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Sample records for digital audio watermarking

  1. Digital audio watermarking fundamentals, techniques and challenges

    CERN Document Server

    Xiang, Yong; Yan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    This book offers comprehensive coverage on the most important aspects of audio watermarking, from classic techniques to the latest advances, from commonly investigated topics to emerging research subdomains, and from the research and development achievements to date, to current limitations, challenges, and future directions. It also addresses key topics such as reversible audio watermarking, audio watermarking with encryption, and imperceptibility control methods. The book sets itself apart from the existing literature in three main ways. Firstly, it not only reviews classical categories of audio watermarking techniques, but also provides detailed descriptions, analysis and experimental results of the latest work in each category. Secondly, it highlights the emerging research topic of reversible audio watermarking, including recent research trends, unique features, and the potentials of this subdomain. Lastly, the joint consideration of audio watermarking and encryption is also reviewed. With the help of this...

  2. Removable Watermarking Sebagai Pengendalian Terhadap Cyber Crime Pada Audio Digital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reyhani Lian Putri

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Perkembangan teknologi informasi yang pesat menuntut penggunanya untuk lebih berhati-hati seiring semakin meningkatnya cyber crime.Banyak pihak telah mengembangkan berbagai teknik perlindungan data digital, salah satunya adalah watermarking. Teknologi watermarking berfungsi untuk memberikan identitas, melindungi, atau menandai data digital, baik audio, citra, ataupun video, yang mereka miliki. Akan tetapi, teknik tersebut masih dapat diretas oleh oknum-oknum yang tidak bertanggung jawab.Pada penelitian ini, proses watermarking diterapkan pada audio digital dengan menyisipkan watermark yang terdengar jelas oleh indera pendengaran manusia (perceptible pada audio host.Hal ini bertujuan agar data audio dapat terlindungi dan apabila ada pihak lain yang ingin mendapatkan data audio tersebut harus memiliki “kunci” untuk menghilangkan watermark. Proses removable watermarking ini dilakukan pada data watermark yang sudah diketahui metode penyisipannya, agar watermark dapat dihilangkan sehingga kualitas audio menjadi lebih baik. Dengan menggunakan metode ini diperoleh kinerja audio watermarking pada nilai distorsi tertinggi dengan rata-rata nilai SNR sebesar7,834 dB dan rata-rata nilai ODG sebesar -3,77.Kualitas audio meningkat setelah watermark dihilangkan, di mana rata-rata SNR menjadi sebesar 24,986 dB dan rata-rata ODG menjadi sebesar -1,064 serta nilai MOS sebesar 4,40.

  3. Digital watermark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasna Maver

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The huge amount of multimedia contents available on the World-Wide-Web is beginning to raise the question of their protection. Digital watermarking is a technique which can serve various purposes, including intellectual property protection, authentication and integrity verification, as well as visible or invisible content labelling of multimedia content. Due to the diversity of digital watermarking applicability, there are many different techniques, which can be categorised according to different criteria. A digital watermark can be categorised as visible or invisible and as robust or fragile. In contrast to the visible watermark where a visible pattern or image is embedded into the original image, the invisible watermark does not change the visual appearance of the image. The existence of such a watermark can be determined only through a watermark ex¬traction or detection algorithm. The robust watermark is used for copyright protection, while the fragile watermark is designed for authentication and integrity verification of multimedia content. A watermark must be detectable or extractable to be useful. In some watermarking schemes, a watermark can be extracted in its exact form, in other cases, we can detect only whether a specific given watermarking signal is present in an image. Digital libraries, through which cultural institutions will make multimedia contents available, should support a wide range of service models for intellectual property protection, where digital watermarking may play an important role.

  4. Digital watermarking techniques and trends

    CERN Document Server

    Nematollahi, Mohammad Ali; Rosales, Hamurabi Gamboa

    2017-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-arts application of digital watermarking in audio, speech, image, video, 3D mesh graph, text, software, natural language, ontology, network stream, relational database, XML, and hardware IPs. It also presents new and recent algorithms in digital watermarking for copyright protection and discusses future trends in the field. Today, the illegal manipulation of genuine digital objects and products represents a considerable problem in the digital world. Offering an effective solution, digital watermarking can be applied to protect intellectual property, as well as fingerprinting, enhance the security and proof-of-authentication through unsecured channels.

  5. Robustness evaluation of transactional audio watermarking systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, Christian; Steinebach, Martin; Siebenhaar, Frank; Pickel, Joerg

    2003-06-01

    Distribution via Internet is of increasing importance. Easy access, transmission and consumption of digitally represented music is very attractive to the consumer but led also directly to an increasing problem of illegal copying. To cope with this problem watermarking is a promising concept since it provides a useful mechanism to track illicit copies by persistently attaching property rights information to the material. Especially for online music distribution the use of so-called transaction watermarking, also denoted with the term bitstream watermarking, is beneficial since it offers the opportunity to embed watermarks directly into perceptually encoded material without the need of full decompression/compression. Besides the concept of bitstream watermarking, former publications presented the complexity, the audio quality and the detection performance. These results are now extended by an assessment of the robustness of such schemes. The detection performance before and after applying selected attacks is presented for MPEG-1/2 Layer 3 (MP3) and MPEG-2/4 AAC bitstream watermarking, contrasted to the performance of PCM spread spectrum watermarking.

  6. Frequency Hopping Method for Audio Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anastasijević

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates the degradation of audio content for a perceptible removable watermark. Two different approaches to embedding the watermark in the spectral domain were investigated. The frequencies for watermark embedding are chosen according to a pseudorandom sequence making the methods robust. Consequentially, the lower quality audio can be used for promotional purposes. For a fee, the watermark can be removed with a secret watermarking key. Objective and subjective testing was conducted in order to measure degradation level for the watermarked music samples and to examine residual distortion for different parameters of the watermarking algorithm and different music genres.

  7. Advances in audio watermarking based on singular value decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Dhar, Pranab Kumar

    2015-01-01

    This book introduces audio watermarking methods for copyright protection, which has drawn extensive attention for securing digital data from unauthorized copying. The book is divided into two parts. First, an audio watermarking method in discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) domains using singular value decomposition (SVD) and quantization is introduced. This method is robust against various attacks and provides good imperceptible watermarked sounds. Then, an audio watermarking method in fast Fourier transform (FFT) domain using SVD and Cartesian-polar transformation (CPT) is presented. This method has high imperceptibility and high data payload and it provides good robustness against various attacks. These techniques allow media owners to protect copyright and to show authenticity and ownership of their material in a variety of applications.   ·         Features new methods of audio watermarking for copyright protection and ownership protection ·         Outl...

  8. Digital Image Watermarking in Transform Domains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Shazly, E.H.M.

    2012-01-01

    Fast development of internet and availability of huge digital content make it easy to create, modify and copy digital media such as audio, video and images. This causes a problem for owners of that content and hence a need to copy right protection tool was essential. First, encryption was proposed but it ensures protection during transmission only and once decryption occurred any one can modify the data. at that point watermarking was introduced as a solution to such problem. Watermarking is a process of inserting a low energy signal in to a high energy one so that it doesn't affect the main signal features. A good digital image watermarking technique should satisfy four requirements: 1) Embedding of a watermark should not degrade the host image visual quality (imperceptibility). 2) The embedded watermark should stick to the host image so that it couldn’t be removed by common image processing operation and could be extracted from the attacked watermarked image (robustness). 3) Knowing the embedding and extraction procedures is sufficient but not enough to extract the watermark; extra keys should be needed (security). 4) The watermarking technique should allow embedding and extraction of more than one watermark each independent of the other (capacity). This thesis presents a watermarking scheme that full fill the mentioned four requirements by jointing transform domains with Fractional Fourier Transform Domain (FracFT). More work on cascaded Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT with FracFT was done to develop a joint transform simply called Fractional Wavelet Transform (FWT). The proposed schemes were tested with different image processing attacks to verify its robustness. Finally, the watermarked image is transmitted over simulated MC CDMA channel to prove robustness in real transmission conditions case.

  9. Digital watermarking and steganography fundamentals and techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Frank Y

    2007-01-01

    Introduction Digital Watermarking Digital Steganography Differences between Watermarking and Steganography A Brief History Appendix: Selected List of Books on Watermarking and Steganography Classification in Digital Watermarking Classification Based on Characteristics Classification Based on Applications Mathematical Preliminaries  Least-Significant-Bit Substitution Discrete Fourier Transform (DFT) Discrete Cosine Transform Discrete Wavelet Transform Random Sequence Generation  The Chaotic M

  10. Practical Challenges for Digital Watermarking Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma Ravi K

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The field of digital watermarking has recently seen numerous articles covering novel techniques, theoretical studies, attacks, and analysis. In this paper, we focus on an emerging application to highlight practical challenges for digital watermarking applications. Challenges include design considerations, requirements analysis, choice of watermarking techniques, speed, robustness, and the tradeoffs involved. We describe common attributes of watermarking systems and discuss the challenges in developing real world applications. Our application uses digital watermarking to connect ordinary toys to the digital world. The application captures important aspects of watermarking systems and illustrates some of the design issues faced.

  11. Efficiently Synchronized Spread-Spectrum Audio Watermarking with Improved Psychoacoustic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing He

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an audio watermarking scheme which is based on an efficiently synchronized spread-spectrum technique and a new psychoacoustic model computed using the discrete wavelet packet transform. The psychoacoustic model takes advantage of the multiresolution analysis of a wavelet transform, which closely approximates the standard critical band partition. The goal of this model is to include an accurate time-frequency analysis and to calculate both the frequency and temporal masking thresholds directly in the wavelet domain. Experimental results show that this watermarking scheme can successfully embed watermarks into digital audio without introducing audible distortion. Several common watermark attacks were applied and the results indicate that the method is very robust to those attacks.

  12. Digital watermarks in electronic document circulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy Grigorievich Ivanenko

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews different protection methods for electronic documents, their good and bad qualities. Common attacks on electronic documents are analyzed. Digital signature and ways of eliminating its flaws are studied. Different digital watermark embedding methods are described, they are divided into 2 types. The solution to protection of electronic documents is based on embedding digital watermarks. Comparative analysis of this methods is given. As a result, the most convenient method is suggested – reversible data hiding. It’s remarked that this technique excels at securing the integrity of the container and its digital watermark. Digital watermark embedding system should prevent illegal access to the digital watermark and its container. Digital watermark requirements for electronic document protection are produced. Legal aspect of copyright protection is reviewed. Advantages of embedding digital watermarks in electronic documents are produced. Modern reversible data hiding techniques are studied. Distinctive features of digital watermark use in Russia are highlighted. Digital watermark serves as an additional layer of defense, that is in most cases unknown to the violator. With an embedded digital watermark, it’s impossible to misappropriate the authorship of the document, even if the intruder signs his name on it. Therefore, digital watermarks can act as an effective additional tool to protect electronic documents.

  13. Visible digital watermarking system using perceptual models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Qiang; Huang, Thomas S.

    2001-03-01

    This paper presents a visible watermarking system using perceptual models. %how and why A watermark image is overlaid translucently onto a primary image, for the purposes of immediate claim of copyright, instantaneous recognition of owner or creator, or deterrence to piracy of digital images or video. %perceptual The watermark is modulated by exploiting combined DCT-domain and DWT-domain perceptual models. % so that the watermark is visually uniform. The resulting watermarked image is visually pleasing and unobtrusive. The location, size and strength of the watermark vary randomly with the underlying image. The randomization makes the automatic removal of the watermark difficult even though the algorithm is known publicly but the key to the random sequence generator. The experiments demonstrate that the watermarked images have pleasant visual effect and strong robustness. The watermarking system can be used in copyright notification and protection.

  14. JPEG digital watermarking for copyright protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaliy G. Ivanenko

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid growth of the multimedia technology, copyright protection has become a very important issue, especially for images. The advantages of easy photo distribution are discarded by their possible theft and unauthorized usage on different websites. Therefore, there is a need in securing information with technical methods, for example digital watermarks. This paper reviews digital watermark embedding methods for image copyright protection, advantages and disadvantages of digital watermark usage are produced. Different watermarking algorithms are analyzed. Based on analysis results most effective algorithm is chosen – differential energy watermarking. It is noticed that the method excels at providing image integrity. Digital watermark embedding system should prevent illegal access to the digital watermark and its container. Requirements for digital watermark are produced. Possible image attacks are reviewed. Modern modifications of embedding algorithms are studied. Robustness of the differential energy watermark is investigated. Robustness is a special value, which formulae is given further in the article. DEW method modification is proposed, it’s advantages over original algorithm are described. Digital watermark serves as an additional layer of defense which is in most cases unknown to the violator. Scope of studied image attacks includes compression, filtration, scaling. In conclusion, it’s possible to use DEW watermarking in copyright protection, violator can easily be detected if images with embedded information are exchanged.

  15. Audio watermarking robust against D/A and A/D conversions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiang Shijun

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital audio watermarking robust against digital-to-analog (D/A and analog-to-digital (A/D conversions is an important issue. In a number of watermark application scenarios, D/A and A/D conversions are involved. In this article, we first investigate the degradation due to DA/AD conversions via sound cards, which can be decomposed into volume change, additional noise, and time-scale modification (TSM. Then, we propose a solution for DA/AD conversions by considering the effect of the volume change, additional noise and TSM. For the volume change, we introduce relation-based watermarking method by modifying groups of the energy relation of three adjacent DWT coefficient sections. For the additional noise, we pick up the lowest-frequency coefficients for watermarking. For the TSM, the synchronization technique (with synchronization codes and an interpolation processing operation is exploited. Simulation tests show the proposed audio watermarking algorithm provides a satisfactory performance to DA/AD conversions and those common audio processing manipulations.

  16. An Interactive Concert Program Based on Infrared Watermark and Audio Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsi-Chun; Lee, Wen-Pin Hope; Liang, Feng-Ju

    The objective of this research is to propose a video/audio system which allows the user to listen the typical music notes in the concert program under infrared detection. The system synthesizes audio with different pitches and tempi in accordance with the encoded data in a 2-D barcode embedded in the infrared watermark. The digital halftoning technique has been used to fabricate the infrared watermark composed of halftone dots by both amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM). The results show that this interactive system successfully recognizes the barcode and synthesizes audio under infrared detection of a concert program which is also valid for human observation of the contents. This interactive video/audio system has greatly expanded the capability of the printout paper to audio display and also has many potential value-added applications.

  17. Digital watermarking opportunities enabled by mobile media proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modro, Sierra; Sharma, Ravi K.

    2009-02-01

    Consumer usages of mobile devices and electronic media are changing. Mobile devices now include increased computational capabilities, mobile broadband access, better integrated sensors, and higher resolution screens. These enhanced features are driving increased consumption of media such as images, maps, e-books, audio, video, and games. As users become more accustomed to using mobile devices for media, opportunities arise for new digital watermarking usage models. For example, transient media, like images being displayed on screens, could be watermarked to provide a link between mobile devices. Applications based on these emerging usage models utilizing watermarking can provide richer user experiences and drive increased media consumption. We describe the enabling factors and highlight a few of the usage models and new opportunities. We also outline how the new opportunities are driving further innovation in watermarking technologies. We discuss challenges in market adoption of applications based on these usage models.

  18. improvement of digital image watermarking techniques based on FPGA implementation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-Hadedy, M.E

    2006-01-01

    digital watermarking provides the ownership of a piece of digital data by marking the considered data invisibly or visibly. this can be used to protect several types of multimedia objects such as audio, text, image and video. this thesis demonstrates the different types of watermarking techniques such as (discrete cosine transform (DCT) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and their characteristics. then, it classifies these techniques declaring their advantages and disadvantages. an improved technique with distinguished features, such as peak signal to noise ratio ( PSNR) and similarity ratio (SR) has been introduced. the modified technique has been compared with the other techniques by measuring heir robustness against differ attacks. finally, field programmable gate arrays (FPGA) based implementation and comparison, for the proposed watermarking technique have been presented and discussed

  19. Dual Level Digital Watermarking for Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, V. K.; Singh, A. K.

    2010-11-01

    More than 700 years ago, watermarks were used in Italy to indicate the paper brand and the mill that produced it. By the 18th century watermarks began to be used as anti counterfeiting measures on money and other documents.The term watermark was introduced near the end of the 18th century. It was probably given because the marks resemble the effects of water on paper. The first example of a technology similar to digital watermarking is a patent filed in 1954 by Emil Hembrooke for identifying music works. In 1988, Komatsu and Tominaga appear to be the first to use the term "digital watermarking". Consider the following hypothetical situations. You go to a shop, buy some goods and at the counter you are given a currency note you have never come across before. How do you verify that it is not counterfeit? Or say you go to a stationery shop and ask for a ream of bond paper. How do you verify that you have actually been given what you asked for? How does a philatelist verify the authenticity of a stamp? In all these cases, the watermark is used to authenticate. Watermarks have been in existence almost from the time paper has been in use. The impression created by the mesh moulds on the slurry of fibre and water remains on the paper. It serves to identify the manufacturer and thus authenticate the product without actually degrading the aesthetics and utility of the stock. It also makes forgery significantly tougher. Even today, important government and legal documents are watermarked. But what is watermarking, when it comes to digital data? Information is no longer present on a physical material but is represented as a series of zeros and ones. Duplication of information is achieved easily by just reproducing that combination of zeros and ones. How then can one protect ownership rights and authenticate data? The digital watermark is the same as that of conventional watermarks.

  20. Digital watermarking for secure and adaptive teleconferencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorbrueggen, Jan C.; Thorwirth, Niels

    2002-04-01

    The EC-sponsored project ANDROID aims to develop a management system for secure active networks. Active network means allowing the network's customers to execute code (Java-based so-called proxylets) on parts of the network infrastructure. Secure means that the network operator nonetheless retains full control over the network and its resources, and that proxylets use ANDROID-developed facilities to provide secure applications. Management is based on policies and allows autonomous, distributed decisions and actions to be taken. Proxylets interface with the system via policies; among actions they can take is controlling execution of other proxylets or redirection of network traffic. Secure teleconferencing is used as the application to demonstrate the approach's advantages. A way to control a teleconference's data streams is to use digital watermarking of the video, audio and/or shared-whiteboard streams, providing an imperceptible and inseparable side channel that delivers information from originating or intermediate stations to downstream stations. Depending on the information carried by the watermark, these stations can take many different actions. Examples are forwarding decisions based on security classifications (possibly time-varying) at security boundaries, set-up and tear-down of virtual private networks, intelligent and adaptive transcoding, recorder or playback control (e.g., speaking off the record), copyright protection, and sender authentication.

  1. Digital Watermark Tracking using Intelligent Multi-Agents System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj V. DHARWADKAR

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce has become a huge business and adriving factor in the development of the Internet. Onlineshopping services are well established. Due to the evolution of2G and 3G mobile networks, soon online shopping services arecomplemented by their wireless counterparts. Furthermore, inthe recent years online delivery of digital media, such as MP3audio or video or image is very popular and will become anincreasingly important part of E-commerce. The advantage ofinternet is sharing the valuable digital data which lead to misuseof digital data. To resolve the problem of misuse of digital dataon Internet we need to have strong Digital rights monitoringsystem. Digital Rights Management (DRM is fairly youngdiscipline, while some of its underlying technologies have beenknown from many years. The use of DRM for managing andprotecting intellectual property rights is a comparatively newfield. In this paper we propose a model for online digital imagelibrary copyright protection based on watermark trackingSystem.In our proposed model the tracking of watermarks onremote host nodes is done using active mobile agents. The multiagentsystem architecture is used in watermark tracking whichsupports the coordination of several component tasks acrossdistributed and flexible networks of information sources.Whereas a centralized system is susceptible to system-widefailures and processing bottlenecks, multi-agent systems aremore reliable, especially given the likelihood of individualcomponent failures.

  2. REGION OF NON-INTEREST BASED DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING USING NEURAL NETWORKS

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    Bibi Isac

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Copyrights protection of digital data become inevitable in current world. Digital watermarks have been recently proposed as secured scheme for copyright protection, authentication, source tracking, and broadcast monitoring of video, audio, text data and digital images. In this paper a method to embed a watermark in region of non-interest (RONI and a method for adaptive calculation of strength factor using neural network are proposed. The embedding and extraction processes are carried out in the transform domain by using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT. Finally, the algorithm robustness is tested against noise addition attacks and geometric distortion attacks. The results authenticate that the proposed watermarking algorithm does not degrade the quality of cover image as the watermark is inserted only in region of non-interest and is resistive to attacks.

  3. Implementation of Digital Watermarking Using MATLAB Software

    OpenAIRE

    Karnpriya Vyas; Kirti Sethiya; Sonu Jain

    2012-01-01

    Digital watermarking holds significant promise as one of the keys to protecting proprietary digital content in the coming years. It focuses on embedding information inside a digital object such that the embedded information is in separable bound to the object. The proposed scheme has been implemented on MATLAB, as it is a high level technical computing language and interactive environment for algorithm development, data visualization, data analysis, and numerical computation. We w...

  4. Sonic Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryuki Tachibana

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Audio watermarking has been used mainly for digital sound. In this paper, we extend the range of its applications to live performances with a new composition method for real-time audio watermarking. Sonic watermarking mixes the sound of the watermark signal and the host sound in the air to detect illegal music recordings recorded from auditoriums. We propose an audio watermarking algorithm for sonic watermarking that increases the magnitudes of the host signal only in segmented areas pseudorandomly chosen in the time-frequency plane. The result of a MUSHRA subjective listening test assesses the acoustic quality of the method in the range of “excellent quality.” The robustness is dependent on the type of music samples. For popular and orchestral music, a watermark can be stably detected from music samples that have been sonic-watermarked and then once compressed in an MPEG 1 layer 3 file.

  5. Optical 3D watermark based digital image watermarking for telemedicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao Wei; Kim, Seok Tae

    2013-12-01

    Region of interest (ROI) of a medical image is an area including important diagnostic information and must be stored without any distortion. This algorithm for application of watermarking technique for non-ROI of the medical image preserving ROI. The paper presents a 3D watermark based medical image watermarking scheme. In this paper, a 3D watermark object is first decomposed into 2D elemental image array (EIA) by a lenslet array, and then the 2D elemental image array data is embedded into the host image. The watermark extraction process is an inverse process of embedding. The extracted EIA through the computational integral imaging reconstruction (CIIR) technique, the 3D watermark can be reconstructed. Because the EIA is composed of a number of elemental images possesses their own perspectives of a 3D watermark object. Even though the embedded watermark data badly damaged, the 3D virtual watermark can be successfully reconstructed. Furthermore, using CAT with various rule number parameters, it is possible to get many channels for embedding. So our method can recover the weak point having only one transform plane in traditional watermarking methods. The effectiveness of the proposed watermarking scheme is demonstrated with the aid of experimental results.

  6. DAFX Digital Audio Effects

    CERN Document Server

    2011-01-01

    The rapid development in various fields of Digital Audio Effects, or DAFX, has led to new algorithms and this second edition of the popular book, DAFX: Digital Audio Effects has been updated throughout to reflect progress in the field. It maintains a unique approach to DAFX with a lecture-style introduction into the basics of effect processing. Each effect description begins with the presentation of the physical and acoustical phenomena, an explanation of the signal processing techniques to achieve the effect, followed by a discussion of musical applications and the control of effect parameter

  7. StirMark Benchmark: audio watermarking attacks based on lossy compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinebach, Martin; Lang, Andreas; Dittmann, Jana

    2002-04-01

    StirMark Benchmark is a well-known evaluation tool for watermarking robustness. Additional attacks are added to it continuously. To enable application based evaluation, in our paper we address attacks against audio watermarks based on lossy audio compression algorithms to be included in the test environment. We discuss the effect of different lossy compression algorithms like MPEG-2 audio Layer 3, Ogg or VQF on a selection of audio test data. Our focus is on changes regarding the basic characteristics of the audio data like spectrum or average power and on removal of embedded watermarks. Furthermore we compare results of different watermarking algorithms and show that lossy compression is still a challenge for most of them. There are two strategies for adding evaluation of robustness against lossy compression to StirMark Benchmark: (a) use of existing free compression algorithms (b) implementation of a generic lossy compression simulation. We discuss how such a model can be implemented based on the results of our tests. This method is less complex, as no real psycho acoustic model has to be applied. Our model can be used for audio watermarking evaluation of numerous application fields. As an example, we describe its importance for e-commerce applications with watermarking security.

  8. Digital Watermarking of Autonomous Vehicles Imagery and Video Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-10-01

    Watermarking of Autonomous Vehicles Imagery and Video Communications Executive Summary We have developed, implemented and tested a known-host-state methodology...2005 Final 01-06-2004->31-08-2005 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Digital Watermarking of Autonomous Vehicles Imagery 5b. GRANTNUMBER and...college of ENGINEERING Center for Advanced VI LLANOVA Communications U N I V E R S I T Y FINAL TECHNICAL REPORT Digital Watermarking of Autonomous

  9. An image adaptive, wavelet-based watermarking of digital images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreste, Santa; Andaloro, Guido; Prestipino, Daniela; Puccio, Luigia

    2007-12-01

    In digital management, multimedia content and data can easily be used in an illegal way--being copied, modified and distributed again. Copyright protection, intellectual and material rights protection for authors, owners, buyers, distributors and the authenticity of content are crucial factors in solving an urgent and real problem. In such scenario digital watermark techniques are emerging as a valid solution. In this paper, we describe an algorithm--called WM2.0--for an invisible watermark: private, strong, wavelet-based and developed for digital images protection and authenticity. Using discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is motivated by good time-frequency features and well-matching with human visual system directives. These two combined elements are important in building an invisible and robust watermark. WM2.0 works on a dual scheme: watermark embedding and watermark detection. The watermark is embedded into high frequency DWT components of a specific sub-image and it is calculated in correlation with the image features and statistic properties. Watermark detection applies a re-synchronization between the original and watermarked image. The correlation between the watermarked DWT coefficients and the watermark signal is calculated according to the Neyman-Pearson statistic criterion. Experimentation on a large set of different images has shown to be resistant against geometric, filtering and StirMark attacks with a low rate of false alarm.

  10. A Novel Robust Audio Watermarking Algorithm by Modifying the Average Amplitude in Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiuling Wu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the robustness and imperceptibility in practical application, a novel audio watermarking algorithm with strong robustness is proposed by exploring the multi-resolution characteristic of discrete wavelet transform (DWT and the energy compaction capability of discrete cosine transform (DCT. The human auditory system is insensitive to the minor changes in the frequency components of the audio signal, so the watermarks can be embedded by slightly modifying the frequency components of the audio signal. The audio fragments segmented from the cover audio signal are decomposed by DWT to obtain several groups of wavelet coefficients with different frequency bands, and then the fourth level detail coefficient is selected to be divided into the former packet and the latter packet, which are executed for DCT to get two sets of transform domain coefficients (TDC respectively. Finally, the average amplitudes of the two sets of TDC are modified to embed the binary image watermark according to the special embedding rule. The watermark extraction is blind without the carrier audio signal. Experimental results confirm that the proposed algorithm has good imperceptibility, large payload capacity and strong robustness when resisting against various attacks such as MP3 compression, low-pass filtering, re-sampling, re-quantization, amplitude scaling, echo addition and noise corruption.

  11. Robust watermarking on copyright protection of digital originals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gu, C; Hu, X Y, E-mail: guchong527@gmail.co, E-mail: emma_huxy@yahoo.com.c [College of Packaging and Printing Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology, Tianjin, 300222 (China)

    2010-06-01

    The issues about the difference between digital vector originals and raster originals were discussed. A new algorithm based on displacing vertices to realize the embedding and extracting of digital watermarking in vector data was proposed after that. The results showed that the watermark produced by the method is resistant against translation, scaling, rotation, additive random noise; it is also resistant, to some extent, against cropping. This paper also modified the DCT raster image watermarking algorithm, using a bitmap image as watermark embedded into target images, instead of some meaningless serial numbers or simple symbols. The embedding and extraction part of these two digital watermark systems achieved with software. Experiments proved that both algorithms are not only imperceptible, but also have strong resistance against the common attracts, which can prove the copyright more effectively.

  12. Speech watermarking: an approach for the forensic analysis of digital telephonic recordings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faundez-Zanuy, Marcos; Lucena-Molina, Jose J; Hagmüller, Martin

    2010-07-01

    In this article, the authors discuss the problem of forensic authentication of digital audio recordings. Although forensic audio has been addressed in several articles, the existing approaches are focused on analog magnetic recordings, which are less prevalent because of the large amount of digital recorders available on the market (optical, solid state, hard disks, etc.). An approach based on digital signal processing that consists of spread spectrum techniques for speech watermarking is presented. This approach presents the advantage that the authentication is based on the signal itself rather than the recording format. Thus, it is valid for usual recording devices in police-controlled telephone intercepts. In addition, our proposal allows for the introduction of relevant information such as the recording date and time and all the relevant data (this is not always possible with classical systems). Our experimental results reveal that the speech watermarking procedure does not interfere in a significant way with the posterior forensic speaker identification.

  13. A Novel Application for Text Watermarking in Digital Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Li, Qing-Cheng; Wang, Cong; Fang, Ji

    Although watermarking research has made great strides in theoretical aspect, its lack of application in business could not be covered. It is due to few people pays attention to usage of the information carried by watermarking. This paper proposes a new watermarking application method. After digital document being reorganized with advertisement together, watermarking is designed to carry this structure of new document. It will release advertisement as interference information under attack. On the one hand, reducing the quality of digital works could inhabit unauthorized distribution. On the other hand, advertisement can benefit copyright holders as compensation. Moreover implementation detail, attack evaluation and watermarking algorithm correlation are also discussed through an experiment based on txt file.

  14. An Enhanced Data Integrity Model In Mobile Cloud Environment Using Digital Signature Algorithm And Robust Reversible Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boukari Souley

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available the increase use of hand held devices such as smart phones to access multimedia content in the cloud is increasing with rise and growth in information technology. Mobile cloud computing is increasingly used today because it allows users to have access to variety of resources in the cloud such as image video audio and software applications with minimal usage of their inbuilt resources such as storage memory by using the one available in the cloud. The major challenge faced with mobile cloud computing is security. Watermarking and digital signature are some techniques used to provide security and authentication on user data in the cloud. Watermarking is a technique used to embed digital data within a multimedia content such as image video or audio in order to prevent authorized access to those content by intruders whereas digital signature is used to identify and verify user data when accessed. In this work we implemented digital signature and robust reversible image watermarking in order enhance mobile cloud computing security and integrity of data by providing double authentication techniques. The results obtained show the effectiveness of combining the two techniques robust reversible watermarking and digital signature by providing strong authentication to ensures data integrity and extract the original content watermarked without changes.

  15. Robust and Reversible Audio Watermarking by Modifying Statistical Features in Time Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shijun Xiang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust and reversible watermarking is a potential technique in many sensitive applications, such as lossless audio or medical image systems. This paper presents a novel robust reversible audio watermarking method by modifying the statistic features in time domain in the way that the histogram of these statistical values is shifted for data hiding. Firstly, the original audio is divided into nonoverlapped equal-sized frames. In each frame, the use of three samples as a group generates a prediction error and a statistical feature value is calculated as the sum of all the prediction errors in the frame. The watermark bits are embedded into the frames by shifting the histogram of the statistical features. The watermark is reversible and robust to common signal processing operations. Experimental results have shown that the proposed method not only is reversible but also achieves satisfactory robustness to MP3 compression of 64 kbps and additive Gaussian noise of 35 dB.

  16. Digital Watermarks Enabling E-Commerce Strategies: Conditional and User Specific Access to Services and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Jana; Steinebach, Martin; Wohlmacher, Petra; Ackermann, Ralf

    2002-12-01

    Digital watermarking is well known as enabling technology to prove ownership on copyrighted material, detect originators of illegally made copies, monitor the usage of the copyrighted multimedia data and analyze the spread spectrum of the data over networks and servers. Research has shown that data hiding techniques can be applied successfully to other application areas like manipulations recognition. In this paper, we show our innovative approach for integrating watermark and cryptography based methods within a framework of new application scenarios spanning a wide range from dedicated and user specific services, "Try&Buy" mechanisms to general means for long-term customer relationships. The tremendous recent efforts to develop and deploy ubiquitous mobile communication possibilities are changing the demands but also possibilities for establishing new business and commerce relationships. Especially we motivate annotation watermarks and aspects of M-Commerce to show important scenarios for access control. Based on a description of the challenges of the application domain and our latest work we discuss, which methods can be used for establishing services in a fast convenient and secure way for conditional access services based on digital watermarking combined with cryptographic techniques. We introduce an example scenario for digital audio and an overview of steps in order to establish these concepts practically.

  17. Robust Digital Speech Watermarking For Online Speaker Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Nematollahi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust and blind digital speech watermarking technique has been proposed for online speaker recognition systems based on Discrete Wavelet Packet Transform (DWPT and multiplication to embed the watermark in the amplitudes of the wavelet’s subbands. In order to minimize the degradation effect of the watermark, these subbands are selected where less speaker-specific information was available (500 Hz–3500 Hz and 6000 Hz–7000 Hz. Experimental results on Texas Instruments Massachusetts Institute of Technology (TIMIT, Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT, and Mobile Biometry (MOBIO show that the degradation for speaker verification and identification is 1.16% and 2.52%, respectively. Furthermore, the proposed watermark technique can provide enough robustness against different signal processing attacks.

  18. A new approach to pre-processing digital image for wavelet-based watermark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreste, Santa; Andaloro, Guido

    2008-11-01

    The growth of the Internet has increased the phenomenon of digital piracy, in multimedia objects, like software, image, video, audio and text. Therefore it is strategic to individualize and to develop methods and numerical algorithms, which are stable and have low computational cost, that will allow us to find a solution to these problems. We describe a digital watermarking algorithm for color image protection and authenticity: robust, not blind, and wavelet-based. The use of Discrete Wavelet Transform is motivated by good time-frequency features and a good match with Human Visual System directives. These two combined elements are important for building an invisible and robust watermark. Moreover our algorithm can work with any image, thanks to the step of pre-processing of the image that includes resize techniques that adapt to the size of the original image for Wavelet transform. The watermark signal is calculated in correlation with the image features and statistic properties. In the detection step we apply a re-synchronization between the original and watermarked image according to the Neyman-Pearson statistic criterion. Experimentation on a large set of different images has been shown to be resistant against geometric, filtering, and StirMark attacks with a low rate of false alarm.

  19. Multimodal biometric digital watermarking on immigrant visas for homeland security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasi, Sreela; Tamhane, Kirti C.; Rajappa, Mahesh B.

    2004-08-01

    Passengers with immigrant Visa's are a major concern to the International Airports due to the various fraud operations identified. To curb tampering of genuine Visa, the Visa's should contain human identification information. Biometric characteristic is a common and reliable way to authenticate the identity of an individual [1]. A Multimodal Biometric Human Identification System (MBHIS) that integrates iris code, DNA fingerprint, and the passport number on the Visa photograph using digital watermarking scheme is presented. Digital Watermarking technique is well suited for any system requiring high security [2]. Ophthalmologists [3], [4], [5] suggested that iris scan is an accurate and nonintrusive optical fingerprint. DNA sequence can be used as a genetic barcode [6], [7]. While issuing Visa at the US consulates, the DNA sequence isolated from saliva, the iris code and passport number shall be digitally watermarked in the Visa photograph. This information is also recorded in the 'immigrant database'. A 'forward watermarking phase' combines a 2-D DWT transformed digital photograph with the personal identification information. A 'detection phase' extracts the watermarked information from this VISA photograph at the port of entry, from which iris code can be used for identification and DNA biometric for authentication, if an anomaly arises.

  20. Improving digital image watermarking by means of optimal channel selection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huynh-The, Thien; Banos Legran, Oresti; Lee, Sungyoung; Yoon, Yongik; Le-Tien, Thuong

    2016-01-01

    Supporting safe and resilient authentication and integrity of digital images is of critical importance in a time of enormous creation and sharing of these contents. This paper presents an improved digital image watermarking model based on a coefficient quantization technique that intelligently

  1. Digital Watermarks Using Discrete Wavelet Transformation and Spectrum Spreading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryousuke Takai

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available In recent tears, digital media makes rapid progress through the development of digital technology. Digital media normally assures fairly high quality, nevertheless can be easily reproduced in a perfect form. This perfect reproducibility takes and advantage from a certain point of view, while it produces an essential disadvantage, since digital media is frequently copied illegally. Thus the problem of the copyright protection becomes a very important issue. A solution of this problem is to embed digital watermarks that is not perceived clearly by usual people, but represents the proper right of original product. In our method, the images data in the frequency domain are transformed by the Discrete Wavelet Transform and analyzed by the multi resolution approximation, [1]. Further, the spectrum spreading is executed by using PN-sequences. Choi and Aizawa [7] embed watermarks by using block correlation of DCT coefficients. Thus, we apply Discrete Cosine Transformation, abbreviated to DCT, instead of the Fourier transformation in order to embed watermarks.If the value of this variance is high then we decide that the block has bigger magnitude for visual fluctuations. Henceforth, we may embed stronger watermarks, which gives resistance for images processing, such as attacks and/or compressions.

  2. Object-Oriented Wavelet-Layered Digital Watermarking Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-yun; YU Jue-bang; LI Ming-yu

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, an object-oriented digital watermarking technique is proposed in the wavelet domain for still images. According to the difference of recognition degree of the human eye to the different region of the image, the image is divided into the interested region and uninterested region of human eye vision in this scheme. Using the relativity of position and the difference to ocular sensitivity of the multiresolution wavelet among each subband, the image is processed with layered watermarking append technique. Experimental results show that the proposed technique successfully survives image processing operations, additive noise and JPEG compression.

  3. Digital Augmented Reality Audio Headset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussi Rämö

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Augmented reality audio (ARA combines virtual sound sources with the real sonic environment of the user. An ARA system can be realized with a headset containing binaural microphones. Ideally, the ARA headset should be acoustically transparent, that is, it should not cause audible modification to the surrounding sound. A practical implementation of an ARA mixer requires a low-latency headphone reproduction system with additional equalization to compensate for the attenuation and the modified ear canal resonances caused by the headphones. This paper proposes digital IIR filters to realize the required equalization and evaluates a real-time prototype ARA system. Measurements show that the throughput latency of the digital prototype ARA system can be less than 1.4 ms, which is sufficiently small in practice. When the direct and processed sounds are combined in the ear, a comb filtering effect is brought about and appears as notches in the frequency response. The comb filter effect in speech and music signals was studied in a listening test and it was found to be inaudible when the attenuation is 20 dB. Insert ARA headphones have a sufficient attenuation at frequencies above about 1 kHz. The proposed digital ARA system enables several immersive audio applications, such as a virtual audio tourist guide and audio teleconferencing.

  4. Associated diacritical watermarking approach to protect sensitive arabic digital texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamaruddin, Nurul Shamimi; Kamsin, Amirrudin; Hakak, Saqib

    2017-10-01

    Among multimedia content, one of the most predominant medium is text content. There have been lots of efforts to protect and secure text information over the Internet. The limitations of existing works have been identified in terms of watermark capacity, time complexity and memory complexity. In this work, an invisible digital watermarking approach has been proposed to protect and secure the most sensitive text i.e. Digital Holy Quran. The proposed approach works by XOR-ing only those Quranic letters that has certain diacritics associated with it. Due to sensitive nature of Holy Quran, diacritics play vital role in the meaning of the particular verse. Hence, securing letters with certain diacritics will preserve the original meaning of Quranic verses in case of alternation attempt. Initial results have shown that the proposed approach is promising with less memory complexity and time complexity compared to existing approaches.

  5. Visible Watermarking Technique Based on Human Visual System for Single Sensor Digital Cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Santoyo-Garcia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose a visible watermarking algorithm, in which a visible watermark is embedded into the Bayer Colour Filter Array (CFA domain. The Bayer CFA is the most common raw image representation for images captured by single sensor digital cameras equipped in almost all mobile devices. In proposed scheme, the captured image is watermarked before it is compressed and stored in the storage system. Then this method enforces the rightful ownership of the watermarked image, since there is no other version of the image rather than the watermarked one. We also take into consideration the Human Visual System (HVS so that the proposed technique provides desired characteristics of a visible watermarking scheme, such that the embedded watermark is sufficiently perceptible and at same time not obtrusive in colour and grey-scale images. Unlike other Bayer CFA domain visible watermarking algorithms, in which only binary watermark pattern is supported, proposed watermarking algorithm allows grey-scale and colour images as watermark patterns. It is suitable for advertisement purpose, such as digital library and e-commerce, besides copyright protection.

  6. Making the Switch to Digital Audio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon Gwin Mitchell

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the authors describe the process of converting from analog to digital audio data. They address the step-by-step decisions that they made in selecting hardware and software for recording and converting digital audio, issues of system integration, and cost considerations. The authors present a brief description of how digital audio is being used in their current research project and how it has enhanced the “quality” of their qualitative research.

  7. A comparative study of chaotic and white noise signals in digital watermarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Aidan; Keating, John G.; Pitas, Ioannis

    2008-01-01

    Digital watermarking is an ever increasing and important discipline, especially in the modern electronically-driven world. Watermarking aims to embed a piece of information into digital documents which their owner can use to prove that the document is theirs, at a later stage. In this paper, performance analysis of watermarking schemes is performed on white noise sequences and chaotic sequences for the purpose of watermark generation. Pseudorandom sequences are compared with chaotic sequences generated from the chaotic skew tent map. In particular, analysis is performed on highpass signals generated from both these watermark generation schemes, along with analysis on lowpass watermarks and white noise watermarks. This analysis focuses on the watermarked images after they have been subjected to common image distortion attacks. It is shown that signals generated from highpass chaotic signals have superior performance than highpass noise signals, in the presence of such attacks. It is also shown that watermarks generated from lowpass chaotic signals have superior performance over the other signal types analysed

  8. The comparison between SVD-DCT and SVD-DWT digital image watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wira Handito, Kurniawan; Fauzi, Zulfikar; Aminy Ma’ruf, Firda; Widyaningrum, Tanti; Muslim Lhaksmana, Kemas

    2018-03-01

    With internet, anyone can publish their creation into digital data simply, inexpensively, and absolutely easy to be accessed by everyone. However, the problem appears when anyone else claims that the creation is their property or modifies some part of that creation. It causes necessary protection of copyrights; one of the examples is with watermarking method in digital image. The application of watermarking technique on digital data, especially on image, enables total invisibility if inserted in carrier image. Carrier image will not undergo any decrease of quality and also the inserted image will not be affected by attack. In this paper, watermarking will be implemented on digital image using Singular Value Decomposition based on Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) and Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) by expectation in good performance of watermarking result. In this case, trade-off happen between invisibility and robustness of image watermarking. In embedding process, image watermarking has a good quality for scaling factor < 0.1. The quality of image watermarking in decomposition level 3 is better than level 2 and level 1. Embedding watermark in low-frequency is robust to Gaussian blur attack, rescale, and JPEG compression, but in high-frequency is robust to Gaussian noise.

  9. A Fast DCT Algorithm for Watermarking in Digital Signal Processor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. E. Tsai

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Discrete cosine transform (DCT has been an international standard in Joint Photographic Experts Group (JPEG format to reduce the blocking effect in digital image compression. This paper proposes a fast discrete cosine transform (FDCT algorithm that utilizes the energy compactness and matrix sparseness properties in frequency domain to achieve higher computation performance. For a JPEG image of 8×8 block size in spatial domain, the algorithm decomposes the two-dimensional (2D DCT into one pair of one-dimensional (1D DCTs with transform computation in only 24 multiplications. The 2D spatial data is a linear combination of the base image obtained by the outer product of the column and row vectors of cosine functions so that inverse DCT is as efficient. Implementation of the FDCT algorithm shows that embedding a watermark image of 32 × 32 block pixel size in a 256 × 256 digital image can be completed in only 0.24 seconds and the extraction of watermark by inverse transform is within 0.21 seconds. The proposed FDCT algorithm is shown more efficient than many previous works in computation.

  10. Digital Watermarks -RE-SONANCE--Ise-Pt-emb-er

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    That depends on the type of security required. Visible watermarks ... the locations of the words within text lines, thus watermarking the document uniquely. ... serious attack made possible by powerful word processors. The easiest way to beat ...

  11. Fractal Image Coding with Digital Watermarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Klenovicova

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented some results of implementation of digitalwatermarking methods into image coding based on fractal principles. Thepaper focuses on two possible approaches of embedding digitalwatermarks into fractal code of images - embedding digital watermarksinto parameters for position of similar blocks and coefficients ofblock similarity. Both algorithms were analyzed and verified on grayscale static images.

  12. A content-based digital image watermarking scheme resistant to local geometric distortions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Hong-ying; Chen, Li-li; Wang, Xiang-yang

    2011-01-01

    Geometric distortion is known as one of the most difficult attacks to resist, as it can desynchronize the location of the watermark and hence cause incorrect watermark detection. Geometric distortion can be decomposed into two classes: global affine transforms and local geometric distortions. Most countermeasures proposed in the literature only address the problem of global affine transforms. It is a challenging problem to design a robust image watermarking scheme against local geometric distortions. In this paper, we propose a new content-based digital image watermarking scheme with good visual quality and reasonable resistance against local geometric distortions. Firstly, the robust feature points, which can survive various common image processing and global affine transforms, are extracted by using a multi-scale SIFT (scale invariant feature transform) detector. Then, the affine covariant local feature regions (LFRs) are constructed adaptively according to the feature scale and local invariant centroid. Finally, the digital watermark is embedded into the affine covariant LFRs by modulating the magnitudes of discrete Fourier transform (DFT) coefficients. By binding the watermark with the affine covariant LFRs, the watermark detection can be done without synchronization error. Experimental results show that the proposed image watermarking is not only invisible and robust against common image processing operations such as sharpening, noise addition, and JPEG compression, etc, but also robust against global affine transforms and local geometric distortions

  13. Improving Robustness of Biometric Identity Determination with Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juha Partala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The determination of an identity from noisy biometric measurements is a continuing challenge. In many applications, such as identity-based encryption, the identity needs to be known with virtually 100% certainty. The determination of identities with such precision from face images taken under a wide range of natural situations is still an unsolved problem. We propose a digital watermarking based method to aid face recognizers to tackle this problem in applications. In particular, we suggest embedding multiple face dependent watermarks into an image to serve as expert knowledge on the corresponding identities to identity-based schemes. This knowledge could originate, for example, from the tagging of those people on a social network. In our proposal, a single payload consists of a correction vector that can be added to the extracted biometric template to compile a nearly noiseless identity. It also supports the removal of a person from the image. If a particular face is censored, the corresponding identity is also removed. Based on our experiments, our method is robust against JPEG compression, image filtering, and occlusion and enables a reliable determination of an identity without side information.

  14. Digital signal processor for silicon audio playback devices; Silicon audio saisei kikiyo digital signal processor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    The digital audio signal processor (DSP) TC9446F series has been developed silicon audio playback devices with a memory medium of, e.g., flash memory, DVD players, and AV devices, e.g., TV sets. It corresponds to AAC (advanced audio coding) (2ch) and MP3 (MPEG1 Layer3), as the audio compressing techniques being used for transmitting music through an internet. It also corresponds to compressed types, e.g., Dolby Digital, DTS (digital theater system) and MPEG2 audio, being adopted for, e.g., DVDs. It can carry a built-in audio signal processing program, e.g., Dolby ProLogic, equalizer, sound field controlling, and 3D sound. TC9446XB has been lined up anew. It adopts an FBGA (fine pitch ball grid array) package for portable audio devices. (translated by NEDO)

  15. Light Weight MP3 Watermarking Method for Mobile Terminals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Koichi; Sakazawa, Shigeyuki; Takishima, Yasuhiro

    This paper proposes a novel MP3 watermarking method which is applicable to a mobile terminal with limited computational resources. Considering that in most cases the embedded information is copyright information or metadata, which should be extracted before playing back audio contents, the watermark detection process should be executed at high speed. However, when conventional methods are used with a mobile terminal, it takes a considerable amount of time to detect a digital watermark. This paper focuses on scalefactor manipulation to enable high speed watermark embedding/detection for MP3 audio and also proposes the manipulation method which minimizes audio quality degradation adaptively. Evaluation tests showed that the proposed method is capable of embedding 3 bits/frame information without degrading audio quality and detecting it at very high speed. Finally, this paper describes application examples for authentication with a digital signature.

  16. A proposed security technique based on watermarking and encryption for digital imaging and communications in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Abd-Eldayem

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays; modern Hospital Data Management Systems (HDMSs are applied in a computer network; in addition medicinal equipments produce medical images in a digital form. HDMS must store and exchange these images in a secured environment to provide image integrity and patient privacy. The reversible watermarking techniques can be used to provide the integrity and the privacy. In this paper, a security technique based on watermarking and encryption is proposed to be used for Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM. It provides patient authentication, information confidentiality and integrity based on reversible watermark. To achieve integrity service at the sender side; a hash value based on encrypted MD5 is determined from the image. And to satisfy the reversible feature; R–S-Vector is determined from the image and is compressed based on a Huffman compression algorithm. After that to provide confidentiality and authentication services: the compressed R–S-Vector, the hash value and patient ID are concatenated to form a watermark then this watermark is encrypted using AES encryption technique, finally the watermark is embedded inside the medical image. Experimental results prove that the proposed technique can provide patient authentication services, image integrity service and information confidentiality service with excellent efficiency. Concluded results for all tested DICOM medical images and natural images show the following: BER equals 0, both of SNR and PSNR are consistent and have large values, and MSE has low value; the average values of SNR, PSNR and MSE are 52 dB, 57 dB and 0.12 respectively. Therefore, watermarked images have high imperceptibility, invisibility and transparency. In addition, the watermark extracted from the image at the receiver side is identical to the watermark embedded into the image in the sender side; as a result, the proposed technique is totally reversible, and the embedded watermark does not

  17. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    of digital content. Digital watermarking is useful in DRM systems as it can hide information ... making an unauthorized use. It is the .... a watermark and a binary decision, whether the digital media is watermarked or not is done by ..... AC coefficients, which mainly reflect the texture features of image, are taken into account to.

  18. Information hiding techniques for steganography and digital watermarking

    CERN Document Server

    Katzenbeisser, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    Steganography, a means by which two or more parties may communicate using ""invisible"" or ""subliminal"" communication, and watermarking, a means of hiding copyright data in images, are becoming necessary components of commercial multimedia applications that are subject to illegal use. This new book is the first comprehensive survey of steganography and watermarking and their application to modern communications and multimedia.Handbook of Information Hiding: Steganography and Watermarking helps you understand steganography, the history of this previously neglected element of cryptography, the

  19. COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF APPLICATION EFFICIENCY OF ORTHOGONAL TRANSFORMATIONS IN FREQUENCY ALGORITHMS FOR DIGITAL IMAGE WATERMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir A. Batura

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of orthogonal transformations application in the frequency algorithms of the digital watermarking of still images is examined. Discrete Hadamard transform, discrete cosine transform and discrete Haar transform are selected. Their effectiveness is determined by the invisibility of embedded in digital image watermark and its resistance to the most common image processing operations: JPEG-compression, noising, changing of the brightness and image size, histogram equalization. The algorithm for digital watermarking and its embedding parameters remain unchanged at these orthogonal transformations. Imperceptibility of embedding is defined by the peak signal to noise ratio, watermark stability– by Pearson's correlation coefficient. Embedding is considered to be invisible, if the value of the peak signal to noise ratio is not less than 43 dB. Embedded watermark is considered to be resistant to a specific attack, if the Pearson’s correlation coefficient is not less than 0.5. Elham algorithm based on the image entropy is chosen for computing experiment. Computing experiment is carried out according to the following algorithm: embedding of a digital watermark in low-frequency area of the image (container by Elham algorithm, exposure to a harmful influence on the protected image (cover image, extraction of a digital watermark. These actions are followed by quality assessment of cover image and watermark on the basis of which efficiency of orthogonal transformation is defined. As a result of computing experiment it was determined that the choice of the specified orthogonal transformations at identical algorithm and parameters of embedding doesn't influence the degree of imperceptibility for a watermark. Efficiency of discrete Hadamard transform and discrete cosine transformation in relation to the attacks chosen for experiment was established based on the correlation indicators. Application of discrete Hadamard transform increases

  20. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Tayan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints.

  1. A Hybrid Digital-Signature and Zero-Watermarking Approach for Authentication and Protection of Sensitive Electronic Documents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kabir, Muhammad N.; Alginahi, Yasser M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses the problems and threats associated with verification of integrity, proof of authenticity, tamper detection, and copyright protection for digital-text content. Such issues were largely addressed in the literature for images, audio, and video, with only a few papers addressing the challenge of sensitive plain-text media under known constraints. Specifically, with text as the predominant online communication medium, it becomes crucial that techniques are deployed to protect such information. A number of digital-signature, hashing, and watermarking schemes have been proposed that essentially bind source data or embed invisible data in a cover media to achieve its goal. While many such complex schemes with resource redundancies are sufficient in offline and less-sensitive texts, this paper proposes a hybrid approach based on zero-watermarking and digital-signature-like manipulations for sensitive text documents in order to achieve content originality and integrity verification without physically modifying the cover text in anyway. The proposed algorithm was implemented and shown to be robust against undetected content modifications and is capable of confirming proof of originality whilst detecting and locating deliberate/nondeliberate tampering. Additionally, enhancements in resource utilisation and reduced redundancies were achieved in comparison to traditional encryption-based approaches. Finally, analysis and remarks are made about the current state of the art, and future research issues are discussed under the given constraints. PMID:25254247

  2. Detect Image Tamper by Semi-Fragile Digital Watermarking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIUFeilong; WANGYangsheng

    2004-01-01

    To authenticate the integrity of image while resisting some valid image processing such as JPEG compression, a semi-fragile image watermarking is described. Image name, one of the image features, has been used as the key of pseudo-random function to generate the special watermarks for the different image. Watermarks are embedded by changing the relationship between the blocks' DCT DC coefficients, and the image tamper are detected with the relationship of these DCT DC coefficients.Experimental results show that the proposed technique can resist JPEG compression, and detect image tamper in the meantime.

  3. Securing Digital Audio using Complex Quadratic Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryadi, MT; Satria Gunawan, Tjandra; Satria, Yudi

    2018-03-01

    In This digital era, exchanging data are common and easy to do, therefore it is vulnerable to be attacked and manipulated from unauthorized parties. One data type that is vulnerable to attack is digital audio. So, we need data securing method that is not vulnerable and fast. One of the methods that match all of those criteria is securing the data using chaos function. Chaos function that is used in this research is complex quadratic map (CQM). There are some parameter value that causing the key stream that is generated by CQM function to pass all 15 NIST test, this means that the key stream that is generated using this CQM is proven to be random. In addition, samples of encrypted digital sound when tested using goodness of fit test are proven to be uniform, so securing digital audio using this method is not vulnerable to frequency analysis attack. The key space is very huge about 8.1×l031 possible keys and the key sensitivity is very small about 10-10, therefore this method is also not vulnerable against brute-force attack. And finally, the processing speed for both encryption and decryption process on average about 450 times faster that its digital audio duration.

  4. The Modified Frequency Algorithm of Digital Watermarking of Still Images Resistant to JPEG Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Batura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is an effective copyright protection for multimedia products (in particular, still images. Digital marking represents process of embedding into object of protection of a digital watermark which is invisible for a human eye. However there is rather large number of the harmful influences capable to destroy the watermark which is embedded into the still image. The most widespread attack is JPEG compression that is caused by efficiency of this format of compression and its big prevalence on the Internet.The new algorithm which is modification of algorithm of Elham is presented in the present article. The algorithm of digital marking of motionless images carries out embedding of a watermark in frequency coefficients of discrete Hadamard transform of the chosen image blocks. The choice of blocks of the image for embedding of a digital watermark is carried out on the basis of the set threshold of entropy of pixels. The choice of low-frequency coefficients for embedding is carried out on the basis of comparison of values of coefficients of discrete cosine transformation with a predetermined threshold, depending on the product of the built-in watermark coefficient on change coefficient.Resistance of new algorithm to compression of JPEG, noising, filtration, change of color, the size and histogram equalization is in details analysed. Research of algorithm consists in comparison of the appearance taken from the damaged image of a watermark with the introduced logo. Ability of algorithm to embedding of a watermark with a minimum level of distortions of the image is in addition analysed. It is established that the new algorithm in comparison by initial algorithm of Elham showed full resistance to compression of JPEG, and also the improved resistance to a noising, change of brightness and histogram equalization.The developed algorithm can be used for copyright protection on the static images. Further studies will be used to study the

  5. A model for the distribution of watermarked digital content on mobile networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frattolillo, Franco; D'Onofrio, Salvatore

    2006-10-01

    Although digital watermarking can be considered one of the key technologies to implement the copyright protection of digital contents distributed on the Internet, most of the content distribution models based on watermarking protocols proposed in literature have been purposely designed for fixed networks and cannot be easily adapted to mobile networks. On the contrary, the use of mobile devices currently enables new types of services and business models, and this makes the development of new content distribution models for mobile environments strategic in the current scenario of the Internet. This paper presents and discusses a distribution model of watermarked digital contents for such environments able to achieve a trade-off between the needs of efficiency and security.

  6. Using digital watermarking to enhance security in wireless medical image transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giakoumaki, Aggeliki; Perakis, Konstantinos; Banitsas, Konstantinos; Giokas, Konstantinos; Tachakra, Sapal; Koutsouris, Dimitris

    2010-04-01

    During the last few years, wireless networks have been increasingly used both inside hospitals and in patients' homes to transmit medical information. In general, wireless networks suffer from decreased security. However, digital watermarking can be used to secure medical information. In this study, we focused on combining wireless transmission and digital watermarking technologies to better secure the transmission of medical images within and outside the hospital. We utilized an integrated system comprising the wireless network and the digital watermarking module to conduct a series of tests. The test results were evaluated by medical consultants. They concluded that the images suffered no visible quality degradation and maintained their diagnostic integrity. The proposed integrated system presented reasonable stability, and its performance was comparable to that of a fixed network. This system can enhance security during the transmission of medical images through a wireless channel.

  7. Watermarking Techniques Using Least Significant Bit Algorithm for Digital Image Security Standard Solution- Based Android

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ari Muzakir

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Ease of deployment of digital image through the internet has positive and negative sides, especially for owners of the original digital image. The positive side of the ease of rapid deployment is the owner of that image deploys digital image files to various sites in the world address. While the downside is that if there is no copyright that serves as protector of the image it will be very easily recognized ownership by other parties. Watermarking is one solution to protect the copyright and know the results of the digital image. With Digital Image Watermarking, copyright resulting digital image will be protected through the insertion of additional information such as owner information and the authenticity of the digital image. The least significant bit (LSB is one of the algorithm is simple and easy to understand. The results of the simulations carried out using android smartphone shows that the LSB watermarking technique is not able to be seen by naked human eye, meaning there is no significant difference in the image of the original files with images that have been inserted watermarking. The resulting image has dimensions of 640x480 with a bit depth of 32 bits. In addition, to determine the function of the ability of the device (smartphone in processing the image using this application used black box testing. 

  8. Audible Aliasing Distortion in Digital Audio Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Schimmel

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with aliasing distortion in digital audio signal synthesis of classic periodic waveforms with infinite Fourier series, for electronic musical instruments. When these waveforms are generated in the digital domain then the aliasing appears due to its unlimited bandwidth. There are several techniques for the synthesis of these signals that have been designed to avoid or reduce the aliasing distortion. However, these techniques have high computing demands. One can say that today's computers have enough computing power to use these methods. However, we have to realize that today’s computer-aided music production requires tens of multi-timbre voices generated simultaneously by software synthesizers and the most of the computing power must be reserved for hard-disc recording subsystem and real-time audio processing of many audio channels with a lot of audio effects. Trivially generated classic analog synthesizer waveforms are therefore still effective for sound synthesis. We cannot avoid the aliasing distortion but spectral components produced by the aliasing can be masked with harmonic components and thus made inaudible if sufficient oversampling ratio is used. This paper deals with the assessment of audible aliasing distortion with the help of a psychoacoustic model of simultaneous masking and compares the computing demands of trivial generation using oversampling with those of other methods.

  9. A Novel Video Data-Source Authentication Model Based on Digital Watermarking and MAC in Multicast

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Anjun; LU Xiangli; GUO Lei

    2006-01-01

    A novel video data authentication model based on digital video watermarking and MAC (message authentication code) in multicast protocol is proposed in this paper. The digital watermarking which composes of the MAC of the significant video content, the key and instant authentication data is embedded into the insignificant video component by the MLUT (modified look-up table) video watermarking technology. We explain a method that does not require storage of each data packet for a time, thus making receiver not vulnerable to DOS (denial of service) attack. So the video packets can be authenticated instantly without large volume buffer in the receivers. TESLA(timed efficient stream loss-tolerant authentication) does not explain how to select the suitable value for d, which is an important parameter in multicast source authentication. So we give a method to calculate the key disclosure delay (number of intervals). Simulation results show that the proposed algorithms improve the performance of data source authentication in multicast.

  10. Adaptive Digital Watermarking Scheme Based on Support Vector Machines and Optimized Genetic Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyi Zhou

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is an effective solution to the problem of copyright protection, thus maintaining the security of digital products in the network. An improved scheme to increase the robustness of embedded information on the basis of discrete cosine transform (DCT domain is proposed in this study. The embedding process consisted of two main procedures. Firstly, the embedding intensity with support vector machines (SVMs was adaptively strengthened by training 1600 image blocks which are of different texture and luminance. Secondly, the embedding position with the optimized genetic algorithm (GA was selected. To optimize GA, the best individual in the first place of each generation directly went into the next generation, and the best individual in the second position participated in the crossover and the mutation process. The transparency reaches 40.5 when GA’s generation number is 200. A case study was conducted on a 256 × 256 standard Lena image with the proposed method. After various attacks (such as cropping, JPEG compression, Gaussian low-pass filtering (3,0.5, histogram equalization, and contrast increasing (0.5,0.6 on the watermarked image, the extracted watermark was compared with the original one. Results demonstrate that the watermark can be effectively recovered after these attacks. Even though the algorithm is weak against rotation attacks, it provides high quality in imperceptibility and robustness and hence it is a successful candidate for implementing novel image watermarking scheme meeting real timelines.

  11. Digital Image Authentication Algorithm Based on Fragile Invisible Watermark and MD-5 Function in the DWT Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nehad Hameed Hussein

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Using watermarking techniques and digital signatures can better solve the problems of digital images transmitted on the Internet like forgery, tampering, altering, etc. In this paper we proposed invisible fragile watermark and MD-5 based algorithm for digital image authenticating and tampers detecting in the Discrete Wavelet Transform DWT domain. The digital image is decomposed using 2-level DWT and the middle and high frequency sub-bands are used for watermark and digital signature embedding. The authentication data are embedded in number of the coefficients of these sub-bands according to the adaptive threshold based on the watermark length and the coefficients of each DWT level. These sub-bands are used because they are less sensitive to the Human Visual System (HVS and preserve high image fidelity. MD-5 and RSA algorithms are used for generating the digital signature from the watermark data that is also embedded in the medical image. We apply the algorithm on number of medical images. The Electronic Patient Record (EPR is used as watermark data. Experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of our algorithm in terms of robustness, invisibility, and fragility. Watermark and digital signature can be extracted without the need to the original image.

  12. Copyright protection of remote sensing imagery by means of digital watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Bartolini, Franco; Cappellini, Vito; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella; Zanini, R.

    2001-12-01

    The demand for remote sensing data has increased dramatically mainly due to the large number of possible applications capable to exploit remotely sensed data and images. As in many other fields, along with the increase of market potential and product diffusion, the need arises for some sort of protection of the image products from unauthorized use. Such a need is a very crucial one even because the Internet and other public/private networks have become preferred and effective means of data exchange. An important issue arising when dealing with digital image distribution is copyright protection. Such a problem has been largely addressed by resorting to watermarking technology. Before applying watermarking techniques developed for multimedia applications to remote sensing applications, it is important that the requirements imposed by remote sensing imagery are carefully analyzed to investigate whether they are compatible with existing watermarking techniques. On the basis of these motivations, the contribution of this work is twofold: (1) assessment of the requirements imposed by the characteristics of remotely sensed images on watermark-based copyright protection; (2) discussion of a case study where the performance of two popular, state-of-the-art watermarking techniques are evaluated by the light of the requirements at the previous point.

  13. Robust Digital Image Watermarking Against Cropping Using Sudoku Puzzle in Spatial and Transform Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    shadi saneie

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of digital technology, protecting information such as copyright, content ownership confirmation has become more important. In image watermarking, information of the image is inserted such that the visual quality of the image is not reduced and the receiver is able to get the required information. Some attacks such as image cropping, destroy the watermark’s information. In this article, a new watermarking scheme is proposed which is robust against tough cropping. In the proposed scheme, classic Sudoku table which is a 9*9 table, has been used. One feature of Sudoku table is that Sudoku's limitations cause uniform scattering of symbols or numbers throughout the table. In the proposed scheme, Sudoku table and both watermarking approaches based on spatial domain and transform domain such as DCT and DWT are used. Lack of using of soduko solution at the stage of extraction and finding correct solution to obtain watermark, is innovation of this scheme. Robustness of watermarking against cropping attack is up to 92%, which shows good and effective performance of the proposed scheme.

  14. A Self-embedding Robust Digital Watermarking Algorithm with Blind Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong Yunfeng

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve the perfectly blind detection of robustness watermarking algorithm, a novel self-embedding robust digital watermarking algorithm with blind detection is proposed in this paper. Firstly the original image is divided to not overlap image blocks and then decomposable coefficients are obtained by lifting-based wavelet transform in every image blocks. Secondly the low-frequency coefficients of block images are selected and then approximately represented as a product of a base matrix and a coefficient matrix using NMF. Then the feature vector represent original image is obtained by quantizing coefficient matrix, and finally the adaptive quantization of the robustness watermark is embedded in the low-frequency coefficients of LWT. Experimental results show that the scheme is robust against common signal processing attacks, meanwhile perfect blind detection is achieve.

  15. INCREASE OF STABILITY AT JPEG COMPRESSION OF THE DIGITAL WATERMARKS EMBEDDED IN STILL IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Batura

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The paper deals with creation and research of method for increasing stability at JPEG compressing of digital watermarks embedded in still images. Method. A new algorithm of digital watermarking for still images which embeds digital watermark into a still image via modification of frequency coefficients for Hadamard discrete transformation is presented. The choice of frequency coefficients for embedding of a digital watermark is based on existence of sharp change of their values after modification at the maximum compression of JPEG. The choice of blocks of pixels for embedding is based on the value of their entropy. The new algorithm was subjected to the analysis of resistance to an image compression, noising, filtration, change of size, color and histogram equalization. Elham algorithm possessing a good resistance to JPEG compression was chosen for comparative analysis. Nine gray-scale images were selected as objects for protection. Obscurity of the distortions embedded in them was defined on the basis of the peak value of a signal to noise ratio which should be not lower than 43 dB for obscurity of the brought distortions. Resistibility of embedded watermark was determined by the Pearson correlation coefficient, which value should not be below 0.5 for the minimum allowed stability. The algorithm of computing experiment comprises: watermark embedding into each test image by the new algorithm and Elham algorithm; introducing distortions to the object of protection; extracting of embedded information with its subsequent comparison with the original. Parameters of the algorithms were chosen so as to provide approximately the same level of distortions introduced into the images. Main Results. The method of preliminary processing of digital watermark presented in the paper makes it possible to reduce significantly the volume of information embedded in the still image. The results of numerical experiment have shown that the

  16. Authentication and recovery of medical diagnostic image using dual reversible digital watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xiaohong; Chen, Zhigang; Zeng, Feng; Zhang, Yaoping; Mao, Yimin

    2013-03-01

    This paper proposes a new region-based tampering detection and recovering method that utilizes both reversible digital watermarking and quad-tree decomposition for medical diagnostic image's authentication. Firstly, the quad-tree decomposition is used to divide the original image into blocks with high homogeneity, and then we computer pixels' linear interpolation as each block's recovery feature. Secondly, these recovery features as the first layer watermarking information is embedded by using simple invertible integer transformation. In order to enhance the proposed method's security, the logistic chaotic map is exploited to choose each block's reference pixel. The second layer watermark comprises by the quad-tree information and essential parameters for extraction are embedded by LSB replacement. In the authentication phase, the embedded watermark is extracted and the source image is recovered, and the similar linear interpolation technique is utilized to get each block's feature. Therefore, the tampering detection and localization can be achieved through comparing the extracted feature with the recomputed one, and the extracted feature can be used to recover those tampered regions with high similarity to their original state. Experimental results show that, compared with previous similar existing scheme, the proposed method not only achieves high embedding capacity and good visual quality of marked and restored image, but also has more accuracy for tampering detection.

  17. a Review of Digital Watermarking and Copyright Control Technology for Cultural Relics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H.; Hou, M.; Hu, Y.

    2018-04-01

    With the rapid growth of the application and sharing of the 3-D model data in the protection of cultural relics, the problem of Shared security and copyright control of the three-dimensional model of cultural relics is becoming increasingly prominent. Followed by a digital watermarking copyright control has become the frontier technology of 3-D model security protection of cultural relics and effective means, related technology research and application in recent years also got further development. 3-D model based on cultural relics digital watermarking and copyright control technology, introduces the research background and demand, its unique characteristics were described, and its development and application of the algorithm are discussed, and the prospects of the future development trend and some problems and the solution.

  18. Forming and detection of digital watermarks in the System for Automatic Identification of VHF Transmissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. В. Шишкін

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Forming and detection algorithms for digital watermarks are designed for automatic identification of VHF radiotelephone transmissions in the maritime and aeronautical mobile services. An audible insensitivity and interference resistance of embedded digital data are provided by means of OFDM technology jointly with normalized distortions distribution and data packet detection by the hash-function. Experiments were carried out on the base of ship’s radio station RT-2048 Sailor and USB ADC-DAC module of type Е14-140M L-CARD in the off-line processing regime in Matlab medium

  19. El Digital Audio Tape Recorder. Contra autores y creadores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Ono

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La llamada "DAT" (abreviatura por "digital audio tape recorder" / grabadora digital de audio ha recibido cobertura durante mucho tiempo en los medios masivos de Japón y otros países, como un producto acústico electrónico nuevo y controversial de la industria japonesa de artefactos electrónicos. ¿Qué ha pasado con el objeto de esta controversia?

  20. A new Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT) in color biometric images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Sengul; Tuncer, Turker; Avci, Engin; Gulten, Arif

    2012-08-01

    This paper recommend a biometric color images hiding approach An Watermarking System based on Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT), which is used to protect the security and integrity of transmitted biometric color images. Watermarking is a very important hiding information (audio, video, color image, gray image) technique. It is commonly used on digital objects together with the developing technology in the last few years. One of the common methods used for hiding information on image files is DCT method which used in the frequency domain. In this study, DCT methods in order to embed watermark data into face images, without corrupting their features.

  1. A Privacy-Preserving Outsourcing Data Storage Scheme with Fragile Digital Watermarking-Based Data Auditing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyue Cao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cloud storage has been recognized as the popular solution to solve the problems of the rising storage costs of IT enterprises for users. However, outsourcing data to the cloud service providers (CSPs may leak some sensitive privacy information, as the data is out of user’s control. So how to ensure the integrity and privacy of outsourced data has become a big challenge. Encryption and data auditing provide a solution toward the challenge. In this paper, we propose a privacy-preserving and auditing-supporting outsourcing data storage scheme by using encryption and digital watermarking. Logistic map-based chaotic cryptography algorithm is used to preserve the privacy of outsourcing data, which has a fast operation speed and a good effect of encryption. Local histogram shifting digital watermark algorithm is used to protect the data integrity which has high payload and makes the original image restored losslessly if the data is verified to be integrated. Experiments show that our scheme is secure and feasible.

  2. Two-layer fragile watermarking method secured with chaotic map for authentication of digital Holy Quran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Mohammed S; Kurniawan, Fajri; Khan, Muhammad Khurram; Alginahi, Yasser M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel watermarking method to facilitate the authentication and detection of the image forgery on the Quran images. Two layers of embedding scheme on wavelet and spatial domain are introduced to enhance the sensitivity of fragile watermarking and defend the attacks. Discrete wavelet transforms are applied to decompose the host image into wavelet prior to embedding the watermark in the wavelet domain. The watermarked wavelet coefficient is inverted back to spatial domain then the least significant bits is utilized to hide another watermark. A chaotic map is utilized to blur the watermark to make it secure against the local attack. The proposed method allows high watermark payloads, while preserving good image quality. Experiment results confirm that the proposed methods are fragile and have superior tampering detection even though the tampered area is very small.

  3. Subband coding of digital audio signals without loss of quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Breeuwer, Marcel; van de Waal, Robbert

    1989-01-01

    A subband coding system for high quality digital audio signals is described. To achieve low bit rates at a high quality level, it exploits the simultaneous masking effect of the human ear. It is shown how this effect can be used in an adaptive bit-allocation scheme. The proposed approach has been

  4. Design and evaluation of sparse quantization index modulation watermarking schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Barbarien, Joeri; Dooms, Ann; Munteanu, Adrian; Cornelis, Jan; Schelkens, Peter

    2008-08-01

    In the past decade the use of digital data has increased significantly. The advantages of digital data are, amongst others, easy editing, fast, cheap and cross-platform distribution and compact storage. The most crucial disadvantages are the unauthorized copying and copyright issues, by which authors and license holders can suffer considerable financial losses. Many inexpensive methods are readily available for editing digital data and, unlike analog information, the reproduction in the digital case is simple and robust. Hence, there is great interest in developing technology that helps to protect the integrity of a digital work and the copyrights of its owners. Watermarking, which is the embedding of a signal (known as the watermark) into the original digital data, is one method that has been proposed for the protection of digital media elements such as audio, video and images. In this article, we examine watermarking schemes for still images, based on selective quantization of the coefficients of a wavelet transformed image, i.e. sparse quantization-index modulation (QIM) watermarking. Different grouping schemes for the wavelet coefficients are evaluated and experimentally verified for robustness against several attacks. Wavelet tree-based grouping schemes yield a slightly improved performance over block-based grouping schemes. Additionally, the impact of the deployment of error correction codes on the most promising configurations is examined. The utilization of BCH-codes (Bose, Ray-Chaudhuri, Hocquenghem) results in an improved robustness as long as the capacity of the error codes is not exceeded (cliff-effect).

  5. Digital video and audio broadcasting technology a practical engineering guide

    CERN Document Server

    Fischer, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Digital Video and Audio Broadcasting Technology - A Practical Engineering Guide' deals with all the most important digital television, sound radio and multimedia standards such as MPEG, DVB, DVD, DAB, ATSC, T-DMB, DMB-T, DRM and ISDB-T. The book provides an in-depth look at these subjects in terms of practical experience. In addition it contains chapters on the basics of technologies such as analog television, digital modulation, COFDM or mathematical transformations between time and frequency domains. The attention in the respective field under discussion is focussed on aspects of measuring t

  6. Watermarking textures in video games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huajian; Berchtold, Waldemar; Schäfer, Marcel; Lieb, Patrick; Steinebach, Martin

    2014-02-01

    Digital watermarking is a promising solution to video game piracy. In this paper, based on the analysis of special challenges and requirements in terms of watermarking textures in video games, a novel watermarking scheme for DDS textures in video games is proposed. To meet the performance requirements in video game applications, the proposed algorithm embeds the watermark message directly in the compressed stream in DDS files and can be straightforwardly applied in watermark container technique for real-time embedding. Furthermore, the embedding approach achieves high watermark payload to handle collusion secure fingerprinting codes with extreme length. Hence, the scheme is resistant to collusion attacks, which is indispensable in video game applications. The proposed scheme is evaluated in aspects of transparency, robustness, security and performance. Especially, in addition to classical objective evaluation, the visual quality and playing experience of watermarked games is assessed subjectively in game playing.

  7. Image-adaptive and robust digital wavelet-domain watermarking for images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Liping

    2018-03-01

    We propose a new frequency domain wavelet based watermarking technique. The key idea of our scheme is twofold: multi-tier solution representation of image and odd-even quantization embedding/extracting watermark. Because many complementary watermarks need to be hidden, the watermark image designed is image-adaptive. The meaningful and complementary watermark images was embedded into the original image (host image) by odd-even quantization modifying coefficients, which was selected from the detail wavelet coefficients of the original image, if their magnitudes are larger than their corresponding Just Noticeable Difference thresholds. The tests show good robustness against best-known attacks such as noise addition, image compression, median filtering, clipping as well as geometric transforms. Further research may improve the performance by refining JND thresholds.

  8. Subjective and Objective Assessment of Perceived Audio Quality of Current Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Web-Casting Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pocta, P.; Beerends, J.G.

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of different audio codecs typically deployed in current digital audio broadcasting (DAB) systems and web-casting applications, which represent a main source of quality impairment in these systems and applications, on the quality perceived by the end user. Both

  9. Extraction, Mapping, and Evaluation of Expressive Acoustic Features for Adaptive Digital Audio Effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holfelt, Jonas; Csapo, Gergely; Andersson, Nikolaj Schwab

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes the design and implementation of a real-time adaptive digital audio effect with an emphasis on using expressive audio features that control effect param- eters. Research in adaptive digital audio effects is cov- ered along with studies about expressivity and important...

  10. Perceived Audio Quality Analysis in Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus System Based on PEAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ulovec

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Broadcasters need to decide on bitrates of the services in the multiplex transmitted via Digital Audio Broadcasting Plus system. The bitrate should be set as low as possible for maximal number of services, but with high quality, not lower than in conventional analog systems. In this paper, the objective method Perceptual Evaluation of Audio Quality is used to analyze the perceived audio quality for appropriate codecs --- MP2 and AAC offering three profiles. The main aim is to determine dependencies on the type of signal --- music and speech, the number of channels --- stereo and mono, and the bitrate. Results indicate that only MP2 codec and AAC Low Complexity profile reach imperceptible quality loss. The MP2 codec needs higher bitrate than AAC Low Complexity profile for the same quality. For the both versions of AAC High-Efficiency profiles, the limit bitrates are determined above which less complex profiles outperform the more complex ones and higher bitrates above these limits are not worth using. It is shown that stereo music has worse quality than stereo speech generally, whereas for mono, the dependencies vary upon the codec/profile. Furthermore, numbers of services satisfying various quality criteria are presented.

  11. Watermark Compression in Medical Image Watermarking Using Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) Lossless Compression Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badshah, Gran; Liew, Siau-Chuin; Zain, Jasni Mohd; Ali, Mushtaq

    2016-04-01

    In teleradiology, image contents may be altered due to noisy communication channels and hacker manipulation. Medical image data is very sensitive and can not tolerate any illegal change. Illegally changed image-based analysis could result in wrong medical decision. Digital watermarking technique can be used to authenticate images and detect as well as recover illegal changes made to teleradiology images. Watermarking of medical images with heavy payload watermarks causes image perceptual degradation. The image perceptual degradation directly affects medical diagnosis. To maintain the image perceptual and diagnostic qualities standard during watermarking, the watermark should be lossless compressed. This paper focuses on watermarking of ultrasound medical images with Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) lossless-compressed watermarks. The watermark lossless compression reduces watermark payload without data loss. In this research work, watermark is the combination of defined region of interest (ROI) and image watermarking secret key. The performance of the LZW compression technique was compared with other conventional compression methods based on compression ratio. LZW was found better and used for watermark lossless compression in ultrasound medical images watermarking. Tabulated results show the watermark bits reduction, image watermarking with effective tamper detection and lossless recovery.

  12. A New Digital Watermarking Method for Data Integrity Protection in the Perception Layer of IoT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyin Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction, IoT (Internet of Things has enjoyed vigorous support from governments and research institutions around the world, and remarkable achievements have been obtained. The perception layer of IoT plays an important role as a link between the IoT and the real world; the security has become a bottleneck restricting the further development of IoT. The perception layer is a self-organizing network system consisting of various resource-constrained sensor nodes through wireless communication. Accordingly, the costly encryption mechanism cannot be applied to the perception layer. In this paper, a novel lightweight data integrity protection scheme based on fragile watermark is proposed to solve the contradiction between the security and restricted resource of perception layer. To improve the security, we design a position random watermark (PRW strategy to calculate the embedding position by temporal dynamics of sensing data. The digital watermark is generated by one-way hash function SHA-1 before embedding to the dynamic computed position. In this way, the security vulnerabilities introduced by fixed embedding position can not only be solved effectively, but also achieve zero disturbance to the data. The security analysis and simulation results show that the proposed scheme can effectively ensure the integrity of the data at low cost.

  13. Watermarking security

    CERN Document Server

    Bas, Patrick; Cayre, François; Doërr, Gwenaël; Mathon, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    This book explains how to measure the security of a watermarking scheme, how to design secure schemes but also how to attack popular watermarking schemes. This book gathers the most recent achievements in the field of watermarking security by considering both parts of this cat and mouse game. This book is useful to industrial practitioners who would like to increase the security of their watermarking applications and for academics to quickly master this fascinating domain.

  14. Digital audio recordings improve the outcomes of patient consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Holst, René

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate the effects on patients' outcome of the consultations when provided with: a Digital Audio Recording (DAR) of the consultation and a Question Prompt List (QPL). METHODS: This is a three-armed randomised controlled cluster trial. One group of patients received standard care......, while the other two groups received either the QPL in combination with a recording of their consultation or only the recording. Patients from four outpatient clinics participated: Paediatric, Orthopaedic, Internal Medicine, and Urology. The effects were evaluated by patient-administered questionnaires...

  15. 106-17 Telemetry Standards Digitized Audio Telemetry Standard Chapter 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-07-01

    Digitized Audio Telemetry Standard 5.1 General This chapter defines continuously variable slope delta (CVSD) modulation as the standard for digitizing...audio signal. The CVSD modulator is, in essence , a 1-bit analog-to-digital converter. The output of this 1-bit encoder is a serial bit stream, where

  16. A Preliminary Investigation into the Search Behaviour of Users in a Collection of Digitized Broadcast Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Haakon; Skov, Mette; Larsen, Birger

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of large digitized audio-visual collections within digital humanities have recently been made available for users. Often access to digitized audio-visual collections is hampered by little and inconsistent metadata. This paper presents the preliminary findings from a study of ...

  17. An optimized digital watermarking algorithm in wavelet domain based on differential evolution for color image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xinchun; Niu, Yuying; Zheng, Xiangwei; Han, Yingshuai

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a new color watermarking algorithm based on differential evolution is proposed. A color host image is first converted from RGB space to YIQ space, which is more suitable for the human visual system. Then, apply three-level discrete wavelet transformation to luminance component Y and generate four different frequency sub-bands. After that, perform singular value decomposition on these sub-bands. In the watermark embedding process, apply discrete wavelet transformation to a watermark image after the scrambling encryption processing. Our new algorithm uses differential evolution algorithm with adaptive optimization to choose the right scaling factors. Experimental results show that the proposed algorithm has a better performance in terms of invisibility and robustness.

  18. Countermeasures for unintentional and intentional video watermarking attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguillaume, Frederic; Csurka, Gabriela; Pun, Thierry

    2000-05-01

    These last years, the rapidly growing digital multimedia market has revealed an urgent need for effective copyright protection mechanisms. Therefore, digital audio, image and video watermarking has recently become a very active area of research, as a solution to this problem. Many important issues have been pointed out, one of them being the robustness to non-intentional and intentional attacks. This paper studies some attacks and proposes countermeasures applied to videos. General attacks are lossy copying/transcoding such as MPEG compression and digital/analog (D/A) conversion, changes of frame-rate, changes of display format, and geometrical distortions. More specific attacks are sequence edition, and statistical attacks such as averaging or collusion. Averaging attack consists of averaging locally consecutive frames to cancel the watermark. This attack works well for schemes which embed random independent marks into frames. In the collusion attack the watermark is estimated from single frames (based on image denoising), and averaged over different scenes for better accuracy. The estimated watermark is then subtracted from each frame. Collusion requires that the same mark is embedded into all frames. The proposed countermeasures first ensures robustness to general attacks by spread spectrum encoding in the frequency domain and by the use of an additional template. Secondly, a Bayesian criterion, evaluating the probability of a correctly decoded watermark, is used for rejection of outliers, and to implement an algorithm against statistical attacks. The idea is to embed randomly chosen marks among a finite set of marks, into subsequences of videos which are long enough to resist averaging attacks, but short enough to avoid collusion attacks. The Bayesian criterion is needed to select the correct mark at the decoding step. Finally, the paper presents experimental results showing the robustness of the proposed method.

  19. Embedding Color Watermarks in Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tung-Lin

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Robust watermarking with oblivious detection is essential to practical copyright protection of digital images. Effective exploitation of the characteristics of human visual perception to color stimuli helps to develop the watermarking scheme that fills the requirement. In this paper, an oblivious watermarking scheme that embeds color watermarks in color images is proposed. Through color gamut analysis and quantizer design, color watermarks are embedded by modifying quantization indices of color pixels without resulting in perceivable distortion. Only a small amount of information including the specification of color gamut, quantizer stepsize, and color tables is required to extract the watermark. Experimental results show that the proposed watermarking scheme is computationally simple and quite robust in face of various attacks such as cropping, low-pass filtering, white-noise addition, scaling, and JPEG compression with high compression ratios.

  20. Robust Watermarking of Video Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Polyák

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available In the past few years there has been an explosion in the use of digital video data. Many people have personal computers at home, and with the help of the Internet users can easily share video files on their computer. This makes possible the unauthorized use of digital media, and without adequate protection systems the authors and distributors have no means to prevent it.Digital watermarking techniques can help these systems to be more effective by embedding secret data right into the video stream. This makes minor changes in the frames of the video, but these changes are almost imperceptible to the human visual system. The embedded information can involve copyright data, access control etc. A robust watermark is resistant to various distortions of the video, so it cannot be removed without affecting the quality of the host medium. In this paper I propose a video watermarking scheme that fulfills the requirements of a robust watermark

  1. Lossless Data Embedding—New Paradigm in Digital Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Fridrich

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available One common drawback of virtually all current data embedding methods is the fact that the original image is inevitably distorted due to data embedding itself. This distortion typically cannot be removed completely due to quantization, bit-replacement, or truncation at the grayscales 0 and 255. Although the distortion is often quite small and perceptual models are used to minimize its visibility, the distortion may not be acceptable for medical imagery (for legal reasons or for military images inspected under nonstandard viewing conditions (after enhancement or extreme zoom. In this paper, we introduce a new paradigm for data embedding in images (lossless data embedding that has the property that the distortion due to embedding can be completely removed from the watermarked image after the embedded data has been extracted. We present lossless embedding methods for the uncompressed formats (BMP, TIFF and for the JPEG format. We also show how the concept of lossless data embedding can be used as a powerful tool to achieve a variety of nontrivial tasks, including lossless authentication using fragile watermarks, steganalysis of LSB embedding, and distortion-free robust watermarking.

  2. A Color Image Watermarking Scheme Resistant against Geometrical Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Xing

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The geometrical attacks are still a problem for many digital watermarking algorithms at present. In this paper, we propose a watermarking algorithm for color images resistant to geometrical distortions (rotation and scaling. The singular value decomposition is used for watermark embedding and extraction. The log-polar map- ping (LPM and phase correlation method are used to register the position of geometrical distortion suffered by the watermarked image. Experiments with different kinds of color images and watermarks demonstrate that the watermarking algorithm is robust to common image processing attacks, especially geometrical attacks.

  3. Dual plane multiple spatial watermarking with self-encryption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Watermarking has established itself as a promising solution in the context of digital image copyright protection. Frequency domain watermarking is mainly preferred due to associated robustness and perceptual issues but requires a large amount of computation. On the other hand spatial domain watermarking is much faster ...

  4. Wavelet Based Hilbert Transform with Digital Design and Application to QCM-SS Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Maity

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available In recent time, wavelet transforms are used extensively for efficient storage, transmission and representation of multimedia signals. Hilbert transform pairs of wavelets is the basic unit of many wavelet theories such as complex filter banks, complex wavelet and phaselet etc. Moreover, Hilbert transform finds various applications in communications and signal processing such as generation of single sideband (SSB modulation, quadrature carrier multiplexing (QCM and bandpass representation of a signal. Thus wavelet based discrete Hilbert transform design draws much attention of researchers for couple of years. This paper proposes an (i algorithm for generation of low computation cost Hilbert transform pairs of symmetric filter coefficients using biorthogonal wavelets, (ii approximation to its rational coefficients form for its efficient hardware realization and without much loss in signal representation, and finally (iii development of QCM-SS (spread spectrum image watermarking scheme for doubling the payload capacity. Simulation results show novelty of the proposed Hilbert transform design and its application to watermarking compared to existing algorithms.

  5. Digital signal processing methods and algorithms for audio conferencing systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Fredric

    2007-01-01

    Today, we are interconnected almost all over the planet. Large multinational companies operate worldwide, but also an increasing number of small and medium sized companies do business overseas. As people travel to meet and do businesses, the already exposed earth is subject to even more strain. Audio conferencing is an attractive alternative to travel, which is becoming more and more appreciated. Audio conferences can of course not replace all types of meetings, but can help companies to cut ...

  6. KEAMANAN CITRA DENGAN WATERMARKING MENGGUNAKAN PENGEMBANGAN ALGORITMA LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurniawan Kurniawan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Image security is a process to save digital. One method of securing image digital is watermarking using Least Significant Bit algorithm. Main concept of image security using LSB algorithm is to replace bit value of image at specific location so that created pattern. The pattern result of replacing the bit value of image is called by watermark. Giving watermark at image digital using LSB algorithm has simple concept so that the information which is embedded will lost easily when attacked such as noise attack or compression. So need modification like development of LSB algorithm. This is done to decrease distortion of watermark information against those attacks. In this research is divided by 6 process which are color extraction of cover image, busy area search, watermark embed, count the accuracy of watermark embed, watermark extraction, and count the accuracy of watermark extraction. Color extraction of cover image is process to get blue color component from cover image. Watermark information will embed at busy area by search the area which has the greatest number of unsure from cover image. Then watermark image is embedded into cover image so that produce watermarked image using some development of LSB algorithm and search the accuracy by count the Peak Signal to Noise Ratio value. Before the watermarked image is extracted, need to test by giving noise and doing compression into jpg format. The accuracy of extraction result is searched by count the Bit Error Rate value.

  7. Illustration Watermarking for Digital Images: An Investigation of Hierarchical Signal Inheritances for Nested Object-based Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-02-23

    approach for signal-level watermark inheritance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS EOARD, Steganography , Image Fusion, Data Mining, Image ...189, Geneva, Switzerland, 2006 [V Block-Luminance and Blue Channel LSB Wet Paper Code Image Watermarking, accepte publication in: Proceedings of...SPIE Electronic Imaging , Security, Steganography , and Wa- termarking of Multimedia Contents IX, 2007 Interaction with a project from German Science

  8. Migrating Home Computer Audio Waveforms to Digital Objects: A Case Study on Digital Archaeology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Guttenbrunner

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Rescuing data from inaccessible or damaged storage media for the purpose of preserving the digital data for the long term is one of the dimensions of digital archaeology. With the current pace of technological development, any system can become obsolete in a matter of years and hence the data stored in a specific storage media might not be accessible anymore due to the unavailability of the system to access the media. In order to preserve digital records residing in such storage media, it is necessary to extract the data stored in those media by some means.One early storage medium for home computers in the 1980s was audio tape. The first home computer systems allowed the use of standard cassette players to record and replay data. Audio cassettes are more durable than old home computers when properly stored. Devices playing this medium (i.e. tape recorders can be found in working condition or can be repaired, as they are usually made out of standard components. By re-engineering the format of the waveform and the file formats, the data on such media can then be extracted from a digitised audio stream and migrated to a non-obsolete format.In this paper we present a case study on extracting the data stored on an audio tape by an early home computer system, namely the Philips Videopac+ G7400. The original data formats were re-engineered and an application was written to support the migration of the data stored on tapes without using the original system. This eliminates the necessity of keeping an obsolete system alive for enabling access to the data on the storage media meant for this system. Two different methods to interpret the data and eliminate possible errors in the tape were implemented and evaluated on original tapes, which were recorded 20 years ago. Results show that with some error correction methods, parts of the tapes are still readable even without the original system. It also implies that it is easier to build solutions while original

  9. A New Principle for a High Efficiency Power Audio Amplifier for Use with a Digital Preamplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1986-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amlifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore, a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...... the supply voltage to the amplifier according to the amplitude of the audio signal, a higher efficiency than can be obtained by the current principles is achieved. The regulation can be done very efficiently by generating the control signal to the power supply in advance of the audio signal, made possible...

  10. Multimedia security watermarking, steganography, and forensics

    CERN Document Server

    Shih, Frank Y

    2012-01-01

    Multimedia Security: Watermarking, Steganography, and Forensics outlines essential principles, technical information, and expert insights on multimedia security technology used to prove that content is authentic and has not been altered. Illustrating the need for improved content security as the Internet and digital multimedia applications rapidly evolve, this book presents a wealth of everyday protection application examples in fields including multimedia mining and classification, digital watermarking, steganography, and digital forensics. Giving readers an in-depth overview of different asp

  11. Chrominance watermark for mobile applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Rogers, Eliot; James, Dan

    2010-01-01

    Creating an imperceptible watermark which can be read by a broad range of cell phone cameras is a difficult problem. The problems are caused by the inherently low resolution and noise levels of typical cell phone cameras. The quality limitations of these devices compared to a typical digital camera are caused by the small size of the cell phone and cost trade-offs made by the manufacturer. In order to achieve this, a low resolution watermark is required which can be resolved by a typical cell phone camera. The visibility of a traditional luminance watermark was too great at this lower resolution, so a chrominance watermark was developed. The chrominance watermark takes advantage of the relatively low sensitivity of the human visual system to chrominance changes. This enables a chrominance watermark to be inserted into an image which is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read using a typical cell phone camera. Sample images will be presented showing images with a very low visibility which can be easily read by a typical cell phone camera.

  12. Watermarking in E-commerce

    OpenAIRE

    Peyman Rahmati; Andy Adler; Thomas Tran

    2013-01-01

    A major challenge for E-commerce and content-based businesses is the possibility of altering identity documents or other digital data. This paper shows a watermark-based approach to protect digital identity documents against a Print-Scan (PS) attack. We propose a secure ID card authentication system based on watermarking. For authentication purposes, a user/customer is asked to upload a scanned picture of a passport or ID card through the internet to fulfill a transaction online. To provide s...

  13. Performance analysis of chaotic and white watermarks in the presence of common watermark attacks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mooney, Aidan [Department of Computer Science, NUI Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland)], E-mail: amooney@cs.nuim.ie; Keating, John G. [Department of Computer Science, NUI Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland)], E-mail: john.keating@nuim.ie; Heffernan, Daniel M. [Department of Mathematical Physics, NUI Maynooth, Co. Kildare (Ireland); School of Theoretical Physics, Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 4 (Ireland)], E-mail: dmh@thphys.nuim.ie

    2009-10-15

    Digital watermarking is a technique that aims to embed a piece of information permanently into some digital media, which may be used at a later stage to prove owner authentication and attempt to provide protection to documents. The most common watermark types used to date are pseudorandom number sequences which possess a white spectrum. Chaotic watermark sequences have been receiving increasing interest recently and have been shown to be an alternative to the pseudorandom watermark types. In this paper the performance of pseudorandom watermarks and chaotic watermarks in the presence of common watermark attacks is performed. The chaotic watermarks are generated from the iteration of the skew tent map, the Bernoulli map and the logistic map. The analysis focuses on the watermarked images after they have been subjected to common image distortion attacks. The capacities of each of these images are also calculated. It is shown that signals generated from lowpass chaotic signals have superior performance over the other signal types analysed for the attacks studied.

  14. 37 CFR 201.28 - Statements of Account for digital audio recording devices or media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... conjunction with an annual audit of the manufacturing or importing party's financial statements. (ii) The CPA... Certified Public Accountants. (5) Manufacturing or importing party refers to any person or entity that... general class of products made up of functionally equivalent digital audio recording products with...

  15. Open soundcard as a platform for practical, laboratory study of digital audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Smilen; Serafin, Stefania

    2014-01-01

    This article investigates how lacking suitable platforms for laboratory exercises becomes a learning problem, limiting the practical experience students gain. In engineering education, laboratory demonstration difficulty of issues like real-time streaming in digital signal and audio processing...... afforded by such laboratories, and their open nature, could testably improve the diversity of demonstrated practical topics, while maintaining engineering students' motivation....

  16. Multimodal indexing of digital audio-visual documents: A case study for cultural heritage data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carmichael, J.; Larson, M.; Marlow, J.; Newman, E.; Clough, P.; Oomen, J.; Sav, S.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a multimedia multimodal information access sub-system (MIAS) for digital audio-visual documents, typically presented in streaming media format. The system is designed to provide both professional and general users with entry points into video documents that are relevant to their

  17. Design and Implementation of a linear-phase equalizer in digital audio signal processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slump, Cornelis H.; van Asma, C.G.M.; Barels, J.K.P.; Barels, J.K.P.; Brunink, W.J.A; Drenth, F.B.; Pol, J.V.; Schouten, D.S.; Samsom, M.M.; Samsom, M.M.; Herrmann, O.E.

    1992-01-01

    This contribution presents the four phases of a project aiming at the realization in VLSI of a digital audio equalizer with a linear phase characteristic. The first step includes the identification of the system requirements, based on experience and (psycho-acoustical) literature. Secondly, the

  18. Dual watermarking technique with multiple biometric watermarks

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    affect the visual quality of the original art. On the contrary, removable visible watermarking .... Significant motivation for using biometric features such as face, voice and signature as a watermark is that face and ... These are the major reasons which motivated us to propose multimodal biometric watermarking. When the ...

  19. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Mourjopoulos

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed “jither” and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., ×4 resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  20. Distortion-Free 1-Bit PWM Coding for Digital Audio Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourjopoulos John

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Although uniformly sampled pulse width modulation (UPWM represents a very efficient digital audio coding scheme for digital-to-analog conversion and full-digital amplification, it suffers from strong harmonic distortions, as opposed to benign non-harmonic artifacts present in analog PWM (naturally sampled PWM, NPWM. Complete elimination of these distortions usually requires excessive oversampling of the source PCM audio signal, which results to impractical realizations of digital PWM systems. In this paper, a description of digital PWM distortion generation mechanism is given and a novel principle for their minimization is proposed, based on a process having some similarity to the dithering principle employed in multibit signal quantization. This conditioning signal is termed "jither" and it can be applied either in the PCM amplitude or the PWM time domain. It is shown that the proposed method achieves significant decrement of the harmonic distortions, rendering digital PWM performance equivalent to that of source PCM audio, for mild oversampling (e.g., resulting to typical PWM clock rates of 90 MHz.

  1. Multimedia watermarking techniques and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Kirovski, Darko

    2006-01-01

    Intellectual property owners must continually exploit new ways of reproducing, distributing, and marketing their products. However, the threat of piracy looms as a major problem with digital distribution and storage technologies. Multimedia Watermarking Techniques and Applications covers all current and future trends in the design of modern systems that use watermarking to protect multimedia content. Containing the works of contributing authors who are worldwide experts in the field, this volume is intended for researchers and practitioners, as well as for those who want a broad understanding

  2. Wavelet-based audio embedding and audio/video compression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendenhall, Michael J.; Claypoole, Roger L., Jr.

    2001-12-01

    Watermarking, traditionally used for copyright protection, is used in a new and exciting way. An efficient wavelet-based watermarking technique embeds audio information into a video signal. Several effective compression techniques are applied to compress the resulting audio/video signal in an embedded fashion. This wavelet-based compression algorithm incorporates bit-plane coding, index coding, and Huffman coding. To demonstrate the potential of this audio embedding and audio/video compression algorithm, we embed an audio signal into a video signal and then compress. Results show that overall compression rates of 15:1 can be achieved. The video signal is reconstructed with a median PSNR of nearly 33 dB. Finally, the audio signal is extracted from the compressed audio/video signal without error.

  3. Digital Audiovisual Archives: Unlocking our Audio and Audiovisual ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... entered an exciting phase in managing our assets – the new archiving. We need to embrace these opportunities to save our collections and need to respond enthusiastically to the changing broadcast environment. We need to overcome the inefficiency of analogue and already obsolete digital content management, and

  4. Digitální audio zesilovač

    OpenAIRE

    Tiller, Jakub

    2010-01-01

    Tématem bakalářské práce jsou výkonové audio zesilovače pracující ve třídě D. Jejich velké rozšíření je způsobeno hlavně vysokou účinností a dobrými parametry. Tato práce je zaměřena na rozbor jednotlivých částí těchto zesilovačů a na rozbor možností měření jejich parametrů. Následně je v práci uveden návrh zesilovače jako laboratorního přípravku s možností číslicového řízení zesílení a navržena automatizovaná měření parametrů tohoto zesilovače v prostředí VEE Pro. Dále je v této práci navrže...

  5. An Improved Method to Watermark Images Sensitive to Blocking Artifacts

    OpenAIRE

    Afzel Noore

    2007-01-01

    A new digital watermarking technique for images that are sensitive to blocking artifacts is presented. Experimental results show that the proposed MDCT based approach produces highly imperceptible watermarked images and is robust to attacks such as compression, noise, filtering and geometric transformations. The proposed MDCT watermarking technique is applied to fingerprints for ensuring security. The face image and demographic text data of an individual are used as multi...

  6. ESA personal communications and digital audio broadcasting systems based on non-geostationary satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logalbo, P.; Benedicto, J.; Viola, R.

    1993-01-01

    Personal Communications and Digital Audio Broadcasting are two new services that the European Space Agency (ESA) is investigating for future European and Global Mobile Satellite systems. ESA is active in promoting these services in their various mission options including non-geostationary and geostationary satellite systems. A Medium Altitude Global Satellite System (MAGSS) for global personal communications at L and S-band, and a Multiregional Highly inclined Elliptical Orbit (M-HEO) system for multiregional digital audio broadcasting at L-band are described. Both systems are being investigated by ESA in the context of future programs, such as Archimedes, which are intended to demonstrate the new services and to develop the technology for future non-geostationary mobile communication and broadcasting satellites.

  7. A new method for robust video watermarking resistant against key estimation attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitekin, Vitaly

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents a new method for high-capacity robust digital video watermarking and algorithms of embedding and extraction of watermark based on this method. Proposed method uses password-based two-dimensional pseudonoise arrays for watermark embedding, making brute-force attacks aimed at steganographic key retrieval mostly impractical. Proposed algorithm for 2-dimensional "noise-like" watermarking patterns generation also allows to significantly decrease watermark collision probability ( i.e. probability of correct watermark detection and extraction using incorrect steganographic key or password).. Experimental research provided in this work also shows that simple correlation-based watermark detection procedure can be used, providing watermark robustness against lossy compression and watermark estimation attacks. At the same time, without decreasing robustness of embedded watermark, average complexity of the brute-force key retrieval attack can be increased to 1014 watermark extraction attempts (compared to 104-106 for a known robust watermarking schemes). Experimental results also shows that for lowest embedding intensity watermark preserves it's robustness against lossy compression of host video and at the same time preserves higher video quality (PSNR up to 51dB) compared to known wavelet-based and DCT-based watermarking algorithms.

  8. A game-theoretic architecture for visible watermarking system of ACOCOA (adaptive content and contrast aware technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsai Min-Jen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Digital watermarking techniques have been developed to protect the intellectual property. A digital watermarking system is basically judged based on two characteristics: security robustness and image quality. In order to obtain a robust visible watermarking in practice, we present a novel watermarking algorithm named adaptive content and contrast aware (ACOCOA, which considers the host image content and watermark texture. In addition, we propose a powerful security architecture against attacks for visible watermarking system which is based on game-theoretic approach that provides an equilibrium condition solution for the decision maker by studying the effects of transmission power on intensity and perceptual efficiency. The experimental results demonstrate that the feasibility of the proposed approach not only provides effectiveness and robustness for the watermarked images, but also allows the watermark encoder to obtain the best adaptive watermarking strategy under attacks.

  9. Adaptive Watermarking Algorithm in DCT Domain Based on Chaos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenhao Wang

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the security, robustness and invisibility of the digital watermarking, a new adaptive watermarking algorithm is proposed in this paper. Firstly, this algorithm uses chaos sequence, which Logistic chaotic mapping produces, to encrypt the watermark image. And then the original image is divided into many sub-blocks and discrete cosine transform (DCT.The watermark information is embedded into sub-blocks medium coefficients. With the features of Human Visual System (HVS and image texture sufficiently taken into account during embedding, the embedding intensity of watermark is able to adaptively adjust according to HVS and texture characteristic. The watermarking is embedded into the different sub-blocks coefficients. Experiment results haven shown that the proposed algorithm is robust against the attacks of general image processing methods, such as noise, cut, filtering and JPEG compression, and receives a good tradeoff between invisible and robustness, and better security.

  10. Ambiguity Function Analysis and Processing for Passive Radar Based on CDR Digital Audio Broadcasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available China Digital Radio (CDR broadcasting is a new standard of digital audio broadcasting of FM frequency (87–108 MHz based on our research and development efforts. It is compatible with the frequency spectrum in analog FM radio and satisfies the requirements for smooth transition from analog to digital signal in FM broadcasting in China. This paper focuses on the signal characteristics and processing methods of radio-based passive radar. The signal characteristics and ambiguity function of a passive radar illumination source are analyzed. The adverse effects on the target detection of the side peaks owing to cyclic prefix, the Doppler ambiguity strips because of signal synchronization, and the range of side peaks resulting from the signal discontinuous spectrum are then studied. Finally, methods for suppressing these side peaks are proposed and their effectiveness is verified by simulations.

  11. Exploration of a digital audio processing platform using a compositional system level performance estimation framework

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tranberg-Hansen, Anders Sejer; Madsen, Jan

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the application of a compositional simulation based system-level performance estimation framework on a non-trivial industrial case study. The case study is provided by the Danish company Bang & Olufsen ICEpower a/s and focuses on the exploration of a digital mobile audio...... processing platform. A short overview of the compositional performance estimation framework used is given followed by a presentation of how it is used for performance estimation using an iterative refinement process towards the final implementation. Finally, an evaluation in terms of accuracy and speed...

  12. System Level Power Optimization of Digital Audio Back End for Hearing Aids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracny, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2017-01-01

    This work deals with power optimization of the audio processing back end for hearing aids - the interpolation filter (IF), the sigma-delta (SD modulator and the Class D power amplifier (PA) as a whole. Specifications are derived and insight into the tradeoffs involved is used to optimize...... the interpolation filter and the SD modulator on the system level so that the switching frequency of the Class D PA - the main power consumer in the back end - is minimized. A figure-of-merit (FOM) which allows judging the power consumption of the digital part of the back end early in the design process is used...

  13. Video Watermarking Implementation Based on FPGA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EL-ARABY, W.S.M.S.

    2012-01-01

    The sudden increase in watermarking interest is most likely due to the increase in concern over copyright protection of content. With the rapid growth of the Internet and the multimedia systems in distributed environments, digital data owners are now easier to transfer multimedia documents across the Internet. However, current technology does not protect their copyrights properly. This leads to wide interest of multimedia security and multimedia copyright protection and it has become a great concern to the public in recent years. In the early days, encryption and control access techniques were used to protect the ownership of media. Recently, the watermarking techniques are utilized to keep safely the copyrights. In this thesis, a fast and secure invisible video watermark technique has been introduced. The technique based mainly on DCT and Low Frequency using pseudo random number (PN) sequence generator for embedding algorithm. The system has been realized using VHDL and the results have been verified using MATLAB. The implementation of the introduced watermark system done using Xilinx chip (XCV800). The implementation results show that the total area of watermark technique is 45% of total FPGA area with maximum delay equals 16.393ns. The experimental results show that the two techniques have mean square error (MSE) equal to 0.0133 and peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR) equal to 66.8984db. The results have been demonstrated and compared with conventional watermark technique using DCT.

  14. A new principle for a high-efficiency power audio amplifier for use with a digital preamplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1987-01-01

    The use of class-B and class-D amplifiers for converting digital audio signals to analog signals is discussed. It is shown that the class-D amplifier is unsuitable due to distortion. Therefore a new principle involving a switch-mode power supply and a class-B amplifier is suggested. By regulating...... the supply voltage to the amplifier according to the amplitude of the audio signal, a higher efficiency than can be obtained by the usual principles is achieved. The regulation can be done very efficiently by generating the control signal to the power supply in advance of the audio signal, made possible...

  15. A New Reversible Database Watermarking Approach with Firefly Optimization Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Bilgehan Imamoglu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Up-to-date information is crucial in many fields such as medicine, science, and stock market, where data should be distributed to clients from a centralized database. Shared databases are usually stored in data centers where they are distributed over insecure public access network, the Internet. Sharing may result in a number of problems such as unauthorized copies, alteration of data, and distribution to unauthorized people for reuse. Researchers proposed using watermarking to prevent problems and claim digital rights. Many methods are proposed recently to watermark databases to protect digital rights of owners. Particularly, optimization based watermarking techniques draw attention, which results in lower distortion and improved watermark capacity. Difference expansion watermarking (DEW with Firefly Algorithm (FFA, a bioinspired optimization technique, is proposed to embed watermark into relational databases in this work. Best attribute values to yield lower distortion and increased watermark capacity are selected efficiently by the FFA. Experimental results indicate that FFA has reduced complexity and results in less distortion and improved watermark capacity compared to similar works reported in the literature.

  16. Wavelet packet transform-based robust video watermarking technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    If any conflict happens to the copyright identification and authentication, ... the present work is concentrated on the robust digital video watermarking. .... the wavelet decomposition, resulting in a new family of orthonormal bases for function ...

  17. Enhancing security of fingerprints through contextual biometric watermarking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noore, Afzel; Singh, Richa; Vatsa, Mayank; Houck, Max M

    2007-07-04

    This paper presents a novel digital watermarking technique using face and demographic text data as multiple watermarks for verifying the chain of custody and protecting the integrity of a fingerprint image. The watermarks are embedded in selected texture regions of a fingerprint image using discrete wavelet transform. Experimental results show that modifications in these locations are visually imperceptible and maintain the minutiae details. The integrity of the fingerprint image is verified through the high matching scores obtained from an automatic fingerprint identification system. There is also a high degree of visual correlation between the embedded images, and the extracted images from the watermarked fingerprint. The degree of similarity is computed using pixel-based metrics and human visual system metrics. The results also show that the proposed watermarked fingerprint and the extracted images are resilient to common attacks such as compression, filtering, and noise.

  18. A blind reversible robust watermarking scheme for relational databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Chen; Nguyen, Thai-Son; Lin, Chia-Chen

    2013-01-01

    Protecting the ownership and controlling the copies of digital data have become very important issues in Internet-based applications. Reversible watermark technology allows the distortion-free recovery of relational databases after the embedded watermark data are detected or verified. In this paper, we propose a new, blind, reversible, robust watermarking scheme that can be used to provide proof of ownership for the owner of a relational database. In the proposed scheme, a reversible data-embedding algorithm, which is referred to as "histogram shifting of adjacent pixel difference" (APD), is used to obtain reversibility. The proposed scheme can detect successfully 100% of the embedded watermark data, even if as much as 80% of the watermarked relational database is altered. Our extensive analysis and experimental results show that the proposed scheme is robust against a variety of data attacks, for example, alteration attacks, deletion attacks, mix-match attacks, and sorting attacks.

  19. DISEÑO DE UN MICROSISTEMA PROGRAMABLE PARA EFECTOS DE AUDIO DIGITAL USANDO FPGAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Michael Espinosa Durán

    Full Text Available Este artículo describe el diseño de un microsistema programable para el procesamiento de efectos de audio digital implementado en un FPGA. El microsistema es diseñado usando un procesador de propósito específico y reconfigurable, un banco de RAMs y una interfaz gráfica de usuario basada en una pantalla táctil LCD. El procesador es diseñado usando 15 efectos de audio basados en retardos y procesamiento en el dominio dinámico y de la frecuencia. Los efectos son diseñados usando Megafunciones y el compilador FIR de Quartus II, son simulados en Simulink5 usando DSP Builder6, y son configurados utilizando una interfaz gráfica de usuario. El microsistema programable es implementado en el sistema de desarrollo DE2-70, y su funcionamiento es verificado usando un reproductor MP3 y un parlante. Adicionalmente, el microsistema permite la generación de efectos con alta fidelidad usando una tasa de muestreo máxima de 195.62 MSPS, y puede ser embebido en un SoC.

  20. A detailed study of the generation of optically detectable watermarks using the logistic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mooney, Aidan; Keating, John G.; Heffernan, Daniel M.

    2006-01-01

    A digital watermark is a visible, or preferably invisible, identification code that is permanently embedded in digital media, to prove owner authentication and provide protection for documents. Given the interest in watermark generation using chaotic functions a detailed study of one chaotic function for this purpose is performed. In this paper, we present an approach for the generation of watermarks using the logistic map. Using this function, in conjunction with seed management, it is possible to generate chaotic sequences that may be used to create highpass or lowpass digital watermarks. In this paper we provide a detailed study on the generation of optically detectable watermarks and we provide some guidelines on successful chaotic watermark generation using the logistic map, and show using a recently published scheme, how care must be taken in the selection of the function seed

  1. A digital input class-D audio amplifier with sixth-order PWM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Shumeng; Li Dongmei

    2013-01-01

    A digital input class-D audio amplifier with a sixth-order pulse-width modulation (PWM) modulator is presented. This modulator moves the PWM generator into the closed sigma—delta modulator loop. The noise and distortions generated at the PWM generator module are suppressed by the high gain of the forward loop of the sigma—delta modulator. Therefore, at the output of the modulator, a very clean PWM signal is acquired for driving the power stage of the class-D amplifier. A sixth-order modulator is designed to balance the performance and the system clock speed. Fabricated in standard 0.18 μm CMOS technology, this class-D amplifier achieves 110 dB dynamic range, 100 dB signal-to-noise rate, and 0.0056% total harmonic distortion plus noise. (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  2. TC9447F, single-chip DSP (digital signal processor) for audio; 1 chip audio yo DSP LSI TC9447F

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    TC9447F is a single-chip DSP for audio which builds in 2-channel AD converter/4-channel DA converter. It can build various application programs such as the sound field control like hall simulation, digital filter like equalizer, and dynamic range control, in the program memory (ROM). Further, it builds in {+-}10dB trim use electronic volume for two channels. It also builds data delay use RAM (64K-bit) in, so no RAM to be separately attached is necessary. (translated by NEDO)

  3. Can We Afford These Affordances? GarageBand and the Double-Edged Sword of the Digital Audio Workstation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Adam Patrick

    2015-01-01

    The proliferation of computers, tablets, and smartphones has resulted in digital audio workstations (DAWs) such as GarageBand in being some of the most widely distributed musical instruments. Positing that software designers are dictating the music education of DAW-dependent music-makers, I examine the fallacy that music-making applications such…

  4. 47 CFR 25.214 - Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Technical requirements for space stations in the satellite digital audio radio service and associated terrestrial repeaters. 25.214 Section 25.214 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS...

  5. 47 CFR 25.144 - Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Licensing provisions for the 2.3 GHz satellite digital audio radio service. 25.144 Section 25.144 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES SATELLITE COMMUNICATIONS Applications and Licenses Space Stations § 25...

  6. Video Multiple Watermarking Technique Based on Image Interlacing Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed M. Ibrahim

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  7. Video multiple watermarking technique based on image interlacing using DWT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed M; Abdel Kader, Neamat S; Zorkany, M

    2014-01-01

    Digital watermarking is one of the important techniques to secure digital media files in the domains of data authentication and copyright protection. In the nonblind watermarking systems, the need of the original host file in the watermark recovery operation makes an overhead over the system resources, doubles memory capacity, and doubles communications bandwidth. In this paper, a robust video multiple watermarking technique is proposed to solve this problem. This technique is based on image interlacing. In this technique, three-level discrete wavelet transform (DWT) is used as a watermark embedding/extracting domain, Arnold transform is used as a watermark encryption/decryption method, and different types of media (gray image, color image, and video) are used as watermarks. The robustness of this technique is tested by applying different types of attacks such as: geometric, noising, format-compression, and image-processing attacks. The simulation results show the effectiveness and good performance of the proposed technique in saving system resources, memory capacity, and communications bandwidth.

  8. Improved Bit Rate Control for Real-Time MPEG Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranata Sugiri

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The alteration of compressed video bitstream due to embedding of digital watermark tends to produce unpredictable video bit rate variations which may in turn lead to video playback buffer overflow/underflow or transmission bandwidth violation problems. This paper presents a novel bit rate control technique for real-time MPEG watermarking applications. In our experiments, spread spectrum watermarks are embedded in the quantized DCT domain without requantization and motion reestimation to achieve fast watermarking. The proposed bit rate control scheme evaluates the combined bit lengths of a set of multiple watermarked VLC codewords, and successively replaces watermarked VLC codewords having the largest increase in bit length with their corresponding unmarked VLC codewords until a target bit length is achieved. The proposed method offers flexibility and scalability, which are neglected by similar works reported in the literature. Experimental results show that the proposed bit rate control scheme is effective in meeting the bit rate targets and capable of improving the watermark detection robustness for different video contents compressed at different bit rates.

  9. A robust color image watermarking algorithm against rotation attacks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shao-cheng; Yang, Jin-feng; Wang, Rui; Jia, Gui-min

    2018-01-01

    A robust digital watermarking algorithm is proposed based on quaternion wavelet transform (QWT) and discrete cosine transform (DCT) for copyright protection of color images. The luminance component Y of a host color image in YIQ space is decomposed by QWT, and then the coefficients of four low-frequency subbands are transformed by DCT. An original binary watermark scrambled by Arnold map and iterated sine chaotic system is embedded into the mid-frequency DCT coefficients of the subbands. In order to improve the performance of the proposed algorithm against rotation attacks, a rotation detection scheme is implemented before watermark extracting. The experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking scheme shows strong robustness not only against common image processing attacks but also against arbitrary rotation attacks.

  10. Comparison of DCT, SVD and BFOA based multimodal biometric watermarking system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Anu H. Nair

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking is a major domain for hiding the biometric information, in which the watermark data are made to be concealed inside a host image imposing imperceptible change in the picture. Due to the advance in digital image watermarking, the majority of research aims to make a reliable improvement in robustness to prevent the attack. The reversible invisible watermarking scheme is used for fingerprint and iris multimodal biometric system. A novel approach is used for fusing different biometric modalities. Individual unique modalities of fingerprint and iris biometric are extracted and fused using different fusion techniques. The performance of different fusion techniques is evaluated and the Discrete Wavelet Transform fusion method is identified as the best. Then the best fused biometric template is watermarked into a cover image. The various watermarking techniques such as the Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD and Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA are implemented to the fused biometric feature image. Performance of watermarking systems is compared using different metrics. It is found that the watermarked images are found robust over different attacks and they are able to reverse the biometric template for Bacterial Foraging Optimization Algorithm (BFOA watermarking technique.

  11. Watermarking techniques for electronic delivery of remote sensing images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Bartolini, Franco; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella

    2002-09-01

    Earth observation missions have recently attracted a growing interest, mainly due to the large number of possible applications capable of exploiting remotely sensed data and images. Along with the increase of market potential, the need arises for the protection of the image products. Such a need is a very crucial one, because the Internet and other public/private networks have become preferred means of data exchange. A critical issue arising when dealing with digital image distribution is copyright protection. Such a problem has been largely addressed by resorting to watermarking technology. A question that obviously arises is whether the requirements imposed by remote sensing imagery are compatible with existing watermarking techniques. On the basis of these motivations, the contribution of this work is twofold: assessment of the requirements imposed by remote sensing applications on watermark-based copyright protection, and modification of two well-established digital watermarking techniques to meet such constraints. More specifically, the concept of near-lossless watermarking is introduced and two possible algorithms matching such a requirement are presented. Experimental results are shown to measure the impact of watermark introduction on a typical remote sensing application, i.e., unsupervised image classification.

  12. The First 50 Years of Electronic Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingemar J. Cox

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Electronic watermarking can be traced back as far as 1954. The last 10 years has seen considerable interest in digital watermarking, due, in large part, to concerns about illegal piracy of copyrighted content. In this paper, we consider the following questions: is the interest warranted? What are the commercial applications of the technology? What scientific progress has been made in the last 10 years? What are the most exciting areas for research? And where might the next 10 years take us? In our opinion, the interest in watermarking is appropriate. However, we expect that copyright applications will be overshadowed by applications such as broadcast monitoring, authentication, and tracking content distributed within corporations. We further see a variety of applications emerging that add value to media, such as annotation and linking content to the Web. These latter applications may turn out to be the most compelling. Considerable progress has been made toward enabling these applications—perceptual modelling, security threats and countermeasures, and the development of a bag of tricks for efficient implementations. Further progress is needed in methods for handling geometric and temporal distortions. We expect other exciting developments to arise from research in informed watermarking.

  13. Design and Implementation of a Video-Zoom Driven Digital Audio-Zoom System for Portable Digital Imaging Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nam In; Kim, Seon Man; Kim, Hong Kook; Kim, Ji Woon; Kim, Myeong Bo; Yun, Su Won

    In this paper, we propose a video-zoom driven audio-zoom algorithm in order to provide audio zooming effects in accordance with the degree of video-zoom. The proposed algorithm is designed based on a super-directive beamformer operating with a 4-channel microphone system, in conjunction with a soft masking process that considers the phase differences between microphones. Thus, the audio-zoom processed signal is obtained by multiplying an audio gain derived from a video-zoom level by the masked signal. After all, a real-time audio-zoom system is implemented on an ARM-CORETEX-A8 having a clock speed of 600 MHz after different levels of optimization are performed such as algorithmic level, C-code, and memory optimizations. To evaluate the complexity of the proposed real-time audio-zoom system, test data whose length is 21.3 seconds long is sampled at 48 kHz. As a result, it is shown from the experiments that the processing time for the proposed audio-zoom system occupies 14.6% or less of the ARM clock cycles. It is also shown from the experimental results performed in a semi-anechoic chamber that the signal with the front direction can be amplified by approximately 10 dB compared to the other directions.

  14. Mobile Watermarking against Geometrical Distortions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mobile watermarking robust to geometrical distortions is still a great challenge. In mobile watermarking, efficient computation is necessary because mobile devices have very limited resources due to power consumption. In this paper, we propose a low-complexity geometrically resilient watermarking approach based on the optimal tradeoff circular harmonic function (OTCHF correlation filter and the minimum average correlation energy Mellin radial harmonic (MACE-MRH correlation filter. By the rotation, translation and scale tolerance properties of the two kinds of filter, the proposed watermark detector can be robust to geometrical attacks. The embedded watermark is weighted by a perceptual mask which matches very well with the properties of the human visual system. Before correlation, a whitening process is utilized to improve watermark detection reliability. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed watermarking approach is computationally efficient and robust to geometrical distortions.

  15. Imperceptible reversible watermarking of radiographic images based on quantum noise masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Wei; Bouslimi, Dalel; Karasad, Mohamed; Cozic, Michel; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2018-07-01

    Advances in information and communication technologies boost the sharing and remote access to medical images. Along with this evolution, needs in terms of data security are also increased. Watermarking can contribute to better protect images by dissimulating into their pixels some security attributes (e.g., digital signature, user identifier). But, to take full advantage of this technology in healthcare, one key problem to address is to ensure that the image distortion induced by the watermarking process does not endanger the image diagnosis value. To overcome this issue, reversible watermarking is one solution. It allows watermark removal with the exact recovery of the image. Unfortunately, reversibility does not mean that imperceptibility constraints are relaxed. Indeed, once the watermark removed, the image is unprotected. It is thus important to ensure the invisibility of reversible watermark in order to ensure a permanent image protection. We propose a new fragile reversible watermarking scheme for digital radiographic images, the main originality of which stands in masking a reversible watermark into the image quantum noise (the dominant noise in radiographic images). More clearly, in order to ensure the watermark imperceptibility, our scheme differentiates the image black background, where message embedding is conducted into pixel gray values with the well-known histogram shifting (HS) modulation, from the anatomical object, where HS is applied to wavelet detail coefficients, masking the watermark with the image quantum noise. In order to maintain the watermark embedder and reader synchronized in terms of image partitioning and insertion domain, our scheme makes use of different classification processes that are invariant to message embedding. We provide the theoretical performance limits of our scheme into the image quantum noise in terms of image distortion and message size (i.e. capacity). Experiments conducted on more than 800 12 bits radiographic images

  16. Semantically transparent fingerprinting for right protection of digital cinema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaolin

    2003-06-01

    Digital cinema, a new frontier and crown jewel of digital multimedia, has the potential of revolutionizing the science, engineering and business of movie production and distribution. The advantages of digital cinema technology over traditional analog technology are numerous and profound. But without effective and enforceable copyright protection measures, digital cinema can be more susceptible to widespread piracy, which can dampen or even prevent the commercial deployment of digital cinema. In this paper we propose a novel approach of fingerprinting each individual distribution copy of a digital movie for the purpose of tracing pirated copies back to their source. The proposed fingerprinting technique presents a fundamental departure from the traditional digital watermarking/fingerprinting techniques. Its novelty and uniqueness lie in a so-called semantic or subjective transparency property. The fingerprints are created by editing those visual and audio attributes that can be modified with semantic and subjective transparency to the audience. Semantically-transparent fingerprinting or watermarking is the most robust kind among all existing watermarking techniques, because it is content-based not sample-based, and semantically-recoverable not statistically-recoverable.

  17. Two-dimensional block-based reception for differentially encoded OFDM systems : a study on improved reception techniques for digital audio broadcasting systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houtum, van W.J.

    2012-01-01

    Digital audio broadcast (DAB), DAB+ and Terrestrial-Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (T-DMB) systems use multi-carrier modulation (MCM). The principle of MCM in the DAB-family is based on orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM), for which every subcarrier is modulated by p 4 differentially

  18. Design of an H.264/SVC resilient watermarking scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Caenegem, Robrecht; Dooms, Ann; Barbarien, Joeri; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-01-01

    The rapid dissemination of media technologies has lead to an increase of unauthorized copying and distribution of digital media. Digital watermarking, i.e. embedding information in the multimedia signal in a robust and imperceptible manner, can tackle this problem. Recently, there has been a huge growth in the number of different terminals and connections that can be used to consume multimedia. To tackle the resulting distribution challenges, scalable coding is often employed. Scalable coding allows the adaptation of a single bit-stream to varying terminal and transmission characteristics. As a result of this evolution, watermarking techniques that are robust against scalable compression become essential in order to control illegal copying. In this paper, a watermarking technique resilient against scalable video compression using the state-of-the-art H.264/SVC codec is therefore proposed and evaluated.

  19. A Novel Medical Image Watermarking in Three-dimensional Fourier Compressed Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baoru Han

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Digital watermarking is a research hotspot in the field of image security, which is protected digital image copyright. In order to ensure medical image information security, a novel medical image digital watermarking algorithm in three-dimensional Fourier compressed domain is proposed. The novel medical image digital watermarking algorithm takes advantage of three-dimensional Fourier compressed domain characteristics, Legendre chaotic neural network encryption features and robust characteristics of differences hashing, which is a robust zero-watermarking algorithm. On one hand, the original watermarking image is encrypted in order to enhance security. It makes use of Legendre chaotic neural network implementation. On the other hand, the construction of zero-watermarking adopts differences hashing in three-dimensional Fourier compressed domain. The novel watermarking algorithm does not need to select a region of interest, can solve the problem of medical image content affected. The specific implementation of the algorithm and the experimental results are given in the paper. The simulation results testify that the novel algorithm possesses a desirable robustness to common attack and geometric attack.

  20. A wavelet domain adaptive image watermarking method based on chaotic encryption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Fang; Liu, Jian; Cao, Hanqiang; Yang, Jun

    2009-10-01

    A digital watermarking technique is a specific branch of steganography, which can be used in various applications, provides a novel way to solve security problems for multimedia information. In this paper, we proposed a kind of wavelet domain adaptive image digital watermarking method using chaotic stream encrypt and human eye visual property. The secret information that can be seen as a watermarking is hidden into a host image, which can be publicly accessed, so the transportation of the secret information will not attract the attention of illegal receiver. The experimental results show that the method is invisible and robust against some image processing.

  1. A text zero-watermarking method based on keyword dense interval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhu, Yuesheng; Jiang, Yifeng; Qing, Yin

    2017-07-01

    Digital watermarking has been recognized as a useful technology for the copyright protection and authentication of digital information. However, rarely did the former methods focus on the key content of digital carrier. The idea based on the protection of key content is more targeted and can be considered in different digital information, including text, image and video. In this paper, we use text as research object and a text zero-watermarking method which uses keyword dense interval (KDI) as the key content is proposed. First, we construct zero-watermarking model by introducing the concept of KDI and giving the method of KDI extraction. Second, we design detection model which includes secondary generation of zero-watermark and the similarity computing method of keyword distribution. Besides, experiments are carried out, and the results show that the proposed method gives better performance than other available methods especially in the attacks of sentence transformation and synonyms substitution.

  2. Invisible watermarking optical camera communication and compatibility issues of IEEE 802.15.7r1 specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le, Nam-Tuan

    2017-05-01

    Copyright protection and information security are two most considered issues of digital data following the development of internet and computer network. As an important solution for protection, watermarking technology has become one of the challenged roles in industry and academic research. The watermarking technology can be classified by two categories: visible watermarking and invisible watermarking. With invisible technique, there is an advantage on user interaction because of the visibility. By applying watermarking for communication, it will be a challenge and a new direction for communication technology. In this paper we will propose one new research on communication technology using optical camera communications (OCC) based invisible watermarking. Beside the analysis on performance of proposed system, we also suggest the frame structure of PHY and MAC layer for IEEE 802.15.7r1 specification which is a revision of visible light communication (VLC) standardization.

  3. Watermarking spot colors in packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Alastair; Filler, TomáÅ.¡; Falkenstern, Kristyn; Bai, Yang

    2015-03-01

    In January 2014, Digimarc announced Digimarc® Barcode for the packaging industry to improve the check-out efficiency and customer experience for retailers. Digimarc Barcode is a machine readable code that carries the same information as a traditional Universal Product Code (UPC) and is introduced by adding a robust digital watermark to the package design. It is imperceptible to the human eye but can be read by a modern barcode scanner at the Point of Sale (POS) station. Compared to a traditional linear barcode, Digimarc Barcode covers the whole package with minimal impact on the graphic design. This significantly improves the Items per Minute (IPM) metric, which retailers use to track the checkout efficiency since it closely relates to their profitability. Increasing IPM by a few percent could lead to potential savings of millions of dollars for retailers, giving them a strong incentive to add the Digimarc Barcode to their packages. Testing performed by Digimarc showed increases in IPM of at least 33% using the Digimarc Barcode, compared to using a traditional barcode. A method of watermarking print ready image data used in the commercial packaging industry is described. A significant proportion of packages are printed using spot colors, therefore spot colors needs to be supported by an embedder for Digimarc Barcode. Digimarc Barcode supports the PANTONE spot color system, which is commonly used in the packaging industry. The Digimarc Barcode embedder allows a user to insert the UPC code in an image while minimizing perceptibility to the Human Visual System (HVS). The Digimarc Barcode is inserted in the printing ink domain, using an Adobe Photoshop plug-in as the last step before printing. Since Photoshop is an industry standard widely used by pre-press shops in the packaging industry, a Digimarc Barcode can be easily inserted and proofed.

  4. 75 FR 17874 - Digital Audio Broadcasting Systems and Their Impact on the Terrestrial Radio Broadcast Service

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... power (ERP), and implements interference mitigation and remediation procedures to resolve promptly... ERP increase undertaken pursuant to the procedures adopted. The increase in FM hybrid digital ERP will... increases in FM digital ERP do not adversely affect existing FM analog operations. These rule changes...

  5. Mixed-Signal Architectures for High-Efficiency and Low-Distortion Digital Audio Processing and Power Amplification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierangelo Terreni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper addresses the algorithmic and architectural design of digital input power audio amplifiers. A modelling platform, based on a meet-in-the-middle approach between top-down and bottom-up design strategies, allows a fast but still accurate exploration of the mixed-signal design space. Different amplifier architectures are configured and compared to find optimal trade-offs among different cost-functions: low distortion, high efficiency, low circuit complexity and low sensitivity to parameter changes. A novel amplifier architecture is derived; its prototype implements digital processing IP macrocells (oversampler, interpolating filter, PWM cross-point deriver, noise shaper, multilevel PWM modulator, dead time compensator on a single low-complexity FPGA while off-chip components are used only for the power output stage (LC filter and power MOS bridge; no heatsink is required. The resulting digital input amplifier features a power efficiency higher than 90% and a total harmonic distortion down to 0.13% at power levels of tens of Watts. Discussions towards the full-silicon integration of the mixed-signal amplifier in embedded devices, using BCD technology and targeting power levels of few Watts, are also reported.

  6. SISTEM LEGALISIR SCAN IJASAH ONLINE BERBASIS QR CODE DAN WATERMARKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin Yudi Hidayat

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Dokumen ijasah memiliki arti penting bagi pemiliknya sebagai bukti seseorang telah menyelesaikan satu tahap studi yang ditempuh. Ijasah juga termasuk syarat utama ketika seseorang melamar kerja. Universitas Dian Nuswantoro (UDINUS memerlukan sistem yang handal untuk mengelola legalisir ijasah dengan cara digital dan online. Meskipun unggul dalam penyimpanan, ijasah dalam bentuk digital dapat dimodifikasi dan disalahgunakan dengan mudah. Untuk itu, perlindungan terhadap legalisir ijasah digital sangat diperlukan untuk menghindari penyalahgunaan oleh pihak yang tidak berwenang. Metode verifikasi pertama adalah Quick Response (QR Code. Metode kedua disebut watermarking. Hasil yang diperoleh menunjukkan, metode ini dapat diaplikasikan pada legalisir ijasah di lingkungan UDINUS untuk mempermudah pencarian data dan meminimalkan kemungkinan modifikasi dokumen ijasah digital. Kata Kunci: legalisir, ijasah, QR Code, watermarking.

  7. A dual adaptive watermarking scheme in contourlet domain for DICOM images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabbani Hossein

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nowadays, medical imaging equipments produce digital form of medical images. In a modern health care environment, new systems such as PACS (picture archiving and communication systems, use the digital form of medical image too. The digital form of medical images has lots of advantages over its analog form such as ease in storage and transmission. Medical images in digital form must be stored in a secured environment to preserve patient privacy. It is also important to detect modifications on the image. These objectives are obtained by watermarking in medical image. Methods In this paper, we present a dual and oblivious (blind watermarking scheme in the contourlet domain. Because of importance of ROI (region of interest in interpretation by medical doctors rather than RONI (region of non-interest, we propose an adaptive dual watermarking scheme with different embedding strength in ROI and RONI. We embed watermark bits in singular value vectors of the embedded blocks within lowpass subband in contourlet domain. Results The values of PSNR (peak signal-to-noise ratio and SSIM (structural similarity measure index of ROI for proposed DICOM (digital imaging and communications in medicine images in this paper are respectively larger than 64 and 0.997. These values confirm that our algorithm has good transparency. Because of different embedding strength, BER (bit error rate values of signature watermark are less than BER values of caption watermark. Our results show that watermarked images in contourlet domain have greater robustness against attacks than wavelet domain. In addition, the qualitative analysis of our method shows it has good invisibility. Conclusions The proposed contourlet-based watermarking algorithm in this paper uses an automatically selection for ROI and embeds the watermark in the singular values of contourlet subbands that makes the algorithm more efficient, and robust against noise attacks than other transform

  8. A Robust Image Watermarking in the Joint Time-Frequency Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yalçın Çekiç

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of computers and internet applications, copyright protection of multimedia data has become an important problem. Watermarking techniques are proposed as a solution to copyright protection of digital media files. In this paper, a new, robust, and high-capacity watermarking method that is based on spatiofrequency (SF representation is presented. We use the discrete evolutionary transform (DET calculated by the Gabor expansion to represent an image in the joint SF domain. The watermark is embedded onto selected coefficients in the joint SF domain. Hence, by combining the advantages of spatial and spectral domain watermarking methods, a robust, invisible, secure, and high-capacity watermarking method is presented. A correlation-based detector is also proposed to detect and extract any possible watermarks on an image. The proposed watermarking method was tested on some commonly used test images under different signal processing attacks like additive noise, Wiener and Median filtering, JPEG compression, rotation, and cropping. Simulation results show that our method is robust against all of the attacks.

  9. A Reliable Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Redistributed Image Normalization and SVD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musrrat Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Digital image watermarking is the process of concealing secret information in a digital image for protecting its rightful ownership. Most of the existing block based singular value decomposition (SVD digital watermarking schemes are not robust to geometric distortions, such as rotation in an integer multiple of ninety degree and image flipping, which change the locations of the pixels but don’t make any changes to the pixel’s intensity of the image. Also, the schemes have used a constant scaling factor to give the same weightage to the coefficients of different magnitudes that results in visible distortion in some regions of the watermarked image. Therefore, to overcome the problems mentioned here, this paper proposes a novel image watermarking scheme by incorporating the concepts of redistributed image normalization and variable scaling factor depending on the coefficient’s magnitude to be embedded. Furthermore, to enhance the security and robustness the watermark is shuffled by using the piecewise linear chaotic map before the embedding. To investigate the robustness of the scheme several attacks are applied to seriously distort the watermarked image. Empirical analysis of the results has demonstrated the efficiency of the proposed scheme.

  10. Content Preserving Watermarking for Medical Images Using Shearlet Transform and SVD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favorskaya, M. N.; Savchina, E. I.

    2017-05-01

    Medical Image Watermarking (MIW) is a special field of a watermarking due to the requirements of the Digital Imaging and COmmunications in Medicine (DICOM) standard since 1993. All 20 parts of the DICOM standard are revised periodically. The main idea of the MIW is to embed various types of information including the doctor's digital signature, fragile watermark, electronic patient record, and main watermark in a view of region of interest for the doctor into the host medical image. These four types of information are represented in different forms; some of them are encrypted according to the DICOM requirements. However, all types of information ought to be resulted into the generalized binary stream for embedding. The generalized binary stream may have a huge volume. Therefore, not all watermarking methods can be applied successfully. Recently, the digital shearlet transform had been introduced as a rigorous mathematical framework for the geometric representation of multi-dimensional data. Some modifications of the shearlet transform, particularly the non-subsampled shearlet transform, can be associated to a multi-resolution analysis that provides a fully shift-invariant, multi-scale, and multi-directional expansion. During experiments, a quality of the extracted watermarks under the JPEG compression and typical internet attacks was estimated using several metrics, including the peak signal to noise ratio, structural similarity index measure, and bit error rate.

  11. A Visual Cryptography Based Watermark Technology for Individual and Group Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzam Sleit

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The ease by which digital information can be duplicated and distributed has led to the need for effective copyright protection tools. Various techniques including watermarking have been introduced in attempt to address these growing concerns. Most watermarking algorithms call for a piece of information to be hidden directly in media content, in such a way that it is imperceptible to a human observer, but detectable by a computer. This paper presents an improved cryptographic watermark method based on Hwang and Naor-Shamir [1, 2] approaches. The technique does not require that the watermark pattern to be embedded in to the original digital image. Verification information is generated and used to validate the ownership of the image or a group of images. The watermark pattern can be any bitmap image. Experimental results show that the proposed method can recover the watermark pattern from the marked image (or group of images even if major changes are reflected on the original digital image or any member of the image group such as rotation, scaling and distortion.

  12. Audio Papers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh; Samson, Kristine

    2016-01-01

    With this special issue of Seismograf we are happy to present a new format of articles: Audio Papers. Audio papers resemble the regular essay or the academic text in that they deal with a certain topic of interest, but presented in the form of an audio production. The audio paper is an extension...

  13. Quantum color image watermarking based on Arnold transformation and LSB steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Hu, Wenwen; Fan, Ping; Luo, Gaofeng

    In this paper, a quantum color image watermarking scheme is proposed through twice-scrambling of Arnold transformations and steganography of least significant bit (LSB). Both carrier image and watermark images are represented by the novel quantum representation of color digital images model (NCQI). The image sizes for carrier and watermark are assumed to be 2n×2n and 2n‑1×2n‑1, respectively. At first, the watermark is scrambled into a disordered form through image preprocessing technique of exchanging the image pixel position and altering the color information based on Arnold transforms, simultaneously. Then, the scrambled watermark with 2n‑1×2n‑1 image size and 24-qubit grayscale is further expanded to an image with size 2n×2n and 6-qubit grayscale using the nearest-neighbor interpolation method. Finally, the scrambled and expanded watermark is embedded into the carrier by steganography of LSB scheme, and a key image with 2n×2n size and 3-qubit information is generated at the meantime, which only can use the key image to retrieve the original watermark. The extraction of watermark is the reverse process of embedding, which is achieved by applying a sequence of operations in the reverse order. Simulation-based experimental results involving different carrier and watermark images (i.e. conventional or non-quantum) are simulated based on the classical computer’s MATLAB 2014b software, which illustrates that the present method has a good performance in terms of three items: visual quality, robustness and steganography capacity.

  14. Securing Biometric Images using Reversible Watermarking

    OpenAIRE

    Thampi, Sabu M.; Jacob, Ann Jisma

    2011-01-01

    Biometric security is a fast growing area. Protecting biometric data is very important since it can be misused by attackers. In order to increase security of biometric data there are different methods in which watermarking is widely accepted. A more acceptable, new important development in this area is reversible watermarking in which the original image can be completely restored and the watermark can be retrieved. But reversible watermarking in biometrics is an understudied area. Reversible ...

  15. A Robust Color Image Watermarking Scheme Using Entropy and QR Decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Laur

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet has affected our everyday life drastically. Expansive volumes of information are exchanged over the Internet consistently which causes numerous security concerns. Issues like content identification, document and image security, audience measurement, ownership, copyrights and others can be settled by using digital watermarking. In this work, robust and imperceptible non-blind color image watermarking algorithm is proposed, which benefit from the fact that watermark can be hidden in different color channel which results into further robustness of the proposed technique to attacks. Given method uses some algorithms such as entropy, discrete wavelet transform, Chirp z-transform, orthogonal-triangular decomposition and Singular value decomposition in order to embed the watermark in a color image. Many experiments are performed using well-known signal processing attacks such as histogram equalization, adding noise and compression. Experimental results show that proposed scheme is imperceptible and robust against common signal processing attacks.

  16. Audio Restoration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquef, Paulo A. A.

    The first reproducible recording of human voice was made in 1877 on a tinfoil cylinder phonograph devised by Thomas A. Edison. Since then, much effort has been expended to find better ways to record and reproduce sounds. By the mid-1920s, the first electrical recordings appeared and gradually took over purely acoustic recordings. The development of electronic computers, in conjunction with the ability to record data onto magnetic or optical media, culminated in the standardization of compact disc format in 1980. Nowadays, digital technology is applied to several audio applications, not only to improve the quality of modern and old recording/reproduction techniques, but also to trade off sound quality for less storage space and less taxing transmission capacity requirements.

  17. Dual watermarking scheme for secure buyer-seller watermarking protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Neelesh; Shandilya, Madhu

    2012-04-01

    A buyer-seller watermarking protocol utilize watermarking along with cryptography for copyright and copy protection for the seller and meanwhile it also preserve buyers rights for privacy. It enables a seller to successfully identify a malicious seller from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer and provide anonymity to buyer. Up to now many buyer-seller watermarking protocols have been proposed which utilize more and more cryptographic scheme to solve many common problems such as customer's rights, unbinding problem, buyer's anonymity problem and buyer's participation in the dispute resolution. But most of them are infeasible since the buyer may not have knowledge of cryptography. Another issue is the number of steps to complete the protocols are large, a buyer needs to interact with different parties many times in these protocols, which is very inconvenient for buyer. To overcome these drawbacks, in this paper we proposed dual watermarking scheme in encrypted domain. Since neither of watermark has been generated by buyer so a general layman buyer can use the protocol.

  18. Ambiguity attacks on robust blind image watermarking scheme based on redundant discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Loukhaoukha

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Among emergent applications of digital watermarking are copyright protection and proof of ownership. Recently, Makbol and Khoo (2013 have proposed for these applications a new robust blind image watermarking scheme based on the redundant discrete wavelet transform (RDWT and the singular value decomposition (SVD. In this paper, we present two ambiguity attacks on this algorithm that have shown that this algorithm fails when used to provide robustness applications like owner identification, proof of ownership, and transaction tracking. Keywords: Ambiguity attack, Image watermarking, Singular value decomposition, Redundant discrete wavelet transform

  19. Robustness Analysis of Dynamic Watermarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan V. Nechta

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider previously known scheme of dynamic watermarks embedding (Ra- dix-n that is used for preventing illegal use of software. According to the scheme a watermark is dynamic linked data structure (graph, which is created in memory during program execution. Hidden data, such as information about author, can be represented in a different type of graph structure. This data can be extracted and demonstrated in judicial proceedings. This paper declared that the above mentioned scheme was previously one of the most reliable, has a number of features that allows an attacker to detect a stage of watermark construction in the program, and therefore it can be corrupted or deleted. The author of this article shows the weakness of Radix-N scheme, which consists in the fact that we can reveal dynamic data structures of a program by using information received from some API-functions hooker which catches function calls of dynamic memory allocation. One of these data structures is the watermark. Pointers on dynamically created objects (arrays, variables, class items, etc. of a program can be detected by content analysis of computer's RAM. Different dynamic objects in memory interconnected by pointers form dynamic data structures of a program such as lists, stacks, trees and other graphs (including the watermark. Our experiment shows that in the vast majority of cases the amount of data structure in programs is small, which increases probability of a successful attack. Also we present an algorithm for finding connected components of a graph with linear time-consuming in cases where the number of nodes is about 106. On the basis of the experimental findings the new watermarking scheme has been presented, which is resistant to the proposed attack. It is offered to use different graph structure representation of a watermark, where edges are implemented using unique signatures. Our scheme uses content encrypting of graph nodes (except signature

  20. A new approach of watermarking technique by means multichannel wavelet functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agreste, Santa; Puccio, Luigia

    2012-12-01

    The digital piracy involving images, music, movies, books, and so on, is a legal problem that has not found a solution. Therefore it becomes crucial to create and to develop methods and numerical algorithms in order to solve the copyright problems. In this paper we focus the attention on a new approach of watermarking technique applied to digital color images. Our aim is to describe the realized watermarking algorithm based on multichannel wavelet functions with multiplicity r = 3, called MCWM 1.0. We report a large experimentation and some important numerical results in order to show the robustness of the proposed algorithm to geometrical attacks.

  1. Smart security and securing data through watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ritesh; Kumar, Lalit; Banik, Debraj; Sundar, S.

    2017-11-01

    The growth of image processing in embedded system has provided the boon of enhancing the security in various sectors. This lead to the developing of various protective strategies, which will be needed by private or public sectors for cyber security purposes. So, we have developed a method which uses digital water marking and locking mechanism for the protection of any closed premises. This paper describes a contemporary system based on user name, user id, password and encryption technique which can be placed in banks, protected offices to beef the security up. The burglary can be abated substantially by using a proactive safety structure. In this proposed framework, we are using water-marking in spatial domain to encode and decode the image and PIR(Passive Infrared Sensor) sensor to detect the existence of person in any close area.

  2. Quantum Watermarking Scheme Based on INEQR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Zhou, Yang; Zhu, Changming; Wei, Lai; Zhang, Xiafen; Ian, Hou

    2018-04-01

    Quantum watermarking technology protects copyright by embedding invisible quantum signal in quantum multimedia data. In this paper, a watermarking scheme based on INEQR was presented. Firstly, the watermark image is extended to achieve the requirement of embedding carrier image. Secondly, the swap and XOR operation is used on the processed pixels. Since there is only one bit per pixel, XOR operation can achieve the effect of simple encryption. Thirdly, both the watermark image extraction and embedding operations are described, where the key image, swap operation and LSB algorithm are used. When the embedding is made, the binary image key is changed. It means that the watermark has been embedded. Of course, if the watermark image is extracted, the key's state need detected. When key's state is |1>, this extraction operation is carried out. Finally, for validation of the proposed scheme, both the Signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the security of the scheme are analyzed.

  3. AN EFFICIENT ROBUST IMAGE WATERMARKING BASED ON AC PREDICTION TECHNIQUE USING DCT TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaurav Gupta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of technology has made several simple ways to manipulate the original content. This has brought the concern for security of the content which is easily available in open network. Digital watermarking is the most suitable solution for the defined issue. Digital watermarking is the art of inserting the logo into multimedia object to have proof of ownership whenever it is required. The proposed algorithm is useful in authorized distribution and ownership verification. The algorithm uses the concept of AC prediction using DCT to embed the watermark in the image. The algorithm has excellent robustness against all the attacks and outperforms the similar work with admirable performance in terms of Normalized Correlation (NC, Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR and Tamper Assessment Function (TAF.

  4. Adaptive Watermarking Scheme Using Biased Shift of Quantization Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Ho Seo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a watermark embedding and extracting method for blind watermarking. It uses the characteristics of a scalar quantizer to comply with the recommendation in JPEG, MPEG series, or JPEG2000. Our method performs embedding of a watermark bit by shifting the corresponding frequency transform coefficient (the watermark position to a quantization index according to the value of the watermark bit, which prevents from losing the watermark information during the data compression process. The watermark can be embedded simultaneously to the quantization process without an additional process for watermarking, which means it can be performed at the same speed to the compression process. In the embedding process, a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR is used to hide the watermark informations and the watermark positions. The experimental results showed that the proposed method satisfies enough robustness and imperceptibility that are the major requirements for watermarking.

  5. A Novel Texture-Quantization-Based Reversible Multiple Watermarking Scheme Applied to Health Information System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turuk, Mousami; Dhande, Ashwin

    2018-04-01

    The recent innovations in information and communication technologies have appreciably changed the panorama of health information system (HIS). These advances provide new means to process, handle, and share medical images and also augment the medical image security issues in terms of confidentiality, reliability, and integrity. Digital watermarking has emerged as new era that offers acceptable solutions to the security issues in HIS. Texture is a significant feature to detect the embedding sites in an image, which further leads to substantial improvement in the robustness. However, considering the perspective of digital watermarking, this feature has received meager attention in the reported literature. This paper exploits the texture property of an image and presents a novel hybrid texture-quantization-based approach for reversible multiple watermarking. The watermarked image quality has been accessed by peak signal to noise ratio (PSNR), structural similarity measure (SSIM), and universal image quality index (UIQI), and the obtained results are superior to the state-of-the-art methods. The algorithm has been evaluated on a variety of medical imaging modalities (CT, MRA, MRI, US) and robustness has been verified, considering various image processing attacks including JPEG compression. The proposed scheme offers additional security using repetitive embedding of BCH encoded watermarks and ADM encrypted ECG signal. Experimental results achieved a maximum of 22,616 bits hiding capacity with PSNR of 53.64 dB.

  6. Audio Twister

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Moreno Garcia, Rodrigo; Monastiridis, Stefanos

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Rodrigo Moreno Garcia, Stefanos Monastiridis. Audio Twister. Installation. P-Hack Copenhagen 2015, Copenhagen, DK, Apr 24, 2015....

  7. Wavelet based mobile video watermarking: spread spectrum vs. informed embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, M.; Prêteux, F.; Duţă, S.; Petrescu, M.

    2005-11-01

    The cell phone expansion provides an additional direction for digital video content distribution: music clips, news, sport events are more and more transmitted toward mobile users. Consequently, from the watermarking point of view, a new challenge should be taken: very low bitrate contents (e.g. as low as 64 kbit/s) are now to be protected. Within this framework, the paper approaches for the first time the mathematical models for two random processes, namely the original video to be protected and a very harmful attack any watermarking method should face the StirMark attack. By applying an advanced statistical investigation (combining the Chi square, Ro, Fisher and Student tests) in the discrete wavelet domain, it is established that the popular Gaussian assumption can be very restrictively used when describing the former process and has nothing to do with the latter. As these results can a priori determine the performances of several watermarking methods, both of spread spectrum and informed embedding types, they should be considered in the design stage.

  8. Performance evaluation of TDT soil water content and watermark soil water potential sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated the performance of digitized Time Domain Transmissometry (TDT) soil water content sensors (Acclima, Inc., Meridian, ID) and resistance-based soil water potential sensors (Watermark 200, Irrometer Company, Inc., Riverside, CA) in two soils. The evaluation was performed by compar...

  9. A Spatial Domain Quantum Watermarking Scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhan-Hong; Chen Xiu-Bo; Niu Xin-Xin; Yang Yi-Xian; Xu Shu-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a spatial domain quantum watermarking scheme. For a quantum watermarking scheme, a feasible quantum circuit is a key to achieve it. This paper gives a feasible quantum circuit for the presented scheme. In order to give the quantum circuit, a new quantum multi-control rotation gate, which can be achieved with quantum basic gates, is designed. With this quantum circuit, our scheme can arbitrarily control the embedding position of watermark images on carrier images with the aid of auxiliary qubits. Besides reversely acting the given quantum circuit, the paper gives another watermark extracting algorithm based on quantum measurements. Moreover, this paper also gives a new quantum image scrambling method and its quantum circuit. Differ from other quantum watermarking schemes, all given quantum circuits can be implemented with basic quantum gates. Moreover, the scheme is a spatial domain watermarking scheme, and is not based on any transform algorithm on quantum images. Meanwhile, it can make sure the watermark be secure even though the watermark has been found. With the given quantum circuit, this paper implements simulation experiments for the presented scheme. The experimental result shows that the scheme does well in the visual quality and the embedding capacity. (paper)

  10. Optical colour image watermarking based on phase-truncated linear canonical transform and image decomposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yonggang; Tang, Chen; Li, Biyuan; Lei, Zhenkun

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a novel optical colour image watermarking scheme based on phase-truncated linear canonical transform (PT-LCT) and image decomposition (ID). In this proposed scheme, a PT-LCT-based asymmetric cryptography is designed to encode the colour watermark into a noise-like pattern, and an ID-based multilevel embedding method is constructed to embed the encoded colour watermark into a colour host image. The PT-LCT-based asymmetric cryptography, which can be optically implemented by double random phase encoding with a quadratic phase system, can provide a higher security to resist various common cryptographic attacks. And the ID-based multilevel embedding method, which can be digitally implemented by a computer, can make the information of the colour watermark disperse better in the colour host image. The proposed colour image watermarking scheme possesses high security and can achieve a higher robustness while preserving the watermark’s invisibility. The good performance of the proposed scheme has been demonstrated by extensive experiments and comparison with other relevant schemes.

  11. Novel Iris Biometric Watermarking Based on Singular Value Decomposition and Discrete Cosine Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinyu Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel iris biometric watermarking scheme is proposed focusing on iris recognition instead of the traditional watermark for increasing the security of the digital products. The preprocess of iris image is to be done firstly, which generates the iris biometric template from person's eye images. And then the templates are to be on discrete cosine transform; the value of the discrete cosine is encoded to BCH error control coding. The host image is divided into four areas equally correspondingly. The BCH codes are embedded in the singular values of each host image's coefficients which are obtained through discrete cosine transform (DCT. Numerical results reveal that proposed method can extract the watermark effectively and illustrate its security and robustness.

  12. QIM blind video watermarking scheme based on Wavelet transform and principal component analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisreen I. Yassin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a blind scheme for digital video watermarking is proposed. The security of the scheme is established by using one secret key in the retrieval of the watermark. Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT is applied on each video frame decomposing it into a number of sub-bands. Maximum entropy blocks are selected and transformed using Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Quantization Index Modulation (QIM is used to quantize the maximum coefficient of the PCA blocks of each sub-band. Then, the watermark is embedded into the selected suitable quantizer values. The proposed scheme is tested using a number of video sequences. Experimental results show high imperceptibility. The computed average PSNR exceeds 45 dB. Finally, the scheme is applied on two medical videos. The proposed scheme shows high robustness against several attacks such as JPEG coding, Gaussian noise addition, histogram equalization, gamma correction, and contrast adjustment in both cases of regular videos and medical videos.

  13. From watermarking to in-band enrichment: future trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, M.; Prêteux, F.

    2009-02-01

    Coming across with the emerging Knowledge Society, the enriched video is nowadays a hot research topic, from both academic and industrial perspectives. The principle consists in associating to the video stream some metadata of various types (textual, audio, video, executable codes, ...). This new content is to be further exploited in a large variety of applications, like interactive DTV, games, e-learning, and data mining, for instance. This paper brings into evidence the potentiality of the watermarking techniques for such an application. By inserting the enrichment data into the very video to be enriched, three main advantages are ensured. First, no additional complexity is required from the terminal and the representation format point of view. Secondly, no backward compatibility issue is encountered, thus allowing a unique system to accommodate services from several generations. Finally, the network adaptation constraints are alleviated. The discussion is structured on both theoretical aspects (the accurate evaluation of the watermarking capacity in several reallife scenarios) as well as on applications developed under the framework of the R&D contracts conducted at the ARTEMIS Department.

  14. Watermarking on 3D mesh based on spherical wavelet transform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Qiu; Dai, Min-Ya; Bao, Hu-Jun; Peng, Qun-Sheng

    2004-03-01

    In this paper we propose a robust watermarking algorithm for 3D mesh. The algorithm is based on spherical wavelet transform. Our basic idea is to decompose the original mesh into a series of details at different scales by using spherical wavelet transform; the watermark is then embedded into the different levels of details. The embedding process includes: global sphere parameterization, spherical uniform sampling, spherical wavelet forward transform, embedding watermark, spherical wavelet inverse transform, and at last resampling the mesh watermarked to recover the topological connectivity of the original model. Experiments showed that our algorithm can improve the capacity of the watermark and the robustness of watermarking against attacks.

  15. Tooteko: a Case Study of Augmented Reality for AN Accessible Cultural Heritage. Digitization, 3d Printing and Sensors for AN Audio-Tactile Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agnano, F.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2015-02-01

    Tooteko is a smart ring that allows to navigate any 3D surface with your finger tips and get in return an audio content that is relevant in relation to the part of the surface you are touching in that moment. Tooteko can be applied to any tactile surface, object or sheet. However, in a more specific domain, it wants to make traditional art venues accessible to the blind, while providing support to the reading of the work for all through the recovery of the tactile dimension in order to facilitate the experience of contact with art that is not only "under glass." The system is made of three elements: a high-tech ring, a tactile surface tagged with NFC sensors, and an app for tablet or smartphone. The ring detects and reads the NFC tags and, thanks to the Tooteko app, communicates in wireless mode with the smart device. During the tactile navigation of the surface, when the finger reaches a hotspot, the ring identifies the NFC tag and activates, through the app, the audio track that is related to that specific hotspot. Thus a relevant audio content relates to each hotspot. The production process of the tactile surfaces involves scanning, digitization of data and 3D printing. The first experiment was modelled on the facade of the church of San Michele in Isola, made by Mauro Codussi in the late fifteenth century, and which marks the beginning of the Renaissance in Venice. Due to the absence of recent documentation on the church, the Correr Museum asked the Laboratorio di Fotogrammetria to provide it with the aim of setting up an exhibition about the order of the Camaldolesi, owners of the San Michele island and church. The Laboratorio has made the survey of the facade through laser scanning and UAV photogrammetry. The point clouds were the starting point for prototypation and 3D printing on different supports. The idea of the integration between a 3D printed tactile surface and sensors was born as a final thesis project at the Postgraduate Mastercourse in Digital

  16. Region of interest based robust watermarking scheme for adaptation in small displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivekanandhan, Sapthagirivasan; K. B., Kishore Mohan; Vemula, Krishna Manohar

    2010-02-01

    Now-a-days Multimedia data can be easily replicated and the copyright is not legally protected. Cryptography does not allow the use of digital data in its original form and once the data is decrypted, it is no longer protected. Here we have proposed a new double protected digital image watermarking algorithm, which can embed the watermark image blocks into the adjacent regions of the host image itself based on their blocks similarity coefficient which is robust to various noise effects like Poisson noise, Gaussian noise, Random noise and thereby provide double security from various noises and hackers. As instrumentation application requires a much accurate data, the watermark image which is to be extracted back from the watermarked image must be immune to various noise effects. Our results provide better extracted image compared to the present/existing techniques and in addition we have done resizing the same for various displays. Adaptive resizing for various size displays is being experimented wherein we crop the required information in a frame, zoom it for a large display or resize for a small display using a threshold value and in either cases background is not given much importance but it is only the fore-sight object which gains importance which will surely be helpful in performing surgeries.

  17. A Lightweight Buyer-Seller Watermarking Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongdong Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The buyer-seller watermarking protocol enables a seller to successfully identify a traitor from a pirated copy, while preventing the seller from framing an innocent buyer. Based on finite field theory and the homomorphic property of public key cryptosystems such as RSA, several buyer-seller watermarking protocols (N. Memon and P. W. Wong (2001 and C.-L. Lei et al. (2004 have been proposed previously. However, those protocols require not only large computational power but also substantial network bandwidth. In this paper, we introduce a new buyer-seller protocol that overcomes those weaknesses by managing the watermarks. Compared with the earlier protocols, ours is n times faster in terms of computation, where n is the number of watermark elements, while incurring only O(1/lN times communication overhead given the finite field parameter lN. In addition, the quality of the watermarked image generated with our method is better, using the same watermark strength.

  18. Statistical amplitude scale estimation for quantization-based watermarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shterev, I.D.; Lagendijk, I.L.; Heusdens, R.

    2004-01-01

    Quantization-based watermarking schemes are vulnerable to amplitude scaling. Therefore the scaling factor has to be accounted for either at the encoder, or at the decoder, prior to watermark decoding. In this paper we derive the marginal probability density model for the watermarked and attacked

  19. Hiding correlation-based Watermark templates using secret modulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lichtenauer, J.; Setyawan, I.; Lagendijk, R.

    2004-01-01

    A possible solution to the difficult problem of geometrical distortion of watermarked images in a blind watermarking scenario is to use a template grid in the autocorrelation function. However, the important drawback of this method is that the watermark itself can be estimated and subtracted, or the

  20. WLAN Technologies for Audio Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas-Alexander Tatlas

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio delivery and reproduction for home or professional applications may greatly benefit from the adoption of digital wireless local area network (WLAN technologies. The most challenging aspect of such integration relates the synchronized and robust real-time streaming of multiple audio channels to multipoint receivers, for example, wireless active speakers. Here, it is shown that current WLAN solutions are susceptible to transmission errors. A detailed study of the IEEE802.11e protocol (currently under ratification is also presented and all relevant distortions are assessed via an analytical and experimental methodology. A novel synchronization scheme is also introduced, allowing optimized playback for multiple receivers. The perceptual audio performance is assessed for both stereo and 5-channel applications based on either PCM or compressed audio signals.

  1. Balancing Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walther-Hansen, Mads

    2016-01-01

    is not thoroughly understood. In this paper I treat balance as a metaphor that we use to reason about several different actions in music production, such as adjusting levels, editing the frequency spectrum or the spatiality of the recording. This study is based on an exploration of a linguistic corpus of sound......This paper explores the concept of balance in music production and examines the role of conceptual metaphors in reasoning about audio editing. Balance may be the most central concept in record production, however, the way we cognitively understand and respond meaningfully to a mix requiring balance...

  2. Invertible chaotic fragile watermarking for robust image authentication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sidiropoulos, Panagiotis; Nikolaidis, Nikos; Pitas, Ioannis

    2009-01-01

    Fragile watermarking is a popular method for image authentication. In such schemes, a fragile signal that is sensitive to manipulations is embedded in the image, so that it becomes undetectable after any modification of the original work. Most algorithms focus either on the ability to retrieve the original work after watermark detection (invertibility) or on detecting which image parts have been altered (localization). Furthermore, the majority of fragile watermarking schemes suffer from robustness flaws. We propose a new technique that combines localization and invertibility. Moreover, watermark dependency on the original image and the non-linear watermark embedding procedure guarantees that no malicious attacks will manage to create information leaks.

  3. Detecting double compression of audio signal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui; Shi, Yun Q.; Huang, Jiwu

    2010-01-01

    MP3 is the most popular audio format nowadays in our daily life, for example music downloaded from the Internet and file saved in the digital recorder are often in MP3 format. However, low bitrate MP3s are often transcoded to high bitrate since high bitrate ones are of high commercial value. Also audio recording in digital recorder can be doctored easily by pervasive audio editing software. This paper presents two methods for the detection of double MP3 compression. The methods are essential for finding out fake-quality MP3 and audio forensics. The proposed methods use support vector machine classifiers with feature vectors formed by the distributions of the first digits of the quantized MDCT (modified discrete cosine transform) coefficients. Extensive experiments demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed methods. To the best of our knowledge, this piece of work is the first one to detect double compression of audio signal.

  4. Selectively Encrypted Pull-Up Based Watermarking of Biometric data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, S. A.; Patel, Kushal S.

    2012-10-01

    Biometric authentication systems are becoming increasingly popular due to their potential usage in information security. However, digital biometric data (e.g. thumb impression) are themselves vulnerable to security attacks. There are various methods are available to secure biometric data. In biometric watermarking the data are embedded in an image container and are only retrieved if the secrete key is available. This container image is encrypted to have more security against the attack. As wireless devices are equipped with battery as their power supply, they have limited computational capabilities; therefore to reduce energy consumption we use the method of selective encryption of container image. The bit pull-up-based biometric watermarking scheme is based on amplitude modulation and bit priority which reduces the retrieval error rate to great extent. By using selective Encryption mechanism we expect more efficiency in time at the time of encryption as well as decryption. Significant reduction in error rate is expected to be achieved by the bit pull-up method.

  5. A Method to Detect AAC Audio Forgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzhong Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Advanced Audio Coding (AAC, a standardized lossy compression scheme for digital audio, which was designed to be the successor of the MP3 format, generally achieves better sound quality than MP3 at similar bit rates. While AAC is also the default or standard audio format for many devices and AAC audio files may be presented as important digital evidences, the authentication of the audio files is highly needed but relatively missing. In this paper, we propose a scheme to expose tampered AAC audio streams that are encoded at the same encoding bit-rate. Specifically, we design a shift-recompression based method to retrieve the differential features between the re-encoded audio stream at each shifting and original audio stream, learning classifier is employed to recognize different patterns of differential features of the doctored forgery files and original (untouched audio files. Experimental results show that our approach is very promising and effective to detect the forgery of the same encoding bit-rate on AAC audio streams. Our study also shows that shift recompression-based differential analysis is very effective for detection of the MP3 forgery at the same bit rate.

  6. Los cinco grados de la comunicación en educación Oral-gestural, writing, audio, audiovisual and… digital? The five degrees of communication in education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Perceval Verde

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available En el marco del presente artículo se presenta un recorrido a través de cinco grados de la comunicación en educación: el oral-gestual, la escritura, el audio, el audiovisual y el digital. El texto destaca los cambios que el escenario on-line introduce en el proceso educativo reflexionando sobre la figura del estudiante, del docente y de las relaciones entre ambos. This article portrays an overview of the five degrees of comunication in education: oralgestural, writing, audio, audiovisual and digital. It highlights the changes introduced by the on-line scenario in the educational process, reflecting on the character of the student, the teacher and the relationship between them.

  7. pyAudioAnalysis: An Open-Source Python Library for Audio Signal Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2015-01-01

    Audio information plays a rather important role in the increasing digital content that is available today, resulting in a need for methodologies that automatically analyze such content: audio event recognition for home automations and surveillance systems, speech recognition, music information retrieval, multimodal analysis (e.g. audio-visual analysis of online videos for content-based recommendation), etc. This paper presents pyAudioAnalysis, an open-source Python library that provides a wide range of audio analysis procedures including: feature extraction, classification of audio signals, supervised and unsupervised segmentation and content visualization. pyAudioAnalysis is licensed under the Apache License and is available at GitHub (https://github.com/tyiannak/pyAudioAnalysis/). Here we present the theoretical background behind the wide range of the implemented methodologies, along with evaluation metrics for some of the methods. pyAudioAnalysis has been already used in several audio analysis research applications: smart-home functionalities through audio event detection, speech emotion recognition, depression classification based on audio-visual features, music segmentation, multimodal content-based movie recommendation and health applications (e.g. monitoring eating habits). The feedback provided from all these particular audio applications has led to practical enhancement of the library.

  8. Facilitating Watermark Insertion by Preprocessing Media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt L. Miller

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available There are several watermarking applications that require the deployment of a very large number of watermark embedders. These applications often have severe budgetary constraints that limit the computation resources that are available. Under these circumstances, only simple embedding algorithms can be deployed, which have limited performance. In order to improve performance, we propose preprocessing the original media. It is envisaged that this preprocessing occurs during content creation and has no budgetary or computational constraints. Preprocessing combined with simple embedding creates a watermarked Work, the performance of which exceeds that of simple embedding alone. However, this performance improvement is obtained without any increase in the computational complexity of the embedder. Rather, the additional computational burden is shifted to the preprocessing stage. A simple example of this procedure is described and experimental results confirm our assertions.

  9. Robust and Secure Watermarking Using Sparse Information of Watermark for Biometric Data Protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit M Thanki

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometric based human authentication system is used for security purpose in many organizations in the present world. This biometric authentication system has several vulnerable points. Two of vulnerable points are protection of biometric templates at system database and protection of biometric templates at communication channel between two modules of biometric authentication systems. In this paper proposed a robust watermarking scheme using the sparse information of watermark biometric to secure vulnerable point like protection of biometric templates at the communication channel of biometric authentication systems. A compressive sensing theory procedure is used for generation of sparse information on watermark biometric data using detail wavelet coefficients. Then sparse information of watermark biometric data is embedded into DCT coefficients of host biometric data. This proposed scheme is robust to common signal processing and geometric attacks like JPEG compression, adding noise, filtering, and cropping, histogram equalization. This proposed scheme has more advantages and high quality measures compared to existing schemes in the literature.

  10. Robust and Secure Watermarking Using Sparse Information of Watermark for Biometric Data Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Rohit M Thanki; Ved Vyas Dwivedi; Komal Borisagar

    2016-01-01

    Biometric based human authentication system is used for security purpose in many organizations in the present world. This biometric authentication system has several vulnerable points. Two of vulnerable points are protection of biometric templates at system database and protection of biometric templates at communication channel between two modules of biometric authentication systems. In this paper proposed a robust watermarking scheme using the sparse information of watermark biometric to sec...

  11. Comparison of Video Steganography Methods for Watermark Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griberman David

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on the comparison of video steganography methods for the purpose of digital watermarking in the context of copyright protection. Four embedding methods that use Discrete Cosine and Discrete Wavelet Transforms have been researched and compared based on their embedding efficiency and fidelity. A video steganography program has been developed in the Java programming language with all of the researched methods implemented for experiments. The experiments used 3 video containers with different amounts of movement. The impact of the movement has been addressed in the paper as well as the ways of potential improvement of embedding efficiency using adaptive embedding based on the movement amount. Results of the research have been verified using a survey with 17 participants.

  12. DNA watermarks: A proof of concept

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnekow Angelika

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA-based watermarks are helpful tools to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs protected by patents. In silico analyses showed that in coding regions synonymous codons can be used to insert encrypted information into the genome of living organisms by using the DNA-Crypt algorithm. Results We integrated an authenticating watermark in the Vam7 sequence. For our investigations we used a mutant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain, called CG783, which has an amber mutation within the Vam7 sequence. The CG783 cells are unable to sporulate and in addition display an abnormal vacuolar morphology. Transformation of CG783 with pRS314 Vam7 leads to a phenotype very similar to the wildtype yeast strain CG781. The integrated watermark did not influence the function of Vam7 and the resulting phenotype of the CG783 cells transformed with pRS314 Vam7-TB shows no significant differences compared to the CG783 cells transformed with pRS314 Vam7. Conclusion From our experiments we conclude that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not influence the translation from mRNA into protein. By analyzing the vacuolar morphology, growth rate and ability to sporulate we confirmed that the resulting Vam7 protein was functionally active.

  13. A Joint Watermarking and ROI Coding Scheme for Annotating Traffic Surveillance Videos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Po-Chyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new application of information hiding by employing the digital watermarking techniques to facilitate the data annotation in traffic surveillance videos. There are two parts in the proposed scheme. The first part is the object-based watermarking, in which the information of each vehicle collected by the intelligent transportation system will be conveyed/stored along with the visual data via information hiding. The scheme is integrated with H.264/AVC, which is assumed to be adopted by the surveillance system, to achieve an efficient implementation. The second part is a Region of Interest (ROI rate control mechanism for encoding traffic surveillance videos, which helps to improve the overall performance. The quality of vehicles in the video will be better preserved and a good rate-distortion performance can be attained. Experimental results show that this potential scheme works well in traffic surveillance videos.

  14. Image segmentation-based robust feature extraction for color image watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mianjie; Deng, Zeyu; Yuan, Xiaochen

    2018-04-01

    This paper proposes a local digital image watermarking method based on Robust Feature Extraction. The segmentation is achieved by Simple Linear Iterative Clustering (SLIC) based on which an Image Segmentation-based Robust Feature Extraction (ISRFE) method is proposed for feature extraction. Our method can adaptively extract feature regions from the blocks segmented by SLIC. This novel method can extract the most robust feature region in every segmented image. Each feature region is decomposed into low-frequency domain and high-frequency domain by Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). Watermark images are then embedded into the coefficients in the low-frequency domain. The Distortion-Compensated Dither Modulation (DC-DM) algorithm is chosen as the quantization method for embedding. The experimental results indicate that the method has good performance under various attacks. Furthermore, the proposed method can obtain a trade-off between high robustness and good image quality.

  15. Intelligent audio analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Schuller, Björn W

    2013-01-01

    This book provides the reader with the knowledge necessary for comprehension of the field of Intelligent Audio Analysis. It firstly introduces standard methods and discusses the typical Intelligent Audio Analysis chain going from audio data to audio features to audio recognition.  Further, an introduction to audio source separation, and enhancement and robustness are given. After the introductory parts, the book shows several applications for the three types of audio: speech, music, and general sound. Each task is shortly introduced, followed by a description of the specific data and methods applied, experiments and results, and a conclusion for this specific task. The books provides benchmark results and standardized test-beds for a broader range of audio analysis tasks. The main focus thereby lies on the parallel advancement of realism in audio analysis, as too often today’s results are overly optimistic owing to idealized testing conditions, and it serves to stimulate synergies arising from transfer of ...

  16. Watermarking-based protection of remote sensing images: requirements and possible solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barni, Mauro; Bartolini, Franco; Cappellini, Vito; Magli, Enrico; Olmo, Gabriella

    2001-12-01

    Earth observation missions have recently attracted ag rowing interest form the scientific and industrial communities, mainly due to the large number of possible applications capable to exploit remotely sensed data and images. Along with the increase of market potential, the need arises for the protection of the image products from non-authorized use. Such a need is a very crucial one even because the Internet and other public/private networks have become preferred means of data exchange. A crucial issue arising when dealing with digital image distribution is copyright protection. Such a problem has been largely addressed by resorting to watermarking technology. A question that obviously arises is whether the requirements imposed by remote sensing imagery are compatible with existing watermarking techniques. On the basis of these motivations, the contribution of this work is twofold: i) assessment of the requirements imposed by the characteristics of remotely sensed images on watermark-based copyright protection ii) analysis of the state-of-the-art, and performance evaluation of existing algorithms in terms of the requirements at the previous point.

  17. Video watermarking for mobile phone applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, M.; Duta, S.; Petrescu, M.; Preteux, F.

    2005-08-01

    Nowadays, alongside with the traditional voice signal, music, video, and 3D characters tend to become common data to be run, stored and/or processed on mobile phones. Hence, to protect their related intellectual property rights also becomes a crucial issue. The video sequences involved in such applications are generally coded at very low bit rates. The present paper starts by presenting an accurate statistical investigation on such a video as well as on a very dangerous attack (the StirMark attack). The obtained results are turned into practice when adapting a spread spectrum watermarking method to such applications. The informed watermarking approach was also considered: an outstanding method belonging to this paradigm has been adapted and re evaluated under the low rate video constraint. The experimental results were conducted in collaboration with the SFR mobile services provider in France. They also allow a comparison between the spread spectrum and informed embedding techniques.

  18. Copyright Protection of Color Imaging Using Robust-Encoded Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cedillo-Hernandez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present a robust-encoded watermarking method applied to color images for copyright protection, which presents robustness against several geometric and signal processing distortions. Trade-off between payload, robustness and imperceptibility is a very important aspect which has to be considered when a watermark algorithm is designed. In our proposed scheme, previously to be embedded into the image, the watermark signal is encoded using a convolutional encoder, which can perform forward error correction achieving better robustness performance. Then, the embedding process is carried out through the discrete cosine transform domain (DCT of an image using the image normalization technique to accomplish robustness against geometric and signal processing distortions. The embedded watermark coded bits are extracted and decoded using the Viterbi algorithm. In order to determine the presence or absence of the watermark into the image we compute the bit error rate (BER between the recovered and the original watermark data sequence. The quality of the watermarked image is measured using the well-known indices: Peak Signal to Noise Ratio (PSNR, Visual Information Fidelity (VIF and Structural Similarity Index (SSIM. The color difference between the watermarked and original images is obtained by using the Normalized Color Difference (NCD measure. The experimental results show that the proposed method provides good performance in terms of imperceptibility and robustness. The comparison among the proposed and previously reported methods based on different techniques is also provided.

  19. DNA watermarks in non-coding regulatory sequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyka Martin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background DNA watermarks can be applied to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms. It has been shown that coding regions can be used to encrypt information into living organisms by using the DNA-Crypt algorithm. Yet, if the sequence of interest presents a non-coding DNA sequence, either the function of a resulting functional RNA molecule or a regulatory sequence, such as a promoter, could be affected. For our studies we used the small cytoplasmic RNA 1 in yeast and the lac promoter region of Escherichia coli. Findings The lac promoter was deactivated by the integrated watermark. In addition, the RNA molecules displayed altered configurations after introducing a watermark, but surprisingly were functionally intact, which has been verified by analyzing the growth characteristics of both wild type and watermarked scR1 transformed yeast cells. In a third approach we introduced a second overlapping watermark into the lac promoter, which did not affect the promoter activity. Conclusion Even though the watermarked RNA and one of the watermarked promoters did not show any significant differences compared to the wild type RNA and wild type promoter region, respectively, it cannot be generalized that other RNA molecules or regulatory sequences behave accordingly. Therefore, we do not recommend integrating watermark sequences into regulatory regions.

  20. Hamming Code Based Watermarking Scheme for 3D Model Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen-Tse Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the explosive growth of the Internet and maturing of 3D hardware techniques, protecting 3D objects becomes a more and more important issue. In this paper, a public hamming code based fragile watermarking technique is proposed for 3D objects verification. An adaptive watermark is generated from each cover model by using the hamming code technique. A simple least significant bit (LSB substitution technique is employed for watermark embedding. In the extraction stage, the hamming code based watermark can be verified by using the hamming code checking without embedding any verification information. Experimental results shows that 100% vertices of the cover model can be watermarked, extracted, and verified. It also shows that the proposed method can improve security and achieve low distortion of stego object.

  1. Quantum watermarking scheme through Arnold scrambling and LSB steganography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ri-Gui; Hu, Wenwen; Fan, Ping

    2017-09-01

    Based on the NEQR of quantum images, a new quantum gray-scale image watermarking scheme is proposed through Arnold scrambling and least significant bit (LSB) steganography. The sizes of the carrier image and the watermark image are assumed to be 2n× 2n and n× n, respectively. Firstly, a classical n× n sized watermark image with 8-bit gray scale is expanded to a 2n× 2n sized image with 2-bit gray scale. Secondly, through the module of PA-MOD N, the expanded watermark image is scrambled to a meaningless image by the Arnold transform. Then, the expanded scrambled image is embedded into the carrier image by the steganography method of LSB. Finally, the time complexity analysis is given. The simulation experiment results show that our quantum circuit has lower time complexity, and the proposed watermarking scheme is superior to others.

  2. Reversible and Embedded Watermarking of Medical Images for Telemedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Yen Su

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we propose a new reversible watermarking of medical images for the applications in telemedicine. By using a bit-stream insertion scheme, the patient’s information can be treated as a watermark and can be embedded into the bit-stream of a cover image for remote transmission. The proposed method simplifies the design of traditional image coding after a reversible watermarking. Experimental results show that the compression ratio can be achieved up to 3.025. The watermarking capacity can be obtained over 0.75 bpp for some common images. In addition, the watermark can be extracted exactly and the cover image can be reconstructed either in a lossless way or a lossy way. The obtained results also show the improvement with respect to previous works.

  3. Watermarking Algorithms for 3D NURBS Graphic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae Jun Lee

    2004-10-01

    Full Text Available Two watermarking algorithms for 3D nonuniform rational B-spline (NURBS graphic data are proposed: one is appropriate for the steganography, and the other for watermarking. Instead of directly embedding data into the parameters of NURBS, the proposed algorithms embed data into the 2D virtual images extracted by parameter sampling of 3D model. As a result, the proposed steganography algorithm can embed information into more places of the surface than the conventional algorithm, while preserving the data size of the model. Also, any existing 2D watermarking technique can be used for the watermarking of 3D NURBS surfaces. From the experiment, it is found that the algorithm for the watermarking is robust to the attacks on weights, control points, and knots. It is also found to be robust to the remodeling of NURBS models.

  4. Audio Conferencing Enhancements

    OpenAIRE

    VESTERINEN, LEENA

    2006-01-01

    Audio conferencing allows multiple people in distant locations to interact in a single voice call. Whilst it can be very useful service it also has several key disadvantages. This thesis study investigated the options for improving the user experience of the mobile teleconferencing applications. In particular, the use of 3D, spatial audio and visualinteractive functionality was investigated as the means of improving the intelligibility and audio perception during the audio...

  5. A Maximum Entropy-Based Chaotic Time-Variant Fragile Watermarking Scheme for Image Tampering Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Jheng Yang

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The fragile watermarking technique is used to protect intellectual property rights while also providing security and rigorous protection. In order to protect the copyright of the creators, it can be implanted in some representative text or totem. Because all of the media on the Internet are digital, protection has become a critical issue, and determining how to use digital watermarks to protect digital media is thus the topic of our research. This paper uses the Logistic map with parameter u = 4 to generate chaotic dynamic behavior with the maximum entropy 1. This approach increases the security and rigor of the protection. The main research target of information hiding is determining how to hide confidential data so that the naked eye cannot see the difference. Next, we introduce one method of information hiding. Generally speaking, if the image only goes through Arnold’s cat map and the Logistic map, it seems to lack sufficient security. Therefore, our emphasis is on controlling Arnold’s cat map and the initial value of the chaos system to undergo small changes and generate different chaos sequences. Thus, the current time is used to not only make encryption more stringent but also to enhance the security of the digital media.

  6. Back to basics audio

    CERN Document Server

    Nathan, Julian

    1998-01-01

    Back to Basics Audio is a thorough, yet approachable handbook on audio electronics theory and equipment. The first part of the book discusses electrical and audio principles. Those principles form a basis for understanding the operation of equipment and systems, covered in the second section. Finally, the author addresses planning and installation of a home audio system.Julian Nathan joined the audio service and manufacturing industry in 1954 and moved into motion picture engineering and production in 1960. He installed and operated recording theaters in Sydney, Austra

  7. AUTOMATIC SEGMENTATION OF BROADCAST AUDIO SIGNALS USING AUTO ASSOCIATIVE NEURAL NETWORKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Dhanalakshmi

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe automatic segmentation methods for audio broadcast data. Today, digital audio applications are part of our everyday lives. Since there are more and more digital audio databases in place these days, the importance of effective management for audio databases have become prominent. Broadcast audio data is recorded from the Television which comprises of various categories of audio signals. Efficient algorithms for segmenting the audio broadcast data into predefined categories are proposed. Audio features namely Linear prediction coefficients (LPC, Linear prediction cepstral coefficients, and Mel frequency cepstral coefficients (MFCC are extracted to characterize the audio data. Auto Associative Neural Networks are used to segment the audio data into predefined categories using the extracted features. Experimental results indicate that the proposed algorithms can produce satisfactory results.

  8. Television and the Internet: The Role Digital Technologies Play in Adolescents’ Audio-Visual Media Consumption. Young Television Audiences in Catalonia (Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meritxell Roca

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this reported study was to investigate adolescents TV consumption habits and perceptions. Although there appears to be no general consensus on how the Internet affects TV consumption by teenagers, and data vary depending on the country, according to our study, Spanish adolescents perceive television as a habit “of the past” and find the computer a device more suited to their recreational and audio-visual consumption needs. The data obtained from eight focus groups of teenagers aged between 12 and 18 and an online survey sent to their parents show that watching TV is an activity usually linked to the home’s communal spaces. On the contrary, online audio-visual consumption (understood as a wider term not limited to just TV shows is perceived by adolescents as a more convenient activity as it adapts to their own schedules and needs.

  9. A joint image encryption and watermarking algorithm based on compressive sensing and chaotic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Di; Cai Hong-Kun; Zheng Hong-Ying

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a compressive sensing (CS) and chaotic map-based joint image encryption and watermarking algorithm is proposed. The transform domain coefficients of the original image are scrambled by Arnold map firstly. Then the watermark is adhered to the scrambled data. By compressive sensing, a set of watermarked measurements is obtained as the watermarked cipher image. In this algorithm, watermark embedding and data compression can be performed without knowing the original image; similarly, watermark extraction will not interfere with decryption. Due to the characteristics of CS, this algorithm features compressible cipher image size, flexible watermark capacity, and lossless watermark extraction from the compressed cipher image as well as robustness against packet loss. Simulation results and analyses show that the algorithm achieves good performance in the sense of security, watermark capacity, extraction accuracy, reconstruction, robustness, etc. (paper)

  10. Clinical Data Warehouse Watermarking: Impact on Syndromic Measure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouzille, Guillaume; Pan, Wei; Franco-Contreras, Javier; Cuggia, Marc; Coatrieux, Gouenou

    2017-01-01

    Watermarking appears as a promising tool for the traceability of shared medical databases as it allows hiding the traceability information into the database itself. However, it is necessary to ensure that the distortion resulting from this process does not hinder subsequent data analysis. In this paper, we present the preliminary results of a study on the impact of watermarking in the estimation of flu activities. These results show that flu epidemics periods can be estimated without significant perturbation even when considering a moderate watermark distortion.

  11. A joint asymmetric watermarking and image encryption scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boato, G.; Conotter, V.; De Natale, F. G. B.; Fontanari, C.

    2008-02-01

    Here we introduce a novel watermarking paradigm designed to be both asymmetric, i.e., involving a private key for embedding and a public key for detection, and commutative with a suitable encryption scheme, allowing both to cipher watermarked data and to mark encrypted data without interphering with the detection process. In order to demonstrate the effectiveness of the above principles, we present an explicit example where the watermarking part, based on elementary linear algebra, and the encryption part, exploiting a secret random permutation, are integrated in a commutative scheme.

  12. TOOTEKO: A CASE STUDY OF AUGMENTED REALITY FOR AN ACCESSIBLE CULTURAL HERITAGE. DIGITIZATION, 3D PRINTING AND SENSORS FOR AN AUDIO-TACTILE EXPERIENCE

    OpenAIRE

    D’Agnano, F.; Balletti, C.; Guerra, F.; Vernier, P.

    2015-01-01

    Tooteko is a smart ring that allows to navigate any 3D surface with your finger tips and get in return an audio content that is relevant in relation to the part of the surface you are touching in that moment. Tooteko can be applied to any tactile surface, object or sheet. However, in a more specific domain, it wants to make traditional art venues accessible to the blind, while providing support to the reading of the work for all through the recovery of the tactile dimension in...

  13. Encryption and watermark-treated medical image against hacking disease-An immune convention in spatial and frequency domains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, C; Thenmozhi, K; Rayappan, John Bosco Balaguru; Amirtharajan, Rengarajan

    2018-06-01

    Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM) is one among the significant formats used worldwide for the representation of medical images. Undoubtedly, medical-image security plays a crucial role in telemedicine applications. Merging encryption and watermarking in medical-image protection paves the way for enhancing the authentication and safer transmission over open channels. In this context, the present work on DICOM image encryption has employed a fuzzy chaotic map for encryption and the Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) for watermarking. The proposed approach overcomes the limitation of the Arnold transform-one of the most utilised confusion mechanisms in image ciphering. Various metrics have substantiated the effectiveness of the proposed medical-image encryption algorithm. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Categorizing Video Game Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Westerberg, Andreas Rytter; Schoenau-Fog, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    they can use audio in video games. The conclusion of this study is that the current models' view of the diegetic spaces, used to categorize video game audio, is not t to categorize all sounds. This can however possibly be changed though a rethinking of how the player interprets audio.......This paper dives into the subject of video game audio and how it can be categorized in order to deliver a message to a player in the most precise way. A new categorization, with a new take on the diegetic spaces, can be used a tool of inspiration for sound- and game-designers to rethink how...

  15. Dual plane multiple spatial watermarking with self-encryption

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    media are serious challenges. That is why ... ficient to represent the identity of owner is embedded into image and at the .... tion is dependent on user preference for ex-general social networking user may require watermarking but with less.

  16. A New Quantum Watermarking Based on Quantum Wavelet Transforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidari, Shahrokh; Pourarian, Mohammad Rasoul; Naseri, Mosayeb; Gheibi, Reza; Baghfalaki, Masoud; Farouk, Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    Quantum watermarking is a technique to embed specific information, usually the owner’s identification, into quantum cover data such for copyright protection purposes. In this paper, a new scheme for quantum watermarking based on quantum wavelet transforms is proposed which includes scrambling, embedding and extracting procedures. The invisibility and robustness performances of the proposed watermarking method is confirmed by simulation technique. The invisibility of the scheme is examined by the peak-signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and the histogram calculation. Furthermore the robustness of the scheme is analyzed by the Bit Error Rate (BER) and the Correlation Two-Dimensional (Corr 2-D) calculation. The simulation results indicate that the proposed watermarking scheme indicate not only acceptable visual quality but also a good resistance against different types of attack. (paper)

  17. A robust and secure watermarking scheme based on singular ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dhirubhai Ambani Institute of Information and Communication Technology,. Gandhinagar 382 007 ... required. Watermarked image is subjected to various forms of manipulations on communication channel. ..... J. Image Graphics. 9(1): 506–512.

  18. Efficiency in audio processing : filter banks and transcoding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Jun Wei

    2007-01-01

    Audio transcoding is the conversion of digital audio from one compressed form A to another compressed form B, where A and B have different compression properties, such as a different bit-rate, sampling frequency or compression method. This is typically achieved by decoding A to an intermediate

  19. Attacks, applications, and evaluation of known watermarking algorithms with Checkmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meerwald, Peter; Pereira, Shelby

    2002-04-01

    The Checkmark benchmarking tool was introduced to provide a framework for application-oriented evaluation of watermarking schemes. In this article we introduce new attacks and applications into the existing Checkmark framework. In addition to describing new attacks and applications, we also compare the performance of some well-known watermarking algorithms (proposed by Bruyndonckx,Cox, Fridrich, Dugad, Kim, Wang, Xia, Xie, Zhu and Pereira) with respect to the Checkmark benchmark. In particular, we consider the non-geometric application which contains tests that do not change the geometry of image. This attack constraint is artificial, but yet important for research purposes since a number of algorithms may be interesting, but would score poorly with respect to specific applications simply because geometric compensation has not been incorporated. We note, however, that with the help of image registration, even research algorithms that do not have counter-measures against geometric distortion -- such as a template or reference watermark -- can be evaluated. In the first version of the Checkmark benchmarking program, application-oriented evaluation was introduced, along with many new attacks not already considered in the literature. A second goal of this paper is to introduce new attacks and new applications into the Checkmark framework. In particular, we introduce the following new applications: video frame watermarking, medical imaging and watermarking of logos. Video frame watermarking includes low compression attacks and distortions which warp the edges of the video as well as general projective transformations which may result from someone filming the screen at a cinema. With respect to medical imaging, only small distortions are considered and furthermore it is essential that no distortions are present at embedding. Finally for logos, we consider images of small sizes and particularly compression, scaling, aspect ratio and other small distortions. The challenge

  20. Detection Of Alterations In Audio Files Using Spectrograph Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anandha Krishnan G

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The corresponding study was carried out to detect changes in audio file using spectrograph. An audio file format is a file format for storing digital audio data on a computer system. A sound spectrograph is a laboratory instrument that displays a graphical representation of the strengths of the various component frequencies of a sound as time passes. The objectives of the study were to find the changes in spectrograph of audio after altering them to compare altering changes with spectrograph of original files and to check for similarity and difference in mp3 and wav. Five different alterations were carried out on each audio file to analyze the differences between the original and the altered file. For altering the audio file MP3 or WAV by cutcopy the file was opened in Audacity. A different audio was then pasted to the audio file. This new file was analyzed to view the differences. By adjusting the necessary parameters the noise was reduced. The differences between the new file and the original file were analyzed. By adjusting the parameters from the dialog box the necessary changes were made. The edited audio file was opened in the software named spek where after analyzing a graph is obtained of that particular file which is saved for further analysis. The original audio graph received was combined with the edited audio file graph to see the alterations.

  1. Tutela del diritto di proprieta' delle immagini digitali: Implementazione di un algoritmo di watermark mediante funzioni wavelet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prestipino, D

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Protection of copyright of the digital images is a critical element for the multimedia Web applications, e-books, virtual picture gallery. This problem is today receiving growing attention due to the pervasive diffusion of Internet technology. This work shows the watermark as solution to this problem and describes a new wavelet-based algorithm, called WM1.0, which is invisible, private, strong. WM1.0 watermaks a subset of digital images building the ecclesiastic on-line art collection. The Owner of the images and related information is the Italian Episcopal Conference, whereas the Publisher is I.D.S., an ICT company located in Messina.

  2. Optical asymmetric watermarking using modified wavelet fusion and diffractive imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehra, Isha; Nishchal, Naveen K.

    2015-05-01

    In most of the existing image encryption algorithms the generated keys are in the form of a noise like distribution with a uniform distributed histogram. However, the noise like distribution is an apparent sign indicating the presence of the keys. If the keys are to be transferred through some communication channels, then this may lead to a security problem. This is because; the noise like features may easily catch people's attention and bring more attacks. To address this problem it is required to transfer the keys to some other meaningful images to disguise the attackers. The watermarking schemes are complementary to image encryption schemes. In most of the iterative encryption schemes, support constraints play an important role of the keys in order to decrypt the meaningful data. In this article, we have transferred the support constraints which are generated by axial translation of CCD camera using amplitude-, and phase- truncation approach, into different meaningful images. This has been done by developing modified fusion technique in wavelet transform domain. The second issue is, in case, the meaningful images are caught by the attacker then how to solve the copyright protection. To resolve this issue, watermark detection plays a crucial role. For this purpose, it is necessary to recover the original image using the retrieved watermarks/support constraints. To address this issue, four asymmetric keys have been generated corresponding to each watermarked image to retrieve the watermarks. For decryption, an iterative phase retrieval algorithm is applied to extract the plain-texts from corresponding retrieved watermarks.

  3. Lossless Authentication Watermarking Based on Adaptive Modular Arithmetic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Yang

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Reversible watermarking schemes based on modulo-256 addition may cause annoying salt-and-pepper noise. To avoid the salt-and-pepper noise, a reversible watermarking scheme using human visual perception characteristics and adaptive modular arithmetic is proposed. First, a high-bit residual image is obtained by extracting the most significant bits (MSB of the original image, and a new spatial visual perception model is built according to the high-bit residual image features. Second, the watermark strength and the adaptive divisor of modulo operation for each pixel are determined by the visual perception model. Finally, the watermark is embedded into different least significant bits (LSB of original image with adaptive modulo addition. The original image can be losslessly recovered if the stego-image has not been altered. Extensive experiments show that the proposed algorithm eliminates the salt-and-pepper noise effectively, and the visual quality of the stego-image with the proposed algorithm has been dramatically improved over some existing reversible watermarking algorithms. Especially, the stegoimage of this algorithm has about 9.9864 dB higher PSNR value than that of modulo-256 addition based reversible watermarking scheme.

  4. Roundtable Audio Discussion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris Bigum

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available RoundTable on Technology, Teaching and Tools. This is a roundtable audio interview conducted by James Farmer, founder of Edublogs, with Anne Bartlett-Bragg (University of Technology Sydney and Chris Bigum (Deakin University. Skype was used to make and record the audio conference and the resulting sound file was edited by Andrew McLauchlan.

  5. PERMUTATION-BASED POLYMORPHIC STEGO-WATERMARKS FOR PROGRAM CODES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denys Samoilenko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: One of the most actual trends in program code protection is code marking. The problem consists in creation of some digital “watermarks” which allow distinguishing different copies of the same program codes. Such marks could be useful for authority protection, for code copies numbering, for program propagation monitoring, for information security proposes in client-server communication processes. Methods: We used the methods of digital steganography adopted for program codes as text objects. The same-shape symbols method was transformed to same-semantic element method due to codes features which makes them different from ordinary texts. We use dynamic principle of marks forming making codes similar to be polymorphic. Results: We examined the combinatorial capacity of permutations possible in program codes. As a result it was shown that the set of 5-7 polymorphic variables is suitable for the most modern network applications. Marks creation and restoration algorithms where proposed and discussed. The main algorithm is based on full and partial permutations in variables names and its declaration order. Algorithm for partial permutation enumeration was optimized for calculation complexity. PHP code fragments which realize the algorithms were listed. Discussion: Methodic proposed in the work allows distinguishing of each client-server connection. In a case if a clone of some network resource was found the methodic could give information about included marks and thereby data on IP, date and time, authentication information of client copied the resource. Usage of polymorphic stego-watermarks should improve information security indexes in network communications.

  6. Diseño e implementación de un codec digital de audio con FPGA, en formato PCM, de 2 canales con interfaz para usuario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwar Jacinto G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This document describes the process to create a device of digital process with encoding process and decoding in PCM format, with the development of digital filters and the picoblaze microprocessor bymeans of the implementation in Spartan-3E Starter KitBoard from XILINX, also it describes the work out made about some modules that have this one in order to get the best quality in device, other phases with less value as the signal conditioning, amplification in phase input and output, as well as joining together toward the board.

  7. Structure Learning in Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Andreas Brinch

    By having information about the setting a user is in, a computer is able to make decisions proactively to facilitate tasks for the user. Two approaches are taken in this thesis to achieve more information about an audio environment. One approach is that of classifying audio, and a new approach...... investigated. A fast and computationally simple approach that compares recordings and classifies if they are from the same audio environment have been developed, and shows very high accuracy and the ability to synchronize recordings in the case of recording devices which are not connected. A more general model...

  8. An introduction to audio content analysis applications in signal processing and music informatics

    CERN Document Server

    Lerch, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    "With the proliferation of digital audio distribution over digital media, audio content analysis is fast becoming a requirement for designers of intelligent signal-adaptive audio processing systems. Written by a well-known expert in the field, this book provides quick access to different analysis algorithms and allows comparison between different approaches to the same task, making it useful for newcomers to audio signal processing and industry experts alike. A review of relevant fundamentals in audio signal processing, psychoacoustics, and music theory, as well as downloadable MATLAB files are also included"--

  9. The contribution of audio recording using portable digital voice recorders to the development of reflective practice with trainee teachers in a Further Education setting

    OpenAIRE

    Knill, Marta; Samuels, Mary

    2011-01-01

    Developing reflective skills and habits during initial teacher education and progressing to deeper and more critical reflection are challenges for trainee teachers. This small-scale action research study investigates how two structured tasks using Digital Voice Recorders (DVRs) initiated, sustained and improved reflection and reflective practice. Trainee teachers reported benefits in increased understanding of reflection, development of reflective skills, deepening of reflection and improveme...

  10. Further attacks on Yeung-Mintzer fragile watermarking scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridrich, Jessica; Goljan, Miroslav; Memon, Nasir D.

    2000-05-01

    In this paper, we describe new and improved attacks on the authentication scheme previously proposed by Yeung and Mintzer. Previous attacks assumed that the binary watermark logo inserted in an image for the purposes of authentication was known. Here we remove that assumption and show how the scheme is still vulnerable, even if the binary logo is not known but the attacker has access to multiple images that have been watermarked with the same secret key and contain the same (but unknown) logo. We present two attacks. The first attack infers the secret watermark insertion function and the binary logo, given multiple images authenticated with the same key and containing the same logo. We show that a very good approximation to the logo and watermark insertion function can be constructed using as few as two images. With color images, one needs many more images, nevertheless the attack is still feasible. The second attack we present, which we call the 'collage-attack' is a variation of the Holliman-Memon counterfeiting attack. The proposed variation does not require knowledge of the watermark logo and produces counterfeits of superior quality by means of a suitable dithering process that we develop.

  11. Location-Aware Cross-Layer Design Using Overlay Watermarks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ho

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available A new orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM system embedded with overlay watermarks for location-aware cross-layer design is proposed in this paper. One major advantage of the proposed system is the multiple functionalities the overlay watermark provides, which includes a cross-layer signaling interface, a transceiver identification for position-aware routing, as well as its basic role as a training sequence for channel estimation. Wireless terminals are typically battery powered and have limited wireless communication bandwidth. Therefore, efficient collaborative signal processing algorithms that consume less energy for computation and less bandwidth for communication are needed. Transceiver aware of its location can also improve the routing efficiency by selective flooding or selective forwarding data only in the desired direction, since in most cases the location of a wireless host is unknown. In the proposed OFDM system, location information of a mobile for efficient routing can be easily derived when a unique watermark is associated with each individual transceiver. In addition, cross-layer signaling and other interlayer interactive information can be exchanged with a new data pipe created by modulating the overlay watermarks. We also study the channel estimation and watermark removal techniques at the physical layer for the proposed overlay OFDM. Our channel estimator iteratively estimates the channel impulse response and the combined signal vector from the overlay OFDM signal. Cross-layer design that leads to low-power consumption and more efficient routing is investigated.

  12. A Cloud-User Protocol Based on Ciphertext Watermarking Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keyang Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available With the growth of cloud computing technology, more and more Cloud Service Providers (CSPs begin to provide cloud computing service to users and ask for users’ permission of using their data to improve the quality of service (QoS. Since these data are stored in the form of plain text, they bring about users’ worry for the risk of privacy leakage. However, the existing watermark embedding and encryption technology is not suitable for protecting the Right to Be Forgotten. Hence, we propose a new Cloud-User protocol as a solution for plain text outsourcing problem. We only allow users and CSPs to embed the ciphertext watermark, which is generated and embedded by Trusted Third Party (TTP, into the ciphertext data for transferring. Then, the receiver decrypts it and obtains the watermarked data in plain text. In the arbitration stage, feature extraction and the identity of user will be used to identify the data. The fixed Hamming distance code can help raise the system’s capability for watermarks as much as possible. Extracted watermark can locate the unauthorized distributor and protect the right of honest CSP. The results of experiments demonstrate the security and validity of our protocol.

  13. Semifragile Speech Watermarking Based on Least Significant Bit Replacement of Line Spectral Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ali Nematollahi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available There are various techniques for speech watermarking based on modifying the linear prediction coefficients (LPCs; however, the estimated and modified LPCs vary from each other even without attacks. Because line spectral frequency (LSF has less sensitivity to watermarking than LPC, watermark bits are embedded into the maximum number of LSFs by applying the least significant bit replacement (LSBR method. To reduce the differences between estimated and modified LPCs, a checking loop is added to minimize the watermark extraction error. Experimental results show that the proposed semifragile speech watermarking method can provide high imperceptibility and that any manipulation of the watermark signal destroys the watermark bits since manipulation changes it to a random stream of bits.

  14. A Secure Watermarking Scheme for Buyer-Seller Identification and Copyright Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Fawad; Sattar, Farook; Siyal, Mohammed Yakoob; Yu, Dan

    2006-12-01

    We propose a secure watermarking scheme that integrates watermarking with cryptography for addressing some important issues in copyright protection. We address three copyright protection issues—buyer-seller identification, copyright infringement, and ownership verification. By buyer-seller identification, we mean that a successful watermark extraction at the buyer's end will reveal the identities of the buyer and seller of the watermarked image. For copyright infringement, our proposed scheme enables the seller to identify the specific buyer from whom an illegal copy of the watermarked image has originated, and further prove this fact to a third party. For multiple ownership claims, our scheme enables a legal seller to claim his/her ownership in the court of law. We will show that the combination of cryptography with watermarking not only increases the security of the overall scheme, but it also enables to associate identities of buyer/seller with their respective watermarked images.

  15. Paper-Based Textbooks with Audio Support for Print-Disabled Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiyoshi, Akio; Ohsawa, Akiko; Takaira, Takuya; Tani, Yoshiaki; Fujiyoshi, Mamoru; Ota, Yuko

    2015-01-01

    Utilizing invisible 2-dimensional codes and digital audio players with a 2-dimensional code scanner, we developed paper-based textbooks with audio support for students with print disabilities, called "multimodal textbooks." Multimodal textbooks can be read with the combination of the two modes: "reading printed text" and "listening to the speech of the text from a digital audio player with a 2-dimensional code scanner." Since multimodal textbooks look the same as regular textbooks and the price of a digital audio player is reasonable (about 30 euro), we think multimodal textbooks are suitable for students with print disabilities in ordinary classrooms.

  16. The contribution of audio recording using portable digital voice recorders to the development of reflective practice with trainee teachers in a Further Education setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Knill, Marta

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Developing reflective skills and habits during initial teacher education and progressing to deeper and more critical reflection are challenges for trainee teachers. This small-scale action research study investigates how two structured tasks using Digital Voice Recorders (DVRs initiated, sustained and improved reflection and reflective practice. Trainee teachers reported benefits in increased understanding of reflection, development of reflective skills, deepening of reflection and improvements in practice through joint reflection with Teacher Educators on specific aspects of teaching and learning. The structuring of the tasks with prompts and dialogue clearly contributed to the positive outcomes. The study suggests that use of the small, convenient and relatively low cost DVR technology has a place in learning to reflect.

  17. Perceptual Audio Hashing Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Anarım

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Perceptual hash functions provide a tool for fast and reliable identification of content. We present new audio hash functions based on summarization of the time-frequency spectral characteristics of an audio document. The proposed hash functions are based on the periodicity series of the fundamental frequency and on singular-value description of the cepstral frequencies. They are found, on one hand, to perform very satisfactorily in identification and verification tests, and on the other hand, to be very resilient to a large variety of attacks. Moreover, we address the issue of security of hashes and propose a keying technique, and thereby a key-dependent hash function.

  18. Streaming Audio and Video: New Challenges and Opportunities for Museums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spadaccini, Jim

    Streaming audio and video present new challenges and opportunities for museums. Streaming media is easier to author and deliver to Internet audiences than ever before; digital video editing is commonplace now that the tools--computers, digital video cameras, and hard drives--are so affordable; the cost of serving video files across the Internet…

  19. Security protection of DICOM medical images using dual-layer reversible watermarking with tamper detection capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chun Kiat; Ng, Jason Changwei; Xu, Xiaotian; Poh, Chueh Loo; Guan, Yong Liang; Sheah, Kenneth

    2011-06-01

    Teleradiology applications and universal availability of patient records using web-based technology are rapidly gaining importance. Consequently, digital medical image security has become an important issue when images and their pertinent patient information are transmitted across public networks, such as the Internet. Health mandates such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act require healthcare providers to adhere to security measures in order to protect sensitive patient information. This paper presents a fully reversible, dual-layer watermarking scheme with tamper detection capability for medical images. The scheme utilizes concepts of public-key cryptography and reversible data-hiding technique. The scheme was tested using medical images in DICOM format. The results show that the scheme is able to ensure image authenticity and integrity, and to locate tampered regions in the images.

  20. Portable Audio Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, Sanne Krogh

    2014-01-01

    attention to the specific genre; a grasping of the complex relationship between site and time, the actual and the virtual; and getting aquatint with the specific site’s soundscape by approaching it both intuitively and systematically. These steps will finally lead to an audio production that not only...

  1. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  2. Editing Audio with Audacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Walsh

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For those interested in audio, basic sound editing skills go a long way. Being able to handle and manipulate the materials can help you take control of your object of study: you can zoom in and extract particular moments to analyze, process the audio, and upload the materials to a server to compliment a blog post on the topic. On a more practical level, these skills could also allow you to record and package recordings of yourself or others for distribution. That guest lecture taking place in your department? Record it and edit it yourself! Doing so is a lightweight way to distribute resources among various institutions, and it also helps make the materials more accessible for readers and listeners with a wide variety of learning needs. In this lesson you will learn how to use Audacity to load, record, edit, mix, and export audio files. Sound editing platforms are often expensive and offer extensive capabilities that can be overwhelming to the first-time user, but Audacity is a free and open source alternative that offers powerful capabilities for sound editing with a low barrier for entry. For this lesson we will work with two audio files: a recording of Bach’s Goldberg Variations available from MusOpen and another recording of your own voice that will be made in the course of the lesson. This tutorial uses Audacity 2.1.2, released January 2016.

  3. Using Digital Watermarking for Securing Next Generation Media Broadcasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birk, Dominik; Gaines, Seán

    The Internet presents a problem for the protection of intellectual property. Those who create content must be adequately compensated for the use of their works. Rights agencies who monitor the use of these works exist in many jurisdictions. In the traditional broadcast environment this monitoring is a difficult task. With Internet Protocol Television (IPTV) and Next Generation Networks (NGN) this situation is further complicated.

  4. SVD-based digital image watermarking using complex wavelet ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Good directional selectivity in two-dimensions (2D) with Gabor-like filters (also true for higher .... For example, DWT does not have separate sub-bands for two oppos- ing diagonal ... selection of appropriate scaling factor will be explained later.

  5. Distortion-Free Watermarking Approach for Relational Database Integrity Checking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lancine Camara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, internet is becoming a suitable way of accessing the databases. Such data are exposed to various types of attack with the aim to confuse the ownership proofing or the content protection. In this paper, we propose a new approach based on fragile zero watermarking for the authentication of numeric relational data. Contrary to some previous databases watermarking techniques which cause some distortions in the original database and may not preserve the data usability constraints, our approach simply seeks to generate the watermark from the original database. First, the adopted method partitions the database relation into independent square matrix groups. Then, group-based watermarks are securely generated and registered in a trusted third party. The integrity verification is performed by computing the determinant and the diagonal’s minor for each group. As a result, tampering can be localized up to attribute group level. Theoretical and experimental results demonstrate that the proposed technique is resilient against tuples insertion, tuples deletion, and attributes values modification attacks. Furthermore, comparison with recent related effort shows that our scheme performs better in detecting multifaceted attacks.

  6. Detection and isolation of routing attacks through sensor watermarking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferrari, R.; Herdeiro Teixeira, A.M.; Sun, J; Jiang, Z-P

    2017-01-01

    In networked control systems, leveraging the peculiarities of the cyber-physical domains and their interactions may lead to novel detection and defense mechanisms against malicious cyber-attacks. In this paper, we propose a multiplicative sensor watermarking scheme, where each sensor's output is

  7. Musical examination to bridge audio data and sheet music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Xunyu; Cross, Timothy J.; Xiao, Liangliang; Hei, Xiali

    2015-03-01

    The digitalization of audio is commonly implemented for the purpose of convenient storage and transmission of music and songs in today's digital age. Analyzing digital audio for an insightful look at a specific musical characteristic, however, can be quite challenging for various types of applications. Many existing musical analysis techniques can examine a particular piece of audio data. For example, the frequency of digital sound can be easily read and identified at a specific section in an audio file. Based on this information, we could determine the musical note being played at that instant, but what if you want to see a list of all the notes played in a song? While most existing methods help to provide information about a single piece of the audio data at a time, few of them can analyze the available audio file on a larger scale. The research conducted in this work considers how to further utilize the examination of audio data by storing more information from the original audio file. In practice, we develop a novel musical analysis system Musicians Aid to process musical representation and examination of audio data. Musicians Aid solves the previous problem by storing and analyzing the audio information as it reads it rather than tossing it aside. The system can provide professional musicians with an insightful look at the music they created and advance their understanding of their work. Amateur musicians could also benefit from using it solely for the purpose of obtaining feedback about a song they were attempting to play. By comparing our system's interpretation of traditional sheet music with their own playing, a musician could ensure what they played was correct. More specifically, the system could show them exactly where they went wrong and how to adjust their mistakes. In addition, the application could be extended over the Internet to allow users to play music with one another and then review the audio data they produced. This would be particularly

  8. Can audio recording improve patients' recall of outpatient consultations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken; Kofoed, Poul-Erik; Axboe, Mette

    Introduction In order to give patients possibility to listen to their consultation again, we have designed a system which gives the patients access to digital audio recordings of their consultations. An Interactive Voice Response platform enables the audio recording and gives the patients access...... and those who have not (control).The audio recordings and the interviews are coded according to six themes: Test results, Treatment, Risks, Future tests, Advice and Plan. Afterwards the extent of patients recall is assessed by comparing the accuracy of the patient’s statements (interview...

  9. The audio expert everything you need to know about audio

    CERN Document Server

    Winer, Ethan

    2012-01-01

    The Audio Expert is a comprehensive reference that covers all aspects of audio, with many practical, as well as theoretical, explanations. Providing in-depth descriptions of how audio really works, using common sense plain-English explanations and mechanical analogies with minimal math, the book is written for people who want to understand audio at the deepest, most technical level, without needing an engineering degree. It's presented in an easy-to-read, conversational tone, and includes more than 400 figures and photos augmenting the text.The Audio Expert takes th

  10. Car audio using DSP for active sound control. DSP ni yoru active seigyo wo mochiita audio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, K.; Asano, S.; Furukawa, N. (Mitsubishi Motor Corp., Tokyo (Japan))

    1993-06-01

    In the automobile cabin, there are some unique problems which spoil the quality of sound reproduction from audio equipment, such as the narrow space and/or the background noise. The audio signal processing by using DSP (digital signal processor) makes enable a solution to these problems. A car audio with a high amenity has been successfully made by the active sound control using DSP. The DSP consists of an adder, coefficient multiplier, delay unit, and connections. For the actual processing by DSP, are used functions, such as sound field correction, response and processing of noises during driving, surround reproduction, graphic equalizer processing, etc. High effectiveness of the method was confirmed through the actual driving evaluation test. The present paper describes the actual method of sound control technology using DSP. Especially, the dynamic processing of the noise during driving is discussed in detail. 1 ref., 12 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Dual-tree complex wavelet for medical image watermarking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavudila, K.R.; Ndaye, B.M.; Masmoudi, L.; Hassanain, N.; Cherkaoui, M.

    2010-01-01

    In order to transmit medical data between hospitals, we insert the information for each patient in the image and its diagnosis, the watermarking consist to insert a message in the image and try to find it with the maximum possible fidelity. This paper presents a blind watermarking scheme in wavelet transform domain dual tree (DTT), who increasing the robustness and preserves the image quality. This system is transparent to the user and allows image integrity control. In addition, it provides information on the location of potential alterations and an evaluation of image modifications which is of major importance in a medico-legal framework. An example using head magnetic resonance and mammography imaging illustrates the overall method. Wavelet techniques can be successfully applied in various image processing methods, namely in image de noising, segmentation, classification, watermarking and others. In this paper we discussed the application of dual tree complex wavelet transform (D T-CWT), which has significant advantages over classic discrete wavelet transform (DWT), for certain image processing problems. The D T-CWT is a form of discreet wavelet transform which generates complex coefficients by using a dual tree of wavelet filters to obtain their real and imaginary parts. The main part of the paper is devoted to profit the exceptional quality for D T-CWT, compared to classical DWT, for a blind medical image watermarking, our schemes are using for the performance bivariate shrinkage with local variance estimation and are robust of attacks and favourably preserves the visual quality. Experimental results show that embedded watermarks using CWT give good image quality and are robust in comparison with the classical DWT.

  12. All About Audio Equalization: Solutions and Frontiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesa Välimäki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio equalization is a vast and active research area. The extent of research means that one often cannot identify the preferred technique for a particular problem. This review paper bridges those gaps, systemically providing a deep understanding of the problems and approaches in audio equalization, their relative merits and applications. Digital signal processing techniques for modifying the spectral balance in audio signals and applications of these techniques are reviewed, ranging from classic equalizers to emerging designs based on new advances in signal processing and machine learning. Emphasis is placed on putting the range of approaches within a common mathematical and conceptual framework. The application areas discussed herein are diverse, and include well-defined, solvable problems of filter design subject to constraints, as well as newly emerging challenges that touch on problems in semantics, perception and human computer interaction. Case studies are given in order to illustrate key concepts and how they are applied in practice. We also recommend preferred signal processing approaches for important audio equalization problems. Finally, we discuss current challenges and the uncharted frontiers in this field. The source code for methods discussed in this paper is made available at https://code.soundsoftware.ac.uk/projects/allaboutaudioeq.

  13. Digitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Finnemann, Niels Ole

    2014-01-01

    what a concept of digital media might add to the understanding of processes of mediatization and what the concept of mediatization might add to the understanding of digital media. It is argued that digital media open an array of new trajectories in human communication, trajectories which were...

  14. Digital audio recording of outpatient consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolderslund, Maiken

    BAGGRUND Begreber som patientinvolvering og fælles beslutningstagning står i disse år højt på den sundhedspolitiske agenda. I bestræbelserne på at nå disse målsætninger, er kommunikationen mellem patient og sundhedspersonalet et helt centralt aspekt, som dog også kan volde problemer. For patiente...

  15. A robust image watermarking in contourlet transform domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajat; Gupta, Abhishek Kumar; Singh, Deepak; Verma, Vivek Singh; Bhardwaj, Anuj

    2017-10-01

    A lot of work has been done in the field of image watermarking to overcome the problems of rightful ownership, copyright protection etc. In order to provide a robust solution of such issues, the authors propose a hybrid approach that involves contourlet, lifting wavelet, and discrete cosine transform. The first level coefficients of the original image which are obtained using contourlet transform are further decomposed using one level lifting wavelet transform. After that, these coefficients are modified using discrete cosine transform. Whereas, second level subband of contourlet transform coefficients are used to obtain block wise modification parameter based on edge detection and entropy calculations. Watermark bits are embedded by quantizing the discrete cosine transform coefficient blocks obtained using HL sub-band of first level lifting wavelet transform coefficients. The experimental results reveal that the proposed scheme has high robustness and imperceptibility.

  16. Small signal audio design

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    Learn to use inexpensive and readily available parts to obtain state-of-the-art performance in all the vital parameters of noise, distortion, crosstalk and so on. With ample coverage of preamplifiers and mixers and a new chapter on headphone amplifiers, this practical handbook provides an extensive repertoire of circuits that can be put together to make almost any type of audio system.A resource packed full of valuable information, with virtually every page revealing nuggets of specialized knowledge not found elsewhere. Essential points of theory that bear on practical performance are lucidly

  17. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-01-01

    Background The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. Results The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. Conclusion The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms. PMID:17535434

  18. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnekow Angelika

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. Results The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. Conclusion The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms.

  19. DNA-based watermarks using the DNA-Crypt algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heider, Dominik; Barnekow, Angelika

    2007-05-29

    The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the application of watermarks based on DNA sequences to identify the unauthorized use of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) protected by patents. Predicted mutations in the genome can be corrected by the DNA-Crypt program leaving the encrypted information intact. Existing DNA cryptographic and steganographic algorithms use synthetic DNA sequences to store binary information however, although these sequences can be used for authentication, they may change the target DNA sequence when introduced into living organisms. The DNA-Crypt algorithm and image steganography are based on the same watermark-hiding principle, namely using the least significant base in case of DNA-Crypt and the least significant bit in case of the image steganography. It can be combined with binary encryption algorithms like AES, RSA or Blowfish. DNA-Crypt is able to correct mutations in the target DNA with several mutation correction codes such as the Hamming-code or the WDH-code. Mutations which can occur infrequently may destroy the encrypted information, however an integrated fuzzy controller decides on a set of heuristics based on three input dimensions, and recommends whether or not to use a correction code. These three input dimensions are the length of the sequence, the individual mutation rate and the stability over time, which is represented by the number of generations. In silico experiments using the Ypt7 in Saccharomyces cerevisiae shows that the DNA watermarks produced by DNA-Crypt do not alter the translation of mRNA into protein. The program is able to store watermarks in living organisms and can maintain the original information by correcting mutations itself. Pairwise or multiple sequence alignments show that DNA-Crypt produces few mismatches between the sequences similar to all steganographic algorithms.

  20. Individually Watermarked Information Distributed Scalable by Modified Transforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    inverse of the secret transform is needed. Each trusted recipient has a unique inverse transform that is similar to the inverse of the original...transform. The elements of this individual inverse transform are given by the individual descrambling key. After applying the individual inverse ... transform the retrieved image is embedded with a recipient individual watermark. Souce 1 I Decode IW1 Decode IW2 Decode ISC Scramb K Recipient 3

  1. Drift-free MPEG-4 AVC semi-fragile watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasnaoui, M.; Mitrea, M.

    2014-02-01

    While intra frame drifting is a concern for all types of MPEG-4 AVC compressed-domain video processing applications, it has a particular negative impact in watermarking. In order to avoid the drift drawbacks, two classes of solutions are currently considered in the literature. They try either to compensate the drift distortions at the expense of complex decoding/estimation algorithms or to restrict the insertion to the blocks which are not involved in the prediction, thus reducing the data payload. The present study follows a different approach. First, it algebraically models the drift distortion spread problem by considering the analytic expressions of the MPEG-4 AVC encoding operations. Secondly, it solves the underlying algebraic system under drift-free constraints. Finally, the advanced solution is adapted to take into account the watermarking peculiarities. The experiments consider an m-QIM semi-fragile watermarking method and a video surveillance corpus of 80 minutes. For prescribed data payload (100 bit/s), robustness (BER < 0.1 against transcoding at 50% in stream size), fragility (frame modification detection with accuracies of 1/81 from the frame size and 3s) and complexity constraints, the modified insertion results in gains in transparency of 2 dB in PSNR, of 0.4 in AAD, of 0.002 in IF, of 0.03 in SC, of 0.017 NCC and 22 in DVQ.

  2. Image Watermarking Algorithm Based on Multiobjective Ant Colony Optimization and Singular Value Decomposition in Wavelet Domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Loukhaoukha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a new optimal watermarking scheme based on discrete wavelet transform (DWT and singular value decomposition (SVD using multiobjective ant colony optimization (MOACO. A binary watermark is decomposed using a singular value decomposition. Then, the singular values are embedded in a detailed subband of host image. The trade-off between watermark transparency and robustness is controlled by multiple scaling factors (MSFs instead of a single scaling factor (SSF. Determining the optimal values of the multiple scaling factors (MSFs is a difficult problem. However, a multiobjective ant colony optimization is used to determine these values. Experimental results show much improved performances of the proposed scheme in terms of transparency and robustness compared to other watermarking schemes. Furthermore, it does not suffer from the problem of high probability of false positive detection of the watermarks.

  3. Reversible Integer Wavelet Transform for the Joint of Image Encryption and Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, signal processing in the encrypted domain has attracted considerable research interest, especially embedding watermarking in encrypted image. In this work, a novel joint of image encryption and watermarking based on reversible integer wavelet transform is proposed. Firstly, the plain-image is encrypted by chaotic maps and reversible integer wavelet transform. Then the lossless watermarking is embedded in the encrypted image by reversible integer wavelet transform and histogram modification. Finally an encrypted image containing watermarking is obtained by the inverse integer wavelet transform. What is more, the original image and watermarking can be completely recovered by inverse process. Numerical experimental results and comparing with previous works show that the proposed scheme possesses higher security and embedding capacity than previous works. It is suitable for protecting the image information.

  4. Computationally Efficient Robust Color Image Watermarking Using Fast Walsh Hadamard Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suja Kalarikkal Pullayikodi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Watermark is the copy deterrence mechanism used in the multimedia signal that is to be protected from hacking and piracy such a way that it can later be extracted from the watermarked signal by the decoder. Watermarking can be used in various applications such as authentication, video indexing, copyright protection and access control. In this paper a new CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access based robust watermarking algorithm using customized 8 × 8 Walsh Hadamard Transform, is proposed for the color images and detailed performance and robustness analysis have been performed. The paper studies in detail the effect of spreading code length, number of spreading codes and type of spreading codes on the performance of the watermarking system. Compared to the existing techniques the proposed scheme is computationally more efficient and consumes much less time for execution. Furthermore, the proposed scheme is robust and survives most of the common signal processing and geometric attacks.

  5. Image Watermarking Scheme for Specifying False Positive Probability and Bit-pattern Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayama, Kohei; Nakamoto, Masayoshi; Muneyasu, Mitsuji; Ohno, Shuichi

    This paper treats a discrete wavelet transform(DWT)-based image watermarking with considering the false positive probability and bit-pattern embedding. We propose an iterative embedding algorithm of watermarking signals which are K sets pseudo-random numbers generated by a secret key. In the detection, K correlations between the watermarked DWT coefficients and watermark signals are computed by using the secret key. L correlations are made available for the judgment of the watermark presence with specified false positive probability, and the other K-L correlations are corresponding to the bit-pattern signal. In the experiment, we show the detection results with specified false positive probability and the bit-pattern recovery, and the comparison of the proposed method against JPEG compression, scaling down and cropping.

  6. A good performance watermarking LDPC code used in high-speed optical fiber communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenbo; Li, Chao; Zhang, Xiaoguang; Xi, Lixia; Tang, Xianfeng; He, Wenxue

    2015-07-01

    A watermarking LDPC code, which is a strategy designed to improve the performance of the traditional LDPC code, was introduced. By inserting some pre-defined watermarking bits into original LDPC code, we can obtain a more correct estimation about the noise level in the fiber channel. Then we use them to modify the probability distribution function (PDF) used in the initial process of belief propagation (BP) decoding algorithm. This algorithm was tested in a 128 Gb/s PDM-DQPSK optical communication system and results showed that the watermarking LDPC code had a better tolerances to polarization mode dispersion (PMD) and nonlinearity than that of traditional LDPC code. Also, by losing about 2.4% of redundancy for watermarking bits, the decoding efficiency of the watermarking LDPC code is about twice of the traditional one.

  7. Efficient Audio Power Amplification - Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where...

  8. Efficient audio power amplification - challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, Michael A.E.

    2005-07-01

    For more than a decade efficient audio power amplification has evolved and today switch-mode audio power amplification in various forms are the state-of-the-art. The technical steps that lead to this evolution are described and in addition many of the challenges still to be faced and where extensive research and development are needed is covered. (au)

  9. An Incomplete Cryptography based Digital Rights Management with DCFF

    OpenAIRE

    Thanh, Ta Minh; Iwakiri, Munetoshi

    2014-01-01

    In general, DRM (Digital Rights Management) system is responsible for the safe distribution of digital content, however, DRM system is achieved with individual function modules of cryptography, watermarking and so on. In this typical system flow, it has a problem that all original digital contents are temporarily disclosed with perfect condition via decryption process. In this paper, we propose the combination of the differential codes and fragile fingerprinting (DCFF) method based on incompl...

  10. DIGITAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Department of Homeland Security — The Digital Flood Insurance Rate Map (DFIRM) Database depicts flood risk information and supporting data used to develop the risk data. The primary risk...

  11. Automated processing of massive audio/video content using FFmpeg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kia Siang Hock

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Audio and video content forms an integral, important and expanding part of the digital collections in libraries and archives world-wide. While these memory institutions are familiar and well-versed in the management of more conventional materials such as books, periodicals, ephemera and images, the handling of audio (e.g., oral history recordings and video content (e.g., audio-visual recordings, broadcast content requires additional toolkits. In particular, a robust and comprehensive tool that provides a programmable interface is indispensable when dealing with tens of thousands of hours of audio and video content. FFmpeg is comprehensive and well-established open source software that is capable of the full-range of audio/video processing tasks (such as encode, decode, transcode, mux, demux, stream and filter. It is also capable of handling a wide-range of audio and video formats, a unique challenge in memory institutions. It comes with a command line interface, as well as a set of developer libraries that can be incorporated into applications.

  12. Tardos fingerprinting codes in the combined digit model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skoric, B.; Katzenbeisser, S.; Schaathun, H.G.; Celik, M.U.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new attack model for collusion-secure codes, called the combined digit model, which represents signal processing attacks against the underlying watermarking level better than existing models. In this paper, we analyze the performance of two variants of the Tardos code and show that

  13. Just Noticeable Distortion Model and Its Application in Color Image Watermarking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Kuo-Cheng

    In this paper, a perceptually adaptive watermarking scheme for color images is proposed in order to achieve robustness and transparency. A new just noticeable distortion (JND) estimator for color images is first designed in the wavelet domain. The key issue of the JND model is to effectively integrate visual masking effects. The estimator is an extension to the perceptual model that is used in image coding for grayscale images. Except for the visual masking effects given coefficient by coefficient by taking into account the luminance content and the texture of grayscale images, the crossed masking effect given by the interaction between luminance and chrominance components and the effect given by the variance within the local region of the target coefficient are investigated such that the visibility threshold for the human visual system (HVS) can be evaluated. In a locally adaptive fashion based on the wavelet decomposition, the estimator applies to all subbands of luminance and chrominance components of color images and is used to measure the visibility of wavelet quantization errors. The subband JND profiles are then incorporated into the proposed color image watermarking scheme. Performance in terms of robustness and transparency of the watermarking scheme is obtained by means of the proposed approach to embed the maximum strength watermark while maintaining the perceptually lossless quality of the watermarked color image. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme with inserting watermarks into luminance and chrominance components is more robust than the existing scheme while retaining the watermark transparency.

  14. A Bernoulli Gaussian Watermark for Detecting Integrity Attacks in Control Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weerakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ozel, Omur [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-11-02

    We examine the merit of Bernoulli packet drops in actively detecting integrity attacks on control systems. The aim is to detect an adversary who delivers fake sensor measurements to a system operator in order to conceal their effect on the plant. Physical watermarks, or noisy additive Gaussian inputs, have been previously used to detect several classes of integrity attacks in control systems. In this paper, we consider the analysis and design of Gaussian physical watermarks in the presence of packet drops at the control input. On one hand, this enables analysis in a more general network setting. On the other hand, we observe that in certain cases, Bernoulli packet drops can improve detection performance relative to a purely Gaussian watermark. This motivates the joint design of a Bernoulli-Gaussian watermark which incorporates both an additive Gaussian input and a Bernoulli drop process. We characterize the effect of such a watermark on system performance as well as attack detectability in two separate design scenarios. Here, we consider a correlation detector for attack recognition. We then propose efficiently solvable optimization problems to intelligently select parameters of the Gaussian input and the Bernoulli drop process while addressing security and performance trade-offs. Finally, we provide numerical results which illustrate that a watermark with packet drops can indeed outperform a Gaussian watermark.

  15. A compressive sensing based secure watermark detection and privacy preserving storage framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qia Wang; Wenjun Zeng; Jun Tian

    2014-03-01

    Privacy is a critical issue when the data owners outsource data storage or processing to a third party computing service, such as the cloud. In this paper, we identify a cloud computing application scenario that requires simultaneously performing secure watermark detection and privacy preserving multimedia data storage. We then propose a compressive sensing (CS)-based framework using secure multiparty computation (MPC) protocols to address such a requirement. In our framework, the multimedia data and secret watermark pattern are presented to the cloud for secure watermark detection in a CS domain to protect the privacy. During CS transformation, the privacy of the CS matrix and the watermark pattern is protected by the MPC protocols under the semi-honest security model. We derive the expected watermark detection performance in the CS domain, given the target image, watermark pattern, and the size of the CS matrix (but without the CS matrix itself). The correctness of the derived performance has been validated by our experiments. Our theoretical analysis and experimental results show that secure watermark detection in the CS domain is feasible. Our framework can also be extended to other collaborative secure signal processing and data-mining applications in the cloud.

  16. A Blind Adaptive Color Image Watermarking Scheme Based on Principal Component Analysis, Singular Value Decomposition and Human Visual System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Imran

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A blind adaptive color image watermarking scheme based on principal component analysis, singular value decomposition, and human visual system is proposed. The use of principal component analysis to decorrelate the three color channels of host image, improves the perceptual quality of watermarked image. Whereas, human visual system and fuzzy inference system helped to improve both imperceptibility and robustness by selecting adaptive scaling factor, so that, areas more prone to noise can be added with more information as compared to less prone areas. To achieve security, location of watermark embedding is kept secret and used as key at the time of watermark extraction, whereas, for capacity both singular values and vectors are involved in watermark embedding process. As a result, four contradictory requirements; imperceptibility, robustness, security and capacity are achieved as suggested by results. Both subjective and objective methods are acquired to examine the performance of proposed schemes. For subjective analysis the watermarked images and watermarks extracted from attacked watermarked images are shown. For objective analysis of proposed scheme in terms of imperceptibility, peak signal to noise ratio, structural similarity index, visual information fidelity and normalized color difference are used. Whereas, for objective analysis in terms of robustness, normalized correlation, bit error rate, normalized hamming distance and global authentication rate are used. Security is checked by using different keys to extract the watermark. The proposed schemes are compared with state-of-the-art watermarking techniques and found better performance as suggested by results.

  17. Embedded Audio Without Beeps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overholt, Daniel; Møbius, Nikolaj Friis

    2014-01-01

    , and wireless devices for the control of sound or music generated remotely. For example, studio creations can synthesize sound directly with an Arduino or a more powerful “Create USB Interface” board via Direct Digital Synthesis. Alternatively, they can control a program such as Pure Data (or other common...

  18. Audio engineering 101 a beginner's guide to music production

    CERN Document Server

    Dittmar, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Audio Engineering 101 is a real world guide for starting out in the recording industry. If you have the dream, the ideas, the music and the creativity but don't know where to start, then this book is for you!Filled with practical advice on how to navigate the recording world, from an author with first-hand, real-life experience, Audio Engineering 101 will help you succeed in the exciting, but tough and confusing, music industry. Covering all you need to know about the recording process, from the characteristics of sound to a guide to microphones to analog versus digital

  19. The study of watermark bar code recognition with light transmission theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Liu, Tiegen; Zhang, Lianxiang; Zhang, Xiaojun

    2004-10-01

    Watermark bar code is one of the latest anti-counterfeiting technologies, which is applicable to a series of security documents, especially banknotes. With watermark bar codes embedded euro banknotes as an example, a system is designed for watermark bar code detection and recognition based on light transmission theory. We obtain light transmission curves of different denominations along different sampling lines which are paralleled to the latitudinal axis of the banknote. By calculating the correlation coefficient between different light transmission curves, the system can not only distinguish the reference banknote from either the counterfeit ones or other denominations, but also demonstrates high consistency and repeatability.

  20. Histogram Modification and Wavelet Transform for High Performance Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying-Shen Juang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a reversible watermarking technique for natural images. According to the similarity of neighbor coefficients’ values in wavelet domain, most differences between two adjacent pixels are close to zero. The histogram is built based on these difference statistics. As more peak points can be used for secret data hiding, the hiding capacity is improved compared with those conventional methods. Moreover, as the differences concentricity around zero is improved, the transparency of the host image can be increased. Experimental results and comparison show that the proposed method has both advantages in hiding capacity and transparency.

  1. A centralized audio presentation manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papp, A.L. III; Blattner, M.M.

    1994-05-16

    The centralized audio presentation manager addresses the problems which occur when multiple programs running simultaneously attempt to use the audio output of a computer system. Time dependence of sound means that certain auditory messages must be scheduled simultaneously, which can lead to perceptual problems due to psychoacoustic phenomena. Furthermore, the combination of speech and nonspeech audio is examined; each presents its own problems of perceptibility in an acoustic environment composed of multiple auditory streams. The centralized audio presentation manager receives abstract parameterized message requests from the currently running programs, and attempts to create and present a sonic representation in the most perceptible manner through the use of a theoretically and empirically designed rule set.

  2. Instrumental Landing Using Audio Indication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burlak, E. A.; Nabatchikov, A. M.; Korsun, O. N.

    2018-02-01

    The paper proposes an audio indication method for presenting to a pilot the information regarding the relative positions of an aircraft in the tasks of precision piloting. The implementation of the method is presented, the use of such parameters of audio signal as loudness, frequency and modulation are discussed. To confirm the operability of the audio indication channel the experiments using modern aircraft simulation facility were carried out. The simulated performed the instrument landing using the proposed audio method to indicate the aircraft deviations in relation to the slide path. The results proved compatible with the simulated instrumental landings using the traditional glidescope pointers. It inspires to develop the method in order to solve other precision piloting tasks.

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Audio Video

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 3.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Audio Video Equipment that are effective as of...

  4. Realtime Audio with Garbage Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Matheussen, Kjetil Svalastog

    2010-01-01

    Two non-moving concurrent garbage collectors tailored for realtime audio processing are described. Both collectors work on copies of the heap to avoid cache misses and audio-disruptive synchronizations. Both collectors are targeted at multiprocessor personal computers. The first garbage collector works in uncooperative environments, and can replace Hans Boehm's conservative garbage collector for C and C++. The collector does not access the virtual memory system. Neither doe...

  5. Audio localization for mobile robots

    OpenAIRE

    de Guillebon, Thibaut; Grau Saldes, Antoni; Bolea Monte, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    The department of the University for which I worked is developing a project based on the interaction with robots in the environment. My work was to define an audio system for the robot. This audio system that I have to realize consists on a mobile head which is able to follow the sound in its environment. This subject was treated as a research problem, with the liberty to find and develop different solutions and make them evolve in the chosen way.

  6. Tourism research and audio methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Martin Trandberg

    2016-01-01

    Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences.......• Audio methods enriches sensuous tourism ethnographies. • The note suggests five research avenues for future auditory scholarship. • Sensuous tourism research has neglected the role of sounds in embodied tourism experiences....

  7. Sistema de adquisición y procesamiento de audio

    OpenAIRE

    Pérez Segurado, Rubén

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto es el diseño y la implementación de una plataforma para un sistema de procesamiento de audio. El sistema recibirá una señal de audio analógica desde una fuente de audio, permitirá realizar un tratamiento digital de dicha señal y generará una señal procesada que se enviará a unos altavoces externos. Para la realización del sistema de procesamiento se empleará: - Un dispositivo FPGA de Lattice, modelo MachX02-7000-HE, en la cual estarán todas la...

  8. A New Position Location System Using DTV Transmitter Identification Watermark Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chouinard Jean-Yves

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A new position location technique using the transmitter identification (TxID RF watermark in the digital TV (DTV signals is proposed in this paper. Conventional global positioning system (GPS usually does not work well inside buildings due to the high frequency and weak field strength of the signal. In contrast to the GPS, the DTV signals are received from transmitters at relatively short distance, while the broadcast transmitters operate at levels up to the megawatts effective radiated power (ERP. Also the RF frequency of the DTV signal is much lower than the GPS, which makes it easier for the signal to penetrate buildings and other objects. The proposed position location system based on DTV TxID signal is presented in this paper. Practical receiver implementation issues including nonideal correlation and synchronization are analyzed and discussed. Performance of the proposed technique is evaluated through Monte Carlo simulations and compared with other existing position location systems. Possible ways to improve the accuracy of the new position location system is discussed.

  9. Modeling Audio Fingerprints : Structure, Distortion, Capacity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.

    2010-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact low-level representation of a multimedia signal. An audio fingerprint can be used to identify audio files or fragments in a reliable way. The use of audio fingerprints for identification consists of two phases. In the enrollment phase known content is fingerprinted,

  10. A New Pixels Flipping Method for Huge Watermarking Capacity of the Invoice Font Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  11. A new pixels flipping method for huge watermarking capacity of the invoice font image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Hou, Qingzheng; Lu, Jianfeng; Xu, Qishuai; Dai, Junping; Mao, Xiaoyang; Chang, Chin-Chen

    2014-01-01

    Invoice printing just has two-color printing, so invoice font image can be seen as binary image. To embed watermarks into invoice image, the pixels need to be flipped. The more huge the watermark is, the more the pixels need to be flipped. We proposed a new pixels flipping method in invoice image for huge watermarking capacity. The pixels flipping method includes one novel interpolation method for binary image, one flippable pixels evaluation mechanism, and one denoising method based on gravity center and chaos degree. The proposed interpolation method ensures that the invoice image keeps features well after scaling. The flippable pixels evaluation mechanism ensures that the pixels keep better connectivity and smoothness and the pattern has highest structural similarity after flipping. The proposed denoising method makes invoice font image smoother and fiter for human vision. Experiments show that the proposed flipping method not only keeps the invoice font structure well but also improves watermarking capacity.

  12. An Efficient Semi-fragile Watermarking Scheme for Tamper Localization and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xiang; Yang, Hui; Min, Lianquan

    2018-03-01

    To solve the problem that remote sensing images are vulnerable to be tampered, a semi-fragile watermarking scheme was proposed. Binary random matrix was used as the authentication watermark, which was embedded by quantizing the maximum absolute value of directional sub-bands coefficients. The average gray level of every non-overlapping 4×4 block was adopted as the recovery watermark, which was embedded in the least significant bit. Watermarking detection could be done directly without resorting to the original images. Experimental results showed our method was robust against rational distortions to a certain extent. At the same time, it was fragile to malicious manipulation, and realized accurate localization and approximate recovery of the tampered regions. Therefore, this scheme can protect the security of remote sensing image effectively.

  13. Introduction to audio analysis a MATLAB approach

    CERN Document Server

    Giannakopoulos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Introduction to Audio Analysis serves as a standalone introduction to audio analysis, providing theoretical background to many state-of-the-art techniques. It covers the essential theory necessary to develop audio engineering applications, but also uses programming techniques, notably MATLAB®, to take a more applied approach to the topic. Basic theory and reproducible experiments are combined to demonstrate theoretical concepts from a practical point of view and provide a solid foundation in the field of audio analysis. Audio feature extraction, audio classification, audio segmentation, au

  14. A Novel Approach in Security Using Gyration Slab with Watermarking Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rupa, Ch.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a novel security approach is proposed to improve the security and robustness of the data. It uses three levels of security to protect the sensitive data. In the first level, the data is to be protected by Gyration slab encryption algorithm. Result of the first level has to be embedded into an image as original using our earlier paper concept PLSB into a second level of security. The resultant image from the second level is considered as watermark Image. In the third level, the watermark image is embedded into the original image. Here watermark image and original image are similar. The final output of the proposed security approach is a watermarked image which holds the stego image. This method provides more security and robustness than the existing approaches. The main properties of the proposed approach are Gyration slab operations and watermark image and original image are similar. These can reduce the Brute-force attack and improve the confusion and diffusion principles. The main strengths of this paper are cryptanalysis, steganalysis, watermark analysis with reports.

  15. Parameterization of LSB in Self-Recovery Speech Watermarking Framework in Big Data Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuo Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The privacy is a major concern in big data mining approach. In this paper, we propose a novel self-recovery speech watermarking framework with consideration of trustable communication in big data mining. In the framework, the watermark is the compressed version of the original speech. The watermark is embedded into the least significant bit (LSB layers. At the receiver end, the watermark is used to detect the tampered area and recover the tampered speech. To fit the complexity of the scenes in big data infrastructures, the LSB is treated as a parameter. This work discusses the relationship between LSB and other parameters in terms of explicit mathematical formulations. Once the LSB layer has been chosen, the best choices of other parameters are then deduced using the exclusive method. Additionally, we observed that six LSB layers are the limit for watermark embedding when the total bit layers equaled sixteen. Experimental results indicated that when the LSB layers changed from six to three, the imperceptibility of watermark increased, while the quality of the recovered signal decreased accordingly. This result was a trade-off and different LSB layers should be chosen according to different application conditions in big data infrastructures.

  16. Location audio simplified capturing your audio and your audience

    CERN Document Server

    Miles, Dean

    2014-01-01

    From the basics of using camera, handheld, lavalier, and shotgun microphones to camera calibration and mixer set-ups, Location Audio Simplified unlocks the secrets to clean and clear broadcast quality audio no matter what challenges you face. Author Dean Miles applies his twenty-plus years of experience as a professional location operator to teach the skills, techniques, tips, and secrets needed to produce high-quality production sound on location. Humorous and thoroughly practical, the book covers a wide array of topics, such as:* location selection* field mixing* boo

  17. A Joint Audio-Visual Approach to Audio Localization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    Localization of audio sources is an important research problem, e.g., to facilitate noise reduction. In the recent years, the problem has been tackled using distributed microphone arrays (DMA). A common approach is to apply direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation on each array (denoted as nodes), a...... time-of-flight cameras. Moreover, we propose an optimal method for weighting such DOA and range information for audio localization. Our experiments on both synthetic and real data show that there is a clear, potential advantage of using the joint audiovisual localization framework....

  18. Noise-Canceling Helmet Audio System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibert, Marc A.; Culotta, Anthony J.

    2007-01-01

    A prototype helmet audio system has been developed to improve voice communication for the wearer in a noisy environment. The system was originally intended to be used in a space suit, wherein noise generated by airflow of the spacesuit life-support system can make it difficult for remote listeners to understand the astronaut s speech and can interfere with the astronaut s attempt to issue vocal commands to a voice-controlled robot. The system could be adapted to terrestrial use in helmets of protective suits that are typically worn in noisy settings: examples include biohazard, fire, rescue, and diving suits. The system (see figure) includes an array of microphones and small loudspeakers mounted at fixed positions in a helmet, amplifiers and signal-routing circuitry, and a commercial digital signal processor (DSP). Notwithstanding the fixed positions of the microphones and loudspeakers, the system can accommodate itself to any normal motion of the wearer s head within the helmet. The system operates in conjunction with a radio transceiver. An audio signal arriving via the transceiver intended to be heard by the wearer is adjusted in volume and otherwise conditioned and sent to the loudspeakers. The wearer s speech is collected by the microphones, the outputs of which are logically combined (phased) so as to form a microphone- array directional sensitivity pattern that discriminates in favor of sounds coming from vicinity of the wearer s mouth and against sounds coming from elsewhere. In the DSP, digitized samples of the microphone outputs are processed to filter out airflow noise and to eliminate feedback from the loudspeakers to the microphones. The resulting conditioned version of the wearer s speech signal is sent to the transceiver.

  19. Audio power amplifier design handbook

    CERN Document Server

    Self, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    This book is essential for audio power amplifier designers and engineers for one simple reason...it enables you as a professional to develop reliable, high-performance circuits. The Author Douglas Self covers the major issues of distortion and linearity, power supplies, overload, DC-protection and reactive loading. He also tackles unusual forms of compensation and distortion produced by capacitors and fuses. This completely updated fifth edition includes four NEW chapters including one on The XD Principle, invented by the author, and used by Cambridge Audio. Cro

  20. Advances in audio source seperation and multisource audio content retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, Emmanuel

    2012-06-01

    Audio source separation aims to extract the signals of individual sound sources from a given recording. In this paper, we review three recent advances which improve the robustness of source separation in real-world challenging scenarios and enable its use for multisource content retrieval tasks, such as automatic speech recognition (ASR) or acoustic event detection (AED) in noisy environments. We present a Flexible Audio Source Separation Toolkit (FASST) and discuss its advantages compared to earlier approaches such as independent component analysis (ICA) and sparse component analysis (SCA). We explain how cues as diverse as harmonicity, spectral envelope, temporal fine structure or spatial location can be jointly exploited by this toolkit. We subsequently present the uncertainty decoding (UD) framework for the integration of audio source separation and audio content retrieval. We show how the uncertainty about the separated source signals can be accurately estimated and propagated to the features. Finally, we explain how this uncertainty can be efficiently exploited by a classifier, both at the training and the decoding stage. We illustrate the resulting performance improvements in terms of speech separation quality and speaker recognition accuracy.

  1. An audio FIR-DAC in a BCD process for high power Class-D amplifiers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doorn, T.S.; van Tuijl, Adrianus Johannes Maria; Schinkel, Daniel; Annema, Anne J.; Berkhout, M.; Berkhout, M.; Nauta, Bram

    A 322 coefficient semi-digital FIR-DAC using a 1-bit PWM input signal was designed and implemented in a high voltage, audio power bipolar CMOS DMOS (BCD) process. This facilitates digital input signals for an analog class-D amplifier in BCD. The FIR-DAC performance depends on the ISI-resistant

  2. Digital Rights Management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koster, P.; Jonker, Willem; Blanken, Henk; de Vries, A.P.; Blok, H.E.; Feng, L.

    2007-01-01

    Digital Rights Management, or DRM for short, is a much-discussed topic nowadays. The main reason for this is that DRM technology is often mentioned in the context of protection of digital audio and video content, for example to avoid large scale copying of CDs and DVDs via peer-to-peer networks in

  3. Application of Modified Digital Halftoning Techniques to Data Hiding in Personalized Stamps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hsi-Chun Wang; Chi-Ming Lian; Pei-Chi Hsiao

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to embed information in personalized stamps by modified digital halftoning techniques. The displaced and deformed halftone dots are used to encode data in the personalized stamps. Hidden information can be retrieved by either an optical decoder or digital image processing techniques.The results show that personalized stamps with value-added features like data hiding or digital watermarking can be successfully implemented.

  4. Engaging Students with Audio Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cann, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Students express widespread dissatisfaction with academic feedback. Teaching staff perceive a frequent lack of student engagement with written feedback, much of which goes uncollected or unread. Published evidence shows that audio feedback is highly acceptable to students but is underused. This paper explores methods to produce and deliver audio…

  5. Haptic and Audio Interaction Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book constitutes the refereed proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Haptic and Audio Interaction Design, HAID 2010 held in Copenhagen, Denmark, in September 2010. The 21 revised full papers presented were carefully reviewed and selected for inclusion in the book. The papers are or...

  6. Radioactive Decay: Audio Data Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struthers, Allan

    2009-01-01

    Many phenomena generate interesting audible time series. This data can be collected and processed using audio software. The free software package "Audacity" is used to demonstrate the process by recording, processing, and extracting click times from an inexpensive radiation detector. The high quality of the data is demonstrated with a simple…

  7. Design of batch audio/video conversion platform based on JavaEE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yansong; Jiang, Lianpin

    2018-03-01

    With the rapid development of digital publishing industry, the direction of audio / video publishing shows the diversity of coding standards for audio and video files, massive data and other significant features. Faced with massive and diverse data, how to quickly and efficiently convert to a unified code format has brought great difficulties to the digital publishing organization. In view of this demand and present situation in this paper, basing on the development architecture of Sptring+SpringMVC+Mybatis, and combined with the open source FFMPEG format conversion tool, a distributed online audio and video format conversion platform with a B/S structure is proposed. Based on the Java language, the key technologies and strategies designed in the design of platform architecture are analyzed emphatically in this paper, designing and developing a efficient audio and video format conversion system, which is composed of “Front display system”, "core scheduling server " and " conversion server ". The test results show that, compared with the ordinary audio and video conversion scheme, the use of batch audio and video format conversion platform can effectively improve the conversion efficiency of audio and video files, and reduce the complexity of the work. Practice has proved that the key technology discussed in this paper can be applied in the field of large batch file processing, and has certain practical application value.

  8. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage Bi...

  9. A 240W Monolithic Class-D Audio Amplifier Output Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Nyboe, Flemming; Kaya, Cetin; Risbo, Lars; Andreani, Pietro

    2006-01-01

    A single-channel class-D audio amplifier output stage outputs 240W undipped into 4Omega 0.1% open-loop THD+N allows using the device in a fully-digital audio signal path with no feedback. The output current capability is plusmn18A and the part is fabricated in a 0.4mum/1.8mum high-voltage BiCMOS process. Over-current sensing protects the output from short circuits.

  10. A Sequential Circuit-Based IP Watermarking Algorithm for Multiple Scan Chains in Design-for-Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Wu

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In Very Large Scale Integrated Circuits (VLSI design, the existing Design-for-Test(DFT based watermarking techniques usually insert watermark through reordering scan cells, which causes large resource overhead, low security and coverage rate of watermark detection. A novel scheme was proposed to watermark multiple scan chains in DFT for solving the problems. The proposed scheme adopts DFT scan test model of VLSI design, and uses a Linear Feedback Shift Register (LFSR for pseudo random test vector generation. All of the test vectors are shifted in scan input for the construction of multiple scan chains with minimum correlation. Specific registers in multiple scan chains will be changed by the watermark circuit for watermarking the design. The watermark can be effectively detected without interference with normal function of the circuit, even after the chip is packaged. The experimental results on several ISCAS benchmarks show that the proposed scheme has lower resource overhead, probability of coincidence and higher coverage rate of watermark detection by comparing with the existing methods.

  11. Bit rates in audio source coding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.

    1992-01-01

    The goal is to introduce and solve the audio coding optimization problem. Psychoacoustic results such as masking and excitation pattern models are combined with results from rate distortion theory to formulate the audio coding optimization problem. The solution of the audio optimization problem is a

  12. Audio Frequency Analysis in Mobile Phones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Horacio Munguía

    2016-01-01

    A new experiment using mobile phones is proposed in which its audio frequency response is analyzed using the audio port for inputting external signal and getting a measurable output. This experiment shows how the limited audio bandwidth used in mobile telephony is the main cause of the poor speech quality in this service. A brief discussion is…

  13. A joint FED watermarking system using spatial fusion for verifying the security issues of teleradiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viswanathan, P; Krishna, P Venkata

    2014-05-01

    Teleradiology allows transmission of medical images for clinical data interpretation to provide improved e-health care access, delivery, and standards. The remote transmission raises various ethical and legal issues like image retention, fraud, privacy, malpractice liability, etc. A joint FED watermarking system means a joint fingerprint/encryption/dual watermarking system is proposed for addressing these issues. The system combines a region based substitution dual watermarking algorithm using spatial fusion, stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key, and fingerprint verification algorithm using invariants. This paper aims to give access to the outcomes of medical images with confidentiality, availability, integrity, and its origin. The watermarking, encryption, and fingerprint enrollment are conducted jointly in protection stage such that the extraction, decryption, and verification can be applied independently. The dual watermarking system, introducing two different embedding schemes, one used for patient data and other for fingerprint features, reduces the difficulty in maintenance of multiple documents like authentication data, personnel and diagnosis data, and medical images. The spatial fusion algorithm, which determines the region of embedding using threshold from the image to embed the encrypted patient data, follows the exact rules of fusion resulting in better quality than other fusion techniques. The four step stream cipher algorithm using symmetric key for encrypting the patient data with fingerprint verification system using algebraic invariants improves the robustness of the medical information. The experiment result of proposed scheme is evaluated for security and quality analysis in DICOM medical images resulted well in terms of attacks, quality index, and imperceptibility.

  14. Robust Fourier Watermarking for ID Images on Smart Card Plastic Supports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RIAD, R.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Security checking can be improved by watermarking identity (ID images printed on smart cards plastic supports. The major challenge is resistance to attacks: printing the images on the plastic cards, durability and other attacks then scanning the image from the plastic card. In this work, a robust watermarking technique is presented in this context. It is composed of three main mechanisms. The first is a watermarking algorithm based on the Fourier transform to cope with global geometric distortions. The second comprises a filter that reduces image blurring. The third attenuates color degradations. Experiments on 400 ID images show that the Wiener filter strongly improves the detection rate and outperforms competitive algorithms (blind deconvolution and unsharp filter. Color corrections also enhance the watermarking score. The whole scheme has a high efficiency and a low computational cost. It makes it compatible with the desired industrial constraints, i.e. the watermark is to be invisible, the error rate must be lower than 1%, and the detection of the mark should be fast and simple for the user.

  15. Efficient Hybrid Watermarking Scheme for Security and Transmission Bit Rate Enhancement of 3D Color-Plus-Depth Video Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Shafai, W.; El-Rabaie, S.; El-Halawany, M.; Abd El-Samie, F. E.

    2018-03-01

    Three-Dimensional Video-plus-Depth (3DV + D) comprises diverse video streams captured by different cameras around an object. Therefore, there is a great need to fulfill efficient compression to transmit and store the 3DV + D content in compressed form to attain future resource bounds whilst preserving a decisive reception quality. Also, the security of the transmitted 3DV + D is a critical issue for protecting its copyright content. This paper proposes an efficient hybrid watermarking scheme for securing the 3DV + D transmission, which is the homomorphic transform based Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) in Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domain. The objective of the proposed watermarking scheme is to increase the immunity of the watermarked 3DV + D to attacks and achieve adequate perceptual quality. Moreover, the proposed watermarking scheme reduces the transmission-bandwidth requirements for transmitting the color-plus-depth 3DV over limited-bandwidth wireless networks through embedding the depth frames into the color frames of the transmitted 3DV + D. Thus, it saves the transmission bit rate and subsequently it enhances the channel bandwidth-efficiency. The performance of the proposed watermarking scheme is compared with those of the state-of-the-art hybrid watermarking schemes. The comparisons depend on both the subjective visual results and the objective results; the Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR) of the watermarked frames and the Normalized Correlation (NC) of the extracted watermark frames. Extensive simulation results on standard 3DV + D sequences have been conducted in the presence of attacks. The obtained results confirm that the proposed hybrid watermarking scheme is robust in the presence of attacks. It achieves not only very good perceptual quality with appreciated PSNR values and saving in the transmission bit rate, but also high correlation coefficient values in the presence of attacks compared to the existing hybrid watermarking schemes.

  16. A blind video watermarking scheme resistant to rotation and collusion attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amlan Karmakar

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT based blind video watermarking algorithm is proposed, which is perceptually invisible and robust against rotation and collusion attacks. To make the scheme resistant against rotation, watermark is embedded within the square blocks, placed on the middle position of every luminance channel. Then Zernike moments of those square blocks are calculated. The rotation invariance property of the Complex Zernike moments is exploited to predict the rotation angle of the video at the time of extraction of watermark bits. To make the scheme robust against collusion, design of the scheme is done in such a way that the embedding blocks will vary for the successive frames of the video. A Pseudo Random Number (PRN generator and a permutation vector are used to achieve the goal. The experimental results show that the scheme is robust against conventional video attacks, rotation attack and collusion attacks.

  17. Cryptanalysis and Improvement of the Robust and Blind Watermarking Scheme for Dual Color Image

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai Nan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With more color images being widely used on the Internet, the research on embedding color watermark image into color host image has been receiving more attention. Recently, Su et al. have proposed a robust and blind watermarking scheme for dual color image, in which the main innovation is the using of two-level DCT. However, it has been demonstrated in this paper that the original scheme in Su’s study is not secure and can be attacked by our proposed method. In addition, some errors in the original scheme have been pointed out. Also, an improvement measure is presented to enhance the security of the original watermarking scheme. The proposed method has been confirmed by both theoretical analysis and experimental results.

  18. Physical Watermarking for Securing Cyber-Physical Systems via Packet Drop Injections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozel, Omur [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Weekrakkody, Sean [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Sinopoli, Bruno [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-10-23

    Physical watermarking is a well known solution for detecting integrity attacks on Cyber-Physical Systems (CPSs) such as the smart grid. Here, a random control input is injected into the system in order to authenticate physical dynamics and sensors which may have been corrupted by adversaries. Packet drops may naturally occur in a CPS due to network imperfections. To our knowledge, previous work has not considered the role of packet drops in detecting integrity attacks. In this paper, we investigate the merit of injecting Bernoulli packet drops into the control inputs sent to actuators as a new physical watermarking scheme. With the classical linear quadratic objective function and an independent and identically distributed packet drop injection sequence, we study the effect of packet drops on meeting security and control objectives. Our results indicate that the packet drops could act as a potential physical watermark for attack detection in CPSs.

  19. A Non-blind Color Image Watermarking Scheme Resistent Against Geometric Attacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghafoor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A non-blind color image watermarking scheme using principle component analysis, discrete wavelet transform and singular value decomposition is proposed. The color components are uncorrelated using principle component analysis. The watermark is embedded into the singular values of discrete wavelet transformed sub-band associated with principle component containing most of the color information. The scheme was tested against various attacks (including histogram equalization, rotation, Gaussian noise, scaling, cropping, Y-shearing, X-shearing, median filtering, affine transformation, translation, salt & pepper, sharpening, to check robustness. The results of proposed scheme are compared with state-of-the-art existing color watermarking schemes using normalized correlation coefficient and peak signal to noise ratio. The simulation results show that proposed scheme is robust and imperceptible.

  20. Imperceptible watermarking for security of fundus images in tele-ophthalmology applications and computer-aided diagnosis of retina diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anushikha; Dutta, Malay Kishore

    2017-12-01

    The authentication and integrity verification of medical images is a critical and growing issue for patients in e-health services. Accurate identification of medical images and patient verification is an essential requirement to prevent error in medical diagnosis. The proposed work presents an imperceptible watermarking system to address the security issue of medical fundus images for tele-ophthalmology applications and computer aided automated diagnosis of retinal diseases. In the proposed work, patient identity is embedded in fundus image in singular value decomposition domain with adaptive quantization parameter to maintain perceptual transparency for variety of fundus images like healthy fundus or disease affected image. In the proposed method insertion of watermark in fundus image does not affect the automatic image processing diagnosis of retinal objects & pathologies which ensure uncompromised computer-based diagnosis associated with fundus image. Patient ID is correctly recovered from watermarked fundus image for integrity verification of fundus image at the diagnosis centre. The proposed watermarking system is tested in a comprehensive database of fundus images and results are convincing. results indicate that proposed watermarking method is imperceptible and it does not affect computer vision based automated diagnosis of retinal diseases. Correct recovery of patient ID from watermarked fundus image makes the proposed watermarking system applicable for authentication of fundus images for computer aided diagnosis and Tele-ophthalmology applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. An optical color image watermarking scheme by using compressive sensing with human visual characteristics in gyrator domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liansheng, Sui; Bei, Zhou; Zhanmin, Wang; Ailing, Tian

    2017-05-01

    A novel optical color image watermarking scheme considering human visual characteristics is presented in gyrator transform domain. Initially, an appropriate reference image is constructed of significant blocks chosen from the grayscale host image by evaluating visual characteristics such as visual entropy and edge entropy. Three components of the color watermark image are compressed based on compressive sensing, and the corresponding results are combined to form the grayscale watermark. Then, the frequency coefficients of the watermark image are fused into the frequency data of the gyrator-transformed reference image. The fused result is inversely transformed and partitioned, and eventually the watermarked image is obtained by mapping the resultant blocks into their original positions. The scheme can reconstruct the watermark with high perceptual quality and has the enhanced security due to high sensitivity of the secret keys. Importantly, the scheme can be implemented easily under the framework of double random phase encoding with the 4f optical system. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first report on embedding the color watermark into the grayscale host image which will be out of attacker's expectation. Simulation results are given to verify the feasibility and its superior performance in terms of noise and occlusion robustness.

  2. A modified non-binary LDPC scheme based on watermark symbols in high speed optical transmission systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Liming; Qiao, Yaojun; Yu, Qian; Zhang, Wenbo

    2016-04-01

    We introduce a watermark non-binary low-density parity check code (NB-LDPC) scheme, which can estimate the time-varying noise variance by using prior information of watermark symbols, to improve the performance of NB-LDPC codes. And compared with the prior-art counterpart, the watermark scheme can bring about 0.25 dB improvement in net coding gain (NCG) at bit error rate (BER) of 1e-6 and 36.8-81% reduction of the iteration numbers. Obviously, the proposed scheme shows great potential in terms of error correction performance and decoding efficiency.

  3. Fast Watermarking of MPEG-1/2 Streams Using Compressed-Domain Perceptual Embedding and a Generalized Correlator Detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Briassouli Alexia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel technique is proposed for watermarking of MPEG-1 and MPEG-2 compressed video streams. The proposed scheme is applied directly in the domain of MPEG-1 system streams and MPEG-2 program streams (multiplexed streams. Perceptual models are used during the embedding process in order to avoid degradation of the video quality. The watermark is detected without the use of the original video sequence. A modified correlation-based detector is introduced that applies nonlinear preprocessing before correlation. Experimental evaluation demonstrates that the proposed scheme is able to withstand several common attacks. The resulting watermarking system is very fast and therefore suitable for copyright protection of compressed video.

  4. Audio-Visual Speech Recognition Using Lip Information Extracted from Side-Face Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Iwano

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an audio-visual speech recognition method using lip information extracted from side-face images as an attempt to increase noise robustness in mobile environments. Our proposed method assumes that lip images can be captured using a small camera installed in a handset. Two different kinds of lip features, lip-contour geometric features and lip-motion velocity features, are used individually or jointly, in combination with audio features. Phoneme HMMs modeling the audio and visual features are built based on the multistream HMM technique. Experiments conducted using Japanese connected digit speech contaminated with white noise in various SNR conditions show effectiveness of the proposed method. Recognition accuracy is improved by using the visual information in all SNR conditions. These visual features were confirmed to be effective even when the audio HMM was adapted to noise by the MLLR method.

  5. Semantic Context Detection Using Audio Event Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Wen-Huang

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Semantic-level content analysis is a crucial issue in achieving efficient content retrieval and management. We propose a hierarchical approach that models audio events over a time series in order to accomplish semantic context detection. Two levels of modeling, audio event and semantic context modeling, are devised to bridge the gap between physical audio features and semantic concepts. In this work, hidden Markov models (HMMs are used to model four representative audio events, that is, gunshot, explosion, engine, and car braking, in action movies. At the semantic context level, generative (ergodic hidden Markov model and discriminative (support vector machine (SVM approaches are investigated to fuse the characteristics and correlations among audio events, which provide cues for detecting gunplay and car-chasing scenes. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approaches and provide a preliminary framework for information mining by using audio characteristics.

  6. Smartphone audio port data collection cookbook

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle Forinash

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The audio port of a smartphone is designed to send and receive audio but can be harnessed for portable, economical, and accurate data collection from a variety of sources. While smartphones have internal sensors to measure a number of physical phenomena such as acceleration, magnetism and illumination levels, measurement of other phenomena such as voltage, external temperature, or accurate timing of moving objects are excluded. The audio port cannot be only employed to sense external phenomena. It has the additional advantage of timing precision; because audio is recorded or played at a controlled rate separated from other smartphone activities, timings based on audio can be highly accurate. The following outlines unpublished details of the audio port technical elements for data collection, a general data collection recipe and an example timing application for Android devices.

  7. Presence and the utility of audio spatialization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bormann, Karsten

    2005-01-01

    The primary concern of this paper is whether the utility of audio spatialization, as opposed to the fidelity of audio spatialization, impacts presence. An experiment is reported that investigates the presence-performance relationship by decoupling spatial audio fidelity (realism) from task...... performance by varying the spatial fidelity of the audio independently of its relevance to performance on the search task that subjects were to perform. This was achieved by having conditions in which subjects searched for a music-playing radio (an active sound source) and having conditions in which...... supplied only nonattenuated audio was detrimental to performance. Even so, this group of subjects consistently had the largest increase in presence scores over the baseline experiment. Further, the Witmer and Singer (1998) presence questionnaire was more sensitive to whether the audio source was active...

  8. Modified BTC Algorithm for Audio Signal Coding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TOMIC, S.

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes modification of a well-known image coding algorithm, named Block Truncation Coding (BTC and its application in audio signal coding. BTC algorithm was originally designed for black and white image coding. Since black and white images and audio signals have different statistical characteristics, the application of this image coding algorithm to audio signal presents a novelty and a challenge. Several implementation modifications are described in this paper, while the original idea of the algorithm is preserved. The main modifications are performed in the area of signal quantization, by designing more adequate quantizers for audio signal processing. The result is a novel audio coding algorithm, whose performance is presented and analyzed in this research. The performance analysis indicates that this novel algorithm can be successfully applied in audio signal coding.

  9. New audio applications of beryllium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sato, M.

    1977-01-01

    The major applications of beryllium metal in the field of audio appliances are for the vibrating cones for the two types of speakers 'TWITTER' for high range sound and 'SQUAWKER' for mid range sound, and also for beryllium cantilever tube assembled in stereo cartridge. These new applications are based on the characteristic property of beryllium having high ratio of modulus of elasticity to specific gravity. The production of these audio parts is described, and the audio response is shown. (author)

  10. Issues and prospects of digitizing liberation movements' archives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    collective memory. Keywords: digitization,. NAHECS, liberation archives, digitally born, audio- visual. Introduction and background to liberation archives. Archives are generally records of .... long term preservation and access to selected archival materials ..... by International Library of African Music. (ILAM) in. Rhodes.

  11. Color Image Secret Watermarking Erase and Write Algorithm Based on SIFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Jubao

    The use of adaptive characteristics of SIFT, image features, the implementation of the write, erase operations on Extraction and color image hidden watermarking. From the experimental results, this algorithm has better imperceptibility and at the same time, is robust against geometric attacks and common signal processing.

  12. A 3D Printing Model Watermarking Algorithm Based on 3D Slicing and Feature Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giao N. Pham

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available With the increase of three-dimensional (3D printing applications in many areas of life, a large amount of 3D printing data is copied, shared, and used several times without any permission from the original providers. Therefore, copyright protection and ownership identification for 3D printing data in communications or commercial transactions are practical issues. This paper presents a novel watermarking algorithm for 3D printing models based on embedding watermark data into the feature points of a 3D printing model. Feature points are determined and computed by the 3D slicing process along the Z axis of a 3D printing model. The watermark data is embedded into a feature point of a 3D printing model by changing the vector length of the feature point in OXY space based on the reference length. The x and y coordinates of the feature point will be then changed according to the changed vector length that has been embedded with a watermark. Experimental results verified that the proposed algorithm is invisible and robust to geometric attacks, such as rotation, scaling, and translation. The proposed algorithm provides a better method than the conventional works, and the accuracy of the proposed algorithm is much higher than previous methods.

  13. Robust and Blind 3D Mesh Watermarking in Spatial Domain Based on Faces Categorization and Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molaei, Amir Masoud; Ebrahimnezhad, Hossein; Sedaaghi, Mohammad Hossein

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a 3D watermarking algorithm in spatial domain is presented with blind detection. In the proposed method, a negligible visual distortion is observed in host model. Initially, a preprocessing is applied on the 3D model to make it robust against geometric transformation attacks. Then, a number of triangle faces are determined as mark triangles using a novel systematic approach in which faces are categorized and sorted robustly. In order to enhance the capability of information retrieval by attacks, block watermarks are encoded using Reed-Solomon block error-correcting code before embedding into the mark triangles. Next, the encoded watermarks are embedded in spherical coordinates. The proposed method is robust against additive noise, mesh smoothing and quantization attacks. Also, it is stout next to geometric transformation, vertices and faces reordering attacks. Moreover, the proposed algorithm is designed so that it is robust against the cropping attack. Simulation results confirm that the watermarked models confront very low distortion if the control parameters are selected properly. Comparison with other methods demonstrates that the proposed method has good performance against the mesh smoothing attacks.

  14. LVTTL Based Energy Efficient Watermark Generator Design and Implementation on FPGA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pandey, Bishwajeet; Kaur, Amanpreet; Kumar, Tanesh

    2014-01-01

    -transistor logic (LVTTL) IO standard is used in this design to make it power optimized. This design is implemented on Kintex-7 FPGA, Device XC7K70T and -3 speed grades. When we are scaling the device operating frequency from 100GHz to 5GHz, there is 94.93% saving in total power of the watermark generator...

  15. A QR code based zero-watermarking scheme for authentication of medical images in teleradiology cloud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seenivasagam, V; Velumani, R

    2013-01-01

    Healthcare institutions adapt cloud based archiving of medical images and patient records to share them efficiently. Controlled access to these records and authentication of images must be enforced to mitigate fraudulent activities and medical errors. This paper presents a zero-watermarking scheme implemented in the composite Contourlet Transform (CT)-Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) domain for unambiguous authentication of medical images. Further, a framework is proposed for accessing patient records based on the watermarking scheme. The patient identification details and a link to patient data encoded into a Quick Response (QR) code serves as the watermark. In the proposed scheme, the medical image is not subjected to degradations due to watermarking. Patient authentication and authorized access to patient data are realized on combining a Secret Share with the Master Share constructed from invariant features of the medical image. The Hu's invariant image moments are exploited in creating the Master Share. The proposed system is evaluated with Checkmark software and is found to be robust to both geometric and non geometric attacks.

  16. A QR Code Based Zero-Watermarking Scheme for Authentication of Medical Images in Teleradiology Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Seenivasagam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Healthcare institutions adapt cloud based archiving of medical images and patient records to share them efficiently. Controlled access to these records and authentication of images must be enforced to mitigate fraudulent activities and medical errors. This paper presents a zero-watermarking scheme implemented in the composite Contourlet Transform (CT—Singular Value Decomposition (SVD domain for unambiguous authentication of medical images. Further, a framework is proposed for accessing patient records based on the watermarking scheme. The patient identification details and a link to patient data encoded into a Quick Response (QR code serves as the watermark. In the proposed scheme, the medical image is not subjected to degradations due to watermarking. Patient authentication and authorized access to patient data are realized on combining a Secret Share with the Master Share constructed from invariant features of the medical image. The Hu’s invariant image moments are exploited in creating the Master Share. The proposed system is evaluated with Checkmark software and is found to be robust to both geometric and non geometric attacks.

  17. Research in DRM architecture based on watermarking and PKI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ligang; Chen, Xiaosu; Xiao, Dao-ju; Yi, Miao

    2005-02-01

    Analyze the virtue and disadvantage of the present digital copyright protecting system, design a kind of security protocol model of digital copyright protection, which equilibrium consider the digital media"s use validity, integrality, security of transmission, and trade equity, make a detailed formalize description to the protocol model, analyze the relationship of the entities involved in the digital work copyright protection. The analysis of the security and capability of the protocol model shows that the model is good at security and practicability.

  18. System-Level Optimization of a DAC for Hearing-Aid Audio Class D Output Stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Jørgensen, Ivan Harald Holger; Bruun, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with system-level optimization of a digital-to-analog converter (DAC) for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage. We discuss the ΣΔ modulator system-level design parameters – the order, the oversampling ratio (OSR) and the number of bits in the quantizer. We show that combining...... by comparing two ΣΔ modulator designs. The proposed optimization has impact on the whole hearing-aid audio back-end system including less hardware in the interpolation filter and half the switching rate in the digital-pulse-width-modulation (DPWM) block and Class D output stage...... a reduction of the OSR with an increase of the order results in considerable power savings while the audio quality is kept. For further savings in the ΣΔ modulator, overdesign and subsequent coarse coefficient quantization are used. A figure of merit (FOM) is introduced to confirm this optimization approach...

  19. Protection of Mobile Agents Execution Using a Modified Self-Validating Branch-Based Software Watermarking with External Sentinel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomàs-Buliart, Joan; Fernández, Marcel; Soriano, Miguel

    Critical infrastructures are usually controlled by software entities. To monitor the well-function of these entities, a solution based in the use of mobile agents is proposed. Some proposals to detect modifications of mobile agents, as digital signature of code, exist but they are oriented to protect software against modification or to verify that an agent have been executed correctly. The aim of our proposal is to guarantee that the software is being executed correctly by a non trusted host. The way proposed to achieve this objective is by the improvement of the Self-Validating Branch-Based Software Watermarking by Myles et al.. The proposed modification is the incorporation of an external element called sentinel which controls branch targets. This technique applied in mobile agents can guarantee the correct operation of an agent or, at least, can detect suspicious behaviours of a malicious host during the execution of the agent instead of detecting when the execution of the agent have finished.

  20. Watermark: An Application and Methodology and Application for Interactive and intelligent Decision Support for Groundwater Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, S. A.; Wagner, K.; Schwartz, S.; Gentle, J. N., Jr.

    2016-12-01

    Critical water resources face the effects of historic drought, increased demand, and potential contamination, the need has never been greater to develop resources to effectively communicate conservation and protection across a broad audience and geographical area. The Watermark application and macro-analysis methodology merges topical analysis of context rich corpus from policy texts with multi-attributed solution sets from integrated models of water resource and other subsystems, such as mineral, food, energy, or environmental systems to construct a scalable, robust, and reproducible approach for identifying links between policy and science knowledge bases. The Watermark application is an open-source, interactive workspace to support science-based visualization and decision making. Designed with generalization in mind, Watermark is a flexible platform that allows for data analysis and inclusion of large datasets with an interactive front-end capable of connecting with other applications as well as advanced computing resources. In addition, the Watermark analysis methodology offers functionality that streamlines communication with non-technical users for policy, education, or engagement with groups around scientific topics of societal relevance. The technology stack for Watermark was selected with the goal of creating a robust and dynamic modular codebase that can be adjusted to fit many use cases and scale to support usage loads that range between simple data display to complex scientific simulation-based modelling and analytics. The methodology uses to topical analysis and simulation-optimization to systematically analyze the policy and management realities of resource systems and explicitly connect the social and problem contexts with science-based and engineering knowledge from models. A case example demonstrates use in a complex groundwater resources management study highlighting multi-criteria spatial decision making and uncertainty comparisons.

  1. Distortion Estimation in Compressed Music Using Only Audio Fingerprints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doets, P.J.O.; Lagendijk, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    An audio fingerprint is a compact yet very robust representation of the perceptually relevant parts of an audio signal. It can be used for content-based audio identification, even when the audio is severely distorted. Audio compression changes the fingerprint slightly. We show that these small

  2. Computerized J-H loop tracer for soft magnetic thick films in the audio frequency range

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loizos G.

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available A computerized J-H loop tracer for soft magnetic thick films in the audio frequency range is described. It is a system built on a PXI platform combining PXI modules for control signal generation and data acquisition. The physiscal signals are digitized and the respective data strems are processed, presented and recorded in LabVIEW 7.0.

  3. Audio Recording of Children with Dyslalia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Gheorghe Pentiuc

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present our researches regarding automat parsing of audio recordings. These recordings are obtained from children with dyslalia and are necessary for an accurate identification of speech problems. We develop a software application that helps parsing audio, real time, recordings.

  4. Audio Recording of Children with Dyslalia

    OpenAIRE

    Stefan Gheorghe Pentiuc; Maria D. Schipor; Ovidiu A. Schipor

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we present our researches regarding automat parsing of audio recordings. These recordings are obtained from children with dyslalia and are necessary for an accurate identification of speech problems. We develop a software application that helps parsing audio, real time, recordings.

  5. A listening test system for automotive audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Flemming; Geoff, Martin; Minnaar, Pauli

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a system for simulating automotive audio through headphones for the purposes of conducting listening experiments in the laboratory. The system is based on binaural technology and consists of a component for reproducing the sound of the audio system itself and a component...

  6. Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.

    2007-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, and can express a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is performed

  7. Audio-Visual Classification of Sports Types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gade, Rikke; Abou-Zleikha, Mohamed; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2015-01-01

    In this work we propose a method for classification of sports types from combined audio and visual features ex- tracted from thermal video. From audio Mel Frequency Cepstral Coefficients (MFCC) are extracted, and PCA are applied to reduce the feature space to 10 dimensions. From the visual modali...

  8. High-Fidelity Piezoelectric Audio Device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Stanley E.; Fox, Robert L.; Bryant, Robert G.

    2003-01-01

    ModalMax is a very innovative means of harnessing the vibration of a piezoelectric actuator to produce an energy efficient low-profile device with high-bandwidth high-fidelity audio response. The piezoelectric audio device outperforms many commercially available speakers made using speaker cones. The piezoelectric device weighs substantially less (4 g) than the speaker cones which use magnets (10 g). ModalMax devices have extreme fabrication simplicity. The entire audio device is fabricated by lamination. The simplicity of the design lends itself to lower cost. The piezoelectric audio device can be used without its acoustic chambers and thereby resulting in a very low thickness of 0.023 in. (0.58 mm). The piezoelectric audio device can be completely encapsulated, which makes it very attractive for use in wet environments. Encapsulation does not significantly alter the audio response. Its small size (see Figure 1) is applicable to many consumer electronic products, such as pagers, portable radios, headphones, laptop computers, computer monitors, toys, and electronic games. The audio device can also be used in automobile or aircraft sound systems.

  9. Implementing Audio-CASI on Windows’ Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooley, Philip C.; Turner, Charles F.

    2011-01-01

    Audio computer-assisted self interviewing (Audio-CASI) technologies have recently been shown to provide important and sometimes dramatic improvements in the quality of survey measurements. This is particularly true for measurements requiring respondents to divulge highly sensitive information such as their sexual, drug use, or other sensitive behaviors. However, DOS-based Audio-CASI systems that were designed and adopted in the early 1990s have important limitations. Most salient is the poor control they provide for manipulating the video presentation of survey questions. This article reports our experiences adapting Audio-CASI to Microsoft Windows 3.1 and Windows 95 platforms. Overall, our Windows-based system provided the desired control over video presentation and afforded other advantages including compatibility with a much wider array of audio devices than our DOS-based Audio-CASI technologies. These advantages came at the cost of increased system requirements --including the need for both more RAM and larger hard disks. While these costs will be an issue for organizations converting large inventories of PCS to Windows Audio-CASI today, this will not be a serious constraint for organizations and individuals with small inventories of machines to upgrade or those purchasing new machines today. PMID:22081743

  10. Musical Audio Synthesis Using Autoencoding Neural Nets

    OpenAIRE

    Sarroff, Andy; Casey, Michael A.

    2014-01-01

    With an optimal network topology and tuning of hyperpa-\\ud rameters, artificial neural networks (ANNs) may be trained\\ud to learn a mapping from low level audio features to one\\ud or more higher-level representations. Such artificial neu-\\ud ral networks are commonly used in classification and re-\\ud gression settings to perform arbitrary tasks. In this work\\ud we suggest repurposing autoencoding neural networks as\\ud musical audio synthesizers. We offer an interactive musi-\\ud cal audio synt...

  11. Audio Haptic Videogaming for Developing Wayfinding Skills in Learners Who are Blind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; de Borba Campos, Marcia; Espinoza, Matías; Merabet, Lotfi B

    2014-01-01

    Interactive digital technologies are currently being developed as a novel tool for education and skill development. Audiopolis is an audio and haptic based videogame designed for developing orientation and mobility (O&M) skills in people who are blind. We have evaluated the cognitive impact of videogame play on O&M skills by assessing performance on a series of behavioral tasks carried out in both indoor and outdoor virtual spaces. Our results demonstrate that the use of Audiopolis had a positive impact on the development and use of O&M skills in school-aged learners who are blind. The impact of audio and haptic information on learning is also discussed.

  12. Sound for digital video

    CERN Document Server

    Holman, Tomlinson

    2013-01-01

    Achieve professional quality sound on a limited budget! Harness all new, Hollywood style audio techniques to bring your independent film and video productions to the next level.In Sound for Digital Video, Second Edition industry experts Tomlinson Holman and Arthur Baum give you the tools and knowledge to apply recent advances in audio capture, video recording, editing workflow, and mixing to your own film or video with stunning results. This fresh edition is chockfull of techniques, tricks, and workflow secrets that you can apply to your own projects from preproduction

  13. Wavelet-Based Watermarking and Compression for ECG Signals with Verification Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuo-Kun Tseng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the current open society and with the growth of human rights, people are more and more concerned about the privacy of their information and other important data. This study makes use of electrocardiography (ECG data in order to protect individual information. An ECG signal can not only be used to analyze disease, but also to provide crucial biometric information for identification and authentication. In this study, we propose a new idea of integrating electrocardiogram watermarking and compression approach, which has never been researched before. ECG watermarking can ensure the confidentiality and reliability of a user’s data while reducing the amount of data. In the evaluation, we apply the embedding capacity, bit error rate (BER, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, compression ratio (CR, and compressed-signal to noise ratio (CNR methods to assess the proposed algorithm. After comprehensive evaluation the final results show that our algorithm is robust and feasible.

  14. A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme with drift compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xinghao; Sun, Tanfeng; Zhou, Yue; Wang, Wan; Shi, Yun-Qing

    2014-01-01

    A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme for copyright protection with self-adaptive drift compensation is proposed. In our scheme, motion vector residuals of macroblocks with the smallest partition size are selected to hide copyright information in order to hold visual impact and distortion drift to a minimum. Drift compensation is also implemented to reduce the influence of watermark to the most extent. Besides, discrete cosine transform (DCT) with energy compact property is applied to the motion vector residual group, which can ensure robustness against intentional attacks. According to the experimental results, this scheme gains excellent imperceptibility and low bit-rate increase. Malicious attacks with different quantization parameters (QPs) or motion estimation algorithms can be resisted efficiently, with 80% accuracy on average after lossy compression.

  15. A Robust H.264/AVC Video Watermarking Scheme with Drift Compensation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghao Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A robust H.264/AVC video watermarking scheme for copyright protection with self-adaptive drift compensation is proposed. In our scheme, motion vector residuals of macroblocks with the smallest partition size are selected to hide copyright information in order to hold visual impact and distortion drift to a minimum. Drift compensation is also implemented to reduce the influence of watermark to the most extent. Besides, discrete cosine transform (DCT with energy compact property is applied to the motion vector residual group, which can ensure robustness against intentional attacks. According to the experimental results, this scheme gains excellent imperceptibility and low bit-rate increase. Malicious attacks with different quantization parameters (QPs or motion estimation algorithms can be resisted efficiently, with 80% accuracy on average after lossy compression.

  16. Robust video watermarking via optimization algorithm for quantization of pseudo-random semi-global statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kucukgoz, Mehmet; Harmanci, Oztan; Mihcak, Mehmet K.; Venkatesan, Ramarathnam

    2005-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel semi-blind video watermarking scheme, where we use pseudo-random robust semi-global features of video in the three dimensional wavelet transform domain. We design the watermark sequence via solving an optimization problem, such that the features of the mark-embedded video are the quantized versions of the features of the original video. The exact realizations of the algorithmic parameters are chosen pseudo-randomly via a secure pseudo-random number generator, whose seed is the secret key, that is known (resp. unknown) by the embedder and the receiver (resp. by the public). We experimentally show the robustness of our algorithm against several attacks, such as conventional signal processing modifications and adversarial estimation attacks.

  17. Reversible Watermarking Using Prediction-Error Expansion and Extreme Learning Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangyong Gao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the research for reversible watermarking focuses on the decreasing of image distortion. Aiming at this issue, this paper presents an improvement method to lower the embedding distortion based on the prediction-error expansion (PE technique. Firstly, the extreme learning machine (ELM with good generalization ability is utilized to enhance the prediction accuracy for image pixel value during the watermarking embedding, and the lower prediction error results in the reduction of image distortion. Moreover, an optimization operation for strengthening the performance of ELM is taken to further lessen the embedding distortion. With two popular predictors, that is, median edge detector (MED predictor and gradient-adjusted predictor (GAP, the experimental results for the classical images and Kodak image set indicate that the proposed scheme achieves improvement for the lowering of image distortion compared with the classical PE scheme proposed by Thodi et al. and outperforms the improvement method presented by Coltuc and other existing approaches.

  18. Robust and Imperceptible Watermarking of Video Streams for Low Power Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishtiaq, Muhammad; Jaffar, M. Arfan; Khan, Muhammad A.; Jan, Zahoor; Mirza, Anwar M.

    With the advent of internet, every aspect of life is going online. From online working to watching videos, everything is now available on the internet. With the greater business benefits, increased availability and other online business advantages, there is a major challenge of security and ownership of data. Videos downloaded from an online store can easily be shared among non-intended or unauthorized users. Invisible watermarking is used to hide copyright protection information in the videos. The existing methods of watermarking are less robust and imperceptible and also the computational complexity of these methods does not suit low power devices. In this paper, we have proposed a new method to address the problem of robustness and imperceptibility. Experiments have shown that our method has better robustness and imperceptibility as well as our method is computationally efficient than previous approaches in practice. Hence our method can easily be applied on low power devices.

  19. Damaged Watermarks Detection in Frequency Domain as a Primary Method for Video Concealment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Hudec

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with video transmission over lossy communication networks. The main idea is to develop video concealment method for information losses and errors correction. At the beginning, three main groups of video concealment methods, divided by encoder/decoder collaboration, are briefly described. The modified algorithm based on the detection and filtration of damaged watermark blocks encapsulated to the transmitted video was developed. Finally, the efficiency of developed algorithm is presented in experimental part of this paper.

  20. Parametric time-frequency domain spatial audio

    CERN Document Server

    Delikaris-Manias, Symeon; Politis, Archontis

    2018-01-01

    This book provides readers with the principles and best practices in spatial audio signal processing. It describes how sound fields and their perceptual attributes are captured and analyzed within the time-frequency domain, how essential representation parameters are coded, and how such signals are efficiently reproduced for practical applications. The book is split into four parts starting with an overview of the fundamentals. It then goes on to explain the reproduction of spatial sound before offering an examination of signal-dependent spatial filtering. The book finishes with coverage of both current and future applications and the direction that spatial audio research is heading in. Parametric Time-frequency Domain Spatial Audio focuses on applications in entertainment audio, including music, home cinema, and gaming--covering the capturing and reproduction of spatial sound as well as its generation, transduction, representation, transmission, and perception. This book will teach readers the tools needed...

  1. Design of an audio advertisement dataset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yutao; Liu, Jihong; Zhang, Qi; Geng, Yuting

    2015-12-01

    Since more and more advertisements swarm into radios, it is necessary to establish an audio advertising dataset which could be used to analyze and classify the advertisement. A method of how to establish a complete audio advertising dataset is presented in this paper. The dataset is divided into four different kinds of advertisements. Each advertisement's sample is given in *.wav file format, and annotated with a txt file which contains its file name, sampling frequency, channel number, broadcasting time and its class. The classifying rationality of the advertisements in this dataset is proved by clustering the different advertisements based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). The experimental results show that this audio advertisement dataset offers a reliable set of samples for correlative audio advertisement experimental studies.

  2. Augmenting Environmental Interaction in Audio Feedback Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seunghun Kim

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Audio feedback is defined as a positive feedback of acoustic signals where an audio input and output form a loop, and may be utilized artistically. This article presents new context-based controls over audio feedback, leading to the generation of desired sonic behaviors by enriching the influence of existing acoustic information such as room response and ambient noise. This ecological approach to audio feedback emphasizes mutual sonic interaction between signal processing and the acoustic environment. Mappings from analyses of the received signal to signal-processing parameters are designed to emphasize this specificity as an aesthetic goal. Our feedback system presents four types of mappings: approximate analyses of room reverberation to tempo-scale characteristics, ambient noise to amplitude and two different approximations of resonances to timbre. These mappings are validated computationally and evaluated experimentally in different acoustic conditions.

  3. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Multimedia

    Sierra Moral, R

    2009-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  4. Virtual Microphones for Multichannel Audio Resynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Mouchtaris

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Multichannel audio offers significant advantages for music reproduction, including the ability to provide better localization and envelopment, as well as reduced imaging distortion. On the other hand, multichannel audio is a demanding media type in terms of transmission requirements. Often, bandwidth limitations prohibit transmission of multiple audio channels. In such cases, an alternative is to transmit only one or two reference channels and recreate the rest of the channels at the receiving end. Here, we propose a system capable of synthesizing the required signals from a smaller set of signals recorded in a particular venue. These synthesized “virtual” microphone signals can be used to produce multichannel recordings that accurately capture the acoustics of that venue. Applications of the proposed system include transmission of multichannel audio over the current Internet infrastructure and, as an extension of the methods proposed here, remastering existing monophonic and stereophonic recordings for multichannel rendering.

  5. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    CERN Document Server

    Sierra Moral, R

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first Euro...

  6. EVALUASI KEPUASAN PENGGUNA TERHADAP APLIKASI AUDIO BOOKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raditya Maulana Anuraga

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeno is the first application audio books in Indonesia so that the users can get the book in audio form like listen to music, Listeno have problems in a feature request Listeno offline mode that have not been released, a security problem mp3 files that must be considered, and the target Listeno not yet reached 100,000 active users. This research has the objective to evaluate user satisfaction to Audio Books with research method approach, Nielsen. The analysis in this study using Importance Performance Analysis (IPA is combined with the index of User Satisfaction (IKP based on the indicators used are: Benefit (Usefulness, Utility (Utility, Usability (Usability, easy to understand (Learnability, Efficient (efficiency , Easy to remember (Memorability, Error (Error, and satisfaction (satisfaction. The results showed Applications User Satisfaction Audio books are quite satisfied with the results of the calculation IKP 69.58%..

  7. Web Audio/Video Streaming Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruvadoo, Eranna K.

    2003-01-01

    In order to promote NASA-wide educational outreach program to educate and inform the public of space exploration, NASA, at Kennedy Space Center, is seeking efficient ways to add more contents to the web by streaming audio/video files. This project proposes a high level overview of a framework for the creation, management, and scheduling of audio/video assets over the web. To support short-term goals, the prototype of a web-based tool is designed and demonstrated to automate the process of streaming audio/video files. The tool provides web-enabled users interfaces to manage video assets, create publishable schedules of video assets for streaming, and schedule the streaming events. These operations are performed on user-defined and system-derived metadata of audio/video assets stored in a relational database while the assets reside on separate repository. The prototype tool is designed using ColdFusion 5.0.

  8. Spatial audio reproduction with primary ambient extraction

    CERN Document Server

    He, JianJun

    2017-01-01

    This book first introduces the background of spatial audio reproduction, with different types of audio content and for different types of playback systems. A literature study on the classical and emerging Primary Ambient Extraction (PAE) techniques is presented. The emerging techniques aim to improve the extraction performance and also enhance the robustness of PAE approaches in dealing with more complex signals encountered in practice. The in-depth theoretical study helps readers to understand the rationales behind these approaches. Extensive objective and subjective experiments validate the feasibility of applying PAE in spatial audio reproduction systems. These experimental results, together with some representative audio examples and MATLAB codes of the key algorithms, illustrate clearly the differences among various approaches and also help readers gain insights on selecting different approaches for different applications.

  9. Audio production principles practical studio applications

    CERN Document Server

    Elmosnino, Stephane

    2018-01-01

    A new and fully practical guide to all of the key topics in audio production, this book covers the entire workflow from pre-production, to recording all kinds of instruments, to mixing theories and tools, and finally to mastering.

  10. Adaptive DCTNet for Audio Signal Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to h...

  11. Huffman coding in advanced audio coding standard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brzuchalski, Grzegorz

    2012-05-01

    This article presents several hardware architectures of Advanced Audio Coding (AAC) Huffman noiseless encoder, its optimisations and working implementation. Much attention has been paid to optimise the demand of hardware resources especially memory size. The aim of design was to get as short binary stream as possible in this standard. The Huffman encoder with whole audio-video system has been implemented in FPGA devices.

  12. Audio Technology and Mobile Human Computer Interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chamberlain, Alan; Bødker, Mads; Hazzard, Adrian

    2017-01-01

    Audio-based mobile technology is opening up a range of new interactive possibilities. This paper brings some of those possibilities to light by offering a range of perspectives based in this area. It is not only the technical systems that are developing, but novel approaches to the design...... and understanding of audio-based mobile systems are evolving to offer new perspectives on interaction and design and support such systems to be applied in areas, such as the humanities....

  13. Economic and legal aspects of introducing novel ICT instruments: integrating sound into social media marketing - from audio branding to soundscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daj, A.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The pervasive expansion and implementation of ICT based marketing instruments imposes a new economic investigation of business models and regulatory solutions. Moreover, the current status of Social Media research indicates that the use of social networking and collaboration technologies is deeply changing the way people communicate, consume and cooperate with each other. Against the backdrop of widespread availability of digital audio-video content and the growing number of “smart” mobile devices, business professionals have developed new strategies for achieving customer involvement and retention through digitally linking audio stimuli to the powerful networking environment of Social Media.

  14. Collusion-resistant audio fingerprinting system in the modulated complex lapped transform domain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Juan Garcia-Hernandez

    Full Text Available Collusion-resistant fingerprinting paradigm seems to be a practical solution to the piracy problem as it allows media owners to detect any unauthorized copy and trace it back to the dishonest users. Despite the billionaire losses in the music industry, most of the collusion-resistant fingerprinting systems are devoted to digital images and very few to audio signals. In this paper, state-of-the-art collusion-resistant fingerprinting ideas are extended to audio signals and the corresponding parameters and operation conditions are proposed. Moreover, in order to carry out fingerprint detection using just a fraction of the pirate audio clip, block-based embedding and its corresponding detector is proposed. Extensive simulations show the robustness of the proposed system against average collusion attack. Moreover, by using an efficient Fast Fourier Transform core and standard computer machines it is shown that the proposed system is suitable for real-world scenarios.

  15. Interpolation Filter Design for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik; Llimos Muntal, Pere

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a design of a digital interpolation filter for a 3rd order multi-bit ΣΔ modulator with over-sampling ratio OSR = 64. The interpolation filter and the ΣΔ modulator are part of the back-end of an audio signal processing system in a hearing-aid application. The aim in this paper...... is to compare this design to designs presented in other state-of-the-art works ranging from hi-fi audio to hearing-aids. By performing comparison, trends and tradeoffs in interpolation filter design are indentified and hearing-aid specifications are derived. The possibilities for hardware reduction...... in the interpolation filter are investigated. Proposed design simplifications presented here result in the least hardware demanding combination of oversampling ratio, number of stages and number of filter taps among a number of filters reported for audio applications....

  16. SCORE DIGITAL TECHNOLOGY: THE CONVERGENCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernyshov Alexander V.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Explores the role of digital scorewriters in today's culture, education, and music industry and media environment. The main principle of the development of software is not only publishing innovation (relating to the sheet music, and integration into the area of composition, arrangement, education, creative process for works based on digital technology (films, television and radio broadcasting, Internet, audio and video art. Therefore the own convergence of musically-computer technology is a total phenomenon: notation program combined with means MIDI-sequencer, audio and video editor. The article contains the unique interview with the creator of music notation processors.

  17. Novel Variants of a Histogram Shift-Based Reversible Watermarking Technique for Medical Images to Improve Hiding Capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vishakha Kelkar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In telemedicine systems, critical medical data is shared on a public communication channel. This increases the risk of unauthorised access to patient’s information. This underlines the importance of secrecy and authentication for the medical data. This paper presents two innovative variations of classical histogram shift methods to increase the hiding capacity. The first technique divides the image into nonoverlapping blocks and embeds the watermark individually using the histogram method. The second method separates the region of interest and embeds the watermark only in the region of noninterest. This approach preserves the medical information intact. This method finds its use in critical medical cases. The high PSNR (above 45 dB obtained for both techniques indicates imperceptibility of the approaches. Experimental results illustrate superiority of the proposed approaches when compared with other methods based on histogram shifting techniques. These techniques improve embedding capacity by 5–15% depending on the image type, without affecting the quality of the watermarked image. Both techniques also enable lossless reconstruction of the watermark and the host medical image. A higher embedding capacity makes the proposed approaches attractive for medical image watermarking applications without compromising the quality of the image.

  18. Novel Variants of a Histogram Shift-Based Reversible Watermarking Technique for Medical Images to Improve Hiding Capacity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckley, Kushal

    2017-01-01

    In telemedicine systems, critical medical data is shared on a public communication channel. This increases the risk of unauthorised access to patient's information. This underlines the importance of secrecy and authentication for the medical data. This paper presents two innovative variations of classical histogram shift methods to increase the hiding capacity. The first technique divides the image into nonoverlapping blocks and embeds the watermark individually using the histogram method. The second method separates the region of interest and embeds the watermark only in the region of noninterest. This approach preserves the medical information intact. This method finds its use in critical medical cases. The high PSNR (above 45 dB) obtained for both techniques indicates imperceptibility of the approaches. Experimental results illustrate superiority of the proposed approaches when compared with other methods based on histogram shifting techniques. These techniques improve embedding capacity by 5–15% depending on the image type, without affecting the quality of the watermarked image. Both techniques also enable lossless reconstruction of the watermark and the host medical image. A higher embedding capacity makes the proposed approaches attractive for medical image watermarking applications without compromising the quality of the image. PMID:29104744

  19. Combining Haar Wavelet and Karhunen Loeve Transforms for Medical Images Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Ali Hajjaji

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel watermarking method, applied to the medical imaging domain, used to embed the patient’s data into the corresponding image or set of images used for the diagnosis. The main objective behind the proposed technique is to perform the watermarking of the medical images in such a way that the three main attributes of the hidden information (i.e., imperceptibility, robustness, and integration rate can be jointly ameliorated as much as possible. These attributes determine the effectiveness of the watermark, resistance to external attacks, and increase the integration rate. In order to improve the robustness, a combination of the characteristics of Discrete Wavelet and Karhunen Loeve Transforms is proposed. The Karhunen Loeve Transform is applied on the subblocks (sized 8×8 of the different wavelet coefficients (in the HL2, LH2, and HH2 subbands. In this manner, the watermark will be adapted according to the energy values of each of the Karhunen Loeve components, with the aim of ensuring a better watermark extraction under various types of attacks. For the correct identification of inserted data, the use of an Errors Correcting Code (ECC mechanism is required for the check and, if possible, the correction of errors introduced into the inserted data. Concerning the enhancement of the imperceptibility factor, the main goal is to determine the optimal value of the visibility factor, which depends on several parameters of the DWT and the KLT transforms. As a first step, a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS has been set up and then applied to determine an initial visibility factor value. Several features extracted from the Cooccurrence matrix are used as an input to the FIS and used to determine an initial visibility factor for each block; these values are subsequently reweighted in function of the eigenvalues extracted from each subblock. Regarding the integration rate, the previous works insert one bit per coefficient. In our

  20. Could Audio-Described Films Benefit from Audio Introductions? An Audience Response Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Fresco, Pablo; Fryer, Louise

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Time constraints limit the quantity and type of information conveyed in audio description (AD) for films, in particular the cinematic aspects. Inspired by introductory notes for theatre AD, this study developed audio introductions (AIs) for "Slumdog Millionaire" and "Man on Wire." Each AI comprised 10 minutes of…

  1. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwiatek, M [CERN, Geneva (Switzerland)], E-mail: Michal.Kwiatek@cem.ch

    2008-07-15

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment. An infrastructure, based on standard CERN services, has been implemented, whereby master files, stored in the CERN Distributed File System (DFS), are discovered and scheduled for encoding into lightweight web formats based on predefined profiles. Changes in master files, conversion profiles or in the metadata database (read from CDS, the CERN Document Server) are automatically detected and the media re-encoded whenever necessary. The encoding processes are run on virtual servers provided on-demand by the CERN Server Self Service Centre, so that new servers can be easily configured to adapt to higher load. Finally, the generated files are made available from the CERN standard web servers with streaming implemented using Windows Media Services.

  2. Automatic processing of CERN video, audio and photo archives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatek, M

    2008-01-01

    The digitalization of CERN audio-visual archives, a major task currently in progress, will generate over 40 TB of video, audio and photo files. Storing these files is one issue, but a far more important challenge is to provide long-time coherence of the archive and to make these files available on-line with minimum manpower investment. An infrastructure, based on standard CERN services, has been implemented, whereby master files, stored in the CERN Distributed File System (DFS), are discovered and scheduled for encoding into lightweight web formats based on predefined profiles. Changes in master files, conversion profiles or in the metadata database (read from CDS, the CERN Document Server) are automatically detected and the media re-encoded whenever necessary. The encoding processes are run on virtual servers provided on-demand by the CERN Server Self Service Centre, so that new servers can be easily configured to adapt to higher load. Finally, the generated files are made available from the CERN standard web servers with streaming implemented using Windows Media Services

  3. Audio stream classification for multimedia database search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artese, M.; Bianco, S.; Gagliardi, I.; Gasparini, F.

    2013-03-01

    Search and retrieval of huge archives of Multimedia data is a challenging task. A classification step is often used to reduce the number of entries on which to perform the subsequent search. In particular, when new entries of the database are continuously added, a fast classification based on simple threshold evaluation is desirable. In this work we present a CART-based (Classification And Regression Tree [1]) classification framework for audio streams belonging to multimedia databases. The database considered is the Archive of Ethnography and Social History (AESS) [2], which is mainly composed of popular songs and other audio records describing the popular traditions handed down generation by generation, such as traditional fairs, and customs. The peculiarities of this database are that it is continuously updated; the audio recordings are acquired in unconstrained environment; and for the non-expert human user is difficult to create the ground truth labels. In our experiments, half of all the available audio files have been randomly extracted and used as training set. The remaining ones have been used as test set. The classifier has been trained to distinguish among three different classes: speech, music, and song. All the audio files in the dataset have been previously manually labeled into the three classes above defined by domain experts.

  4. Using Imperceptible Digital Watermarking Technologies To Transform Educational Media: A Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Tammy M.; Burdette, Krista; Seale, Virginia B.; Ross, John D.

    The Institute for the Advancement of Emerging Technologies in Education (IAETE) at AEL recently explored the potential benefits and limitations of traditional print-based textbooks and many e-book alternatives. Having considered these media, IAETE created prototype interactive textbook pages that retain the salient aspects of print media while…

  5. Audio- and TV-products. Power consumption reduction in audio- and TV-products. Final report; Audio- og TV-produkter. Effektminimering i audio- og TV-produkter: Afsluttende rapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kierkegaard, P.

    1998-10-01

    The project concerning the audio products resulted in energy savings of 90-97% at efficiencies of 91-96% with full effect and stand-by losses of 0.4-3 W. It is especially new epoch-making methods for pulse modulation (called Controlled Oscillation Modulator, COM and Phase Shifted Carrier Pulse Width Modulation, PSCPWM) and error for correction in the effect conversion (called Multivariable Enhanced Cascade Control, MECC and Pulse Edge Delay Error Correction, PEDEC), which has made the breakthrough. Two patents have been applied for, and new digital amplifiers will be introduced in all the relevant products. The project concerning TV products has shown that a loss reduction in deflecting circuits of ca.20 % may be obtained. (EHS)

  6. Modified DCTNet for audio signals classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xian, Yin; Pu, Yunchen; Gan, Zhe; Lu, Liang; Thompson, Andrew

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we investigate DCTNet for audio signal classification. Its output feature is related to Cohen's class of time-frequency distributions. We introduce the use of adaptive DCTNet (A-DCTNet) for audio signals feature extraction. The A-DCTNet applies the idea of constant-Q transform, with its center frequencies of filterbanks geometrically spaced. The A-DCTNet is adaptive to different acoustic scales, and it can better capture low frequency acoustic information that is sensitive to human audio perception than features such as Mel-frequency spectral coefficients (MFSC). We use features extracted by the A-DCTNet as input for classifiers. Experimental results show that the A-DCTNet and Recurrent Neural Networks (RNN) achieve state-of-the-art performance in bird song classification rate, and improve artist identification accuracy in music data. They demonstrate A-DCTNet's applicability to signal processing problems.

  7. Fall Detection Using Smartphone Audio Features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheffena, Michael

    2016-07-01

    An automated fall detection system based on smartphone audio features is developed. The spectrogram, mel frequency cepstral coefficents (MFCCs), linear predictive coding (LPC), and matching pursuit (MP) features of different fall and no-fall sound events are extracted from experimental data. Based on the extracted audio features, four different machine learning classifiers: k-nearest neighbor classifier (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), least squares method (LSM), and artificial neural network (ANN) are investigated for distinguishing between fall and no-fall events. For each audio feature, the performance of each classifier in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and computational complexity is evaluated. The best performance is achieved using spectrogram features with ANN classifier with sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy all above 98%. The classifier also has acceptable computational requirement for training and testing. The system is applicable in home environments where the phone is placed in the vicinity of the user.

  8. Audio Description as a Pedagogical Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgina Kleege

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Audio description is the process of translating visual information into words for people who are blind or have low vision. Typically such description has focused on films, museum exhibitions, images and video on the internet, and live theater. Because it allows people with visual impairments to experience a variety of cultural and educational texts that would otherwise be inaccessible, audio description is a mandated aspect of disability inclusion, although it remains markedly underdeveloped and underutilized in our classrooms and in society in general. Along with increasing awareness of disability, audio description pushes students to practice close reading of visual material, deepen their analysis, and engage in critical discussions around the methodology, standards and values, language, and role of interpretation in a variety of academic disciplines. We outline a few pedagogical interventions that can be customized to different contexts to develop students' writing and critical thinking skills through guided description of visual material.

  9. Near-field Localization of Audio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Rindom; Christensen, Mads Græsbøll

    2014-01-01

    Localization of audio sources using microphone arrays has been an important research problem for more than two decades. Many traditional methods for solving the problem are based on a two-stage procedure: first, information about the audio source, such as time differences-of-arrival (TDOAs......) and gain ratios-of-arrival (GROAs) between microphones is estimated, and, second, this knowledge is used to localize the audio source. These methods often have a low computational complexity, but this comes at the cost of a limited estimation accuracy. Therefore, we propose a new localization approach......, where the desired signal is modeled using TDOAs and GROAs, which are determined by the source location. This facilitates the derivation of one-stage, maximum likelihood methods under a white Gaussian noise assumption that is applicable in both near- and far-field scenarios. Simulations show...

  10. Integration of top-down and bottom-up information for audio organization and retrieval

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bjørn Sand

    The increasing availability of digital audio and music calls for methods and systems to analyse and organize these digital objects. This thesis investigates three elements related to such systems focusing on the ability to represent and elicit the user's view on the multimedia object and the system...... output. The aim is to provide organization and processing, which aligns with the understanding and needs of the users. Audio and music is often characterized by the large amount of heterogenous information. The rst aspect investigated is the integration of such multi-variate and multi-modal information...... (indirect scaling). Inference is performed by analytical and simulation based methods, including the Laplace approximation and expectation propagation. In order to minimize the cost of the often expensive and lengthly experimentation, sequential experiment design or active learning is supported. The setup...

  11. Imagination and Modern Audio Visual Form

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Đurković

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Through three episodes Archetype of modern fairy tales, the mysterious world of fantasy and reality,tell as a serious story about archetypes, symbols, knowledge of good and evil. Rts editor: Natasa Neskovic Written and directed by: Suncica Jergovic Editing: Ana Djurkovic How to illuminate concept of phantasy and affective factors in our imagination a priori something so imaginary, by their genetic provenance, such as a movie scene, or digital picture and sound. You can not always avoid the association to a valid phrase of arnhajm’s truth: mass age -massage: the medium is the message. In elementary and tersely definition of „the shot“ from Plaževsky film language there is term for „le cadre“, however these are selected bits of reality, immanent frame that contains the individual act of images divided of the continent’s view of reality, handling the specific code of semantic value, when its’s imaginative, of course, by aesthetic categories and evaluations. In this type of positive simulacrum, it can not be better segment for the current thinking about the limits of imagination and truth in contemporary media, and contemporary global environment, than the original audio-visual forms through whose prism we search throught a fairy tale in a same time myth and imagination as well as exploring its overall impact on the personality. Everything can be a fairy tale, even false, amoral platitudes politicized by political lobbies in a contemporary existing power sistems, but this is no fairy tale authenticity in it, or creative act, nor humanity and artificial and historical entity of a man that is always present in the ethical effort of a true artist. So, we are investigating the conditions of creative images, modalities of audiovisual media in film language,and it is the archetype of the fairy tale, which, with its psychodynamics still exists and which is removed when the modern man is tired of lies and simulations during his global

  12. Audio Networking in the Music Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glebs Kuzmics

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper surveys the rôle of computer networking technologies in the music industry. A comparison of their relevant technologies, their defining advantages and disadvantages; analyses and discussion of the situation in the market of network enabled audio products followed by a discussion of different devices are presented. The idea of replacing a proprietary solution with open-source and freeware software programs has been chosen as the fundamental concept of this research. The technologies covered include: native IEEE AVnu Alliance Audio Video Bridging (AVB, CobraNet®, Audinate Dante™ and Harman BLU Link.

  13. Nonlinear dynamic macromodeling techniques for audio systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogrodzki, Jan; Bieńkowski, Piotr

    2015-09-01

    This paper develops a modelling method and a models identification technique for the nonlinear dynamic audio systems. Identification is performed by means of a behavioral approach based on a polynomial approximation. This approach makes use of Discrete Fourier Transform and Harmonic Balance Method. A model of an audio system is first created and identified and then it is simulated in real time using an algorithm of low computational complexity. The algorithm consists in real time emulation of the system response rather than in simulation of the system itself. The proposed software is written in Python language using object oriented programming techniques. The code is optimized for a multithreads environment.

  14. Personalized Audio Systems - a Bayesian Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Jensen, Bjørn Sand; Hansen, Toke Jansen

    2013-01-01

    Modern audio systems are typically equipped with several user-adjustable parameters unfamiliar to most users listening to the system. To obtain the best possible setting, the user is forced into multi-parameter optimization with respect to the users's own objective and preference. To address this......, the present paper presents a general inter-active framework for personalization of such audio systems. The framework builds on Bayesian Gaussian process regression in which a model of the users's objective function is updated sequentially. The parameter setting to be evaluated in a given trial is selected...

  15. Audio wiring guide how to wire the most popular audio and video connectors

    CERN Document Server

    Hechtman, John

    2012-01-01

    Whether you're a pro or an amateur, a musician or into multimedia, you can't afford to guess about audio wiring. The Audio Wiring Guide is a comprehensive, easy-to-use guide that explains exactly what you need to know. No matter the size of your wiring project or installation, this handy tool provides you with the essential information you need and the techniques to use it. Using The Audio Wiring Guide is like having an expert at your side. By following the clear, step-by-step directions, you can do professional-level work at a fraction of the cost.

  16. ADC testing using digital stimuli

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sheng, Xiaoqin

    2014-01-01

    The Analogue-to-Digital Converter (ADC) is one of the most typical and widely used mixed-signal circuits. They are applied in video, audio, high-speed communications systems and so on. Many ADCs are integrated into platform-based designs, the architecture which normally contains of standard blocks

  17. Optimized Watermarking for Light Field Rendering based Free-View TV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Apostolidis, Evlampios; Kounalakis, Tsampikos; Manifavas, Charalampos

    2013-01-01

    In Free-View Television the viewers select freely the viewing position and angle of the transmitted multiview video. It is apparent that copyright and copy protection problems exist, since a video of this arbitrarily selected view can be recorded and then misused. In this context, the watermark...... introduced by the watermark’s insertion-extraction scheme. Therefore, we ended up to the best five Mathematical Distributions, and we concluded that the watermark’s robustness in FTV case does not depend only on the FTV image’s characteristics, but it also relies on the characteristics of the Mathematical...

  18. Nonspeech audio in user interfaces for TV

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, van de Richard; Eggen, J.H.; Rypkema, J.A.

    1997-01-01

    This study explores the end-user benefits of using nonspeech audio in television user interfaces. A prototype of an Electronic Programme Guide (EPG) served as a carrier for the research. One of the features of this EPG is the possibility to search for TV programmes in a category-based way. The EPG

  19. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo

    2010-01-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  20. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo, E-mail: Rodrigo.Sierra@cern.c [CERN, IT Department 1211 Geneva-23 (Switzerland)

    2010-04-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  1. CERN automatic audio-conference service

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierra Moral, Rodrigo

    2010-04-01

    Scientists from all over the world need to collaborate with CERN on a daily basis. They must be able to communicate effectively on their joint projects at any time; as a result telephone conferences have become indispensable and widely used. Managed by 6 operators, CERN already has more than 20000 hours and 5700 audio-conferences per year. However, the traditional telephone based audio-conference system needed to be modernized in three ways. Firstly, to provide the participants with more autonomy in the organization of their conferences; secondly, to eliminate the constraints of manual intervention by operators; and thirdly, to integrate the audio-conferences into a collaborative working framework. The large number, and hence cost, of the conferences prohibited externalization and so the CERN telecommunications team drew up a specification to implement a new system. It was decided to use a new commercial collaborative audio-conference solution based on the SIP protocol. The system was tested as the first European pilot and several improvements (such as billing, security, redundancy...) were implemented based on CERN's recommendations. The new automatic conference system has been operational since the second half of 2006. It is very popular for the users and has doubled the number of conferences in the past two years.

  2. Audio Journal in an ELT Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neşe Aysin Siyli

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available It is widely acknowledged that one of the most serious problems students of English as a foreign language face is their deprivation of practicing the language outside the classroom. Generally, the classroom is the sole environment where they can practice English, which by its nature does not provide rich setting to help students develop their competence by putting the language into practice. Motivated by this need, this descriptive study investigated the impact of audio dialog journals on students’ speaking skills. It also aimed to gain insights into students’ and teacher’s opinions on keeping audio dialog journals outside the class. The data of the study developed from student and teacher audio dialog journals, student written feedbacks, interviews held with the students, and teacher observations. The descriptive analysis of the data revealed that audio dialog journals served a number of functions ranging from cognitive to linguistic, from pedagogical to psychological, and social. The findings and pedagogical implications of the study are discussed in detail.

  3. Spatial audio quality perception (part 2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conetta, R.; Brookes, T.; Rumsey, F.

    2015-01-01

    location, envelopment, coverage angle, ensemble width, and spaciousness. They can also impact timbre, and changes to timbre can then influence spatial perception. Previously obtained data was used to build a regression model of perceived spatial audio quality in terms of spatial and timbral metrics...

  4. Study of audio speakers containing ferrofluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosensweig, R E [34 Gloucester Road, Summit, NJ 07901 (United States); Hirota, Y; Tsuda, S [Ferrotec, 1-4-14 Kyobashi, chuo-Ku, Tokyo 104-0031 (Japan); Raj, K [Ferrotec, 33 Constitution Drive, Bedford, NH 03110 (United States)

    2008-05-21

    This work validates a method for increasing the radial restoring force on the voice coil in audio speakers containing ferrofluid. In addition, a study is made of factors influencing splash loss of the ferrofluid due to shock. Ferrohydrodynamic analysis is employed throughout to model behavior, and predictions are compared to experimental data.

  5. An ESL Audio-Script Writing Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Carla

    2012-01-01

    The roles of dialogue, collaborative writing, and authentic communication have been explored as effective strategies in second language writing classrooms. In this article, the stages of an innovative, multi-skill writing method, which embeds students' personal voices into the writing process, are explored. A 10-step ESL Audio Script Writing Model…

  6. Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, Rodney

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this presentation was to inform the ISS International Partners of the new NASA Agency Video, Audio and Imagery Library (AVAIL) website. AVAIL is a new resource for the public to search for and download NASA-related imagery, and is not intended to replace the current process by which the International Partners receive their Space Station imagery products.

  7. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umapathy Karthikeyan

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  8. Perceptual Coding of Audio Signals Using Adaptive Time-Frequency Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karthikeyan Umapathy

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Wide band digital audio signals have a very high data-rate associated with them due to their complex nature and demand for high-quality reproduction. Although recent technological advancements have significantly reduced the cost of bandwidth and miniaturized storage facilities, the rapid increase in the volume of digital audio content constantly compels the need for better compression algorithms. Over the years various perceptually lossless compression techniques have been introduced, and transform-based compression techniques have made a significant impact in recent years. In this paper, we propose one such transform-based compression technique, where the joint time-frequency (TF properties of the nonstationary nature of the audio signals were exploited in creating a compact energy representation of the signal in fewer coefficients. The decomposition coefficients were processed and perceptually filtered to retain only the relevant coefficients. Perceptual filtering (psychoacoustics was applied in a novel way by analyzing and performing TF specific psychoacoustics experiments. An added advantage of the proposed technique is that, due to its signal adaptive nature, it does not need predetermined segmentation of audio signals for processing. Eight stereo audio signal samples of different varieties were used in the study. Subjective (mean opinion score—MOS listening tests were performed and the subjective difference grades (SDG were used to compare the performance of the proposed coder with MP3, AAC, and HE-AAC encoders. Compression ratios in the range of 8 to 40 were achieved by the proposed technique with subjective difference grades (SDG ranging from –0.53 to –2.27.

  9. Illustration of decimation in digital signal processing (DSP) systems ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... and engineering, especially in the areas of communication and medicine. ... This multirate DSP had been found useful in application like digital audio, video and even GSM technology. The work is implemented using MATLABTM software.

  10. Extracting meaning from audio signals - a machine learning approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jan

    2007-01-01

    * Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression......* Machine learning framework for sound search * Genre classification * Music and audio separation * Wind noise suppression...

  11. Digital signal processing

    CERN Document Server

    O'Shea, Peter; Hussain, Zahir M

    2011-01-01

    In three parts, this book contributes to the advancement of engineering education and that serves as a general reference on digital signal processing. Part I presents the basics of analog and digital signals and systems in the time and frequency domain. It covers the core topics: convolution, transforms, filters, and random signal analysis. It also treats important applications including signal detection in noise, radar range estimation for airborne targets, binary communication systems, channel estimation, banking and financial applications, and audio effects production. Part II considers sel

  12. Core architectures for digital media and the associated compilation techniques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jess, J.A.G.; Reis, R.; Lubaszewski, M.; Jess, J.A.G.

    2006-01-01

    The new generation of multimedia systems will be fully digital. This includes real time digital TV transmission via cable, satellite and terrestrial channels as well as digital audio broadcasting. A number of standards have been developed such as those of the ‘‘Moving Picture Experts Group’’ (MPEG).

  13. Integrated fingerprinting in secure digital cinema projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delannay, Damien; Delaigle, Jean-Francois; Macq, Benoit M. M.; Quisquater, Jean-Jacques; Mas Ribes, Joan M.; Boucqueau, Jean M.; Nivart, Jean-Francois

    2001-12-01

    This paper describes the functional model of a combined conditional access and fingerprinting copyright (-or projectionright) protection system in a digital cinema framework. In the cinema industry, a large part of early movie piracy comes from copies made in the theater itself with a camera. The evolution towards digital cinema broadcast enables watermark based fingerprinting protection systems. Besides an appropriate fingerprinting technology, a number of well defined security/cryptographic tools are integrated in order to guaranty the integrity of the whole system. The requirements are two-fold: On one side, we must ensure that the media content is only accessible at exhibition time (under specific authorization obtained after an ad-hoc film rental agreement) and contains the related exhibition fingerprint. At the other end, we must prove our ability to retrieve the fingerprint information from an illegal copy of the media.

  14. MATLAB Algorithms for Rapid Detection and Embedding of Palindrome and Emordnilap Electronic Watermarks in Simulated Chemical and Biological Image Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Robbins, Ronny C

    2004-01-01

    .... This is similar to words such as STOP which when flipped left right gives the new word POTS. Emordnilap is palindrome spelled backwards. This paper explores the use of MATLAB algorithms in the rapid detection and embedding of palindrome and emordnilap electronic watermarks in simulated chemical and biological Image Data.

  15. Consequence of audio visual collection in school libraries

    OpenAIRE

    Kuri, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    The collection of Audio-Visual in library plays important role in teaching and learning. The importance of audio visual (AV) technology in education should not be underestimated. If audio-visual collection in library is carefully planned and designed, it can provide a rich learning environment. In this article, an author discussed the consequences of Audio-Visual collection in libraries especially for students of school library

  16. Digital Music Lab: A Framework for Analysing Big Music Data

    OpenAIRE

    Abdallah, S.; Benetos, E.; Gold, N. E.; Hargreaves, S.; Weyde, T.; Wolff, D.

    2016-01-01

    In the transition from traditional to digital musicology, large scale music data are increasingly becoming available which require research methods that work on the collection level and at scale. In the Digital Music Lab (DML) project, a software system has been developed that provides large-scale analysis of music audio with an interactive interface. The DML system includes distributed processing of audio and other music data, remote analysis of copyright-restricted data, logical inference o...

  17. 47 CFR 10.520 - Common audio attention signal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Common audio attention signal. 10.520 Section... Equipment Requirements § 10.520 Common audio attention signal. A Participating CMS Provider and equipment manufacturers may only market devices for public use under part 10 that include an audio attention signal that...

  18. Debugging of Class-D Audio Power Amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crone, Lasse; Pedersen, Jeppe Arnsdorf; Mønster, Jakob Døllner

    2012-01-01

    Determining and optimizing the performance of a Class-D audio power amplier can be very dicult without knowledge of the use of audio performance measuring equipment and of how the various noise and distortion sources in uence the audio performance. This paper gives an introduction on how to measure...

  19. Fusion of audio and visual cues for laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Pantic, Maja

    Past research on automatic laughter detection has focused mainly on audio-based detection. Here we present an audio- visual approach to distinguishing laughter from speech and we show that integrating the information from audio and video channels leads to improved performance over single-modal

  20. The newest digital signal processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Chae Uk

    2002-08-01

    This book deal with the newest digital signal processing, which contains introduction on conception of digital signal processing, constitution and purpose, signal and system such as signal, continuos signal, discrete signal and discrete system, I/O expression on impress response, convolution, mutual connection of system and frequency character,z transform of definition, range, application of z transform and relationship with laplace transform, Discrete fourier, Fast fourier transform on IDFT algorithm and FFT application, foundation of digital filter of notion, expression, types, frequency characteristic of digital filter and design order of filter, Design order of filter, Design of FIR digital filter, Design of IIR digital filter, Adaptive signal processing, Audio signal processing, video signal processing and application of digital signal processing.

  1. Wavelet versus DCT-based spread spectrum watermarking of image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrea, Mihai P.; Zaharia, Titus B.; Preteux, Francoise J.; Vlad, Adriana

    2004-05-01

    This paper addresses the issue of oblivious robust watermarking, within the framework of colour still image database protection. We present an original method which complies with all the requirements nowadays imposed to watermarking applications: robustness (e.g. low-pass filtering, print & scan, StirMark), transparency (both quality and fidelity), low probability of false alarm, obliviousness and multiple bit recovering. The mark is generated from a 64 bit message (be it a logo, a serial number, etc.) by means of a Spread Spectrum technique and is embedded into DWT (Discrete Wavelet Transform) domain, into certain low frequency coefficients, selected according to the hierarchy of their absolute values. The best results were provided by the (9,7) bi-orthogonal transform. The experiments were carried out on 1200 image sequences, each of them of 32 images. Note that these sequences represented several types of images: natural, synthetic, medical, etc. and each time we obtained the same good results. These results are compared with those we already obtained for the DCT domain, the differences being pointed out and discussed.

  2. Comparative evaluation of audio and audio - tactile methods to improve oral hygiene status of visually impaired school children

    OpenAIRE

    R Krishnakumar; Swarna Swathi Silla; Sugumaran K Durai; Mohan Govindarajan; Syed Shaheed Ahamed; Logeshwari Mathivanan

    2016-01-01

    Background: Visually impaired children are unable to maintain good oral hygiene, as their tactile abilities are often underdeveloped owing to their visual disturbances. Conventional brushing techniques are often poorly comprehended by these children and hence, it was decided to evaluate the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving the oral hygiene of these children. Objective: To evaluate and compare the effectiveness of audio and audio-tactile methods in improving oral h...

  3. Audio feature extraction using probability distribution function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhaib, A.; Wan, Khairunizam; Aziz, Azri A.; Hazry, D.; Razlan, Zuradzman M.; Shahriman A., B.

    2015-05-01

    Voice recognition has been one of the popular applications in robotic field. It is also known to be recently used for biometric and multimedia information retrieval system. This technology is attained from successive research on audio feature extraction analysis. Probability Distribution Function (PDF) is a statistical method which is usually used as one of the processes in complex feature extraction methods such as GMM and PCA. In this paper, a new method for audio feature extraction is proposed which is by using only PDF as a feature extraction method itself for speech analysis purpose. Certain pre-processing techniques are performed in prior to the proposed feature extraction method. Subsequently, the PDF result values for each frame of sampled voice signals obtained from certain numbers of individuals are plotted. From the experimental results obtained, it can be seen visually from the plotted data that each individuals' voice has comparable PDF values and shapes.

  4. New musical organology : the audio-games

    OpenAIRE

    Zénouda , Hervé

    2012-01-01

    International audience; This article aims to shed light on a new and emerging creative field: " Audio Games, " a crossroad between video games and computer music. Today, a plethora of tiny applications, which propose entertaining audiovisual experiences with a preponderant sound dimension, are available for game consoles, computers, and mobile phones. These experiences represent a new universe where the gameplay of video games is applied to musical composition, hence creating new links betwee...

  5. Audio Networking in the Music Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Glebs Kuzmics; Maaruf Ali

    2018-01-01

    This paper surveys the rôle of computer networking technologies in the music industry. A comparison of their relevant technologies, their defining advantages and disadvantages; analyses and discussion of the situation in the market of network enabled audio products followed by a discussion of different devices are presented. The idea of replacing a proprietary solution with open-source and freeware software programs has been chosen as the fundamental concept of this research. The technologies...

  6. Digitisation of the CERN Audio Archives

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2006-01-01

    Since the creation of CERN in 1954 until mid 1980s, the audiovisual service has recorded hundreds of hours of moments of life at CERN on audio tapes. These moments range from inaugurations of new facilities to VIP speeches and general interest cultural seminars The preservation process started in June 2005 On these pictures, we see Waltraud Hug working on an open-reel tape.

  7. AudioMUD: a multiuser virtual environment for blind people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, Jaime; Hassler, Tiago

    2007-03-01

    A number of virtual environments have been developed during the last years. Among them there are some applications for blind people based on different type of audio, from simple sounds to 3-D audio. In this study, we pursued a different approach. We designed AudioMUD by using spoken text to describe the environment, navigation, and interaction. We have also introduced some collaborative features into the interaction between blind users. The core of a multiuser MUD game is a networked textual virtual environment. We developed AudioMUD by adding some collaborative features to the basic idea of a MUD and placed a simulated virtual environment inside the human body. This paper presents the design and usability evaluation of AudioMUD. Blind learners were motivated when interacted with AudioMUD and helped to improve the interaction through audio and interface design elements.

  8. ∑∆ Modulator System-Level Considerations for Hearing-Aid Audio Class-D Output Stage Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pracný, Peter; Bruun, Erik

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with a system-level design of a digital sigma-delta (∑∆) modulator for hearing-aid audio Class D output stage application. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough discussion on various possibilities and tradeoffs of ∑∆ modulator system-level design parameter combinations...... - order, oversampling ratio (OSR) and number of bits in the quantizer - including their impact on interpolation filter design as well. The system is kept in digital domain up to the input of the Class D power stage including the digital pulse width modulation (DPWM) block. Notes on the impact of the DPWM...

  9. Gateway of Sound: Reassessing the Role of Audio Mastering in the Art of Record Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Nardi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Audio mastering, notwithstanding an apparent lack of scholarly attention, is a crucial gateway between production and consumption and, as such, is worth further scrutiny, especially in music genres like house or techno, which place great emphasis on sound production qualities. In this article, drawing on personal interviews with mastering engineers and field research in mastering studios in Italy and Germany, I investigate the practice of mastering engineering, paying close attention to the negotiation of techniques and sound aesthetics in relation to changes in the industry formats and, in particular, to the growing shift among DJs from vinyl to compressed digital formats. I then discuss the specificity of audio mastering in relation to EDM, insofar as DJs and controllerists conceive of the master, rather than as a finished product destined to listening, as raw material that can be reworked in performance.

  10. Elicitation of attributes for the evaluation of audio-on audio-interference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francombe, Jon; Mason, R.; Dewhirst, M.

    2014-01-01

    procedure was used to reduce these phrases into a comprehensive set of attributes. Groups of experienced and inexperienced listeners determined nine and eight attributes, respectively. These attribute sets were combined by the listeners to produce a final set of 12 attributes: masking, calming, distraction......An experiment to determine the perceptual attributes of the experience of listening to a target audio program in the presence of an audio interferer was performed. The first stage was a free elicitation task in which a total of 572 phrases were produced. In the second stage, a consensus vocabulary...

  11. AudioPairBank: Towards A Large-Scale Tag-Pair-Based Audio Content Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Sager, Sebastian; Elizalde, Benjamin; Borth, Damian; Schulze, Christian; Raj, Bhiksha; Lane, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Recently, sound recognition has been used to identify sounds, such as car and river. However, sounds have nuances that may be better described by adjective-noun pairs such as slow car, and verb-noun pairs such as flying insects, which are under explored. Therefore, in this work we investigate the relation between audio content and both adjective-noun pairs and verb-noun pairs. Due to the lack of datasets with these kinds of annotations, we collected and processed the AudioPairBank corpus cons...

  12. [Intermodal timing cues for audio-visual speech recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Masahiro; Kumashiro, Masaharu

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the limitations of lip-reading advantages for Japanese young adults by desynchronizing visual and auditory information in speech. In the experiment, audio-visual speech stimuli were presented under the six test conditions: audio-alone, and audio-visually with either 0, 60, 120, 240 or 480 ms of audio delay. The stimuli were the video recordings of a face of a female Japanese speaking long and short Japanese sentences. The intelligibility of the audio-visual stimuli was measured as a function of audio delays in sixteen untrained young subjects. Speech intelligibility under the audio-delay condition of less than 120 ms was significantly better than that under the audio-alone condition. On the other hand, the delay of 120 ms corresponded to the mean mora duration measured for the audio stimuli. The results implied that audio delays of up to 120 ms would not disrupt lip-reading advantage, because visual and auditory information in speech seemed to be integrated on a syllabic time scale. Potential applications of this research include noisy workplace in which a worker must extract relevant speech from all the other competing noises.

  13. Predicting the Overall Spatial Quality of Automotive Audio Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koya, Daisuke

    The spatial quality of automotive audio systems is often compromised due to their unideal listening environments. Automotive audio systems need to be developed quickly due to industry demands. A suitable perceptual model could evaluate the spatial quality of automotive audio systems with similar reliability to formal listening tests but take less time. Such a model is developed in this research project by adapting an existing model of spatial quality for automotive audio use. The requirements for the adaptation were investigated in a literature review. A perceptual model called QESTRAL was reviewed, which predicts the overall spatial quality of domestic multichannel audio systems. It was determined that automotive audio systems are likely to be impaired in terms of the spatial attributes that were not considered in developing the QESTRAL model, but metrics are available that might predict these attributes. To establish whether the QESTRAL model in its current form can accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems, MUSHRA listening tests using headphone auralisation with head tracking were conducted to collect results to be compared against predictions by the model. Based on guideline criteria, the model in its current form could not accurately predict the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems. To improve prediction performance, the QESTRAL model was recalibrated and modified using existing metrics of the model, those that were proposed from the literature review, and newly developed metrics. The most important metrics for predicting the overall spatial quality of automotive audio systems included those that were interaural cross-correlation (IACC) based, relate to localisation of the frontal audio scene, and account for the perceived scene width in front of the listener. Modifying the model for automotive audio systems did not invalidate its use for domestic audio systems. The resulting model predicts the overall spatial

  14. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adie, Steven G.; Kennedy, Brendan F.; Armstrong, Julian J.; Alexandrov, Sergey A.; Sampson, David D.

    2009-05-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  15. Audio frequency in vivo optical coherence elastography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adie, Steven G; Kennedy, Brendan F; Armstrong, Julian J; Alexandrov, Sergey A; Sampson, David D

    2009-01-01

    We present a new approach to optical coherence elastography (OCE), which probes the local elastic properties of tissue by using optical coherence tomography to measure the effect of an applied stimulus in the audio frequency range. We describe the approach, based on analysis of the Bessel frequency spectrum of the interferometric signal detected from scatterers undergoing periodic motion in response to an applied stimulus. We present quantitative results of sub-micron excitation at 820 Hz in a layered phantom and the first such measurements in human skin in vivo.

  16. Predistortion of a Bidirectional Cuk Audio Amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Thomas Hagen; Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold

    2014-01-01

    Some non-linear amplifier topologies are capable of providing a larger voltage gain than one from a DC source, which could make them suitable for various applications. However, the non-linearities introduce a significant amount of harmonic distortion (THD). Some of this distortion could be reduced...... using predistortion. This paper suggests linearizing a nonlinear bidirectional Cuk audio amplifier using an analog predistortion approach. A prototype power stage was built and results show that a voltage gain of up to 9 dB and reduction in THD from 6% down to 3% was obtainable using this approach....

  17. Mixing audio concepts, practices and tools

    CERN Document Server

    Izhaki, Roey

    2013-01-01

    Your mix can make or break a record, and mixing is an essential catalyst for a record deal. Professional engineers with exceptional mixing skills can earn vast amounts of money and find that they are in demand by the biggest acts. To develop such skills, you need to master both the art and science of mixing. The new edition of this bestselling book offers all you need to know and put into practice in order to improve your mixes. Covering the entire process --from fundamental concepts to advanced techniques -- and offering a multitude of audio samples, tips and tricks, this boo

  18. Calibration of an audio frequency noise generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diamond, Joseph M.

    1966-01-01

    a noise bandwidth Bn = π/2 × (3dB bandwidth). To apply this method to low audio frequencies, the noise bandwidth of the low Q parallel resonant circuit has been found, including the effects of both series and parallel damping. The method has been used to calibrate a General Radio 1390-B noise generator...... it is used for measurement purposes. The spectral density of a noise source may be found by measuring its rms output over a known noise bandwidth. Such a bandwidth may be provided by a passive filter using accurately known elements. For example, the parallel resonant circuit with purely parallel damping has...

  19. Non Audio-Video gesture recognition system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Craciunescu, Razvan; Mihovska, Albena Dimitrova; Kyriazakos, Sofoklis

    2016-01-01

    Gesture recognition is a topic in computer science and language technology with the goal of interpreting human gestures via mathematical algorithms. Gestures can originate from any bodily motion or state but commonly originate from the face or hand. Current research focus includes on the emotion...... recognition from the face and hand gesture recognition. Gesture recognition enables humans to communicate with the machine and interact naturally without any mechanical devices. This paper investigates the possibility to use non-audio/video sensors in order to design a low-cost gesture recognition device...

  20. Acoustic Heritage and Audio Creativity: the Creative Application of Sound in the Representation, Understanding and Experience of Past Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damian Murphy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Heritage is one aspect of archaeoacoustics, and refers more specifically to the quantifiable acoustic properties of buildings, sites and landscapes from our architectural and archaeological past, forming an important aspect of our intangible cultural heritage. Auralisation, the audio equivalent of 3D visualisation, enables these acoustic properties, captured via the process of measurement and survey, or computer-based modelling, to form the basis of an audio reconstruction and presentation of the studied space. This article examines the application of auralisation and audio creativity as a means to explore our acoustic heritage, thereby diversifying and enhancing the toolset available to the digital heritage or humanities researcher. The Open Acoustic Impulse Response (OpenAIR library is an online repository for acoustic impulse response and auralisation data, with a significant part having been gathered from a broad range of heritage sites. The methodology used to gather this acoustic data is discussed, together with the processes used in generating and calibrating a comparable computer model, and how the data generated might be analysed and presented. The creative use of this acoustic data is also considered, in the context of music production, mixed media artwork and audio for gaming. More relevant to digital heritage is how these data can be used to create new experiences of past environments, as information, interpretation, guide or artwork and ultimately help to articulate new research questions and explorations of our acoustic heritage.

  1. Dynamic QoS Evaluation of Multimedia Contents in Wireless Networks by “Double-Boomerang” Watermarking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaetano Giunta

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a cooperative network-aware processing of multimedia content for dynamic quality of service management in wireless IP networks. Our technique can be also used for quality control in UMTS environments, exploiting the tracing watermarking recently introduced in literature. In this work, we use the transmitted video-sequences to monitor the QoS in a videoconference call. The video-sequence of every active user travels on the communication link, one time as video (transparent mode, one time as watermark (hidden mode describing a boomerang trajectory. The results obtained through our simulation trials confirm the validity of such approach. In fact, the advantages of distributing the management process are (i an easier and more precise localization of the cause of QoS problems, (ii a better knowledge of local situations, (iii a lower complexity for a single QoS agent and (iv an increase in possible actions.

  2. Use of Effective Audio in E-learning Courseware

    OpenAIRE

    Ray, Kisor

    2015-01-01

    E-Learning uses electronic media, information & communication technologies to provide education to the masses. E-learning deliver hypertext, text, audio, images, animation and videos using desktop standalone computer, local area network based intranet and internet based contents. While producing an e-learning content or course-ware, a major decision making factor is whether to use audio for the benefit of the end users. Generally, three types of audio can be used in e-learning: narration, mus...

  3. Investigating the impact of audio instruction and audio-visual biofeedback for lung cancer radiation therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Rohini

    Lung cancer accounts for 13% of all cancers in the Unites States and is the leading cause of deaths among both men and women. The five-year survival for lung cancer patients is approximately 15%.(ACS facts & figures) Respiratory motion decreases accuracy of thoracic radiotherapy during imaging and delivery. To account for respiration, generally margins are added during radiation treatment planning, which may cause a substantial dose delivery to normal tissues and increase the normal tissue toxicity. To alleviate the above-mentioned effects of respiratory motion, several motion management techniques are available which can reduce the doses to normal tissues, thereby reducing treatment toxicity and allowing dose escalation to the tumor. This may increase the survival probability of patients who have lung cancer and are receiving radiation therapy. However the accuracy of these motion management techniques are inhibited by respiration irregularity. The rationale of this thesis was to study the improvement in regularity of respiratory motion by breathing coaching for lung cancer patients using audio instructions and audio-visual biofeedback. A total of 331 patient respiratory motion traces, each four minutes in length, were collected from 24 lung cancer patients enrolled in an IRB-approved breathing-training protocol. It was determined that audio-visual biofeedback significantly improved the regularity of respiratory motion compared to free breathing and audio instruction, thus improving the accuracy of respiratory gated radiotherapy. It was also observed that duty cycles below 30% showed insignificant reduction in residual motion while above 50% there was a sharp increase in residual motion. The reproducibility of exhale based gating was higher than that of inhale base gating. Modeling the respiratory cycles it was found that cosine and cosine 4 models had the best correlation with individual respiratory cycles. The overall respiratory motion probability distribution

  4. A survey of passive technology for digital image forensics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Weiqi; QU Zhenhua; PAN Feng; HUANG Jiwu

    2007-01-01

    Over the past years,digital images have been widely used in the Internet and other applications.Whilst image processing techniques are developing at a rapid speed,tampering with digital images without leaving any obvious traces becomes easier and easier.This may give rise to some problems such as image authentication.A new passive technology for image forensics has evolved quickly during the last few years.Unlike the signature-based or watermark-based methods,the new technology does not need any signature generated or watermark embedded in advance,it assumes that different imaging devices or processing would introduce different inherent patterns into the output images.These underlying patterns are consistent in the original untampered images and would be altered after some kind of manipulations.Thus,they can be used as evidence for image source identification and alteration detection.In this paper,we will discuss this new forensics technology and give an overview of the prior literatures.Some concluding remarks are made about the state of the art and the challenges in this novel technology.

  5. Cortical Integration of Audio-Visual Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Wyk, Brent C.; Ramsay, Gordon J.; Hudac, Caitlin M.; Jones, Warren; Lin, David; Klin, Ami; Lee, Su Mei; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the neural basis of audio-visual processing in speech and non-speech stimuli. Physically identical auditory stimuli (speech and sinusoidal tones) and visual stimuli (animated circles and ellipses) were used in this fMRI experiment. Relative to unimodal stimuli, each of the multimodal conjunctions showed increased activation in largely non-overlapping areas. The conjunction of Ellipse and Speech, which most resembles naturalistic audiovisual speech, showed higher activation in the right inferior frontal gyrus, fusiform gyri, left posterior superior temporal sulcus, and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Tone, an arbitrary audio-visual pairing with no speech association, activated middle temporal gyri and lateral occipital cortex. The conjunction of Circle and Speech showed activation in lateral occipital cortex, and the conjunction of Ellipse and Tone did not show increased activation relative to unimodal stimuli. Further analysis revealed that middle temporal regions, although identified as multimodal only in the Circle-Tone condition, were more strongly active to Ellipse-Speech or Circle-Speech, but regions that were identified as multimodal for Ellipse-Speech were always strongest for Ellipse-Speech. Our results suggest that combinations of auditory and visual stimuli may together be processed by different cortical networks, depending on the extent to which speech or non-speech percepts are evoked. PMID:20709442

  6. Semantic Labeling of Nonspeech Audio Clips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Ma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Human communication about entities and events is primarily linguistic in nature. While visual representations of information are shown to be highly effective as well, relatively little is known about the communicative power of auditory nonlinguistic representations. We created a collection of short nonlinguistic auditory clips encoding familiar human activities, objects, animals, natural phenomena, machinery, and social scenes. We presented these sounds to a broad spectrum of anonymous human workers using Amazon Mechanical Turk and collected verbal sound labels. We analyzed the human labels in terms of their lexical and semantic properties to ascertain that the audio clips do evoke the information suggested by their pre-defined captions. We then measured the agreement with the semantically compatible labels for each sound clip. Finally, we examined which kinds of entities and events, when captured by nonlinguistic acoustic clips, appear to be well-suited to elicit information for communication, and which ones are less discriminable. Our work is set against the broader goal of creating resources that facilitate communication for people with some types of language loss. Furthermore, our data should prove useful for future research in machine analysis/synthesis of audio, such as computational auditory scene analysis, and annotating/querying large collections of sound effects.

  7. Newnes audio and Hi-Fi engineer's pocket book

    CERN Document Server

    Capel, Vivian

    2013-01-01

    Newnes Audio and Hi-Fi Engineer's Pocket Book, Second Edition provides concise discussion of several audio topics. The book is comprised of 10 chapters that cover different audio equipment. The coverage of the text includes microphones, gramophones, compact discs, and tape recorders. The book also covers high-quality radio, amplifiers, and loudspeakers. The book then reviews the concepts of sound and acoustics, and presents some facts and formulas relevant to audio. The text will be useful to sound engineers and other professionals whose work involves sound systems.

  8. Audio scene segmentation for video with generic content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Feng; Goela, Naveen; Divakaran, Ajay; Abdel-Mottaleb, Mohamed

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a content-adaptive audio texture based method to segment video into audio scenes. The audio scene is modeled as a semantically consistent chunk of audio data. Our algorithm is based on "semantic audio texture analysis." At first, we train GMM models for basic audio classes such as speech, music, etc. Then we define the semantic audio texture based on those classes. We study and present two types of scene changes, those corresponding to an overall audio texture change and those corresponding to a special "transition marker" used by the content creator, such as a short stretch of music in a sitcom or silence in dramatic content. Unlike prior work using genre specific heuristics, such as some methods presented for detecting commercials, we adaptively find out if such special transition markers are being used and if so, which of the base classes are being used as markers without any prior knowledge about the content. Our experimental results show that our proposed audio scene segmentation works well across a wide variety of broadcast content genres.

  9. Crafting digital media

    CERN Document Server

    James, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Open source software, also known as free software, now offers a creative platform with world-class programs. Just ask the people who have completed high-quality projects or developed popular web 2.0 sites using open source desktop applications. This phenomenon is no longer underground or restricted to techies - there have been more than 61 million downloads of the Audacity audio editor and more than 60 million downloads of the GIMP for Windows photographic tool from SourceForge.net alone. Crafting Digital Media is your foundation course in photographic manipulation, illustration, animation, 3D

  10. Digital communication device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2005-01-01

    The invention concerns a digital communication device like a hearing aid or a headset. The hearing aid or headset has a power supply, a signal processing device, means for receiving a wireless signal and a receiver or loudspeaker, which produces an audio signal based on a modulated pulsed signal...... point is provided which is in electrical contact with the metal of the metal box and whereby this third connection point is connected to the electric circuitry of the communication device at a point having a stable and well defined electrical potential. In this way the electro-and magnetic radiation...

  11. Economic and legal aspects of introducing novel ICT instruments: integrating sound into social media marketing - from audio branding to soundscaping

    OpenAIRE

    Daj, A.

    2013-01-01

    The pervasive expansion and implementation of ICT based marketing instruments imposes a new economic investigation of business models and regulatory solutions. Moreover, the current status of Social Media research indicates that the use of social networking and collaboration technologies is deeply changing the way people communicate, consume and cooperate with each other. Against the backdrop of widespread availability of digital audio-video content and the growing number of “smart” mobile de...

  12. Issues and prospects of digitizing liberation movements' archives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The major findings were that all the ANC audio material has been successfully digitized through the Multichoice funded digitization project though a lot of work has to ... history and the critically endangered audiovisual heritage whose pace of deterioration is increasingly leading to the extinction of this vital collective memory.

  13. Knitting Relational Documentary Networks: The Database Meta-Documentary Filming Revolution as a paradigm of bringing interactive audio-visual archives alive

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wiehl, Anna

    2016-01-01

    abstractOne phenomenon in the emerging field of digital documentary are experiments with rhizomatic interfaces and database-logics to bring audio-visual archives 'alive'. A paradigm hereof is Filming Revolution (2015), an interactive platform which gathers and interlinks films of the uprisings in

  14. Visualising the environmental appearance of audio products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stilma, M. [Univ. of Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Stevels, A. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)]|[Philips Consumer Electronics, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Christiaans, H.; Kandachar, P. [Delft Univ. of Technology, Delft (Netherlands)

    2004-07-01

    Can environmental friendliness be communicated by the design style and appearance of products? (such as form, colour, style or material)? Consumers are interested in buying environmental products and design styles might be used as communicative tools. However, current 'green' products show something else. Environmental aspects are chiefly promoted by marketing programs based on technical items like the use of materials, hazardous substances, energy consumption, etc. By a qualitative and exploratory research the environmental design styles according to consumers' opinions were analysed with larger audio products as case study. Visible distinctive differences can be identified between the most and the least environmental rated products. A 'Green flagship', which claims to be environmentally orientated, wasn't recognised as such by consumers. And women and men perceive environmental friendliness in another way. From this research can be concluded that more attention is needed to visualise the good technical environmental performance of products. (orig.)

  15. Time-Scale Invariant Audio Data Embedding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansour Mohamed F

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a novel algorithm for high-quality data embedding in audio. The algorithm is based on changing the relative length of the middle segment between two successive maximum and minimum peaks to embed data. Spline interpolation is used to change the lengths. To ensure smooth monotonic behavior between peaks, a hybrid orthogonal and nonorthogonal wavelet decomposition is used prior to data embedding. The possible data embedding rates are between 20 and 30 bps. However, for practical purposes, we use repetition codes, and the effective embedding data rate is around 5 bps. The algorithm is invariant after time-scale modification, time shift, and time cropping. It gives high-quality output and is robust to mp3 compression.

  16. Audio visual information materials for risk communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunji, Ikuko; Tabata, Rimiko; Ohuchi, Naomi

    2005-07-01

    Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC), Tokai Works set up the Risk Communication Study Team in January, 2001 to promote mutual understanding between the local residents and JNC. The Team has studied risk communication from various viewpoints and developed new methods of public relations which are useful for the local residents' risk perception toward nuclear issues. We aim to develop more effective risk communication which promotes a better mutual understanding of the local residents, by providing the risk information of the nuclear fuel facilities such a Reprocessing Plant and other research and development facilities. We explain the development process of audio visual information materials which describe our actual activities and devices for the risk management in nuclear fuel facilities, and our discussion through the effectiveness measurement. (author)

  17. Improving audio chord transcription by exploiting harmonic and metric knowledge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, W.B.; Rodrigues Magalhães, J.P.; Wiering, F.

    2012-01-01

    We present a new system for chord transcription from polyphonic musical audio that uses domain-specific knowledge about tonal harmony and metrical position to improve chord transcription performance. Low-level pulse and spectral features are extracted from an audio source using the Vamp plugin

  18. On the Use of Memory Models in Audio Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karl Kristoffer

    2011-01-01

    Audio feature estimation is potentially improved by including higher- level models. One such model is the Short Term Memory (STM) model. A new paradigm of audio feature estimation is obtained by adding the influence of notes in the STM. These notes are identified when the perceptual spectral flux...

  19. Tune in the Net with RealAudio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchanan, Larry

    1997-01-01

    Describes how to connect to the RealAudio Web site to download a player that provides sound from Web pages to the computer through streaming technology. Explains hardware and software requirements and provides addresses for other RealAudio Web sites are provided, including weather information and current news. (LRW)

  20. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better...

  1. Four-quadrant flyback converter for direct audio power amplification

    OpenAIRE

    Ljusev, Petar; Andersen, Michael Andreas E.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional, four-quadrant flyback converter for use in direct audio power amplification. When compared to the standard Class-D switching audio power amplifier with a separate power supply, the proposed four-quadrant flyback converter provides simple solution with better efficiency, higher level of integration and lower component count.

  2. Unsupervised topic modelling on South African parliament audio data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kleynhans, N

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Using a speech recognition system to convert spoken audio to text can enable the structuring of large collections of spoken audio data. A convenient means to summarise or cluster spoken data is to identify the topic under discussion. There are many...

  3. The Effect of Audio and Animation in Multimedia Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a multimedia computer program for high school biology. Participants completed a multimedia program that presented content by way of text or audio with lean text. In addition, several instructional sequences were presented either with static illustrations or animations.…

  4. The Use of Audio and Animation in Computer Based Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koroghlanian, Carol; Klein, James D.

    This study investigated the effects of audio, animation, and spatial ability in a computer-based instructional program for biology. The program presented instructional material via test or audio with lean text and included eight instructional sequences presented either via static illustrations or animations. High school students enrolled in a…

  5. Multi Carrier Modulation Audio Power Amplifier with Programmable Logic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Theis; Andersen, Toke Meyer; Knott, Arnold

    2009-01-01

    While switch-mode audio power amplifiers allow compact implementations and high output power levels due to their high power efficiency, they are very well known for creating electromagnetic interference (EMI) with other electronic equipment. To lower the EMI of switch-mode (class D) audio power a...

  6. Let Their Voices Be Heard! Building a Multicultural Audio Collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, Judith Cook

    1992-01-01

    Discusses building a multicultural audio collection for a library. Gives some guidelines about selecting materials that really represent different cultures. Audio materials that are considered fall roughly into the categories of children's stories, didactic materials, oral histories, poetry and folktales, and music. The goal is an authentic…

  7. Parametric Audio Based Decoder and Music Synthesizer for Mobile Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomen, A.W.J.; Szczerba, M.Z.; Therssen, D.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews parametric audio coders and discusses novel technologies introduced in a low-complexity, low-power consumption audiodecoder and music synthesizer platform developed by the authors. Thedecoder uses parametric coding scheme based on the MPEG-4 Parametric Audio standard. In order to

  8. Decision-level fusion for audio-visual laughter detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, M.; Truong, K.; Poppe, R.; Pantic, M.

    2008-01-01

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laughter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio-visual laughter detection is

  9. Decision-Level Fusion for Audio-Visual Laughter Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reuderink, B.; Poel, Mannes; Truong, Khiet Phuong; Poppe, Ronald Walter; Pantic, Maja; Popescu-Belis, Andrei; Stiefelhagen, Rainer

    Laughter is a highly variable signal, which can be caused by a spectrum of emotions. This makes the automatic detection of laugh- ter a challenging, but interesting task. We perform automatic laughter detection using audio-visual data from the AMI Meeting Corpus. Audio- visual laughter detection is

  10. Classifying laughter and speech using audio-visual feature prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petridis, Stavros; Asghar, Ali; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    In this study, a system that discriminates laughter from speech by modelling the relationship between audio and visual features is presented. The underlying assumption is that this relationship is different between speech and laughter. Neural networks are trained which learn the audio-to-visual and

  11. Haptic and Audio-visual Stimuli: Enhancing Experiences and Interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijholt, Antinus; Dijk, Esko O.; Lemmens, Paul M.C.; Luitjens, S.B.

    2010-01-01

    The intention of the symposium on Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli at the EuroHaptics 2010 conference is to deepen the understanding of the effect of combined Haptic and Audio-visual stimuli. The knowledge gained will be used to enhance experiences and interactions in daily life. To this end, a

  12. Automated Speech and Audio Analysis for Semantic Access to Multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, F.M.G. de; Ordelman, R.; Huijbregts, M.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  13. Automated speech and audio analysis for semantic access to multimedia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Ordelman, Roeland J.F.; Huijbregts, M.A.H.; Avrithis, Y.; Kompatsiaris, Y.; Staab, S.; O' Connor, N.E.

    2006-01-01

    The deployment and integration of audio processing tools can enhance the semantic annotation of multimedia content, and as a consequence, improve the effectiveness of conceptual access tools. This paper overviews the various ways in which automatic speech and audio analysis can contribute to

  14. Multilevel inverter based class D audio amplifier for capacitive transducers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Dennis; Knott, Arnold; Andersen, Michael A. E.

    2014-01-01

    The reduced semiconductor voltage stress makes the multilevel inverters especially interesting, when driving capacitive transducers for audio applications. A ± 300 V flying capacitor class D audio amplifier driving a 100 nF load in the midrange region of 0.1-3.5 kHz with Total Harmonic Distortion...

  15. Voice activity detection using audio-visual information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petsatodis, Theodore; Pnevmatikakis, Aristodemos; Boukis, Christos

    2009-01-01

    An audio-visual voice activity detector that uses sensors positioned distantly from the speaker is presented. Its constituting unimodal detectors are based on the modeling of the temporal variation of audio and visual features using Hidden Markov Models; their outcomes are fused using a post...

  16. Audio Teleconferencing: Low Cost Technology for External Studies Networking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Bill

    1987-01-01

    This discussion of the benefits of audio teleconferencing for distance education programs and for business and government applications focuses on the recent experience of Canadian educational users. Four successful operating models and their costs are reviewed, and it is concluded that audio teleconferencing is cost efficient and educationally…

  17. Content Discovery from Composite Audio : An unsupervised approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, L.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis, we developed and assessed a novel robust and unsupervised framework for semantic inference from composite audio signals. We focused on the problem of detecting audio scenes and grouping them into meaningful clusters. Our approach addressed all major steps in a general process of

  18. Selected Audio-Visual Materials for Consumer Education. [New Version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William L.

    Ninety-two films, filmstrips, multi-media kits, slides, and audio cassettes, produced between 1964 and 1974, are listed in this selective annotated bibliography on consumer education. The major portion of the bibliography is devoted to films and filmstrips. The main topics of the audio-visual materials include purchasing, advertising, money…

  19. An Introduction to Digital Rights Management Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Willem

    2007-01-01

    This chapter gives a concise introduction to digital rights management (DRM) systems by first presenting the basic ingredients of the architecture of DRM systems for (audio and/or video) content delivery, followed by an introduction to two open-standard DRM systems, one developed in the mobile world

  20. Realisierung eines verzerrungsarmen Open-Loop Klasse-D Audio-Verstärkers mit SB-ZePoC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Schnick

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available In den letzten Jahren hat die Entwicklung von Klasse-D Verstärkern für Audio-Anwendungen ein vermehrtes Interesse auf sich gezogen. Eine Motivation hierfür liegt in der mit dieser Technik extrem hohen erzielbaren Effizienz von über 90%. Die Signale, die Klasse-D Verstärker steuern, sind binär. Immer mehr Audio-Signale werden entweder digital gespeichert (CD, DVD, MP3 oder digital übermittelt (Internet, DRM, DAB, DVB-T, DVB-S, GMS, UMTS, weshalb eine direkte Umsetzung dieser Daten in ein binäres Steuersignal ohne vorherige konventionelle D/A-Wandlung erstrebenswert erscheint.

    Die klassischen Pulsweitenmodulationsverfahren führen zu Aliasing-Komponenten im Audio-Basisband. Diese Verzerrungen können nur durch eine sehr hohe Schaltfrequenz auf ein akzeptables Maß reduziert werden. Durch das von der Forschungsgruppe um Prof. Mathis vorgestellte SB-ZePoC Verfahren (Zero Position Coding with Separated Baseband wird diese Art der Signalverzerrung durch Generierung eines separierten Basisbands verhindert. Deshalb können auch niedrige Schaltfrequenzen gewählt werden. Dadurch werden nicht nur die Schaltverluste, sondern auch Timing-Verzerrungen verringert, die durch die nichtideale Schaltendstufe verursacht werden. Diese tragen einen großen Anteil zu den gesamten Verzerrungen eines Klasse-D Verstärkers bei. Mit dem SB-ZePoC Verfahren lassen sich verzerrungsarme Open-Loop Klasse-D Audio-Verstärker realisieren, die ohne aufwändige Gegenkopplungsschleifen auskommen.

    Class-D amplifiers are suiteble for amplification of audio signals. One argument is their high efficiency of 90% and more. Today most of the audio signals are stored or transmitted in digital form. A digitally controlled Class-D amplifier can be directly driven with coded (modulated data. No separate D/A conversion is needed. Classical modulation schemes like Pulse-Width-Modulation (PWM cause aliasing. So a very high switching rate is required to minimize the