Sample records for digital coherent receiver

  1. Anatomy of a digital coherent receiver

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Digital coherent receivers have gained significant attention in the last decade. The reason for this is that coherent detection, along with digital signal processing (DSP) allows for substantial increase of the channel capacity by employing advanced detection techniques. In this paper, we first......, orthonormaliation, chromatic dispersion compensation/nonlinear compensation, resampling a nd timing recovery, polarization demultiplexing and equalization, frequency and phase recovery, digital demodulation. We also describe novel subsystems of a digital coherent receiver: modulation format recognition...

  2. Chromatic Dispersion Estimation in Digital Coherent Receivers

    Soriano, Ruben Andres; Hauske, Fabian N.; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil


    Polarization-diverse coherent demodulation allows to compensate large values of accumulated linear distortion by digital signal processing. In particular, in uncompensated links without optical dispersion compensation, the parameter of the residual chromatic dispersion (CD) is vital to set...

  3. Chromatic Dispersion Estimation in Digital Coherent Receivers

    Soriano, Ruben Andres; Hauske, Fabian N.; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil;


    Polarization-diverse coherent demodulation allows to compensate large values of accumulated linear distortion by digital signal processing. In particular, in uncompensated links without optical dispersion compensation, the parameter of the residual chromatic dispersion (CD) is vital to set the ac...

  4. Digital processing optical transmission and coherent receiving techniques

    Binh, Le Nguyen


    With coherent mixing in the optical domain and processing in the digital domain, advanced receiving techniques employing ultra-high speed sampling rates have progressed tremendously over the last few years. These advances have brought coherent reception systems for lightwave-carried information to the next stage, resulting in ultra-high capacity global internetworking. Digital Processing: Optical Transmission and Coherent Receiving Techniques describes modern coherent receiving techniques for optical transmission and aspects of modern digital optical communications in the most basic lines. The

  5. Turbo Equalization for Digital Coherent Receivers

    Arlunno, Valeria; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Borkowski, Robert


    . In this paper, it is demonstrated that Turbo Equalization routines can be used to mitigate performance degradations stemming from optical fiber propagation effects both in optical fiber dispersion managed and unmanaged coherent detection links. The effectiveness of this solution is analyzed both numerically...

  6. Analysis of parallel optical sampling rate and ADC requirements in digital coherent receivers

    Lorences Riesgo, Abel; Galili, Michael; Peucheret, Christophe


    We comprehensively assess analog-to-digital converter requirements in coherent digital receiver schemes with parallel optical sampling. We determine the electronic requirements in accordance with the properties of the free running local oscillator....

  7. Advanced Equalization Techniques for Digital Coherent Optical Receivers

    Arlunno, Valeria

    This PhD thesis addresses the design and performance evaluation of advanced Digital Signal Processing (DSP) algorithms for coherent optical fiber transmission systems. The research results presented in this thesis report on transmission of highly spectrally efficient optical communication systems...... employing multiplexing techniques with polarization multiplexing and multi-level modulations format. Advanced digital signal processing techniques offer robustness and flexibility for next generation high capacity optical fibre networks and are therefore considered as key building blocks in next generation...... format detection. Feedback equalization structure have been investigated in high order modulation formats transmission, when combined with coding techniques, and for closed spaced multiplexing scenario. Highlight results presented in this PhD thesis include evaluation and implementation of a novel...

  8. Digital coherent receiver employing photonic downconversion for phase modulated radio-over-fibre links

    Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil


    A digital coherent receiver employing photonic downconversion is presented and experimentally demonstrated for phase-modulated radio-over-fibre optical links. The receiver is capable of operating at frequencies exceeding the bandwidth of electrical analog-to-digital converter by using photonic...... downconversion to translate the high-frequency input RF signal to the operating frequency range of the analog-to-digital converter. First, using linear digital demodulation scheme we measure SFDR of the link at microwave frequency of 5 GHz. Thereafter, successful signal demodulation of 50 Mbit/s binary phase...... shift keying (BPSK) modulated data signal at 5 GHz RF carrier frequency is experimentally demonstrated by using an analog-to-digital converter with only 1 GHz bandwidth. We successfully demonstrate signal demodulation, using the proposed digital coherent receiver with photonic downconversion, after 40...

  9. Cryogenic analog-to-digital converters using spread spectrum technology for coherent receivers

    Shiao, Yu-Shao Jerry; Chiueh, Tzihong; Hu, Robert


    We propose analog-to-digital converters (ADCs) using spread spectrum technology in cryogenic receivers or at warm room temperature for coherent receiver backend systems. As receiver signals are processed and stored digitally, ADCs play a critical role in backend read-out systems. To minimize signal distortion, the down-converted signals should be digitized without further transportation. However, digitizing the signals in or near receivers may cause radio frequency interference. We suggest that spread spectrum technology can reduce the interference significantly. Moreover, cryogenic ADCs at regulated temperature in receiver dewars may also increase the bandwidth usage and simplify the backend digital signal process with fewer temperature-dependant components. While industrial semiconductor technology continuously reduces transistor power consumption, low power high speed cryogenic ADCs may become a better solution for coherent receivers. To examine the performance of cooled ADCs, first, we design 4 bit 65 nm and 40 nm CMOS ADCs specifically at 10 K temperature, which commonly is the second stage temperature in dewars. While the development of 65 nm and 40 nm CMOS ADCs are still on-going, we estimate the ENOB is 2.4 at 10 GSPS, corresponding to the correlation efficiency, 0.87. The power consumption is less than 20 mW.

  10. Multi-aperture digital coherent combining for free-space optical communication receivers.

    Geisler, David J; Yarnall, Timothy M; Stevens, Mark L; Schieler, Curt M; Robinson, Bryan S; Hamilton, Scott A


    Space-to-ground optical communication systems can benefit from reducing the size, weight, and power profiles of space terminals. One way of reducing the required power-aperture product on a space platform is to implement effective, but costly, single-aperture ground terminals with large collection areas. In contrast, we present a ground terminal receiver architecture in which many small less-expensive apertures are efficiently combined to create a large effective aperture while maintaining excellent receiver sensitivity. This is accomplished via coherent detection behind each aperture followed by digitization. The digitized signals are then combined in a digital signal processing chain. Experimental results demonstrate lossless coherent combining of four lasercom signals, at power levels below 0.1 photons/bit/aperture.

  11. Digital coherent receiver for phase modulated radio-over-fibre optical links

    Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin; Peucheret, Christophe


    A novel digital signal processing-based coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) optical links is presented and demonstrated experimentally. Error-free demodulation of 50-Mbaud binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) and quadrature phase-shift keying data signal modulated on a 5-GHz...... radio-frequency (RF) carrier is experimentally demonstrated using the proposed digital coherent receiver. Additionally, a wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) phase-modulated RoF optical link is experimentally demonstrated. A 3 x50 Mb/s WDM transmission of a BPSK modulated 5-GHz RF carrier is achieved...... over 25 km for the WDM channel spacing of 12.5 and 25 GHz, respectively....

  12. Equalization of nonlinear transmission impairments by maximum-likelihood-sequence estimation in digital coherent receivers.

    Khairuzzaman, Md; Zhang, Chao; Igarashi, Koji; Katoh, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Kazuro


    We describe a successful introduction of maximum-likelihood-sequence estimation (MLSE) into digital coherent receivers together with finite-impulse response (FIR) filters in order to equalize both linear and nonlinear fiber impairments. The MLSE equalizer based on the Viterbi algorithm is implemented in the offline digital signal processing (DSP) core. We transmit 20-Gbit/s quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals through a 200-km-long standard single-mode fiber. The bit-error rate performance shows that the MLSE equalizer outperforms the conventional adaptive FIR filter, especially when nonlinear impairments are predominant.

  13. Simple and robust symbol rate estimation method for digital coherent optical receivers

    Cui, Sheng; Xia, Wenjuan; Shang, Jin; Ke, Changjian; Fu, Songnian; Liu, Deming


    A novel symbol rate estimation (SRE) technique utilizing the clock tone (CT) obtained by Godard timing recovery algorithm is proposed. By this technique, the known sampling rate of the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) in digital coherent optical receivers can used as a reference to directly determine the unknown signal symbol rate. The impact of polarization mode dispersion (PMD) on the CT magnitude can be mitigated by using the hybrid correlation function (HCF) consisting of both auto-correlation function (ACF) and cross-correlation function (XCF) of the received signal spectrum, while the chromatic dispersion (CD) impact can be mitigated by adaptive CD compensation techniques. This technique is simple, accurate, applicable to advanced modulation formats commonly used, and robust to various link impairments. Numerical simulations and experimental results are presented to validate this technique.

  14. Performance Evaluation of Digital Coherent Receivers for Phase-Modulated Radio-Over-Fiber Links

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    The performance of optical phase-modulated (PM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) links assisted with coherent detection and digital signal processing (PM-Coh) is analyzed and experimentally demonstrated for next-generation wireless-over-fiber systems. PM-Coh offers high linearity for transparent transport......-bandwidth electronics. Analytical assessment and simulations are used to determine the ultimate performance with respect to laser linewidth, modulation index, and receiver sensitivity. Then, two different scenarios are studied and experimentally demonstrated as an application of PM-Coh links: a high...

  15. Digital coherent receiver for subcarrier multiplexed phase modulated radio-over-fibre signals

    Zibar, Darko; Larsen, Knud J.; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Digital coherent detection of multi-channel subcarrier multiplexed optically phase-modulated radio-over-fibre signals is experimentally demonstrated. Successful detection after transmission over a 40 km long fibre link of four or five 25 Mbaud BPSK/QPSK subcarrier channels in 5 GHz bandwidth...... is demonstrated using offline digital signal processing....

  16. Analytical estimation of laser phase noise induced BER floor in coherent receiver with digital signal processing.

    Vanin, Evgeny; Jacobsen, Gunnar


    The Bit-Error-Ratio (BER) floor caused by the laser phase noise in the optical fiber communication system with differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) and coherent detection followed by digital signal processing (DSP) is analytically evaluated. An in-phase and quadrature (I&Q) receiver with a carrier phase recovery using DSP is considered. The carrier phase recovery is based on a phase estimation of a finite sum (block) of the signal samples raised to the power of four and the phase unwrapping at transitions between blocks. It is demonstrated that errors generated at block transitions cause the dominating contribution to the system BER floor when the impact of the additive noise is negligibly small in comparison with the effect of the laser phase noise. Even the BER floor in the case when the phase unwrapping is omitted is analytically derived and applied to emphasize the crucial importance of this signal processing operation. The analytical results are verified by full Monte Carlo simulations. The BER for another type of DQPSK receiver operation, which is based on differential phase detection, is also obtained in the analytical form using the principle of conditional probability. The principle of conditional probability is justified in the case of differential phase detection due to statistical independency of the laser phase noise induced signal phase error and the additive noise contributions. Based on the achieved analytical results the laser linewidth tolerance is calculated for different system cases.

  17. Reconfigurable Digital Coherent Receiver for Hybrid Optical Fiber/Wireless Metro-Access Networks

    Arlunno, Valeria; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;

    Single reconfigurable DSP coherent receiver is experimentally demonstrated for mixed-format and bit-rates including QPSK, OFDM, IR-UWB for wireline and wireless signal types. Successful transmission and detection over a deployed fiber link is achieved.......Single reconfigurable DSP coherent receiver is experimentally demonstrated for mixed-format and bit-rates including QPSK, OFDM, IR-UWB for wireline and wireless signal types. Successful transmission and detection over a deployed fiber link is achieved....

  18. Linewidth tolerance of digital coherent receiver using Viterbi & Viterbi RF carrier recovery for radio-over-fibre links

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Larsen, Knud J.


    for phase-modulated RoF optical links (2). The RF signal processing in (2) is performed using maximum likelihood RF carrier phase estimation (2). In this paper, we investigate the performance of the proposed digital coherent receiver in (2) using feedforward Viterbi & Viterbi RF carrier recovery algorithm...

  19. Reconfigurable Digital Coherent Receiver for Metro-Access Networks Supporting Mixed Modulation Formats and Bit-rates

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Arlunno, Valeria


    A single, reconfigurable, digital coherent receiver is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for converged wireless and optical fiber transport. The capacity of reconstructing the full transmitted optical field allows for the demodulation of mixed modulation formats and bit-rates. We performed...

  20. Optical Modulation Format Recognition in Stokes Space for Digital Coherent Receivers

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;


    We report on a novel method for optical modulation format recognition based on Stokes parameters and variational expectation maximization algorithm. Discrimination among six different pol-muxed coherent modulation formats is successfully demonstrated in simulation and experiment....

  1. Experimental Adaptive Digital Performance Monitoring for Optical DP-QPSK Coherent Receiver

    Borkowski, Robert; Zhang, Xu; Zibar, Darko;


    We report on a successful experimental demonstration of a digital optical performance monitoring (OPM) yielding satisfactory estimation accuracy along with adaptive impairment equalization. No observable penalty is measured when equalizer is driven by monitoring module....

  2. Experimental demonstration of a format-flexible single-carrier coherent receiver using data-aided digital signal processing.

    Elschner, Robert; Frey, Felix; Meuer, Christian; Fischer, Johannes Karl; Alreesh, Saleem; Schmidt-Langhorst, Carsten; Molle, Lutz; Tanimura, Takahito; Schubert, Colja


    We experimentally demonstrate the use of data-aided digital signal processing for format-flexible coherent reception of different 28-GBd PDM and 4D modulated signals in WDM transmission experiments over up to 7680 km SSMF by using the same resource-efficient digital signal processing algorithms for the equalization of all formats. Stable and regular performance in the nonlinear transmission regime is confirmed.

  3. Experimental demonstration of adaptive digital monitoring and compensation of chromatic dispersion for coherent DP-QPSK receiver

    Borkowski, Robert; Zhang, Xu; Zibar, Darko;


    We experimentally demonstrate a digital signal processing (DSP)-based optical performance monitoring (OPM) algorithm for inservice monitoring of chromatic dispersion (CD) in coherent transport networks. Dispersion accumulated in 40 Gbit/s QPSK signal after 80 km of fiber transmission is successfu...

  4. Characterization of semiconductor-laser phase noise and estimation of bit-error rate performance with low-speed offline digital coherent receivers.

    Kikuchi, Kazuro


    We develop a systematic method for characterizing semiconductor-laser phase noise, using a low-speed offline digital coherent receiver. The field spectrum, the FM-noise spectrum, and the phase-error variance measured with such a receiver can completely describe phase-noise characteristics of lasers under test. The sampling rate of the digital coherent receiver should be much higher than the phase-fluctuation speed. However, 1 GS/s is large enough for most of the single-mode semiconductor lasers. In addition to such phase-noise characterization, interpolating the taken data at 1.25 GS/s to form a data stream at 10 GS/s, we can predict the bit-error rate (BER) performance of multi-level modulated optical signals at 10 Gsymbol/s. The BER degradation due to the phase noise is well explained by the result of the phase-noise measurements.

  5. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander


    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  6. Digital Demodulator For Advanced Receiver

    Sadr, Ramin; Hurd, William J.


    Complexity and cost reduced by new design for half-band filters. Digital demodulator designed for use in reception of phase- and amplitude-modulated digital signals of bandwidths up to 15 MHz on microwave carriers. System performs coherent demodulation in phase and in quadrature with carrier locked in phase to intermediate frequency of 10 MHz. Design suitable for fabrication in very-large-scale integrated circuitry. Principal innovative feature of demodulator is design of half-band digital low-pass filters that remove sum-frequency components.

  7. Optical Coherent Receiver Enables THz Wireless Bridge

    Yu, Xianbin; Liu, Kexin; Zhang, Hangkai


    We experimentally demonstrated a 45 Gbit/s 400 GHz photonic wireless communication system enabled by an optical coherent receiver, which has a high potential in fast recovery of high data rate connections, for example, in disaster....

  8. Bandpass sampling in heterodyne receivers for coherent optical access networks.

    Bakopoulos, Paraskevas; Dris, Stefanos; Schrenk, Bernhard; Lazarou, Ioannis; Avramopoulos, Hercules


    A novel digital receiver architecture for coherent heterodyne-detected optical signals is presented. It demonstrates the application of bandpass sampling in an optical communications context, to overcome the high sampling rate requirement of conventional receivers (more than twice the signal bandwidth). The concept is targeted for WDM coherent optical access networks, where applying heterodyne detection constitutes a promising approach to reducing optical hardware complexity. The validity of the concept is experimentally assessed in a 76 km WDM-PON scenario, where the developed DSP achieves a 50% ADC rate reduction with penalty-free operation.

  9. DSP based coherent receiver for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links

    Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso; Peucheret, Christophe


    A novel DSP based coherent receiver for phase modulated radio-over-fiber optical links is reported. Using the proposed digital receiver, signal demodulation of 1.25 Gb/s ASK-modulated 10 GHz RF carrier is experimentally demonstrated.......A novel DSP based coherent receiver for phase modulated radio-over-fiber optical links is reported. Using the proposed digital receiver, signal demodulation of 1.25 Gb/s ASK-modulated 10 GHz RF carrier is experimentally demonstrated....

  10. Broadband direct RF digitization receivers

    Jamin, Olivier


    This book discusses the trade-offs involved in designing direct RF digitization receivers for the radio frequency and digital signal processing domains.  A system-level framework is developed, quantifying the relevant impairments of the signal processing chain, through a comprehensive system-level analysis.  Special focus is given to noise analysis (thermal noise, quantization noise, saturation noise, signal-dependent noise), broadband non-linear distortion analysis, including the impact of the sampling strategy (low-pass, band-pass), analysis of time-interleaved ADC channel mismatches, sampling clock purity and digital channel selection. The system-level framework described is applied to the design of a cable multi-channel RF direct digitization receiver. An optimum RF signal conditioning, and some algorithms (automatic gain control loop, RF front-end amplitude equalization control loop) are used to relax the requirements of a 2.7GHz 11-bit ADC. A two-chip implementation is presented, using BiCMOS and 65nm...

  11. Optical Ground Terminals Using Multi Aperture Digital Coherent Combining


    from four parallel receiver chains. II. SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE Figure 1 shows an example multi-aperture receiver architec- ture that uses digital coherent...apertures by a distance much greater than r0, the received signals experience statistically independent fading processes. After summing the signals the...lossless combining of four apertures. These results show lossless combining down to the lowest tested power level of -15 dB PPB/receiver. An important next

  12. Digital Signal Processor For GPS Receivers

    Thomas, J. B.; Meehan, T. K.; Srinivasan, J. M.


    Three innovative components combined to produce all-digital signal processor with superior characteristics: outstanding accuracy, high-dynamics tracking, versatile integration times, lower loss-of-lock signal strengths, and infrequent cycle slips. Three components are digital chip advancer, digital carrier downconverter and code correlator, and digital tracking processor. All-digital signal processor intended for use in receivers of Global Positioning System (GPS) for geodesy, geodynamics, high-dynamics tracking, and ionospheric calibration.

  13. Digital Signal Processing for Optical Coherent Communication Systems

    Zhang, Xu

    In this thesis, digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms are studied to compensate for physical layer impairments in optical fiber coherent communication systems. The physical layer impairments investigated in this thesis include optical fiber chromatic dispersion, polarization demultiplexing......, light sources frequency and phase offset and phase noise. The studied DSP algorithms are considered as key building blocks in digital coherent receivers for the next generation of optical communication systems such as 112-Gb/s dual polarization (DP) quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK) optical...... spectrum narrowing tolerance 112-Gb/s DP-QPSK optical coherent systems using digital adaptive equalizer. The demonstrated results show that off-line DSP algorithms are able to reduce the bit error rate (BER) penalty induced by signal spectrum narrowing. Third, we also investigate bi...

  14. Superior Coherent Receivers for AF Relaying with Distributed Alamouti Code

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed


    Coherent receivers are derived for a pilot-symbol aided distributed Alamouti-coded system with imperfect channel state information. The derived coherent receivers do not perform channel estimation but rather use the received pilot signals for decoding. The derived receiver metrics use the statistics of the channel to give improved performance. The performance is further improved by using the decision history. Simulation results show that a performance gain of up to 1.8 dB can be achieved for the new receivers with decision history as compared with the conventional mismatched coherent receiver. © 2011 IEEE.

  15. Efficient structures for wideband digital receiver

    Wang Hong; Lu Youxin; Wang Xuegang; Wan Yonglun


    Digital receivers have become more and more popular in radar, communication, and electric warfare for the advantages compared with their analog counterparts. But conventional digital receivers have been generally considered impractical for bandwidth greater than several hundreds MHz. To extend receiver bandwidth, decrease data rate and save hardware resources, three novel structures are proposed. They decimate the data stream prior to mixing and filtering, then process the multiple decimated streams in parallel at a lower rate. Consequently it is feasible to realize wideband receivers on the current ASIC devices. A design example and corresponding simulation results are demonstrated to evaluate the proposed structures.

  16. Digital Receiver for Laser Imaging Radar

    WANG Wei Ran; SUN Bing


    With the extension of the application domains for laser imaging radar,it is necessary to find a new technical way to obtain high technical performance and adaptive ability.In this paper,A new concept of digital receiver of laser imaging radar system is presented.This digital receiver is defined as a time varying parameter receiver which possesses large dynamics region and time domain filter.The receiver's mode,component structure as well as every function of its processing are described.The results and laboratorial data show the feasibility of digital reception.Also,it can exploit the inherent nature of laser imaging radar to obtain high probability of detection.

  17. Coherent receiving efficiency in satellite-ground coherent laser communication system based on analysis of polarization

    Hao, Shiqi; Zhang, Dai; Zhao, Qingsong; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Qi


    Aimed at analyzing the coherent receiving efficiency of a satellite-ground coherent laser communication system, polarization state of the received light is analyzed. We choose the circularly polarized, partially coherent laser as transmitted light source. The analysis process includes 3 parts. Firstly, an theoretical model to analyze received light's polarization state is constructed based on Gaussian-Schell model (GSM) and cross spectral density function matrix. Then, analytic formulas to calculate coherent receiving efficiency are derived in which both initial ellipticity modification and deflection angle between polarization axes of the received light and the intrinsic light are considered. At last, numerical simulations are operated based on our study. The research findings investigate variations of polarization state and obtain analytic formulas to calculate the coherent receiving efficiency. Our study has theoretical guiding significances in construction and optimization of satellite-ground coherent laser communication system.

  18. Coherence measurement with digital micromirror device.

    Partanen, Henri; Turunen, Jari; Tervo, Jani


    We measure the complex-valued spatial coherence function of a multimode broad-area laser diode using Young's classical double slit experiment realized with a digital micromirror device. We use this data to construct the coherent modes of the beam and to simulate its propagation before and after the measurement plane. When comparing the results to directly measured intensity profiles, we find excellent correspondence to the extent that even small details of the beam can be predicted. We also consider the number of measurement points required to model the beam with sufficient accuracy.

  19. Special design topics in digital wideband receivers

    Tsui, James B Y


    Offering engineers a thorough examination of special, more advanced aspects of digital wideband receiver design, this practical book builds on fundamental resources on the topic, helping you gain a more comprehensive understanding of the subject. This in-depth volume presents a detailed look at a complete receiver design, including the encoder. Moreover, it discusses the detection of exotic signals and provides authoritative guidance on designing receivers used in electronic warfare. From frequency modulation and biphase shifting keys, to parameter encoders in electronic warfare receivers and

  20. Coherent detection and digital signal processing for fiber optic communications

    Ip, Ezra

    The drive towards higher spectral efficiency in optical fiber systems has generated renewed interest in coherent detection. We review different detection methods, including noncoherent, differentially coherent, and coherent detection, as well as hybrid detection methods. We compare the modulation methods that are enabled and their respective performances in a linear regime. An important system parameter is the number of degrees of freedom (DOF) utilized in transmission. Polarization-multiplexed quadrature-amplitude modulation maximizes spectral efficiency and power efficiency as it uses all four available DOF contained in the two field quadratures in the two polarizations. Dual-polarization homodyne or heterodyne downconversion are linear processes that can fully recover the received signal field in these four DOF. When downconverted signals are sampled at the Nyquist rate, compensation of transmission impairments can be performed using digital signal processing (DSP). Software based receivers benefit from the robustness of DSP, flexibility in design, and ease of adaptation to time-varying channels. Linear impairments, including chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization-mode dispersion (PMD), can be compensated quasi-exactly using finite impulse response filters. In practical systems, sampling the received signal at 3/2 times the symbol rate is sufficient to enable an arbitrary amount of CD and PMD to be compensated for a sufficiently long equalizer whose tap length scales linearly with transmission distance. Depending on the transmitted constellation and the target bit error rate, the analog-to-digital converter (ADC) should have around 5 to 6 bits of resolution. Digital coherent receivers are naturally suited for the implementation of feedforward carrier recovery, which has superior linewidth tolerance than phase-locked loops, and does not suffer from feedback delay constraints. Differential bit encoding can be used to prevent catastrophic receiver failure due

  1. Radio over fiber link with adaptive order n‐QAM optical phase modulated OFDM and digital coherent detection

    Arlunno, Valeria; Borkowski, Robert; Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil


    Successful digital coherent demodulation of asynchronous optical phase‐modulated adaptive order QAM (4, 16, and 64) orthogonal frequency division multiplexing signals is achieved by a single reconfigurable digital receiver after 78 km of optical deployed fiber transmission....

  2. Experimental demonstration of the maximum likelihood-based chromatic dispersion estimator for coherent receivers

    Borkowski, Robert; Johannisson, Pontus; Wymeersch, Henk;


    We perform an experimental investigation of a maximum likelihood-based (ML-based) algorithm for bulk chromatic dispersion estimation for digital coherent receivers operating in uncompensated optical networks. We demonstrate the robustness of the method at low optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) ...

  3. Coherent resonant Ka-band photonic microwave receiver

    Ilchenko, Vladimir S; Savchenkov, Anatoliy A; Seidel, David; Matsko, Andrey B; Maleki, Lute


    We propose theoretically and demonstrate experimentally a coherent microwave photonic receiver operating at 35 GHz carrier frequency. The device is based on a lithium niobate or lithium tantalate optical whispering gallery mode resonator coupled to a microwave strip line resonator. Microwave local oscillator is fed into the microwave resonator along with the microwave signal. We show that the sensitivity of this receiver significantly exceeds the sensitivity of the incoherent quadratic receiver based on the same technology. The coherent receiver can possess a dynamic range in excess of 100 dB in 5 MHz band if a low noise laser is utilized.

  4. Wide-band coherent receiver development for enhanced surveillance

    Simpson, M.L.; Richards, R.K.; Hutchinson, D.P.


    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has been developing advanced coherent IR heterodyne receivers for plasma diagnostics in fusion reactors for over 20 years. Recent progress in wide band IR detectors and high speed electronics has significantly enhanced the measurement capabilities of coherent receivers. In addition, developments in new HgCdTe and quantum well IR photodetector (QWIP) focal plane arrays are providing the possibility of both active and passive coherent imaging. In this paper the authors discuss the implications of these new enabling technologies to the IR remote sensing community for enhanced surveillance. Coherent receivers, as opposed to direct or thermal detection, provide multiple dimensions of information about a scene or target in a single detector system. Combinations of range, velocity, temperature, and chemical species information are all available from a coherent heterodyne receiver. They present laboratory data showing measured noise equivalent power (NEP) of new QWIP detectors with heterodyne bandwidths greater than 7 GHz. For absorption measurements, a wide band coherent receiver provides the capability of looking between CO{sub 2} lines at off-resonance peaks and thus the measurement of lines normally inaccessible with conventional heterodyne or direct detection systems. Also described are differential absorption lidar (DIAL) and Doppler laboratory measurements using an 8 x 8 HgCdTe focal plane array demonstrating the snapshot capability of coherent receiver detector arrays for enhanced chemical plume and moving hardbody capture. Finally they discuss a variety of coherent receiver configurations that can suppress (or enhance) sensitivity of present active remote sensing systems to speckle, glint, and other measurement anomalies.

  5. Effects of laser phase noise on the performance of optical coherent receivers

    LIU Ji-hong; LI Zhao-lin; LIANG Meng


    Laser phase noise (LPN) plays an important role in optical coherent systems.Based on the algorithm of Viterbi-Viterbi carrier phase estimation (CPE),the effects of LPN imposed on the coherent receivers are investigated for quadrature phase shift keying (QPSK),8 phase shift keying (8PSK) and 16-quadrature amplitude modulation (16-QAM) optical coherent systems,respectively.The simulation results show that the optimal block length in the phase estimation algorithm is a tradeoff between LPN and additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN),and depends on the level of modulation formats.The resolution requirements of analog to digital converter (ADC) in the coherent receivers are independent of LPN or the level of modulation formats.For the bit error rate (BER) of 10-3,the required bit number of ADC is 6,and the gain is marginal for the higher resolution.

  6. Digital signal processing techniques for coherent optical communication

    Goldfarb, Gilad

    Coherent detection with subsequent digital signal processing (DSP) is developed, analyzed theoretically and numerically and experimentally demonstrated in various fiber-optic transmission scenarios. The use of DSP in conjunction with coherent detection unleashes the benefits of coherent detection which rely on the preservaton of full information of the incoming field. These benefits include high receiver sensitivity, the ability to achieve high spectral-efficiency and the use of advanced modulation formats. With the immense advancements in DSP speeds, many of the problems hindering the use of coherent detection in optical transmission systems have been eliminated. Most notably, DSP alleviates the need for hardware phase-locking and polarization tracking, which can now be achieved in the digital domain. The complexity previously associated with coherent detection is hence significantly diminished and coherent detection is once gain considered a feasible detection alternative. In this thesis, several aspects of coherent detection (with or without subsequent DSP) are addressed. Coherent detection is presented as a means to extend the dispersion limit of a duobinary signal using an analog decision-directed phase-lock loop. Analytical bit-error ratio estimation for quadrature phase-shift keying signals is derived. To validate the promise for high spectral efficiency, the orthogonal-wavelength-division multiplexing scheme is suggested. In this scheme the WDM channels are spaced at the symbol rate, thus achieving the spectral efficiency limit. Theory, simulation and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of this approach. Infinite impulse response filtering is shown to be an efficient alternative to finite impulse response filtering for chromatic dispersion compensation. Theory, design considerations, simulation and experimental results relating to this topic are presented. Interaction between fiber dispersion and nonlinearity remains the last major challenge

  7. Coherent bremsstrahlung used for digital subtraction angiography

    Überall, Herbert


    Digital subtraction angiography (DSA), also known as Dichromography, using synchrotron radiation beams has been developed at Stanford University (R. Hofstadter) and was subsequently taken over at the Brookhaven Synchrotron and later at Hamburg (HASYLAB) [see, e.g., W.R. Dix, Physik in unserer Zeit. 30 (1999) 160]. The imaging of coronary arteries is carried out with an iodine-based contrast agent which need not be injected into the heart. The radiation must be monochromatized and is applied above and below the K-edge of iodine (33.16 keV), with a subsequent digital subtraction of the two images. Monochromatization of the synchrotron radiation causes a loss of intensity of 10 -3. We propose instead the use of coherent bremsstrahlung [see, e.g., A.W. Saenz and H. Uberall, Phys. Rev. B25 (1982) 448] which is inherently monochromatic, furnishing a flux of 10 12 photon/sec. This requires a 10-20 MeV electron linac which can be obtained by many larger hospitals, eliminating the scheduling problems present at synchrotrons. The large, broad incoherent bremsstrahlung background underlying the monochromatic spike would lead to inadmissible overexposure of the patient. This problem can be solved with the use of Kumakhov's capillary optics [see e.g., S.B.Dabagov, Physics-Uspekhi 46 (2003) 1053]: the low-energy spiked radiation can be deflected towards the patient, while the higher energy incoherent background continues forward, avoiding the patient who is placed several meters from the source.

  8. Error performance analysis of coherent DCSK chaotic digital communication systems

    李玉霞; 吴百海; 王光义; 丘水生


    An approach to calculating the approximate bit error rates for coherent DCSK in an AWGN channel is presented. By using logistic as the chaos generator and assuming ideal synchronization at the receiver, the BER of coherent DCSK in an AWGN channel is derived. The theoretical noise performance of coherent DCSK is again derived and is equal to that of coherent FSK. By computing and simulating, the theoretical BERs agree well with the simulated results.

  9. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad


    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. {\\em Phys. Rev. Lett.}\\ {\\bf 2011}, {\\em 106}, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  10. Quantum memory receiver for superadditive communication using binary coherent states.

    Klimek, Aleksandra; Jachura, Michał; Wasilewski, Wojciech; Banaszek, Konrad


    We propose a simple architecture based on multimode quantum memories for collective readout of classical information keyed using a pair coherent states, exemplified by the well-known binary phase shift keying format. Such a configuration enables demonstration of the superadditivity effect in classical communication over quantum channels, where the transmission rate becomes enhanced through joint detection applied to multiple channel uses. The proposed scheme relies on the recently introduced idea to prepare Hadamard sequences of input symbols that are mapped by a linear optical transformation onto the pulse position modulation format [Guha, S. Phys. Rev. Lett.2011, 106, 240502]. We analyze two versions of readout based on direct detection and an optional Dolinar receiver which implements the minimum-error measurement for individual detection of a binary coherent state alphabet.

  11. Coherent integrated receiver for highly linear microwave photonic links

    Klamkin, Jonathan

    Phase modulation can be used to improve the signal-to-noise ratio and spurfree dynamic range (SFDR) of microwave photonic links because phase modulation is not limited in input modulation swing and is inherently linear using certain electro-optic devices. Traditional interferometer-based phase demodulators have a sinusoidal response therefore a novel approach is required for achieving linear coherent detection at the receive end of a photonic link employing phase modulation. In this work, a balanced receiver with feedback to a reference tracking phase modulator was developed. With sufficient feedback loop gain, the received signal phase is closely tracked and the phase detection falls within the linear regime of the interferometer response. For stable operation at high frequency the delay of the feedback loop must be kept short, therefore a monolithic approach is required to realize a compact receiver architecture. The monolithic photonic integrated circuit (PIC) developed here consists of a high power balanced uni-traveling-carrier photodiode (UTC-PD), a compact 2x2 multimode interference (MMI) coupler, and multi-quantum well reference phase modulators. This PIC is hybrid integrated with an electronic IC that provides transconductance amplification of the feedback signal for increased loop gain. Novel concepts such as charge compensation, partially depleted absorption, and absorption profile modification were incorporated into the design of the waveguide UTCPDs resulting in record output saturation current and linearity. Both general interference surface ridge (SR) MMI couplers and restricted interference deep ridge (DR) MMI couplers were explored, the latter for reducing the loop delay. Current injection tuning was incorporated into the MMI couplers for fine tuning the output power splitting ratio. The quantum well design of the reference phase modulators was optimized for realizing low Vpi, low insertion loss, low absorption modulation, and improved linearity

  12. Digital Photonic Receivers for Wireless and Wireline Optical Fiber Transmission Links

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil

    investigations on the performance of data-aided optical channel estimation based on constant-amplitude zero-autocorrelation (CAZAC) sequences for 112 Gb/s polarization-diversity coherent optical fiber transmission links. The benefits of introducing digital signal processing functions in optically envelope......This PhD thesis addresses the design and performance evaluation of digital photonic receivers in hybrid optical fiber-wireless transmission systems. The research results presented in this thesis are pioneering in two areas. First, it is shown the first experimental demonstration of automatic...... demodulation of signals with mixed modulation formats and bit rates in a single digital coherent photonic receiver. The demodulated signals were generated on baseband and optical phase-modulated (PM) radio-over-fiber (RoF) systems. Secondly, it is presented the first known analytical and numerical...

  13. Coherent optical array receiver for PPM signals under atmospheric turbulence

    Munoz Fernandez, Michela

    The performance of a coherent free-space optical communications system operating in the presence of turbulence is investigated. Maximum Likelihood Detection techniques are employed to optimally detect Pulse Position Modulated signals with a focal-plane detector array and to reconstruct the turbulence-degraded signals. Laboratory equipment and experimental setup used to carry out these experiments at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory are described. The key components include two lasers operating at 1064 nm wavelength for use with coherent detection, a 16 element (4 X 4) InGaAs focal-plane detector array, and a data-acquisition and signal-processing assembly needed to sample and collect the data and analyze the results. The detected signals are combined using the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. In the first part of the experimental results we show convergence of the algorithm for experimentally obtained signal tones in the presence of atmospheric turbulence. The second part of the experimental results shows adaptive combining of experimentally obtained heterodyned pulse position modulated (PPM) signals with pulse-to-pulse coherence in the presence of simulated spatial distortions resembling atmospheric turbulence. The adaptively combined PPM signals are phased up via an LMS algorithm suitably optimized to operate with PPM in the presence of additive shot noise. A convergence analysis of the algorithm is presented, and results with both computer-simulated and experimentally obtained PPM signals are analyzed. The third part of the experimental results, in which the main goal of this thesis is achieved, includes an investigation of the performance of the Coherent Optical Receiver Experiment (CORE) at JPL. Bit Error Rate (BER) results are presented for single and multichannel optical receivers where quasi shot noise-limited performance is achieved under simulated turbulence conditions using noncoherent postdetection processing techniques. Theoretical BER expressions are

  14. Intermediate Frequency Digital Receiver Based on Multi-FPGA System

    Chengchang Zhang


    Full Text Available Aiming at high-cost, large-size, and inflexibility problems of traditional analog intermediate frequency receiver in the aerospace telemetry, tracking, and command (TTC system, we have proposed a new intermediate frequency (IF digital receiver based on Multi-FPGA system in this paper. Digital beam forming (DBF is realized by coordinated rotation digital computer (CORDIC algorithm. An experimental prototype has been developed on a compact Multi-FPGA system with three FPGAs to receive 16 channels of IF digital signals. Our experimental results show that our proposed scheme is able to provide a great convenience for the design of IF digital receiver, which offers a valuable reference for real-time, low power, high density, and small size receiver design.

  15. Digital coherent transceiver for optical communications: from design to implementation

    Anzuola Valencia, Esdras


    Establishing the basis of optical coherent transmission and detection which exploit digital signal processing (DSP) to optimize the performance of optical communication systems. [ANGLÈS] In this project we analyze the theoretical models of optical coherent communication systems as well as the front-end arquitectures used to implement them. Key concepts as balanced photo detection and quantum limit are explained and studied. Complex modulation schemes maximize spectral efficiency and power ...

  16. Digital Monopulse Receivers for Phase Modulated Signals


    Mateo Burgos-García, Gema Ferreiro-Collar, Alberto Asensio Ló Grupo de Microondas y Dpto. Señales, Sistemas y Radio E.T.S.I. Telecomunic Universidad...Politécnica d Ciudad Universitaria 28040 Madrid, Spa Email: mateo@gmr.ssr. Digital Monopulse Rec Modulated Si T ∆ Σ Z1(t) Z2(t)log-amplifier of each...Microondas y Radar Dpto. Señales, Sistemas y Radiocomunicaciones E.T.S.I. Telecomunicación Universidad Politécnica de Madrid Ciudad Universitaria s/n

  17. Experimental demonstration of multi-aperture digital coherent combining over a 3.2-km free-space link

    Geisler, D. J.; Yarnall, T. M.; Schieler, C. M.; Stevens, M. L.; Robinson, B. S.; Hamilton, S. A.


    The next generation free-space optical communications infrastructure will need to support a wide variety of space-to-ground links. As a result of the limited size, weight, and power on space-borne assets, the ground terminals need to scale efficiently to large collection areas to support extremely long link distances or high data rates. Recent advances in integrated digital coherent receivers enable the coherent combining (i.e., full-field addition) of signals from several small apertures to synthesize an effective single large aperture. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate the coherent combining of signals received by four independent receive chains after propagation through a 3:2-km atmospheric channel. Measured results show the practicality of coherently combining the four received signals via digital signal processing after transmission through a turbulent atmosphere. In particular, near-lossless combining is demonstrated using the technique of maximal ratio combining.

  18. A Digital-Receiver for the Murchison Widefield Array

    Prabu, Thiagaraj; Roshi, D Anish; Kamini, P A; Madhavi, S; Emrich, David; Crosse, Brian; Williams, Andrew J; Waterson, Mark; Deshpande, Avinash A; Shankar, N Udaya; Subrahmanyan, Ravi; Briggs, Frank H; Goeke, Robert F; Tingay, Steven J; Johnston-Hollitt, Melanie; R, Gopalakrishna M; Morgan, Edward H; Pathikulangara, Joseph; Bunton, John D; Hampson, Grant; Williams, Christopher; Ord, Stephen M; Wayth, Randall B; Kumar, Deepak; Morales, Miguel F; deSouza, Ludi; Kratzenberg, Eric; Pallot, D; McWhirter, Russell; Hazelton, Bryna J; Arcus, Wayne; Barnes, David G; Bernardi, Gianni; Booler, T; Bowman, Judd D; Cappallo, Roger J; Corey, Brian E; Greenhill, Lincoln J; Herne, David; Hewitt, Jacqueline N; Kaplan, David L; Kasper, Justin C; Kincaid, Barton B; Koenig, Ronald; Lonsdale, Colin J; Lynch, Mervyn J; Mitchell, Daniel A; Oberoi, Divya; Remillard, Ronald A; Rogers, Alan E; Salah, Joseph E; Sault, Robert J; Stevens, Jamie B; Tremblay, S E; Webster, Rachel L; Whitney, Alan R; Wyithe, Stuart B


    An FPGA-based digital-receiver has been developed for a low-frequency imaging radio interferometer, the Murchison Widefield Array (MWA). The MWA, located at the Murchison Radio-astronomy Observatory (MRO) in Western Australia, consists of 128 dual-polarized aperture-array elements (tiles) operating between 80 and 300\\,MHz, with a total processed bandwidth of 30.72 MHz for each polarization. Radio-frequency signals from the tiles are amplified and band limited using analog signal conditioning units; sampled and channelized by digital-receivers. The signals from eight tiles are processed by a single digital-receiver, thus requiring 16 digital-receivers for the MWA. The main function of the digital-receivers is to digitize the broad-band signals from each tile, channelize them to form the sky-band, and transport it through optical fibers to a centrally located correlator for further processing. The digital-receiver firmware also implements functions to measure the signal power, perform power equalization across ...

  19. A digital receiver module with direct data acquisition for magnetic resonance imaging systems.

    Tang, Weinan; Sun, Hongyu; Wang, Weimin


    A digital receiver module for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with detailed hardware implementations is presented. The module is based on a direct sampling scheme using the latest mixed-signal circuit design techniques. A single field-programmable gate array chip is employed to perform software-based digital down conversion for radio frequency signals. The modular architecture of the receiver allows multiple acquisition channels to be implemented on a highly integrated printed circuit board. To maintain the phase coherence of the receiver and the exciter in the context of direct sampling, an effective phase synchronization method was proposed to achieve a phase deviation as small as 0.09°. The performance of the described receiver module was verified in the experiments for both low- and high-field (0.5 T and 1.5 T) MRI scanners and was compared to a modern commercial MRI receiver system.

  20. Coherent imaging with incoherent light in digital holographic microscopy

    Chmelik, Radim


    Digital holographic microscope (DHM) allows for imaging with a quantitative phase contrast. In this way it becomes an important instrument, a completely non-invasive tool for a contrast intravital observation of living cells and a cell drymass density distribution measurement. A serious drawback of current DHMs is highly coherent illumination which makes the lateral resolution worse and impairs the image quality by a coherence noise and a parasitic interference. An uncompromising solution to this problem can be found in the Leith concept of incoherent holography. An off-axis hologram can be formed with arbitrary degree of light coherence in systems equipped with an achromatic interferometer and thus the resolution and the image quality typical for an incoherent-light wide-field microscopy can be achieved. In addition, advanced imaging modes based on limited coherence can be utilized. The typical example is a coherence-gating effect which provides a finite axial resolution and makes DHM image similar to that of a confocal microscope. These possibilities were described theoretically using the formalism of three-dimensional coherent transfer functions and proved experimentally by the coherence-controlled holographic microscope which is DHM based on the Leith achromatic interferometer. Quantitative-phase-contrast imaging is demonstrated with incoherent light by the living cancer cells observation and their motility evaluation. The coherence-gating effect was proved by imaging of model samples through a scattering layer and living cells inside an opalescent medium.

  1. Interference mitigation for simultaneous transmit and receive applications on digital phased array systems

    Snow, Trevor M.

    As analog-to-digital (ADC) and digital-to-analog conversion (DAC) technologies become cheaper and digital processing capabilities improve, phased array systems with digital transceivers at every element will become more commonplace. These architectures offer greater capability over traditional analog systems and enable advanced applications such as multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) communications, adaptive beamforming, space-time adaptive processing (STAP), and MIMO for radar. Capabilities for such systems are still limited by the need for isolating self-interference from transmitters at co-located receivers. The typical approach of time-sharing the antenna aperture between transmitters and receivers works but leaves the receivers blind for a period of time. For full-duplex operation, some systems use separate frequency bands for transmission and reception, but these require fixed filtering which reduces the system's ability to adapt to its environment and is also an inefficient use of spectral resources. To that end, tunable, high quality-factor filters are used for sub-band isolation and protect receivers while allowing open reception at other frequencies. For more flexibility, another emergent area of related research has focused on co-located spatial isolation using multiple antennas and direct injection of interference cancellation signals into receivers, which enables same-frequency full-duplex operation. With all these methods, self-interference must be reduced by an amount that prevents saturation of the ADC. Intermodulation products generated in the receiver in this process can potentially be problematic, as certain intermodulation products may appear to come from a particular angle and cohere in the beamformer. This work explores various digital phased array architectures and the how the flexibility afforded by an all-digital beamforming architecture, layered with other methods of isolation, can be used to reduce self-interference within the system

  2. Digital signal processor and processing method for GPS receivers

    Thomas, Jr., Jess B. (Inventor)


    A digital signal processor and processing method therefor for use in receivers of the NAVSTAR/GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS) employs a digital carrier down-converter, digital code correlator and digital tracking processor. The digital carrier down-converter and code correlator consists of an all-digital, minimum bit implementation that utilizes digital chip and phase advancers, providing exceptional control and accuracy in feedback phase and in feedback delay. Roundoff and commensurability errors can be reduced to extremely small values (e.g., less than 100 nanochips and 100 nanocycles roundoff errors and 0.1 millichip and 1 millicycle commensurability errors). The digital tracking processor bases the fast feedback for phase and for group delay in the C/A, P.sub.1, and P.sub.2 channels on the L.sub.1 C/A carrier phase thereby maintaining lock at lower signal-to-noise ratios, reducing errors in feedback delays, reducing the frequency of cycle slips and in some cases obviating the need for quadrature processing in the P channels. Simple and reliable methods are employed for data bit synchronization, data bit removal and cycle counting. Improved precision in averaged output delay values is provided by carrier-aided data-compression techniques. The signal processor employs purely digital operations in the sense that exactly the same carrier phase and group delay measurements are obtained, to the last decimal place, every time the same sampled data (i.e., exactly the same bits) are processed.

  3. Digital-data receiver synchronization method and apparatus

    Smith, Stephen F [Loudon, TN; Turner, Gary W [Clinton, TN


    Digital data receiver synchronization is provided with composite phase-frequency detectors, mutually cross-connected comparison feedback or both to provide robust reception of digital data signals. A single master clock can be used to provide frequency signals. Advantages can include fast lock-up time in moderately to severely noisy conditions, greater tolerance to noise and jitter when locked, and improved tolerance to clock asymmetries.

  4. Monobit Digital Receivers for QPSK: Design, Analysis and Performance

    Wang, Zhiyong; Zhang, Wenyi; Wei, Guo


    Future communication system requires large bandwidth to achieve high data rate up to multigigabit/ sec, which makes analog-to-digital (ADC) become a key bottleneck for the implementation of digital receivers due to its high complexity and large power consumption. Therefore, monobit receivers for BPSK have been proposed to address this problem. In this work, QPSK modulation is considered for higher data rate. First, the optimal receiver based on monobit ADC with Nyquist sampling is derived, and its corresponding performance in the form of deflection ratio is calculated. Then a suboptimal but more practical monobit receiver is obtained, along with iterative demodulation and small sample removal. The effect of the imbalances between the In-phase (I) and Quadrature-phase (Q) branches, including the amplitude and phase imbalances, is carefully investigated too. To combat the performance loss caused by IQ imbalances, monobit receivers based on double training sequences are proposed. Numerical simulations show that ...

  5. Digital Front End for Wide-Band VLBI Science Receiver

    Jongeling, Andre; Sigman, Elliott; Navarro, Robert; Goodhart, Charles; Rogstad, Steve; Chandra, Kumar; Finley, Sue; Trinh, Joseph; Soriano, Melissa; White, Les; hide


    An upgrade to the very-long-baseline-interferometry (VLBI) science receiver (VSR) a radio receiver used in NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is currently being implemented. The current VSR samples standard DSN intermediate- frequency (IF) signals at 256 MHz and after digital down-conversion records data from up to four 16-MHz baseband channels. Currently, IF signals are limited to the 265-to-375-MHz range, and recording rates are limited to less than 80 Mbps. The new digital front end, denoted the Wideband VSR, provides improvements to enable the receiver to process wider bandwidth signals and accommodate more data channels for recording. The Wideband VSR utilizes state-of-the-art commercial analog-to-digital converter and field-programmable gate array (FPGA) integrated circuits, and fiber-optic connections in a custom architecture. It accepts IF signals from 100 to 600 MHz, sampling the signal at 1.28 GHz. The sample data are sent to a digital processing module, using a fiber-optic link for isolation. The digital processing module includes boards designed around an Advanced Telecom Computing Architecture (ATCA) industry-standard backplane. Digital signal processing implemented in FPGAs down-convert the data signals in up to 16 baseband channels with programmable bandwidths from 1 kHz to 16 MHz. Baseband samples are transmitted to a computer via multiple Ethernet connections allowing recording to disk at rates of up to 1 Gbps.

  6. Normalized Design of Multi-channel LIF Digital Receiver

    方航锋; 郁发兴; 汪海航


    A design method for parallel processing application on multi-channel low-intermediate-frequency(LIF) digital receiver was presented. It is based on the DSP sub-array with a simple topology and operation timing to evaluate and determine the processing capability and then construct the parallel processing array for multi-channel signals according to the restriction of operation timing. Using this method, the design of multi-channel digital receiver may be simplified. Finally, a design example was used to show how to apply this method.

  7. Differential on-on keying: A robust non-coherent digital modulation scheme

    Kaddoum, Georges


    A robust digital modulation scheme, called differential on-on keying (DOOK), is presented in this paper which outperforms the conventional on-off keying (OOK). In this scheme, a sinusoidal signal is transmitted during the first half of the bit duration while a replica or an inverted version of the sinusoidal signal is transmitted during the second half for logic one or logic zero, respectively. Non-coherent receiver correlates the two halves of the received signal over half bit duration to construct a decision variable. Bit error performance is analyzed over AWGN and Rayleigh fading channels and compared to the conventional OOK.

  8. Efficient Parallel Carrier Recovery for Ultrahigh Speed Coherent QAM Receivers with Application to Optical Channels

    Pablo Gianni


    Full Text Available This work presents a new efficient parallel carrier recovery architecture suitable for ultrahigh speed intradyne coherent optical receivers (e.g., ≥100 Gb/s with quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM. The proposed scheme combines a novel low-latency parallel digital phase locked loop (DPLL with a feedforward carrier phase recovery (CPR algorithm. The new low-latency parallel DPLL is designed to compensate not only carrier frequency offset but also frequency fluctuations such as those induced by mechanical vibrations or power supply noise. Such carrier frequency fluctuations must be compensated since they lead to higher phase error variance in traditional feedforward CPR techniques, significantly degrading the receiver performance. In order to enable a parallel-processing implementation in multigigabit per second receivers, a new approximation to the DPLL computation is introduced. The proposed technique reduces the latency within the feedback loop of the DPLL introduced by parallel processing, while at the same time it provides a bandwidth and capture range close to those achieved by a serial DPLL. Simulation results demonstrate that the effects caused by frequency deviations can be eliminated with the proposed low latency parallel carrier recovery architecture.

  9. Synthesis of digital locomotive receiver of automatic locomotive signaling

    K. V. Goncharov


    Full Text Available Purpose. Automatic locomotive signaling of continuous type with a numeric coding (ALSN has several disadvantages: a small number of signal indications, low noise stability, high inertia and low functional flexibility. Search for new and more advanced methods of signal processing for automatic locomotive signaling, synthesis of the noise proof digital locomotive receiver are essential. Methodology. The proposed algorithm of detection and identification locomotive signaling codes is based on the definition of mutual correlations of received oscillation and reference signals. For selecting threshold levels of decision element the following criterion has been formulated: the locomotive receiver should maximum set the correct solution for a given probability of dangerous errors. Findings. It has been found that the random nature of the ALSN signal amplitude does not affect the detection algorithm. However, the distribution law and numeric characteristics of signal amplitude affect the probability of errors, and should be considered when selecting a threshold levels According to obtained algorithm of detection and identification ALSN signals the digital locomotive receiver has been synthesized. It contains band pass filter, peak limiter, normalizing amplifier with automatic gain control circuit, analog to digital converter and digital signal processor. Originality. The ALSN system is improved by the way of the transfer of technical means to modern microelectronic element base, more perfect methods of detection and identification codes of locomotive signaling are applied. Practical value. Use of digital technology in the construction of the locomotive receiver ALSN will expand its functionality, will increase the noise immunity and operation stability of the locomotive signal system in conditions of various destabilizing factors.

  10. Design and Implementation of a Cueing Wideband Digital EW Receiver

    ZHU Jun; TANG Bin; WU Wei; JIANG Zong-ming; ZHANG Chang-ju; YIN Mao-wei; DEN Ming-yi; DU Dong-ping


    A cueing wideband digital Electronic Warfare (EW) receiver is presented. The proposed receiver, which is to measure the instantaneous frequency and bandwidth of the intercept short-duration pulse radar signals that cue and match the corresponding ones, meets the requirements of good sensitivity and dynamic range for EW and can save hardware resources greatly as well. In addition, real-time signal processing, which is the main bottleneck for covering a wide instantaneous frequency band for EW receiver, is better solved in the proposed design structure. The highly efficient implementation and good parameter estimation algorithms are proposed as well. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that this structure is feasible.

  11. Design of BPS digital frontend for software defined radio receiver

    王洪梅; KIM Jae-hyung; 王法广; LEE Sang-hyuk; 王雪松


    In radio receivers, complete implementation of the software defined radio (SDR) concept is mainly limited by frontend. Based on bandpass sampling (BPS) theory, a flexible digital frontend (DFE) platform for SDR receiver is designed. In order to increase the processing speed, Gigabit Ethernet was applied in the platform at speed of 5×108 bit/s. By appropriate design of interpolant according to the position of input RF signals, multi-band receiving can be realized in the platform with suppression more than 35 dB without changing hardware.

  12. Digital terrestrial broadcasting receiver in the U.K; Eikoku chijoha digital hoso jushinki



    Digital terrestrial broadcasting is broadcasted in parallel with existing UHF analog broadcasting, whereas each of allocated channel frequencies can transmit five to six programs simultaneously. Each home can receive a number of programs with the existing antenna without a need of installing a new satellite antenna or cable. Among the countries of the world running forward to digitization of broadcasting all at once, the U.K. develops advancing movements and leads the world by starting the digital terrestrial broadcasting. In addition to the digitized broadcasting of conventional analog broadcasting programs, the `Ondigitals` (broadcasting operators) have started newly the pay broadcasting. Toshiba has been selected as one of the six developers and manufacturers of digital terrestrial broadcasting receivers, and has developed the digital terrestrial broadcasting receiver DTB2000. For the modulation system, the orthogonal frequency division multiplex (OFDM) was chosen as a system being strong against ghost and most suitable for digital terrestrial broadcasting. In addition, the receiver is equipped with software download function by using the broadcasting waves, and the common interface being the communication specification specified in the DVB (digital video broadcasting) to provide future function expandability. (translated by NEDO)

  13. Experimental demonstration of quantum digital signatures using phase-encoded coherent states of light.

    Clarke, Patrick J; Collins, Robert J; Dunjko, Vedran; Andersson, Erika; Jeffers, John; Buller, Gerald S


    Digital signatures are frequently used in data transfer to prevent impersonation, repudiation and message tampering. Currently used classical digital signature schemes rely on public key encryption techniques, where the complexity of so-called 'one-way' mathematical functions is used to provide security over sufficiently long timescales. No mathematical proofs are known for the long-term security of such techniques. Quantum digital signatures offer a means of sending a message, which cannot be forged or repudiated, with security verified by information-theoretical limits and quantum mechanics. Here we demonstrate an experimental system, which distributes quantum signatures from one sender to two receivers and enables message sending ensured against forging and repudiation. Additionally, we analyse the security of the system in some typical scenarios. Our system is based on the interference of phase-encoded coherent states of light and our implementation utilizes polarization-maintaining optical fibre and photons with a wavelength of 850 nm.

  14. A floating-point digital receiver for MRI.

    Hoenninger, John C; Crooks, Lawrence E; Arakawa, Mitsuaki


    A magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system requires the highest possible signal fidelity and stability for clinical applications. Quadrature analog receivers have problems with channel matching, dc offset and analog-to-digital linearity. Fixed-point digital receivers (DRs) reduce all of these problems. We have demonstrated that a floating-point DR using large (order 124 to 512) FIR low-pass filters also overcomes these problems, automatically provides long word length and has low latency between signals. A preloaded table of finite impuls response (FIR) filter coefficients provides fast switching between one of 129 different one-stage and two-stage multrate FIR low-pass filters with bandwidths between 4 KHz and 125 KHz. This design has been implemented on a dual channel circuit board for a commercial MRI system.

  15. Weather satellite picture receiving stations, APT digital scan converter

    Vermillion, C. H.; Kamowski, J. C.


    The automatic picture transmission digital scan converter is used at ground stations to convert signals received from scanning radiometers to data compatible with ground equipment designed to receive signals from vidicons aboard operational meteorological satellites. Information necessary to understand the circuit theory, functional operation, general construction and calibration of the converter is provided. Brief and detailed descriptions of each of the individual circuits are included, accompanied by a schematic diagram contained at the end of each circuit description. Listings of integral parts and testing equipment required as well as an overall wiring diagram are included. This unit will enable the user to readily accept and process weather photographs from the operational meteorological satellites.

  16. Design and implementation of the optical fiber control and transmission module in multi-channel broadband digital receiver

    Zhao, Ying-xiao; Zhang, Yue; Fan, Li-jie; Li, Wei-xing; Chen, Zeng-ping


    An optical fiber control and transmission module is designed and realized based on Virtex-7 field programmable gata array (FPGA), which can be applied in multi-channel broadband digital receivers. The module consists of sampling data transfer submodule and multi-channel synchronous sampling control submodule. The sampling data transmission in 4× fiber link channel is realized with the self-defined transfer protocol. The measured maximum data rate is 4.97 Gbyte/s. By connecting coherent clocks to the transmitter and receiver endpoints and using the self-defined transfer protocol, multi-channel sampling control signals transferred in optical fibers can be received synchronously by each analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with high accuracy and strong anti-interference ability. The module designed in this paper has certain reference value in increasing the transmission bandwidth and the synchronous sampling accuracy of multi-channel broadband digital receivers.

  17. Widely Linear Equalization for IQ Imbalance and Skew Compensation in Optical Coherent Receivers

    Porto da Silva, Edson; Zibar, Darko


    In this paper, an alternative approach to design linear equalization algorithms for optical coherent receivers is introduced. Using widely linear complex analysis, a general analytical model it is shown, where In-phase/quadrature (IQ) imbalances and IQ skew at the coherent receiver front......, it is shown that, by applying the widely linear complex analysis, one can derive a complex-valued adaptive equalizer structure which is able to compensate for linear IQ-mixing effects at the receiver front-end. By extensive numerical simulations, the performance versus complexity of the proposed equalizer...

  18. Quantum displacement receiver for M-ary phase-shift-keyed coherent states

    Izumi, Shuro [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795, Japan and Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan); Takeoka, Masahiro; Fujiwara, Mikio; Sasaki, Masahide [National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, 4-2-1 Nukui-kita, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8795 (Japan); Pozza, Nicola Dalla; Assalini, Antonio [Department of Information Engineering, University of Padua, Via Gradenigo 6/B, 35131, Padova (Italy); Ema, Kazuhiro [Sophia University, 7-1 Kioicho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-8554 (Japan)


    We propose quantum receivers for 3- and 4-ary phase-shift-keyed (PSK) coherent state signals to overcome the standard quantum limit (SQL). Our receiver, consisting of a displacement operation and on-off detectors with or without feedforward, provides an error probability performance beyond the SQL. We show feedforward operations can tolerate the requirement for the detector specifications.

  19. Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8-Channel Digital Phased Array


    Receive (STAR) could provide significant benefits for many applications including communications, radar, spectral sens- ing, and multifunctional...shown in Fig . 1. Transmit digital beamforming is used to reduce the total coupled power at each receive element, allowing the receive array to maintain...Canceller Receive Digital Beamfomer Isolated Receive SignalTransmit Signal ALSTAR Transmit Elements ALSTAR Receive Elements ... ... Fig . 1

  20. Development of wide band digital receiver for atmospheric radars using COTS board based SDR

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Thriveni, A.


    Digital receiver extracts the received echo signal information, and is a potential subsystem for atmospheric radar, also referred to as wind profiling radar (WPR), which provides the vertical profiles of 3-dimensional wind vector in the atmosphere. This paper presents the development of digital receiver using COTS board based Software Defined Radio technique, which can be used for atmospheric radars. The developmental work is being carried out at National Atmospheric Research Laboratory (NARL), Gadanki. The digital receiver consists of a commercially available software defined radio (SDR) board called as universal software radio peripheral B210 (USRP B210) and a personal computer. USRP B210 operates over a wider frequency range from 70 MHz to 6 GHz and hence can be used for variety of radars like Doppler weather radars operating in S/C bands, in addition to wind profiling radars operating in VHF, UHF and L bands. Due to the flexibility and re-configurability of SDR, where the component functionalities are implemented in software, it is easy to modify the software to receive the echoes and process them as per the requirement suitable for the type of the radar intended. Hence, USRP B210 board along with the computer forms a versatile digital receiver from 70 MHz to 6 GHz. It has an inbuilt direct conversion transceiver with two transmit and two receive channels, which can be operated in fully coherent 2x2 MIMO fashion and thus it can be used as a two channel receiver. Multiple USRP B210 boards can be synchronized using the pulse per second (PPS) input provided on the board, to configure multi-channel digital receiver system. RF gain of the transceiver can be varied from 0 to 70 dB. The board can be controlled from the computer via USB 3.0 interface through USRP hardware driver (UHD), which is an open source cross platform driver. The USRP B210 board is connected to the personal computer through USB 3.0. Reference (10 MHz) clock signal from the radar master oscillator

  1. Depth Compensated Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography via Digital Compensation

    Boroomand, Ameneh; Shafiee, Mohammad Javad; Bizheva, Kostadinka; Wong, Alexander


    Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography (SD-OCT) is a well-known imaging modality which allows for \\textit{in-vivo} visualization of the morphology of different biological tissues at cellular level resolutions. The overall SD-OCT imaging quality in terms of axial resolution and Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) degrades with imaging depth, while the lateral resolution degrades with distance from the focal plane. This image quality degradation is due both to the design of the SD-OCT imaging system and the optical properties of the imaged object. Here, we present a novel Depth Compensated SD-OCT (DC-OCT) system that integrates a Depth Compensating Digital Signal Processing (DC-DSP) module to improve the overall imaging quality via digital compensation. The designed DC-DSP module can be integrated to any SD-OCT system and is able to simultaneously compensate for the depth-dependent loss of axial and lateral resolutions, depth-varying SNR, as well as sidelobe artifact for improved imaging quality. The integrated D...

  2. Novel coherent receivers for AF distributed STBC using disintegrated channel estimation

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed


    For a single relay network, disintegrated channel estimation (DCE), where the source-relay channel is estimated at the relay and the relay-destination channel is estimated at the destination, gives better performance than the cascaded channel estimation. We derive novel receivers for the relay network with disintegrated channel estimation. The derived receivers do not require channel estimation at the destination, as they use the received pilot signals and the source-relay channel estimate for decoding directly. We also consider the effect of quantized source-relay channel estimate on the performance of the designed receivers. Simulation results show that a performance gain of up to 2.2 dB can be achieved by the new receivers, compared with the conventional mismatched coherent receiver with DCE. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Novel half-coherent receivers for amplify-and-forward relaying

    Khan, Fahd Ahmed


    Consider a system in which the signal is transmitted from the source to the destination via an amplify-and-forward relay. For such a system, we derive in this paper, novel receivers that have complete knowledge of either the source-relay link or the relay-destination link. These receivers are termed as, \\'half-coherent receivers\\' as they have channel-state-information (CSI) of only one of two links. These receivers can be very useful in a system in which only the relay can afford high complexity by having a channel estimation module and the destination is unable to support channel estimation or a system in which only the destination can afford higher complexity and includes the channel estimation module. The analytical bit-error-rate (BER) performances of the proposed receivers are derived for Rician fading. Numerical results show considerable performance gains of the new receivers, especially at low signal-to-noise ratio. © 2012 IEEE.

  4. Design guidelines for SAR digital receiver/exciter boards.

    Dudley, Peter A.


    High resolution radar systems generally require combining fast analog to digital converters and digital to analog converters with very high performance digital signal processing logic. These mixed analog and digital printed circuit boards present special challenges with respect to electromagnetic interference. This document first describes the mechanisms of interference on such boards then follows up with a discussion of prevention techniques and finally provides a checklist for designers to help avoid common mistakes.

  5. Performance of coherent and noncoherent RAKE receivers with convolutional coding ricean fading and pulse-noise interference

    Kowalske, Kyle E.


    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The performance of coherent and noncoherent RAKE receivers over a fading channel in the presence of pulse-noise interference and additive white Gaussian noise is analyzed. Coherent RAKE receivers require a pilot tone for coherent demodulation. Using a first order phase-lock-loop to recover a pilot tone with additive white Gaussian noise causes phase distortions at the phase-lock-loop output, which produce an irreducible phase noise err...

  6. Digital coherent superposition of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry for phase noise mitigation.

    Yi, Xingwen; Chen, Xuemei; Sharma, Dinesh; Li, Chao; Luo, Ming; Yang, Qi; Li, Zhaohui; Qiu, Kun


    Digital coherent superposition (DCS) provides an approach to combat fiber nonlinearities by trading off the spectrum efficiency. In analogy, we extend the concept of DCS to the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry to combat the linear and nonlinear phase noise. At the transmitter, we simply use a real-valued OFDM signal to drive a Mach-Zehnder (MZ) intensity modulator biased at the null point and the so-generated OFDM signal is Hermitian in the frequency domain. At receiver, after the conventional OFDM signal processing, we conduct DCS of the optical OFDM subcarrier pairs, which requires only conjugation and summation. We show that the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) due to phase noise can be reduced because of the Hermitain symmetry. In a simulation, this method improves the tolerance to the laser phase noise. In a nonlinear WDM transmission experiment, this method also achieves better performance under the influence of cross phase modulation (XPM).

  7. Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8-channel Digital Phased Array


    Simultaneous Transmit and Receive Performance of an 8- channel Digital Phased Array Jonathan P. Doane, Kenneth E. Kolodziej, Bradley T. Perry MIT...traditional digital cancellation is typically limited by channel noise and distortion. A unique aspect of the ALSTAR digital canceller is the use of...elements, and an 8- channel digital transceiver chassis. width which is mixed to an IF center frequency of 187.5 MHz, supporting digital sampling in the

  8. Hybrid-integrated coherent receiver using silica-based planar lightwave circuit technology

    Kim, Jong-Hoi; Choe, Joong-Seon; Choi, Kwang-Seong; Youn, Chun-Ju; Kim, Duk-Jun; Jang, Sun-Hyok; Kwon, Yong-Hwan; Nam, Eun-Soo


    A hybrid-integrated coherent receiver module has been achieved using flip-chip bonding technology, consisting of a silica-based 90°-hybrid planar lightwave circuit (PLC) platform, a spot-size converter integrated waveguide photodiode (SSC-WG-PD), and a dual-channel transimpedance amplifier (TIA). The receiver module shows error-free operation up to 40Gb/s and OSNR sensitivity of 11.5 dB for BER = 10-3 at 25 Gb/s.

  9. Algorithms for Digital Micro-Wave Receivers and Optimal System Identification.


    estimation, Frequency estimation, Digital receiver design, Improved AR and ARMA modeling, Electronic Warfare (EW) signal detection, Optimal system identification from input/output and frequency domain data.

  10. A linear coherent integrated receiver based on a broadband optical phase-locked loop

    Ramaswamy, Anand

    Optical Phase-Locked Loops (OPLL) have diverse applications in future communication systems. They can be used in high sensitivity homodyne phase-shift keying receivers for phase noise reduction, provided sufficient loop bandwidth is maintained. Alternative phase-locked loop applications include coherent synchronization of laser arrays and frequency synthesis by offset locking. In this work, a broadband OPLL based coherent receiver is used for linear phase demodulation. Phase modulated (PM) analog optical links have the potential to outperform conventional direct detection links. However, their progress has been stymied by the lack of a linear phase demodulator. We describe how feedback can be used to suppress non-linearities arising from the phase demodulation process. The receiver concept is demonstrated at low frequencies and is found to improve the Spurious Free Dynamic Range (SFDR) of an experimental analog link by over 20dB. In order to extend the operation of the receiver to microwave frequencies, latencies arising from physical delays in the feedback path need to be dramatically reduced. To facilitate this, monolithic and hybrid versions of the receiver based on compact integration of InP photonic integrated circuits (PIC) with InP and SiGe electronic integrated circuits (EIC) have been developed at UCSB. In this work, we develop novel measurement techniques to characterize the linearity of the individual components of the PIC, namely, the semiconductor photodiodes and optical phase modulators. We then demonstrate the operation of the receiver in a high power analog link. The OPLL based receiver has a bandwidth of 1.5GHz. The link gain and shot-noise limited SFDR at 300MHz are -2dB and 125dB-Hz2/3, respectively. Further, optical sampling downconversion is demonstrated as a viable technique to increase the operating frequency of the receiver beyond the baseband range.

  11. Optical Receiver for Coherently Detected Pulse-Position Modulated Signals in the Presence of Atmospheric Turbulence

    Munoz Fernandez, M.; Vilnrotter, V. A.


    Performance analysis and experimental verification of a coherent free-space optical communications receiver in the presence of simulated atmospheric turbulence is presented. Bit-error rate (BER) performance of ideal coherent detection is analyzed in Section II, and the laboratory equipment and experimental setup used to carry out these experiments are described. The key components include two lasers operating at a 1064-nm wavelength for use with coherent detection, a 16-element (4 x 4) focal-plane detector array, and a data acquisition and signal processing assembly needed to sample and collect the data and analyze the results. The detected signals are combined using the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. In Section III, convergence of the algorithm for experimentally obtained signal tones in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is demonstrated. In Section IV, adaptive combining of experimentally obtained heterodyned pulse-position modulated (PPM) signals with pulse-to-pulse coherence, in the presence of simulated spatial distortions resembling atmospheric turbulence, is demonstrated. The adaptively combined PPM signals are phased up via an LMS algorithm suitably optimized to operate with PPM in the presence of additive shot noise. A convergence analysis of the algorithm is presented, and results with both computer-simulated and experimentally obtained PPM signals are analyzed.

  12. Control of coherent information via on chip photonic-phononic emitter-receivers

    Shin, Heedeuk; Jarecki, Robert; Starbuck, Andrew; Wang, Zheng; Rakich, Peter T


    Rapid progress in silicon photonics has fostered numerous chip-scale sensing, computing, and signal processing technologies. However, many crucial filtering and signal delay operations are difficult to perform with all-optical devices. Unlike photons propagating at luminal speeds, GHz-acoustic phonons with slow velocity allow information to be stored, filtered, and delayed over comparatively smaller length-scales with remarkable fidelity. Hence, controllable and efficient coupling between coherent photons and phonons enables new signal processing technologies that greatly enhance the performance and potential impact of silicon photonics. Here, we demonstrate a novel mechanism for coherent information processing based on traveling-wave photon-phonon transduction, which achieves a phonon emit-and-receive process between distinct nanophotonic waveguides. Using this device physics-which can support 1-20GHz frequencies-we create wavelength-insensitive radio-frequency photonic filters with an unrivaled combination ...

  13. Analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with optical image rejection receivers

    Jørgensen, Bo Foged; Mikkelsen, Benny; Mahon, Cathal J.


    performance. Two types of optical image rejection receivers are investigated: a novel, all-optical configuration and the conventional, microwave-based configuration. The analysis shows that local oscillator-spontaneous emission beat noise (LO-SP), signal-spontaneous emission beat noise (S-SP), and spontaneous......A detailed theoretical analysis of optical amplifier noise in coherent optical communication systems with heterodyne receivers is presented. The analysis quantifies in particular how optical image rejection receiver configurations reduce the influence of optical amplifier noise on system......-spontaneous beat noise (SP-SP) can all be reduced by 3 dB, thereby doubling the dynamic range of the optical amplifier. A 2.5-dB improvement in dynamic range has been demonstrated experimentally with the all-optical image rejection configuration. The implications of the increased dynamic range thus obtained...

  14. DSP Based PMD Emulators for Built-in Testing of Coherent Optical Receivers

    Mahmutoglu, A Gokcen; Demir, Alper


    We propose discrete-time polarization mode dispersion (PMD) models that are compatible with the emerging coherent receiver techniques, and statistical sampling schemes for the model parameters. These models use multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) finite impulse response (FIR) filters that are lossless and therefore lend themselves as perfect candidates for emulation of fiber channels suffering from PMD without polarization dependent loss (PDL). The concatenated composition of these filters resembles the continuous time lumped model of PMD channels and offers a flexible emulator and compensator structure in terms of computational complexity which constitutes the main bottleneck for real-time DSP applications.

  15. The Effects of Narrowband Interference on Finite-Resolution IR-UWB Digital Receiver

    zhang, chao; Ren, Pinyi


    Finite-resolution digital receiver is recently considered as a potential way to Ultra Wide Band (UWB) communication systems due to its ability of mitigating the challenge of Analog-Digital Converter (ADC). In this paper, the effects of narrowband interference (NBI) are investigated when finite-resolution digital receiver is used for Impulse Radio-UWB (IR-UWB) system. It is shown that finite-resolution receiver enlarges the impact of NBI. The lower resolution of the UWB receiver is, the more degradations NBI causes.

  16. Digital pilot aided carrier frequency offset estimation for coherent optical transmission systems.

    Zhao, Donghe; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng; Zhang, Wenbo; Qiao, Yaojun; Zhang, Xiaoguang


    We present a digital pilot aided carrier frequency offset estimation (FOE) method for coherent optical transmission systems. Unlike the conventional pilot tone insertion scheme, the pilot of the proposed method is generated in a digital manner and can serve as a good FOE indicator. Aided by this kind of digital pilot, the FOE is implemented by determining the location of the digital pilot in the spectrum. Theoretical analysis and numerical simulations show that the proposed method has the advantages in wide range, high accuracy, modulation formats independent, no need to remove the modulation, and high tolerance to the residual chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion (PMD).

  17. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana


    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  18. Spectral analysis, digital integration, and measurement of low backscatter in coherent laser radar

    Vaughan, J. M.; Callan, R. D.; Bowdle, D. A.; Rothermel, J.


    A method of surface acoustic wave (SAW) spectral analysis and digital integration that has been used previously in coherent CW laser work with CO2 lasers at 10.6 microns is described. Expressions are derived for the signal to noise ratio in the measured voltage spectrum with an approximation for the general case and rigorous treatment for the low signal case. The atmospheric backscatter data accumulated by the airborne LATAS (laser true airspeed) coherent laser radar system are analyzed.

  19. Quantum secure direct communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states

    Guerra, Antônio Geovan de Araújo Holanda; Rios, Francisco Franklin Sousa; Ramos, Rubens Viana


    In this work, we present optical schemes for secure direct quantum communication of digital and analog signals using continuum coherent states and frequency-dependent phase modulation. The main advantages of the proposed schemes are that they do not use entangled states and they can be implemented with today technology. The theory of quantum interference of continuum coherent state is described, and the optical setups for secure direct communication are presented and their securities are discussed.

  20. Modulation Format Independent Joint Polarization and Phase Tracking for Coherent Receivers

    Czegledi, Cristian B; Karlsson, Magnus; Johannisson, Pontus


    The state of polarization and the carrier phase drift dynamically during transmission in a random fashion in coherent optical fiber communications. The typical digital signal processing solution to mitigate these impairments consists of two separate blocks that track each phenomenon independently. Such algorithms have been developed without taking into account mathematical models describing the impairments. We study a blind, model-based tracking algorithm to compensate for these impairments. The algorithm dynamically recovers the carrier phase and state of polarization jointly for an arbitrary modulation format. Simulation results show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, having a fast convergence rate and an excellent tolerance to phase noise and dynamic drift of the polarization. The computational complexity of the algorithm is lower compared to state-of-the-art algorithms at similar or better performance, which makes it a strong candidate for future optical systems.

  1. Compensation of IQ mismatch in optical PDM-OFDM coherent receivers

    Chung, Hwan Seok; Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon


    The performance enhancements based on Gram-Schmidt orthogonalization procedure (GSOP) for compensating IQ mismatch in coherent optical orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (CO-OFDM) systems are investigated. We analytically explore IQ mismatch in optical OFDM systems and investigate the impacts of phase and amplitude IQ mismatch on required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) for the different values of data mapping and polarization multiplexing. The impacts of analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution and the number of samples in GSOP are also evaluated. The results show that the GSOP operation efficiently compensate IQ mismatch induced performance degradations regardless of the amount of IQ phase mismatch, density of data mapping, and polarization multiplexing.

  2. 40Gbit/s coherent optical receiver using a Costas loop.

    Park, Hyun-chul; Lu, Mingzhi; Bloch, Eli; Reed, Thomas; Griffith, Zach; Johansson, Leif; Coldren, Larry; Rodwell, Mark


    A highly integrated 40 Gbit/s coherent optical receiver is reported using a Costas loop as a homodyne optical phase locked loop (OPLL). A photonic IC, an electrical IC, and a hybrid loop filter are characterized, and the feedback loop system is fully analyzed to build a stable homodyne OPLL. All components are integrated on a single substrate within the compact size of 10 × 10mm(2), and a 1.1 GHz loop bandwidth and a 120 psloop delay are achieved. The binary phase-shift keying receiver exhibits error-free (BER<10(-12)) up to 35 Gbit/s and BER<10(-7) for 40 Gbit/s with no latency, and consumes less than 3 W power.

  3. Nyquist WDM superchannel using offset-16QAM and receiver-side digital spectral shaping.

    Xiang, Meng; Fu, Songnian; Tang, Ming; Tang, Haoyuan; Shum, Perry; Liu, Deming


    The performance of Nyquist WDM superchannel using advanced modulation formats with coherent detection is degraded due to the existence of both inter-symbol interference (ISI) and inter-channel interference (ICI). Here, we propose and numerically investigate a Nyquist WDM superchannel using offset-16QAM and receiver-side digital spectral shaping (RS-DSS), achieving a spectral efficiency up to 7.44 bit/s/Hz with 7% hard-decision forward error correction (HD-FEC) overhead. Compared with Nyquist WDM superchannel using 16QAM and RS-DSS, the proposed system has 1.4 dB improvement of required OSNR at BER = 10(-3) in the case of back-to-back (B2B) transmission. Furthermore, the range of launched optical power allowed beyond HD-FEC threshold is drastically increased from -6 dBm to 1.2 dBm, after 960 km SSMF transmission with EDFA-only. In particular, no more than 1.8 dB required OSNR penalty at BER = 10(-3) is achieved for the proposed system even with the phase difference between channels varying from 0 to 360 degree.

  4. Design Architecture and Initial Results from an FPGA Based Digital Receiver for Multistatic Meteor Measurements

    Palo, Scott; Vaudrin, Cody

    Defined by a minimal RF front-end followed by an analog-to-digital converter (ADC) and con-trolled by a reconfigurable logic device (FPGA), the digital receiver will replace conventional heterodyning analog receivers currently in use by the COBRA meteor radar. A basic hardware overview touches on the major digital receiver components, theory of operation and data han-dling strategies. We address concerns within the community regarding the implementation of digital receivers in small-scale scientific radars, and outline the numerous benefits with a focus on reconfigurability. From a remote sensing viewpoint, having complete visibility into a band of the EM spectrum allows an experiment designer to focus on parameter estimation rather than hardware limitations. Finally, we show some basic multistatic receiver configurations enabled through GPS time synchronization. Currently, the digital receiver is configured to facilitate range and radial velocity determination of meteors in the MLT region for use with the COBRA meteor radar. Initial measurements from data acquired at Platteville, Colorado and Tierra Del Fuego in Argentina will be presented. We show an improvement in detection rates compared to conventional analog systems. Scientific justification for a digital receiver is clearly made by the presentation of RTI plots created using data acquired from the receiver. These plots reveal an interesting phenomenon concerning vacillating power structures in a select number of meteor trails.

  5. Wireless receiver architectures and design antennas, RF, synthesizers, mixed signal, and digital signal processing

    Rouphael, Tony J


    Wireless Receiver Architectures and Design presents the various designs and architectures of wireless receivers in the context of modern multi-mode and multi-standard devices. This one-stop reference and guide to designing low-cost low-power multi-mode, multi-standard receivers treats analog and digital signal processing simultaneously, with equal detail given to the chosen architecture and modulating waveform. It provides a complete understanding of the receiver's analog front end and the digital backend, and how each affects the other. The book explains the design process in great detail, s

  6. Digital Receivers for Low-Frequency Radio Telescopes UTR-2, URAN, GURT

    Zakharenko, V.; Konovalenko, A.; Zarka, P.; Ulyanov, O.; Sidorchuk, M.; Stepkin, S.; Koliadin, V.; Kalinichenko, N.; Stanislavsky, A.; Dorovskyy, V.; Shepelev, V.; Bubnov, I.; Yerin, S.; Melnik, V.; Koval, A.; Shevchuk, N.; Vasylieva, I.; Mylostna, K.; Shevtsova, A.; Skoryk, A.; Kravtsov, I.; Volvach, Y.; Plakhov, M.; Vasilenko, N.; Vasylkivskyi, Y.; Vavriv, D.; Vinogradov, V.; Kozhin, R.; Kravtsov, A.; Bulakh, E.; Kuzin, A.; Vasilyev, A.; Ryabov, V.; Reznichenko, A.; Bortsov, V.; Lisachenko, V.; Kvasov, G.; Mukha, D.; Litvinenko, G.; Brazhenko, A.; Vashchishin, R.; Pylaev, O.; Koshovyy, V.; Lozinsky, A.; Ivantyshyn, O.; Rucker, H. O.; Panchenko, M.; Fischer, G.; Lecacheux, A.; Denis, L.; Coffre, A.; Grießmeier, J.-M.

    This paper describes digital radio astronomical receivers used for decameter and meter wavelength observations. Since 1998, digital receivers performing on-the-fly dynamic spectrum calculations or waveform data recording without data loss have been used at the UTR-2 radio telescope, the URAN VLBI system, and the GURT new generation radio telescope. Here, we detail these receivers developed for operation in the strong interference environment that prevails in the decameter wavelength range. Data collected with these receivers allowed us to discover numerous radio astronomical objects and phenomena at low frequencies, a summary of which is also presented.

  7. Development of a digital TV receivers test suite

    Pablo Flores-Guridi


    Full Text Available El despliegue de la televisión digital en Uruguay está en curso , siguiendo el estándar ISDB-Tb. Ya se completó el proceso de a signación de canales y, después de aprobado un protocolo de homologación, se ha comenzado a importar receptores o decodificadores desde principios de 2014. La certific ación es de capital importancia para acelerar la migra ción y para brindar una plataforma a los desarrolladores locales. El presente artículo resume los aspectos clave de este trabajo: el análisis de las norm as, la elaboración del Protoco lo de Homologación y la experiencia obtenida en la aplicación de las pruebas. Su objetivo es compartir estas experienc ias para contr ibuir en los procesos de adopción de la TV di gital, con lo que se espera ayu dar a que otros países o actore s puedan evitar problemas de com patibilidad o cumplimiento de las normas que aparecieron durante este traba jo, tanto en la regulación como e n los dispositivos ensayados.

  8. System design for a million channel digital spectrum analyzer /MCSA/. [of bandpass filtering in SETI receivers

    Peterson, A.; Narasimha, M.; Narayan, S.


    The system design of a wideband (8 MHz) million-channel digital spectrum analyzer for use with a SETI receiver is presented. The analyzer makes use of a digital bandpass filter bank for transforming the wideband input signal into a specified number (120) of uniform narrowband output channels by the use of a Fourier transform digital processor combined with a prototype digital weighting network (finite impulse response filter). The output is then processed separately by 120 microprocessor-based discrete Fourier transform computers, each producing 8190 output channels of approximately 8 Hz bandwidth by the use of an 8190-point prime factor algorithm.

  9. Adaptive Jamming Suppression in Coherent FFH System Using Weighted Equal Gain Combining Receiver over Fading Channels with Imperfect CSI

    Yishan He


    Full Text Available Fast frequency hopping (FFH is commonly used as an antijamming communication method. In this paper, we propose efficient adaptive jamming suppression schemes for binary phase shift keying (BPSK based coherent FFH system, namely, weighted equal gain combining (W-EGC with the optimum and suboptimum weighting coefficient. We analyze the bit error ratio (BER of EGC and W-EGC receivers with partial band noise jamming (PBNJ, frequency selective Rayleigh fading, and channel estimation errors. Particularly, closed-form BER expressions are presented with diversity order two. Our analysis is verified by simulations. It is shown that W-EGC receivers significantly outperform EGC. As compared to the maximum likelihood (ML receiver in conventional noncoherent frequency shift keying (FSK based FFH, coherent FFH/BPSK W-EGC receivers also show significant advantages in terms of BER. Moreover, W-EGC receivers greatly reduce the hostile jammers’ jamming efficiency.

  10. Linear and Nonlinear Impairment Compensation in Coherent Optical Transmission with Digital Signal Processing

    Porto da Silva, Edson

    Digital signal processing (DSP) has become one of the main enabling technologies for the physical layer of coherent optical communication networks. The DSP subsystems are used to implement several functionalities in the digital domain, from synchronization to channel equalization. Flexibility...... nonlinearity compensation, (II) spectral shaping, and (III) adaptive equalization. For (I), original contributions are presented to the study of the nonlinearity compensation (NLC) with digital backpropagation (DBP). Numerical and experimental performance investigations are shown for different application...... scenarios. Concerning (II), it is demonstrated how optical and electrical (digital) pulse shaping can be allied to improve the spectral confinement of a particular class of optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) signals that can be used as a building block for fast signaling single-carrier transceivers...

  11. Approaches towards Implementation of Multi-bit Digital Receiver using Fast Fourier Transform

    Abhijit S. Kulkarni


    Full Text Available This paper compares different digital receiver signal processing schemes as applied to current ESM/RWR systems. The schemes include fast fourier transform (FFT-based, FIR filter-based and mixed architectures. Use of polyphase FFT and IIR filters is also discussed. The specifications and signal processing requirements of a modern digital electronic warfare (EW receiver are discussed. The design procedures and architectures for all the schemes are brought out. The tradeoffs involved in selection of different parameters for these schemes are also discussed. The digital receiver schemes are modeled and analyzed for different metrics such as, Parameter measurement accuracies, Pulse handling capability, Frequency separation capability, Number of multipliers required for implementation etc. The analysis is done for a 500 MHz BW digital receiver and assumes 8 bit ADC in the front end. The results obtained for the comparison are discussed in the paper. Limited simulations show that overlapped FFT scheme is a better approach for digital receiver processing.Defence Science Journal, 2013, 63(2, pp.198-203, DOI:

  12. An off-axis digital holographic microscope with quasimonochromatic partially spatially coherent illumination in transmission

    Grebenyuk, Anton A.; Tarakanchikova, Yana V.; Ryabukho, Vladimir P.


    We propose an off-axis imaging approach for digital holographic microscopy (DHM) with quasimonochromatic partially spatially coherent illumination in transmission, which is intended to provide the advantages of off-axis partially coherent DHM imaging with a comparatively simple optical scheme. This approach does not require a diffraction grating for creating the off-axis modality and also allows for convenient control of the spatial frequency of carrier interference fringes for hologram sampling optimization. Theoretical analysis of the off-axis imaging process in this microscope is performed. An off-axis DHM based on the proposed approach is built and quantitative phase imaging of test objects is performed with suppressed coherent noise.

  13. Joint digital signal processing for superchannel coherent optical communication systems.

    Liu, Cheng; Pan, Jie; Detwiler, Thomas; Stark, Andrew; Hsueh, Yu-Ting; Chang, Gee-Kung; Ralph, Stephen E


    Ultra-high-speed optical communication systems which can support ≥ 1Tb/s per channel transmission will soon be required to meet the increasing capacity demand. However, 1Tb/s over a single carrier requires either or both a high-level modulation format (i.e. 1024QAM) and a high baud rate. Alternatively, grouping a number of tightly spaced "sub-carriers" to form a terabit superchannel increases channel capacity while minimizing the need for high-level modulation formats and high baud rate, which may allow existing formats, baud rate and components to be exploited. In ideal Nyquist-WDM superchannel systems, optical subcarriers with rectangular spectra are tightly packed at a channel spacing equal to the baud rate, thus achieving the Nyquist bandwidth limit. However, in practical Nyquist-WDM systems, precise electrical or optical control of channel spectra is required to avoid strong inter-channel interference (ICI). Here, we propose and demonstrate a new "super receiver" architecture for practical Nyquist-WDM systems, which jointly detects and demodulates multiple channels simultaneously and mitigates the penalties associated with the limitations of generating ideal Nyquist-WDM spectra. Our receiver-side solution relaxes the filter requirements imposed on the transmitter. Two joint DSP algorithms are developed for linear ICI cancellation and joint carrier-phase recovery. Improved system performance is observed with both experimental and simulation data. Performance analysis under different system configurations is conducted to demonstrate the feasibility and robustness of the proposed joint DSP algorithms.

  14. Soft-decision forward error correction for 100 Gb/s digital coherent systems

    Onohara, Kiyoshi; Sugihara, Takashi; Miyata, Yoshikuni; Sugihara, Kenya; Kubo, Kazuo; Yoshida, Hideo; Koguchi, Kazuumi; Mizuochi, Takashi


    Soft-decision forward error correction (SD-FEC) and its practical implementation for 100 Gb/s digital coherent systems are discussed. In applying SD-FEC to a digital coherent transponder, the configuration of the frame structure of the FEC becomes a key issue. We present a triple-concatenated FEC, with a pair of concatenated hard-decision FEC (HD-FEC) further concatenated with an SD-based low-density parity-check (LDPC) code for 20.5% redundancy. In order to evaluate error correcting performance of SD-based LDPC code. We implement the entire 100 Gb/s throughput of LDPC code on field programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) based hardware emulator. The proposed triple-concatenated FEC can achieve a Q-limit of 6.4 dB and a net coding gain (NCG) of 10.8 dB at a post-FEC bit error ratio (BER) of 10 -15 is expected. In addition, we raise an important question for the definition of NCG in digital coherent systems with and without differential quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) coding, which is generally used to avoid phase slip caused by the practical limitations in processing the phase recovery algorithms.

  15. Multi-DSP and FPGA based Multi-channel Direct IF/RF Digital receiver for atmospheric radar

    Yasodha, Polisetti; Jayaraman, Achuthan; Kamaraj, Pandian; Durga rao, Meka; Thriveni, A.


    Modern phased array radars depend highly on digital signal processing (DSP) to extract the echo signal information and to accomplish reliability along with programmability and flexibility. The advent of ASIC technology has made various digital signal processing steps to be realized in one DSP chip, which can be programmed as per the application and can handle high data rates, to be used in the radar receiver to process the received signal. Further, recent days field programmable gate array (FPGA) chips, which can be re-programmed, also present an opportunity to utilize them to process the radar signal. A multi-channel direct IF/RF digital receiver (MCDRx) is developed at NARL, taking the advantage of high speed ADCs and high performance DSP chips/FPGAs, to be used for atmospheric radars working in HF/VHF bands. Multiple channels facilitate the radar t be operated in multi-receiver modes and also to obtain the wind vector with improved time resolution, without switching the antenna beam. MCDRx has six channels, implemented on a custom built digital board, which is realized using six numbers of ADCs for simultaneous processing of the six input signals, Xilinx vertex5 FPGA and Spartan6 FPGA, and two ADSPTS201 DSP chips, each of which performs one phase of processing. MCDRx unit interfaces with the data storage/display computer via two gigabit ethernet (GbE) links. One of the six channels is used for Doppler beam swinging (DBS) mode and the other five channels are used for multi-receiver mode operations, dedicatedly. Each channel has (i) ADC block, to digitize RF/IF signal, (ii) DDC block for digital down conversion of the digitized signal, (iii) decoding block to decode the phase coded signal, and (iv) coherent integration block for integrating the data preserving phase intact. ADC block consists of Analog devices make AD9467 16-bit ADCs, to digitize the input signal at 80 MSPS. The output of ADC is centered around (80 MHz - input frequency). The digitized data is fed

  16. Multi-Mode FMCW Radar Array with Independent Digital Beam Steering for Transmit and Receive

    Dijk, R. van; Houwen, E.H. van der; Maas, A.P.M.


    A phased-array FMCW radar has been design and built from COTS components. The generation of the frequency sweep is done by mixing a central local oscillator signal with a baseband sweep of a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). To ensure maximum flexibility the receive side has been equipped with it's

  17. A novel digital receiver concept for ISRO's future remote sensing radars

    Desai, Nilesh; Vachhani, J. G.; Soin, Sumit; Agrawal, Rinku; Rao, C. V. N.; Gujraty, Virendra; Rana, Surindersingh


    Technology development related to digital, antenna and RF subsystems for Microwave Radar Sensors like Synthetic Aperture Radar, Scatterometer, Altimeter and Radiometer is one of the major activities under ISRO's microwave remote sensing programme, since 1980s. These technologies are now being gainfully utilized for building ISRO's operational Earth Observation missions involving microwave sensors like Radar Imaging Satellite, RISAT SAR, Oceansat-2 Scatterometer, Megha-Tropiques, MADRAS and Airborne SAR for Disaster Management, DMSAR. Concurrently, advanced technology developments in these fields are underway to meet the major technological challenges of building ISRO's proposed advanced microwave missions like ultra-high resolution SAR's, Synthetic Aperture Radiometer (SARAD), Milli-meter and sub-millimeter wave sounders and SAR Constellations for Disaster management as well as Interferometric, Polarmetric and polarmetric interferometry applications. Also, these hardware are being designed with core radar electronics concept, in which the same RF and digital hardware sub-units / modules will be utilized to build different microwave radar sensors. One of the major and common requirements for all these active and passive microwave sensors is the moderate to highspeed data acquisition and signal processing system. Traditionally, the Data acquisition units for all these radar sensors are implemented as stand-alone units, following the radar receivers. For ISRO's C-band airborne SAR (ASAR) and RISAT high resolution SAR, we have designed and developed High Speed 8-bit ADC based I/Q Digitisers, operating at 30.814 MHz and 250 MHz sampling rates, respectively. With the increasing demand of wide bandwidth and ultra-high resolution in imaging and non-imaging radar systems, the technology trend worldwide is towards a digital receiver, involving bandpass or IF sampling, thus eliminating the need for RF down converters and analog IQ demodulators. In order to evolve a generic

  18. Creating an EPICS Based Test Stand Development System for a BPM Digitizer of the Linac Coherent Light Source


    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is required to deliver a high quality electron beam for producing coherent X-rays. As a result, high resolution beam position monitoring is required. The Beam Position Monitor (BPM) digitizer acquires analog signals from the beam line and digitizes them to obtain beam position data. Although Matlab is currently being used to test the BPM digitizer?s functions and capability, the Controls Department at SLAC prefers to use Experimental Physics and Industrial Control Systems (EPICS). This paper discusses the transition of providing similar as well as enhanced functionalities, than those offered by Matlab, to test the digitizer. Altogether, the improved test stand development system can perform mathematical and statistical calculations with the waveform signals acquired from the digitizer and compute the fast Fourier transform (FFT) of the signals. Finally, logging of meaningful data into files has been added.

  19. Reduction of parasitic interferences in digital holographic microscopy by numerically decreased coherence length

    Kosmeier, S.; Langehanenberg, P.; von Bally, G.; Kemper, B.


    Due to the large coherence length of laser light, optical path length (OPL) resolution in laser based digital holographic microscopy suffers from parasitic interferences caused by multiple reflections within the experimental setup. Use of partially coherent light reduces this drawback but requires precise and stable matching of object and reference arm's OPLs and limits the spatial frequency of the interference pattern in off-axis holography. Here, we investigate if the noise properties of spectrally broadened light sources can be generated numerically. Therefore, holograms are coherently captured at different laser wavelengths and the corresponding reconstructed wave fields are numerically superimposed utilizing variable weightings. Gaussian and rectangular spectral shapes of the so synthesized field are analyzed with respect to the resulting noise level, which is quantified in OPL distributions of a reflective test target. Utilizing a Gaussian weighting, the noise level is found to be similar to the one obtained with the partially coherent light of a superluminescent diode. With a rectangular shaped synthesized spectrum, noise is reduced more efficient than with a Gaussian one. The applicability of the method in label-free cell analysis is demonstrated by quantitative phase contrast images obtained from living cancer cells.

  20. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Gila Cohen Zilka


    Full Text Available Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school; and (b the digital divide in literacy skills. In the present study we examined the degree of effectiveness of receiving a desktop or hybrid computer for the home in reducing the digital divide among children of low socio-economic status aged 8-12 from various localities across Israel. The sample consisted of 1,248 respondents assessed in two measurements. As part of the mixed-method study, 128 children were also interviewed. Findings indicate that after the children received desktop or hybrid computers, changes occurred in their frequency of access, mobility, and computer literacy. Differences were found between the groups: hybrid computers reduce disparities and promote work with the computer and surfing the Internet more than do desktop computers. Narrowing the digital divide for this age group has many implications for the acquisition of skills and study habits, and consequently, for the realization of individual potential. The children spoke about self improvement as a result of exposure to the digital environment, about a sense of empowerment and of improvement in their advantage in the social fabric. Many children expressed a desire to continue their education and expand their knowledge of computer applications, the use of software, of games, and more. Therefore, if there is no computer in the home and it is necessary to decide between a desktop and a hybrid computer, a hybrid computer is preferable.

  1. A 3-5GHz UWB CMOS Receiver with Digital Control Technique

    Han, Bo; Liu, Mengmeng; Ge, Ning


    This article presents a CMOS receiver that works for 3-5GHz low band SC-UWB. The receiver contains PLL, Mixer, and VGA. Double down conversion is adopted in the receiver to overcome the orthogonal clock design difficulty; digital assisted RF control method is used to increase the stability....... This receiver was fabricated in SMIC01.8mmRF process with chip area of 1 × 1 mm2 ;according to measurement, this receiver has bandwidth of 500MHz; VGA control range is 30dB; IIP3 is -10dBm;IF port output is 250mVp-p; the power consumption is 36mW with supplying voltage 1.8V....

  2. Capacity of optical communications over a lossy bosonic channel with a receiver employing the most general coherent electro-optic feedback control

    Chung, Hye Won; Guha, Saikat; Zheng, Lizhong


    We study the problem of designing optical receivers to discriminate between multiple coherent states using coherent processing receivers—i.e., one that uses arbitrary coherent feedback control and quantum-noise-limited direct detection—which was shown by Dolinar to achieve the minimum error probability in discriminating any two coherent states. We first derive and reinterpret Dolinar's binary-hypothesis minimum-probability-of-error receiver as the one that optimizes the information efficiency at each time instant, based on recursive Bayesian updates within the receiver. Using this viewpoint, we propose a natural generalization of Dolinar's receiver design to discriminate M coherent states, each of which could now be a codeword, i.e., a sequence of N coherent states, each drawn from a modulation alphabet. We analyze the channel capacity of the pure-loss optical channel with a general coherent-processing receiver in the low-photon number regime and compare it with the capacity achievable with direct detection and the Holevo limit (achieving the latter would require a quantum joint-detection receiver). We show compelling evidence that despite the optimal performance of Dolinar's receiver for the binary coherent-state hypothesis test (either in error probability or mutual information), the asymptotic communication rate achievable by such a coherent-processing receiver is only as good as direct detection. This suggests that in the infinitely long codeword limit, all potential benefits of coherent processing at the receiver can be obtained by designing a good code and direct detection, with no feedback within the receiver.

  3. Lensless coherent imaging by sampling of the optical field with digital micromirror device

    Vdovin, G.; Gong, H.; Soloviev, O.; Pozzi, P.; Verhaegen, M.


    We have experimentally demonstrated a lensless coherent microscope based on direct registration of the complex optical field by sampling the pupil with a sequence of two-point interferometers formed by a digital micromirror device. Complete registration of the complex amplitude in the pupil of the imaging system, without any reference beam, provides a convenient link between the experimental and computational optics. Unlike other approaches to digital holography, our method does not require any external reference beam, resulting in a simple and robust registration setup. Computer analysis of the experimentally registered field allows for focusing the image in the whole range from zero to infinity, and for virtual correction of the aberrations present in the real optical system, by applying the adaptive wavefront corrections to its virtual model.

  4. Digital subcarrier multiplexing for fiber nonlinearity mitigation in coherent optical communication systems.

    Qiu, Meng; Zhuge, Qunbi; Chagnon, Mathieu; Gao, Yuliang; Xu, Xian; Morsy-Osman, Mohamed; Plant, David V


    In this work we experimentally investigate the improved intra-channel fiber nonlinearity tolerance of digital subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) signals in a single-channel coherent optical transmission system. The digital signal processing (DSP) for the generation and reception of the SCM signals is described. We show experimentally that the SCM signal with a nearly-optimum number of subcarriers can extend the maximum reach by 23% in a 24 GBaud DP-QPSK transmission with a BER threshold of 3.8 × 10(-3) and by 8% in a 24 GBaud DP-16-QAM transmission with a BER threshold of 2 × 10(-2). Moreover, we show by simulations that the improved performance of SCM signals is observed over a wide range of baud rates, further indicating the merits of SCM signals in baud-rate flexible agile transmissions and future high-speed optical transport systems.

  5. The performance of coherent receiver controlled by the phase lock loop in dual rate free-space laser communication

    Ma, Xiaoping; Sun, Jianfeng; Hou, Peipei; Lu, Wei; Xu, Qian; Liu, Liren


    The technique of differential phase shift keying(DPSK) modulation is applied into demodulating phase information in the coherent optical receiver. The dual rate free-space receiving structure on the base of Mach-Zehnder delay interferometer with the lens is used suitably for differential delay which is equal to the one bit corresponding to a certain data rate. Delay distance at the interference receiver is varied with transmission rata from satellite to ground. Differential information is obtained by the subtraction of the two successive wave-front phases when made to interfere. The phase demodulation is extremely sensitive to phase fluctuation. Because of the incident light through atmospheric turbulence, the wave-front of optical signal became jittered in the temporal and spatial domain rapidly. In the paper, the dual rate free-space laser communication receiver for phase lock to stable signal light phase is proposed, increasing the homodyne efficiency and decreasing the bit error rate.

  6. An Approach of Integrating Communication Services in Applications for Android-Based Digital TV Receivers

    S. Jovanovic


    Full Text Available Digital TV receivers are becoming increasingly powerful devices allowing consumers to not only watch television broadcasts but also to access the Internet or communicate to other devices in the same local area network through either an Ethernet connection or by using a wireless connection. As the living room represents a meeting place for family and friends to gather and socialize in, the possibility of playing informal games using the television set as the interaction device is very attractive. This paper presents a developed application that integrates new communication capabilities of digital TV receivers running the Android OS. The application is a game showing its content overlaid on top of a television program whereas Android mobile devices are used as controllers. The performance of the application is tested by measuring the response times of the various communication services and by analyzing feedback from a selected group of users.

  7. Low-sampling-rate ultra-wideband digital receiver using equivalent-time sampling

    Ballal, Tarig


    In this paper, we propose an all-digital scheme for ultra-wideband symbol detection. In the proposed scheme, the received symbols are sampled many times below the Nyquist rate. It is shown that when the number of symbol repetitions, P, is co-prime with the symbol duration given in Nyquist samples, the receiver can sample the received data P times below the Nyquist rate, without loss of fidelity. The proposed scheme is applied to perform channel estimation and binary pulse position modulation (BPPM) detection. Results are presented for two receivers operating at two different sampling rates that are 10 and 20 times below the Nyquist rate. The feasibility of the proposed scheme is demonstrated in different scenarios, with reasonable bit error rates obtained in most of the cases.

  8. Digital beacon receiver for ionospheric TEC measurement developed with GNU Radio

    Yamamoto, M.


    A simple digital receiver named GNU Radio Beacon Receiver (GRBR) was developed for the satellite-ground beacon experiment to measure the ionospheric total electron content (TEC). The open-source software toolkit for the software defined radio, GNU Radio, is utilized to realize the basic function of the receiver and perform fast signal processing. The software is written in Python for a LINUX PC. The open-source hardware called Universal Software Radio Peripheral (USRP), which best matches the GNU Radio, is used as a front-end to acquire the satellite beacon signals of 150 and 400 MHz. The first experiment was successful as results from GRBR showed very good agreement to those from the co-located analog beacon receiver. Detailed design information and software codes are open at the URL

  9. Efficient MIMO-OFDM Schemes for Future Terrestrial Digital TV with Unequal Received Powers

    Nasser, Youssef; Crussière, Matthieu; Pasquero, Oudomsack


    This article investigates the effect of equal and unequal received powers on the performances of different MIMO-OFDM schemes for terrestrial digital TV. More precisely, we focus on three types of non-orthogonal schemes: the BLAST scheme, the Linear Dispersion (LD) code and the Golden code, and we compare their performances to that of Alamouti scheme. Using two receiving antennas, we show that for moderate attenuation on the second antenna and high spectral efficiency, Golden code outperforms other schemes. However, Alamouti scheme presents the best performance for low spectral efficiency and equal received powers or when one antenna is dramatically damaged. When three antennas are used, we show that Golden code offers the highest robustness to power unbalance at the receiving side

  10. A 20 GHz low noise, low cost receiver for digital satellite communication system, ground terminal applications

    Allen, Glen


    A 45 month effort for the development of a 20 GHz, low-noise, low-cost receiver for digital, satellite communication system, ground terminal applications is discussed. Six proof-of-concept receivers were built in two lots of three each. Performance was generally consistent between the two lots. Except for overall noise figure, parameters were within or very close to specification. While noise figure was specified as 3.5 dB, typical performance was measured at 3.0 to 5.5 dB, over the full temperature range of minus 30 C to plus 75 C.

  11. Research on a modified blind polarization de-multiplexing method in the optical PDM-16-QAM system with digital coherent receivers%一种改进的光偏分复用16-QAM系统盲解复用算法的研究

    童程; 邸雪静; 张晓光; 席丽霞


    在高速光纤偏分复用(PDM)16进制正交幅度调制(QAM)相干光通信系统中,偏分解复用算法是分离偏振信息和进行信号补偿的关键技术.针对传统盲解复用的恒模算法(CMA)易于陷入奇异性和独立成分分析(ICA)算法收敛性能一般的问题,本文提出了一种改进型ICA(MICA)算法.算法基于给出的一种全新收敛测量方法,通过计算补偿后信号点与理想星座点的距离,自适应的改变学习速率,达到了更好的误码率(BER)性能.在20 G baud/s的PDM-16-QAW系统上的仿真结果表明,与传统CMA法相比,本文提出的算法完全消除了奇异性问题,与是否存在偏振相关损耗(PDL)无关.此外,算法还能在前向纠错编码门限上提供高达1 dB的光信噪比(OSNR)提升,并在收敛速率和精确度上都得到了提升.%In the high-speed optical polarization division multiplexed 16 quadrature amplitude modulation (PDM-16-QAM) communication system with coherent detection, the polarization de-multiplexing algorithm is an essential technique that takes care of separating the information in polarization domain and compensating the Stochastic distortion. The widely used method in this area is the classic constant modulus algorithm (CMA) ,but it suffers from the singularity problem that the output converges to the same source. Independent component analysis (ICA) is a new way to solve this problem without singularity problem,but it performs not well in 16-QAM modulation system. Thus we propose the modified ICA (MICA) method to improve the convergence performance of ICA. Taking the distance between the compensated signal and the ideal constellation point as the convergence measurement, the algorithm adaptive-ly changes the learning rate to optimize the convergence. The performance of the algorithm is numerically tested in a 20G baud/s PDM-16-QAM simulation system with coherent detection. The simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can eliminate the

  12. Use of coherence and phase data between two receivers in evaluation of noise environments

    Piersol, A. G.


    For certain types of noise control problems, where transducers cannot be mounted on suspected sources, valuable information can often be obtained by comparing the coherence and phase data measured between two closely spaced microphones with analytical models deduced from the physics of the problem. However, the application of such analysis techniques must be pursued with care, particularly when the measurements are made in a reverberant area. A simple illustration is presented where the acoustic field in the test section of a wind tunnel is evaluated by modelling the field as a combination of diffuse noise due to the boundary layer turbulence in the test section and propagating noise generated by the tunnel fan and possible flow disturbances outside the test section. The coherence and phase between two closely spaced microphones in the tunnel test section are predicted for various ratios of diffuse to propagating noise contributions and compared to actual measurements under several different tunnel operating conditions.

  13. Analog Beamforming and Digital Beamforming on Receive for Range Ambiguity Suppression in Spaceborne SAR

    Pingping Huang


    Full Text Available For future spaceborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR missions, digital beamforming (DBF on receive in elevation to form a sharp high receive beam will be adopted to improve the signal to noise ratio (SNR level and suppress range ambiguities. However, in some special cases, range ambiguities may be received by grating lobes with the high receive beam gain, and range ambiguities would not be well suppressed and even may be increased. In this paper, a new receiving approach based on analog beamforming (ABF and DBF is proposed. According to the spaceborne SAR imaging geometry and the selected pulse repetition frequency (PRF, the antenna patterns of all subapertures of the whole receive antenna in elevation are adjusted by ABF at first. Afterwards, signals from all subapertures in elevation are combined by a real time DBF processor onboard. Since grating lobes could be suppressed by the antenna pattern of the subapertures via ABF, range ambiguities would be well suppressed even if ambiguities are received by grating lobes. Simulation results validate the proposed approach.

  14. Sparsity-based DOA estimation of coherent and uncorrelated targets using transmit/receive co-prime arrays

    BouDaher, Elie; Ahmad, Fauzia; Amin, Moeness G.


    In this paper, we use transmit/receive co-prime arrays for direction finding of mixed coherent and uncorrelated targets based on the concept of sum coarrays. The sum coarray is defined as the set of pair-wise sums of the position vectors of the elements in the transmit and receive apertures. The data measurements from the transmit/receive co-prime array are used to emulate observations at a virtual array, whose element positions are given by the sum coarray corresponding to the co-prime array. A group sparse reconstruction problem is formulated employing multiple snapshots, where each group corresponding to a specific angle of arrival extends across all the time samples. The number of resolvable targets for the proposed sparsity-based approach is limited by the number of elements in the sum coarray. Supporting simulation results are provided, which validate the effectiveness of the proposed direction finding method.

  15. Upstream WDM-PON transmission scheme based on PDM-OOK modulation and digital coherent detection with dual-modulus algorithm.

    Zhu, Paikun; Li, Juhao; Zhou, Peng; Lin, Bangjiang; Chen, Zhangyuan; He, Yongqi


    Wavelength-division-multiplexing passive optical network (WDM-PON) is a promising architecture for next-generation access networks because of its large bandwidth, protocol transparency and scalability. In this paper, we propose a cost-effective, high-speed upstream WDM-PON scheme adopting polarization division multiplexed (PDM) on-off keying (OOK) modulation at the optical network unit (ONU) and digital coherent/self-coherent detection with a novel blind dual-modulus equalization algorithm at the optical line terminal (OLT). As such, the upstream capacity can be directly enhanced at low ONU expenditure, and receiver sensitivity as well as power budget can be also improved. Enabled by the scheme, 40-Gb/s upstream transmission in 80-km WDM-PON is experimentally demonstrated.

  16. Nonparametric TOA estimators for low-resolution IR-UWB digital receiver

    Yanlong Zhang; Weidong Chen


    Nonparametric time-of-arrival (TOA) estimators for im-pulse radio ultra-wideband (IR-UWB) signals are proposed. Non-parametric detection is obviously useful in situations where de-tailed information about the statistics of the noise is unavailable or not accurate. Such TOA estimators are obtained based on condi-tional statistical tests with only a symmetry distribution assumption on the noise probability density function. The nonparametric es-timators are attractive choices for low-resolution IR-UWB digital receivers which can be implemented by fast comparators or high sampling rate low resolution analog-to-digital converters (ADCs), in place of high sampling rate high resolution ADCs which may not be available in practice. Simulation results demonstrate that nonparametric TOA estimators provide more effective and robust performance than typical energy detection (ED) based estimators.

  17. Joint IQ Skew and Chromatic Dispersion Estimation for Coherent Optical Communication Receivers

    Medeiros Diniz, Júlio César; Porto da Silva, Edson; Piels, Molly


    A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment.......A low-complexity scanning method for joint estimation of receiver IQ skew and chromatic dispersion is proposed. This method shows less than 1 ps skew error for a 1200-km 32-GBd DP-16QAM optical transmission experiment....

  18. Coherent Digital Demodulation of a Residual Carrier Signal Using IF Sampling

    Sfeir, R.; Aguirre, S.; Hurd, W. J.


    An analysis is presented of a digital technique for the coherent demodulation of a residual carrier signal with a biphase modulated square wave subcarrier. The processing technique employs the concept of intermediate frequencies IF sampling. An optimum Costas loop is used for subcarrier demodulation and data-aided carrier tracking, i.e., combined Costas and residual carrier tracking. It is shown that the loops perform essentially the same as the corresponding analog loops in terms of signal-to-noise ratio and loop bandwidth. The sampling does not introduce biases or other significant effects on the loops, provided that the loop bandwidth is very small compared to the symbol rate, and that the number of samples per symbol is large compared to inverse loop bandwidth.

  19. Digital signal processing approaches for semiconductor phase noise tolerant coherent transmission systems

    Iglesias Olmedo, Miguel; Pang, Xiaodan; Schatz, Richard


    We discuss about digital signal processing approaches that can enable coherent links based on semiconductor lasers. A state-of-the art analysis on different carrier-phase recovery (CPR) techniques is presented. We show that these techniques are based on the assumption of lorentzian linewidth, which...... does not hold for monolithically integrated semiconductor lasers. We investigate the impact of such lineshape on both 3 and 20 dB linewidth and experimentally conduct a systematic study for 56-GBaud DP-QPSK and 28-GBaud DP-16QAM systems using a decision directed phase look loop algorithm. We show how...... carrier induced frequency noise has no impact on linewidth but a significant impact on system performance; which rises the question on whether 3-dB linewidth should be used as performance estimator for semiconductor lasers....

  20. Performance Evaluation of a Non-Coherent Digital Delay-Locked Loop in Rayleigh Fading Channels

    Mohamed G. El-Tarhuni


    Full Text Available PN code tracking is one of the most important factors that affect the performance of spread spectrumreceivers. It is desirable to maintain PN code tracking for a long period of time and with high accuracy.This paper presents a non-coherent digital delay-locked loop (DLL for code tracking in direct-sequencespread spectrum (DS-SS systems. The proposed technique utilizes three non-coherent correlators withtime-diversity followed by a lock detector. Analytical results for the mean time to lose lock, also calledmean hold-in time, are derived for both additive white Gaussian noise and Rayleigh fading channelsusing a Markov chain model. Computer simulation results are also presented to validate the analyticalresults. It is shown that the proposed loop can maintain lock for relatively long periods of time underpractical range of signal-to-noise ratio. For instance, the loop maintains lock for more than106 framesfor an energy per bit-to-noise power spectral density (Eb/No of 4 dB or better. It is also shown that themean hold-in time performance is only slightly degraded due to fading because of the time diversity gainutilized by the loop in obtaining the timing information. Finally, the ability of the proposed technique tosuccessfully track randomly and linearly varying delays is demonstrated.

  1. A Three-Dimensional Position Architecture Using Digital TDE Receiver and Cylindrical Array Antenna

    J. Mar


    Full Text Available The robust three-dimensional position architecture is proposed in the paper, where the hybrid time difference of arrival(TDOA and direction of arrival (DOA position system was designed to backup the four-station TDOA positionsystem. The digital time delay estimation (TDE receiver is used for TDOA measurement and the cylindrical arrayantenna is used for DOA measurement. The general formula of linear phase compensation for cylindrical arrayantenna in horizontal plane is derived. The detection probability of the TDE receiver and the circular error probability(CEP of the position systems over Rayleigh fading channel were numerically computed in three-dimensional space.Simulations indicate that the position accuracy of the four-station TDOA position system is degraded but the locationfunction can be retained by the hybrid TDOA and DOA position system when any one of four-stations is out of work.

  2. Applications of digital IF receivers and under-sampling technique in ladar

    Song, Zhi-yuan; Zhu, Shao-lan; Dong, Li-jun; Feng, Li; He, Hao-dong


    The traditional technique of phase laser range finder is mixing high frequency signals with analog circuits and filtering them to obtain the useful signal with low frequency. But the analog mixing circuits are susceptible to interference and will bring amplitude attenuation, phase jitter and offset and this way has difficulties in achieving high precision ranging and fast speed ranging at the same time. The method of this paper is based on under-sampling technique with digital synchronous detection and referring to Digital down converter technique of digital IF receiver in radar system. This method not only reduces the complexity of data processing, improves the speed and accuracy of phase detection at the same time, but also reduces requirements for ADC devices and DSP chips in the ladar system by a lower sampling rate. At the same time, the structure of electronic system is global simplified compared with traditional analog ladar system and the anti-jamming is greatly enhanced. So this method has important research value.

  3. 76 FR 32373 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having a Digital Television Receiver and Components...


    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having a Digital Television Receiver and Components Thereof; Notice of Institution of Investigation AGENCY: U.S. International Trade Commission....

  4. Digital coherent detection of multi-gigabit 40 GHz carrier frequency radio-over-fibre signals using photonic downconversion

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Detection of high-speed radio signals is a challenge for next generation radio-over-fibre links, requiring high bandwidth and linearity in the receiver. By using photonic downconversion in a coherent receiver, detection of high bit-rate 16-QAM signals, up to 4 Gbit/s, at a 40 GHz carrier frequency...

  5. Stokes Space-Based Optical Modulation Format Recognition for Digital Coherent Receivers

    Borkowski, Robert; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio


    We present a technique for modulation format recognition for heterogeneous reconfigurable optical networks. The method is based on Stokes space signal representation and uses a variational Bayesian expectation maximization machine learning algorithm. Differentiation between diverse common coheren...

  6. Method and apparatus for a single channel digital communications system. [synchronization of received PCM signal by digital correlation with reference signal

    Couvillon, L. A., Jr.; Carl, C.; Goldstein, R. M.; Posner, E. C.; Green, R. R. (Inventor)


    A method and apparatus are described for synchronizing a received PCM communications signal without requiring a separate synchronizing channel. The technique provides digital correlation of the received signal with a reference signal, first with its unmodulated subcarrier and then with a bit sync code modulated subcarrier, where the code sequence length is equal in duration to each data bit.

  7. 10 Gbit/s mode-multiplexed QPSK transmission using MDM-to-MFDM based single coherent receiver for intra- and inter data center networking

    Asif, Rameez; Haithem, Mustafa


    Generalized few-mode-fiber (FMF) transmission uses N coherent receivers for mode detection, where N scales with the number of fiber modes. Multiple coherent receivers increase the cost of optical network units (ONUs) in access networks, specifically for intra- and inter data center applications. We have experimentally evaluated a cost effective low-complexity receiver architecture based on mode-division multiplexing (MDM) to mode frequency-division multiplexing (MFDM) conversion for data center connectivity. A single coherent receiver is used to efficiently detect 10 Gbit/s QPSK Nyquist signals over 2.8 km 4-LP mode graded index fiber reducing the ONUs complexity to N / 4 . All the transmitted modes are successfully detected below the forward-error-correction (FEC) limit, i.e. 1×10-3 BER.

  8. Multimodal full-field optical coherence tomography on biological tissue: toward all optical digital pathology

    Harms, F.; Dalimier, E.; Vermeulen, P.; Fragola, A.; Boccara, A. C.


    Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is an efficient technique for in-depth optical biopsy of biological tissues, relying on interferometric selection of ballistic photons. Full-Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) is an alternative approach to Fourier-domain OCT (spectral or swept-source), allowing parallel acquisition of en-face optical sections. Using medium numerical aperture objective, it is possible to reach an isotropic resolution of about 1x1x1 ìm. After stitching a grid of acquired images, FF-OCT gives access to the architecture of the tissue, for both macroscopic and microscopic structures, in a non-invasive process, which makes the technique particularly suitable for applications in pathology. Here we report a multimodal approach to FF-OCT, combining two Full-Field techniques for collecting a backscattered endogeneous OCT image and a fluorescence exogeneous image in parallel. Considering pathological diagnosis of cancer, visualization of cell nuclei is of paramount importance. OCT images, even for the highest resolution, usually fail to identify individual nuclei due to the nature of the optical contrast used. We have built a multimodal optical microscope based on the combination of FF-OCT and Structured Illumination Microscopy (SIM). We used x30 immersion objectives, with a numerical aperture of 1.05, allowing for sub-micron transverse resolution. Fluorescent staining of nuclei was obtained using specific fluorescent dyes such as acridine orange. We present multimodal images of healthy and pathological skin tissue at various scales. This instrumental development paves the way for improvements of standard pathology procedures, as a faster, non sacrificial, operator independent digital optical method compared to frozen sections.

  9. Research for the Dynamic Range and Its Extension of Digital Intermediate Frequency Receiver

    曹鹏; 齐伟; 费元春


    For the optimization of dynamic range and bandwidth of digital intermediate frequency receiver(DIFR), main factors affecting them and their relationships are studied. Firstly, the DIFR sensitivity, bandwidth, noise factor of radio frequency (RF) analog front-end (RFAF), and processing gain of intermediate frequency(IF) sampling are analyzed. Secondly, the constraint relationship of the noise factor of RFAF, the signal-to-noise ratio of ADC and the dynamic range of DIFR are studied. The relationship between the dynamic range and the RFAF gain, and that of the extended dynamic range and the RF AGC(automatic gain control) step are educed and simulated. These results can be used as theory foundations and design references for the implementation and optimization of the large dynamic range and wideband DIFR.

  10. Adaptive digital calibration techniques for narrow band low-IF receivers with on-chip PLL

    Li Juan; Zhang Huajiang; Zhao Feng; Hong Zhiliang


    Digital calibration and control techniques for narrow band integrated low-IF receivers with on-chip frequency synthesizer are presented. The calibration and control system, which is adopted to ensure an achievable signal-to-noise ratio and bit error rate, consists of a digitally controlled, high resolution dB-linear automatic gain control (AGC), an inphase (I) and quadrature (Q) gain and phase mismatch calibration, and an automatic frequency calibration (AFC) of a wideband voltage-controlled oscillator in a PLL based frequency synthesizer. The calibration system has a low design complexity with little power and small die area. Simulation results show that the calibration system can enlarge the dynamic range to 72 dB and minimize the phase and amplitude imbalance between I and Q to 0.08° and 0.024 dB, respectively, which means the image rejection ratio is better than 60 dB. In addition, the calibration time of the AFC is 1.12μs only with a reference clock of 100 MHz.

  11. Digital automatic gain control

    Uzdy, Z.


    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  12. Re-configurable digital receiver for optically envelope detected half cycle BPSK and MSK radio-on-fiber signals

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Prince, Kamau; Zibar, Darko


    novel digital receiver consists of a digital signal processing unit integrating functions such as filtering, peak-powers detection, symbol synchronization and signal demodulation for optically envelope detected half-cycle binary phase-shift-keying and minimum-shift-keying signals. Furthermore, radio......We present the first known integration of a digital receiver into optically envelope detection radio-on-fiber systems. We also present a re-configurable scheme for two different types of optically envelope detected wireless signals while keeping the complexity of used optical components low. Our......-frequency signal down-conversion is not required in our proposed approach; simplifying evens more the optical receiver front-end. We experimentally demonstrate error-free optical transmission (bit-error rate corresponding to 10−3 related to FEC-compatible levels) for both 416.6 Mbit/s half-cycle binary phase...

  13. Blind, fast and SOP independent polarization recovery for square dual polarization-MQAM formats and optical coherent receivers.

    Chagnon, Mathieu; Osman, Mohamed; Xu, Xian; Zhuge, Qunbi; Plant, David V


    We present both theoretically and experimentally a novel blind and fast method for estimating the State of Polarization (SOP) of a single carrier channel modulated in square Dual Polarization (DP) MQAM format for optical coherent receivers. The method can be used on system startup, for quick channel reconfiguration, or for burst mode receivers. It consists of converting the received waveform from Jones to Stokes space and looping over an algorithm until a unitary polarization derotation matrix is estimated. The matrix is then used to initialize the center taps of the subsequent classical decision-directed stochastic gradient algorithm (DD-LMS). We present experimental comparisons of the initial Bit Error Rate (BER) and the speed of convergence of this blind Stokes space polarization recovery (PR) technique against the common Constant Modulus Algorithm (CMA). We demonstrate that this technique works on any square DP-MQAM format by presenting experimental results for DP-4QAM, -16QAM and -64QAM at varying distances and baud rates. We additionally numerically assess the technique for varying differential group delays (DGD) and sampling offsets on 28 Gbaud DP-4QAM format and show fast polarization recovery for instantaneous DGD as high as 90% of symbol duration. We show that the convergence time of this blind PR technique does not depend on the initial SOP as CMA does and allows switching to DD-LMS faster by more than an order of magnitude. For DP-4QAM, it shows a convergence time of 5.9 ns, which is much smaller than the convergence time of recent techniques using modified CMA algorithms for quicker convergence. BER of the first 20 × 10(3) symbols is always smaller by several factors for DP-16QAM and -64QAM but not always for DP-4QAM.

  14. Development of receiving-detecting circuit for digital radiographic systems with improved spatial resolution

    Ryzhikov, Volodymir D.; Opolonin, Oleksandr D.; Galkin, Serhiy M.; Voronkin, Yevheniy F.; Lysetska, Olena K.; Kostyukevych, Serhiy A.


    Detection of X-ray radiation by digital radiographic systems (DRS) is realized using multi-element detector arrays of scintillator-photodiode (S-PD) type. Accounting for our experience in development of X-ray introscopy systems, possibilities can be found for improvement of DRS detection efficiency. Namely, a more efficient use of the dynamic range of the analog-to-digit converter by means of instrumental compensation of scatter of detector characteristics and smaller apertures of individual detection channels. However, smaller apertures lead to lower levels of useful signals, and a problem emerges of signal interference over neighboring channels, which is related to optical separation of the scintillation elements. Also, more compact arrangement of electronic components of preamplifiers is achieved. The latter problem is solved by using multi-channel (from 32 to 1024 channels) photoreceiving devices (PRD). PRD has a set of photosensitive elements formed on one crystal, as well as shift registers ensuring preliminary amplification of signals and series connection to one outlet. The work envisages creation of receiving-detecting circuit (RDC) with improved spatial resolution (ISR) with the aim of producing advanced DRS with improved characteristics: density resolution better than 0.9%, and detecting ability allowing detection of θ 0.5 mm steel wire behind 6 mm steel. The work will result in the development of RDC with ISR (800-200 microns). In combination with various ionizing radiation sources and scanning mechanisms this will allow creation of DRS for many tasks of non-destructive testing (NDT) and technical diagnostics (TD), in particular, for check-up of pipelines, objects of oil and gas industries, etc. This work was supported by the Ministry of Education and Science of Ukraine, the U.S. Civilian Research and Development Foundation (CRDF), and by the NATO Science for Peace and Security Program (Project SfP-982823).

  15. Reducing the Digital Divide among Children Who Received Desktop or Hybrid Computers for the Home

    Zilka, Gila Cohen


    Researchers and policy makers have been exploring ways to reduce the digital divide. Parameters commonly used to examine the digital divide worldwide, as well as in this study, are: (a) the digital divide in the accessibility and mobility of the ICT infrastructure and of the content infrastructure (e.g., sites used in school); and (b) the digital…

  16. [Evaluation of bone mineral density using digital image processing in children receiving anticonvulsants].

    Suzuki, Keiko; Ueda, Satoru; Umezu, Ryouji; Matsuoka, Hisafumi; Sugihara, Shigetaka


    Bone mineral density (BMD) increases rapidly in a biphasic manner in childhood. During and after adolescence, BMD correlates more closely with bone age than chronological age. Digital image processing (DIP) allows the rapid assessment of BMD and bone age on one X-ray film. Herein, using DIP methods, the effects of various anticonvulsants on chronological and bone age were evaluated in 98 epilepsy patients (age range, 3-15 years) with no intellectual or motor disorders or diseases affecting bone metabolism. All patients were taking one or a combination of the following anticonvulsants: valproate sodium (VPA); carbamazepine (CBZ); and phenobarbital (PB). Bone maturation scores for radius-ulnar-short bones (RUS) were calculated using Tanner-Whitehouse 2 methods. Bone age was determined based on standard Japanese bone-maturation scores. In each patient, Z-scores for chronological and bone ages were calculated by subtracting standard BMD for gender and age from each BMD, then dividing the result by the standard deviation. The Z-score for each drug in relation to the administration period was analyzed using the Mann-Whitney test. For chronological age, significant differences in BMD were observed regarding the administration periods in children taking multiple drugs, but not in children on VPA, CBZ, or PB monotherapy. For bone age, no significant differences in BMD were observed regarding the administration periods for all drugs. Children taking multiple drugs showed a significant negative correlation between administration period and Z-scores for BMD calculated based on chronological age (Spearman rank correlation: - 0.457, p = 0.008), but not bone age. Among children receiving long-term VPA administration, bone age was delayed approximately 1 year, and bone maturation may have been delayed. No delay in bone age was noted among children receiving long-term administration of multiple drugs, suggesting that these anticonvulsants do not influence bone maturity. These

  17. HIPSR: A Digital Signal Processor for the Parkes 21-cm Multibeam Receiver

    Price, D. C.; Staveley-Smith, L.; Bailes, M.; Carretti, E.; Jameson, A.; Jones, M. E.; van Straten, W.; Schediwy, S. W.


    HIPSR (HI-Pulsar) is a digital signal processing system for the Parkes 21-cm Multibeam Receiver that provides larger instantaneous bandwidth, increased dynamic range, and more signal processing power than the previous systems in use at Parkes. The additional computational capacity enables finer spectral resolution in wideband HI observations and real-time detection of Fast Radio Bursts during pulsar surveys. HIPSR uses a heterogeneous architecture, consisting of FPGA-based signal processing boards connected via high-speed Ethernet to high performance compute nodes. Low-level signal processing is conducted on the FPGA-based boards, and more complex signal processing routines are conducted on the GPU-based compute nodes. The development of HIPSR was driven by two main science goals: to provide large bandwidth, high-resolution spectra suitable for 21-cm stacking and intensity mapping experiments; and to upgrade the Berkeley-Parkes-Swinburne Recorder (BPSR), the signal processing system used for the High Time Resolution Universe (HTRU) Survey and the Survey for Pulsars and Extragalactic Radio Bursts (SUPERB).




    Full Text Available This paper presents the implementation of a digital receiver for 2.4 GHz Zigbee IEEE 802.15.4 applications on a Spartan3E XC3S500E field programmable gate array (FPGA. The proposed digital receiver comprises an offset quadrature phase shift keying (OQPSK demodulator, chip synchronization, and a de-spreading block. A new design method that uses Verilog hardware description language (HDL code through Xilinx ISE version 12 was developed to design these blocks. These blocks were integrated into one top module for optimization. Simulation and measurement were conducted to verify the functionality of the receiver. Implementation results show that the receiver design matched the theoretical expectation. The implementation configuration required up to 22% less slices, flip-flops (FFs, and look-up tables (LUTs than that in previous research. The clock frequencies used were as low as 250 kHz and 2 MHz.

  19. Digital coherent detection of multi-gigabit 40 GHz carrier frequency radio-over-fiber signals using photonic downconversion

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso

    Detection of high speed radio signals is a challenge for next generation radio-over-fiber links, requiring high bandwidth and linearity in the receiver. By using photonic downconversion in a coherent receiver, it is possible to detect signals exceeding the electrical bandwidth of the receiver......, by performing the mixing of the radio signal with a free-running local oscillator in the optical domain. In this paper we present the experimental emonstration of high bitrate 16-QAM signal detection, up to 4 Gb/s, at 40 GHz carrier frequency, using low bandwidth electronics....

  20. Influence of fatigue on hand muscle coordination and EMG-EMG coherence during three-digit grasping.

    Danna-Dos Santos, Alessander; Poston, Brach; Jesunathadas, Mark; Bobich, Lisa R; Hamm, Thomas M; Santello, Marco


    Fingertip force control requires fine coordination of multiple hand muscles within and across the digits. While the modulation of neural drive to hand muscles as a function of force has been extensively studied, much less is known about the effects of fatigue on the coordination of simultaneously active hand muscles. We asked eight subjects to perform a fatiguing contraction by gripping a manipulandum with thumb, index, and middle fingers while matching an isometric target force (40% maximal voluntary force) for as long as possible. The coordination of 12 hand muscles was quantified as electromyographic (EMG) muscle activation pattern (MAP) vector and EMG-EMG coherence. We hypothesized that muscle fatigue would cause uniform changes in EMG amplitude across all muscles and an increase in EMG-EMG coherence in the higher frequency bands but with an invariant heterogeneous distribution across muscles. Muscle fatigue caused a 12.5% drop in the maximum voluntary contraction force (P muscles increased during the fatiguing contraction (P muscle coordination pattern was used throughout the fatiguing contraction. Last, EMG-EMG coherence (0-35 Hz) was significantly greater at the end than at the beginning of the fatiguing contraction (P hand muscles. These findings suggest that similar mechanisms are involved for modulating and sustaining digit forces in nonfatiguing and fatiguing contractions, respectively.

  1. 76 FR 54496 - In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having a Digital Television Receiver and Components...


    ... Lincolnshire, Illinois. 76 FR. 32373-74. The complaint alleges violations of section 337 of the Tariff Act of... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain Electronic Devices Having a Digital Television Receiver and Components..., and the sale within the United States after importation of certain electronic devices having a...

  2. Across-muscle coherence is modulated as a function of wrist posture during two-digit grasping.

    Jesunathadas, Mark; Laitano, Juan; Hamm, Thomas M; Santello, Marco


    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which correlated neural inputs, quantified as EMG-EMG coherence across intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles, varied as a function of wrist angle during a constant force precision grip task. Eight adults (5 males; mean age 29 years) participated in the experiment. Subjects held an object using a two-digit precision grip at a constant force at a flexed, neutral, and extended wrist posture, while the EMG activity from intrinsic and extrinsic hand muscles was recorded through intramuscular fine-wire electrodes. The integral of z-transformed coherence computed across muscles pairs was greatest in the flexed wrist posture and significantly greater than EMG-EMG coherence measured in the neutral and extended wrist posture (P < 0.01 and 0.05, respectively). Furthermore, EMG-EMG coherence did not differ statistically between the extrinsic and intrinsic muscle pairs, even though it tended to be greater for the extrinsic muscle pair (P ≥ 0.063). These findings lend support to the notion of a functional role of correlated neural inputs to hand muscles for the task-dependent coordination of hand muscle activity that is likely mediated by somatosensory feedback.

  3. Experimental demonstration of low-complexity fiber chromatic dispersion mitigation for reduced guard-interval OFDM coherent optical communication systems based on digital spectrum sub-band multiplexing.

    Malekiha, Mahdi; Tselniker, Igor; Nazarathy, Moshe; Tolmachev, Alex; Plant, David V


    We experimentally demonstrate a novel digital signal processing (DSP) structure for reduced guard-interval (RGI) OFDM coherent optical systems. The proposed concept is based on digitally slicing optical channel bandwidth into multiple spectrally disjoint sub-bands which are then processed in parallel. Each low bandwidth sub-band has a smaller delay-spread compared to a full-band signal. This enables compensation of both chromatic dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion using a simple timing and one-tap-per-symbol frequency domain equalizer with a small cyclic prefix overhead. In terms of the DSP architecture, this allows for a highly efficient parallelization of DSP tasks performed over the received signal samples by deploying multiple processors running at a lower clock rate. It should be noted that this parallelization is performed in the frequency domain and it allows for flexible optical transceiver schemes. In addition, the resulting optical receiver is simplified due to the removal of the CD compensation equalizer compared to conventional RGI-OFDM systems. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate digital sub-banding of optical bandwidth. We test the system performance for different modulation formats (QPSK, 16QAM and 32QAM) over various transmission distances and optical launch powers using a 1.5% CP overhead in all scenarios. We also compare the proposed RGI-OFDM architecture performance against common single carrier modulation formats. At the same total data rate and signal bandwidth both systems have similar performance and transmission reach whereas the proposed method allows for a significant reduction of computational complexity due to removal of CD pre/post compensation equalizer.

  4. Single-shot three-dimensional shape measurement by low-coherent optical path difference digital holography.

    Tanaka, Yuji; Mori, Yutaka; Nomura, Takanori


    A single-shot three-dimensional (3D) shape measurement by low-coherent optical path difference digital holography with small energy consumption is proposed. The use of a superluminescent diode makes it possible. Weighting of the single hologram and numerical reconstruction give the 3D shape of an object. Experimental results using a simple object (the surface of a button cell battery) are given. By comparison with experimental results using a vertical scanning method, the proposed method is confirmed. The effects of a shift interval of the hologram and a zero-order component on a measurement result are also discussed.

  5. A reconfigurable OTA-C baseband filter with wide digital tuning for GNSS receivers

    Pan Wenguang; Gan Yebing [Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Ma Chengyan; Ye Tianchun, E-mail: [Hangzhou Zhongke Microelectronics Co. Ltd, Hangzhou 310053 (China)


    The design of a digitally-tunable sixth-order reconfigurable OTA-C filter in a 0.18-{mu}m RFCMOS process is proposed. The filter can be configured as a complex band pass filter or two real low pass filters. An improved digital automatic frequency tuning scheme based on the voltage controlled oscillator technique is adopted to compensate for process variations. An extended tuning range (above 8:1) is obtained by using widely continuously tunable transconductors based on digital techniques. In the complex band pass mode, the bandwidth can be tuned from 3 to 24 MHz and the center frequency from 3 to 16 MHz. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  6. Review of Wideband Digital Channelized Receivers%宽带数字信道化接收机综述

    龚仕仙; 魏玺章; 黎湘


    宽带数字信道化接收机以其高性能在电子战和无线电通信中有着重要的运用.本文基于复杂电磁环境下电子战的运用需求,分析了信道化接收机系统的发展现状和趋势;研究了目前的数字信道化接收机技术的主要系统结构及其发展趋势;重点分析了信道化接收机技术的发展历程和发展趋势.根据目前的信道化接收机系统和数字信道化接收机技术的现状可以看出,数字信道化接收机发展的一个趋势是:宽带数字化(大量子信道)和非均匀信道化接收机及动态信道化接收机.%Wideband digital channelized receivers have an important application in Electronic Warfare(EW)and wireless communication,especially in Electronic Intelligence systems(ELINT) and Radar Warning Receiver(RWR) systems.This paper introduces the channelized receiver systems and the structures of the channelized technique.And base on the analysis of the development history of the channelized Receivers,we can see that the channelized Receivers system trend towards wideband digital and the digital channelized technique trend towards nouniform channelized to make channelized Receivers more suitable to the modem EW.

  7. Automated 3D detection and classification of Giardia lamblia cysts using digital holographic microscopy with partially coherent source

    El Mallahi, A.; Detavernier, A.; Yourassowsky, C.; Dubois, F.


    Over the past century, monitoring of Giardia lamblia became a matter of concern for all drinking water suppliers worldwide. Indeed, this parasitic flagellated protozoan is responsible for giardiasis, a widespread diarrhoeal disease (200 million symptomatic individuals) that can lead immunocompromised individuals to death. The major difficulty raised by Giardia lamblia's cyst, its vegetative transmission form, is its ability to survive for long periods in harsh environments, including the chlorine concentrations and treatment duration used traditionally in water disinfection. Currently, there is a need for a reliable, inexpensive, and easy-to-use sensor for the identification and quantification of cysts in the incoming water. For this purpose, we investigated the use of a digital holographic microscope working with partially coherent spatial illumination that reduces the coherent noise. Digital holography allows one to numerically investigate a volume by refocusing the different plane of depth of a hologram. In this paper, we perform an automated 3D analysis that computes the complex amplitude of each hologram, detects all the particles present in the whole volume given by one hologram and refocuses them if there are out of focus using a refocusing criterion based on the integrated complex amplitude modulus and we obtain the (x,y,z) coordinates of each particle. Then the segmentation of the particles is processed and a set of morphological and textures features characteristic to Giardia lamblia cysts is computed in order to classify each particles in the right classes.

  8. Frequency diversity wideband digital receiver and signal processor for solid-state dual-polarimetric weather radars

    Mishra, Kumar Vijay

    The recent spate in the use of solid-state transmitters for weather radar systems has unexceptionably revolutionized the research in meteorology. The solid-state transmitters allow transmission of low peak powers without losing the radar range resolution by allowing the use of pulse compression waveforms. In this research, a novel frequency-diversity wideband waveform is proposed and realized to extenuate the low sensitivity of solid-state radars and mitigate the blind range problem tied with the longer pulse compression waveforms. The latest developments in the computing landscape have permitted the design of wideband digital receivers which can process this novel waveform on Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) chips. In terms of signal processing, wideband systems are generally characterized by the fact that the bandwidth of the signal of interest is comparable to the sampled bandwidth; that is, a band of frequencies must be selected and filtered out from a comparable spectral window in which the signal might occur. The development of such a wideband digital receiver opens a window for exciting research opportunities for improved estimation of precipitation measurements for higher frequency systems such as X, Ku and Ka bands, satellite-borne radars and other solid-state ground-based radars. This research describes various unique challenges associated with the design of a multi-channel wideband receiver. The receiver consists of twelve channels which simultaneously downconvert and filter the digitized intermediate-frequency (IF) signal for radar data processing. The product processing for the multi-channel digital receiver mandates a software and network architecture which provides for generating and archiving a single meteorological product profile culled from multi-pulse profiles at an increased data date. The multi-channel digital receiver also continuously samples the transmit pulse for calibration of radar receiver gain and transmit power. The multi

  9. Adaptive 4~64 QAM real-time coherent optical transmission over 320 km with FPGA-based transmitter and receiver.

    Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Kasai, Keisuke; Nakazawa, Masataka


    We demonstrate the first real-time adaptive optical coherent QAM transmission with variable multiplicities (4-, 16- and 64-QAM) using an FPGA-based transmitter and receiver. Rate-variable transmission (20~60 Gbit/s) was successfully achieved with a polarization multiplexing scheme at 5 Gsymbol/s over 320 km, where the OSNR margins were increased by 9 and 17 dB, respectively, by changing the modulation level from 64 to 16 and 4.

  10. Silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source optical coherence tomography receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature detection.

    Wang, Zhao; Lee, Hsiang-Chieh; Vermeulen, Diedrik; Chen, Long; Nielsen, Torben; Park, Seo Yeon; Ghaemi, Allan; Swanson, Eric; Doerr, Chris; Fujimoto, James


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a widely used three-dimensional (3D) optical imaging method with many biomedical and non-medical applications. Miniaturization, cost reduction, and increased functionality of OCT systems will be critical for future emerging clinical applications. We present a silicon photonic integrated circuit swept-source OCT (SS-OCT) coherent receiver with dual polarization, dual balanced, in-phase and quadrature (IQ) detection. We demonstrate multiple functional capabilities of IQ polarization resolved detection including: complex-conjugate suppressed full-range OCT, polarization diversity detection, and polarization-sensitive OCT. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of a silicon photonic integrated receiver for OCT. The integrated coherent receiver provides a miniaturized, low-cost solution for SS-OCT, and is also a key step towards a fully integrated high speed SS-OCT system with good performance and multi-functional capabilities. With further performance improvement and cost reduction, photonic integrated technology promises to greatly increase penetration of OCT systems in existing applications and enable new applications.

  11. Digitally-Enhanced Software-Defined Radio Receiver Robust to Out-of-Band Interference

    Ru, Zhiyu; Moseley, Niels A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram


    A software-defined radio (SDR) receiver with improved robustness to out-of-band interference (OBI) is presented. Two main challenges are identified for an OBI-robust SDR receiver: out-of-band nonlinearity and harmonic mixing. Voltage gain at RF is avoided, and instead realized at baseband in combina

  12. Digitally Enhanced Software-Defined Radio Receiver Robust to Out-of-Band Interference

    Ru, Z.; Moseley, N.A.; Klumperink, Eric A.M.; Nauta, Bram


    Abstract—A software-defined radio (SDR) receiver with improved robustness to out-of-band interference (OBI) is presented. Two main challenges are identified for an OBI-robust SDR receiver: out-of-band nonlinearity and harmonic mixing. Voltage gain at RF is avoided, and instead realized at baseband i

  13. Specification for Digital Channel Selection Filters in a Bluetooth Capable HiperLAN/2 Receiver

    Hoeksema, Fokke; Schiphorst, Roel; Slump, Kees


    In this paper we first briefly describe how the analog part of the channel selection function for a HiperLAN/2 receiver can be used as part of the channel selection function for a Bluetooth receiver. Thereafter we proceed to specify the overall requirements for the Bluetooth channel selection functi

  14. Design and evaluation of a low-level RF control system analog/digital receiver for the ILC main Linacs

    Mavric, Uros; Vidmar, Matjaz; Chase, Brian; /Fermilab


    The proposed RF distribution scheme for the two 15 km long ILC LINACs, uses one klystron to feed 26 superconducting RF cavities operating at 1.3 GHz. For a precise control of the vector sum of the signals coming from the SC cavities, the control system needs a high performance, low cost, reliable and modular multichannel receiver. At Fermilab we developed a 96 channel, 1.3 GHz analog/digital receiver for the ILC LINAC LLRF control system. In the paper we present a balanced design approach to the specifications of each receiver section, the design choices made to fulfill the goals and a description of the prototyped system. The design is tested by measuring standard performance parameters, such as noise figure, linearity and temperature sensitivity. Measurements show that the design meets the specifications and it is comparable to other similar systems developed at other laboratories, in terms of performance.

  15. Design and evaluation of a low-level RF control system analog/digital receiver for the ILC main LINACs

    Mavric, Uros [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, 60510 Batavia, IL (United States)], E-mail:; Chase, Brian [Fermilab, P.O. Box 500, 60510 Batavia, IL (United States); Vidmar, Matjaz [Faculty of Electrical Engineering in Ljubljana, Trzaska 25, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia)


    The proposed RF distribution scheme for the two 15 km long ILC LINACs uses one klystron to feed 26 superconducting RF cavities operating at 1.3 GHz. For a precise control of the vector sum of the signals coming from the SC cavities, the control system needs a high-performance, low-cost, reliable and modular multichannel receiver. At Fermilab we developed a 96-channel, 1.3 GHz analog/digital receiver for the ILC LINAC LLRF control system. In this paper we present a balanced design approach to the specifications of each receiver section, the design choices made to fulfill the goals and a description of the prototyped system. The design is tested by measuring standard performance parameters, such as noise figure, linearity and temperature sensitivity. Measurements show that the design meets the specifications and it is comparable to other similar systems developed at other laboratories, in terms of performance.

  16. The Impact of Interference on GNSS Receiver Observables – A Running Digital Sum Based Simple Jammer Detector

    M. Z. H. Bhuiyan


    Full Text Available A GNSS-based navigation system relies on externally received information via a space-based Radio Frequency (RF link. This poses susceptibility to RF Interference (RFI and may initiate failure states ranging from degraded navigation accuracy to a complete signal loss condition. To guarantee the integrity of the received GNSS signal, the receiver should either be able to function in the presence of RFI without generating misleading information (i.e., offering a navigation solution within an accuracy limit, or the receiver must detect RFI so that some other means could be used as a countermeasure in order to ensure robust and accurate navigation. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to identify an interference occurrence and not to confuse it with other signal conditions, for example, indoor or deep urban canyon, both of which have somewhat similar impact on the navigation performance. Hence, in this paper, the objective is to investigate the effect of interference on different GNSS receiver observables in two different environments: i. an interference scenario with an inexpensive car jammer, and ii. an outdoor-indoor scenario without any intentional interference. The investigated observables include the Automatic Gain Control (AGC measurements, the digitized IF (Intermediate Frequency signal levels, the Delay Locked Loop and the Phase Locked Loop discriminator variances, and the Carrier-to-noise density ratio (C/N0 measurements. The behavioral pattern of these receiver observables is perceived in these two different scenarios in order to comprehend which of those observables would be able to separate an interference situation from an indoor scenario, since in both the cases, the resulting positioning accuracy and/or availability are affected somewhat similarly. A new Running Digital Sum (RDS -based interference detection method is also proposed herein that can be used as an alternate to AGC-based interference detection. It is shown in this paper

  17. A dual-mode analog baseband with digital-assisted DC-offset calibration for WCDMA/GSM receivers

    Xie Renzhong; Jiang Chen; Li Weinan; Huang Yumei; Hong Zhiliang


    A dual-mode analog baseband with digital-assisted DC-offsset calibration(DCOC)for WCDMA/GSM receiver is presented.A digital-assisted DCOC is proposed to solve the DC-offset problem by removing the DCoffset component only.This method has no bandwidth sacrifice.After calibration the measured output residual offset voltage is within 5 mV at most gain settings and the IIP2 is more than 60 dBm.The baseband is designed to be reconfigurable at bandwidths of 200 kHz and 2.1 MHz.Total baseband gain can be programmed from 6 to 54 dB.The chip is manufactured with 0.13 μm CMOS technology and consumes 10 mA from a 1.5 V supply in the GSM mode including an on-chip buffer while the core area occupies 1.2 mm2.

  18. Bunch-by-bunch detection of coherent transverse modes from digitized single-bpm signals in the Tevatron

    Stancari, G; Semenov, A


    A system was developed for bunch-by-bunch detection of transverse proton and antiproton coherent oscillations based on the signal from a single beam-position monitor (BPM) located in a region of the ring with large amplitude functions. The signal is digitized over a large number of turns and Fourier-analyzed offline with a dedicated algorithm. To enhance the signal, the beam is excited with band-limited noise for about one second, and this was shown not to significantly affect the circulating beams even at high luminosity. The system is used to measure betatron tunes of individual bunches and to study beam- beam effects. In particular, it is one of the main diagnostic tools in an ongoing study of nonlinear beam-beam compensation studies with Gaussian electron lenses. We present the design and operation of this tool, together with results obtained with proton and antiproton bunches.

  19. Digital tapped delay lines for HWIL testing of matched filter radar receivers

    Olson, Richard F.; Braselton, William J.; Mohlere, Richard D.


    Matched filter processing for pulse compression of phase coded waveforms is a classic method for increasing radar range measurement resolution. A generic approach for simulating high resolution range extended radar scenes in a Hardware in the Loop (HWIL) test environment is to pass the phase coded radar transmit pulse through an RF tapped delay line comprised of individually amplitude- and phase-weighted output taps. In the generic approach, the taps are closely spaced relative to time intervals equivalent to the range resolution of the compressed radar pulse. For a range-extended high resolution clutter scene, the increased number of these taps can make an analog implementation of an RF tapped delay system impractical. Engineers at the U.S. Army Aviation and Missile Research, Development and Engineering Center (AMRDEC) have addressed this problem by transferring RF tapped delay line signal operations to the digital domain. New digital tapped delay line (DTDL) systems have been designed and demonstrated which are physically compact compared to analog RF TDLs, leverage low cost FPGA and data converter technology, and may be readily expanded using open slots in a VME card cage. In initial HWIL applications, the new DTDLs have been shown to produce better dynamic range in pulse compressed range profiles than their analog TDL predecessors. This paper describes the signal requirements and system architecture for digital tapped delay lines. Implementation, performance, and HWIL simulation integration issues for AMRDEC's first generation DTDLs are addressed. The paper concludes with future requirements and plans for ongoing DTDL technology development at AMRDEC.

  20. Reconfigurable digital receiver for 8PSK subcarrier multiplexed and 16QAM single carrier phase‐modulated radio over fiber links

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin


    A reconfigurable digital receiver based on the k‐means algorithm is proposed for phase‐modulated subcarrier multiplexed (SCM) and quadrature amplitude‐modulated single carrier, phase‐modulated radio‐over‐fiber links. We report successful demodulation after 40 km single mode fiber transmission...... with three 50 Mbaud 8PSK SCM signals and a 312.5 Mbaud 16QAM single carrier. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Microwave Opt Technol Lett 53:1015–1018, 2011; View this article online at DOI 10.1002/mop.25905...


    Osadchiy, Alexey Vladimirovich; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    Coherent detection for spectrally encoded optical labels is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for three label tones spectrally spaced at 1 GHz. The proposed method utilizes a frequency swept local oscillator in a coherent receiver supported by digital signal processing for improved flexibi...... flexibility and upgradeability while reducing label detection subsystem complexity as compared with the conventional optical autocorrelation based approaches.......Coherent detection for spectrally encoded optical labels is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for three label tones spectrally spaced at 1 GHz. The proposed method utilizes a frequency swept local oscillator in a coherent receiver supported by digital signal processing for improved...

  2. Design and simulation of stratified probability digital receiver with application to the multipath communication

    Deal, J. H.


    One approach to the problem of simplifying complex nonlinear filtering algorithms is through using stratified probability approximations where the continuous probability density functions of certain random variables are represented by discrete mass approximations. This technique is developed in this paper and used to simplify the filtering algorithms developed for the optimum receiver for signals corrupted by both additive and multiplicative noise.

  3. 47 CFR 15.122 - Closed caption decoder requirements for digital television receivers and converter boxes.


    ... television receivers and converter boxes. 15.122 Section 15.122 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS...). (i) Predefined window and pen styles. Predefined Window Style and Pen Style ID's may be provided in the DefineWindow command. At a minimum, decoders should implement Predefined Window Attribute Style...

  4. Cognitive digital receiver for burst mode phase modulated radio over fiber links

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Tafur Monroy, Idelfonso


    A novel cognitive receiver for modulation format recognition with reconfigurable carrier recovery scheme is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for phase modulated radio-over-fibre links. Demodulation of burst-mode mixed modulation formats (PSK and QAM) is demonstrated after 40km...

  5. A programmable gain amplifier with digitally assisted DC offset calibration for a direct-conversion WLAN receiver

    Yao Xiaocheng; Gong Zheng; Shi Yin


    This paper presents a programmable gain amplifier (PGA) circuit with a digitally assisted DC offset cancellation (DCOC) scheme for a direct conversion WLAN receiver.Implemented in a standard 0.13-μm CMOS process,the PGA occupies 0.39 mm2 die area and dissipates 6.5 mW power from a 1.2 V power supply.By using a single loop single digital-to-analog converter (DAC) mixed signal DC offset cancellation topology,the minimum DCOC settling time achieved is as short as 1.6 μs with the PGA gain ranging from-8 to 54 dB in a 2 dB step.The DCOC loop utilizes a segmented DAC structure to lower the design complexity without sacrificing accuracy and a digital control algorithm to dynamically set the DCOC loop to fast or normal response mode,making the PGA circuit in compliance with the targeted WLAN specifications.

  6. Prostate: registration of digital histopathologic images to in vivo MR images acquired by using endorectal receive coil.

    Ward, Aaron D; Crukley, Cathie; McKenzie, Charles A; Montreuil, Jacques; Gibson, Eli; Romagnoli, Cesare; Gomez, Jose A; Moussa, Madeleine; Chin, Joseph; Bauman, Glenn; Fenster, Aaron


    To develop and evaluate a technique for the registration of in vivo prostate magnetic resonance (MR) images to digital histopathologic images by using image-guided specimen slicing based on strand-shaped fiducial markers relating specimen imaging to histopathologic examination. The study was approved by the institutional review board (the University of Western Ontario Health Sciences Research Ethics Board, London, Ontario, Canada), and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. This work proposed and evaluated a technique utilizing developed fiducial markers and real-time three-dimensional visualization in support of image guidance for ex vivo prostate specimen slicing parallel to the MR imaging planes prior to digitization, simplifying the registration process. Means, standard deviations, root-mean-square errors, and 95% confidence intervals are reported for all evaluated measurements. The slicing error was within the 2.2 mm thickness of the diagnostic-quality MR imaging sections, with a tissue block thickness standard deviation of 0.2 mm. Rigid registration provided negligible postregistration overlap of the smallest clinically important tumors (0.2 cm(3)) at histologic examination and MR imaging, whereas the tested nonrigid registration method yielded a mean target registration error of 1.1 mm and provided useful coregistration of such tumors. This method for the registration of prostate digital histopathologic images to in vivo MR images acquired by using an endorectal receive coil was sufficiently accurate for coregistering the smallest clinically important lesions with 95% confidence.

  7. Coherent digital demodulation of single-camera N-projections for 3D-object shape measurement: co-phased profilometry.

    Servin, M; Garnica, G; Estrada, J C; Quiroga, A


    Fringe projection profilometry is a well-known technique to digitize 3-dimensional (3D) objects and it is widely used in robotic vision and industrial inspection. Probably the single most important problem in single-camera, single-projection profilometry are the shadows and specular reflections generated by the 3D object under analysis. Here a single-camera along with N-fringe-projections is (digital) coherent demodulated in a single-step, solving the shadows and specular reflections problem. Co-phased profilometry coherently phase-demodulates a whole set of N-fringe-pattern perspectives in a single demodulation and unwrapping process. The mathematical theory behind digital co-phasing N-fringe-patterns is mathematically similar to co-phasing a segmented N-mirror telescope.

  8. Principles of transistor circuits introduction to the design of amplifiers, receivers and digital circuits

    Amos, S W


    Principles of Transistor Circuits, Seventh Edition discusses the fundamental concepts of transistor circuits. The book is comprised of 16 chapters that cover amplifiers, oscillators, and generators. Chapter 1 discusses semiconductors and junction nodes, while Chapter 2 covers the basic principles of transistors. The subsequent chapters focus on amplifiers, where one of the chapters discusses bias and D.C. The book also talks about sinusoidal oscillators and covers modulators, demodulators, mixers, and receivers. Chapters 13 and 14 discuss pulse generators and sawtooth generators, respectively.

  9. VLSI Structure for an All Digital Receiver for CDMA PABX Handset

    ZhouShidong; BiGuangguo


    In this paper,a VLSI architecture of a CDMA receiver is put forward for wirelesss PABX handset.To meet the critically low cost and power consumption requirement with neglectable per-formance degradation,some new techniques are employed to reduce hardware complexity,including base band processing,chip-rate sampling,low ADC resolution,absolute value detector,double branch acquisition ,and modified carrier phase compensation.Performance of experimental system fits well with theoretical predition ,and the practical SNR lose compared with ideal reception is about 2-3dB.

  10. VLSI Implementation of Novel Class of High Speed Pipelined Digital Signal Processing Filter for Wireless Receivers

    Rozita Teymourzadeh


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The need for high performance transceiver with high Signal to Noise Ratio (SNR has driven the communication system to utilize latest technique identified as over sampling systems. It was the most economical modulator and decimation in communication system. It has been proven to increase the SNR and is used in many high performance systems such as in the Analog to Digital Converter (ADC for wireless transceiver. Approach: This research presented the design of the novel class of decimation and its VLSI implementation which was the sub-component in the over sampling technique. The design and realization of main unit of decimation stage that was the Cascaded Integrator Comb (CIC filter, the associated half band filters and the droop correction are also designed. The Verilog HDL code in Xilinx ISE environment has been derived to describe the proposed advanced CIC filter properties. Consequently, Virtex-II FPGA board was used to implement and test the design on the real hardware. The ASIC design implementation was performed accordingly and resulted power and area measurement on chip core layout. Results: The proposed design focused on the trade-off between the high speed and the low power consumption as well as the silicon area and high resolution for the chip implementation which satisfies wireless communication systems. The synthesis report illustrates the maximum clock frequency of 332 MHz with the active core area of 0.308×0.308 mm2. Conclusion: It can be concluded that VLSI implementation of proposed filter architecture is an enabler in solving problems that affect communication capability in DSP application.

  11. Power optimization of digital baseband WCDMA receiver components on algorithmic and architectural level

    M. Schämann


    Full Text Available High data rates combined with high mobility represent a challenge for the design of cellular devices. Advanced algorithms are required which result in higher complexity, more chip area and increased power consumption. However, this contrasts to the limited power supply of mobile devices.

    This presentation discusses the application of an HSDPA receiver which has been optimized regarding power consumption with the focus on the algorithmic and architectural level. On algorithmic level the Rake combiner, Prefilter-Rake equalizer and MMSE equalizer are compared regarding their BER performance. Both equalizer approaches provide a significant increase of performance for high data rates compared to the Rake combiner which is commonly used for lower data rates. For both equalizer approaches several adaptive algorithms are available which differ in complexity and convergence properties. To identify the algorithm which achieves the required performance with the lowest power consumption the algorithms have been investigated using SystemC models regarding their performance and arithmetic complexity. Additionally, for the Prefilter Rake equalizer the power estimations of a modified Griffith (LMS and a Levinson (RLS algorithm have been compared with the tool ORINOCO supplied by ChipVision. The accuracy of this tool has been verified with a scalable architecture of the UMTS channel estimation described both in SystemC and VHDL targeting a 130 nm CMOS standard cell library.

    An architecture combining all three approaches combined with an adaptive control unit is presented. The control unit monitors the current condition of the propagation channel and adjusts parameters for the receiver like filter size and oversampling ratio to minimize the power consumption while maintaining the required performance. The optimization strategies result in a reduction of the number of arithmetic operations up to 70% for single components which leads to an

  12. The Touch Pad Body: A Generative Transcultural Digital Device Interrupting Received Ideas and Practices in Aboriginal Health

    Michael Christie


    Full Text Available Yolŋu Aboriginal understandings of the body, health, life and sickness, and roles their ancestral epistemologies and knowledge practices play in making agreement have seldom been taken seriously in the biomedical world. In this paper, we describe how insights developed in three different cross-cultural collaborative transdisciplinary research projects led to the design of a digital device aimed at intervening in communicative practices around body, health, life and sickness, interrupting the received practices and assumptions on both sides of the practitioner-client divide. The interrupting device slows down and opens up communication practices potentially leading to mutual understanding, collective agreement making, and bottom-up changes in remote Aboriginal health policy and practice.

  13. An autonomous receiver/digital signal processor applied to ground-based and rocket-borne wave experiments

    Dombrowski, M. P.; LaBelle, J.; McGaw, D. G.; Broughton, M. C.


    The programmable combined receiver/digital signal processor platform presented in this article is designed for digital downsampling and processing of general waveform inputs with a 66 MHz initial sampling rate and multi-input synchronized sampling. Systems based on this platform are capable of fully autonomous low-power operation, can be programmed to preprocess and filter the data for preselection and reduction, and may output to a diverse array of transmission or telemetry media. We describe three versions of this system, one for deployment on sounding rockets and two for ground-based applications. The rocket system was flown on the Correlation of High-Frequency and Auroral Roar Measurements (CHARM)-II mission launched from Poker Flat Research Range, Alaska, in 2010. It measured auroral "roar" signals at 2.60 MHz. The ground-based systems have been deployed at Sondrestrom, Greenland, and South Pole Station, Antarctica. The Greenland system synchronously samples signals from three spaced antennas providing direction finding of 0-5 MHz waves. It has successfully measured auroral signals and man-made broadcast signals. The South Pole system synchronously samples signals from two crossed antennas, providing polarization information. It has successfully measured the polarization of auroral kilometric radiation-like signals as well as auroral hiss. Further systems are in development for future rocket missions and for installation in Antarctic Automatic Geophysical Observatories.

  14. Performance of coherent detection for FTN-DFTs-OFDM signal using receiver-side quadrature duobinary shaping

    Xu, Cheng; Gao, Guanjun; Chen, Sai; Zhang, Jie


    In this paper we investigate Faster-than-Nyquist Discrete-Fourier-Transform spread Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing (FTN-DFTs-OFDM) signaling which combines the features of both single carrier FTN and OFDM system. By introducing the quadrature duo-binary (QDB) filtering at the receiver side, the transmitted OFDM signal can be packed in a sub-Nyquist spacing, which improves the spectral efficiency (SE) compared to conventional detection schemes. Maximum a posteriori (MAP) and maximum likelihood sequence estimation (MLSE) criteria have been both used and compared to find an optimal equalization scheme for combating FTN multiplexing at transmitter side and QDB filtering at receiver side. The simulations result show that by applying QDB filtering at the receiver side, the back-to-back (BTB) required optical signal noise ratio (OSNR) at bit error rate (BER) of 1 × 10-2 is reduced by 1.5-dB for 20-GHz spaced 128-Gb/s polarization-division-multiplexed quadrature-phase-shift-keying (PDM-QPSK) signal, achieving a SE of 6.4-b/s/Hz.

  15. Photonic downconversion for coherent phase-modulated radio-over-fiber links using free-running local oscillator

    Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Zibar, Darko; Schäffer, Christian G.


    A digital coherent receiver employing photonic downconversion is presented and experimentally demonstrated for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber optical links. Photonic downconversion adds additional advantages to optical phase modulated links by allowing demodulation of signals with RF carrier...

  16. A Sigma-Delta ADC with Decimation and Gain Control Function for a Bluetooth Receiver in 130 nm Digital CMOS

    Koh Jinseok


    Full Text Available We present a discrete-time second-order multibit sigma-delta ADC that filters and decimates by two the input data samples. At the same time it provides gain control function in its input sampling stage. A 4-tap FIR switched capacitor (SC architecture was chosen for antialiasing filtering. The decimation-by-two function is realized using divided-by-two clock signals in the antialiasing filter. Antialiasing, gain control, and sampling functions are merged in the sampling network using SC techniques. This compact architecture allows operating the preceding blocks at twice the ADC's clock frequency, thus improving the noise performance of the wireless receiver channel and relaxing settling requirements of the analog building blocks. The presented approach has been validated and incorporated in a commercial single-chip Bluetooth radio realized in a 1.5 V 130 nm digital CMOS process. The measured antialiasing filtering shows better than 75 dB suppression at the folding frequency band edge. A 67 dB dynamic range was measured with a sampling frequency of 37.5MHz.

  17. Digital Receiver-based Electronic Intelligence System Configuration for the Detection and Identification of Intrapulse Modulated Radar Signals

    A. K. Singh


    Full Text Available An optimum electronic intelligence system configuration incorporating the state of the art technologies and achieving the highest parameter accuracies while processing the complex intrapulse modulated radar signals is presented in this paper. The system is based on the quad digital receiver, a state of the art single board solution for the detection and analysis of modern radar signals. The system consists of base line interferometry  configuration for high accuracy direction finding measurement with sector selection based on amplitude direction finding technique. Advanced signal processing algorithms with time frequency analysis are implemented in real time in field programmable gate array to extract all the basic as well as advanced parameters of frequency and phase modulations such as chirp, barker, and poly-phase (Frank, P1-P4 codes in addition to the pulse and continuous wave signals. The intercepted intrapulse modulated signal parameters have been extracted with very high accuracy and sensitivity.Defence Science Journal, 2014, 64(2, pp. 152-158. DOI:

  18. Experimental demonstration of a real-time high-throughput digital DC blocker for compensating ADC imperfections in optical fast-OFDM receivers.

    Zhang, Lu; Ouyang, Xing; Shao, Xiaopeng; Zhao, Jian


    Performance degradation induced by the DC components at the output of real-time analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) is experimentally investigated for optical fast-OFDM receiver. To compensate this degradation, register transfer level (RTL) circuits for real-time digital DC blocker with 20GS/s throughput are proposed and implemented in field programmable gate array (FPGA). The performance of the proposed real-time digital DC blocker is experimentally investigated in a 15Gb/s optical fast-OFDM system with intensity modulation and direct detection over 40 km standard single-mode fibre. The results show that the fixed-point DC blocker has negligible performance penalty compared to the offline floating point one, and can overcome the error floor of the fast OFDM receiver caused by the DC components from the real-time ADC output.

  19. [Correlation of noises in the channels of digital X-ray receiver-transformer and the evaluation of registration's quant efficiency].

    Porosev, V V; Shekhtman, L I; Zelikman, M I; Blinov Jr, N N


    Theoretical and experimental research results related with the influence of correlation of signals in neighboring elements of digital X-ray receiver-transformer produced on the evaluation of the output ratio noise/signal and, as a consequence, on the evaluation of quantum registration efficiency are described in the paper.

  20. Manipulation of the coherent spatial and angular shifts of Goos-Hänchen effect to realize the digital optical switch in silicon-on-insulator waveguide corner

    Sun, DeGui


    In this work, based on the quantum process of the Goos-Hänchen (GH) spatial shift, a quantum process of the GH angular shift is also theoretically investigated. Then, the coherence between spatial and angular shifts in the GH effect is discovered and developed to manipulate the final total displacement for a digital optical switch. It is found that a waveguide corner structure always makes the reflected guide-mode have a GH angular shift in the minus direction when the incident beam is in the Brewster angle vicinity, while it always makes the spatial shift in the plus direction. Meanwhile, the coherence of these two GH shifts has an interesting distribution with the incident angle, and only in the common linear response area to the incident angle, the two GH shifts are mutually enhancing, and then a mini refractive index modulation of the guided-mode at the reflecting interface can create a great stable jump of reflected beam displacement at an eigenstate under the GH effect. As a result, on the 220 nm CMOS-compatible silicon-on-insulator waveguide platform, with a tapered multimode interference (MMI) waveguide, a 5 × 1018cm-3 concentration variation of free carriers can create an absolute digital total displacement of 8-25 μm of the reflected beam on the MMI waveguide output end, leading to a 1 × 5 scale digital optical switching function.

  1. Automated three-dimensional detection and classification of living organisms using digital holographic microscopy with partial spatial coherent source: application to the monitoring of drinking water resources.

    El Mallahi, Ahmed; Minetti, Christophe; Dubois, Frank


    In this paper, we investigate the use of a digital holographic microscope working with partially coherent spatial illumination for an automated detection and classification of living organisms. A robust automatic method based on the computation of propagating matrices is proposed to detect the 3D position of organisms. We apply this procedure to the evaluation of drinking water resources by developing a classification process to identify parasitic protozoan Giardia lamblia cysts among two other similar organisms. By selecting textural features from the quantitative optical phase instead of morphological ones, a robust classifier is built to propose a new method for the unambiguous detection of Giardia lamblia cyst that present a critical contamination risk.

  2. 100-GHz Wireless-Over-Fiber Links With Up to 16-Gb/s QPSK Modulation Using Optical Heterodyne Generation and Digital Coherent Detection

    Sambaraju, R.; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;


    In this letter, a novel technique for direct conversion of an optical baseband quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signal to a millimeter-wave wireless signal and subsequent signal demodulation is reported. Optical heterodyne mixing of the optical baseband QPSK signal with a free-running...... unmodulated laser for the wireless signal generation is employed. To correct for the phase and frequency offset originating from the heterodyne mixing of the two free-running lasers, wireless signal demodulation based on optical coherent detection in combination with baseband digital signal processing...

  3. Real-time swept source optical coherence tomography imaging of the human airway using a microelectromechanical system endoscope and digital signal processor.

    Su, Jianping; Zhang, Jun; Yu, Lingfeng; G Colt, Henri; Brenner, Matthew; Chen, Zhongping


    A fast-scan-rate swept laser for optical coherence tomography (OCT) is suitable to record and analyze a 3-D image volume. However, the whole OCT system speed is limited by data streaming, processing, and storage. In this case, postprocessing is a common technique. Endoscopic clinical applications prefer onsite diagnosis, which requires a real-time technique. Parallel digital signal processors were applied to stream and process data directly from a data digitizer. A real-time system with 20-kHz axial line speed, which was limited only by our swept laser scan rate, was implemented. To couple with the system speed, an endoscope based on an improved 3-D microelectromechanical motor (diameter 1.5 mm, length 9.4 mm) was developed. In vivo 3-D imaging of the human airway was demonstrated.

  4. SEMICONDUCTOR INTEGRATED CIRCUITS: A reconfigurable OTA-C baseband filter with wide digital tuning for GNSS receivers

    Wenguang, Pan; Chengyan, Ma; Yebing, Gan; Tianchun, Ye


    The design of a digitally-tunable sixth-order reconfigurable OTA-C filter in a 0.18-μm RFCMOS process is proposed. The filter can be configured as a complex band pass filter or two real low pass filters. An improved digital automatic frequency tuning scheme based on the voltage controlled oscillator technique is adopted to compensate for process variations. An extended tuning range (above 8:1) is obtained by using widely continuously tunable transcon-ductors based on digital techniques. In the complex band pass mode, the bandwidth can be tuned from 3 to 24 MHz and the center frequency from 3 to 16 MHz.

  5. Digitization

    Finnemann, Niels Ole


    Processes of digitization have for years represented a major trend in the developments of modern society but have only recently been related to processes of mediatization. The purpose of this article is to look into the relation between the concepts of mediatization and digitization and to clarify...... what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...... not anticipated in previous conceptualizations of media and mediatization. If digital media are to be included, the concept of mediatization has to be revised and new parameters are to be built into the concept of media. At the same time it is argued that the concept of mediatization still provides a variety...

  6. Interference Rejection in Receivers by Frequency Translated Low‐Pass Filtering and Digitally Enhanced Harmonic‐Rejection Mixing

    Klumperink, Eric; Ru, Zhiyu; Moseley, Niels; Nauta, Bram


    Software-Defined Radio (SDR) and Cognitive Radio (CR) concepts have recently drawn considerable interest. These radio concepts built on digital signal processing to realize flexibly programmable radio transceivers, which can adapt in a smart way to their environment. As CMOS is the mainstream IC tec

  7. [Comparison of LCD and CRT monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic analysis].

    Ikeda, Ryuji; Katsuragawa, Shigehiko; Shimonobou, Toshiaki; Hiai, Yasuhiro; Hashida, Masahiro; Awai, Kazuo; Yamashita, Yasuyuki; Doi, Kunio


    Soft copy reading of digital images has been practiced commonly in the PACS environment. In this study, we compared liquid-crystal display (LCD) and cathode-ray tube (CRT) monitors for detection of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases on digital chest radiographs by using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Digital chest images with a 1000x1000 matrix size and a 8 bit grayscale were displayed on LCD/CRT monitor with 2M pixels in each observer test. Eight and ten radiologists participated in the observer tests for detection of nodules and interstitial diseases, respectively. In each observer test, radiologists marked their confidence levels for diagnosis of pulmonary nodules or interstitial diseases. The detection performance of radiologists was evaluated by ROC analyses. The average Az values (area under the ROC curve) in detecting pulmonary nodules with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.792 and 0.814, respectively. In addition, the average Az values in detecting interstitial diseases with LCD and CRT monitors were 0.951 and 0.953, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between LCD and CRT for both detection of pulmonary nodules (P=0.522) and interstitial lung diseases (P=0.869). Therefore, we believe that the LCD monitor instead of the CRT monitor can be used for the diagnosis of pulmonary nodules and interstitial lung diseases in digital chest images.

  8. Theoretical calculation on ICI reduction using digital coherent superposition of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs in the presence of laser phase noise.

    Yi, Xingwen; Xu, Bo; Zhang, Jing; Lin, Yun; Qiu, Kun


    Digital coherent superposition (DCS) of optical OFDM subcarrier pairs with Hermitian symmetry can reduce the inter-carrier-interference (ICI) noise resulted from phase noise. In this paper, we show two different implementations of DCS-OFDM that have the same performance in the presence of laser phase noise. We complete the theoretical calculation on ICI reduction by using the model of pure Wiener phase noise. By Taylor expansion of the ICI, we show that the ICI power is cancelled to the second order by DCS. The fourth order term is further derived out and only decided by the ratio of laser linewidth to OFDM subcarrier symbol rate, which can greatly simplify the system design. Finally, we verify our theoretical calculations in simulations and use the analytical results to predict the system performance. DCS-OFDM is expected to be beneficial to certain optical fiber transmissions.

  9. MLS接收机数字滤波器设计研究%Design and Study on Digital Filter of MLS Receiver

    张浩杰; 李晓明; 裴文林


    The signal demodulation precision of receiver is affected directly by the performance of the internal filter. The analog filter is adopted by traditional receivers, structure of which is cockamamie and the precision of signal pretreatment is not very high. The structure of digital filter of Microwave Landing System (MLS) receiver is studied by the approach of intermediate frequency digitization technique on the basis of software radio. At last, the feasibility of design scheme is validated by the simulations and practical tests in this paper.%接收机内部滤波器的性能直接影响接收机对信号的解调计算精度,传统的接收机采用模拟式滤波器结构,结构繁琐且信号预处理精度不高.基于软件无线电,运用中频数字化技术,提出了一种微波着陆系统(MLS)接收机数字滤波器设计方案,并对方案进行了仿真和实际的测试,验证了方案的可行性.

  10. 宽带数字通信接收技术研究%Study on receiving technology for wideband digital communication



    The wireless receiving technology for wideband digital communication is studied in this paper to solve the problem existing in multi-channel receiving system for the wideband digital communication. The multi-channel efficient model suitable for wireless receiving system for wideband digital communication is derived and given through the study of signal sampling theory. The model gets fewer orders of filter by the design of prototype filter with same filtering performance and reduces the resource occupation ratio of the system. The correctness of the model was verified by computer simulation. The model has less calculated amount,compared with traditional models,and is suitable for the engineering application.%为了解决宽带数字通信系统多信道同时接收问题,这里针对宽带无线数字通信接收技术展开了深入研究,在研究信号采样理论的基础上,推导并给出了一种适用于宽带无线数字通信接收系统的多通道信道化高效模型.该模型利用原型滤波器的设计,在保证了滤波性能的同时获得了较少的阶数,降低了资源占有率,计算机仿真验证了该模型的正确性.该模型和传统模型相比有较少的计算量,适合于工程化应用.

  11. Mediatization, Spatial Coherence and Social Sustainability The Role of Digital Media Networks in a Swedish Countryside Community

    André Jansson


    Full Text Available What does the implementation of new communication networks mean for the spa-tial coherence and social sustainability of rural communities? This paper takes its key from Wittel’s discussion of network sociality, understood as the opposite of Gemeinschaft. Wittel’s argument may inform our understanding of how commu-nicative patterns in rural communities are partly re-embedded through ongoing media transitions. But it must also be problematized. Relating Wittel’s discussion to Halfacree’s model of spatial coherence and Urry’s notion of network capital, as well as to findings from an ethnographic study in a Swedish countryside commu-nity, a more complex view is presented. It is argued that global communication networks under rural conditions contribute to the integration and sustainability of the community, as much as to processes of expansion and differentiation. The results show that network sociality and community constitute interdependent con-cepts. Through their capacity of linking people to external realms of interest, while simultaneously reinforcing their sense of belonging in the local community, online media promote ontological security at the individual level, thus operating as a social stabilizer.

  12. Real-time reception of multi-gigabit coherent optical OFDM signals.

    Yang, Qi; Chen, Simin; Ma, Yiran; Shieh, William


    Coherent Optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) has been demonstrated for delivering superior performance in spectral efficiency, receiver sensitivity, and polarization-dispersion resilience. Fueled by the rapid advancement in semiconductor technology, high-speed field-programmable gate arrays (FPGA) and analogue-to-digital-converters/digital-to-analogue converters (ADC/DACs) have been increasingly adopted for digital signal processing in optical communications. In this paper, we report the first FPGA-based real-time implementation of coherent optical OFDM (CO-OFDM) receiver with a transmission rate up to 3.1 Gb/s. Several basic aspects of CO-OFDM signal processing are described in detail, and the BER sensitivity performance are evaluated in real-time. To the best of our knowledge, we have achieved the record real-time reception date rate for a single-input single-output (SISO) coherent OFDM signal, in either RF domain or optical domain.

  13. A photonic analog-to-digital converter using phase modulation and self-coherent detection with spatial oversampling.

    Golani, Ori; Mauri, Luca; Pasinato, Fabiano; Cattaneo, Cristian; Consonnni, Guido; Balsamo, Stefano; Marom, Dan M


    We propose a new type of photonic analog-to-digital converter (ADC), designed for high-resolution (>7 bit) and high sampling rates (scalable to tens of GS/s). It is based on encoding the input analog voltage signal onto the phase of an optical pulse stream originating from a mode-locked laser, and uses spatial oversampling as a means to improve the conversion resolution. This paper describes the concept of spatial oversampling and draws its similarities to the commonly used temporal oversampling. The design and fabrication of a LiNbO(3)/silica hybrid photonic integrated circuit for implementing the spatial oversampling is shown, and its abilities are demonstrated experimentally by digitizing gigahertz signals (frequencies up to 18GHz) at an undersampled rate of 2.56GS/s with a conversion resolution of up to 7.6 effective bits. Oversampling factors of 1-4 are demonstrated.

  14. Influence of Fatigue on Hand Muscle Coordination and EMG-EMG Coherence During Three-Digit Grasping

    Danna-Dos Santos, Alessander; Poston, Brach; Jesunathadas, Mark; Bobich, Lisa R.; Hamm, Thomas M.; Santello, Marco


    Fingertip force control requires fine coordination of multiple hand muscles within and across the digits. While the modulation of neural drive to hand muscles as a function of force has been extensively studied, much less is known about the effects of fatigue on the coordination of simultaneously active hand muscles. We asked eight subjects to perform a fatiguing contraction by gripping a manipulandum with thumb, index, and middle fingers while matching an isometric target force (40% maximal ...

  15. Design and implementation of high performance digital receiver based on FPGA%高性能数字接收机FPGA设计与实现



    A digital receiver widely applied in multi-mode comprehensive test instrument was designed to meet the need of test of multi-mode radio communication.According to Band-pass-sampling theory,the Intermediate Frequency (IF) signals of QPSK/TD-SCDMA etc.were directly sampled at 153.6 MHz.The digital-down-converter (DDC),shift-phase-filter (SPF),multi-rate-decimating (MRD),shaping-filter (SF) and symbol-synchronization (SS) were implemented in field-programmable gate array(FPGA) so that digital signal processor(DSP) made algorithm-demodulation with quadrature IQ signal.The experiment result shows that the solution can reduce resource consume in DDC,enhance dynamic-linear-range of receive-channel,increase Effective-Number of Bits (ENOB) and improve vector-demodulation,so that it is suitable for digital receiver with multi-mode and wide-band.%针对多模移动通信标准测试的需求,设计一款可广泛应用于多模综测仪的数字接收机.根据带通采样原理直接对153.6 MHz的QPSK/TD-SCDMA等中频信号进行采样,在FPGA中实现高效数字下变频、移相滤波、多速率抽取、成型滤波和符号同步等功能,以正交I、Q信号输出便于后续DSP对其进行软件算法解调和处理.实验结果表明,该方案能有效减少数字下变频资源消耗、增强接收通道的线性动态范围、提高模数转换器的有效分辨率、改善通道矢量解调指标,适合作为多模宽带数字中频接收机的实施方案.

  16. Burst Mode Receiver for 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK with parallel DSP.

    Thomsen, Benn C; Maher, Robert; Millar, David S; Savory, Seb J


    A burst mode 112 Gb/s DP-QPSK digital coherent optical receiver with parallel DSP suitable for implementation in a CMOS ASIC with a 218.75 MHz clock speed is presented. The receiver performance is validated in a five channel 50 GHz grid WDM burst switching experiment using a commercially available wavelength tunable laser as the local oscillator. A new equalizer initialization scheme that overcomes the degenerate convergence problem and ensures rapid convergence is introduced. We show that the performance of the tunable local oscillator is commensurate with burst mode coherent reception when differential decoding in employed and that required parallel DSP implementation does not seriously impair the polarization and frequency tracking performance of a digital coherent receiver under burst mode operation. We report a burst acquisition time of less than 200 ns.

  17. Miniature digital frequency measure receiver%小型化数字测频接收机

    邰宁; 张晓发; 袁乃昌


    本文介绍了AD公司的RF/IF相位和幅度测量芯片AD8302,并以此芯片为核心,组合功分器、延迟线和FPGA芯片设计了瞬时测频接收机,改进了传统的设计方案.依照设计制作了测频系统,并对系统整体性能进行了测试,测试结果表明本系统可以准确测量1.4~2.0 GHz范围内的信号,测频精度为10 MHz.%In the article we introduce the ADI production, RF/IF phase and amplitude detector AD8302, and design a kind of IFM receiver based on AD8302 with power divider, delay line and FPGA. This design improves the traditional IMF receiver. The IMF system is fabricated and its performance is tested. Experimental results show that the system could measure the frequency from 1.4 GHz to 2.0 GHz and its precision is 10 MHz.

  18. Results of the Ongoing Monitoring of the Position of a Geostationary Telecommunication Satellite by the Method of Spatially Separated Basis Receiving of Digital Satellite Television Signals

    Bushuev, F.; Kaliuzhnyi, M.; Sybiryakova, Y.; Shulga, O.; Moskalenko, S.; Balagura, O.; Kulishenko, V.


    The results of the ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellite Eutelsat-13B (13° East) are presented in the article. The results were obtained using a radio engineering complex (RC) of four stations receiving digital satellite television and a data processing centre. The stations are located in Kyiv, Mukachevo, Kharkiv and Mykolaiv. The equipment of each station allows synchronous recording (by the GPS) of fragments of DVB-S signal from the quadrature detector output of the satellite television receiver. Samples of the complex signal are archived and sent to the data processing center through the Internet. Here three linearly independent slant range differences (Δr) for three pairs of the stations are determined as a result of correlation processing of received signals. Every second measured values of Δr are used to calculate Cartesian coordinates (XYZ) of the satellite in the coordinate system WGS84 by multilateration method. The time series of Δr, X, Y and Z obtained during continuous observations from March to May 2015 are presented in the article. Single-measurement errors of Δr, X, Y and Z are equal to 2.6 m, 3540 m, 705 m and 455 m, respectively. The complex is compared with known analogues. Ways of reduction of measurement errors of satellite coordinates are considered. The radio engineering complex could be considered a prototype of a system of independent ongoing monitoring of the position of geostationary telecommunication satellites.

  19. Evaluation of the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs as compared with film: a receiver operating characteristic study.

    Lyttkens, K; Kirkhorn, T; Kehler, M; Andersson, B; Ebbesen, A; Hochbergs, P; Jarlman, O; Lindberg, C G; Holmer, N G


    Paper copies of digital radiographs printed with the continuous ink-jet technique have proved to be of a high enough quality for demonstration purposes. We present a study on the image quality of ink-jet printed paper copies of digital chest radiographs, based on receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. Eighty-three digital radiographs of a chest phantom with simulated tumors in the mediastinum and right lung, derived from a computed radiography (CR) system were presented in two series of hard copies as ink-jet printed paper copies and as laser recorded film. The images, with a matrix of 1,760 x 2,140 pixels, were printed with a spatial resolution of 10 pixels/mm in the CR film recorder as well as in the ink-jet printer. On film, every image was recorded in two versions, one optimized for the mediastinum and one for the lungs. On paper, only one image was printed; this constituted an effort to optimize both the mediastinum and the lungs. The ink-jet printed images, printed on a matt coated paper, were viewed as on-sight images with reflected light. The examinations were reviewed by six radiologists, and ROC curves were constructed. No significant difference was found between the performance of film and that of ink-jet paper prints. Because the cost for a paper copy is only a tenth of that of film, remarkable cost reductions can be achieved by using the ink jet technique instead. Our results show that further quality studies of ink-jet printed images are worthwhile.

  20. A Low Distortion 3rd-Order Continuous-Time Delta-Sigma Modulator for a Worldwide Digital TV-Receiver

    Obata, Koji; Matsukawa, Kazuo; Mitani, Yosuke; Takayama, Masao; Tokunaga, Yusuke; Sakiyama, Shiro; Dosho, Shiro

    This paper presents a low distortion 3rd-order continuous-time delta-sigma modulator for a worldwide digital TV-receiver whose peak SNDR is 69.8dB and SNR is 70.2dB under 1V power supply. To enhance SNDR performance, the mechanisms to occur harmonic distortions at feedback current-steering DAC and flash ADC have been analyzed. A low power tuning system using RC-relaxation oscillator has been developed in order to achieve high yield against PVT variations. A 3rd-order modulator with modified single opamp resonator contributes to cost reduction by realizing a very compact circuit. Reduction schemes of the distortions enabled the modulator to achieve FOM of 0.18pJ/conv-step.

  1. Design of a Combined Beacon Receiver and Digital Radiometer for 40 GHz Propagation Measurements at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex

    Zemba, Michael J.; Nessel, James A.; Morabito, David D.


    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) have jointly developed an atmospheric propagation terminal to measure and characterize propagation phenomena at 40 GHz at the Madrid Deep Space Communications Complex (MDSCC) in Robledo de Chavela, Spain. The hybrid Q-band system combines a 40 GHz beacon receiver and digital radiometer into the same RF front-end and observes the 39.402 GHz beacon of the European Space Agencys Alphasat Aldo Paraboni TDP5 experiment. The goals of these measurements are to assist MDSCC mission operations as well as to contribute to the development and improvement of International Telecommunications Union (ITU) models for prediction of communications systems performance within the Q-band. Herein, we provide an overview of the system design, characterization, and plan of operations to commence at the MDSCC beginning in March 2017.

  2. Research and Implementation on IF Digital Communication Receiver%数字化中频通信接收的研究与实现



    The development and application of software radio are described in this paper. In order to satisfy the numeralization need of communication intermediate frequency receiver, the design scheme of 560MHz IF digital receiver in S-band communication system which designed by the software radio idea is introduced, the basic principles and key techniques are analyzed, the functional block diagram and the specific implementation method of the communication are put forward. The whole system which is already applied in a S-band communication system is highly integrated, reliable and flexible.%概述了软件无线电的发展和应用,为满足某通信中频接收机的数字化要求,介绍了应用软件无线电思想设计的S波段某通信系统560MHz中频数字化接收机的方案,对其基本原理和实现的关键技术做了分析,最后给出了实现该数字化通信接收机的原理框图及具体方法。整个系统集成度高、可靠性好、使用灵活,已在S波段某型通信系统中得到了应用。

  3. DSP-based non-coherent dual detector demodulator for land mobile radio channels

    Saulnier, Gary J.; Rafferty, William


    This paper outlines the development of a digital demodulator suitable for the non-coherent detection of various modulation formats including: Phase Shift Keying (PSK), Continuous Phase Frequency Shift Keying (CPFSK) and Frequency Modulation (FM). The demodulator design concept has been derived with a view towards a single integrated circuit (IC) implementation. Two detectors, one non-coherent and one differentially coherent, operate concurrently, providing data detection and automatic frequency control (AFC). Bit error rate results are provided which illustrate the receiver performance in white Gaussian noise.

  4. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.


    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  5. DOA estimation of coherent wideband signals based on extended TOPS algorithm

    Guo, Rui; Li, Weixing; Zhang, Yue; Chen, Zengping


    In this paper, we present a new direction of arrival (DOA) estimation algorithm for coherent wideband signals. This algorithm is based on the test of orthogonality of projected subspaces (TOPS) method which will fail to work in real environments where signals are highly correlated or coherent due to multipath propagation. In order to overcome the disadvantage, we combine spatial smoothing techniques with TOPS method so that the rank of covariance matrix is equal to the number of signal sources even signals received are coherent. Unlike other coherent wideband methods, such as the coherent signal subspace method (CSSM) and WAVES, the new method does not require any initial DOA estimation, thus avoiding errors brought by incorrect initial values. Simulations on computer and experiments in the anechoic chamber based on an 8-elements digital array radar test-bed operating at L & S band are carried out. Simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of proposed algorithm.

  6. Pseudonoise (PN) synchronization of data system with derivation of clock frequency from received signal for clocking receiver PN generator

    Couvillon, L. A., Jr. (Inventor)


    A digital communicating system for automatically synchronizing signals for data detection is described. The systems consists of biphase modulating a subcarrier frequency by the binary data and transmitting a carrier phase modulated by this signal to a receiver, where coherent phase detection is employed to recover the subcarrier. Data detection is achieved by providing, in the receiver, a demodulated reference which is in synchronism with the unmodulated subcarrier in transmitting system. The output of the detector is passed through a matched filter where the signal is integrated over a bit period. As a result, random noise components are averaged out, so that the probability of detecting the correct data transmitted is maximized.

  7. Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence

    Matthew D Sacchet


    Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.

  8. Optimization of Passive Coherent Receiver System Placement


    from satellites can be considered to cover the entirety of the area of interest. In an effort to increase the range of their signals, many cell...broadcasting jazz and pop music tend to have more clearly defined peaks than those stations broadcasting rock or news radio [9]. These ambiguities can

  9. Comparison between differently priced devices for digital capture of X-ray films using computed tomography as a gold standard: a multireader-multicase receiver operating characteristic curve study.

    Salazar, Antonio J; Camacho, Juan Camilo; Aguirre, Diego Andrés


    Film digitizers are a specialized technology that is available for scanning X-ray radiographs; however, their cost makes them unaffordable for developing countries. Thus, less expensive alternatives are used. The purpose of this study was to compare three devices for digital capture of X-ray films: a film digitizer (US $15,000), a flatbed scanner (US $1800), and a 10-megapixel digital camera (US $450), in terms of diagnostic accuracy, defined as the area under the receiver operating characteristic curves and computed tomography as the gold standard. The sample included 136 chest X-ray cases with computed tomography confirmation of the presence or absence of pneumothorax, interstitial opacities, or nodules. The readers were six radiologists who made observations of eight variables for each digital capture of the X-ray films: three main variables to determine the accuracy in the detection of the above-mentioned pathologies, four secondary variables to categorize other pathological classifications, and one variable regarding digital image quality. The receiver operating characteristic curves for each device and pathology were very similar. For the main variables, there was no significant statistical difference in diagnostic accuracy between the devices. For the secondary variables, >84% of cases were correctly classified, even those that were classified with the lowest image quality. High accuracy was determined for the three main variables (0.75 to 0.96), indicating good performance for all tested devices, despite their very different prices. Choosing a device for a teleradiology service should involve additional factors, such as capture time, maintenance concerns, and training requirements.

  10. Analog domain adaptive equalizer for low power 40 Gbps DP-QPSK receivers

    Nandakumar Nambath; Pawan Kumar Moyade; Allmin Ansari; Shalabh Gupta


    Electrical domain equalization of chromatic and polarization mode dispersion is attractive in coherent optical communication links. Digital coherent receivers used for this purpose are based on high speed ADCs followed by DSP, which dissipate excessive amount of power and are very costly to implement. We propose analog coherent receiver to drastically reduce the power consumption, size and cost. An adaptive feed forward equalizer for 40 Gbps dual polarization quadrature phase shift keying (DP-QPSK) systems, which processes signals in analog domain itself, is demonstrated using circuit and system simulations. The equalizer, designed in 90 nm CMOS technology, consumes 450 mW of power and occupies 1.8 mm × 1.1 mm chip area. System simulations are used to show that blind equalization is also possible when this approach is used in decision directed mode.

  11. Principle and Maintenance of DVR-1000 PIB Digital Satellite Receiver Switching Power Supply%PIB DVR-1000数字卫星接收机开关电源原理与检修

    周凤岐; 南长德; 金雷


    文章主要介绍了PIB DVR-1000数字卫星接收机开关电源原理与检修,并根据实物绘出原理图从理论和实践上做了详细的分析。%This paper mainly introduces the principle and maintenance of DVR-1000 PIB digital satellite receiver switching power supply, and analyzes the theory and practice of the theory and practice.

  12. Experimental 2.5 Gbit/s QPSK WDM coherent phase modulated radio-over-fibre link with digital demodulation by a K-means algorithm

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio; Amaya Fernández, Ferney Orlando


    Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gbit/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fibre link employing coherent detection is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3·2.5 Gbit/s QPSK modulated WDM channels, is achieved after 79km of transmission through deployed fiber.......Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gbit/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fibre link employing coherent detection is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3·2.5 Gbit/s QPSK modulated WDM channels, is achieved after 79km of transmission through deployed fiber....

  13. Coherent-detection-assisted BOTDA system without averaging using single-sideband modulated local oscillator signal

    Guo, Nan; Wang, Liang; Jin, Chao; Gui, Tao; Zhong, Kangping; Zhou, Xian; Yuan, Jinhui; Yu, Changyuan; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Lu, Chao


    A novel setup for coherent-detection-assisted Brillouin optical time domain analysis (BOTDA) is proposed and demonstrated. Performance enhancement is enabled by a power-controllable local oscillator (LO) generated using single-side-band (SSB) modulation. Through employing a commercial coherent receiver and polarization diversity scheme, the Brillouin gain traces carried on a stable intermediate frequency (IF) are obtained in real time without any averaging and processed by digital signal processing (DSP) without the need of ultra-narrow optical band pass filter. A spatial resolution of 4 m and frequency uncertainty of 1.473 MHz are achieved over 40 km sensing range using a single scan.

  14. Coherently combining antennas

    Dybdal, Robert B. (Inventor); Curry, Samuel J. (Inventor)


    An apparatus includes antenna elements configured to receive a signal including pseudo-random code, and electronics configured to use the pseudo-random code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the antenna elements and to compensate the signals to coherently combine the antenna elements.

  15. On Radar Resolution in Coherent Change Detection.

    Bickel, Douglas L. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    It is commonly observed that resolution plays a role in coherent change detection. Although this is the case, the relationship of the resolution in coherent change detection is not yet defined . In this document, we present an analytical method of evaluating this relationship using detection theory. Specifically we examine the effect of resolution on receiver operating characteristic curves for coherent change detection.

  16. Design of the Digital Channelized Receiver Based On Multi-phase Filter%基于多相滤波的数字信道化接收机的设计

    李宏强; 张洪波


    According to the characteristic of the digital channelized receiver, which must have the ability of processing the large number of data in real time, an efficient digital parallel analyzing system is introduced in this paper, and it adopts the multi-phase filter technology to implement channelization. The method resolves the contradiction between the high-speed ADC and low-speed digital signal processor (FPGA). The working processing of the whole receiver is described from mathematics model, and the system is simulated in MATLAB environment. The correctness and the validity of the algorithm model are proved by the simulation results.%介绍的基于多相结构的数字信道化技术具有实时处理大量数据能力的特点,是克服高速ADC与FPGA处理速度之间的矛盾的关键技术。从数学模型上描述了整个接收机的工作流程,并在MATLAB环境中对系统进行了仿真,仿真结果验证了该算法模型的正确性与高效性。

  17. Assisted distillation of quantum coherence

    Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M


    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other, an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC). We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, a direct analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  18. Adaptive low power receiver combining ADC resolution and digital baseband for wireless sensors networks based in IEEE 802.15.4 standard

    Maico Cassel dos Santos


    With the increase of Internet of Things applications and devices, many efforts to reduce power consumption in transceiver has been invested. Most of them targeted in RF frontend, converters, or in the digital baseband architecture individually. As result, there are few margins nowadays for power improvement in these blocks singly that compensates the huge hard work required. The next optimization step leads to a system level analysis seeking design space and new possibilities expansion. It is...

  19. 基于低相干光平面波照明的数字全息显微测量%Digital holographic microscopy illuminated by low-coherent plane waves

    卢文龙; 游雾; 刘晓军


    提出将基于低相干光平面波照明的离轴数字全息显微方法应用于微纳表面测量,结合角谱算法,可在更近的距离以高分辨率重建由平面波记录的数字全息图.在发光二极管平面波照明全息实验中,通过单幅离轴全息图对标准刻线板进行了强度像和相位像的重建.在重建过程中,未发生频谱重叠的现象.对其三维表面形貌的评定结果显示重建的横向参数值与纵向参数值均与标准值具有很好的一致性.%Off-axis digital holographic microscopy in mirco-nano surface measurement was proposed, which was based on the illumination of low coherent plane wave. Compared with sphere-wave inter- ferometry illuminated by lasers, low-coherent plane-wave interferometry could effectively avoid the influence of freckles and multiple-reflections. Combined with angular spectrum algorithm, digital holo- grams illuminated by plane wave could be reconstructed with smaller distances and higher resolutions. In the experiment illuminated by LED(light emitting diode)rs plane wave, the intensity-contrast and phase contrast images of a standard grating plate were reconstructed by a single off-axis hologram. Overlaps did not appear in the frequency spectrum during the reconstructed process. The evaluation of the three dimensional surface topography reveals that the reconstructed axial and lateral parameters are both in good accordance with their standard values.

  20. Application of coherent 10 micron imaging lidar

    Simpson, M.L.; Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.


    With the continuing progress in mid-IR array detector technology and high bandwidth fan-outs, i.f. electronics, high speed digitizers, and processing capability, true coherent imaging lidar is becoming a reality. In this paper experimental results are described using a 10 micron coherent imaging lidar.

  1. All-optical and digital non-linear compensation algorithms in flex-coherent grouped and un-grouped contiguous spectrum based networks

    Asif, Rameez


    We have evaluated that in-line non-linear compensation schemes decrease the complexity of digital backward propagation and enhance the transmission performance of 40/112/224 Gbit/s mixed line rate network. Multiple bit rates, i.e. 40/112/224 Gbit/s and modulation formats (i.e. DP-QPSK and DP-16QA...

  2. Coherent optical communication using polarization multiple-input-multiple-output.

    Han, Yan; Li, Guifang


    Polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) optical signals can potentially be demultiplexed by coherent detection and digital signal processing without using optical dynamic polarization control at the receiver. In this paper, we show that optical communications using PDM is analogous to wireless communications using multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) antennae and thus algorithms for channel estimation in wireless MIMO can be ready applied to optical polarization MIMO (PMIMO). Combined with frequency offset and phase estimation algorithms, simulations show that PDM quadrature phase-shift keying signals can be coherently detected by the proposed scheme using commercial semiconductor lasers while no optical phase locking and polarization control are required. This analogy further suggests the potential application of space-time coding in wireless communications to optical polarization MIMO systems and relates the problem of polarization-mode dispersion in fiber transmission to the multi-path propagation in wireless communications.

  3. 一种基于DAB接收机的MP3播放器设计方案%MP3 Player Design Based on Digital Audio Broadcasting Receiver

    陆明莹; 彭琨; 王国裕; 张红升


    提出了一种基于便携式DAB(Digital Audio BroadcaSting,数字音频广播)接收机的MP3播放器设计方案,并介绍了系统的软硬件设计思路.系统采用ARM7单片机作为系统控制器,利用SD卡存储MP3文件,用ST公司的音频解码芯片STA013实现MP3解码.数字语音信号通过D/A转换器MAX9850转换为模拟语音信号,由耳机输出.%This paper proposes a design method of MP3 player based on DAB(Digital Audio Broadcasting) receiver. The system software and hardware designs are introduced. In this system, ARM7 MCU is used as the controller, SD Card is used to storage MP3 files, and audio decoder chip STA013 is used to decode MP3 files. Digital audio signals are converted to analog voice signals through D/A converter MAX9850, and then the earphones output the voice signals.

  4. 宽带数字接收机中的超高速实时信号处理%Ultra-High Speed Real-time Signal Processing in Wideband Digital Receivers

    胡亚; 吴嗣亮


    The bottleneck of the wideband digital receiver is the mismatch between the relatively low processing speed of the real-time devices and the ultra-high data rate generated by ultra-high speed analog-to-digital converters(ADC). The normal solution, digital channelization or frequency-guided digital down conversion based on poly-phase filtering, result into relatively low data-rate, which is not applicable to deal with wideband signal. A multiple paralleled scheme is proposed to unite the relatively abundant resources in large-scale FPGA to achieve ultra-high processing. The ultra-high speed mixer and filter implementing on FPGA devices working at 300MHz can operate at 4.8GHz and satisfy the realtime processing requirement for signal with bandwidth up to SOOMHz.%飞速发展的宽带数字接收机技术的瓶颈是实现器件的低速处理能力不能适应超高速ADC产生的超高速数据速率,常用的基于多相滤波的数字信道化方法和数字下变频方法形成的较低数据速率不能适应对宽带信号的处理.本文提出了用多路并行的方式将大规模FPGA内相对丰富的资源在低速率下合并为超高速处理的方法.在现有的工作速率为500 MHz以下的FPGA器件上实现了4.8GHz的超高速混频和超高速滤波,可满足信号带宽500 MHz的实时处理需求.

  5. Best of Digital British Columbia : Digitization Around the Province


    The Online Dictionary of Library and Information Science defines digitization as “the process of converting data to digital format for processing by a computer.” We have all heard about mass digitization projects such as the Google Digitization Project and Project Gutenberg, but local ’boutique’ digitization efforts do not receive as much fanfare. Digitization projects completed in BC showcase the unique culture and history of British Columbia. The BC Digitization Coalition is a new initiativ...

  6. FPGA architectures for electronically scanned wide-band RF beams using 3-D FIR/IIR digital filters for rectangular array aperture receivers

    Wijayaratna, Sewwandi; Madanayake, Arjuna; Beall, Brandon D.; Bruton, Len T.


    Real-time digital implementation of three-dimensional (3-D) infinite impulse response (IIR) beam filters are discussed. The 3-D IIR filter building blocks have filter coefficients, which are defined using algebraic closed-form expressions that are functions of desired beam personalities, such as the look-direction of the aperture, the bandwidth and sampling frequency of interest, inter antenna spacing, and 3dB beam size. Real-time steering of such 3-D beam filters are obtained by proposed calculation of filter coefficients. Application specific computing units for rapidly calculating the 3-D IIR filter coefficients at nanosecond speed potentially allows fast real-time tracking of low radar cross section (RCS) objects at close range. Proposed design consists of 3-D IIR beam filter with 4 4 antenna grid and the filter coefficient generation block in separate FPGAs. The hardware is designed and co-simulated using a Xilinx Virtex-6 XC6VLX240T FPGA. The 3-D filter operates over 90 MHz and filter coefficient computing structure can operate at up to 145 MHz.

  7. Multi-rate Signal Sectional Treatment Solution (STS) for Digital Receiver%数字接收机中多速率信号的分段处理

    艾冬生; 张锋; 张珂


    针对多速率信号处理中分数倍抽取耗时、耗资源的缺点,通过对数据速率分段和变载波设计部分的分析,提出一种基于整数倍重采样对多速率信号进行分段处理的方法.对系统时钟按照2的N次方分频,并按照此标准对数据率进行分段,将分数倍抽取采用对应的整数倍抽取替代,实现多速率的多段动态处理.仿真验证表明:系统能够正确对基带信号进行解调,并且可以避免分数倍重采样,节省运算时间和硬件资源.%Aiming at the shortcomings of time-consuming and resource-consuming on fractional sampling rating of multi-rate signal processing, we proposed the sectional treatment solution (STS) for multi-rate signal based on integer-resample method. The system clock was divided by N-th power of integer 2, segmentation of data rating was processed. Then the integer sampling rate was instead of the fractional one. Followed the standard, the dynamic processing of multi-segment was implemented. The simulation showed that the method could demodulate the IF digital signal effectively, and the time and resource of computation was saved by avoiding the fraction-resample.

  8. Quantum coherence of steered states

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng


    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  9. Wideband CMOS receivers

    Oliveira, Luis


    This book demonstrates how to design a wideband receiver operating in current mode, in which the noise and non-linearity are reduced, implemented in a low cost single chip, using standard CMOS technology.  The authors present a solution to remove the transimpedance amplifier (TIA) block and connect directly the mixer’s output to a passive second-order continuous-time Σ∆ analog to digital converter (ADC), which operates in current-mode. These techniques enable the reduction of area, power consumption, and cost in modern CMOS receivers.

  10. Experimental 2.5-Gb/s QPSK WDM phase-modulated radio-over-fiber link with digital demodulation by a K-means algorithm

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;


    Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) link, employing digital coherent detection, is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3$,times,$ 2.5 Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying modulated wavelength-division-multiplexed RoF channels is achieved after 79 km ...... of transmission through deployed fiber. Error-free performance (bit-error rate corresponding to $10^{{-}4}$) is achieved using a digital coherent receiver in combination with a $K$-means algorithm for radio-frequency phase recovery....

  11. Experimental 2.5-Gb/s QPSK WDM phase-modulated radio-over-fiber link with digital demodulation by a K-means algorithm

    Guerrero Gonzalez, Neil; Zibar, Darko; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio


    Highest reported bit rate of 2.5 Gb/s for optically phase modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) link, employing digital coherent detection, is demonstrated. Demodulation of 3$,times,$ 2.5 Gb/s quadrature phase-shift keying modulated wavelength-division-multiplexed RoF channels is achieved after 79 km...... of transmission through deployed fiber. Error-free performance (bit-error rate corresponding to $10^{{-}4}$) is achieved using a digital coherent receiver in combination with a $K$-means algorithm for radio-frequency phase recovery....

  12. Electroencephalograpic coherence

    Simon Brežan


    Full Text Available Different brain areas process various aspects of information in parallel as well as segregated way. It is not known, how is this information integrated into a unitary percept or action. The binding problem is one of the key problems in understanding brain function. Synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons is one possible mechanism of the functional integration of different communicating brain areas. The binding has been well-studied in the visual system, but it could also serve as a mechanism in visuomotor integration or functional coupling present with other brain processes and behavioural modes (perception, complex motor behaviour, selective attention, learning, working memory, etc.. Interregional synchronization of the electroencephalographic (EEG signal can be determined by EEG coherence analysis. In the article we present a research example of coherence changes in a visuomotor task. During this task, coherence between visual and motor brain areas increased. This might reflect functional coupling between those areas, but it could also be influenced by other cognitive processes (e.g. selective attention. Coherence analysis is suitable for studying integrative brain function. Because it measures only one of the possible mechanisms of integration, it offers promise especially when combined with other electrophysiological and functional imaging methods.

  13. Digital signal processing for fiber nonlinearities [Invited

    Cartledge, John C.; Guiomar, Fernando P.; Kschischang, Frank R.


    This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems......This paper reviews digital signal processing techniques that compensate, mitigate, and exploit fiber nonlinearities in coherent optical fiber transmission systems...

  14. Enhancing Positioning Accuracy in Urban Terrain by Fusing Data from a GPS Receiver, Inertial Sensors, Stereo-Camera and Digital Maps for Pedestrian Navigation

    Pawel Strumillo


    Full Text Available The paper presents an algorithm for estimating a pedestrian location in an urban environment. The algorithm is based on the particle filter and uses different data sources: a GPS receiver, inertial sensors, probability maps and a stereo camera. Inertial sensors are used to estimate a relative displacement of a pedestrian. A gyroscope estimates a change in the heading direction. An accelerometer is used to count a pedestrian’s steps and their lengths. The so-called probability maps help to limit GPS inaccuracy by imposing constraints on pedestrian kinematics, e.g., it is assumed that a pedestrian cannot cross buildings, fences etc. This limits position inaccuracy to ca. 10 m. Incorporation of depth estimates derived from a stereo camera that are compared to the 3D model of an environment has enabled further reduction of positioning errors. As a result, for 90% of the time, the algorithm is able to estimate a pedestrian location with an error smaller than 2 m, compared to an error of 6.5 m for a navigation based solely on GPS.

  15. Coherent laser vision system

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)


    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  16. Coherent amplified optical coherence tomography

    Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bin; Chen, Zhongping


    A technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a high speed 1300 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system was demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was employed in the sample arm to coherently amplify the weak light back-scattered from sample tissue without increasing laser power illuminated on the sample. The image quality improvement was visualized and quantified by imaging the anterior segment of a rabbit eye at imaging speed of 20,000 A-lines per second. The theory analysis of SNR gain is given followed by the discussion on the technologies that can further improve the SNR gain.

  17. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    Dau, Susanne


    Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question...... of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...... and conditions if the student shall be able acquire the necessary competencies....

  18. Coherence, Pseudo-Coherence, and Non-Coherence.

    Enkvist, Nils Erik

    Analysis of the factors that make a text coherent or non-coherent suggests that total coherence requires cohesion not only on the textual surface but on the semantic level as well. Syntactic evidence of non-coherence includes lack of formal agreement blocking a potential cross-reference, anaphoric and cataphoric references that do not follow their…

  19. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    Dau, Susanne


    of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...... and conditions if the student shall be able acquire the necessary competencies....

  20. Digital Interactive TV Network Architecture

    Vincent; Dureau


    Introduction The infrastructure of digital TV is evolving very rapidly.TheTV infrastructure is quickly migrating from analog to digital TV.Even though digital transmission really launched only 10 yearsago.there are already more than 50 M digital receivers worldwide.

  1. Low-noise correlation measurements based on software-defined-radio receivers and cooled microwave amplifiers

    Nieminen, Teemu; Lähteenmäki, Pasi; Tan, Zhenbing; Cox, Daniel; Hakonen, Pertti J.


    We present a microwave correlation measurement system based on two low-cost USB-connected software defined radio dongles modified to operate as coherent receivers by using a common local oscillator. Existing software is used to obtain I/Q samples from both dongles simultaneously at a software tunable frequency. To achieve low noise, we introduce an easy low-noise solution for cryogenic amplification at 600-900 MHz based on single discrete HEMT with 21 dB gain and 7 K noise temperature. In addition, we discuss the quantization effects in a digital correlation measurement and determination of optimal integration time by applying Allan deviation analysis.

  2. Low data rate digital space communications

    Chen, C. H.


    The low available transmitter power and the large frequency uncertainty constrain the data rate to be low. An all-digital communication receiver is proposed, and its feasibility is established. Although coherent systems should be used whenever practical, the noncoherent MFSK system is more suitable for very low data rates. The effect of Rician fading on the performance of MFSK receiver is studied. Fading characteristics of the Venus channel are examined based on the exponential model and available experimental data on the Venus atmosphere. Because of the requirement of high communication efficiency, three codes are evaluated and compared. The rapidly varying phase error at low data rate has great effects on the tracking loop behaviors which are examined by extensive computer study of the phase plane trajectories.

  3. A software baseband receiver for pulsar astronomy at GMRT

    Joshi, B C; Joshi, Bhal Chandra; Ramakrishna, Sunil


    A variety of pulsar studies, ranging from high precision astrometry to tests for theories of gravity, require high time resolution data. Few such observations at more than two frequencies below 1 GHz are available. Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT) has the unique capability to provide such multi-frequency pulsar data at low observation frequencies, but the quality and time resolution of pulsar radio signals is degraded due to dispersion in the inter-stellar medium at these frequencies. Such degradation is usually taken care of by employing specialized digital hardware, which implement coherent dedispersion algorithm. In recent years, a new alternative is provided by the availability of cheap computer hardware. In this approach, the required signal processing is implemented in software using commercially off-the-shelf available computing hardware. This makes such a receiver flexible and upgradeable unlike a hardware implementation. The salient features and the modes of operation of a high time resolution ...

  4. 基于软件无线电技术的4G数字接收系统设计%4G Digital Receiving System Design Based on Software Rato Technigne



    研究了基于软件无线电技术的体系结构,设计了一种基于软件无线电技术的4G数字接收系统,并对该系统各主要部分电路设计进行了详细阐述。该设计系统具有双通道,采样速率可达到65MHz,分辨率12bit。由于该设计采用了FPGA作为信号处理器,其设计灵活及可编程等特点使得该设计具有较强的通用性,适合4G通信中应用。%A architecture based on software radio techniques is studied. A kind of digital receiving system based on software radio is designed. The designs of the main parts of the circuits are introduced in detail. The system has dual channels, the sampling rate of 65MHz and 12bit resolution. The design has strong versatility suitable for the application of 4G communication according to the application of FP- GA, which has flexible design and programmable features.

  5. Comparative digital holography.

    Osten, Wolfgang; Baumbach, Torsten; Jüptner, Werner


    We described a method for direct holographic comparison of the shape or the deformation of two objects when it is not necessary that both samples be located at the same place. In contrast to the well-known incoherent techniques based on inverse fringe projection, this new approach uses a coherent mask that is imaged onto a sample object that has a microstructure different from that of the master object. The coherent mask is created by digital holography to permit instant access to complete optical information on the master object at any wanted place. Transmission of the digital master holograms to the relevant places can be made with a broadband digital telecommunication network such as the Internet.

  6. Coherent-Phase Monitoring Of Cavitation In Turbomachines

    Jong, Jen-Yi


    Digital electronic signal-processing system analyzes outputs of accelerometers mounted on turbomachine to detect vibrations characteristic of cavitation. Designed to overcome limitation imposed by interference from discrete components. System digitally implements technique called "coherent-phase wide-band demodulation" (CPWBD), using phase-only (PO) filtering along envelope detection to search for unique coherent-phase relationship associated with cavitation and to minimize influence of large-amplitude discrete components.

  7. 47 CFR 15.117 - TV broadcast receivers.


    ... sound commensurate with their video and audio capabilities when receiving digital television signals. (i... receive over-the-air broadcasts with an antenna because of the Nation's transition to digital broadcasting... that provide for reception of digital television signals. The reference in this section to TV...

  8. Coherent infrared imaging camera (CIRIC)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Simpson, M.L.; Bennett, C.A.; Richards, R.K.; Emery, M.S.; Crutcher, R.I.; Sitter, D.N. Jr.; Wachter, E.A.; Huston, M.A.


    New developments in 2-D, wide-bandwidth HgCdTe (MCT) and GaAs quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIP) coupled with Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuit (MMIC) technology are now making focal plane array coherent infrared (IR) cameras viable. Unlike conventional IR cameras which provide only thermal data about a scene or target, a coherent camera based on optical heterodyne interferometry will also provide spectral and range information. Each pixel of the camera, consisting of a single photo-sensitive heterodyne mixer followed by an intermediate frequency amplifier and illuminated by a separate local oscillator beam, constitutes a complete optical heterodyne receiver. Applications of coherent IR cameras are numerous and include target surveillance, range detection, chemical plume evolution, monitoring stack plume emissions, and wind shear detection.

  9. Very low-phase noise, coherent 94GHz radar for micro-Doppler and vibrometry studies

    Robertson, Duncan A.; Brooker, Graham M.; Beasley, Patrick D. L.


    Micro-Doppler and vibrometry measurements require coherent radars with low phase noise. We report the development of a novel, very low phase noise 94 GHz radar, called T-220, which offers superior performance for micro-Doppler and vibrometry studies compared with our previous work. The radar uses a combination of direct digital synthesis (DDS) chirp generation, frequency upconversion and frequency multiplication to yield very low phase noise and rapid, contiguous chirps, necessary for Doppler studies and other coherent processing applications. Dual fan beam antennas are used to achieve negligible transmit-receive leakage, with fine azimuth resolution and modest elevation coverage. The resulting PPI imagery is very high fidelity with little or no evidence of phase noise effects.

  10. Photonic aided bandpass sampling in coherent phase modulated radio-over-fiber links

    Cao, Minghua; Li, Jianqiang; Dai, Jian; Dai, Yitang; Yin, Feifei; Zhou, Yue; Xu, Kun


    We have experimentally presented a digital coherent receiver employing photonic aided bandpass sampling technology for phase-modulated radio-over-fiber (RoF) links. An optical intensity modulator (IM) is utilized as the bandpass sampler which performs encoded on-off keyed pulse sequence on the optical local oscillator. Quaternary Phase Shift Keying (QPSK) modulated data signal with 20 MHz bandwidth at 5.2 GHz, 10.2 GHz and 15.2 GHz RF carrier frequency is experimentally demonstrated to be successfully detected by using balanced photodiodes (BPDs) with only 800 MHz analog bandwidth. It demonstrates that the required analog bandwidth of BPDs and ADCs can be dramatically reduced in a direct sampled coherent RoF communications system.

  11. Communications receivers principles and design

    Rohde, Ulrich L; Zahnd, Hans


    This thoroughly updated guide offers comprehensive explanations of the science behind today’s radio receivers along with practical guidance on designing, constructing, and maintaining real-world communications systems. You will explore system planning, antennas and antenna coupling, amplifiers and gain control, filters, mixers, demodulation, digital communication, and the latest software defined radio (SDR) technology. Written by a team of telecommunication experts, Communications Receivers: Principles and Design, Fourth Edition, features technical illustrations, schematic diagrams, and detailed examples. Coverage includes: • Basic radio considerations • Radio receiver characteristics • Receiver system planning • Receiver implementation considerations • RF and baseband techniques for Software-Defined Radios • Transceiver SDR considerations • Antennas and antenna coupling • Mixers • Frequency sources and control • Ancillary receiver circuits • Performance measurement

  12. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in ophthalmology: introduction.

    Fujimoto, James G; Drexler, Wolfgang; Schuman, Joel S; Hitzenberger, Christoph K


    The Optical Society (OSA) is pleased to present this special issue of Optics Express on "Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) in Ophthalmology" as part of the new Interactive Science Publishing (ISP) project. The project is being performed in collaboration with the National Library of Medicine and represents a new paradigm for the publication of digital image and large dataset information.

  13. Transcoding the digital : how metaphors matter in new media

    van den Boomen, M.V.T.


    This study traces the role of metaphors in digital praxis. Digital praxis refers to a more or less coherent set of everyday practices – acts, habits, routines – that involve the manipulation, modification, and construction of digital-symbolical objects. Examples of these digital-symbolical objects a

  14. Transcoding the digital : how metaphors matter in new media

    van den Boomen, M.V.T.


    This study traces the role of metaphors in digital praxis. Digital praxis refers to a more or less coherent set of everyday practices – acts, habits, routines – that involve the manipulation, modification, and construction of digital-symbolical objects. Examples of these digital-symbolical objects

  15. The design of efficient and dynamic digital channelized receiver based on poly-phase filter structure%基于多相滤波结构的高效动态数字信道化接收机设计

    王海生; 黄振; 葛宁


    宽带数字接收机通常会面临接收带宽内存在多个信号,且信号带宽,位置以及个数对侦察这一端来说都是未知的,在现代电子战中,信号为了躲避侦察,往往还具有时变性.针对这种情况,提出了基于多相滤波的高效动态数字信道化设计方法.首先设计原型滤波器,使其具有高的阻带衰减,以便减少相邻滤波器之间的混叠;然后基于多相结构设计分析滤波器组和综合滤波器组,在完成信号检测后,将含有相应信号信息的信道数据送入相应的综合滤波器完成信号重构,当信号变化时,只需重新检测信号位置分布即可;最后通过将重构后的信号与原信号对比验证了滤波器组具有几乎完全重构特性,在有噪声的背景下,重构后能够显著地提高信噪比.%Wide-band Digital Receivers often face this situation:in the received bandwidth,there exits several sub-band signals,which have different bandwidths.Meanwhile,signals' location and numbers are unknown to receivers.What is more,in modem electronic warfare,in order to avoid being detected,signals are time-varying.For this situation,a method of efficient and dynamic channelized receiver,which is based on poly-phase filter structure,is proposed.To begin with,a prototype filter is designed,which should have high stop band attenuation,to reduce aliasing between adjacent filters; Second,analysis filters are designed,after the completion of signal detection,locations of signals are attained,the corresponding synthesis filters are designed to extract desired signals.When signals are changed,it is only need to update the locations of signals by signal detection module.Finally,by the comparison between the reconstructed signals and original signals,it is verified that the filters have near-perfect-reconstruction; more importantly,in the background of noise,after the reconstruction,the SNR can be significantly improved.

  16. Store-operate-coherence-on-value

    Chen, Dong; Heidelberger, Philip; Kumar, Sameer; Ohmacht, Martin; Steinmacher-Burow, Burkhard


    A system, method and computer program product for performing various store-operate instructions in a parallel computing environment that includes a plurality of processors and at least one cache memory device. A queue in the system receives, from a processor, a store-operate instruction that specifies under which condition a cache coherence operation is to be invoked. A hardware unit in the system runs the received store-operate instruction. The hardware unit evaluates whether a result of the running the received store-operate instruction satisfies the condition. The hardware unit invokes a cache coherence operation on a cache memory address associated with the received store-operate instruction if the result satisfies the condition. Otherwise, the hardware unit does not invoke the cache coherence operation on the cache memory device.

  17. Demodulation improvement analysis of FEC quasi-coherent CPM

    Norris, James A.; Nieto, John W.


    Continuous Phase Modulation (CPM) schemes are advantageous for low-power radios. The constant envelope transmit signal is more efficient for both linear and non-linear amplifier architectures. A standard, coherent CPM receiver can take advantage of modulation memory and is more complex than a coherent Phase Shift Keyed receiver. But the CPM signal can be demodulated non-coherently and still take advantage of the trellis structure inherent in the modulation. Prior analyses of several different non-coherent CPM schemes have been provided with many providing coherent or near coherent performance. In this paper we will discuss a new, reduced complexity decoder that improves upon the noncoherent performance. In addition, this new algorithm generates soft decision metrics that allow the addition of a forward error correction scheme (an outer code) with coherent equivalent performance gains.

  18. 42.8 Gb/s ASK homodyne receiver using standard DFB lasers

    Becker, D.; Mohr, D.; Datta, S.; Wree, C.; Bhandare, S.; Joshi, A.


    Optical synchronous coherent detection is attracting greater attention within the defense and security community because it allows linear recovery both of the amplitude and phase of optical signals. Fiber-based transmission impairments such as chromatic dispersion and polarization mode dispersion can be compensated in the electrical domain. Additionally, synchronous detection offers the potential of improved receiver sensitivity and extended reach versus direct or interferometric detection schemes. 28 Gbaud/112 Gb/s and 42.8 Gbaud transmissions are now being considered in fiber networks worldwide. Due to the lack of broadband high frequency components centered at IF values of 56 GHz and 86 GHz, respectively, the coherent heterodyne approach is not viable for these baud rates. The homodyne approach remains one of the choices available to fully exploit the advantages of synchronous coherent detection at these transmission data rates. In order to implement the homodyne receiver, optical phase locking between the signal and local oscillator laser (LO) is required. Digital approaches for this task rely upon very complex, fast, and high power-consumption chips. A homodyne receiver using an analog approach for phase locking would allow for increased system simplicity at a lower cost. Use of commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) DFB lasers embedded within the receiver would also increase system feasibility for defense applications. We demonstrate synchronous demodulation of a 42.8 Gbaud signal using an analog optical phase-locked loop. The homodyne system was optimized to use COTS DFB lasers having an aggregate linewidth of ~2 MHz. We also analyze the impact of uncompensated phase noise on receiver performance.

  19. Digital synchronization and communication techniques

    Lindsey, William C.


    Information on digital synchronization and communication techniques is given in viewgraph form. Topics covered include phase shift keying, modems, characteristics of open loop digital synchronizers, an open loop phase and frequency estimator, and a digital receiver structure using an open loop estimator in a decision directed architecture.

  20. Cohering power of quantum operations

    Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)


    Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.

  1. Digital balanced detection for fast optical computerized tomography

    Hafiz, Rehan; Ozanyan, Krikor B.


    Analogue Balanced Photo-detection has found extensive usage in high- sensitivity small signal applications e.g. coherent heterodyne detection. It is particularly effective for laser intensity noise removal. Nevertheless, the high cost of the commercially available analogue systems makes them unsuitable for multi-channel applications, such as fast tomography. In this paper a flexible, scalable, inexpensive and compact solution for multi channel digital balanced detection is presented. The proposed system has two components: an analogue front-end, comprising a differential photodiode amplifier for minimizing the external interference noise, and a digital balanced noise remover. The latter component initially calculates a balancing factor (BF) from the average power ratio of the signal and reference photocurrents, measured with the object removed from the signal path. Three digital balancing algorithms (DBAx) are considered for subsequent processing. In DBA1, BF is directly used in real-time ratiometric calculations. In DBA2, the BF is adjusted in real time by monitoring the window-averaged power of the received photocurrents. In DBA3, first the baseline is removed using differentiation and then ratiometric detection is performed. Using the digital alternative only one measurement of the reference beam is necessary for single-source, multi-channel detection systems. The data from multiple channels are processed in parallel by pipelined hardware, configured as a state machine. The proposed system leads to a fast optical computerized tomography system using digital balanced detection.

  2. Partially coherent imaging and spatial coherence wavelets

    Castaneda, R


    A description of spatially partially coherent imaging based on the propagation of second order spatial coherence wavelets and marginal power spectra (Wigner distribution functions) is presented. In this dynamics, the spatial coherence wavelets will be affected by the system through its elementary transfer function. The consistency of the model with the both extreme cases of full coherent and incoherent imaging was proved. In the last case we obtained the classical concept of optical transfer function as a simple integral of the elementary transfer function. Furthermore, the elementary incoherent response function was introduced as the Fourier transform of the elementary transfer function. It describes the propagation of spatial coherence wavelets form each object point to each image point through a specific point on the pupil planes. The point spread function of the system was obtained by a simple integral of the elementary incoherent response function.

  3. Microwave receivers with electronic warfare applications

    Tsui, James


    This book by the author of Digital Techniques for Wideband Receivers willbe like no other one on your book shelf as the definitive word on electronicwarfare (EW) receiver design and performance. Whether you are an EWscientist involved in the test and evaluation of EW receivers or a designerof RWR's and other EW-related receivers, Microwave Receivers withElectronic Warfare Applications is a handy reference through which you canperfect your technical art. Lucidly written, this book is a treatise on EWreceivers that is relevant to you if you are just looking for a top-levelinsight into EW receive

  4. Quantum learning of coherent states

    Sentís, Gael; Adesso, Gerardo


    We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian es...

  5. Quantum learning of coherent states

    Sentis, Gael [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, Fisica Teorica: Informacio i Fenomens Quantics, Barcelona (Spain); Guta, Madalin; Adesso, Gerardo [University of Nottingham, School of Mathematical Sciences, Nottingham (United Kingdom)


    We develop a quantum learning scheme for binary discrimination of coherent states of light. This is a problem of technological relevance for the reading of information stored in a digital memory. In our setting, a coherent light source is used to illuminate a memory cell and retrieve its encoded bit by determining the quantum state of the reflected signal. We consider a situation where the amplitude of the states produced by the source is not fully known, but instead this information is encoded in a large training set comprising many copies of the same coherent state. We show that an optimal global measurement, performed jointly over the signal and the training set, provides higher successful identification rates than any learning strategy based on first estimating the unknown amplitude by means of Gaussian measurements on the training set, followed by an adaptive discrimination procedure on the signal. By considering a simplified variant of the problem, we argue that this is the case even for non-Gaussian estimation measurements. Our results show that, even in absence of entanglement, collective quantum measurements yield an enhancement in the readout of classical information, which is particularly relevant in the operating regime of low-energy signals. (orig.)

  6. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    Kristensen, Leif


    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between...


    K. Jayanthi


    Full Text Available One of the major challenges in wireless communication system is increasing complexity and reducing performance in detecting the received digital information in indoor and outdoor Environments. Consequently to overcome this problem we analyze the delay performance of a multiuser with perfect channel state information transmitting data on deep fading environment. In this proposed system, the Wireless Deep Fading Environment (WDFE creation for causing a Nakagami Multipath Fading Channel of fading figure ‘m’ is used to rectify the delay performance over the existing Rayleigh fading channel. In this WDFE receivers received coherent, synchronized, secured and improved signal strength of information using a Multiuser Coherent Joint Diversity (MCJD with Multi Carrier-Code Division Multiple Access (MC-CDMA. The MCJD in ‘M’ branch of antennas are used to reduce the Bit Error Rate (BER and MC-CDMA method is used to improve the performance. Therefore, in this proposed system we accompany with MCJD and MC-CDMA is very good transceiver for next generation wireless system of an existing 3G wireless system. Overall, this experimental results show improved performance in different multiuser wireless systems under different multipath fading conditions.

  8. RF performance of T-DAB receivers

    Schiphorst, R.; Potman, J.; Hofstra, K.L.; Cronie, H.S.; Slump, C.H.


    In every wireless system, the weakest link determines the performance of the network. In this paper the Radio Frequency (RF) performance of both band III and L-band Terrestrial Digital Audio Broadcasting (T-DAB) consumer receivers are discussed. The receivers have been tested based on the EN 50248 s

  9. One of Canada's oldest and newest digitization initiatives

    Brian Bell


    Full Text Available is a new independent, non-profit, alliance of partners, includingLibrary and Archives Canada, from all parts of Canada's cultural, heritage,research, broadcasting and publishing communities, chartered to raise funds,receive donations and grants and to act as the overall coordinator and facilitatorfor digitization initiatives and related enduring access services and preservationinfrastructures. Working with Library and Archives Canada under the frameworkof the Canadian Digital Information Strategy, has a 'masterplan' to facilitate a coherent national digital information strategy. The communityhas developed a bilingual metadata toolkit to suit most types of material as anoption for those who need it. The community also supports a powerful bilingualpublic access Indexing and Discovery Portal system (right now brandedAlouetteCanada to enhance the searching and discovery of local digitalcollections of all types across the country.

  10. Challenges and Opportunities of Using Digital Storytelling as a Trauma Narrative Intervention for Traumatized Children

    Kim M. Anderson


    Full Text Available This article address the challenges and opportunities of implementing a web-based Digital Storytelling (DS curriculum to supplement the trauma narrative component of Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (TF-CBT for traumatized youth, ages 9-17, receiving mental health services at a rural domestic violence (DV agency. Digital storytelling, as the term suggests, combines storytelling with technology that integrates a mixture of digital images, text, audio narration, and music. Ultimately, implementing the DS curriculum empowered youth to process and develop their trauma stories in a multi-sensory, accessible and coherent manner. In doing so, they gained tools (writing, narrating, illustrating, and ultimately assembling their own stories to form adaptive responses regarding their family violence experiences in its immediate aftermath and possibly over time. Agency implications are discussed regarding training, technical, and confidentiality issues related to the implementation of a web-based DS curriculum.

  11. Complex fermion coherent states

    Tyc, T; Sanders, B C; Oliver, W D; Tyc, Tomas; Hamilton, Brett; Sanders, Barry C.; Oliver, William D.


    Whereas boson coherent states provide an elegant, intuitive and useful representation, we show that the desirable features of boson coherent states do not carry over very well to fermion fields unless one is prepared to use exotic approaches such as Grassmann fields. Specifically, we identify four appealing properties of boson coherent states (eigenstate of annihilation operator, displaced vacuum state, preservation of product states under linear coupling, and factorization of correlators) and show that fermion coherent states, and approximations to fermion coherent states, defined over the complex field, do not behave well for any of these four criteria.

  12. Pulsed coherent fiber lidar transceiver for aircraft in-flight turbulence and wake-vortex hazard detection

    Akbulut, M.; Hwang, J.; Kimpel, F.; Gupta, S.; Verdun, H.


    We report on the development of a fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar transceiver for wind-velocity and aircraft wake-vortex hazard detection. The all-fiber 1.5μm transmitter provides up to 560 μJ energy at 25 kHz with 800 ns pulse width (pump limited). Performance simulations indicate wake-vortex hazard signature detection up to ~2.5km range with a receiver sensitivity of ~2 fW (SNR=6), suited for an aircraft landing scenario. Furthermore, the transceiver is implemented using high-speed FPGA based control and digital-signal-processing, enabling its use as a flexible pulse-format multi-function in-flight lidar sensor. We present the latest laboratory results and preliminary testing of this pulsed coherent lidar transceiver, along with the lidar performance simulation of wake-vortex eddy models.

  13. Antenna array geometry optimization for a passive coherent localisation system

    Knott, Peter; Kuschel, Heiner; O'Hagan, Daniel


    Passive Coherent Localisation (PCL), also known as Passive Radar, making use of RF sources of opportunity such as Radio or TV Broadcasting Stations, Cellular Phone Network Base Stations, etc. is an advancing technology for covert operation because no active radar transmitter is required. It is also an attractive addition to existing active radar stations because it has the potential to discover low-flying and low-observable targets. The CORA (Covert Radar) experimental passive radar system currently developed at Fraunhofer-FHR features a multi-channel digital radar receiver and a circular antenna array with separate elements for the VHF- and the UHF-range and is used to exploit alternatively Digital Audio (DAB) or Video Broadcasting (DVB-T) signals. For an extension of the system, a wideband antenna array is being designed for which a new discone antenna element has been developed covering the full DVB-T frequency range. The present paper describes the outline of the system and the numerical modelling and optimisation methods applied to solve the complex task of antenna array design: Electromagnetic full wave analysis is required for the parametric design of the antenna elements while combinatorial optimization methods are applied to find the best array positions and excitation coefficients for a regular omni-directional antenna performance. The different steps are combined in an iterative loop until the optimum array layout is found. Simulation and experimental results for the current system will be shown.

  14. Coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound correlation and imaging.

    Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin


    Both photoacoustics and ultrasound have been researched extensively but separately. In this letter, we report an initial study on the coherent correlation between pulsed photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave. By illuminating an object with a pulsed laser and external ultrasound sequentially, both the endogenous photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave are received and coherently correlated, demonstrating enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Image contrast of the proposed coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging is also demonstrated to be improved significantly on vessel-mimicking phantom, due to fusion of the optical absorption and ultrasound reflection contrasts by coherent correlation of either conventional laser-induced photoacoustic imaging or pulse-echo ultrasound imaging separately.

  15. Electronic warfare receivers and receiving systems

    Poisel, Richard A


    Receivers systems are considered the core of electronic warfare (EW) intercept systems. Without them, the fundamental purpose of such systems is null and void. This book considers the major elements that make up receiver systems and the receivers that go in them.This resource provides system design engineers with techniques for design and development of EW receivers for modern modulations (spread spectrum) in addition to receivers for older, common modulation formats. Each major module in these receivers is considered in detail. Design information is included as well as performance tradeoffs o

  16. Coherent Detection of Optical Quadrature Phase-Shift Keying Signals With Carrier Phase Estimation

    Ly-Gagnon, Dany-Sebastien; Tsukamoto, Satoshi; Katoh, Kazuhiro; Kikuchi, Kazuro


    This paper describes a coherent optical receiver for demodulating optical quadrature phase-shift keying (QPSK) signals. At the receiver, a phase-diversity homodyne detection scheme is employed without locking the phase of the local oscillator (LO). To handle the carrier phase drift, the carrier phase is estimated with digital signal processing (DSP) on the homodyne-detected signal. Such a scheme presents the following major advantages over the conventional optical differential detection. First, its bit error rate (BER) performance is better than that of differential detection. This higher sensitivity can extend the reach of unrepeated transmission systems and reduce crosstalk between multiwavelength channels. Second, the optoelectronic conversion process is linear, so that the whole optical signal information can be postprocessed in the electrical domain. Third, this scheme is applicable to multilevel modulation formats such as M-array PSK and quadrature amplitude modulation (QAM). The performance of the receiver is evaluated through various simulations and experiments. As a result, an unrepeated transmission over 210 km with a 20-Gb/s optical QPSK signal is achieved. Moreover, in wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) environment, coherent detection allows the filtering of a desired wavelength channel to reside entirely in the electrical domain, taking advantage of the sharp cutoff characteristics of electrical filters. The experiments show the feasibility to transmit polarization-multiplexed 40-Gb/s QPSK signals over 200 km with channel spacing of 16 GHz, leading to a spectral efficiency as high as 2.5 b/s/Hz.

  17. Loop Design of Digital Intermediate Frequency Receiving Machine Based on Carrier Track Technique of Frequency Lock Associated with Phase Lock%基于载波锁频锁相联合跟踪的数字中频接收机环路设计

    王光鼎; 游福初; 房建成


    介绍了接收卫星信号的数字中频接收机载波同步跟踪关键技术,针对高机动环境下载波同步需要解决的捕获带宽、捕获速度与跟踪精度的矛盾,综合利用了传统数字锁频环路(DFLL)和数字锁相环路(DPLL)的优点,设计了一种适合高机动环境下数字中频接收机的锁频联合锁相环工作的环路方案。并利用计算机仿真分析结果,证明了该方案的可行性和优越性,为ADC+FPGA+DSP框架下卫星信号数字中频接收机软硬件实现提供了设计依据。%The carrier synchronization track technique of digital intermediate frequency receiving machine is introduced, which is important for receiving the signal of satellites. In the seriously dynamic situation, the inconsistency among the bandwidth, velocity and precision of capture for carrier synchronization should be resolved. Integrating the traditional FDLL and DPLL, a new loop project is designed, which frequency lock associated with phase lock, and it' s suitable for digital intermediate frequency receiving machine in seriously dynamic situation. The analysis and simulation by computer is carried out, and the feasibility and advantage are proved. Then the hardware framework with ADC + FPGA + DSP for digital intermediate frequency receiving machine of satellite signal is well-founded.

  18. Principles of digital communication and coding

    Viterbi, Andrew J


    This classic by two digital communications experts is geared toward students of communications theory and to designers of channels, links, terminals, modems, or networks used to transmit and receive digital messages. 1979 edition.

  19. VLBI2010 Receiver Back End Comparison

    Petrachenko, Bill


    VLBI2010 requires a receiver back-end to convert analog RF signals from the receiver front end into channelized digital data streams to be recorded or transmitted electronically. The back end functions are typically performed in two steps: conversion of analog RF inputs into IF bands (see Table 2), and conversion of IF bands into channelized digital data streams (see Tables 1a, 1b and 1c). The latter IF systems are now completely digital and generically referred to as digital back ends (DBEs). In Table 2 two RF conversion systems are compared, and in Tables 1a, 1b, and 1c nine DBE systems are compared. Since DBE designs are advancing rapidly, the data in these tables are only guaranteed to be current near the update date of this document.

  20. Counterrotator And Correlator For GPS Receivers

    Thomas, J. Brooks; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Meehan, Thomas K.


    Accurate, all-digital, high-speed processor comprising correlator and down-converter developed for receivers in Global Positioning System (GPS). Processor reduces roundoff and commensurability errors to extremely small values. Use of digital chip and phase advancers provides outstanding control and accuracy in phase and feedback. Great flexibility imparted by provision for arbitrary starting time and integration length. Minimum-bit design requires minimum number of logical elements, thereby reducing size, power, and cost.

  1. Predictive dynamic digital holography

    Sulaiman, Sennan; Gibson, Steve; Spencer, Mark


    Digital holography has received recent attention for many imaging and sensing applications, including imaging through turbulent and turbid media, adaptive optics, three dimensional projective display technology and optical tweezing. A significant obstacle for digital holography in real-time applications, such as wavefront sensing for high energy laser systems and high speed imaging for target tracking, is the fact that digital holography is computationally intensive; it requires iterative virtual wavefront propagation and hill-climbing to optimize some sharpness criteria. This paper demonstrates real-time methods for digital holography based on approaches developed recently at UCLA for optimal and adaptive identification, prediction, and control of optical wavefronts. The methods presented integrate minimum variance wavefront prediction into digital holography schemes to short-circuit the computationally intensive algorithms for iterative propagation of virtual wavefronts and hill climbing for sharpness optimization.

  2. Coherent Raman spectroscopy

    Eesley, G L


    Coherent Raman Spectroscopy provides a unified and general account of the fundamental aspects of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, also known as coherent Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical basis from which coherent Raman spectroscopy developed is described, along with its applications, utility, and implementation as well as advantages and disadvantages. Experimental data which typifies each technique is presented. This book is comprised of four chapters and opens with an overview of nonlinear optics and coherent Raman spectroscopy, followed by a discussion on nonlinear transfer function of matter

  3. Application Coherency Manager Project

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes an Application Coherency Manager that implements and manages the interdependencies of simulation, data, and platform information. It will...

  4. On -Coherent Endomorphism Rings

    Li-Xin Mao


    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let $M_R$ be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of $M_R$. It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudokernel in add $M_R; S$ is a left -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudocokernel in add $M_R$. Some applications are given.

  5. Asynchronously sampled blind source separation for coherent optical links

    Detwiler, Thomas F.; Searcy, Steven M.; Stark, Andrew J.; Ralph, Stephen E.; Basch, Bert E.


    Polarization multiplexing is an integral technique for generating spectrally efficient 100 Gb/s and higher optical links. Post coherent detection DSP-based polarization demultiplexing of QPSK links is commonly performed after timing recovery. We propose and demonstrate a method of asynchronous blind source separation using the constant modulus algorithm (CMA) on the asynchronously sampled signal to initially separate energy from arbitrarily aligned polarization states. This method lends well to implementation as it allows for an open-loop sampling frequency for analog-to-digital conversion at less than twice the symbol rate. We show that the performance of subsequent receiver functions is enhanced by the initial pol demux operation. CMA singularity behavior is avoided through tap settling constraints. The method is applicable to QPSK transmissions and many other modulation formats as well, including general QAM signals, offset-QPSK, and CPM, or a combination thereof. We present the architecture and its performance under several different formats and link conditions. Comparisons of complexity and performance are drawn between the proposed architecture and conventional receivers.

  6. Digital Preservation.

    Yakel, Elizabeth


    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  7. Chip Advancer For GPS Receiver

    Meehan, Thomas K.; Srinivasan, Jeffrey M.; Thomas, J. Brooks


    Instrument errors made negligible. For each integration interval, both delay and rate of change of delay initialized to small fraction of chip - for example, to order of 10 to the negative 7th power - thereby making feedback control and extraction of delay highly accurate and flexible. With appropriate selection of sampling rate relative to chip rate, commensurability errors reduced to extremely small levels. In Global Positioning System (GPS) receiver, pseudorandom code sequence generated by simple digital logic incorporating effects of time, delay, and rate of change of delay. Flexibility in starting time and sum interval very useful in aligning correlation interval with beginnings and endings of data bits.

  8. Text Coherence in Translation

    Zheng, Yanping


    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  9. Reverse Coherent Information

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.


    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  10. Understanding Causal Coherence Relations

    Mulder, G.


    The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the cognitive processes and representations involved in understanding causal coherence relations in text. Coherence relations are the meaning relations between the information units in the text, such as Cause-Consequence. These relations can be m

  11. VCSELs for coherent PON

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Cheng, Ning;


    Recent advances and research on coherent technologies for access networks are discussed and put into context of user demands and standardization work.......Recent advances and research on coherent technologies for access networks are discussed and put into context of user demands and standardization work....

  12. VCSEL Based Coherent PONs

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;


    We present a review of research performed in the area of coherent access technologies employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Experimental demonstrations of optical transmission over a passive fiber link with coherent detection using VCSEL local oscillators and directly modula...

  13. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography.

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Couprie, M-E


    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  14. Coherent Detection of Wavelength Division Multiplexed Phase-Modulated Radio-over-Fibre Signals

    Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin; Peucheret, Christophe


    A WDM phase-modulated Radio-over-Fibre link using digital coherent detection is experimentally demonstrated. 3 times 50 Mb/s WDM transmission of a BPSK modulated 5 GHz RF carrier is achieved over 25 km.......A WDM phase-modulated Radio-over-Fibre link using digital coherent detection is experimentally demonstrated. 3 times 50 Mb/s WDM transmission of a BPSK modulated 5 GHz RF carrier is achieved over 25 km....

  15. Applying corrections to digitized data while digitizing magnetic chart

    Suresh, T.

    Institute of Oceanography, Dona-Paula, Goa. India (Received 27 January 1988; accepted 11 March 1989: received for publication 5 September 1989) INTRODUCTION A simple algorithm for determining correct values of magnetic data from digitized data... of an analog re- corded magnetic chart is presented. A sample magnetic chart is shown in Figure 1. Here in a digitized coordinate system the Y axis repre- sents magnetic value whereas the X axis represents time. As seen in such recording systems, once...

  16. Use of digital subtraction angiography for assessment of digital replantatlon

    Liu-hong WANG; Guang-qiang ZHANG


    Objective:To assess the blood flow of the proper digital artery using digital subtraction angiography (DSA) in the early stage after replantation.Methods:From January 2006 to October 2010,27 anastomosed arteries in 27 replanted digits were included in the study.The patients included nine males and four females.The patients received DSA at 48 to 96 h after digital replantation.Based on DSA image,the blood flow was classified into normal,slow-running,and flow-stopping types.The patients with normal digital blood flow were given continuous routine treatments; the patients with slow-running flow were given the conservative treatments,such as release of the tight dressings,removal of stitches,keeping warm,the use of massage,and the use of anticoagulants and anti-inflammatory drugs; the patients with flow-stopping received immediate surgical re-exploration.Results:In this series,23 digits in 11 patients showed a normal blood flow,and these digits all survived.In one of 13 patients,two digits which displayed slow-running flow also survived after conservative treatments.In two of 13 patients,two digits showed flow stopping,with one surviving and one failing after re-exploration and arterial revision.Conclusions:The DSA can be used to assess the blood flow of the proper digital artery in the early stage after replantation.It provides essential information for salvaging the replanted finger.


    Contents: Preprocessing of data; Digital filtering; Fourier series and Fourier transform computations; Correlation function computations; Spectral density function computations; Frequency response function and coherence function computations; Probability density function computations; Nonstationary processes; and Test case and examples.

  18. A Novel Receiver Architecture for DBF Antenna Array

    ZHENG Sheng-hua; XU Da-zhuan; JIN Xue-ming


    The developments of the high speed analog to digital converters (ADC) and advanced digital signal processors (DSP) make the smart antenna with digital beamforming (DBF)a reality. In conventional M-elements array antenna system, each element has its own receiving channel and ADCs. In this paper, a novel smart antenna receiver with digital beamforming is proposed. The essential idea is to realize the digital beamforming receiver based on bandpass sampling of multiple distinct intermediate frequency (IF) signals. The proposed system reduces receiver hardware from M IF channels and 2M ADCs to one IF channel and one ADC using a heterodyne radio frequency (RF) circuitry and a multiple bandpass sampling digital receiver. In this scheme, the sampling rate of the ADC is much higher than the summation of the M times of the signal bandwidth. The local oscillator produces different local frequency for each RF channel.The receiver architecture is presented in detail, and the simulation of bandpass sampling of multiple signals and digital down conversion to baseband is given. The principle analysis and simulation results indicate the effectiveness of the new proposed receiver.

  19. Digital Fourier analysis fundamentals

    Kido, Ken'iti


    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to digital Fourier analysis for undergraduate students in the sciences. Beginning with the principles of sine/cosine decomposition, the reader walks through the principles of discrete Fourier analysis before reaching the cornerstone of signal processing: the Fast Fourier Transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Fundamentals" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices for the advanced reader. As a special feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations.  These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. For example, a real sine signal can be treated as a sum of clockwise and counter-clockwise rotating vectors. The applet illustration included with the book animates the rotating vectors and the resulting sine signal. By changing parameters such as amplitude and frequency, the reader ca...

  20. Digital Culture and Digital Library

    Yalçın Yalçınkaya


    Full Text Available In this study; digital culture and digital library which have a vital connection with each other are examined together. The content of the research consists of the interaction of culture, information, digital culture, intellectual technologies, and digital library concepts. The study is an entry work to integrity of digital culture and digital library theories and aims to expand the symmetry. The purpose of the study is to emphasize the relation between the digital culture and digital library theories acting intersection of the subjects that are examined. Also the perspective of the study is based on examining the literature and analytical evaluation in both studies (digital culture and digital library. Within this context, the methodology of the study is essentially descriptive and has an attribute for the transmission and synthesis of distributed findings produced in the field of the research. According to the findings of the study results, digital culture is an inclusive term that describes the effects of intellectual technologies in the field of information and communication. Information becomes energy and the spectrum of the information is expanding in the vertical rise through the digital culture. In this context, the digital library appears as a new living space of a new environment. In essence, the digital library is information-oriented; has intellectual technology support and digital platform; is in a digital format; combines information resources and tools in relationship/communication/cooperation by connectedness, and also it is the dynamic face of the digital culture in time and space independence. Resolved with the study is that the digital libraries are active and effective in the formation of global knowing and/or mass wisdom in the process of digital culture.

  1. The Puzzle of Coherence

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;


    of coherence in treatment and patient pathways. The aim of our study is to explore the role of health care providers in furthering coherence. Our ambition is to identify areas for improvement or change of collaborative practice between health care providers in municipalities, hospitals and general practice...... initiatives in health care. The present study will generate new, valuable insight into the areas of cross-sectorial health care collaboration. Our findings may facilitate change in current practice and improve the quality and coherence in patient pathways of EPCD. The findings of this study will be useful...

  2. Coherent diffractive {rho} production

    Hyett, N.M.; Tovey, S.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics


    Coherent diffractive {rho} production by neutrinos occurs at low four-momentum transfer and high energy transfer. These interactions are generally understood to occur via the coupling of the weak charged current to the vector meson, which scatters diffractively from the target nucleus. Since coherent events are those in which the nucleus interacts as a whole, ie without breakup, and with small recoil energy, these events have a very sharp |t|-distribution. This presentation deals mostly with the Monte Carlo simulation of the coherent diffractive production of the {rho} production and in particular with the reconstruction algorithm (description and efficiency) and the |t| distribution. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  3. The Coherent Curriculum

    Michael Thomas


    @@ What makes a coherent EFL curriculum? How can curriculum planners avoid a mismatch between policy and pragmatics to produce an effective decision-making process? In The Second Language Curriculum, Johnson describes the coherent curriculum as one in which decision outcomes from the various stages of development are mutually consistent and complementary,and learning outcomes reflect curriculum aims.The achievement of coherence is said to depend crucially in most educational contexts upon the formalisation of decision-making processes and products. This formalisation facilitates consensus among those involved and is a prerequisite for effective evaluation and subsequent renewal (1994: xiii)

  4. Beyond digital interference cancellation

    Venkateswaran, V.


    One of the major drawbacks towards the realization of MIMO and multi-sensor wireless communication systems is that multiple antennas at the receiver each have their own separate radio frequency (RF) front ends and analog to digital converter (ADC) units, leading to increased circuit size and power c

  5. Beyond digital interference cancellation

    Venkateswaran, V.


    One of the major drawbacks towards the realization of MIMO and multi-sensor wireless communication systems is that multiple antennas at the receiver each have their own separate radio frequency (RF) front ends and analog to digital converter (ADC) units, leading to increased circuit size and power c

  6. Coherence relations in academic spoken discourse

    Juliano Desiderato Antonio


    Full Text Available According to Rhetorical Structure Theory, implicit propositions emerge from the combination of pieces of text which hang together. Implicit propositions have received various labels as coherence relations, discourse relations, rhetorical relations or relational propositions. When two portions of a text hold a relation, the addressee of the text may recognize the connection even without the presence of a formal sign as a conjunction or a discourse marker. In this paper we claim that some intrinsic spoken discourse phenomena like paraphrasing, repetition, correction and parenthetical insertion hold coherence relations with other portions of discourse and, thus, may be considered strategies for the construction of coherence. The analysis, based on academic spoken discourse (five university lectures in Brazilian Portuguese, shows that these phenomena are recurring and relevant for the study of spoken discourse.

  7. Compressed Sensing-Based Direct Conversion Receiver

    Pierzchlewski, Jacek; Arildsen, Thomas; Larsen, Torben


    Due to the continuously increasing computational power of modern data receivers it is possible to move more and more processing from the analog to the digital domain. This paper presents a compressed sensing approach to relaxing the analog filtering requirements prior to the ADCs in a direct...

  8. Radiometric Receiver for Passive Microwave Imaging System

    Ubaichin Anton


    Full Text Available The paper describes a new method to develop a zero-type W-band radiometric receiver. The block diagram and operating algorithm of the digital control system are presented. The main advantages of the zero method in passive radio physical investigations in comparison with classical engineering solutions are shown.

  9. Optical coherent and envelope detection for photonic wireless communication links

    Prince, Kamau; Zibar, Darko; Yu, Xianbin;

    We present two novel optical detection techniques for radio over fiber (RoF) communication links. Firstly, we present recent results obtained with optical digital coherent detection of optical phase-modulated ROF signals supporting error-free transmission over 25 km standard SMF with BPSK and QPSK...

  10. Physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems.

    Guan, Xun; Chan, Chun-Kit


    We present the first experimental demonstration and characterization of the application of optical physical-layer network coding in coherent optical OFDM systems. It combines two optical OFDM frames to share the same link so as to enhance system throughput, while individual OFDM frames can be recovered with digital signal processing at the destined node.

  11. High Bandwidth, Multi-Purpose Passive Radar Receiver Design For Aerospace and Geoscience Targets

    Vertatschitsch, Laura

    Passive radar permits inexpensive and stealthy detection and tracking of aerospace and geoscience targets. Transmitters of opportunity such as commercial FM broadcast, DTV broadcast, and cell phone towers are already illuminating many populated areas with continuous power. Passive radar receivers can be located at a distance from the transmitter, and can sense this direct transmission as well as any reflections from ground clutter, aircraft, ionospheric turbulence and meteor trails. The 100% duty cycle allows for long coherent integration, increasing the sensitivity of these instruments greatly. Traditional radar receivers employ analog front end downconverters to translate the radio frequency spectrum to an intermediate frequency (IF) for sampling and signal processing. Such downconverters limit the spectrum available for study, and can introduce nonlinearities which limit the detectability of weak signals in the presence of strong signals. With suitably fast digitizers one can bypass the downconversion stage completely. Very fast digitizers may have relatively few bits, but precision is recovered in subsequent signal processing. We present a new passive radar receiver designed to utilize a broad spectrum of commercial transmitters without the use of a front end analog downconverter. The receiver centers around a Reconfigurable Open Architecture Computing Hardware (ROACH) board developed by the Collaboration for Astronomy Signal Processing and Electronics Research (CASPER) group. Fast sampling rates (8-bit samples as fast as 3 GSps) combined with 640 multiply/addition operations on the Virtex-5 FPGA centered on the ROACH allows for coherent processing of broad spectrum and dynamic decision-making on one device all while sharing a single front end, putting this device on the cutting edge of wideband receiver technology. The radar is also designed to support mobile operation. It fits within a 19'' rack, it is equipped with solid state hard drives, and can run off an

  12. Digital photography

    Windsor, J S; Rodway, G W; Middleton, P M; McCarthy, S


    The emergence of a new generation of "point-and-shoot" digital cameras offers doctors a compact, portable and user-friendly solution to the recording of highly detailed digital photographs and video images...

  13. Coherence in Industrial Transformation

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær


    The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....

  14. Coherence for Modalities

    Dosen, K


    Positive modalities in systems in the vicinity of S4 and S5 are investigated in terms of categorial proof theory. Coherence and maximality results are demonstrated, and connections with mixed distributive laws and Frobenius algebras are exhibited.

  15. Coherence in Industrial Transformation

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær


    The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....

  16. Genuine Quantum Coherence

    Streltsov, Alexander


    The basis of any quantum resource theory are free states and free operations, these are states and operations which can be created or performed at no cost. In the resource theory of quantum coherence free states are states which are diagonal in a fixed reference basis. This choice is natural in many experimental scenarios where the reference basis is singled out by the unavoidable decoherence. The corresponding free operations are called incoherent, they can be implemented as a generalized measurement which does not create any coherence. However, a general quantum operation admits different experimental realizations, and a quantum operation which seems incoherent in one experimental realization might create coherence in another. Starting from this observation, we propose the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This simple condition automatically guarantees that the operation is in...

  17. Processing In A GPS Receiver To Reduce Multipath Errors

    Meehan, Thomas K.


    Four techniques of ancillary real-time digital processing of signals in Global Positioning System, GPS, receiver introduced reducing effects of multipath propagation of signals on position estimates produced by receiver. Multipath range errors halved. Applied in addition to other signal-processing techniques and to other techniques designing as receiving antenna to make it insensitive to reflections of GPS signals from nearby objects.

  18. Partially coherent sources with circular coherence: comment.

    Hyde, Milo W; Bose-Pillai, Santasri R


    In [Opt. Lett.42, 1512 (2017)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.42.001512], the authors present a new class of non-uniformly correlated sources with circular coherence. They also describe a basic experimental setup for synthesizing this class of sources, which uses the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem. Here, we present an alternative way to analyze these sources and a different way to generate them.

  19. Digital Tectonics

    Christiansen, Karl; Borup, Ruben; Søndergaard, Asbjørn;


    Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated.......Digital Tectonics treats the architectonical possibilities in digital generation of form and production. The publication is the first volume of a series, in which aspects of the strategic focus areas of the Aarhus School of Architecture will be disseminated....

  20. Digital squares

    Forchhammer, Søren; Kim, Chul E


    Digital squares are defined and their geometric properties characterized. A linear time algorithm is presented that considers a convex digital region and determines whether or not it is a digital square. The algorithm also determines the range of the values of the parameter set of its preimages....... The analysis involves transforming the boundary of a digital region into parameter space of slope and y-intercept...

  1. 10 Gb/s Real-Time All-VCSEL Low Complexity Coherent scheme for PONs

    Rodes Lopez, Roberto; Cheng, Ning; Jensen, Jesper Bevensee;


    Real time demodulation of a 10 Gb/s all-VCSEL based coherent PON link with a simplified coherent receiver scheme is demonstrated. Receiver sensitivity of −33 dBm is achieved providing high splitting ratio and link reach....

  2. Coherence-Enhanced Spaser

    Dorfman, Konstantin E; Voronine, Dmitri V; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico; Scully, Marlan O


    We investigate surface plasmon amplification in a silver nanoshell coupled to an externally driven three-level gain medium, and show that quantum coherence significantly enhances the generation of surface plasmons. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation is achieved in the absence of population inversion on the spasing transition, which reduces the pump requirements. The coherent drive allows us to control the dynamics, and holds promise for quantum control of nanoplasmonic devices.

  3. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography


    optics has been studied theoretically11, but has not been demonstrated experimentally heretofore. Even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs6 (e.g...coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two...dense coding, etc. CREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando , Florida 32816, USA. Correspondence and requests

  4. Digital Citizenship

    Isman, Aytekin; Canan Gungoren, Ozlem


    Era in which we live is known and referred as digital age.In this age technology is rapidly changed and developed. In light of these technological advances in 21st century, schools have the responsibility of training "digital citizen" as well as a good citizen. Digital citizens must have extensive skills, knowledge, Internet and …

  5. Binaural dereverberation based on interaural coherence histograms.

    Westermann, Adam; Buchholz, Jörg M; Dau, Torsten


    A binaural dereverberation algorithm is presented that utilizes the properties of the interaural coherence (IC) inspired by the concepts introduced in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)]. The algorithm introduces a non-linear sigmoidal coherence-to-gain mapping that is controlled by an online estimate of the present coherence statistics. The algorithm automatically adapts to a given acoustic environment and provides a stronger dereverberation effect than the original method presented in Allen et al. [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 62, 912-915 (1977)] in most acoustic conditions. The performance of the proposed algorithm was objectively and subjectively evaluated in terms of its impacts on the amount of reverberation and overall quality. A binaural spectral subtraction method based on Lebart et al. [Acta Acust. Acust. 87, 359-366 (2001)] and a binaural version of the original method of Allen et al. were considered as reference systems. The results revealed that the proposed coherence-based approach is most successful in acoustic scenarios that exhibit a significant spread in the coherence distribution where direct sound and reverberation can be segregated. This dereverberation algorithm is thus particularly useful in large rooms for short source-receiver distances.

  6. Impaired coherence of life narratives of patients with schizophrenia.

    Allé, Mélissa C; Potheegadoo, Jevita; Köber, Christin; Schneider, Priscille; Coutelle, Romain; Habermas, Tilmann; Danion, Jean-Marie; Berna, Fabrice


    Self-narratives of patients have received increasing interest in schizophrenia since they offer unique material to study patients' subjective experience related to their illness, in particular the alteration of self that accompanies schizophrenia. In this study, we investigated the life narratives and the ability to integrate and bind memories of personal events into a coherent narrative in 27 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls. Four aspects of life narratives were analyzed: coherence with cultural concept of biography, temporal coherence, causal-motivational coherence and thematic coherence. Results showed that in patients cultural biographical knowledge is preserved, whereas temporal coherence is partially impaired. Furthermore, causal-motivational and thematic coherence are significantly impaired: patients have difficulties explaining how events have modeled their identity, and integrating different events along thematic lines. Impairment of global causal-motivational and thematic coherence was significantly correlated with patients' executive dysfunction, suggesting that cognitive impairment observed in patients could affect their ability to construct a coherent narrative of their life by binding important events to their self. This study provides new understanding of the cognitive deficits underlying self-disorders in patients with schizophrenia. Our findings suggest the potential usefulness of developing new therapeutic interventions to improve autobiographical reasoning skills.

  7. Coherence vortices of partially coherent beams in the far field

    Liu Pu-Sheng; Lü Bai-da


    Based on the propagation law of cross-spectral density function, studied in this paper are the coherence vortices of partially coherent, quasi-monochromatic singular beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator in the far field, where our main attention is paid to the evolution of far-field coherence vortices into intensity vortices of fully coherent beams. The results show that, although there are usually no zeros of intensity in partially coherent beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator, zeros of spectral degree of coherence exist. The coherence vortices of spectral degree of coherence depend on the relative coherence length, mode index and positions of pairs of points.If a point and mode index are kept fixed, the position of coherence vortices changes with the increase of the relative coherence length. For the low coherent case there is a circular phase dislocation. In the coherent limit coherence vortices become intensity vortices of fully coherent Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  8. Interferometric visibility and coherence

    Biswas, Tanmoy; García Díaz, María; Winter, Andreas


    Recently, the basic concept of quantum coherence (or superposition) has gained a lot of renewed attention, after Baumgratz et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401)), following Åberg (, have proposed a resource theoretic approach to quantify it. This has resulted in a large number of papers and preprints exploring various coherence monotones, and debating possible forms for the resource theory. Here, we take the view that the operational foundation of coherence in a state, be it quantum or otherwise wave mechanical, lies in the observation of interference effects. Our approach here is to consider an idealized multi-path interferometer, with a suitable detector, in such a way that the visibility of the interference pattern provides a quantitative expression of the amount of coherence in a given probe state. We present a general framework of deriving coherence measures from visibility, and demonstrate it by analysing several concrete visibility parameters, recovering some known coherence measures and obtaining some new ones.

  9. Genuine quantum coherence

    de Vicente, Julio I.; Streltsov, Alexander


    Any quantum resource theory is based on free states and free operations, i.e. states and operations which can be created and performed at no cost. In the resource theory of coherence free states are diagonal in some fixed basis, and free operations are those which cannot create coherence for some particular experimental realization. Recently, some problems of this approach have been discussed, and new sets of operations have been proposed to resolve these problems. We propose here the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This framework captures coherence under additional constrains such as energy preservation and all genuinely incoherent operations are incoherent regardless of their particular experimental realization. We also introduce the full class of operations with this property, which we call fully incoherent. We analyze in detail the mathematical structure of these classes and also study possible state transformations. We show that deterministic manipulation is severely limited, even in the asymptotic settings. In particular, this framework does not have a unique golden unit, i.e. there is no single state from which all other states can be created deterministically with the free operations. This suggests that any reasonably powerful resource theory of coherence must contain free operations which can potentially create coherence in some experimental realization.

  10. Optoelectronic specifications of emerging coherent optical solutions for data center interconnect

    Souza, André L. N.; Rozental, Valery N.; Chiuchiarelli, Andrea; Pivem, Tatiani; Reis, Jacklyn D.; Oliveira, Juliano R. F.


    Emerging short-reach data center interconnect is a scenario wherein the capacity has to be maximized over point- to-point optical links without intermediate optical amplification. Most of the transceiver solutions are based on 100G modules with direct detection modulation. Although these legacy solutions are cost-efficient in a short- term, they are not scalable in a long-term, when the capacity x distance product will become more and more stringent. This paper addresses coherent optical solutions for emerging data center interconnect, with optical transmission reach being limited to around unrepeated 100 km. The main advantage of coherent solutions, when compared to legacy direct detection technologies, is the inherently improved spectral efficiency (e.g. 400 Gb/s channels in a 50 GHz grid) and receiver sensitivity provided with high baudrate (>40 GBd) transceiver modules. In this paper, two technological options for single-carrier optical 400 Gb/s modules are exploited for high capacity links over short reach scenarios: 43 GBd polarization-division-multiplexed (PDM)-64QAM, suitable for a 50-GHz grid; and 64 GBd PDM-16QAM, suitable for a 75-GHz grid. These two solutions are compared in terms of capacity allocated in C band (˜4 THz bandwidth), when considering 50 GHz (80 channels at 400G, 32 Tb/s) and 75 GHz (53 channels with 21.2 Tb/s) grids and back-to-back requirements in terms of optoelectronics (digital-to-analog and analog-to-digital converters, modulators, receivers etc.).

  11. 像差对星间相干光通信接收系统误码性能的影响%Effect of Aberration on Performance of the Bit Error Rate in an Inter-Satellite Coherent Optical Communication Receiving System

    刘宏展; 纪越峰; 刘立人


    Based on the space optical communication link equation, it is given in detail that the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) equations for the inter-satellite coherent optical communication receiving system (ISCOCRS) with different aberrations. With communication distance for 60000 km, transmission rate of 2 Gb/s binary phase shift keying (2PSK) homodyne geosynchronous orbit receiving system as an example, through numerical simulation, the effect of the tilt, defocusing, coma and astigmatism aberrations on the bit error ratio(BER) of the ISCOCRS is compared systematically. The simulation results show that effect of the tilt aberration is the BER is more seriously than the astigmatism when the different aberrations influence the ISCOCRS individually, at the same time, the different aberrations can be partly corrected by another when they effect mutually, Which leads to the lower BER. With the BER more than 10~6 as standard, through adjusting the tilt, the coma can be partly corrected when the normalized coma is more than 1. 00, and adjusting the defocusing can partly correct the astigmatism when the normalized astigmatism is more than 0. 53. Therefore, the aberrations' influence should be overlooked in the process ofdesigning the ISCOCRS. These results provide some theoretic basis for the ISCOCRS.%以空间链路方程为基础,详细推导了具有不同像差时的星间相干光通信接收系统信噪比表达式.以通信距离为60000 km、速率为2 Gb/s的2PSK零差同步轨道接收系统为例,通过数值仿真,全面比较了接收天线的倾斜、离焦、彗差和像散等像差对接收系统误码率(εBER)的影响.结果表明,不同像差单独作用时,倾斜像差的影响最大,象散的影响最小;不同像差相互作用时,它们中的某些能部分实现相互校正,从而降低误码率.以εBER≤10-6为比较标准,当彗差W31/λ≤1.00时,调整倾斜像差能实现它们之间的部分校正;当像散W22/λ≤0.53时,调整离焦能对

  12. GNSS software receiver sampling noise and clock jitter performance and impact analysis

    Chen, Jian Yun; Feng, XuZhe; Li, XianBin; Wu, GuangYao


    In the design of a multi-frequency multi-constellation GNSS software defined radio receivers is becoming more and more popular due to its simple architecture, flexible configuration and good coherence in multi-frequency signal processing. It plays an important role in navigation signal processing and signal quality monitoring. In particular, GNSS software defined radio receivers driving the sampling clock of analogue-to-digital converter (ADC) by FPGA implies that a more flexible radio transceiver design is possible. According to the concept of software defined radio (SDR), the ideal is to digitize as close to the antenna as possible. Whereas the carrier frequency of GNSS signal is of the frequency of GHz, converting at this frequency is expensive and consumes more power. Band sampling method is a cheaper, more effective alternative. When using band sampling method, it is possible to sample a RF signal at twice the bandwidth of the signal. Unfortunately, as the other side of the coin, the introduction of SDR concept and band sampling method induce negative influence on the performance of the GNSS receivers. ADC's suffer larger sampling clock jitter generated by FPGA; and low sampling frequency introduces more noise to the receiver. Then the influence of sampling noise cannot be neglected. The paper analyzes the sampling noise, presents its influence on the carrier noise ratio, and derives the ranging error by calculating the synchronization error of the delay locked loop. Simulations aiming at each impact factors of sampling-noise-induced ranging error are performed. Simulation and experiment results show that if the target ranging accuracy is at the level of centimeter, the quantization length should be no less than 8 and the sampling clock jitter should not exceed 30ps.

  13. Digital preservation

    Deegan, Marilyn


    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  14. Digital subtraktion

    Mussmann, Bo Redder


    Digital subtraktion er en metode til at fjerne uønskede oplysninger i et røntgenbillede. Subtraktionsteknikken bruges primært i forbindelse med angiografi hvor man kun er interesseret i at se selve karret. Derfor er digital subtraktion i daglig tale synonymt med DSA eller DVI – hhv. Digital...... Subtraction Angiography eller Digital Vascular Imaging. Benævnelserne er to røntgenfirmaers navn for den samme teknik. Digital subtraktion kræver speciel software, samt at apparaturet kan eksponere i serier....

  15. Application of coherent lidar to ion measurements in plasma diagnostics

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.; Simpson, M.L.


    A coherent lidar system has been constructed for the measurement of alpha particles in a burning plasma. The lidar system consists of a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser transmitter and a heterodyne receiver. The receiver local oscillator is a cw, sequence-band CO{sub 2} laser operating with a 63.23 GHz offset from the transmitter.

  16. Digital Natives or Digital Tribes?

    Watson, Ian Robert


    This research builds upon the discourse surrounding digital natives. A literature review into the digital native phenomena was undertaken and found that researchers are beginning to identify the digital native as not one cohesive group but of individuals influenced by other factors. Primary research by means of questionnaire survey of technologies…

  17. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Hung-chi Lihn


    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  18. High performance fiber-based optical coherent detection

    Chen, Youming

    The sensitivity of signal detection is of major interest for optical high speed communication systems and LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) systems. Sensitive receivers in fiber-optical networks can reduce transmitter power or amplifier amplification requirements and extend link spans. High receiver sensitivity allows links to be established over long distances in deep space satellite communication systems and large atmospheric attenuation to be overcome in terrestrial free space communications. For lidar systems, the sensitivity of signal detection determines how far and how accurately the lidar can detect the remote objects. Optical receivers employ either coherent or direct detection. In addition to amplitude, coherent detection extracts frequency and phase information from received signals, whereas direct detection extracts the received pulse amplitude only. In theory, coherent detection should yield the highest receiver sensitivity. Another possible technique to improve detection sensitivity is to employ a fiber preamplifier. This technique has been successfully demonstrated in direct detection systems but not in the coherent detection systems. Due to the existence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) inside the amplifier, the sensitivity of coherent detection varies with the data rate or pulse rate. For this reason, optically preamplified coherent detection is not used in applications as commonly as optically preamplified direct detection. We investigate the performance of coherent detection employing a fiber amplifier and time-domain-filter. The fiber amplifier is used as the optical preamplifier of the coherent detection system. To reduce the noise induced by the preamplifier to a maximum extent, we investigate the noise properties for both a single pass amplifier and a double pass amplifier. The relative intensity noise and linewidth broadening caused by ASE have been experimentally characterized. The results show that the double pass amplifier has

  19. Method and apparatus for coherent burst ranging

    Wachter, E.A.; Fisher, W.G.


    A high resolution ranging method is described utilizing a novel modulated waveform, hereafter referred to as coherent burst modulation. In the coherent burst method, high frequency modulation of an acoustic or electromagnetic transmitter, such as a laser, is performed at a modulation frequency. This modulation frequency is transmitted quasi-continuously in the form of interrupted bursts of radiation. Energy from the transmitter is directed onto a target, interacts with the target, and the returning energy is collected. The encoded burst pattern contained in the collected return signal is detected coherently by a receiver that is tuned so as to be principally sensitive to the modulation frequency. The receiver signal is processed to determine target range using both time-of-flight of the burst envelope and phase shift of the high frequency modulation. This approach effectively decouples the maximum unambiguous range and range resolution relationship of earlier methods, thereby allowing high precision ranging to be conducted at arbitrarily long distances using at least one burst of encoded energy. The use of a receiver tuned to the high frequency modulation contained within the coherent burst vastly improves both sensitivity in the detection of the target return signal and rejection of background interferences, such as ambient acoustic or electromagnetic noise. Simultaneous transmission at several energies (or wavelengths) is possible by encoding each energy with a separate modulation frequency or pattern; electronic demodulation at the receiver allows the return pattern for each energy to be monitored independently. Radial velocity of a target can also be determined by monitoring change in phase shift of the return signal as a function of time. 12 figs.

  20. Spectral coherent-state quantum cryptography.

    Cincotti, Gabriella; Spiekman, Leo; Wada, Naoya; Kitayama, Ken-ichi


    A novel implementation of quantum-noise optical cryptography is proposed, which is based on a simplified architecture that allows long-haul, high-speed transmission in a fiber optical network. By using a single multiport encoder/decoder and 16 phase shifters, this new approach can provide the same confidentiality as other implementations of Yuen's encryption protocol, which use a larger number of phase or polarization coherent states. Data confidentiality and error probability for authorized and unauthorized receivers are carefully analyzed.

  1. Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers

    Schneider, Kerstin


    Highly Sensitive Optical Receivers primarily treats the circuit design of optical receivers with external photodiodes. Continuous-mode and burst-mode receivers are compared. The monograph first summarizes the basics of III/V photodetectors, transistor and noise models, bit-error rate, sensitivity and analog circuit design, thus enabling readers to understand the circuits described in the main part of the book. In order to cover the topic comprehensively, detailed descriptions of receivers for optical data communication in general and, in particular, optical burst-mode receivers in deep-sub-µm CMOS are presented. Numerous detailed and elaborate illustrations facilitate better understanding.

  2. SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.

    Bickel, Douglas Lloyd


    Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.

  3. Hybrid lidar radar receiver for underwater imaging applications

    Seetamraju, Madhavi; Gurjar, Rajan; Squillante, Michael; Derderian, Jeffrey P.


    In this work, we present research performed to improve the receiver characteristics for underwater imaging applications using the hybrid lidar-radar detection technique. We report the development of the next-generation coherent heterodyne receiver using modulation of the optical receiver's amplifier gain. Significant advantages in the receiver specifications are achieved using a large-area, high gain, low-noise silicon avalanche photodiode (APD) as the photodetector cum frequency mixer-demodulator. We demonstrate that heterodyne detection by gain modulation of APD can be used to increase the signal-to-noise ratio, detection sensitivity and bandwidth for the hybrid receiver system.

  4. High dynamic, low volume GPS receiver

    Hurd, W. J.


    A new GPS receiver concept and design are presented to meet the high dynamic and low volume requirements for range applications in missiles and drones. The receiver has the potential to satisfy all range requirements with one basic receiver, which has significant potential economic benefit over the alternate approach of using a family of receivers, each tailored for specific applications. The main new concept is to use approximate maximum likelihood estimates of pseudo range and range-rate, rather than tracking with carrier phase locked loops and code delay locked loops. Preliminary analysis indicates that receivers accelerating at 50 g or more can track with position errors due to acceleration of approximately 0.2 m/g, or 10 m at 50 g. Implementation is almost entirely digital to meet the low volume requirements.

  5. Relating Sentinel-1 Interferometric Coherence to Mowing Events on Grasslands

    Tanel Tamm


    Full Text Available In this study, the interferometric coherence calculated from 12-day Sentinel-1 image pairs was analysed in relation to mowing events on agricultural grasslands. Results showed that after a mowing event, median VH (vertical transmit, horizontal receive and VV (vertical transmit, vertical receive polarisation coherence values were statistically significantly higher than those from before the event. The shorter the time interval after the mowing event and the first interferometric acquisition, the higher the coherence. The coherence tended to stay higher, even 24 to 36 days after a mowing event. Precipitation caused the coherence to decrease, impeding the detection of a mowing event. Given the three analysed acquisition geometries, it was concluded that afternoon acquisitions and steeper incidence angles were more useful in the context of this study. In the case of morning acquisitions, dew might have caused a decrease of coherence for mowed and unmowed grasslands. Additionally, an increase of coherence after a mowing event was not evident during the rapid growth phase, due to the 12-day separation between the interferometric acquisitions. In future studies, six-day pairs utilising Sentinel-1A and 1B acquisitions should be considered.

  6. Research on the efficiency of coherent balanced detection

    Liu, Hongyang; Ai, Yong; Yang, Xiaobo; Chen, Yang; Ji, Fengzhu; Zhao, Xiaodan


    In the spatial coherent optical communication, after long distance transmission, the receiver needs to detect and extract the weak signal, and the balanced detection technology is the key technology in the coherent detection. Using balanced detection technology, not only can further improve the receiving sensitivity of coherent optical detection, but also can suppress the common mode intensity noise, so as to improve the output signal to noise ratio of the system. But the problems are (1) due to external causes (polarization control, input optical power loss error, atmospheric turbulence caused by decay, and so on),at both ends of the balanced detector's input signal can not keep consistent (2) two arms of balanced detector electronic devices (including photodiode and amplifier electronic components) are difficult to achieve perfectly matched. The paper is based on the principle of coherent optical detection, firstly, the advantage of balanced detection compared to single detection is detailed analysis, it is shown that balanced detector used in coherent optical communication system and with the improvement of communication rate, this advantage will more obvious. The theoretical and experimental results have verified several important factors that affect the efficiency of coherent balanced detection, namely, the consistency of the detection response, the atmospheric turbulence and the tracking jitter. It is of reference significant to study the balance detection technology in the spatial coherent optical communication.

  7. Pulsar coherent de-dispersion system of Urumqi Observatory

    Liyong, Liu; Esamdin, Ali; Jin, Zhang

    Pulsar coherent de-dispersion experiment has been carried by using the 25-m Nanshan radio telescope of Urumqi Observatory It uses a dual polarization receiver operating at 18cm and a VLBI back-end Mark5A The data processing system is based on a C program on Linux and a 4-node Beowulf cluster A high quality data acquisition system and a cluster with more processors are needed to build an on-line pulsar coherent de-dispersion system in future Key words Astronomical instrument Pulsar Coherent de-dispersion Parallel computing Cluster Mark5A

  8. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)


    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.

  9. Coherence for Monoidal Endofunctors

    Dosen, K


    The goal of this paper is to prove coherence results with respect to relational graphs for monoidal endofunctors, i.e. endofunctors of a monoidal category that preserve the monoidal structure up to a natural transformation that need not be an isomorphism. These results are proved first in the absence of symmetry in the monoidal structure, and then with this symmetry. In the later parts of the paper the coherence results are extended to monoidal endofunctors in monoidal categories that have diagonal or codiagonal natural transformations, or where the monoidal structure is given by finite products or coproducts. Monoidal endofunctors are interesting because they stand behind monoidal monads and comonads, for which coherence will be proved in a sequel to this paper.

  10. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Xu, M.


    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation. PMID:26937296

  11. Coherence in Microchip Traps

    Treutlein, P; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J; Treutlein, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter; Steinmetz, Tilo; H\\"ansch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob


    We report the coherent manipulation of internal states of neutral atoms in a magnetic microchip trap. Coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 s are observed with atoms at distances of $4-130 \\mu$m from the microchip surface. The coherence lifetime in the microtrap is independent of atom-surface distance and agrees well with the results of similar measurements in macroscopic magnetic traps. Due to the absence of surface-induced decoherence, a miniaturized atomic clock with a relative stability in the $10^{-13}$ range can be realized. For applications in quantum information processing, we propose to use microwave near-fields in the proximity of chip wires to create potentials that depend on the internal state of the atoms.

  12. Digital Insights

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    , by incorporating media as both channel, frame, and apparatus for advertising response, the dissertation brings into attention that more aspects than the text-reader relationship influence ad response. Finally, the dissertation proposes the assemblage approach for exploring big data in consumer culture research......This dissertation forwards the theory of digital consumer-response as a perspective to examine how digital media practices influence consumers’ response to advertising. Digital consumer-response is a development of advertising theory that encompasses how consumers employ their knowledge...... and practices with digital media, when they meet and interpret advertising. Through studies of advertising response on YouTube and experiments with consumers’ response to digitally manipulated images, the dissertation shows how digital media practices facilitate polysemic and socially embedded advertising...

  13. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency


    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.


    Josias Ricardo Hack


    Full Text Available This paper offers a critical review of the relevant literature in English and Portuguese on the production of audiovisual material such as Digital Storytelling to be used in higher education and produced by those involved in the teaching and learning process. The aim is to reflect on some characteristics needed to develop a contextualized experience through short audiovisual stories.The research methodology used in this study is based on vast literature search inseveral databases at Nottingham Trent University (England and the UniversidadeFederal de Santa Catarina (Brazil. The study results indicate that certain skills,for example, ability to construct a coherent narrative, and image, video and soundediting are required of those involved in higher education due to the insertion ofmultiple digital technologies in peoples’ everyday life. Thus, it is argued that thepractical experience of audiovisual education might enhance the digital literacyof students by the production of audiovisual pieces for the collaborative learningprocess of adults.

  15. Digital Forensics

    Ψευτέλης, Αθανάσιος Δημήτρης


    A reprint from American Scientist the magazine of Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society Since the 1980s, computers have had increasing roles in all aspects of human life—including an involvement in criminal acts. This development has led to the rise of digital forensics, the uncovering and examination of evidence located on all things electronic with digital storage, including computers, cell phones, and networks. Digital forensics researchers and practitione...

  16. Coherent light microscopy

    Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev


    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th

  17. Coherent states measurement entropy

    Kwapien, J; Zyczkowski, K; Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol


    Coherent states (CS) quantum entropy can be split into two components. The dynamical entropy is linked with the dynamical properties of a quantum system. The measurement entropy, which tends to zero in the semiclassical limit, describes the unpredictability induced by the process of a quantum approximate measurement. We study the CS--measurement entropy for spin coherent states defined on the sphere discussing different methods dealing with the time limit n \\to \\infty. In particular we propose an effective technique of computing the entropy by iterated function systems. The dependence of CS--measurement entropy on the character of the partition of the phase space is analysed.

  18. Coherent terahertz photonics.

    Seeds, Alwyn J; Fice, Martyn J; Balakier, Katarzyna; Natrella, Michele; Mitrofanov, Oleg; Lamponi, Marco; Chtioui, Mourad; van Dijk, Frederic; Pepper, Michael; Aeppli, Gabriel; Davies, A Giles; Dean, Paul; Linfield, Edmund; Renaud, Cyril C


    We present a review of recent developments in THz coherent systems based on photonic local oscillators. We show that such techniques can enable the creation of highly coherent, thus highly sensitive, systems for frequencies ranging from 100 GHz to 5 THz, within an energy efficient integrated platform. We suggest that such systems could enable the THz spectrum to realize its full applications potential. To demonstrate how photonics-enabled THz systems can be realized, we review the performance of key components, show recent demonstrations of integrated platforms, and give examples of applications.

  19. Low complexity MIMO receivers

    Bai, Lin; Yu, Quan


    Multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) systems can increase the spectral efficiency in wireless communications. However, the interference becomes the major drawback that leads to high computational complexity at both transmitter and receiver. In particular, the complexity of MIMO receivers can be prohibitively high. As an efficient mathematical tool to devise low complexity approaches that mitigate the interference in MIMO systems, lattice reduction (LR) has been widely studied and employed over the last decade. The co-authors of this book are world's leading experts on MIMO receivers, and here they share the key findings of their research over years. They detail a range of key techniques for receiver design as multiple transmitted and received signals are available. The authors first introduce the principle of signal detection and the LR in mathematical aspects. They then move on to discuss the use of LR in low complexity MIMO receiver design with respect to different aspects, including uncoded MIMO detection...

  20. Coherency matrix formulation for partially coherent imaging to evaluate the degree of coherence for image.

    Yamazoe, Kenji


    This paper defines a matrix from which coherence property of imaging by partially coherent Koehler illumination is determined. The matrix termed coherency matrix in imaging system is derived by the space average of a product of a column vector and its transpose conjugate where each row of the column vector represents mutually incoherent light. The coherency matrix in imaging system has similar properties to the polarization matrix that is utilized for calculating the light intensity and degree of polarization of polarized light. The coherency matrix in imaging system enables us to calculate not only image intensity but also degree of coherence for image. Simulation results of the degree of coherence for image given by the coherency matrix in imaging system correspond to the complex degree of coherence obtained by the van Cittert-Zernike theorem.

  1. Digital printing

    Sobotka, Werner K.


    Digital printing is described as a tool to replace conventional printing machines completely. Still this goal was not reached until now with any of the digital printing technologies to be described in the paper. Productivity and costs are still the main parameters and are not really solved until now. Quality in digital printing is no problem anymore. Definition of digital printing is to transfer digital datas directly on the paper surface. This step can be carried out directly or with the use of an intermediate image carrier. Keywords in digital printing are: computer- to-press; erasable image carrier; image carrier with memory. Digital printing is also the logical development of the new digital area as it is pointed out in Nicholas Negropotes book 'Being Digital' and also the answer to networking and Internet technologies. Creating images text and color in one country and publishing the datas in another country or continent is the main advantage. Printing on demand another big advantage and last but not least personalization the last big advantage. Costs and being able to coop with this new world of prepress technology is the biggest disadvantage. Therefore the very optimistic growth rates for the next few years are really nonexistent. The development of complete new markets is too slow and the replacing of old markets is too small.

  2. Digital displacements

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard


    In recent years digital reforms are being introduced in the municipal landscape of Denmark. The reforms address the interaction between citizen and local authority. The aim is, that by 2015 at least 80 per cent of all correspondence between citizens and public authority will be transmitted through...... digital interface. However, the transformation of citizen services from traditional face-to-face interaction to digital self-service gives rise to new practices; some citizens need support to be able to manage self-service through digital tools. A mixture of support and teaching, named co...

  3. Coherence and decoherence in biological systems: principles of noise-assisted transport and the origin of long-lived coherences.

    Chin, A W; Huelga, S F; Plenio, M B


    The quantum dynamics of transport networks in the presence of noisy environments has recently received renewed attention with the discovery of long-lived coherences in different photosynthetic complexes. This experimental evidence has raised two fundamental questions: firstly, what are the mechanisms supporting long-lived coherences; and, secondly, how can we assess the possible functional role that the interplay of noise and quantum coherence might play in the seemingly optimal operation of biological systems under natural conditions? Here, we review recent results, illuminate them by means of two paradigmatic systems (the Fenna-Matthew-Olson complex and the light-harvesting complex LHII) and present new progress on both questions.

  4. Enhanced AIS receiver design for satellite reception

    Clazzer, Federico; Lázaro, Francisco; Plass, Simon


    The possibility to detect Automatic Identification System (AIS) messages from low earth orbit (LEO) satellites paves the road for a plurality of new and unexplored services. Besides worldwide tracking of vessels, maritime traffic monitoring, analysis of vessel routes employing big data, and oceans monitoring are just few of the fields, where satellite-aided AIS is beneficial. Designed for ship-to-ship communication and collision avoidance, AIS satellite reception performs poorly in regions with a high density of vessels. This calls for the development of advanced satellite AIS receivers able to improve the decoding capabilities. In this context, our contribution focuses on the introduction of a new enhanced AIS receiver design and its performance evaluation. The enhanced receiver makes use of a coherent receiver for the low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) region, while for medium to high SNRs, a differential Viterbi receiver is used. Additional novelty of our work is in the exploitation of previously decoded packets from one vessel that is still under the LEO reception range, to improve the vessel detection probability. The assessment of the performance against a common receiver is done making the use of a simple and tight model of the medium access (MAC) layer and the multi-packet reception (MPR) matrix for physical layer (PHY) representation. Performance results show the benefits of such enhanced receiver, especially when it is bundled with successive interference cancellation (SIC).

  5. Delphi Accounts Receivable Module -

    Department of Transportation — Delphi accounts receivable module contains the following data elements, but are not limited to customer information, cash receipts, line of accounting details, bill...

  6. Coherence Constraints and the Last Hidden Optical Coherence

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Vamivakas, A Nick; Eberly, Joseph H


    We have discovered a new domain of optical coherence, and show that it is the third and last member of a previously unreported fundamental triad of coherences. These are unified by our derivation of a parallel triad of coherence constraints that take the form of complementarity relations. We have been able to enter this new coherence domain experimentally and we describe the novel tomographic approach devised for that purpose.

  7. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María


    ) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant......This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  8. Critical Digital Tourism Studies

    Gyimóthy, Szilvia; Munar, Ana María


    ) are approached mostly from a business administration perspective and informed by conceptual frameworks developed in management and marketing. IT studies in tourism are still at a stage similar to the first advocacy phase of tourism research in general (Jafari, 1990) and are seldom inspired by relevant......This paper advocates the need for a critical and cross-disciplinary research agenda on the field of digital technologies and tourism. The changing virtual landscape of tourism has received increased attention by tourism scholars. However, contemporary studies on information technologies (IT...... to studying digital socio-technical systems and virtual mediation in tourism. Critical Digital Tourism Studies opens a new cross-disciplinary field where the sociality of virtual tourism interactions is examined (entailing the study of structures, social rules, ideologies, power relations, sustainability...

  9. Digital Fourier analysis advanced techniques

    Kido, Ken'iti


    This textbook is a thorough, accessible introduction to advanced digital Fourier analysis for advanced undergraduate and graduate students. Assuming knowledge of the Fast Fourier Transform, this book covers advanced topics including the Hilbert transform, cepstrum analysis, and the two-dimensional Fourier transform. Saturated with clear, coherent illustrations, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" includes practice problems and thorough Appendices. As a central feature, the book includes interactive applets (available online) that mirror the illustrations. These user-friendly applets animate concepts interactively, allowing the user to experiment with the underlying mathematics. The applet source code in Visual Basic is provided online, enabling advanced students to tweak and change the programs for more sophisticated results. A complete, intuitive guide, "Digital Fourier Analysis - Advanced Techniques" is an essential reference for students in science and engineering.

  10. Effect of DRFM phase responsext on the doppler spectrum of a coherent radar: critical implications and possible mitigation techniques

    Herselman, PL


    Full Text Available In this research, the critical implications of the phase response of a Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) based repeater system on the Doppler spectrum of a modern, coherently processing radar system (for example pulsed Doppler radar...

  11. The Coherence of Autism

    Hobson, R. Peter


    There is a growing body of opinion that we should view autism as fractionable into different, largely independent sets of clinical features. The alternative view is that autism is a coherent syndrome in which principal features of the disorder stand in intimate developmental relationship with each other. Studies of congenitally blind children…

  12. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    Kun-Feng Lin


    Full Text Available This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed.

  13. Bicartesian Coherence Revisited

    Dosen, K


    A survey is given of results about coherence for categories with finite products and coproducts. For these results, which were published previously by the authors in several places, some formulations and proofs are here corrected, and matters are updated. The categories investigated in this paper formalize equality of proofs in classical and intuitionistic conjunctive-disjunctive logic without distribution of conjunction over disjunction.

  14. Coherence without Additivity.


    The Dutch book argument is a coherence condition for the existence of subjective probabilities. This note gives a general framework of analysis for this argument in a nonadditive probability setting. Particular cases are given by comonotonic and affinely related Dutch books that lead to Choquet expectations and Min expectations.

  15. Multiphoton coherent population oscillation

    Sharypov, A V


    We study the bichromatic driving of a two-level system which displays long-lived coherent population oscillations (CPO). We show that under certain conditions, multiphoton parametric interaction leads to the appearance of CPO resonances at the subharmonic frequencies. In addition, in the region of the CPO resonances, there is strong parametric interaction between the weak sideband components of the electromagnetic field.

  16. Optical Coherence Tomography

    Andersen, Peter E.


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. Mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample, in real time or at video rate. In addition...

  17. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D


    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.

  18. Digital Libraries

    Papy, Fabrice


    Of vital interest to all librarians and information specialists, this book presents all aspects of the effects of digitization of today's and tomorrow's libraries. From social to technical issues, Digital Libraries includes chapters on the growth of the role of librarian, the reader experience, cataloging, search engines, OPAC, law, ergonomic studies, and the future of libraries.

  19. Digital Audiobooks:

    Have, Iben; Pedersen, Birgitte Stougaard

    Audiobooks are rapidly gaining popularity with widely accessible digital downloading and streaming services. The paper is framing how the digital audiobook expands and changes the target groups for book publications and how it as an everyday activity is creating new reading experiences, places...

  20. Development and application of the WSJ-4 multifunction digital IP instrument receiving system based on pseudo-random signal%WSJ-4伪随机信号多功能数字化激电仪接收系统的研制及其应用

    王永兵; 何继善


    WSJ-4 pseudo-random signal multifunction digital IP instrument receiver system is based on the Chinese Academy of Engi-neering, Central South University Professor He Jishan invention a frequency domain induced polarization theory of a new generation of geophysical equipment. As the same series dual-band instrument in the Geophysical sweep surface application to play a lot of advanta-ges, but it is not a good solution to the distinction between the carbonaceous rocks and ore Therefore, the device is in this case, based on the academician He 2n pseudo-random signal power law theory developed, mainly carbonaceous rocks and ore phase of different fre-quency response relationship different to be distinguished from each other. Engineering practice shows, the WSJ-4 excited electric meter receiving system can distinguish between carbonaceous rocks with mine. As the first R&D personnel, the article introduces the basic principle and method of the WSJ-4 multi-functional digital pseudo-random signal receiving system, as well as in the practice of laborato-ry test data and engineering application examples, informative illustration of the instrument the Features and application effect.%介绍了WSJ-4伪随机信号多功能数字化接收系统的基本原理和实现方法,以及其在实验室的测试数据和工程实践中的应用实例,详实地阐述了该仪器的特点及应用效果。 WSJ-4伪随机信号多功能数字化激电仪接收系统是基于频率域激发极化理论的新一代物探设备。该设备主要利用碳质岩与矿石中导电矿物质成分的激发极化性质,特别是时间常数(以相位参数反映)的显著差异性反映特性来达到区分矿与非矿的目的。

  1. Digital communication device


    The invention concerns a digital communication device like a hearing aid or a headset. The hearing aid or headset has a power supply, a signal processing device, means for receiving a wireless signal and a receiver or loudspeaker, which produces an audio signal based on a modulated pulsed signal...... point is provided which is in electrical contact with the metal of the metal box and whereby this third connection point is connected to the electric circuitry of the communication device at a point having a stable and well defined electrical potential. In this way the electro-and magnetic radiation...

  2. Implementation Of Code And Carrier Tracking Loops For Software GPS Receivers

    Win Kay Khaing


    Full Text Available Abstract GPS is playing in very important role in our modern mobile societies. Software approach is very flexible rather than the traditional hardware receivers. The soft-GPS receiver includes two portions hardware and software. In hardware portion an antenna filter down-converter from RF Radio Frequency to IF Intermediate Frequency and an ADC Analog to Digital Converter are included. In software portion signal processing such as acquisition tracking and navigation that runs on general purpose processor is included. The GPS signal is taken from N-FUELS Full Educational Library of Signals for Navigation signal simulator. The heart of soft-GPS receiver is the synchronization processes such as acquisition and tracking. In tracking there are two main loops for code and carrier tracking. The objective of this paper is to analyse and find the optimum discriminator function for the code tracking loop in soft-GPS receivers. The delay lock loop DLL is a well-known technique to track the codes for GNSS spread spectrum systems. This paper also presents non-coherent square law DLLs and the impacts of some parameters on DLL discriminators such as number of samples per chip early-late spacing different C No values where C denotes the signal power and No is the noise spectral density and the impact of with or without front-end device. The results of discriminator outputs are illustrated by using S-curves. Testing results with the real GPS signal are also described. This optimized discriminator functions can be implemented in any soft-GPS receivers.

  3. Compact Orthomode Transducers Using Digital Polarization Synthesis

    Morgan, Matthew A; Boyd, Tod A


    In this paper we present a novel class of compact orthomode transducers which use digital calibration to synthesize the desired polarization vectors while maintaining high isolation and minimizing mass and volume. These digital orthomode transducers consist of an arbitrary number of planar probes in a circular waveguide, each of which is connected to an independent receiver chain designed for stability of complex gain. The outputs of each receiver chain are then digitized and combined numerically with calibrated, complex coefficients. Measurements on two prototype digital orthomode transducers, one with three probes and one with four, show better than 50 dB polarization isolation over a 10 C temperature range with a single calibration.

  4. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    Mandel, Leonard


    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  5. Aligning a Receiving Antenna Array to Reduce Interference

    Jongeling, Andre P.; Rogstad, David H.


    A digital signal-processing algorithm has been devised as a means of aligning (as defined below) the outputs of multiple receiving radio antennas in a large array for the purpose of receiving a desired weak signal transmitted by a single distant source in the presence of an interfering signal that (1) originates at another source lying within the antenna beam and (2) occupies a frequency band significantly wider than that of the desired signal. In the original intended application of the algorithm, the desired weak signal is a spacecraft telemetry signal, the antennas are spacecraft-tracking antennas in NASA s Deep Space Network, and the source of the wide-band interfering signal is typically a radio galaxy or a planet that lies along or near the line of sight to the spacecraft. The algorithm could also afford the ability to discriminate between desired narrow-band and nearby undesired wide-band sources in related applications that include satellite and terrestrial radio communications and radio astronomy. The development of the present algorithm involved modification of a prior algorithm called SUMPLE and a predecessor called SIMPLE. SUMPLE was described in Algorithm for Aligning an Array of Receiving Radio Antennas (NPO-40574), NASA Tech Briefs Vol. 30, No. 4 (April 2006), page 54. To recapitulate: As used here, aligning signifies adjusting the delays and phases of the outputs from the various antennas so that their relatively weak replicas of the desired signal can be added coherently to increase the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for improved reception, as though one had a single larger antenna. Prior to the development of SUMPLE, it was common practice to effect alignment by means of a process that involves correlation of signals in pairs. SIMPLE is an example of an algorithm that effects such a process. SUMPLE also involves correlations, but the correlations are not performed in pairs. Instead, in a partly iterative process, each signal is appropriately weighted

  6. Digital Television, Convergence, and the Public: Another Digital Divide?

    Jason Smith


    Full Text Available While 85 percent of Americans pay to receive television signals through satellite or cable companies, 15 percent still receive their television using over-the-air signals. With the elminination of analog television signals, the 15 percent of households have had to make significant changes in their viewing technology. These households tend to be elderly, poor, minority and rural. Signal coverage areas will be cut back, since government assumed a viewer would have an antenna on a 30 foot pole. Few do, and governmental programs delibertely hid this engineering fact. It is argued that digitalism has neglected the public use of the airways and created yet one more digital divide.

  7. Digital Leadership

    Zupancic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri


    . With this paper we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some important aspects, which may be valuable to look into when developing digital leadership skills.......Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media...

  8. Digital holography

    Picart, Pascal


    This book presents a substantial description of the principles and applications of digital holography.The first part of the book deals with mathematical basics and the linear filtering theory necessary to approach the topic. The next part describes the fundamentals of diffraction theory and exhaustively details the numerical computation of diffracted fields using FFT algorithms. A thorough presentation of the principles of holography and digital holography, including digital color holography, is proposed in the third part.A special section is devoted to the algorithms and method

  9. Digital electronics

    Morris, John


    An essential companion to John C Morris's 'Analogue Electronics', this clear and accessible text is designed for electronics students, teachers and enthusiasts who already have a basic understanding of electronics, and who wish to develop their knowledge of digital techniques and applications. Employing a discovery-based approach, the author covers fundamental theory before going on to develop an appreciation of logic networks, integrated circuit applications and analogue-digital conversion. A section on digital fault finding and useful ic data sheets completes th


    Nielsen, Kurt Gammelgaard; Petersen, Lise


    In accordance with The Danish eGOVERNMENT strategy 2011-2015 digital assessment and exam should be implemented at all Danish universities by the end of 2013. University of Southern Denmark (SDU) decided to start the implementation in May 2010.By the exam term of January 2013, the implementation proved successful, and close to completion. The majority of assessments at all of the 5 faculties and 5 campuses were digital, and students had handed in a total of 17.021 digital assessments.On the ba...

  11. Digital Leadership

    Zupancic, Tadeja; Verbeke, Johan; Achten, Henri


    Leadership is an important quality in organisations. Leadership is needed to introduce change and innovation. In our opinion, in architectural and design practices, the role of leadership has not yet been sufficiently studied, especially when it comes to the role of digital tools and media....... With this paper we intend to initiate a discussion in the eCAADe community to reflect and develop ideas in order to develop digital leadership skills amongst the membership. This paper introduces some important aspects, which may be valuable to look into when developing digital leadership skills....

  12. Digital Insights

    Knudsen, Gry Høngsmark

    and practices with digital media, when they meet and interpret advertising. Through studies of advertising response on YouTube and experiments with consumers’ response to digitally manipulated images, the dissertation shows how digital media practices facilitate polysemic and socially embedded advertising......, by incorporating media as both channel, frame, and apparatus for advertising response, the dissertation brings into attention that more aspects than the text-reader relationship influence ad response. Finally, the dissertation proposes the assemblage approach for exploring big data in consumer culture research...

  13. Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography



    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1.5 m range. We show 3D macroscopic imaging examples of a human mannequin, bicycle, machine shop gauge blocks, and a human skull/brain model. High-bandwidth, meter-range OCT demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of biomedical, scientific, industrial, and research applications. PMID:28239628

  14. Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution

    Kumar, Asutosh


    Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation-which we refer to as additivity relation-between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same.

  15. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)


    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Differentially coherent detection of QASK for frequency-hopping systems. I - Performance in the presence of a Gaussian noise environment

    Simon, M. K.; Huth, G. K.; Polydoros, A.


    Bandwidth-conserving modulation techniques, which trade average power for bandwidth in a favorable exchange, have recently found widespread application in digital radio and satellite communication systems. Quadrature amplitude-shift-keying (QASK) is a particular type of the considered techniques. QASK makes use of multilevel signals to amplitude modulate the in-phase and quadrature components of a carrier. Frequency hopping (FH) is used to protect a conventional communication system from radio frequency interference (RFI) or jamming. Differentially coherent detection provides a possible solution to the effect of phase discontinuities introduced by FH. The application of such a detection technique to QASK signals is discussed. A receiver structure is proposed and its symbol error probability performance for an additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) background is investigated.

  17. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Tessa Belder


    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  18. Coherent Transient Systems Evaluation


    manuscript is submitted for publication with the understanding that the United States Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints...for governmental purposes. 1.0 Introduction The continuous optical correlator presented here is based on the phenomena of coherent transients, also...Gating the Continuous Processor Programming the continuous processor is accomplished by illuminati , n, the material with ,.’ modulated light pulses: a

  19. Photoacoustics with coherent light

    Emmanuel Bossy


    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the mid-nineties, photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue has been one of the fastest growing biomedical imaging modality, and its basic principles are now considered as well established. In particular, light propagation in photoacoustic imaging is generally considered from the perspective of transport theory. However, recent breakthroughs in optics have shown that coherent light propagating through optically scattering medium could be manipulated towards novel imaging approaches. In this article, we first provide an introduction to the relevant concepts in the field, and then review the recent works showing that it is possible to exploit the coherence of light in conjunction with photoacoustics. We illustrate how the photoacoustic effect can be used as a powerful feedback mechanism for optical wavefront shaping in complex media, and conversely show how the coherence of light can be exploited to enhance photoacoustic imaging, for instance in terms of spatial resolution or for designing minimally invasive endoscopic devices. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and perspectives down the road towards practical applications in the field of photoacoustic imaging.

  20. Coherent electron cooling



    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  1. Imaging cutaneous T-Cell lymphoma with optical coherence tomography

    Ring, H.C.; Hansen Stamp, I.M.; Jemec, G.B.E.


    Aim: To investigate the presentation of a patch-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A patient with a patch caused by CTCL was photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied. A normal skin area adjacent to the patch was OCT-scanned for compar......Aim: To investigate the presentation of a patch-stage cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL) using optical coherence tomography (OCT). Methods: A patient with a patch caused by CTCL was photographed digitally, OCT-scanned and biopsied. A normal skin area adjacent to the patch was OCT.......13 mm. A good immediate correlation was found between histology and OCT imaging of the sample. Conclusion: The aetiology of the elongated structures is thought to be lymphomatous infiltrates. Similar findings have been described in ocular lymphoma and may therefore be an important characteristic...

  2. Digital fabrication


    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  3. Digital Humanities

    Brügger, Niels


    the humanities for decades, starting with research fields such as humanities computing or computational linguistics in the 1950s, and later new media studies and internet studies. The historical development of digital humanities has been characterized by a focus on three successive, but co-existing types......Digital humanities is an umbrella term for theories, methodologies, and practices related to humanities scholarship that use the digital computer as an integrated and essential part of its research and teaching activities. The computer can be used for establishing, finding, collecting......, and preserving material to study, as an object of study in its own right, as an analytical tool, or for collaborating, and for disseminating results. The term "digital humanities" was coined around 2001, and gained currency within academia in the following years. However, computers had been used within...

  4. Digital Snaps

    Sandbye, Mette; Larsen, Jonas

    The New Face of Snapshot Photography / Jonas Larsen and Mette Sandbye -- pt. I. IMAGES ON WEB 2.0 AND THE CAMERA PHONE -- ch. 1. Overlooking, Rarely Looking and Not Looking / Martin Lister -- ch. 2. The (Im)mobile Life of Digital Photographs: The Case of Tourist Photography / Jonas Larsen -- ch. 3....... Distance as the New Punctum / Mikko Villi -- pt. II. FAMILY ALBUMS IN TRANSITION -- ch. 4. How Digital Technologies Do Family Snaps, Only Better / Gillian Rose -- ch. 5. Friendship Photography: Memory, Mobility and Social Networking / Joanne Garde-Hansen -- ch. 6. Play, Process and Materiality in Japanese...... Purikura Photography / Mette Sandbye -- ch. 7. 'Buying an Instrument Does Not Necessarily Make You a Musician': Studio Photography and the Digital Revolution / Sigrid Lien -- pt. III. NEW PUBLIC FORMS -- ch. 8 Paparazzi Photography, Seriality and the Digital Photo Archive / Anne Jerslev and Mette Mortensen...

  5. Becoming digital

    Pors, Anja Svejgaard


    The purpose of this paper is to examine the impact of e-government reforms on street-level bureaucrats’ professionalism and relation to citizens, thus demonstrating how the bureaucratic encounter unfolds in the digital era. Design/methodology/approach: The paper is based on an ethnographic study....... An ethnographic account of how digital reforms are implemented in practice shows how street-level bureaucrat’s classic tasks such as specialized casework are being reconfigured into educational tasks that promote the idea of “becoming digital”. In the paper, the author argues that the work of “becoming digital....... Originality/value: The study contributes to ethnographic research in public administration by combining two separate subfields, e-government and street-level bureaucracy, to discern recent transformations in public service delivery. In the digital era, tasks, control and equality are distributed in ways...

  6. The effects of spatiotemporal coherence on interferometric imaging

    Shin, Seungwoo; Lee, KyeoReh; Lee, SangYun; Park, YongKeun


    Illumination coherence plays a major role in various imaging systems, from microscopy, metrology, digital holography, optical coherence tomography, to ultrasound imaging. Here, we present a systematic study on the effects of degrees of spatiotemporal coherence of an illumination (DSTCI) on imaging quality. An optical field with arbitrary DSTCI was decomposed into wavelets with constituent spatiotemporal frequencies, and the effects on image quality were quantitatively investigated. The results show the synergistic effects on reduction of speckle noise when DSTCI is decreased. This study presents a method to systematically control DSTCI, and the result provides an essential reference on the effects of DSTCI on imaging quality. We believe that the presented methods and results can be implemented in various imaging systems for characterising and improving imaging quality.

  7. Digital Steganography

    KOCIÁNOVÁ, Helena


    Digital steganography is a technique for hiding data mostly into multimedia files (images, audio, video). With the development of information technology this technique has found its use in the field of copyright protection and secret data transfer, could be even applied in places where is limited possibility of using cryptography (e. g. by law). This thesis gives insight into digital steganography and contains an application using this technique.

  8. Digital watermark

    Jasna Maver


    The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to diffe...

  9. Fundamentals of GPS Receivers A Hardware Approach

    Doberstein, Dan


    While much of the current literature on GPS receivers is aimed at those intimately familiar with their workings, this volume summarizes the basic principles using as little mathematics as possible, and details the necessary specifications and circuits for constructing a GPS receiver that is accurate to within 300 meters. Dedicated sections deal with the features of the GPS signal and its data stream, the details of the receiver (using a hybrid design as exemplar), and more advanced receivers and topics including time and frequency measurements. Later segments discuss the Zarlink GPS receiver chip set, as well as providing a thorough examination of the TurboRogue receiver, one of the most accurate yet made. Guiding the reader through the concepts and circuitry, from the antenna to the solution of user position, the book’s deployment of a hybrid receiver as a basis for discussion allows for extrapolation of the core ideas to more complex, and more accurate designs. Digital methods are used, but any analogue c...

  10. Coherence and Decoherence in Biological Systems: Principles of Noise Assisted Transport and the Origin of Long-lived Coherences

    Chin, A W; Plenio, M B


    The quantum dynamics of transport networks in the presence of noisy environments have recently received renewed attention with the discovery of long-lived coherences in different photosynthetic complexes. This experimental evidence has raised two fundamental questions: Firstly, what are the mechanisms supporting long-lived coherences and secondly, how can we assess the possible functional role that the interplay of noise and quantum coherence might play in the seemingly optimal operation of biological systems under natural conditions? Here we review recent results, illuminate them at the hand of two paradigmatic systems, the Fenna-Matthew-Olson (FMO) complex and the light harvesting complex LHII, and present new progress on both questions. In particular we introduce the concept of the phonon antennae and discuss the possible microscopic origin or long-lived electronic coherences.

  11. Holographic microscopy in low coherence

    Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel


    Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.

  12. Amplifier Noise Based Optical Steganography with Coherent Detection

    Wu, Ben; Chang, Matthew P.; Caldwell, Naomi R.; Caldwell, Myles E.; Prucnal, Paul R.


    We summarize the principle and experimental setup of optical steganography based on amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise. Using ASE noise as the signal carrier, optical steganography effectively hides a stealth channel in both the time domain and the frequency domain. Coherent detection is used at the receiver of the stealth channel. Because ASE noise has short coherence length and random phase, it only interferes with itself within a very short range. Coherent detection requires the stealth transmitter and stealth receiver to precisely match the optical delay,which generates a large key space for the stealth channel. Several methods to further improve optical steganography, signal to noise ratio, compatibility with the public channel, and applications of the stealth channel are also summarized in this review paper.

  13. Application of fiber interferometer in coherent Doppler lidar

    Zongfeng Ma; Chunxi Zhang; Pan Ou; Guangming Luo; Zhaoyang Zhang


    @@ A novel coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) system based on single-mode fiber (SMF) components and instruments is presented to measure the speed of target. A fiber interferometer used in CDL system is reported.This fiber mixer is employed as a coherent receiver to resolve the shifts of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and mixing efficiency induced by backscattered field's wavefront error. For a certain wavelength, the maximum coupling efficiency between signal and SMF is determined by the ratio of pupil diameter to focal length of the coupling lens. The legible interference patterns and spectrum signals show that fiber interferometer is suitable to compensate for amplitude and phase vibrations. This robust coherent receiver can achieve improved CDL system performance with less transmitter power.

  14. Coherent fourier scatterometry

    Kumar, N.


    The electronics which makes our lives easier like mobiles, computers, digital cameras contain chips with very small semiconductor components like transistors. When transistors can be made even smaller, the chip can accommodate a larger number of components, which gives more processing capacity, resu

  15. Coherent fourier scatterometry

    Kumar, N.


    The electronics which makes our lives easier like mobiles, computers, digital cameras contain chips with very small semiconductor components like transistors. When transistors can be made even smaller, the chip can accommodate a larger number of components, which gives more processing capacity,

  16. Topological Properties of Spatial Coherence Function

    REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao; DUAN Yi-Shi


    The topological properties of the spatial coherence function are investigated rigorously.The phase singular structures(coherence vortices)of coherence function can be naturally deduced from the topological current,which is an abstract mathematical object studied previously.We find that coherence vortices are characterized by the Hopf index and Brouwer degree in topology.The coherence flux quantization and the linking of the closed coherence vortices are also studied from the topological properties of the spatial coherence function.

  17. Digital Humanities and networked digital media

    Finnemann, Niels Ole


    This article discusses digital humanities and the growing diversity of digital media, digital materials and digital methods. The first section describes the humanities computing tradition formed around the interpretation of computation as a rule-based process connected to a concept of digital materials centred on the digitisation of non-digital, finite works, corpora and oeuvres. The second section discusses “the big tent” of contemporary digital humanities. It is argued that there can be no ...

  18. Zero-power receiver

    Brocato, Robert W.


    An unpowered signal receiver and a method for signal reception detects and responds to very weak signals using pyroelectric devices as impedance transformers and/or demodulators. In some embodiments, surface acoustic wave devices (SAW) are also used. Illustrative embodiments include satellite and long distance terrestrial communications applications.

  19. Sender-Receiver Games

    Peeters, R.J.A.P.; Potters, J.A.M.


    Standard game-theoretic solution concepts do not guarantee meaningful commu- nication in cheap-talk games. In this paper, we define a solution concept which guarantees communication for a large class of games by designing a behavior pro- tocol which the receiver uses to judge messages sent by the

  20. Antennas and Receivers in Radio Interferometry

    Hunter, Todd R


    The primary antenna elements and receivers are two of the most important components in a synthesis telescope. Together they are responsible for locking onto an astronomical source in both direction and frequency, capturing its radiation, and converting it into signals suitable for digitization and correlation. The properties and performance of antennas and receivers can affect the quality of the synthesized images in a number of fundamental ways. In this lecture, their most relevant design and performance parameters are reviewed, with emphasis on the current ALMA and VLA systems. We discuss in detail the shape of the primary beam and the components of aperture efficiency, and we present the basics of holography, pointing, and servo control. On receivers, we outline the use of amplifiers and mixers both in the cryogenic front-end and in the room temperature back-end signal path. The essential properties of precision local oscillators (LOs), phase lock loops (PLLs), and LO modulation techniques are also describ...

  1. The digital curriculum vitae.

    Galdino, Greg M; Gotway, Michael


    The curriculum vitae (CV) has been the traditional method for radiologists to illustrate their accomplishments in the field of medicine. Despite its presence in medicine as a standard, widely accepted means to describe one's professional career and its use for decades as an accomplice to most applications and interviews, there is relatively little written in the medical literature regarding the CV. Misrepresentation on medical students', residents', and fellows' applications has been reported. Using digital technology, CVs have the potential to be much more than printed words on paper and offers a solution to misrepresentation. Digital CVs may incorporate full-length articles, graphics, presentations, clinical images, and video. Common formats for digital CVs include CD-ROMs or DVD-ROMs containing articles (in Adobe Portable Document Format) and presentations (in Microsoft PowerPoint format) accompanying printed CVs, word processing documents with hyperlinks to articles and presentations either locally (on CD-ROMs or DVD-ROMs) or remotely (via the Internet), or hypertext markup language documents. Digital CVs afford the ability to provide more information that is readily accessible to those receiving and reviewing them. Articles, presentations, videos, images, and Internet links can be illustrated using standard file formats commonly available to all radiologists. They can be easily updated and distributed on an inexpensive media, such as a CD-ROM or DVD-ROM. With the availability of electronic articles, presentations, and information via the Internet, traditional paper CVs may soon be superseded by their electronic successors.

  2. Quantum Coherence as a Resource

    Streltsov, Alexander; Plenio, Martin B


    The coherent superposition of states, in combination with energy quantization, represents one of the most fundamental features that mark the departure of quantum mechanics from the classical realm. Quantum coherence in many-body systems embodies the essence of entanglement and is an essential ingredient for a plethora of physical phenomena in quantum optics, quantum information, solid state physics, and nanoscale thermodynamics. In recent years, research on the presence and functional role of quantum coherence in biological systems has also attracted a considerable interest. Despite the fundamental importance of quantum coherence, the development of a rigorous theory of quantum coherence as a physical resource has only been initiated recently. In this Colloquium we discuss and review the development of this rapidly growing research field that encompasses the characterization, quantification, manipulation, dynamical evolution, and operational application of quantum coherence.

  3. A secure identification system using coherent states

    He Guang-Qiang; Zeng Gui-Hua


    A quantum identification system based on the transformation of polarization of a mesoscopic coherent state is proposed. Physically, an initial polarization state which carries the identity information is transformed into an arbitrary elliptical polarization state. To verify the identity of a communicator, a reverse procedure is performed by the receiver. For simply describing the transformation procedure, the analytical methods of Poincare sphere and quaternion are adopted. Since quantum noise provides such a measurement uncertainty for the eavesdropping that the identity information cannot be retrieved from the elliptical polarization state, the proposed scheme is secure.

  4. Optical interference with digital holograms

    Gossman, David; Perez-Garcia, Benjamin; Hernandez-Aranda, Raul I.; Forbes, Andrew


    In 1804, Thomas Young reported the observation of fringes in the intensity of light, and attributed it to the concept of interference between coherent sources. In this paper, we revisit this famous experiment and show how it can easily be demonstrated with digital holography. We look closely at the concept of interference with light and ask, "fringes in what?" We then show that depending on how light interferes, fringe patterns in observables other than intensity can be seen. We explain this conceptually and demonstrate it experimentally. We provide a holistic approach to the topic, aided by modern laboratory practices for a straightforward demonstration of the underlying physics.

  5. Coherent optics in students' laboratories

    Senderáková, Dagmar; Mesaros, Vladimir; Drzik, Milan


    Lasers provide us with unique kind of light - coherent light. Besides being the keystone of historical interferometric measuring methods, coherent waves, now accessible in a very easy way, become a base of new optical measuring and information processing methods. Moreover, holographic recording seems today to have become a common term, even among common, not especially optically educated people. The presentation deals with our attempt to take our students' interest in the coherence of light and getting them familiar with the phenomenon, indeed.

  6. Review of Entangled Coherent States

    Sanders, Barry C


    We review entangled coherent state research since its first implicit use in 1967 to the present. Entangled coherent states are important to quantum superselection principles, quantum information processing, quantum optics, and mathematical physics. Despite their inherent fragility they have produced in a conditional propagating-wave quantum optics realization. Fundamentally the states are intriguing because they are entanglements of the coherent states, which are in a sense the most classical of all states of a dynamical system.

  7. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher


    Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  8. Diffraction coherence in optics

    Françon, M; Green, L L


    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  9. Optical coherence refractometry.

    Tomlins, Peter H; Woolliams, Peter; Hart, Christian; Beaumont, Andrew; Tedaldi, Matthew


    We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.

  10. Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures

    Serra, M


    We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic OECSs. As illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns.

  11. Coherent laser beam combining

    Brignon, Arnaud


    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  12. The Puzzle of Coherence

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;


    in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations are conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Perspectives Knowledge about the practice of cross-sectorial collaboration is crucial to the future planning of collaborating...... initiatives in health care. The present study will generate new, valuable insight into the areas of cross-sectorial health care collaboration. Our findings may facilitate change in current practice and improve the quality and coherence in patient pathways of EPCD. The findings of this study will be useful...

  13. Digital watermark

    Jasna Maver


    Full Text Available The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to different criteria. A digital watermark can be categorised as visible or invisible and as robust or fragile. In contrast to the visible watermark where a visible pattern or image is embedded into the original image, the invisible watermark does not change the visual appearance of the image. The existence of such a watermark can be determined only through a watermark ex¬traction or detection algorithm. The robust watermark is used for copyright protection, while the fragile watermark is designed for authentication and integrity verification of multimedia content. A watermark must be detectable or extractable to be useful. In some watermarking schemes, a watermark can be extracted in its exact form, in other cases, we can detect only whether a specific given watermarking signal is present in an image. Digital libraries, through which cultural institutions will make multimedia contents available, should support a wide range of service models for intellectual property protection, where digital watermarking may play an important role.

  14. Demonstration of Near-Optimal Discrimination of Optical Coherent States

    Wittmann, Christoffer; Takeoka, Masahiro; Cassemiro, Katiuscia N


    The optimal discrimination of nonorthogonal quantum states with minimum error probability is a fundamental task in quantum measurement theory as well as an important primitive in optical communication. In this work, we propose and experimentally realize a new and simple quantum measurement strategy...... capable of discriminating two coherent states with smaller error probabilities than can be obtained using the standard measurement devices: the Kennedy receiver and the homodyne receiver....

  15. Coherent signal processing in optical coherence tomography

    Kulkarni, Manish Dinkarrao


    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method for non-invasive sub-surface imaging of biological tissue micro-structures. OCT achieves high spatial resolution ( ~ 15 m m in three dimensions) using a fiber-optically integrated system which is suitable for application in minimally invasive diagnostics, including endoscopy. OCT uses an optical heterodyne detection technique based on white light interferometry. Therefore extremely faint reflections ( ~ 10 fW) are routinely detected with high spatial localization. The goal of this thesis is twofold. The first is to present a theoretical model for describing image formation in OCT, and attempt to enhance the current level of understanding of this new modality. The second objective is to present signal processing methods for improving OCT image quality. We present deconvolution algorithms to obtain improved longitudinal resolution in OCT. This technique may be implemented without increasing system complexity as compared to current clinical OCT systems. Since the spectrum of the light backscattered from bio-scatterers is closely associated with ultrastructural variations in tissue, we propose a new technique for measuring spectra as a function of depth. This advance may assist OCT in differentiating various tissue types and detecting abnormalities within a tissue. In addition to depth resolved spectroscopy, Doppler processing of OCT signals can also improve OCT image contrast. We present a new technique, termed color Doppler OCT (CDOCT). It is an innovative extension of OCT for performing spatially localized optical Doppler velocimetry. Micron-resolution imaging of blood flow in sub-surface vessels in living tissue using CDOCT is demonstrated. The fundamental issues regarding the trade- off between the velocity estimation precision and image acquisition rate are presented. We also present novel algorithms for high accuracy velocity estimation. In many blood vessels velocities tend to be on the order of a few cm

  16. Internal noise of a phase-locked receiver with a loop-controlled synthesizer

    Greenhall, C. A.


    A local oscillator design that uses a digitally programmed frequency synthesizer instead of an analog VCO was proposed. The integral of the synthesizer input, the digital phase, is a convenient measure of integrated Doppler. The internal noise of such a receiver was examined. At high carrier margin, the local oscillator phase noise equals that of the Block IV receiver, about 2 deg rms at S-band, whereas the digital phase noise is about 0.5 deg rms.

  17. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore


    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  18. Perspective: Quantum or classical coherence?

    Miller, William H


    Some coherence effects in chemical dynamics are described correctly by classical mechanics, while others only appear in a quantum treatment--and when these are observed experimentally it is not always immediately obvious whether their origin is classical or quantum. Semiclassical theory provides a systematic way of adding quantum coherence to classical molecular dynamics and thus provides a useful way to distinguish between classical and quantum coherence. Several examples are discussed which illustrate both cases. Particularly interesting is the situation with electronically non-adiabatic processes, where sometimes whether the coherence effects are classical or quantum depends on what specific aspects of the process are observed.

  19. Coherent states on the circle

    Chadzitaskos, G; Tolar, J


    We present a possible construction of coherent states on the unit circle as configuration space. In our approach the phase space is the product Z x S^1. Because of the duality of canonical coordinates and momenta, i.e. the angular variable and the integers, this formulation can also be interpreted as coherent states over an infinite periodic chain. For the construction we use the analogy with our quantization over a finite periodic chain where the phase space was Z_M x Z_M. Properties of the coherent states constructed in this way are studied and the coherent states are shown to satisfy the resolution of unity.

  20. Converting Coherence to Quantum Correlations.

    Ma, Jiajun; Yadin, Benjamin; Girolami, Davide; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile


    Recent results in quantum information theory characterize quantum coherence in the context of resource theories. Here, we study the relation between quantum coherence and quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation which appears even in nonentangled states. We prove that the creation of quantum discord with multipartite incoherent operations is bounded by the amount of quantum coherence consumed in its subsystems during the process. We show how the interplay between quantum coherence consumption and creation of quantum discord works in the preparation of multipartite quantum correlated states and in the model of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit.

  1. Digital Humanities and networked digital media

    Finnemann, Niels Ole


    This article discusses digital humanities and the growing diversity of digital media, digital materials and digital methods. The first section describes the humanities computing tradition formed around the interpretation of computation as a rule-based process connected to a concept of digital...... materials centred on the digitisation of non-digital, finite works, corpora and oeuvres. The second section discusses “the big tent” of contemporary digital humanities. It is argued that there can be no unifying interpretation of digital humanities above the level of studying digital materials with the help...

  2. Digital Relationships

    Ledborg Hansen, Richard

    -­‐Jones, 2011) for increases in effectiveness and efficiency we indiscriminately embrace digital communication and digitized information dissemination with enthusiasm – at the risk of ignoring the potentially dark side of technology. However, technology also holds a promise for better understanding precisely...... of residual deposits from technology in organizations and its effect on individuals ability to connect to one another. Based on the case study the paper describes indications and suggests potential implication hereof. Given the inherent enhancement possibilities of technology our expectation for entertainment......-­rich information and highly interesting communication are sky-­high and rising. With a continuous increase in digitized communication follows a decrease in face-­to-­face encounters and our ability to engage in inter-­personal relationships are suffering for it (Davis, 2013). The behavior described in this paper...

  3. Digital Creativity

    Petersson Brooks, Eva; Brooks, Anthony Lewis


    This paper reports on a study exploring the outcomes from children’s play with technology in early childhood learning practices. The paper addresses questions related to how digital technology can foster creativity in early childhood learning environments. It consists of an analysis of children......’s interaction with the KidSmart furniture focusing on digital creativity potentials and play values suggested by the technology. The study applied a qualitative approach and included125 children (aged three to five), 10 pedagogues, and two librarians. The results suggests that educators should sensitively...... consider intervening when children are interacting with technology, and rather put emphasize into the integration of the technology into the environment and to the curriculum in order to shape playful structures for children’s digital creativity....

  4. Fermionic coherent states

    Combescure, Monique; Robert, Didier


    The aim of this paper is to give a self-contained and unified presentation of a fermionic coherent state theory with the necessary mathematical details, discussing their definition, properties and some applications. After defining Grassmann algebras, it is possible to get a classical analog for the fermionic degrees of freedom in a quantum system. Following the basic work of Berezin (1966 The Method of Second Quantization (New York: Academic); 1987 Introduction to Superanalysis (Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company)), we show that we can compute with Grassmann numbers as we do with complex numbers: derivation, integration, Fourier transform. After that we show that we have quantization formulas for fermionic observables. In particular, there exists a Moyal product formula. As an application, we consider explicit computations for propagators with quadratic Hamiltonians in annihilation and creation operators. We prove a Mehler formula for the propagator and Mehlig-Wilkinson-type formulas for the covariant and contravariant symbols of ‘metaplectic’ transformations for fermionic states. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  5. Coherence for weak units

    Joyal, André


    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  6. Fotografia digital

    Vinicius Cauduro, Flávio; Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul


    Poderíamos talvez definir como sendo fotografia digital toda e qualquer imagem obtida a partir de uma camera obscura, com características ótico-mecânicas variáveis através de princípios puramente analógicos ou por combinação híbrida (analógico/digital), e que seja posteriormente processada em computador e exibida de forma projetada (monitor ou tela) ou imprensa (papel ou filme).

  7. Digital photogrammetry

    Egels, Yves


    Photogrammetry is the use of photography for surveying primarily and is used for the production of maps from aerial photographs. Along with remote sensing, it represents the primary means of generating data for Geographic Information Systems (GIS). As technology develops, it is becoming easier to gain access to it. The cost of digital photogrammetric workstations are falling quickly and these new tools are therefore becoming accessible to more and more users. Digital Photogrammetry is particularly useful as a text for graduate students in geomantic and is also suitable for people with a good basic scientific knowledge who need to understand photogrammetry, and who wish to use the book as a reference.

  8. Digital literacies

    Hockly, Nicky; Pegrum, Mark


    Dramatic shifts in our communication landscape have made it crucial for language teaching to go beyond print literacy and encompass the digital literacies which are increasingly central to learners' personal, social, educational and professional lives. By situating these digital literacies within a clear theoretical framework, this book provides educators and students alike with not just the background for a deeper understanding of these key 21st-century skills, but also the rationale for integrating these skills into classroom practice. This is the first methodology book to address not jus

  9. Digital communication

    Das, Apurba


    ""Digital Communications"" presents the theory and application of the philosophy of Digital Communication systems in a unique but lucid form. This book inserts equal importance to the theory and application aspect of the subject whereby the authors selected a wide class of problems. The Salient features of the book are: the foundation of Fourier series, Transform and wavelets are introduces in a unique way but in lucid language; the application area is rich and resemblance to the present trend of research, as we are attached with those areas professionally; a CD is included which contains code

  10. Digital filters

    Hamming, Richard W


    Digital signals occur in an increasing number of applications: in telephone communications; in radio, television, and stereo sound systems; and in spacecraft transmissions, to name just a few. This introductory text examines digital filtering, the processes of smoothing, predicting, differentiating, integrating, and separating signals, as well as the removal of noise from a signal. The processes bear particular relevance to computer applications, one of the focuses of this book.Readers will find Hamming's analysis accessible and engaging, in recognition of the fact that many people with the s

  11. Getting Past the "Digital Divide"

    McCollum, Sean


    In the last decade, "digital divide" has become a catchphrase for the stubborn disparity in IT resources between communities, especially in regard to education. Low-income, rural and minority populations have received special scrutiny as the technological "have-nots." This article presents success stories of educators who can work around obstacles…

  12. Light weight digital array SAR

    Otten, M.; Maas, N.; Bolt, R.; Anitori, L.


    A light weight SAR has been designed, suitable for short range tactical UAVs, consisting of a fully digital receive array, and a very compact active transmit antenna. The weight of the complete RF front is expected to be below 3 kg, with a power consumption below 30 W. This X-band system can provide

  13. Digital Backpropagation in the Nonlinear Fourier Domain

    Wahls, Sander; Prilepsky, Jaroslaw E; Poor, H Vincent; Turitsyn, Sergei K


    Nonlinear and dispersive transmission impairments in coherent fiber-optic communication systems are often compensated by reverting the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation, which describes the evolution of the signal in the link, numerically. This technique is known as digital backpropagation. Typical digital backpropagation algorithms are based on split-step Fourier methods in which the signal has to be discretized in time and space. The need to discretize in both time and space however makes the real-time implementation of digital backpropagation a challenging problem. In this paper, a new fast algorithm for digital backpropagation based on nonlinear Fourier transforms is presented. Aiming at a proof of concept, the main emphasis will be put on fibers with normal dispersion in order to avoid the issue of solitonic components in the signal. However, it is demonstrated that the algorithm also works for anomalous dispersion if the signal power is low enough. Since the spatial evolution of a signal governed by the ...

  14. Digitalization Boosting Novel Digital Services for Consumers

    Kaisa Vehmas

    Full Text Available Digitalization has changed the world. The digital revolution has promoted the Internet, and more recently mobile network infrastructure, as the technological backbone of our society. Digital technologies have become more integrated across all sectors of o ...

  15. Digital Methods

    Rogers, R.


    In Digital Methods, Richard Rogers proposes a methodological outlook for social and cultural scholarly research on the Web that seeks to move Internet research beyond the study of online culture. It is not a toolkit for Internet research, or operating instructions for a software package; it deals wi

  16. Digital Tidbits

    Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe


    Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online…

  17. Digital Tidbits

    Kumaran, Maha; Geary, Joe


    Technology has transformed libraries. There are digital libraries, electronic collections, online databases and catalogs, ebooks, downloadable books, and much more. With free technology such as social websites, newspaper collections, downloadable online calendars, clocks and sticky notes, online scheduling, online document sharing, and online…

  18. Digital radiography

    Precht, H; Gerke, O; Rosendahl, K


    BACKGROUND: New developments in processing of digital radiographs (DR), including multi-frequency processing (MFP), allow optimization of image quality and radiation dose. This is particularly promising in children as they are believed to be more sensitive to ionizing radiation than adults...

  19. Digital books.

    Wink, Diane M


    In this bimonthly series, the author examines how nurse educators can use the Internet and Web-based computer technologies such as search, communication, and collaborative writing tools; social networking and social bookmarking sites; virtual worlds; and Web-based teaching and learning programs. This article describes digital books.

  20. Digital forvaltning

    Remmen, Arne; Larsen, Torben; Mosgaard, Mette


    Større effektivitet, bedre service og mere demokrai er blot nogle af forventningerne til indførelse af digital forveltning i kommunerne. Kapitlet giver bland andet svar på spørgsmålene : Hvordan lever kommunerne op hertil i dagligdagen? hvilke virkemidler anvender de? Hvilke barrierer har der været...

  1. Digital Batteries

    Hubler, Alfred


    The energy density in conventional capacitors is limited by sparking. We present nano-capacitor arrays, where - like in laser diodes and quantum wells [1] - quantization prevents dielectric breakthrough. We show that the energy density and the power/weight ratio are very high, possibly larger than in hydrogen [2]. Digital batteries are a potential clean energy source for cars, laptops, and mobile devices. The technology is related to flash drives. However, because of the high energy density, safety is a concern. Digital batteries can be easily and safely charged and discharged. In the discharged state they pose no danger. Even if a charged digital battery were to explode, it would produce no radioactive waste, no long-term radiation, and probably could be designed to produce no noxious chemicals. We discuss methodologies to prevent shorts and other measures to make digital batteries safe. [1] H. Higuraskh, A. Toriumi, F. Yamaguchi, K. Kawamura, A. Hubler, Correlation Tunnel Device, U. S. Patent No. 5,679,961 (1997) [2] Alfred Hubler,

  2. Fokus: Digital


    sammenhænge og fra forandrede distributionsformer. Dette betyder ændrede betingelser for både produktion og reception af kunstmusik og lydkunst. Med Digital tager vi udgangspunkt i fire komponisters meget forskellige bud på hvordan teknologien spiller en rolle i arbejdet. Juliana Hodkinson beskriver hvordan...

  3. Pressure difference receiving ears

    Michelsen, Axel; Larsen, Ole Næsbye


    of such pressure difference receiving ears have been hampered by lack of suitable experimental methods. In this review, we review the methods for collecting reliable data on the binaural directional cues at the eardrums, on how the eardrum vibrations depend on the direction of sound incidence, and on how sound...... waves behave in the air spaces leading to the interior surfaces of eardrums. A linear mathematical model with well-defined inputs is used for exploring how the directionality varies with the binaural directional cues and the amplitude and phase gain of the sound pathway to the inner surface...

  4. Robustness of a coherence vortex.

    Alves, Cleberson R; Jesus-Silva, Alcenisio J; Fonseca, Eduardo J S


    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the behavior of a coherence vortex after its transmission through obstacles. Notably, we find that such a vortex survives and preserves its effective topological charge. Despite suffering changes on the modulus of the coherence function, these changes disappear during propagation.

  5. Dynamics of generalized coherent states

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; De Martino, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F


    We show that generalized coherent states follow Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics in time-dependent potentials. The normalized wave-packets follow a classical evolution without spreading; in turn, the Schr\\"{o}dinger potential depends on the state through the classical trajectory. This feedback mechanism with continuous dynamical re-adjustement allows the packets to remain coherent indefinetely.


    On the basis of diffraction theory, quantum-mechanics and information theory, it is shown that the principle of coherent light recording is the...mechanical, magnetic or electric approaches. Photographic coherent light recording tests were made by the dynamic sweep tests on 16 mm Recordak Micro-File


    The purpose of this report is to summarize, define and demonstrate techniques necessary for the application of coherent light to the problems of...Investigations into such areas as the coherent light source itself, modulation, deflection or scanning techniques, readout techniques and the evaluation of recording media are reported.

  8. Coherence and correspondence in medicine

    Thomas G. Tape


    Full Text Available Many controversies in medical science can be framed as tension between a coherence approach (which seeks logic and explanation and a correspondence approach (which emphasizes empirical correctness. In many instances, a coherence-based theory leads to an understanding of disease that is not supported by empirical evidence. Physicians and patients alike tend to favor the coherence approach even in the face of strong, contradictory correspondence evidence. Examples include the management of atrial fibrillation, treatment of acute bronchitis, and the use of Vitamin E to prevent heart disease. Despite the frequent occurrence of controversy stemming from coherence-correspondence conflicts, medical professionals are generally unaware of these terms and the philosophical traditions that underlie them. Learning about the coherence-correspondence distinction and using the best of both approaches could not only help reconcile controversy but also lead to striking advances in medical science.

  9. The Puzzle of Coherence

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten


    Background During the past decade, politicians and healthcare providers have strived to create a coherent healthcare system across primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care...... to an acute care ward to discharge and later in meetings with healthcare providers in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations were conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Research design An explorative design based...... on an interactionistic approach was used. As a consequence, the focus of data collection is the production of meaning happening between human beings in social interaction in the field of cross-sectorial collaboration. Research questions The research questions reflect the interactionistic approach as they concentrate...

  10. Optical coherence in astrophysics

    Moret-Bailly, Jacques


    Many physicists and most astrophysicists assume that the photon is a small particle which, in a very low pressure gas can only interact with a single molecule. Thus, the interaction of light with this gas is incoherent. W. E.Lamb Jr, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully and C. H. Townes (Reviews of Modern Physics 71, S263, 1999) have criticized this view: In accordance with quantum electrodynamics the photon is a pseudo-particle resulting from the quantization of a deterministic exchange of energy between identical molecules and a normal mode of electromagnetic field. Following Lamb et al., we study models in which some variables have an unusual value for a spectroscopist: extremely low pressure hydrogen, but huge light paths, extremely hot sources. However, the magnitudes of the spectral radiances and column densities can be similar in astrophysics and in a laboratory using lasers. Thus, several coherent effects must be taken into account: superradiance, multiphoton interactions, impulsive stimulated Raman scatterin...

  11. Coherent Scatter Imaging Measurements

    Ur Rehman, Mahboob

    In conventional radiography, anatomical information of the patients can be obtained, distinguishing different tissue types, e.g. bone and soft tissue. However, it is difficult to obtain appreciable contrast between two different types of soft tissues. Instead, coherent x-ray scattering can be utilized to obtain images which can differentiate between normal and cancerous cells of breast. An x-ray system using a conventional source and simple slot apertures was tested. Materials with scatter signatures that mimic breast cancer were buried in layers of fat of increasing thickness and imaged. The result showed that the contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) remained high even with added fat layers and short scan times.

  12. Coherent imaging without phases

    Moscoso, Miguel; Papanicolaou, George


    In this paper we consider narrow band, active array imaging of weak localized scatterers when only the intensities are recorded at an array with N transducers. We consider that the medium is homogeneous and, hence, wave propagation is fully coherent. This work is an extension of our previous paper, where we showed that using linear combinations of intensity-only measurements imaging of localized scatterers can be carried out efficiently using MUSIC or sparsity promoting optimization. Here we show the same strategy can be accomplished with only 3N-2 illuminations, therefore reducing enormously the data acquisition process. Furthermore, we show that in the paraxial regime one can form the images by using six illuminations only. In particular, this paraxial regime includes Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. The key point of this work is that if one controls the illuminations, imaging with intensity-only can be easily reduced to a imaging with phases and, therefore, one can apply standard imaging techniques. Det...

  13. Quantum information and coherence

    Öhberg, Patrik


    This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...

  14. Optical Coherence Tomography

    Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina


    as the optical analogue to ultrasound. The inherent safety of the technology allows for in vivo use of OCT in patients. The main strength of OCT is the depth resolution. In dermatology, most OCT research has turned on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and non-invasive monitoring of morphological changes......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...... in a number of skin diseases based on pattern recognition, and studies have found good agreement between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT has shown high accuracy in distinguishing lesions from normal skin, which is of great importance in identifying tumour borders or residual neoplastic...

  15. Advanced digital signal processing for short-haul and access network

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan


    Digital signal processing (DSP) has been proved to be a successful technology recently in high speed and high spectrum-efficiency optical short-haul and access network, which enables high performances based on digital equalizations and compensations. In this paper, we investigate advanced DSP at the transmitter and receiver side for signal pre-equalization and post-equalization in an optical access network. A novel DSP-based digital and optical pre-equalization scheme has been proposed for bandwidth-limited high speed short-distance communication system, which is based on the feedback of receiver-side adaptive equalizers, such as least-mean-squares (LMS) algorithm and constant or multi-modulus algorithms (CMA, MMA). Based on this scheme, we experimentally demonstrate 400GE on a single optical carrier based on the highest ETDM 120-GBaud PDM-PAM-4 signal, using one external modulator and coherent detection. A line rate of 480-Gb/s is achieved, which enables 20% forward-error correction (FEC) overhead to keep the 400-Gb/s net information rate. The performance after fiber transmission shows large margin for both short range and metro/regional networks. We also extend the advanced DSP for short haul optical access networks by using high order QAMs. We propose and demonstrate a high speed multi-band CAP-WDM-PON system on intensity modulation, direct detection and digital equalizations. A hybrid modified cascaded MMA post-equalization schemes are used to equalize the multi-band CAP-mQAM signals. Using this scheme, we successfully demonstrates 550Gb/s high capacity WDMPON system with 11 WDM channels, 55 sub-bands, and 10-Gb/s per user in the downstream over 40-km SMF.

  16. Optical Coherence Tomography

    Huang, David

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. In OCT, the longitudinal locations of tissue structures are determined by measuring the time-of-flight delays of light backscattered from these structures. The optical delays are measured by low coherence interferometry. Information on lateral position is provided by transverse scanning of the probe beam. The two dimensional map of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures is then represented in a false-color or grayscale image. OCT is the optical analog of ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging, but with greatly improved spatial resolutions (a few microns). This thesis describes the development of this new high resolution tomographic imaging technology and the demonstration of its use in a variety of tissues under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro OCT ranging and imaging studies were performed using human ocular and arterial tissues, two clinically relevant examples of transparent and turbid media, respectively. In the anterior eye, precise measurements of cornea and anterior chamber dimensions were made. In the arterial specimens, the differentiation between fatty -calcified and fibromuscular tissues was demonstrated. In vivo OCT imaging in the retina and optic nerve head in human subjects was also performed. The delineation of retinal layers, which has not been possible with other noninvasive imaging techniques, is demonstrated in these OCT images. OCT has high spatial resolution but limited penetration into turbid tissue. It has potential for diagnostic applications where high resolution is needed and optical access is available, such as in the eye, skin, surgically exposed tissues, and surfaces that can be reached by various catheters and endoscopic probes. In particular, the measurement of fine retinal structures promises improvements in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma, macular edema and other vitreo-retinal diseases

  17. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser


    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  18. Direct broadcast satellite-radio, receiver development

    Vaisnys, A.; Bell, D.; Gevargiz, J.; Golshan, Nasser

    The status of the ongoing Direct Broadcast Satellite-Radio (DBS-R) Receiver Development Task being performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology (JPL) is reported. This work is sponsored by the Voice of America/U.S. Information Agency through an agreement with NASA. The objective of this task is to develop, build, test, and demonstrate a prototype receiver that is compatible with reception of digital audio programs broadcast via satellites. The receiver is being designed to operate under a range of reception conditions, including fixed, portable, and mobile, as well as over a sufficiently wide range of bit rates to accommodate broadcasting systems with different cost/audio quality objectives. While the requirements on the receiver are complex, the eventual goal of the design effort is to make the design compatible with low cost production as a consumer product. One solution may be a basic low cost core design suitable for a majority of reception conditions, with optional enhancements for reception in especially difficult environments. Some of the receiver design parameters were established through analysis, laboratory tests, and a prototype satellite experiment accomplished in late 1991. Many of the necessary design trades will be made during the current simulation effort, while a few of the key design options will be incorporated into the prototype for evaluation during the planned satellite field trials.

  19. Parallel Digital Phase-Locked Loops

    Sadr, Ramin; Shah, Biren N.; Hinedi, Sami M.


    Wide-band microwave receivers of proposed type include digital phase-locked loops in which band-pass filtering and down-conversion of input signals implemented by banks of multirate digital filters operating in parallel. Called "parallel digital phase-locked loops" to distinguish them from other digital phase-locked loops. Systems conceived as cost-effective solution to problem of filtering signals at high sampling rates needed to accommodate wide input frequency bands. Each of M filters process 1/M of spectrum of signal.

  20. Pulsar Coherent De-dispersion Experiment at Urumqi Observatory

    Liu, Li-Yong; Ali, Esamdin; Zhang, Jin


    A Pulsar coherent de-dispersion experiment has been carried out using the 25-m Nanshan radio telescope at Urumqi Observatory. It uses a dual polarization receiver operating at 18 cm and a VLBI back-end: Mark5A, the minimum sampling time is 5 ns. The data processing system is based on a C program on Linux and a 4-node Beowulf cluster. A high quality data acquisition system and a cluster with more processors are needed to build an on-line pulsar coherent de-dispersion system in future. The main directions for the instrument are studies of pulsar timing, scintillation monitoring, etc.