partisanship is linked to personality traits, whose neural foundations are associated with moral feelings and judgement; 3) Self-deception is a major characteristic of political partisanship that probably evolved as an evolutionary adaptive strategy to deal with the intragroup-extragroup dynamics of human evolution. CAS neuroscience evidence may not resolve the political divide, but can contribute to a better understanding of its biological foundations. PMID:29213489

  8. The high voltage divider - a tool for comparison of measurement equipment in diagnostic radiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slavchev, A.; Litchev, A.; Constantinov, B.

    2004-01-01

    The high voltage divider (HVD) is designed for control and analysis of the characteristics of the X-ray generator. The low voltage analogous signals produced by the divider are proportional to the high voltage (kVp) applied to the x-ray tube by a ratio 1:1000 or 1:10000 and can be measured with external test devices like storage oscilloscope (or digital multimeter). The exposure duration and the wave form may be visualized, too. Apart of this invasive way the high voltage also may be measured non-invasively by means of appropriate devices as well as indirectly through calculations. Since the invasive method of measurement with the high voltage divider is distinguished by a high accuracy, it may be utilized as an effective tool for calibration of different devices and for comparison of the measurement methods. (authors)

  9. Divided attention reduces resistance to distraction at encoding but not retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Jennifer C; Hasher, Lynn

    2017-08-01

    Older adults show implicit memory for previously seen distraction, an effect attributed to poor attentional control. It is unclear whether this effect results from lack of control over encoding during the distraction task, lack of retrieval constraint during the test task, or both. In the present study, we simulated poor distraction control in young adults using divided attention at encoding, at retrieval, at both times, or not at all. The encoding task was a 1-back task on pictures with distracting superimposed letter strings, some of which were words. The retrieval task was a word fragment completion task testing implicit memory for the distracting words. Attention was divided using an auditory odd digit detection task. Dividing attention at encoding, but not at retrieval, resulted in significant priming for distraction, which suggests that control over encoding processes is a primary determinant of distraction transfer in populations with low inhibitory control (e.g. older adults).

  10. The effect of divided attention on emotion-induced memory narrowing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickley Steinmetz, Katherine R; Waring, Jill D; Kensinger, Elizabeth A

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorised to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants' attentional resources at encoding by dividing attention did not affect emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three separate manipulations: a digit ordering task (Experiment 1), an arithmetic task (Experiment 2) and an auditory discrimination task (Experiment 3). Across all three experiments, divided attention decreased memory across the board but did not affect the degree of memory narrowing. These findings suggest that theories to explain memory narrowing must be expanded to include other potential mechanisms beyond the limitations of attentional resources.

  11. The Effect of Divided Attention on Emotion-Induced Memory Narrowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Katherine R. Mickley; Waring, Jill D.; Kensinger, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are more likely to remember emotional than neutral information, but this benefit does not always extend to the surrounding background information. This memory narrowing is theorized to be linked to the availability of attentional resources at encoding. In contrast to the predictions of this theoretical account, altering participants’ attentional resources at encoding, by dividing attention, did not affect the emotion-induced memory narrowing. Attention was divided using three separate manipulations: a digit ordering task (Experiment 1), an arithmetic task (Experiment 2), and an auditory discrimination task (Experiment 3). Across all three experiments, divided attention decreased memory across-the-board but did not affect the degree of memory narrowing. These findings suggest that theories to explain memory narrowing must be expanded to include other potential mechanisms beyond limitations of attentional resources. PMID:24295041

  12. Entropy and Digital Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan Ballard

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines entropy as a process which introduces ideas of distributed materiality to digital installation. Beginning from an analysis of entropy as both force and probability measure within information theory and it’s extension in Ruldof Arnheim’s text ‘Entropy and Art” it develops an argument for the positive rather thannegative forces of entropy. The paper centres on a discussion of two recent works by New Zealand artists Ronnie van Hout (“On the Run”, Wellington City Gallery, NZ, 2004 and Alex Monteith (“Invisible Cities”, Physics Room Contemporary Art Space, Christchurch, NZ, 2004. Ballard suggests that entropy, rather than being a hindrance to understanding or a random chaotic force, discloses a necessary and material politics of noise present in digital installation.

  13. Bridging the transatlantic climate divide. Final project paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kersten, W.C.; Zoeteman, B.C.J.

    2005-10-01

    International climate change policy is presently dominated by the different visions of two major blocks, the USA and EU. It is not always realized that a part of these differences is more fundamental than one may expect in view of the historical connections between the populations of the two continents. Socio-cultural aspects like the role of government, the value of individual liberty and the consequences of population density are different in both regions and play an important role in determining what is acceptable policy-wise. Despite the apparent stalemate in formal positions, signs have been detected that indicate that the 'transatlantic divide' on this issue is (slowly) closing. One cause is that bottom-up momentum is building up in the USA, which can eventually push the federal level to initiate a more active policy. Another cause is the finding in the EU that it turns out to be difficult to reach the Kyoto-targets, which results in the development of policy instruments that could be attractive for the USA to endorse or even participate in. Such instruments could have similarities with the Kyoto Protocol. To obtain more insight in the driving forces behind such changes and why they lead to higher or lower acceptability of certain policy instruments, it makes sense to identify attitudinal indicators that signify such changes. By regularly monitoring these attitudinal indicators, e.g., concrete behavior of companies, proportional media attention, formal political statements, and relating the value of these indicators to a corresponding set of policy instruments, policy makers at both sides of the Atlantic Ocean have an extra tool at their disposal to frame the issue and identify joint solutions in a way that is acceptable to the other party. This project makes a first attempt to design such a method (dynamic analytic model). It holds promises, and it is recommended to develop this model further in order to support the effectiveness of the climate negotiations

  14. School of Political Science

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. D. Voskresensky

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Out of all the departments of political sciences in Russia - the Department at MGIMO-University is probably the oldest one. In fact it is very young. While MGIMO-University is celebrating its 70th anniversary the Department of Political Sciences turns 15. Despite the fact that political analyst is a relatively new profession in Russia, it acquired a legal standing only in the 1990s, the political science school at MGIMO-University is almost as old as the university itself. Unlike many other universities, focused on the training teachers of political science or campaign managers MGIMO-University has developed its own unique political science school of "full cycle", where students grow into political sciences from a zero level up to the highest qualifications as teachers and researchers, and campaign managers, consultants and practitioners. The uniqueness of the school of political science at MGIMO-University allows its institutional incarnation -the Department of Political Science - to offer prospective studentsa training in a wide range of popular specialties and specializations, while ensuring a deep theoretical and practical basis of the training. Studying at MGIMO-University traditionally includes enhanced linguistic component (at least two foreign languages. For students of international relations and political science learning foreign languages is particularly important.It allows not only to communicate, but also to produce expertise and knowledge in foreign languages.

  15. Malala and the politics of global iconicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    The article presents a case analysis of Malala Yousafzai's transformation into a global injustice icon after she was shot in 2012 by the Pakistani Taliban for advocating for girls' right to education. The analysis focuses on the political aspects of this process and is divided into three parts. The first looks at factors that facilitated Malala's iconization as she was undergoing medical treatment and was unable to participate in her iconization. The second part starts when Malala enters the global public sphere and begins to actively contribute to the iconization process. The third part identifies de-iconizing resistance to Malala from Pakistani actors who see her iconization as a symbolic colonization in which Malala has become a vehicle of the West. Theoretically, the article is located within cultural sociology, but expands it in a political and global direction. © London School of Economics and Political Science 2016.

  16. Establishing Political Deliberation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rose, Jeremy; Sæbø, Øystein

    2008-01-01

    The extension and transformation of political participation is dependent on widespread deliberation supported by information and communication technologies.  The most commonly found examples of these eParticipation systems are political discussion forums.  Though much of the discussion...... of these technologies is conducted in the eGovernment and (particularly) the eDemocracy literature, political discussion forums present a distinct set of design and management challenges which relate directly to IS concerns. In this article we analyze problems in establishing political deliberation systems under five...... headings: stakeholder engagement, web platform design, web platform management, political process re-shaping and evaluation and improvement. We review the existing literature and present a longitudinal case study of a political discussion forum: the Norwegian DemokratiTorget (Democracy Square).  We define...

  17. Comparing Political Journalism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comparing Political Journalism is a systematic, in-depth study of the factors that shape and influence political news coverage today. Using techniques drawn from the growing field of comparative political communication, an international group of contributors analyse political news content drawn...... Comparing Political Journalism offers an unparalleled scope in assessing the implications for the ongoing transformation of Western media systems, and addresses core concepts of central importance to students and scholars of political communication world-wide....... from newspapers, television news, and news websites from 16 countries, to assess what kinds of media systems are most conducive to producing quality journalism. Underpinned by key conceptual themes, such as the role that the media are expected to play in democracies and quality of coverage...

  18. Chaos theory in politics

    CERN Document Server

    Erçetin, Şefika; Tekin, Ali

    2014-01-01

    The present work investigates global politics and political implications of social science and management with the aid of the latest complexity and chaos theories. Until now, deterministic chaos and nonlinear analysis have not been a focal point in this area of research. This book remedies this deficiency by utilizing these methods in the analysis of the subject matter. The authors provide the reader a detailed analysis on politics and its associated applications with the help of chaos theory, in a single edited volume.

  19. The Politics of Dissent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bak Jørgensen, Martin; Agustin, Oscar Garcia

    2015-01-01

    In Politics of Dissent the framework for analysing politics of dissent is outlined. The outlined framework problematizes the conventional understandings of dissent as something characterising individual historical figures. The chapter provides both a theoretical underpinning of dissent as well...... as an approach to investigate the current contestations taking place on a global level. Politics of dissent entails the questioning of consensus. It conceptualises dissent as a collective process taking place on everyday level. It conceptualises moments of dissent. Finally it investigates the emergent...

  20. Quantity and Quality of Support for Digital Engagement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Deursen, Alexander Johannes Aloysius Maria; Helsper, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Following the course taking by digital divide or digital inclusion research, this paper uses socio-cultural, socio-economic, social, and digital indicators to predict access to and the type of potential and actual social support networks that might help an individual in using the Internet. In